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Sample records for a-globin locus chromatin

  1. Replication of the Chicken β-Globin Locus: Early-Firing Origins at the 5′ HS4 Insulator and the ρ- and βA-Globin Genes Show Opposite Epigenetic Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; Gendron, Marie-Claude; Hyrien, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Chromatin structure is believed to exert a strong effect on replication origin function. We have studied the replication of the chicken β-globin locus, whose chromatin structure has been extensively characterized. This locus is delimited by hypersensitive sites (HSs) that mark the position of insulator elements. A stretch of condensed chromatin and another HS separate the β-globin domain from an adjacent folate receptor (FR) gene. We demonstrate here that in erythroid cells that express the FR but not the globin genes, replication initiates at four sites within the β-globin domain, one at the 5′ HS4 insulator and the other three near the ρ- and βA-globin genes. Three origins consist of G+C-rich sequences enriched in CpG dinucleotides. The fourth origin is A+T rich. Together with previous work, these data reveal that the insulator origin has unmethylated CpGs, hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4, and lysine 4-methylated histone H3. In contrast, opposite modifications are observed at the other G+C-rich origins. We also show that the whole region, including the stretch of condensed chromatin, replicates early in S phase in these cells. Therefore, different early-firing origins within the same locus may have opposite patterns of epigenetic modifications. The role of insulator elements in DNA replication is discussed. PMID:12724412

  2. Tissue-Specific Chromatin Modifications at a Multigene Locus Generate Asymmetric Transcriptional Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Eung Jae; Cajiao, Isabela; Kim, Jeong-Seon; Kimura, Atsushi P.; Zhang, Aiwen; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    Random assortment within mammalian genomes juxtaposes genes with distinct expression profiles. This organization, along with the prevalence of long-range regulatory controls, generates a potential for aberrant transcriptional interactions. The human CD79b/GH locus contains six tightly linked genes with three mutually exclusive tissue specificities and interdigitated control elements. One consequence of this compact organization is that the pituitarycell-specific transcriptional events that activate hGH-N also trigger ectopic activation of CD79b. However, the B-cell-specific events that activate CD79b do not trigger reciprocal activation of hGH-N. Here we utilized DNase I hypersensitive site mapping, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transgenic models to explore the basis for this asymmetric relationship. The results reveal tissue-specific patterns of chromatin structures and transcriptional controls at the CD79b/GH locus in B cells distinct from those in the pituitary gland and placenta. These three unique transcriptional environments suggest a set of corresponding gene expression pathways and transcriptional interactions that are likely to be found juxtaposed at multiple sites within the eukaryotic genome. PMID:16847312

  3. Large-scale chromatin remodeling at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: a paradigm for multigene regulation.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Daniel J; Wood, Andrew L; Corcoran, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    complementary processes involved in this large-scale locus organisation. We will examine the structure of the Igh locus and the large-scale and higher-order chromatin remodelling processes associated with V(D)J recombination, at the level of the locus itself, its conformational changes and its dynamic localisation within the nucleus.

  4. An Autoregulatory Pathway Establishes the Definitive Chromatin Conformation at the Pit-1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Pit-1 (POU1-F1) plays a dominant role in cell lineage expansion and differentiation in the anterior pituitary. Prior studies of the mouse Pit-1 (mPit-1) gene revealed that this master regulatory locus is activated at embryonic day 13.5 (E13.5) by an early enhancer (EE), whereas its subsequent expression throughout adult life is maintained by a more distal definitive enhancer (DE). Here, we demonstrate that the sequential actions of these two enhancers are linked to corresponding shifts in their proximities to the Pit-1 promoter. We further demonstrate that the looping of the definitive enhancer to the mPit-1 promoter is critically dependent on a self-sustaining autoregulatory mechanism mediated by the Pit-1 protein. These Pit-1-dependent actions are accompanied by localized recruitment of CBP and enrichment for H3K27 acetylation within the Pit-1 locus. These data support a model in which the sequential actions of two developmentally activated enhancers are linked to a corresponding shift in higher-order chromatin structures. This shift establishes an autoregulatory circuit that maintains durable expression of Pit-1 throughout adult life. PMID:25691665

  5. Chromatin looping and eRNA transcription precede the transcriptional activation of gene in the β-globin locus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yea Woon; Lee, Sungkung; Yun, Jangmi; Kim, AeRi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are closely positioned with actively transcribed target genes by chromatin looping. Non-coding RNAs are often transcribed on active enhancers, referred to as eRNAs (enhancer RNAs). To explore the kinetics of enhancer–promoter looping and eRNA transcription during transcriptional activation, we induced the β-globin locus by chemical treatment and analysed cross-linking frequency between the β-globin gene and locus control region (LCR) and the amount of eRNAs transcribed on the LCR in a time course manner. The cross-linking frequency was increased after chemical induction but before the transcriptional activation of gene in the β-globin locus. Transcription of eRNAs was increased in concomitant with the increase in cross-linking frequency. These results show that chromatin looping and eRNA transcription precedes the transcriptional activation of gene. Concomitant occurrence of the two events suggests functional relationship between them. PMID:25588787

  6. The higher structure of chromatin in the LCR of the beta-globin locus changes during development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangdong; Yin, Wenxuan; Xiang, Ping; Han, Hemei; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Li, Qiliang

    2009-11-27

    The beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is able to enhance the expression of all globin genes throughout the course of development. However, the chromatin structure of the LCR at the different developmental stages is not well defined. We report DNase I and micrococcal nuclease hypersensitivity, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses for histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, and 3C (chromatin conformation capture) assays of the normal and mutant beta-globin loci, which demonstrate that nucleosomes at the DNase I hypersensitive sites of the LCR could be either depleted or retained depending on the stages of development. Furthermore, MNase sensitivity and 3C assays suggest that the LCR chromatin is more open in embryonic erythroblasts than in definitive erythroblasts at the primary- and secondary-structure levels; however, the LCR chromatin is packaged more tightly in embryonic erythroblasts than in definitive erythroblasts at the tertiary chromatin level. Our study provides the first evidence that the occupancy of nucleosomes at a DNase I hypersensitive site is a developmental stage-related event and that embryonic and adult cells possess distinct chromatin structures of the LCR.

  7. Quantifying the contribution of chromatin dynamics to stochastic gene expression reveals long, locus-dependent periods between transcriptional bursts.

    PubMed

    Viñuelas, José; Kaneko, Gaël; Coulon, Antoine; Vallin, Elodie; Morin, Valérie; Mejia-Pous, Camila; Kupiec, Jean-Jacques; Beslon, Guillaume; Gandrillon, Olivier

    2013-02-25

    A number of studies have established that stochasticity in gene expression may play an important role in many biological phenomena. This therefore calls for further investigations to identify the molecular mechanisms at stake, in order to understand and manipulate cell-to-cell variability. In this work, we explored the role played by chromatin dynamics in the regulation of stochastic gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells. For this purpose, we generated isogenic chicken-cell populations expressing a fluorescent reporter integrated in one copy per clone. Although the clones differed only in the genetic locus at which the reporter was inserted, they showed markedly different fluorescence distributions, revealing different levels of stochastic gene expression. Use of chromatin-modifying agents showed that direct manipulation of chromatin dynamics had a marked effect on the extent of stochastic gene expression. To better understand the molecular mechanism involved in these phenomena, we fitted these data to a two-state model describing the opening/closing process of the chromatin. We found that the differences between clones seemed to be due mainly to the duration of the closed state, and that the agents we used mainly seem to act on the opening probability. In this study, we report biological experiments combined with computational modeling, highlighting the importance of chromatin dynamics in stochastic gene expression. This work sheds a new light on the mechanisms of gene expression in higher eukaryotic cells, and argues in favor of relatively slow dynamics with long (hours to days) periods of quiet state.

  8. Fetal iron deficiency induces chromatin remodeling at the Bdnf locus in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-02-15

    Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Fetal iron deficiency induces chromatin remodeling at the Bdnf locus in adult rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Bruce C.; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Georgieff, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency. PMID:25519736

  10. Long-range looping of a locus control region drives tissue-specific chromatin packing within a multigene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships of higher order chromatin organization to mammalian gene expression remain incompletely defined. The human Growth Hormone (hGH) multigene cluster contains five gene paralogs. These genes are selectively activated in either the pituitary or the placenta by distinct components of a remote locus control region (LCR). Prior studies have revealed that appropriate activation of the placental genes is dependent not only on the actions of the LCR, but also on the multigene composition of the cluster itself. Here, we demonstrate that the hGH LCR ‘loops’ over a distance of 28 kb in primary placental nuclei to make specific contacts with the promoters of the two GH genes in the cluster. This long-range interaction sequesters the GH genes from the three hCS genes which co-assemble into a tightly packed ‘hCS chromatin hub’. Elimination of the long-range looping, via specific deletion of the placental LCR components, triggers a dramatic disruption of the hCS chromatin hub. These data reveal a higher-order structural pathway by which long-range looping from an LCR impacts on local chromatin architecture that is linked to tissue-specific gene regulation within a multigene cluster. PMID:26893355

  11. Synergistic and additive properties of the beta-globin locus control region (LCR) revealed by 5'HS3 deletion mutations: implication for LCR chromatin architecture.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangdong; Sun, Jin; Xiang, Ping; Yu, Man; Navas, Patrick A; Peterson, Kenneth R; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Li, Qiliang

    2005-08-01

    Deletion of the 234-bp core element of the DNase I hypersensitive site 3 (5'HS3) of the locus control region (LCR) in the context of a human beta-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (beta-YAC) results in profound effects on globin gene expression in transgenic mice. In contrast, deletion of a 2.3-kb 5'HS3 region, which includes the 234-bp core sequence, has a much milder phenotype. Here we report the effects of these deletions on chromatin structure in the beta-globin locus of adult erythroblasts. The 234-bp 5'HS3 deletion abolished histone acetylation throughout the beta-globin locus; recruitment of RNA polymerase II (pol II) to the LCR and beta-globin gene promoter was reduced to a basal level; and formation of all the 5' DNase I hypersensitive sites of the LCR was disrupted. The 2.3-kb 5'HS3 deletion mildly reduced the level of histone acetylation but did not change the profile across the whole locus; the 5' DNase I hypersensitive sites of the LCR were formed, but to a lesser extent; and recruitment of pol II was reduced, but only marginally. These data support the hypothesis that the LCR forms a specific chromatin structure and acts as a single entity. Based on these results we elaborate on a model of LCR chromatin architecture which accommodates the distinct phenotypes of the 5'HS3 and HS3 core deletions.

  12. Cooperativeness of the higher chromatin structure of the beta-globin locus revealed by the deletion mutations of DNase I hypersensitive site 3 of the LCR.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangdong; Xiang, Ping; Yin, Wenxuan; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Li, Qiliang

    2007-01-05

    High-level transcription of the globin genes requires the enhancement by a distant element, the locus control region (LCR). Such long-range regulation in vivo involves spatial interaction between transcriptional elements, with intervening chromatin looping out. It has been proposed that the clustering of the HS sites of the LCR, the active globin genes, as well as the remote 5' hypersensitive sites (HSs) (HS-60/-62 in mouse, HS-110 in human) and 3'HS1 forms a specific spatial chromatin structure, termed active chromatin hub (ACH). Here we report the effects of the HS3 deletions of the LCR on the spatial chromatin structure of the beta-globin locus as revealed by the chromatin conformation capture (3C) technology. The small HS3 core deletion (0.23 kb), but not the large HS3 deletion (2.3 kb), disrupted the spatial interactions among all the HS sites of the LCR, the beta-globin gene and 3'HS1. We have previously demonstrated that the large HS3 deletion barely impairs the structure of the LCR holocomplex, while the structure is significantly disrupted by the HS3 core deletion. Taken together, these results suggest that the formation of the ACH is dependent on a largely intact LCR structure. We propose that the ACH indeed is an extension of the LCR holocomplex.

  13. 5C analysis of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex locus reveals distinct chromatin interaction networks between gene-rich and gene-poor TADs in skin epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Malashchuk, Igor; Lajoie, Brian R.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi; Fessing, Michael Y.

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian genomes contain several dozens of large (>0.5 Mbp) lineage-specific gene loci harbouring functionally related genes. However, spatial chromatin folding, organization of the enhancer-promoter networks and their relevance to Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) in these loci remain poorly understood. TADs are principle units of the genome folding and represents the DNA regions within which DNA interacts more frequently and less frequently across the TAD boundary. Here, we used Chromatin Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) technology to characterize spatial chromatin interaction network in the 3.1 Mb Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) locus harbouring 61 functionally related genes that show lineage-specific activation during terminal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis. 5C data validated by 3D-FISH demonstrate that the EDC locus is organized into several TADs showing distinct lineage-specific chromatin interaction networks based on their transcription activity and the gene-rich or gene-poor status. Correlation of the 5C results with genome-wide studies for enhancer-specific histone modifications (H3K4me1 and H3K27ac) revealed that the majority of spatial chromatin interactions that involves the gene-rich TADs at the EDC locus in keratinocytes include both intra- and inter-TAD interaction networks, connecting gene promoters and enhancers. Compared to thymocytes in which the EDC locus is mostly transcriptionally inactive, these interactions were found to be keratinocyte-specific. In keratinocytes, the promoter-enhancer anchoring regions in the gene-rich transcriptionally active TADs are enriched for the binding of chromatin architectural proteins CTCF, Rad21 and chromatin remodeler Brg1. In contrast to gene-rich TADs, gene-poor TADs show preferential spatial contacts with each other, do not contain active enhancers and show decreased binding of CTCF, Rad21 and Brg1 in keratinocytes. Thus, spatial interactions between gene promoters and

  14. Chromatin structure of the LCR in the human β-globin locus transcribing the adult δ- and β-globin genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyeon; Kim, Yea Woon; Shim, Sung Han; Kim, Chul Geun; Kim, Aeri

    2012-03-01

    The β-like globin genes are transcribed in a developmental stage specific fashion in erythroid cells. The specific transcription of globin genes is conferred by the locus control region (LCR), but the chromatin structure of the LCR in the human adult β-globin locus transcribing the δ- and β-globin genes is not clear. Here, we employed hybrid MEL cells that contain a human chromosome 11. The δ- and β-globin genes were highly transcribed in hybrid MEL/ch11 cells after transcriptional induction. LCR HS3 and HS2 were strongly occupied by erythroid specific transcriptional activators and co-factors in the induced locus. These HSs, but not HS4 and HS1, were in close proximity with the active globin genes as revealed by high resolution 3C experiments. The active features at HS3 were markedly established after transcriptional induction, while HS2 was in a relatively active conformation before the induction. Unexpectedly, HS1 did not show notable active features except histone hyperacetylation. Taken together, the LCR of the human β-globin locus transcribing the adult δ- and β-globin genes has HS specific chromatin structure. The structure at each HS, which is different from the locus transcribing the fetal globin genes, might relate to its role in transcribing the adult genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Compass-like Locus, Exclusive to the Ambulacrarians, Encodes a Chromatin Insulator Binding Protein in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Melfi, Raffaella; Spinelli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are eukaryotic genome elements that upon binding of specific proteins display barrier and/or enhancer-blocking activity. Although several insulators have been described throughout various metazoans, much less is known about proteins that mediate their functions. This article deals with the identification and functional characterization in Paracentrotus lividus of COMPASS-like (CMPl), a novel echinoderm insulator binding protein. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the CMPl factor, encoded by the alternative spliced Cmp/Cmpl transcript, is the founder of a novel ambulacrarian-specific family of Homeodomain proteins containing the Compass domain. Specific association of CMPl with the boxB cis-element of the sns5 chromatin insulator is demonstrated by using a yeast one-hybrid system, and further corroborated by ChIP-qPCR and trans-activation assays in developing sea urchin embryos. The sns5 insulator lies within the early histone gene cluster, basically between the H2A enhancer and H1 promoter. To assess the functional role of CMPl within this locus, we challenged the activity of CMPl by two distinct experimental strategies. First we expressed in the developing embryo a chimeric protein, containing the DNA-binding domain of CMPl, which efficiently compete with the endogenous CMPl for the binding to the boxB sequence. Second, to titrate the embryonic CMPl protein, we microinjected an affinity-purified CMPl antibody. In both the experimental assays we congruently observed the loss of the enhancer-blocking function of sns5, as indicated by the specific increase of the H1 expression level. Furthermore, microinjection of the CMPl antiserum in combination with a synthetic mRNA encoding a forced repressor of the H2A enhancer-bound MBF1 factor restores the normal H1 mRNA abundance. Altogether, these results strongly support the conclusion that the recruitment of CMPl on sns5 is required for buffering the H1 promoter from the H2A enhancer activity, and this

  16. The BAF60 Subunit of the SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Directly Controls the Formation of a Gene Loop at FLOWERING LOCUS C in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Latrasse, David; Delarue, Marianne; Hirt, Heribert; Domenichini, Séverine; Ariel, Federico; Crespi, Martin; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2014-01-01

    SWI/SNF complexes mediate ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling to regulate gene expression. Many components of these complexes are evolutionarily conserved, and several subunits of Arabidopsis thaliana SWI/SNF complexes are involved in the control of flowering, a process that depends on the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). BAF60 is a SWI/SNF subunit, and in this work, we show that BAF60, via a direct targeting of the floral repressor FLC, induces a change at the high-order chromatin level and represses the photoperiod flowering pathway in Arabidopsis. BAF60 accumulates in the nucleus and controls the formation of the FLC gene loop by modulation of histone density, composition, and posttranslational modification. Physiological analysis of BAF60 RNA interference mutant lines allowed us to propose that this chromatin-remodeling protein creates a repressive chromatin configuration at the FLC locus. PMID:24510722

  17. Appearance of the pituitary factor Pit-1 increases chromatin remodeling at hypersensitive site III in the human GH locus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyang; Jin, Yan; Cattini, Peter A

    2010-07-01

    Expression of pituitary and placental members of the human GH and chorionic somatomammotropin (CS) gene family is directed by an upstream remote locus control region (LCR). Pituitary-specific expression of GH requires direct binding of Pit-1 (listed as POU1F1 in the HUGO database) to sequences marked by a hypersensitive site (HS) region (HS I/II) 14.6 kb upstream of the GH-N gene (listed as GH1 in the HUGO database). We used human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant Pit-1 proteins as a model system to gain insight into the mechanism by which Pit-1 gains access to the GH LCR. Addition of Pit-1 to these cells increased DNA accessibility at HS III, located 28 kb upstream of the human GH-N gene, in a POU homeodomain-dependent manner, as reflected by effects on histone hyperacetylation and RNA polymerase II activity. Direct binding of Pit-1 to HS III sequences is not supported. However, the potential for binding of ETS family members to this region has been demonstrated, and Pit-1 association with this ETS element in HS III sequences requires the POU homeodomain. Also, both ETS1 and ELK1 co-precipitate from human pituitary extracts using two independent sources of Pit-1 antibodies. Finally, overexpression of ELK1 or Pit-1 expression in HEK293 cells increased GH-N RNA levels. However, while ELK1 overexpression also stimulated placental CS RNA levels, the effect of Pit-1 appeared to correlate with ETS factor levels and target GH-N preferentially. These data are consistent with recruitment and an early role for Pit-1 in remodeling of the GH LCR at the constitutively open HS III through protein-protein interaction.

  18. The BAF (BRG1/BRM-Associated Factor) chromatin-remodeling complex exhibits ethanol sensitivity in fetal neural progenitor cells and regulates transcription at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus.

    PubMed

    Burrowes, Sasha G; Salem, Nihal A; Tseng, Alexander M; Balaraman, Sridevi; Pinson, Marisa R; Garcia, Cadianna; Miranda, Rajesh C

    2017-05-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a leading cause of intellectual disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that developmental ethanol exposure results in loss of microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-9, and loss of these miRNAs, in turn, mediates some of ethanol's teratogenic effects in the developing brain. We previously found that ethanol increased methylation at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus in mouse fetal neural stem cells (NSC), advancing a mechanism for epigenetic silencing of this locus and consequently, miR-9 loss in NSCs. Therefore, we assessed the role of the BAF (BRG1/BRM-Associated Factor) complex, which disassembles nucleosomes to facilitate access to chromatin, as an epigenetic mediator of ethanol's effects on miR-9. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNAse I-hypersensitivity analyses showed that the BAF complex was associated with both transcriptionally accessible and heterochromatic regions of the miR-9-2 locus, and that disintegration of the BAF complex by combined knockdown of BAF170 and BAF155 resulted in a significant decrease in miR-9. We hypothesized that ethanol exposure would result in loss of BAF-complex function at the miR-9-2 locus. However, ethanol exposure significantly increased mRNA transcripts for maturation-associated BAF-complex members BAF170, SS18, ARID2, BAF60a, BRM/BAF190b, and BAF53b. Ethanol also significantly increased BAF-complex binding within an intron containing a CpG island and in the terminal exon encoding precursor (pre)-miR-9-2. These data suggest that the BAF complex may adaptively respond to ethanol exposure to protect against a complete loss of miR-9-2 in fetal NSCs. Chromatin remodeling factors may adapt to the presence of a teratogen, to maintain transcription of critical miRNA regulatory pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromatin potentiates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Shigeki; Davis, Ralph E.; Mattei, Pierre Jean; Eagen, Kyle Patrick; Kornberg, Roger D.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin isolated from the chromosomal locus of the PHO5 gene of yeast in a transcriptionally repressed state was transcribed with 12 pure proteins (80 polypeptides): RNA polymerase II, six general transcription factors, TFIIS, the Pho4 gene activator protein, and the SAGA, SWI/SNF, and Mediator complexes. Contrary to expectation, a nucleosome occluding the TATA box and transcription start sites did not impede transcription but rather, enhanced it: the level of chromatin transcription was at least sevenfold greater than that of naked DNA, and chromatin gave patterns of transcription start sites closely similar to those occurring in vivo, whereas naked DNA gave many aberrant transcripts. Both histone acetylation and trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3) were important for chromatin transcription. The nucleosome, long known to serve as a general gene repressor, thus also performs an important positive role in transcription. PMID:28137832

  20. Chromatin Computation

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In living cells, DNA is packaged along with protein and RNA into chromatin. Chemical modifications to nucleotides and histone proteins are added, removed and recognized by multi-functional molecular complexes. Here I define a new computational model, in which chromatin modifications are information units that can be written onto a one-dimensional string of nucleosomes, analogous to the symbols written onto cells of a Turing machine tape, and chromatin-modifying complexes are modeled as read-write rules that operate on a finite set of adjacent nucleosomes. I illustrate the use of this “chromatin computer” to solve an instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. I prove that chromatin computers are computationally universal – and therefore more powerful than the logic circuits often used to model transcription factor control of gene expression. Features of biological chromatin provide a rich instruction set for efficient computation of nontrivial algorithms in biological time scales. Modeling chromatin as a computer shifts how we think about chromatin function, suggests new approaches to medical intervention, and lays the groundwork for the engineering of a new class of biological computing machines. PMID:22567109

  1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara; Kueh, Andrew J; Thomas, Tim

    2012-01-01

    During prenatal development, a large number of different cell types are formed, the vast majority of which contain identical genetic material. The basis of the great variety in cell phenotype and function is the differential expression of the approximately 25,000 genes in the mammalian genome. Transcriptional activity is regulated at many levels by proteins, including members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, DNA-binding transcription factors, and chromatin-binding proteins. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency, with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method to assess if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus. ChIP involves the cross linking of DNA and associated proteins and immunoprecipitation using specific antibodies to DNA-associated proteins followed by examination of the co-precipitated DNA sequences or proteins. In the last few years, ChIP has become an essential technique for scientists studying transcriptional regulation and chromatin structure. Using ChIP on mouse embryos, we can document the presence or absence of specific proteins and chromatin modifications at genomic loci in vivo during mammalian development. Here, we describe a ChIP technique adapted for mouse embryos.

  2. Chromatin hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-05-06

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory-the two-fluid model-in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model-the Maxwell fluid-for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chromatin Hydrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory—the two-fluid model—in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model—the Maxwell fluid—for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity. PMID:24806919

  4. The Ties that Bind (the Igh Locus).

    PubMed

    Krangel, Michael S

    2016-05-01

    Immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus V(D)J recombination requires a 3D chromatin organization which permits widely distributed variable (V) gene segments to contact distant diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments. A recent study has identified key nodes in the locus interactome, paving the way for new molecular insights into how the locus is configured for recombination. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Early Mouse Embryos.

    PubMed

    García-González, Estela G; Roque-Ramirez, Bladimir; Palma-Flores, Carlos; Hernández-Hernández, J Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation is achieved at many levels by different factors such as tissue-specific transcription factors, members of the basal transcriptional apparatus, chromatin-binding proteins, and noncoding RNAs. Importantly, chromatin structure dictates the availability of a specific genomic locus for transcriptional activation as well as the efficiency with which transcription can occur. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a method that allows elucidating gene regulation at the molecular level by assessing if chromatin modifications or proteins are present at a specific locus. Initially, the majority of ChIP experiments were performed on cultured cell lines and more recently this technique has been adapted to a variety of tissues in different model organisms. Using ChIP on mouse embryos, it is possible to document the presence or absence of specific proteins and chromatin modifications at genomic loci in vivo during mammalian development and to get biological meaning from observations made on tissue culture analyses. We describe here a ChIP protocol on freshly isolated mouse embryonic somites for in vivo analysis of muscle specific transcription factor binding on chromatin. This protocol has been easily adapted to other mouse embryonic tissues and has also been successfully scaled up to perform ChIP-Seq.

  6. Designing Epigenome Editors: Considerations of Biochemical and Locus Specificities.

    PubMed

    Sen, Dilara; Keung, Albert J

    2018-01-01

    The advent of locus-specific protein recruitment technologies has enabled a new class of studies in chromatin biology. Epigenome editors enable biochemical modifications of chromatin at almost any specific endogenous locus. Their locus specificity unlocks unique information including the functional roles of distinct modifications at specific genomic loci. Given the growing interest in using these tools for biological and translational studies, there are many specific design considerations depending on the scientific question or clinical need. Here we present and discuss important design considerations and challenges regarding the biochemical and locus specificities of epigenome editors. These include how to account for the complex biochemical diversity of chromatin; control for potential interdependency of epigenome editors and their resultant modifications; avoid sequestration effects; quantify the locus specificity of epigenome editors; and improve locus specificity by considering concentration, affinity, avidity, and sequestration effects.

  7. Chromatin insulation by a transcriptional activator

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Scalzo, David; Fiering, Steven; Groudine, Mark; Martin, David I. K.

    2003-01-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, transcriptionally active regions are interspersed with silent chromatin that may repress genes in its vicinity. Chromatin insulators are elements that can shield a locus from repressive effects of flanking chromatin. Few such elements have been characterized in higher eukaryotes, but transcriptional activating elements are an invariant feature of active loci and have been shown to suppress transgene silencing. Hence, we have assessed the ability of a transcriptional activator to cause chromatin insulation, i.e., to relieve position effects at transgene integration sites in cultured cells. The transgene contained a series of binding sites for the metal-inducible transcriptional activator MTF, linked to a GFP reporter. Clones carrying single integrated transgenes were derived without selection for expression, and in most clones the transgene was silent. Induction of MTF resulted in transition of the transgene from the silent to the active state, prolongation of the active state, and a marked narrowing of the range of expression levels at different genomic sites. At one genomic site, prolonged induction of MTF resulted in suppression of transgene silencing that persisted after withdrawal of the induction stimulus. These results are consistent with MTF acting as a chromatin insulator and imply that transcriptional activating elements can insulate active loci against chromatin repression. PMID:12547916

  8. Kinases and chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin structure is regulated by families of proteins that are able to covalently modify the histones and the DNA, as well as to regulate the spacing of nucleosomes along the DNA. Over the years, these chromatin remodeling factors have been proven to be essential to a variety of processes, including gene expression, DNA replication, and chromosome cohesion. The function of these remodeling factors is regulated by a number of chemical and developmental signals and, in turn, changes in the chromatin structure eventually contribute to the response to changes in the cellular environment. Exciting new research findings by the laboratories of Sharon Dent and Steve Jackson indicate, in two different contexts, that changes in the chromatin structure may, in reverse, signal to intracellular signaling pathways to regulate cell fate. The discoveries clearly challenge our traditional view of ‘epigenetics’, and may have important implications in human health. PMID:23917692

  9. Chromatin dynamics in plants.

    PubMed

    Fransz, Paul F; de Jong, J Hans

    2002-12-01

    Recent studies in yeast, animals and plants have provided major breakthroughs in unraveling the molecular mechanism of higher-order gene regulation. In conjunction with the DNA code, proteins that are involved in chromatin remodeling, histone modification and epigenetic imprinting form a large network of interactions that control the nuclear programming of cell identity. New insight into how chromatin conformations are regulated in plants sheds light on the relationships between chromosome function, cell differentiation and developmental patterns.

  10. Nucleoporins and chromatin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ptak, Christopher; Wozniak, Richard W

    2016-06-01

    Mounting evidence has implicated a group of proteins termed nucleoporins, or Nups, in various processes that regulate chromatin structure and function. Nups were first recognized as building blocks for nuclear pore complexes, but several members of this group of proteins also reside in the cytoplasm and within the nucleus. Moreover, many are dynamic and move between these various locations. Both at the nuclear envelope, as part of nuclear pore complexes, and within the nucleoplasm, Nups interact with protein complexes that function in gene transcription, chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and DNA replication. Here, we review recent studies that provide further insight into the molecular details of these interactions and their role in regulating the activity of chromatin modifying factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Analysis of DNA replication associated chromatin decondensation: in vivo assay for understanding chromatin remodeling mechanisms of selected proteins.

    PubMed

    Borysov, Sergiy; Bryant, Victoria L; Alexandrow, Mark G

    2015-01-01

    Of critical importance to many of the events underlying transcriptional control of gene expression are modifications to core and linker histones that regulate the accessibility of trans-acting factors to the DNA substrate within the context of chromatin. Likewise, control over the initiation of DNA replication, as well as the ability of the replication machinery to proceed during elongation through the multiple levels of chromatin condensation that are likely to be encountered, is known to involve the creation of chromatin accessibility. In the latter case, chromatin access will likely need to be a transient event so as to prevent total genomic unraveling of the chromatin that would be deleterious to cells. While there are many molecular and biochemical approaches in use to study histone changes and their relationship to transcription and chromatin accessibility, few techniques exist that allow a molecular dissection of the events underlying DNA replication control as it pertains to chromatin changes and accessibility. Here, we outline a novel experimental strategy for addressing the ability of specific proteins to induce large-scale chromatin unfolding (decondensation) in vivo upon site-specific targeting to an engineered locus. Our laboratory has used this powerful system in novel ways to directly address the ability of DNA replication proteins to create chromatin accessibility, and have incorporated modifications to the basic approach that allow for a molecular genetic analysis of the mechanisms and associated factors involved in causing chromatin decondensation by a protein of interest. Alternative approaches involving co-expression of other proteins (competitors or stimulators), concurrent drug treatments, and analysis of co-localizing histone modifications are also addressed, all of which are illustrative of the utility of this experimental system for extending basic findings to physiologically relevant mechanisms. Although used by our group to analyze

  12. Analysis of Chromatin Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: chromatin, nucleases, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, melting point, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide, autoradiography, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, Sanger sequencing, restriction endonucleases, exonucleases, linker DNA, chloroform extraction, nucleosomes,…

  13. Chromatin boundaries in budding yeast: the nuclear pore connection.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kojiro; Arib, Ghislaine; Lin, Clayton; Van Houwe, Griet; Laemmli, Ulrich K

    2002-05-31

    Chromatin boundary activities (BAs) were identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by genetic screening. Such BAs bound to sites flanking a reporter gene establish a nonsilenced domain within the silent mating-type locus HML. Interestingly, various proteins involved in nuclear-cytoplasmic traffic, such as exportins Cse1p, Mex67p, and Los1p, exhibit a robust BA. Genetic studies, immunolocalization, live imaging, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that these transport proteins block spreading of heterochromatin by physical tethering of the HML locus to the Nup2p receptor of the nuclear pore complex. Genetic deletion of NUP2 abolishes the BA of all transport proteins, while direct targeting of Nup2p to the bracketing DNA elements restores activity. The data demonstrate that physical tethering of genomic loci to the NPC can dramatically alter their epigenetic activity.

  14. Topology of zigzag chromatin.

    PubMed

    Strogatz, S

    1983-08-21

    An enormous length of DNA is packaged in the nuclei of eukaryotic cells. This is achieved through several intermediate levels of compaction, ranging from the double helix to the chromosome. The nucleosome is now firmly established as the first level of chromatin structure. Next it appears that the nucleosomes are themselves stacked in a two-track array, with a dinucleosome repeat. Several winding patterns of DNA are compatible with such a structure. It is shown here that, compared to other feasible DNA paths, the observed winding pattern has remarkable topological properties. The possible biological significance of this peculiarity is discussed.

  15. A new fractionation assay, based on the size of formaldehyde-crosslinked, mildly sheared chromatin, delineates the chromatin structure at promoter regions

    PubMed Central

    Ishihara, Satoru; Varma, Rajat; Schwartz, Ronald H.

    2010-01-01

    To explore the higher order structure of transcribable chromatin in vivo, its local configuration was assessed through the accessibility of the chromatin to crosslinking with formaldehyde. The application of crosslinked and mildly sheared chromatin to sedimentation velocity centrifugation followed by size-fractionation of the DNA enabled us to biochemically distinguish between chromatin with heavily versus sparsely crosslinkable structures. The separated fractions showed a good correlation with gene expression profiles. Genes with poor crosslinking around the promoter region were actively transcribed, while transcripts were hardly detected from genes with extensive crosslinking in their promoter regions. For the inducible gene, Il2, the distribution of the promoter shifted in the gradient following T-cell receptor stimulation, consistent with a change in structure at this locus during activation. The kinetics of this switch preceded the chromatin change observed in a DNase I accessibility assay. Thus, this new chromatin fractionation technique has revealed a change in chromatin structure that has not been previously characterized. PMID:20371521

  16. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  17. Chromatin dynamics during interphase explored by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Our view of the structure and function of the interphase nucleus has changed drastically in recent years. It is now widely accepted that the nucleus is a well organized and highly compartmentalized organelle and that this organization is intimately related to nuclear function. In this context, chromatin-initially considered a randomly entangled polymer-has also been shown to be structurally organized in interphase and its organization was found to be very important to gene regulation. Relevant and not completely answered questions are how chromatin organization is achieved and what mechanisms are responsible for changes in the positions of chromatin loci in the nucleus. A significant advance in the field resulted from tagging chromosome sites with bacterial operator sequences, and visualizing these tags using green fluorescent protein fused with the appropriate repressor protein. Simultaneously, fluorescence imaging techniques evolved significantly during recent years, allowing observation of the time evolution of processes in living specimens. In this context, the motion of the tagged locus was observed and analyzed to extract quantitative information regarding its dynamics. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of chromatin dynamics in interphase with the emphasis placed on the information obtained from single-particle tracking (SPT) experiments. We introduce the basis of SPT methods and trajectory analysis, and summarize what has been learnt by using this new technology in the context of chromatin dynamics. Finally, we briefly describe a method of SPT in a two-photon excitation microscope that has several advantages over methods based on conventional microscopy and review the information obtained using this novel approach to study chromatin dynamics.

  18. Chromatin dynamics during interphase explored by single particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Our view of the structure and function of the interphase nucleus has drastically changed in the last years. It is now widely accepted that the nucleus is a well organized and highly compartmentalized organelle and that this organization is intimately related to nuclear function. In this context, chromatin -initially considered a randomly entangled polymer- has also been shown to be structurally organized in interphase and its organization was found to be very important to gene regulation. Relevant and not completely answered questions are how chromatin organization is achieved and what mechanisms are responsible for changes in the positions of chromatin loci in the nucleus. A significant advance in the field resulted from tagging chromosome sites with bacterial operator sequences, and visualizing these tags using green fluorescent protein fused with the appropriate repressor protein. Simultaneously, fluorescence imaging techniques significantly evolved during the last years allowing the observation of the time evolution of processes in living specimens. In this context, the motion of the tagged locus was observed and analyzed to extract quantitative information regarding its dynamics. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of chromatin dynamics in interphase with the emphasis placed on the information obtained from single particle tracking (SPT) experiments. We introduce the basis of SPT methods and trajectories analysis, and summarize what has been learnt by using this new technology in the context of chromatin dynamics. Finally, we briefly describe a method of SPT in a two-photon excitation microscope that has several advantages over methods based on conventional microscopy and review the information obtained by using this novel approach to study chromatin dynamics. PMID:18461483

  19. Chromatin-bound RNA and the neurobiology of psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Tushir, J S; Akbarian, S

    2014-04-04

    A large, and still rapidly expanding literature on epigenetic regulation in the nervous system has provided fundamental insights into the dynamic regulation of DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications in the context of neuronal plasticity in health and disease. Remarkably, however, very little is known about the potential role of chromatin-bound RNAs, including many long non-coding transcripts and various types of small RNAs. Here, we provide an overview on RNA-mediated regulation of chromatin structure and function, with focus on histone lysine methylation and psychiatric disease. Examples of recently discovered chromatin-bound long non-coding RNAs important for neuronal health and function include the brain-derived neurotrophic factor antisense transcript (Bdnf-AS) which regulates expression of the corresponding sense transcript, and LOC389023 which is associated with human-specific histone methylation signatures at the chromosome 2q14.1 neurodevelopmental risk locus by regulating expression of DPP10, an auxillary subunit for voltage-gated K(+) channels. We predict that the exploration of chromatin-bound RNA will significantly advance our current knowledge base in neuroepigenetics and biological psychiatry. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Models of chromatin spatial organisation in the cell nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicodemi, Mario

    2014-03-01

    In the cell nucleus chromosomes have a complex architecture serving vital functional purposes. Recent experiments have started unveiling the interaction map of DNA sites genome-wide, revealing different levels of organisation at different scales. The principles, though, which orchestrate such a complex 3D structure remain still mysterious. I will overview the scenario emerging from some classical polymer physics models of the general aspect of chromatin spatial organisation. The available experimental data, which can be rationalised in a single framework, support a picture where chromatin is a complex mixture of differently folded regions, self-organised across spatial scales according to basic physical mechanisms. I will also discuss applications to specific DNA loci, e.g. the HoxB locus, where models informed with biological details, and tested against targeted experiments, can help identifying the determinants of folding.

  1. Mesoscale Modeling of Chromatin Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Tamar

    2009-03-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is the fundamental protein/nucleic acid unit that stores the genetic material. Understanding how chromatin fibers fold and unfold in physiological conditions is important for interpreting fundamental biological processes like DNA replication and transcription regulation. Using a mesoscopic model of oligonucleosome chains and tailored sampling protocols, we elucidate the energetics of oligonucleosome folding/unfolding and the role of each histone tail, linker histones, and divalent ions in regulating chromatin structure. The resulting compact topologies reconcile features of the zigzag model with straight linker DNAs with the solenoid model with bent linker DNAs for optimal fiber organization and reveal dynamic and energetic aspects involved.

  2. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  3. Chromatin condensation of Xist genomic loci during oogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Mitani, Atsushi; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    Repression of maternal Xist (Xm-Xist) during preimplantation in mouse embryos is essential for establishing imprinted X chromosome inactivation. Nuclear transplantation (NT) studies using nuclei derived from non-growing (ng) and full-grown (fg) oocytes have indicated that maternal-specific repressive modifications are imposed on Xm-Xist during oogenesis, as well as on autosomal imprinted genes. Recent studies have revealed that histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) enrichments on Xm-Xist promoter regions are involved in silencing at the preimplantation stages. However, whether H3K9me3 is imposed on Xm-Xist during oogenesis is not known. Here, we dissected the chromatin states in ng and fg oocytes and early preimplantation stage embryos. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments against H3K9me3 revealed that there was no significant enrichment within the Xm-Xist region during oogenesis. However, NT embryos with ng nuclei (ngNT) showed extensive Xm-Xist derepression and H3K9me3 hypomethylation of the promoter region at the 4-cell stage, which corresponds to the onset of paternal Xist expression. We also found that the chromatin state at the Xist genomic locus became markedly condensed as oocyte growth proceeded. Although the condensed Xm-Xist genomic locus relaxed during early preimplantation phases, the extent of the relaxation across Xm-Xist loci derived from normally developed oocytes was significantly smaller than those of paternal-Xist and ngNT-Xist genomic loci. Furthermore, Xm-Xist from 2-cell metaphase nuclei became derepressed following NT. We propose that chromatin condensation is associated with imprinted Xist repression and that skipping of the condensation step by NT leads to Xist activation during the early preimplantation phase. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Chromatin isolation by RNA purification (ChIRP).

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Quinn, Jeffrey; Chang, Howard Y

    2012-03-25

    Long noncoding RNAs are key regulators of chromatin states for important biological processes such as dosage compensation, imprinting, and developmental gene expression (1,2,3,4,5,6,7). The recent discovery of thousands of lncRNAs in association with specific chromatin modification complexes, such as Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) that mediates histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), suggests broad roles for numerous lncRNAs in managing chromatin states in a gene-specific fashion (8,9). While some lncRNAs are thought to work in cis on neighboring genes, other lncRNAs work in trans to regulate distantly located genes. For instance, Drosophila lncRNAs roX1 and roX2 bind numerous regions on the X chromosome of male cells, and are critical for dosage compensation (10,11). However, the exact locations of their binding sites are not known at high resolution. Similarly, human lncRNA HOTAIR can affect PRC2 occupancy on hundreds of genes genome-wide( 3,12,13), but how specificity is achieved is unclear. LncRNAs can also serve as modular scaffolds to recruit the assembly of multiple protein complexes. The classic trans-acting RNA scaffold is the TERC RNA that serves as the template and scaffold for the telomerase complex (14); HOTAIR can also serve as a scaffold for PRC2 and a H3K4 demethylase complex (13). Prior studies mapping RNA occupancy at chromatin have revealed substantial insights (15,16), but only at a single gene locus at a time. The occupancy sites of most lncRNAs are not known, and the roles of lncRNAs in chromatin regulation have been mostly inferred from the indirect effects of lncRNA perturbation. Just as chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by microarray or deep sequencing (ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq, respectively) has greatly improved our understanding of protein-DNA interactions on a genomic scale, here we illustrate a recently published strategy to map long RNA occupancy genome-wide at high resolution (17). This method, Chromatin Isolation by

  5. Retroviruses Hijack Chromatin Loops to Drive Oncogene Expression and Highlight the Chromatin Architecture around Proto-Oncogenic Loci

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Jillian M.; Wright, Jason B.; Cole, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the genome consists of intergenic and non-coding DNA sequences shown to play a major role in different gene regulatory networks. However, the specific potency of these distal elements as well as how these regions exert function across large genomic distances remains unclear. To address these unresolved issues, we closely examined the chromatin architecture around proto-oncogenic loci in the mouse and human genomes to demonstrate a functional role for chromatin looping in distal gene regulation. Using cell culture models, we show that tumorigenic retroviral integration sites within the mouse genome occur near existing large chromatin loops and that this chromatin architecture is maintained within the human genome as well. Significantly, as mutagenesis screens are not feasible in humans, we demonstrate a way to leverage existing screens in mice to identify disease relevant human enhancers and expose novel disease mechanisms. For instance, we characterize the epigenetic landscape upstream of the human Cyclin D1 locus to find multiple distal interactions that contribute to the complex cis-regulation of this cell cycle gene. Furthermore, we characterize a novel distal interaction upstream of the Cyclin D1 gene which provides mechanistic evidence for the abundant overexpression of Cyclin D1 occurring in multiple myeloma cells harboring a pathogenic translocation event. Through use of mapped retroviral integrations and translocation breakpoints, our studies highlight the importance of chromatin looping in oncogene expression, elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms crucial for distal cis-regulation, and in one particular instance, explain how a translocation event drives tumorigenesis through upregulation of a proto-oncogene. PMID:25799187

  6. Chromatin reprogramming in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Swinstead, Erin E; Paakinaho, Ville; Hager, Gordon

    2018-04-24

    Reprogramming of the chromatin landscape is a critical component to the transcriptional response in breast cancer. Effects of sex hormones such as estrogens and progesterone have been well described to have a critical impact on breast cancer proliferation. However, the complex network of the chromatin landscape, enhancer regions, and mode of function of steroid receptors (SRs) and other transcription factors (TFs), is an intricate web of signaling and functional processes that is still largely misunderstood at the mechanistic level. In this review, we describe what is currently known about the dynamic interplay between TFs with chromatin and the reprogramming of enhancer elements. Emphasis has been placed on characterizing the different modes of action of TFs in regulating enhancer activity, specifically, how different SRs target enhancer regions and reprogram chromatin in breast cancer cells. In addition, we discuss current techniques employed to study enhancer function at a genome-wide level. Further, we have noted recent advances in live cell imaging technology. These single cell approaches enable the coupling of population based assays with real-time studies to address many unsolved questions about SRs and chromatin dynamics in breast cancer.

  7. Chromatin Remodeling and Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y; Zhang, Q

    Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense. So what are the links between Snf2-mediated ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling and plant immunity, and what mechanisms might support its involvement in disease resistance? © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biallelic Germline Transcription at the κ Immunoglobulin Locus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nandita; Bergman, Yehudit; Cedar, Howard; Chess, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Rearrangement of antigen receptor genes generates a vast array of antigen receptors on lymphocytes. The establishment of allelic exclusion in immunoglobulin genes requires differential treatment of the two sequence identical alleles. In the case of the κ immunoglobulin locus, changes in chromatin structure, methylation, and replication timing of the two alleles are all potentially involved in regulating rearrangement. Additionally, germline transcription of the κ locus which precedes rearrangement has been proposed to reflect an opening of the chromatin structure rendering it available for rearrangement. As the initial restriction of rearrangement to one allele is critical to the establishment of allelic exclusion, a key question is whether or not germline transcription at the κ locus is monoallelic or biallelic. We have used a sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an RNA–fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to show that germline transcription of the κ locus is biallelic in wild-type immature B cells and in recombination activating gene (RAG)−/−, μ+ B cells. Therefore, germline transcription is unlikely to dictate which allele will be rearranged first and rather reflects a general opening on both alleles that must be accompanied by a mechanism allowing one of the two alleles to be rearranged first. PMID:12629064

  9. The insulation of genes from external enhancers and silencing chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Burgess-Beusse, Bonnie; Farrell, Catherine; Gaszner, Miklos; Litt, Michael; Mutskov, Vesco; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Simpson, Melanie; West, Adam; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Insulators are DNA sequence elements that can serve in some cases as barriers to protect a gene against the encroachment of adjacent inactive condensed chromatin. Some insulators also can act as blocking elements to protect against the activating influence of distal enhancers associated with other genes. Although most of the insulators identified so far derive from Drosophila, they also are found in vertebrates. An insulator at the 5′ end of the chicken β-globin locus marks a boundary between an open chromatin domain and a region of constitutively condensed chromatin. Detailed analysis of this element shows that it possesses both enhancer blocking activity and the ability to screen reporter genes against position effects. Enhancer blocking is associated with binding of the protein CTCF; sites that bind CTCF are found at other critical points in the genome. Protection against position effects involves other properties that appear to be associated with control of histone acetylation and methylation. Insulators thus are complex elements that can help to preserve the independent function of genes embedded in a genome in which they are surrounded by regulatory signals they must ignore. PMID:12154228

  10. Predicting chromatin architecture from models of polymer physics.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Simona; Chiariello, Andrea M; Annunziatella, Carlo; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2017-03-01

    We review the picture of chromatin large-scale 3D organization emerging from the analysis of Hi-C data and polymer modeling. In higher mammals, Hi-C contact maps reveal a complex higher-order organization, extending from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales, hierarchically folded in a structure of domains-within-domains (metaTADs). The domain folding hierarchy is partially conserved throughout differentiation, and deeply correlated to epigenomic features. Rearrangements in the metaTAD topology relate to gene expression modifications: in particular, in neuronal differentiation models, topologically associated domains (TADs) tend to have coherent expression changes within architecturally conserved metaTAD niches. To identify the nature of architectural domains and their molecular determinants within a principled approach, we discuss models based on polymer physics. We show that basic concepts of interacting polymer physics explain chromatin spatial organization across chromosomal scales and cell types. The 3D structure of genomic loci can be derived with high accuracy and its molecular determinants identified by crossing information with epigenomic databases. In particular, we illustrate the case of the Sox9 locus, linked to human congenital disorders. The model in-silico predictions on the effects of genomic rearrangements are confirmed by available 5C data. That can help establishing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin mis-folding, such as congenital disorders and cancer.

  11. Global Quantitative Modeling of Chromatin Factor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is the driver of gene regulation, yet understanding the molecular interactions underlying chromatin factor combinatorial patterns (or the “chromatin codes”) remains a fundamental challenge in chromatin biology. Here we developed a global modeling framework that leverages chromatin profiling data to produce a systems-level view of the macromolecular complex of chromatin. Our model ultilizes maximum entropy modeling with regularization-based structure learning to statistically dissect dependencies between chromatin factors and produce an accurate probability distribution of chromatin code. Our unsupervised quantitative model, trained on genome-wide chromatin profiles of 73 histone marks and chromatin proteins from modENCODE, enabled making various data-driven inferences about chromatin profiles and interactions. We provided a highly accurate predictor of chromatin factor pairwise interactions validated by known experimental evidence, and for the first time enabled higher-order interaction prediction. Our predictions can thus help guide future experimental studies. The model can also serve as an inference engine for predicting unknown chromatin profiles — we demonstrated that with this approach we can leverage data from well-characterized cell types to help understand less-studied cell type or conditions. PMID:24675896

  12. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C.

    PubMed

    Hitrik, Anna; Popliker, Malka; Gancz, Dana; Mukamel, Zohar; Lifshitz, Aviezer; Schwartzman, Omer; Tanay, Amos; Gilboa, Lilach

    2016-11-01

    The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg) supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR)- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C). Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation.

  13. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Dana; Lifshitz, Aviezer; Tanay, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg) supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR)- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C). Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation. PMID:27846223

  14. 3D chromatin conformation correlates with replication timing and is conserved in resting cells

    PubMed Central

    Moindrot, Benoit; Audit, Benjamin; Klous, Petra; Baker, Antoine; Thermes, Claude; de Laat, Wouter; Bouvet, Philippe; Mongelard, Fabien; Arneodo, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Although chromatin folding is known to be of functional importance to control the gene expression program, less is known regarding its interplay with DNA replication. Here, using Circular Chromatin Conformation Capture combined with high-throughput sequencing, we identified megabase-sized self-interacting domains in the nucleus of a human lymphoblastoid cell line, as well as in cycling and resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Strikingly, the boundaries of those domains coincide with early-initiation zones in every cell types. Preferential interactions have been observed between the consecutive early-initiation zones, but also between those separated by several tens of megabases. Thus, the 3D conformation of chromatin is strongly correlated with the replication timing along the whole chromosome. We furthermore provide direct clues that, in addition to the timing value per se, the shape of the timing profile at a given locus defines its set of genomic contacts. As this timing-related scheme of chromatin organization exists in lymphoblastoid cells, resting and cycling PBMC, this indicates that it is maintained several weeks or months after the previous S-phase. Lastly, our work highlights that the major chromatin changes accompanying PBMC entry into cell cycle occur while keeping largely unchanged the long-range chromatin contacts. PMID:22879376

  15. Chromatin in embryonic stem cell neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Meshorer, E

    2007-03-01

    Chromatin, the basic regulatory unit of the eukaryotic genetic material, is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications, histone variants, DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. Cellular differentiation involves large changes in gene expression concomitant with alterations in genome organization and chromatin structure. Such changes are particularly evident in self-renewing pluripotent embryonic stem cells, which begin, in terms of cell fate, as a tabula rasa, and through the process of differentiation, acquire distinct identities. Here I describe the changes in chromatin that accompany neuronal differentiation, particularly of embryonic stem cells, and discuss how chromatin serves as the master regulator of cellular destiny.

  16. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valerie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC. PMID:24504145

  17. Locus-specific epigenetic remodeling controls addiction- and depression-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Heller, Elizabeth A; Cates, Hannah M; Peña, Catherine J; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Herman, James P; Walsh, Jessica J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J; Tamminga, Carol S; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Zhang, H Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes and histone post-translational modifications in discrete brain regions. Given the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. We investigated the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific mouse gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the Fosb locus in nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, was sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allowed us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior.

  18. The Molecular Toxicology of Chromatin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-09

    neoplasia at a molecular level. Two: a pragmatically feasible control of chromatin toxicity (leading...to genetic defects and neoplasia ) can be developed against environmental (chemical or radiation) inflicted injuries. The objectives therefore are both...soluble soluble 1. G block 20 203 45 157 40 324 35 289 * 2. S phase 20 413 126 287 40 868 13 854 3. S + benzamide 20 207 67 140 40 294 29 265 4. S+ MAMA

  19. The Impact of Chromatin Dynamics on Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Daer, René M; Cutts, Josh P; Brafman, David A; Haynes, Karmella A

    2017-03-17

    In order to efficiently edit eukaryotic genomes, it is critical to test the impact of chromatin dynamics on CRISPR/Cas9 function and develop strategies to adapt the system to eukaryotic contexts. So far, research has extensively characterized the relationship between the CRISPR endonuclease Cas9 and the composition of the RNA-DNA duplex that mediates the system's precision. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications and DNA packaging can block eukaryotic genome editing by custom-built DNA endonucleases like Cas9; however, the underlying mechanism of Cas9 inhibition is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that closed, gene-silencing-associated chromatin is a mechanism for the interference of Cas9-mediated DNA editing. Our assays use a transgenic cell line with a drug-inducible switch to control chromatin states (open and closed) at a single genomic locus. We show that closed chromatin inhibits binding and editing at specific target sites and that artificial reversal of the silenced state restores editing efficiency. These results provide new insights to improve Cas9-mediated editing in human and other mammalian cells.

  20. Distinct polymer physics principles govern chromatin dynamics in mouse and Drosophila topological domains.

    PubMed

    Ea, Vuthy; Sexton, Tom; Gostan, Thierry; Herviou, Laurie; Baudement, Marie-Odile; Zhang, Yunzhe; Berlivet, Soizik; Le Lay-Taha, Marie-Noëlle; Cathala, Guy; Lesne, Annick; Victor, Jean-Marc; Fan, Yuhong; Cavalli, Giacomo; Forné, Thierry

    2015-08-15

    In higher eukaryotes, the genome is partitioned into large "Topologically Associating Domains" (TADs) in which the chromatin displays favoured long-range contacts. While a crumpled/fractal globule organization has received experimental supports at higher-order levels, the organization principles that govern chromatin dynamics within these TADs remain unclear. Using simple polymer models, we previously showed that, in mouse liver cells, gene-rich domains tend to adopt a statistical helix shape when no significant locus-specific interaction takes place. Here, we use data from diverse 3C-derived methods to explore chromatin dynamics within mouse and Drosophila TADs. In mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (mESC), that possess large TADs (median size of 840 kb), we show that the statistical helix model, but not globule models, is relevant not only in gene-rich TADs, but also in gene-poor and gene-desert TADs. Interestingly, this statistical helix organization is considerably relaxed in mESC compared to liver cells, indicating that the impact of the constraints responsible for this organization is weaker in pluripotent cells. Finally, depletion of histone H1 in mESC alters local chromatin flexibility but not the statistical helix organization. In Drosophila, which possesses TADs of smaller sizes (median size of 70 kb), we show that, while chromatin compaction and flexibility are finely tuned according to the epigenetic landscape, chromatin dynamics within TADs is generally compatible with an unconstrained polymer configuration. Models issued from polymer physics can accurately describe the organization principles governing chromatin dynamics in both mouse and Drosophila TADs. However, constraints applied on this dynamics within mammalian TADs have a peculiar impact resulting in a statistical helix organization.

  1. The IGF2 Locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  2. DNA replication through a chromatin environment.

    PubMed

    Bellush, James M; Whitehouse, Iestyn

    2017-10-05

    Compaction of the genome into the nuclear space is achieved by wrapping DNA around octameric assemblies of histone proteins to form nucleosomes, the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin. Aside from providing a means by which to fit larger genomes into the cell, chromatinization of DNA is a crucial means by which the cell regulates access to the genome. While the complex role that chromatin plays in gene transcription has been appreciated for a long time, it is now also apparent that crucial aspects of DNA replication are linked to the biology of chromatin. This review will focus on recent advances in our understanding of how the chromatin environment influences key aspects of DNA replication.This article is part of the themed issue 'Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Assembly of transcriptionally inactive chromatin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, M M; Kmiec, E B

    1989-07-01

    We have successfully uncoupled the previously interlocked activities of chromatin assembly and in vitro transcription promoted by the Xenopus oocyte S-150 cell-free extract. Our isolated fraction catalyzes extensive chromatin assembly measured both by changes in DNA topology and Micrococcal nuclease digestions. The assembly of chromatin is slowed by the exogenous addition of ATP. In the absence of exogenously added ATP, the fraction forms a chromatin template that is transcriptionally inert. Addition of small amounts of the HeLa cell extract (S-100) converts these templates into transcriptionally active ones without disrupting the chromatin structure. Our protocol defines a method for the isolation of a fraction from the Xenopus cell free extract that catalyzes the assembly of transcriptionally inactive chromatin. We characterize this reaction and establish conditions for the transcriptional activation of these inactive minichromosomes.

  4. ATP-dependent chromatin assembly is functionally distinct from chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Torigoe, Sharon E; Patel, Ashok; Khuong, Mai T; Bowman, Gregory D; Kadonaga, James T

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin assembly involves the combined action of ATP-dependent motor proteins and histone chaperones. Because motor proteins in chromatin assembly also function as chromatin remodeling factors, we investigated the relationship between ATP-driven chromatin assembly and chromatin remodeling in the generation of periodic nucleosome arrays. We found that chromatin remodeling-defective Chd1 motor proteins are able to catalyze ATP-dependent chromatin assembly. The resulting nucleosomes are not, however, spaced in periodic arrays. Wild-type Chd1, but not chromatin remodeling-defective Chd1, can catalyze the conversion of randomly-distributed nucleosomes into periodic arrays. These results reveal a functional distinction between ATP-dependent nucleosome assembly and chromatin remodeling, and suggest a model for chromatin assembly in which randomly-distributed nucleosomes are formed by the nucleosome assembly function of Chd1, and then regularly-spaced nucleosome arrays are generated by the chromatin remodeling activity of Chd1. These findings uncover an unforeseen level of specificity in the role of motor proteins in chromatin assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00863.001 PMID:23986862

  5. Dietary polyphenols and chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gian Luigi; Vastolo, Viviana; Ciccarelli, Marco; Albano, Luigi; Macchia, Paolo Emidio; Ungaro, Paola

    2017-08-13

    Polyphenols are the most abundant phytochemicals in fruits, vegetables, and plant-derived beverages. Recent findings suggest that polyphenols display the ability to reverse adverse epigenetic regulation involved in pathological conditions, such as obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and various forms of cancer. Epigenetics, defined as heritable changes to the transcriptome, independent from those occurring in the genome, includes DNA methylation, histone modifications, and posttranscriptional gene regulation by noncoding RNAs. Sinergistically and cooperatively, these processes regulate gene expression by changing chromatin organization and DNA accessibility. Such induced epigenetic changes can be inherited during cell division, resulting in permanent maintenance of the acquired phenotype, but they may also occur throughout an individual life-course and may ultimately influence phenotypic outcomes (health and disease risk). In the last decade, a number of studies have shown that nutrients can affect metabolic traits by altering the structure of chromatin and directly regulate both transcription and translational processes. In this context, dietary polyphenol-targeted epigenetics becomes an attractive approach for disease prevention and intervention. Here, we will review how polyphenols, including flavonoids, curcuminoids, and stilbenes, modulate the establishment and maintenance of key epigenetic marks, thereby influencing gene expression and, hence, disease risk and health.

  6. Identification of hierarchical chromatin domains

    PubMed Central

    Weinreb, Caleb; Raphael, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The three-dimensional structure of the genome is an important regulator of many cellular processes including differentiation and gene regulation. Recently, technologies such as Hi-C that combine proximity ligation with high-throughput sequencing have revealed domains of self-interacting chromatin, called topologically associating domains (TADs), in many organisms. Current methods for identifying TADs using Hi-C data assume that TADs are non-overlapping, despite evidence for a nested structure in which TADs and sub-TADs form a complex hierarchy. Results: We introduce a model for decomposition of contact frequencies into a hierarchy of nested TADs. This model is based on empirical distributions of contact frequencies within TADs, where positions that are far apart have a greater enrichment of contacts than positions that are close together. We find that the increase in contact enrichment with distance is stronger for the inner TAD than for the outer TAD in a TAD/sub-TAD pair. Using this model, we develop the TADtree algorithm for detecting hierarchies of nested TADs. TADtree compares favorably with previous methods, finding TADs with a greater enrichment of chromatin marks such as CTCF at their boundaries. Availability and implementation: A python implementation of TADtree is available at http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software/ Contact: braphael@cs.brown.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26315910

  7. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every cellular process mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. As results from ENCODE show, open chromatin assays can efficiently integrate across diverse regulatory elements, revealing functional non-coding genome. In this study, we use a MNase hypersensitivity assay to discover o...

  8. Comparative analysis of metazoan chromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joshua W K; Jung, Youngsook L; Liu, Tao; Alver, Burak H; Lee, Soohyun; Ikegami, Kohta; Sohn, Kyung-Ah; Minoda, Aki; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Appert, Alex; Parker, Stephen C J; Gu, Tingting; Kundaje, Anshul; Riddle, Nicole C; Bishop, Eric; Egelhofer, Thea A; Hu, Sheng'en Shawn; Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Asker, Dalal; Belsky, Jason A; Bowman, Sarah K; Chen, Q Brent; Chen, Ron A-J; Day, Daniel S; Dong, Yan; Dose, Andrea C; Duan, Xikun; Epstein, Charles B; Ercan, Sevinc; Feingold, Elise A; Ferrari, Francesco; Garrigues, Jacob M; Gehlenborg, Nils; Good, Peter J; Haseley, Psalm; He, Daniel; Herrmann, Moritz; Hoffman, Michael M; Jeffers, Tess E; Kharchenko, Peter V; Kolasinska-Zwierz, Paulina; Kotwaliwale, Chitra V; Kumar, Nischay; Langley, Sasha A; Larschan, Erica N; Latorre, Isabel; Libbrecht, Maxwell W; Lin, Xueqiu; Park, Richard; Pazin, Michael J; Pham, Hoang N; Plachetka, Annette; Qin, Bo; Schwartz, Yuri B; Shoresh, Noam; Stempor, Przemyslaw; Vielle, Anne; Wang, Chengyang; Whittle, Christina M; Xue, Huiling; Kingston, Robert E; Kim, Ju Han; Bernstein, Bradley E; Dernburg, Abby F; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Kuroda, Mitzi I; Noble, William S; Tullius, Thomas D; Kellis, Manolis; MacAlpine, David M; Strome, Susan; Elgin, Sarah C R; Liu, Xiaole Shirley; Lieb, Jason D; Ahringer, Julie; Karpen, Gary H; Park, Peter J

    2014-08-28

    Genome function is dynamically regulated in part by chromatin, which consists of the histones, non-histone proteins and RNA molecules that package DNA. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster have contributed substantially to our understanding of molecular mechanisms of genome function in humans, and have revealed conservation of chromatin components and mechanisms. Nevertheless, the three organisms have markedly different genome sizes, chromosome architecture and gene organization. On human and fly chromosomes, for example, pericentric heterochromatin flanks single centromeres, whereas worm chromosomes have dispersed heterochromatin-like regions enriched in the distal chromosomal 'arms', and centromeres distributed along their lengths. To systematically investigate chromatin organization and associated gene regulation across species, we generated and analysed a large collection of genome-wide chromatin data sets from cell lines and developmental stages in worm, fly and human. Here we present over 800 new data sets from our ENCODE and modENCODE consortia, bringing the total to over 1,400. Comparison of combinatorial patterns of histone modifications, nuclear lamina-associated domains, organization of large-scale topological domains, chromatin environment at promoters and enhancers, nucleosome positioning, and DNA replication patterns reveals many conserved features of chromatin organization among the three organisms. We also find notable differences in the composition and locations of repressive chromatin. These data sets and analyses provide a rich resource for comparative and species-specific investigations of chromatin composition, organization and function.

  9. Molecular structures guide the engineering of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Tekel, Stefan J; Haynes, Karmella A

    2017-07-27

    Chromatin is a system of proteins, RNA, and DNA that interact with each other to organize and regulate genetic information within eukaryotic nuclei. Chromatin proteins carry out essential functions: packing DNA during cell division, partitioning DNA into sub-regions within the nucleus, and controlling levels of gene expression. There is a growing interest in manipulating chromatin dynamics for applications in medicine and agriculture. Progress in this area requires the identification of design rules for the chromatin system. Here, we focus on the relationship between the physical structure and function of chromatin proteins. We discuss key research that has elucidated the intrinsic properties of chromatin proteins and how this information informs design rules for synthetic systems. Recent work demonstrates that chromatin-derived peptide motifs are portable and in some cases can be customized to alter their function. Finally, we present a workflow for fusion protein design and discuss best practices for engineering chromatin to assist scientists in advancing the field of synthetic epigenetics. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Molecular structures guide the engineering of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Tekel, Stefan J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chromatin is a system of proteins, RNA, and DNA that interact with each other to organize and regulate genetic information within eukaryotic nuclei. Chromatin proteins carry out essential functions: packing DNA during cell division, partitioning DNA into sub-regions within the nucleus, and controlling levels of gene expression. There is a growing interest in manipulating chromatin dynamics for applications in medicine and agriculture. Progress in this area requires the identification of design rules for the chromatin system. Here, we focus on the relationship between the physical structure and function of chromatin proteins. We discuss key research that has elucidated the intrinsic properties of chromatin proteins and how this information informs design rules for synthetic systems. Recent work demonstrates that chromatin-derived peptide motifs are portable and in some cases can be customized to alter their function. Finally, we present a workflow for fusion protein design and discuss best practices for engineering chromatin to assist scientists in advancing the field of synthetic epigenetics. PMID:28609787

  11. Chromatin remodelling and autocrine TNFα are required for optimal interleukin-6 expression in activated human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Maili; Aguilera, Francisco Bianchetto; Castellucci, Monica; Rossato, Marzia; Costa, Sara; Lunardi, Claudio; Ostuni, Renato; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Natoli, Gioacchino; Bazzoni, Flavia; Tamassia, Nicola; Cassatella, Marco A

    2015-01-23

    Controversy currently exists about the ability of human neutrophils to produce IL-6. Here, we show that the chromatin organization of the IL-6 genomic locus in human neutrophils is constitutively kept in an inactive configuration. However, we also show that upon exposure to stimuli that trigger chromatin remodelling at the IL-6 locus, such as ligands for TLR8 or, less efficiently, TLR4, highly purified neutrophils express and secrete IL-6. In TLR8-activated neutrophils, but not monocytes, IL-6 expression is preceded by the induction of a latent enhancer located 14 kb upstream of the IL-6 transcriptional start site. In addition, IL-6 induction is potentiated by endogenous TNFα, which prolongs the synthesis of the IκBζ co-activator and sustains C/EBPβ recruitment and histone acetylation at IL-6 regulatory regions. Altogether, these data clarify controversial literature on the ability of human neutrophils to generate IL-6 and uncover chromatin-dependent layers of regulation of IL-6 in these cells.

  12. Polymer physics predicts the effects of structural variants on chromatin architecture.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Simona; Lupiáñez, Darío G; Chiariello, Andrea M; Annunziatella, Carlo; Kraft, Katerina; Schöpflin, Robert; Wittler, Lars; Andrey, Guillaume; Vingron, Martin; Pombo, Ana; Mundlos, Stefan; Nicodemi, Mario

    2018-05-01

    Structural variants (SVs) can result in changes in gene expression due to abnormal chromatin folding and cause disease. However, the prediction of such effects remains a challenge. Here we present a polymer-physics-based approach (PRISMR) to model 3D chromatin folding and to predict enhancer-promoter contacts. PRISMR predicts higher-order chromatin structure from genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) data. Using the EPHA4 locus as a model, the effects of pathogenic SVs are predicted in silico and compared to Hi-C data generated from mouse limb buds and patient-derived fibroblasts. PRISMR deconvolves the folding complexity of the EPHA4 locus and identifies SV-induced ectopic contacts and alterations of 3D genome organization in homozygous or heterozygous states. We show that SVs can reconfigure topologically associating domains, thereby producing extensive rewiring of regulatory interactions and causing disease by gene misexpression. PRISMR can be used to predict interactions in silico, thereby providing a tool for analyzing the disease-causing potential of SVs.

  13. TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiessel, Helmut

    2003-05-01

    Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the physical properties of chromatin - the dense complex of DNA and histone proteins that occupies the nuclei of plant and animal cells. Here I will focus on the two lowest levels of the hierarchy of DNA folding into the chromatin complex. (i) The nucleosome, the chromatin repeating unit consisting of a globular aggregate of eight histone proteins with the DNA wrapped around it: its overcharging, the DNA unwrapping transition, the 'sliding' of the octamer along the DNA. (ii) The 30 nm chromatin fibre, the necklace-like structure of nucleosomes connected via linker DNA: its geometry, its mechanical properties under stretching and its response to changing ionic conditions. I will stress that chromatin combines two seemingly contradictory features: (1) high compaction of DNA within the nuclear envelope and, at the same time, (2) accessibility to genes, promoter regions and gene regulatory sequences.

  14. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  15. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-07-28

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes.

  16. Restraint of angiogenesis by zinc finger transcription factor CTCF-dependent chromatin insulation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Bo; Pardo, Carolina; Pampo, Christine; Chen, Jing; Lien, Ching-Ling; Wu, Lizi; Wang, Heiman; Yao, Kai; Oh, S. Paul; Seto, Edward; Smith, Lois E. H.; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Kladde, Michael P.; Cepko, Constance L.; Lu, Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is meticulously controlled by a fine balance between positive and negative regulatory activities. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a predominant angiogenic factor and its dosage is precisely regulated during normal vascular formation. In cancer, VEGF is commonly overproduced, resulting in abnormal neovascularization. VEGF is induced in response to various stimuli including hypoxia; however, very little is known about the mechanisms that confine its induction to ensure proper angiogenesis. Chromatin insulation is a key transcription mechanism that prevents promiscuous gene activation by interfering with the action of enhancers. Here we show that the chromatin insulator-binding factor CTCF binds to the proximal promoter of VEGF. Consistent with the enhancer-blocking mode of chromatin insulators, CTCF has little effect on basal expression of VEGF but specifically affects its activation by enhancers. CTCF knockdown cells are sensitized for induction of VEGF and exhibit elevated proangiogenic potential. Cancer-derived CTCF missense mutants are mostly defective in blocking enhancers at the VEGF locus. Moreover, during mouse retinal development, depletion of CTCF causes excess angiogenesis. Therefore, CTCF-mediated chromatin insulation acts as a crucial safeguard against hyperactivation of angiogenesis. PMID:21896759

  17. Redundant mechanisms to form silent chromatin at pericentromeric regions rely on BEND3 and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Saksouk, Nehmé; Barth, Teresa K; Ziegler-Birling, Celine; Olova, Nelly; Nowak, Agnieszka; Rey, Elodie; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Urbach, Serge; Reik, Wolf; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Imhof, Axel; Déjardin, Jérome; Simboeck, Elisabeth

    2014-11-20

    Constitutive heterochromatin is typically defined by high levels of DNA methylation and H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9Me3), whereas facultative heterochromatin displays DNA hypomethylation and high H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27Me3). The two chromatin types generally do not coexist at the same loci, suggesting mutual exclusivity. During development or in cancer, pericentromeric regions can adopt either epigenetic state, but the switching mechanism is unknown. We used a quantitative locus purification method to characterize changes in pericentromeric chromatin-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells deficient for either the methyltransferases required for DNA methylation or H3K9Me3. DNA methylation controls heterochromatin architecture and inhibits Polycomb recruitment. BEND3, a protein enriched on pericentromeric chromatin in the absence of DNA methylation or H3K9Me3, allows Polycomb recruitment and H3K27Me3, resulting in a redundant pathway to generate repressive chromatin. This suggests that BEND3 is a key factor in mediating a switch from constitutive to facultative heterochromatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The chromatin remodeling factor CHD7 controls cerebellar development by regulating reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Danielle E.; Riegman, Kimberley L.H.; Kasah, Sahrunizam; Mohan, Conor; Yu, Tian; Sala, Blanca Pijuan; Hebaishi, Husam; Caruso, Angela; Marques, Ana Claudia; Michetti, Caterina; Smachetti, María Eugenia Sanz; Shah, Apar; Sabbioni, Mara; Kulhanci, Omer; Tee, Wee-Wei; Reinberg, Danny; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; McGonnell, Imelda; Wardle, Fiona C.; Fernandes, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits associated with CHARGE syndrome, which include cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, coordination problems, and autistic features, have not been identified. CHARGE syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CHD7. CHD7 is expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells, but its role in neurogenesis during brain development remains unknown. Here we have shown that deletion of Chd7 from cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCps) results in reduced GCp proliferation, cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, and motor deficits in mice. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed downregulated expression of the gene encoding the glycoprotein reelin (Reln) in Chd7-deficient GCps. Recessive RELN mutations have been associated with severe cerebellar hypoplasia in humans. We found molecular and genetic evidence that reductions in Reln expression contribute to GCp proliferative defects and cerebellar hypoplasia in GCp-specific Chd7 mouse mutants. Finally, we showed that CHD7 is necessary for maintaining an open, accessible chromatin state at the Reln locus. Taken together, this study shows that Reln gene expression is regulated by chromatin remodeling, identifies CHD7 as a previously unrecognized upstream regulator of Reln, and provides direct in vivo evidence that a mammalian CHD protein can control brain development by modulating chromatin accessibility in neuronal progenitors. PMID:28165338

  19. Structured illumination to spatially map chromatin motions.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Keith; Smelser, Amanda; Moreno, Naike Salvador; Holzwarth, George; Wang, Kevin; Levy, Preston; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre

    2018-05-01

    We describe a simple optical method that creates structured illumination of a photoactivatable probe and apply this method to characterize chromatin motions in nuclei of live cells. A laser beam coupled to a diffractive optical element at the back focal plane of an excitation objective generates an array of near diffraction-limited beamlets with FWHM of 340  ±  30  nm, which simultaneously photoactivate a 7  ×  7 matrix pattern of GFP-labeled histones, with spots 1.70  μm apart. From the movements of the photoactivated spots, we map chromatin diffusion coefficients at multiple microdomains of the cell nucleus. The results show correlated motions of nearest chromatin microdomain neighbors, whereas chromatin movements are uncorrelated at the global scale of the nucleus. The method also reveals a DNA damage-dependent decrease in chromatin diffusion. The diffractive optical element instrumentation can be easily and cheaply implemented on commercial inverted fluorescence microscopes to analyze adherent cell culture models. A protocol to measure chromatin motions in nonadherent human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is also described. We anticipate that the method will contribute to the identification of the mechanisms regulating chromatin mobility, which influences most genomic processes and may underlie the biogenesis of genomic translocations associated with hematologic malignancies. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  20. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis by Cucumber Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Purves, William K.

    1970-01-01

    When intact etiolated 2-day cucumber (Cucumis sativus) embryos were treated with indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A7 (GA7), or kinetin, chromatin derived from the embryonic axes exhibited an increased capacity to support RNA synthesis in either the presence or the absence of bacterial RNA polymerase. An IAA effect on cucumber RNA polymerase activity was evident after 4 hours of hormone treatment; the IAA effect on DNA template activity (bacterial RNA polymerase added) occurred after longer treatments (12 hours). GA7 also promoted template activity, but again only after a prior stimulation of endogenous chromatin activity. After 12 hours of kinetin treatment, both endogenous chromatin and DNA template activities were substantially above control values, but longer kinetin treatments caused these activities to decline in magnitude. When chromatin was prepared from hypocotyl segments that were floated on a GA7 solution, a GA-induced increase in endogenous chromatin activity occurred, but only if cotyledon tissue was left attached to the segments during the period of hormone treatment. Age of the seedling tissue had a profound influence on the chromatin characteristics. With progression of development from the 2-day to the 4-day stage, the endogenous chromatin activity declined while the DNA template activity increased. PMID:16657509

  1. Flowering time control: another window to the connection between antisense RNA and chromatin.

    PubMed

    Ietswaart, Robert; Wu, Zhe; Dean, Caroline

    2012-09-01

    A high proportion of all eukaryotic genes express antisense RNA (asRNA), which accumulates to varying degrees at different loci. Whether there is a general function for asRNA is unknown, but its widespread occurrence and frequent regulation by stress suggest an important role. The best-characterized plant gene exhibiting a complex antisense transcript pattern is the Arabidopsis floral regulator FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Changes occur in the accumulation, splicing, and polyadenylation of this antisense transcript, termed COOLAIR, in different environments and genotypes. These changes are associated with altered chromatin regulation and differential FLC expression, provoking mechanistic comparisons with many well-studied loci in yeast and mammals. Detailed analysis of these specific examples may shed light on the complex interplay between asRNA and chromatin modifications in different genomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomics to study DNA-bound and chromatin-associated gene regulatory complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wierer, Michael; Mann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a powerful method for the identification of soluble protein complexes and large-scale affinity purification screens can decode entire protein interaction networks. In contrast, protein complexes residing on chromatin have been much more challenging, because they are difficult to purify and often of very low abundance. However, this is changing due to recent methodological and technological advances in proteomics. Proteins interacting with chromatin marks can directly be identified by pulldowns with synthesized histone tails containing posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Similarly, pulldowns with DNA baits harbouring single nucleotide polymorphisms or DNA modifications reveal the impact of those DNA alterations on the recruitment of transcription factors. Accurate quantitation – either isotope-based or label free – unambiguously pinpoints proteins that are significantly enriched over control pulldowns. In addition, protocols that combine classical chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) methods with mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS) target gene regulatory complexes in their in-vivo context. Similar to classical ChIP, cells are crosslinked with formaldehyde and chromatin sheared by sonication or nuclease digested. ChIP-MS baits can be proteins in tagged or endogenous form, histone PTMs, or lncRNAs. Locus-specific ChIP-MS methods would allow direct purification of a single genomic locus and the proteins associated with it. There, loci can be targeted either by artificial DNA-binding sites and corresponding binding proteins or via proteins with sequence specificity such as TAL or nuclease deficient Cas9 in combination with a specific guide RNA. We predict that advances in MS technology will soon make such approaches generally applicable tools in epigenetics. PMID:27402878

  3. Roles of chromatin insulator proteins in higher-order chromatin organization and transcription regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Jutta; Valeri, Alessandro; Guillou, Emmanuelle; Cuvier, Olivier; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes are condensed into several hierarchical levels of complexity: DNA is wrapped around core histones to form nucleosomes, nucleosomes form a higher-order structure called chromatin, and chromatin is subsequently compartmentalized in part by the combination of multiple specific or unspecific long-range contacts. The conformation of chromatin at these three levels greatly influences DNA metabolism and transcription. One class of chromatin regulatory proteins called insulator factors may organize chromatin both locally, by setting up barriers between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and globally by establishing platforms for long-range interactions. Here, we review recent data revealing a global role of insulator proteins in the regulation of transcription through the formation of clusters of long-range interactions that impact different levels of chromatin organization. PMID:21983085

  4. Predictive Computational Modeling of Chromatin Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pierro, Miichele; Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter J.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    In vivo, the human genome folds into well-determined and conserved three-dimensional structures. The mechanism driving the folding process remains unknown. We report a theoretical model (MiChroM) for chromatin derived by using the maximum entropy principle. The proposed model allows Molecular Dynamics simulations of the genome using as input the classification of loci into chromatin types and the presence of binding sites of loop forming protein CTCF. The model was trained to reproduce the Hi-C map of chromosome 10 of human lymphoblastoid cells. With no additional tuning the model was able to predict accurately the Hi-C maps of chromosomes 1-22 for the same cell line. Simulations show unknotted chromosomes, phase separation of chromatin types and a preference of chromatin of type A to sit at the periphery of the chromosomes.

  5. Chromatin Structure and the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    1972-01-01

    Pancreatic DNase I is used to probe the structure of chromatin isolated from synchronized HeLa cells. The degree to which DNA in chromatin is protected from DNase attack varies during the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle. In addition, the DNase sensitivity of chromatin from contact-inhibited African green monkey kidney cells differs from that of actively dividing, subconfluent cultures. These cell cycle-dependent chromatin changes were observed consistently at all enzyme concentrations (5000-fold range) and incubation times (15 min-2 hr) tested. The results indicate that the degree of complexing between DNA and chromosomal proteins changes during interphase, and they suggest that the chromosome coiling cycle of visible mitosis may extend in more subtle form over the entire cell cycle. PMID:4626402

  6. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  7. On the chromatin structure of eukaryotic telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Sedas, María I

    2011-01-01

    Telomeres prevent chromosome fusions and degradation by exonucleases and are implicated in DNA repair, homologous recombination, chromosome pairing and segregation. All these functions of telomeres require the integrity of their chromatin structure, which has been traditionally considered as heterochromatic. In agreement with this idea, different studies have reported that telomeres associate with heterochromatic marks. However, these studies addressed simultaneously the chromatin structures of telomeres and subtelomeric regions or the chromatin structure of telomeres and Interstitial Telomeric Sequences (ITSs). The independent analysis of Arabidopsis telomeres, subtelomeric regions and ITSs has allowed the discovery of euchromatic telomeres. In Arabidopsis, whereas subtelomeric regions and ITSs associate with heterochromatic marks, telomeres exhibit euchromatic features. We think that this scenario could be found in other model systems if the chromatin organizations of telomeres, subtelomeric regions and ITSs are independently analyzed. PMID:21822057

  8. Epigenomic regulation of oncogenesis by chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Li, D-Q; Müller, S; Knapp, S

    2016-08-25

    Disruption of the intricate gene expression program represents one of major driving factors for the development, progression and maintenance of human cancer, and is often associated with acquired therapeutic resistance. At the molecular level, cancerous phenotypes are the outcome of cellular functions of critical genes, regulatory interactions of histones and chromatin remodeling complexes in response to dynamic and persistent upstream signals. A large body of genetic and biochemical evidence suggests that the chromatin remodelers integrate the extracellular and cytoplasmic signals to control gene activity. Consequently, widespread dysregulation of chromatin remodelers and the resulting inappropriate expression of regulatory genes, together, lead to oncogenesis. We summarize the recent developments and current state of the dysregulation of the chromatin remodeling components as the driving mechanism underlying the growth and progression of human tumors. Because chromatin remodelers, modifying enzymes and protein-protein interactions participate in interpreting the epigenetic code, selective chromatin remodelers and bromodomains have emerged as new frontiers for pharmacological intervention to develop future anti-cancer strategies to be used either as single-agent or in combination therapies with chemotherapeutics or radiotherapy.

  9. Gal4-VP16 directs ATP-independent chromatin reorganization in a yeast chromatin assembly system.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Karen M; Schultz, Michael C

    2005-03-22

    Major insights into the regulation of chromatin organization have stemmed from biochemical studies using Gal4-VP16, a chimeric transcriptional activator in which the DNA binding domain of Gal4p is fused to the activation domain of viral protein VP16. Unexpectedly, given previous intensive efforts to understand how Gal4-VP16 functions in the context of chromatin, we have uncovered a new mode of chromatin reorganization that is dependent on Gal4-VP16. This reorganization is performed by an activity in a crude DEAE (CD) fraction from budding yeast which also supports ATP-dependent assembly of physiologically spaced nucleosome arrays. Biochemical analysis reveals that the activity tightly associates with chromatin and reorganizes nucleosome arrays by a mechanism which is insensitive to ATP depletion after nucleosome assembly. It generates a chromatin organization in which a nucleosome is stably positioned immediately adjacent to Gal4p binding sites in the template DNA. Individual deletion of genes previously implicated in chromatin assembly and remodeling, namely, the histone chaperones NAP1, ASF1, and CAC1 and the SNF2-like DEAD/H ATPases SNF2, ISW1, ISW2, CHD1, SWR1, YFR038w, and SPT20, does not significantly perturb reorganization. Therefore, Gal4-VP16-directed chromatin reorganization in yeast can occur by an ATP-independent mechanism that does not require SAGA, SWI/SNF, Isw1, or Isw2 chromatin remodeling complexes.

  10. Sanguinarine interacts with chromatin, modulates epigenetic modifications, and transcription in the context of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Selvi B, Ruthrotha; Pradhan, Suman Kalyan; Shandilya, Jayasha; Das, Chandrima; Sailaja, Badi Sri; Shankar G, Naga; Gadad, Shrikanth S; Reddy, Ashok; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-02-27

    DNA-binding anticancer agents cause alteration in chromatin structure and dynamics. We report the dynamic interaction of the DNA intercalator and potential anticancer plant alkaloid, sanguinarine (SGR), with chromatin. Association of SGR with different levels of chromatin structure was enthalpy driven with micromolar dissociation constant. Apart from DNA, it binds with comparable affinity with core histones and induces chromatin aggregation. The dual binding property of SGR leads to inhibition of core histone modifications. Although it potently inhibits H3K9 methylation by G9a in vitro, H3K4 and H3R17 methylation are more profoundly inhibited in cells. SGR inhibits histone acetylation both in vitro and in vivo. It does not affect the in vitro transcription from DNA template but significantly represses acetylation-dependent chromatin transcription. SGR-mediated repression of epigenetic marks and the alteration of chromatin geography (nucleography) also result in the modulation of global gene expression. These data, conclusively, show an anticancer DNA binding intercalator as a modulator of chromatin modifications and transcription in the chromatin context.

  11. A Computer Lab Exploring Evolutionary Aspects of Chromatin Structure and Dynamics for an Undergraduate Chromatin Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromatin constitutes one of the most active research fields in life sciences, being subject to constant revisions that continuously redefine the state of the art in its knowledge. As every other rapidly changing field, chromatin biology requires clear and straightforward educational strategies able to efficiently translate such a…

  12. A computer lab exploring evolutionary aspects of chromatin structure and dynamics for an undergraduate chromatin course*.

    PubMed

    Eirín-López, José M

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromatin constitutes one of the most active research fields in life sciences, being subject to constant revisions that continuously redefine the state of the art in its knowledge. As every other rapidly changing field, chromatin biology requires clear and straightforward educational strategies able to efficiently translate such a vast body of knowledge to the classroom. With this aim, the present work describes a multidisciplinary computer lab designed to introduce undergraduate students to the dynamic nature of chromatin, within the context of the one semester course "Chromatin: Structure, Function and Evolution." This exercise is organized in three parts including (a) molecular evolutionary biology of histone families (using the H1 family as example), (b) histone structure and variation across different animal groups, and (c) effect of histone diversity on nucleosome structure and chromatin dynamics. By using freely available bioinformatic tools that can be run on common computers, the concept of chromatin dynamics is interactively illustrated from a comparative/evolutionary perspective. At the end of this computer lab, students are able to translate the bioinformatic information into a biochemical context in which the relevance of histone primary structure on chromatin dynamics is exposed. During the last 8 years this exercise has proven to be a powerful approach for teaching chromatin structure and dynamics, allowing students a higher degree of independence during the processes of learning and self-assessment. Copyright © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Segregation distortion and genome-wide digenic interactions affect transmission of introgressed chromatin from wild cotton species.

    PubMed

    Chandnani, Rahul; Wang, Baohua; Draye, Xavier; Rainville, Lisa K; Auckland, Susan; Zhuang, Zhimin; Lubbers, Edward L; May, O Lloyd; Chee, Peng W; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-10-01

    This study reports transmission genetics of chromosomal segments into Gossypium hirsutum from its most distant euploid relative, Gossypium mustelinum . Mutilocus interactions and structural rearrangements affect introgression and segregation of donor chromatin. Wild allotetraploid relatives of cotton are a rich source of genetic diversity that can be used in genetic improvement, but linkage drag and non-Mendelian transmission genetics are prevalent in interspecific crosses. These problems necessitate knowledge of transmission patterns of chromatin from wild donor species in cultivated recipient species. From an interspecific cross, Gossypium hirsutum × Gossypium mustelinum, we studied G. mustelinum (the most distant tetraploid relative of Upland cotton) allele retention in 35 BC 3 F 1 plants and segregation patterns in BC 3 F 2 populations totaling 3202 individuals, using 216 DNA marker loci. The average retention of donor alleles across BC 3 F 1 plants was higher than expected and the average frequency of G. mustelinum alleles in BC 3 F 2 segregating families was less than expected. Despite surprisingly high retention of G. mustelinum alleles in BC 3 F 1 , 46 genomic regions showed no introgression. Regions on chromosomes 3 and 15 lacking introgression were closely associated with possible small inversions previously reported. Nonlinear two-locus interactions are abundant among loci with single-locus segregation distortion, and among loci originating from one of the two subgenomes. Comparison of the present results with those of prior studies indicates different permeability of Upland cotton for donor chromatin from different allotetraploid relatives. Different contributions of subgenomes to two-locus interactions suggest different fates of subgenomes in the evolution of allotetraploid cottons. Transmission genetics of G. hirsutum × G. mustelinum crosses reveals allelic interactions, constraints on fixation and selection of donor alleles, and challenges with

  14. Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Veit; Ruban, Alevtina; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We observed the formation of chromatin ring structures at centromeres of somatic rye and Arabidopsis chromosomes. To test whether this behavior is present also in other plant species and tissues we analyzed Arabidopsis, rye, wheat, Aegilops and barley centromeres during cell divisions and in interphase nuclei by immunostaining and FISH. Furthermore, structured illumination microscopy (super-resolution) was applied to investigate the ultrastructure of centromere chromatin beyond the classical refraction limit of light. It became obvious, that a ring formation at centromeres may appear during mitosis, meiosis and in interphase nuclei in all species analyzed. However, varying centromere structures, as ring formations or globular organized chromatin fibers, were identified in different tissues of one and the same species. In addition, we found that a chromatin ring formation may also be caused by subtelomeric repeats in barley. Thus, we conclude that the formation of chromatin rings may appear in different plant species and tissues, but that it is not specific for centromere function. Based on our findings we established a model describing the ultrastructure of plant centromeres and discuss it in comparison to previous models proposed for animals and plants.

  15. Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Veit; Ruban, Alevtina; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We observed the formation of chromatin ring structures at centromeres of somatic rye and Arabidopsis chromosomes. To test whether this behavior is present also in other plant species and tissues we analyzed Arabidopsis, rye, wheat, Aegilops and barley centromeres during cell divisions and in interphase nuclei by immunostaining and FISH. Furthermore, structured illumination microscopy (super-resolution) was applied to investigate the ultrastructure of centromere chromatin beyond the classical refraction limit of light. It became obvious, that a ring formation at centromeres may appear during mitosis, meiosis and in interphase nuclei in all species analyzed. However, varying centromere structures, as ring formations or globular organized chromatin fibers, were identified in different tissues of one and the same species. In addition, we found that a chromatin ring formation may also be caused by subtelomeric repeats in barley. Thus, we conclude that the formation of chromatin rings may appear in different plant species and tissues, but that it is not specific for centromere function. Based on our findings we established a model describing the ultrastructure of plant centromeres and discuss it in comparison to previous models proposed for animals and plants. PMID:26913037

  16. Stc1: A Critical Link between RNAi and Chromatin Modification Required for Heterochromatin Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Elizabeth H.; White, Sharon A.; Kagansky, Alexander; Bijos, Dominika A.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Ponting, Chris P.; Rappsilber, Juri; Allshire, Robin C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In fission yeast, RNAi directs heterochromatin formation at centromeres, telomeres, and the mating type locus. Noncoding RNAs transcribed from repeat elements generate siRNAs that are incorporated into the Argonaute-containing RITS complex and direct it to nascent homologous transcripts. This leads to recruitment of the CLRC complex, including the histone methyltransferase Clr4, promoting H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin formation. A key question is what mediates the recruitment of Clr4/CLRC to transcript-bound RITS. We have identified a LIM domain protein, Stc1, that is required for centromeric heterochromatin integrity. Our analyses show that Stc1 is specifically required to establish H3K9 methylation via RNAi, and interacts both with the RNAi effector Ago1, and with the chromatin-modifying CLRC complex. Moreover, tethering Stc1 to a euchromatic locus is sufficient to induce silencing and heterochromatin formation independently of RNAi. We conclude that Stc1 associates with RITS on centromeric transcripts and recruits CLRC, thereby coupling RNAi to chromatin modification. PMID:20211136

  17. The paternal hidden agenda: Epigenetic inheritance through sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Puri, Deepika; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2010-07-01

    Epigenetic modifications play a crucial role in developmental gene regulation. These modifications, being reversible, provide a layer of information over and above the DNA sequence, that has plasticity and leads to the generation of cell type-specific epigenomes during cellular differentiation. In almost all higher eukaryotes, the oocyte provides not only its cytoplasm, mitochondria, maternally deposited RNA and proteins but also an epigenetic component in the form of DNA and histone-modifications. During spermeiogenesis however, most of the histones are replaced by protamines, leading to a loss of the epigenetic component. The sperm is, therefore, viewed as a passive carrier of the paternal genome with a disproportionate, lower epigenetic contribution except for DNA methylation, to the next generation. A recent study overturns this view by demonstrating a locus-specific retention of histones, with specific modifications in the sperm chromatin at the promoters of developmentally important genes. This programmed retention of epigenetic marks with a role in embryonic development is suggested to offset, in some measure, the dominant maternal effect. This new finding helps in addressing the question of epigenetic transmission of environmental and 'lifestyle' experiences across generations and raises the question of 'parental conflict' at the loci that may be differentially marked.

  18. Links between genome replication and chromatin landscapes.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2015-07-01

    Post-embryonic organogenesis in plants requires the continuous production of cells in the organ primordia, their expansion and a coordinated exit to differentiation. Genome replication is one of the most important processes that occur during the cell cycle, as the maintenance of genomic integrity is of primary relevance for development. As it is chromatin that must be duplicated, a strict coordination occurs between DNA replication, the deposition of new histones, and the introduction of histone modifications and variants. In turn, the chromatin landscape affects several stages during genome replication. Thus, chromatin accessibility is crucial for the initial stages and to specify the location of DNA replication origins with different chromatin signatures. The chromatin landscape also determines the timing of activation during the S phase. Genome replication must occur fully, but only once during each cell cycle. The re-replication avoidance mechanisms rely primarily on restricting the availability of certain replication factors; however, the presence of specific histone modifications are also revealed as contributing to the mechanisms that avoid re-replication, in particular for heterochromatin replication. We provide here an update of genome replication mostly focused on data from Arabidopsis, and the advances that genomic approaches are likely to provide in the coming years. The data available, both in plants and animals, point to the relevance of the chromatin landscape in genome replication, and require a critical evaluation of the existing views about the nature of replication origins, the mechanisms of origin specification and the relevance of epigenetic modifications for genome replication. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. CHD chromatin remodelers and the transcription cycle

    PubMed Central

    Murawska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers modulate DNA access of transcription factors and RNA polymerases by “opening” or “closing” chromatin structure. However, this view is far too simplistic. Recent findings have demonstrated that these enzymes not only set the stage for the transcription machinery to act but also are actively involved at every step of the transcription process. As a consequence, they affect initiation, elongation, termination and RNA processing. In this review we will use the CHD family as a paradigm to illustrate the progress that has been made in revealing these new concepts. PMID:22223048

  20. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex targets chromatin exclusively via interacting with nascent transcripts.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Yukiko; Mohn, Fabio; Bühler, Marc

    2016-12-01

    Small RNAs regulate chromatin modification and transcriptional gene silencing across the eukaryotic kingdom. Although these processes have been well studied, fundamental mechanistic aspects remain obscure. Specifically, it is unclear exactly how small RNA-loaded Argonaute protein complexes target chromatin to mediate silencing. Here, using fission yeast, we demonstrate that transcription of the target locus is essential for RNA-directed formation of heterochromatin. However, high transcriptional activity is inhibitory; thus, a transcriptional window exists that is optimal for silencing. We further found that pre-mRNA splicing is compatible with RNA-directed heterochromatin formation. However, the kinetics of pre-mRNA processing is critical. Introns close to the 5' end of a transcript that are rapidly spliced result in a bistable response whereby the target either remains euchromatic or becomes fully silenced. Together, our results discount siRNA-DNA base pairing in RNA-mediated heterochromatin formation, and the mechanistic insights further reveal guiding paradigms for the design of small RNA-directed chromatin silencing studies in multicellular organisms. © 2016 Shimada et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Trivalent chromatin marks the way in.

    PubMed

    Hysolli, Eriona; Park, In-Hyun

    2013-11-07

    Recently in Cell, Wapinski et al. (2013) investigated the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the direct conversion of fibroblasts to induced neurons (iNs). They found that Ascl1 acts as a pioneer factor at neurogenic loci marked by a closed "trivalent" chromatin state in cells permissive to direct conversion, but not in restrictive cell types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Chromatin organization regulates viral egress dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Vesa; Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa

    Various types of DNA viruses are known to elicit the formation of a large nuclear viral replication compartment and marginalization of the cell chromatin. We used three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography, confocal and electron microscopy, combined with numerical modelling of capsid diffusion to analyse the molecular organization of chromatin in herpes simplex virus 1 infection and its effect on the transport of progeny viral capsids to the nuclear envelope. Our data showed that the formation of the viral replication compartment at late infection resulted in the enrichment of heterochromatin in the nuclear periphery accompanied by the compaction of chromatin. Random walkmore » modelling of herpes simplex virus 1–sized particles in a three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography reconstruction of an infected cell nucleus demonstrated that the peripheral, compacted chromatin restricts viral capsid diffusion, but due to interchromatin channels capsids are able to reach the nuclear envelope, the site of their nuclear egress.« less

  3. Chromatin organization regulates viral egress dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Aho, Vesa; Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa; ...

    2017-06-16

    Various types of DNA viruses are known to elicit the formation of a large nuclear viral replication compartment and marginalization of the cell chromatin. We used three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography, confocal and electron microscopy, combined with numerical modelling of capsid diffusion to analyse the molecular organization of chromatin in herpes simplex virus 1 infection and its effect on the transport of progeny viral capsids to the nuclear envelope. Our data showed that the formation of the viral replication compartment at late infection resulted in the enrichment of heterochromatin in the nuclear periphery accompanied by the compaction of chromatin. Random walkmore » modelling of herpes simplex virus 1–sized particles in a three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography reconstruction of an infected cell nucleus demonstrated that the peripheral, compacted chromatin restricts viral capsid diffusion, but due to interchromatin channels capsids are able to reach the nuclear envelope, the site of their nuclear egress.« less

  4. Epigenetic chromatin silencing: bistability and front propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Mohammad; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2007-12-01

    The role of post-translational modification of histones in eukaryotic gene regulation is well recognized. Epigenetic silencing of genes via heritable chromatin modifications plays a major role in cell fate specification in higher organisms. We formulate a coarse-grained model of chromatin silencing in yeast and study the conditions under which the system becomes bistable, allowing for different epigenetic states. We also study the dynamics of the boundary between the two locally stable states of chromatin: silenced and unsilenced. The model could be of use in guiding the discussion on chromatin silencing in general. In the context of silencing in budding yeast, it helps us understand the phenotype of various mutants, some of which may be non-trivial to see without the help of a mathematical model. One such example is a mutation that reduces the rate of background acetylation of particular histone side chains that competes with the deacetylation by Sir2p. The resulting negative feedback due to a Sir protein depletion effect gives rise to interesting counter-intuitive consequences. Our mathematical analysis brings forth the different dynamical behaviors possible within the same molecular model and guides the formulation of more refined hypotheses that could be addressed experimentally.

  5. Understanding RNA-Chromatin Interactions Using Chromatin Isolation by RNA Purification (ChIRP).

    PubMed

    Chu, Ci; Chang, Howard Y

    2016-01-01

    ChIRP is a novel and easy-to-use technique for studying long noncoding RNA (lncRNA)-chromatin interactions. RNA and chromatin are cross-linked in vivo using formaldehyde or glutaraldehyde, and purified using biotinylated antisense oligonucleotides that hybridize to the target RNA. Co-precipitated DNA is then purified and analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) or high-throughput sequencing.

  6. Stability, chromatin association and functional activity of mammalian pre-replication complex proteins during the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Yukiko; McNairn, Adrian J.; den Elzen, Nicole; Pines, Jonathon; Gilbert, David M.

    2001-01-01

    We have examined the behavior of pre-replication complex (pre-RC) proteins in relation to key cell cycle transitions in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. ORC1, ORC4 and Cdc6 were stable (T1/2 >2 h) and associated with a chromatin-containing fraction throughout the cell cycle. Green fluorescent protein-tagged ORC1 associated with chromatin throughout mitosis in living cells and co-localized with ORC4 in metaphase spreads. Association of Mcm proteins with chromatin took place during telophase, ∼30 min after the destruction of geminin and cyclins A and B, and was coincident with the licensing of chromatin to replicate in geminin-supplemented Xenopus egg extracts. Neither Mcm recruitment nor licensing required protein synthesis throughout mitosis. Moreover, licensing could be uncoupled from origin specification in geminin-supplemented extracts; site-specific initiation within the dihydrofolate reductase locus required nuclei from cells that had passed through the origin decision point (ODP). These results demonstrate that mammalian pre-RC assembly takes place during telophase, mediated by post-translational modifications of pre-existing proteins, and is not sufficient to select specific origin sites. A subsequent, as yet undefined, step selects which pre-RCs will function as replication origins. PMID:11483529

  7. Pho dynamically interacts with Spt5 to facilitate transcriptional switches at the hsp70 locus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Allwyn; Paro, Renato

    2017-12-06

    Numerous target genes of the Polycomb group (PcG) are transiently activated by a stimulus and subsequently repressed. However, mechanisms by which PcG proteins regulate such target genes remain elusive. We employed the heat shock-responsive hsp70 locus in Drosophila to study the chromatin dynamics of PRC1 and its interplay with known regulators of the locus before, during and after heat shock. We detected mutually exclusive binding patterns for HSF and PRC1 at the hsp70 locus. We found that Pleiohomeotic (Pho), a DNA-binding PcG member, dynamically interacts with Spt5, an elongation factor. The dynamic interaction switch between Pho and Spt5 is triggered by the recruitment of HSF to chromatin. Mutation in the protein-protein interaction domain (REPO domain) of Pho interferes with the dynamics of its interaction with Spt5. The transcriptional kinetics of the heat shock response is negatively affected by a mutation in the REPO domain of Pho. We propose that a dynamic interaction switch between PcG proteins and an elongation factor enables stress-inducible genes to efficiently switch between ON/OFF states in the presence/absence of the activating stimulus.

  8. Regulating the chromatin landscape: structural and mechanistic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Blaine

    2014-01-01

    A large family of chromatin remodelers that noncovalently modify chromatin is crucial in cell development and differentiation. They are often the targets of cancer, neurological disorders, and other human diseases. These complexes alter nucleosome positioning, higher-order chromatin structure, and nuclear organization. They also assemble chromatin, exchange out histone variants, and disassemble chromatin at defined locations. We review aspects of the structural organization of these complexes, the functional properties of their protein domains, and variation between complexes. We also address the mechanistic details of these complexes in mobilizing nucleosomes and altering chromatin structure. A better understanding of these issues will be vital for further analyses of subunits of these chromatin remodelers, which are being identified as targets in human diseases by NGS (next-generation sequencing).

  9. Quantification of chromatin condensation level by image processing.

    PubMed

    Irianto, Jerome; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2014-03-01

    The level of chromatin condensation is related to the silencing/activation of chromosomal territories and therefore impacts on gene expression. Chromatin condensation changes during cell cycle, progression and differentiation, and is influenced by various physicochemical and epigenetic factors. This study describes a validated experimental technique to quantify chromatin condensation. A novel image processing procedure is developed using Sobel edge detection to quantify the level of chromatin condensation from nuclei images taken by confocal microscopy. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB and used to quantify different levels of chromatin condensation in chondrocyte nuclei achieved through alteration in osmotic pressure. The resulting chromatin condensation parameter (CCP) is in good agreement with independent multi-observer qualitative visual assessment. This image processing technique thereby provides a validated unbiased parameter for rapid and highly reproducible quantification of the level of chromatin condensation. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the topology of chromatin fibres

    PubMed Central

    Barbi, Maria; Mozziconacci, Julien; Victor, Jean-Marc; Wong, Hua; Lavelle, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    The ability of cells to pack, use and duplicate DNA remains one of the most fascinating questions in biology. To understand DNA organization and dynamics, it is important to consider the physical and topological constraints acting on it. In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, DNA is organized by proteins acting as spools on which DNA can be wrapped. These proteins can subsequently interact and form a structure called the chromatin fibre. Using a simple geometric model, we propose a general method for computing topological properties (twist, writhe and linking number) of the DNA embedded in those fibres. The relevance of the method is reviewed through the analysis of magnetic tweezers single molecule experiments that revealed unexpected properties of the chromatin fibre. Possible biological implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24098838

  11. Probing chromatin structure with nuclease sensitivity assays.

    PubMed

    Gregory, R I; Khosla, S; Feil, R

    2001-01-01

    To further our understanding of genomic imprinting it will be essential to identify key control elements, and to investigate their regulation by both epigenetic modifications (such as DNA methylation) and trans-acting factors. So far, sequence elements that regulate parental allele-specific gene expression have been identified in a number of imprinted loci, either because of their differential DNA methylation or through functional studies in transgenic mice (1,2). A systematic search for allele-specific chromatin features constitutes an alternative strategy to identify elements that regulate imprinting. The validity of such an in vivo chromatin approach derives from the fact that in several known imprinting control-elements, a specialized organization of chromatin characterized by nuclease hypersensitivity is present on only one of the two parental chromosome (3). For example, the differentially methylated 5 -portion of the human SNRPN gene-a sequence element that controls imprinting in the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes' domain on chromosome 15q11- q13-has strong DNase-I hypersensitive sites on the unmethylated paternal chromosome (4). A differentially methylated region that regulates the imprinting of H19 and that of the neighboring insulin-like growth factor-2 gene on mouse chromosome 7 was also found to have parental chromosome-specific hypersensitive sites (5,6). The precise nature of the allelic nuclease hypersensitivity in these and other imprinted loci remains to be determined in more detail, for example, by applying complementary chromatin methodologies (7,8). However, it is commonly observed that a nuclease hypersensitive site corresponds to a small region where nucleosomes are absent or partially disrupted.

  12. [The biological aspects of chromatin diminution].

    PubMed

    Akif'ev, A P; Grishanin, A K

    1993-01-01

    The chromatine diminution (CD), first discovered by Boveri (1887) in ascarids, represents programmed elimination of a part of genetic material in the nuclei of the somatic cells in cyclops and ascarids, and in the protist macronuclei. The CD can be considered as a macromutation sharply changing chromosomal structure, though minimally effecting the phenotype. The analysis of CD is of significance for discussing mechanisms of origin of chromosomal organization, transformation of genome molecular structure in eucaryote evolution, role of the extra DNA.

  13. Effects of chromatin decondensation on alternative NHEJ.

    PubMed

    Moscariello, Mario; Iliakis, George

    2013-11-01

    In cells of higher eukaryotes, repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) utilizes different forms of potentially error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ): canonical DNA-PK-dependent (C-NHEJ) and alternative backup pathways (A-NHEJ). In contrast to C-NHEJ, A-NHEJ shows pronounced efficiency fluctuations throughout the cell cycle and is severely compromised as cells cease proliferating and enter the plateau phase (Windhofer et al., 2007 [23]). The molecular mechanisms underpinning this response remain unknown but changes in chromatin structure are prime candidate-A-NHEJ-modulators. Since parameters beyond chromatin acetylation appear to determine A-NHEJ efficiency (Manova et al., 2012 [42,76]), we study here the role of chromatin decondensation mediated either by treatment with 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AzadC) or growth in hypotonic conditions, on A-NHEJ. We report that both treatments have no detectable effect on C-NHEJ but provoke, specifically for A-NHEJ, cell-growth-dependent effects. These results uncover for the first time a link between A-NHEJ and chromatin organization and provide means for understanding the regulatory mechanisms underpinning the growth-state dependency of A-NHEJ. A-NHEJ is implicated in the formation of chromosomal translocations and in chromosome fusions that underlie genomic instability and carcinogenesis. The observations reported here may therefore contribute to the development of drug-based A-NHEJ suppression-strategies aiming at optimizing cancer treatment outcomes and possibly also at suppressing carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Chromatin replication: TRANSmitting the histone code

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Han-Wen; Studitsky, Vasily M.

    2017-01-01

    Efficient overcoming of the nucleosomal barrier and accurate maintenance of associated histone marks during chromatin replication are essential for normal functioning of the cell. Recent studies revealed new protein factors and histone modifications contributing to overcoming the nucleosomal barrier, and suggested an important role for DNA looping in survival of the original histones during replication. These studies suggest new possible mechanisms for transmitting the histone code to next generations of cells. PMID:28393112

  15. The polymorphisms of the chromatin fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Mozziconacci, Julien; Lavelle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the genome is packed into chromosomes, each consisting of large polymeric fibers made of DNA bound with proteins (mainly histones) and RNA molecules. The nature and precise 3D organization of this fiber has been a matter of intense speculations and debates. In the emerging picture, the local chromatin state plays a critical role in all fundamental DNA transactions, such as transcriptional control, DNA replication or repair. However, the molecular and structural mechanisms involved remain elusive. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the tremendous efforts that have been made for almost 40 years to build physiologically relevant models of chromatin structure. The motivation behind building such models was to shift our representation and understanding of DNA transactions from a too simplistic ‘naked DNA’ view to a more realistic ‘coated DNA’ view, as a step towards a better framework in which to interpret mechanistically the control of genetic expression and other DNA metabolic processes. The field has evolved from a speculative point of view towards in vitro biochemistry and in silico modeling, but is still longing for experimental in vivo validations of the proposed structures or even proof of concept experiments demonstrating a clear role of a given structure in a metabolic transaction. The mere existence of a chromatin fiber as a relevant biological entity in vivo has been put into serious questioning. Current research is suggesting a possible reconciliation between theoretical studies and experiments, pointing towards a view where the polymorphic and dynamic nature of the chromatin fiber is essential to support its function in genome metabolism.

  16. Capturing Structural Heterogeneity in Chromatin Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ekundayo, Babatunde; Richmond, Timothy J; Schalch, Thomas

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin fiber organization is implicated in processes such as transcription, DNA repair and chromosome segregation, but how nucleosomes interact to form higher-order structure remains poorly understood. We solved two crystal structures of tetranucleosomes with approximately 11-bp DNA linker length at 5.8 and 6.7 Å resolution. Minimal intramolecular nucleosome-nucleosome interactions result in a fiber model resembling a flat ribbon that is compatible with a two-start helical architecture, and that exposes histone and DNA surfaces to the environment. The differences in the two structures combined with electron microscopy reveal heterogeneous structural states, and we used site-specific chemical crosslinking to assess the diversity of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions through identification of structure-sensitive crosslink sites that provide a means to characterize fibers in solution. The chromatin fiber architectures observed here provide a basis for understanding heterogeneous chromatin higher-order structures as they occur in a genomic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Titration and hysteresis in epigenetic chromatin silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms of silencing via heritable chromatin modifications play a major role in gene regulation and cell fate specification. We consider a model of epigenetic chromatin silencing in budding yeast and study the bifurcation diagram and characterize the bistable and the monostable regimes. The main focus of this paper is to examine how the perturbations altering the activity of histone modifying enzymes affect the epigenetic states. We analyze the implications of having the total number of silencing proteins, given by the sum of proteins bound to the nucleosomes and the ones available in the ambient, to be constant. This constraint couples different regions of chromatin through the shared reservoir of ambient silencing proteins. We show that the response of the system to perturbations depends dramatically on the titration effect caused by the above constraint. In particular, for a certain range of overall abundance of silencing proteins, the hysteresis loop changes qualitatively with certain jump replaced by continuous merger of different states. In addition, we find a nonmonotonic dependence of gene expression on the rate of histone deacetylation activity of Sir2. We discuss how these qualitative predictions of our model could be compared with experimental studies of the yeast system under anti-silencing drugs.

  18. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  19. The chromatin remodeler SPLAYED regulates specific stress signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Walley, Justin W; Rowe, Heather C; Xiao, Yanmei; Chehab, E Wassim; Kliebenstein, Daniel J; Wagner, Doris; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2008-12-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD) is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks.

  20. The Chromatin Remodeler SPLAYED Regulates Specific Stress Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Walley, Justin W.; Rowe, Heather C.; Xiao, Yanmei; Chehab, E. Wassim; Kliebenstein, Daniel J.; Wagner, Doris; Dehesh, Katayoon

    2008-01-01

    Organisms are continuously exposed to a myriad of environmental stresses. Central to an organism's survival is the ability to mount a robust transcriptional response to the imposed stress. An emerging mechanism of transcriptional control involves dynamic changes in chromatin structure. Alterations in chromatin structure are brought about by a number of different mechanisms, including chromatin modifications, which covalently modify histone proteins; incorporation of histone variants; and chromatin remodeling, which utilizes ATP hydrolysis to alter histone-DNA contacts. While considerable insight into the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling has been gained, the biological role of chromatin remodeling complexes beyond their function as regulators of cellular differentiation and development has remained poorly understood. Here, we provide genetic, biochemical, and biological evidence for the critical role of chromatin remodeling in mediating plant defense against specific biotic stresses. We found that the Arabidopsis SWI/SNF class chromatin remodeling ATPase SPLAYED (SYD) is required for the expression of selected genes downstream of the jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signaling pathways. SYD is also directly recruited to the promoters of several of these genes. Furthermore, we show that SYD is required for resistance against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but not the biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. These findings demonstrate not only that chromatin remodeling is required for selective pathogen resistance, but also that chromatin remodelers such as SYD can regulate specific pathways within biotic stress signaling networks. PMID:19079584

  1. The hematopoietic regulator TAL1 is required for chromatin looping between the β-globin LCR and human γ-globin genes to activate transcription.

    PubMed

    Yun, Won Ju; Kim, Yea Woon; Kang, Yujin; Lee, Jungbae; Dean, Ann; Kim, AeRi

    2014-04-01

    TAL1 is a key hematopoietic transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of a large cohort of erythroid genes as part of a complex with GATA-1, LMO2 and Ldb1. The complex mediates long-range interaction between the β-globin locus control region (LCR) and active globin genes, and although TAL1 is one of the two DNA-binding complex members, its role is unclear. To explore the role of TAL1 in transcription activation of the human γ-globin genes, we reduced the expression of TAL1 in erythroid K562 cells using lentiviral short hairpin RNA, compromising its association in the β-globin locus. In the TAL1 knockdown cells, the γ-globin transcription was reduced to 35% and chromatin looping of the (G)γ-globin gene with the LCR was disrupted with decreased occupancy of the complex member Ldb1 and LMO2 in the locus. However, GATA-1 binding, DNase I hypersensitive site formation and several histone modifications were largely maintained across the β-globin locus. In addition, overexpression of TAL1 increased the γ-globin transcription and increased interaction frequency between the (G)γ-globin gene and LCR. These results indicate that TAL1 plays a critical role in chromatin loop formation between the γ-globin genes and LCR, which is a critical step for the transcription of the γ-globin genes.

  2. The hematopoietic regulator TAL1 is required for chromatin looping between the β-globin LCR and human γ-globin genes to activate transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Won Ju; Kim, Yea Woon; Kang, Yujin; Lee, Jungbae; Dean, Ann; Kim, AeRi

    2014-01-01

    TAL1 is a key hematopoietic transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of a large cohort of erythroid genes as part of a complex with GATA-1, LMO2 and Ldb1. The complex mediates long-range interaction between the β-globin locus control region (LCR) and active globin genes, and although TAL1 is one of the two DNA-binding complex members, its role is unclear. To explore the role of TAL1 in transcription activation of the human γ-globin genes, we reduced the expression of TAL1 in erythroid K562 cells using lentiviral short hairpin RNA, compromising its association in the β-globin locus. In the TAL1 knockdown cells, the γ-globin transcription was reduced to 35% and chromatin looping of the Gγ-globin gene with the LCR was disrupted with decreased occupancy of the complex member Ldb1 and LMO2 in the locus. However, GATA-1 binding, DNase I hypersensitive site formation and several histone modifications were largely maintained across the β-globin locus. In addition, overexpression of TAL1 increased the γ-globin transcription and increased interaction frequency between the Gγ-globin gene and LCR. These results indicate that TAL1 plays a critical role in chromatin loop formation between the γ-globin genes and LCR, which is a critical step for the transcription of the γ-globin genes. PMID:24470145

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of an SRCAP chromatin remodeling homologue in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, William J; Monroy, M Alexandra; Bohne, Wolfgang; Nallani, Karuna C; Chrivia, John; Yaciuk, Peter; Smith, Charles K; Queener, Sherry F

    2003-05-01

    We have identified and mapped a gene in Toxoplasma gondii that encodes a homologue of SRCAP (Snf2-related CBP activator protein), a member of the SNF/SWI family of chromatin remodeling factors. The genomic locus (TgSRCAP) is present as a single copy and contains 16 introns. The predicted cDNA contains an open reading frame of 8,775 bp and encodes a protein of 2,924 amino acids. We have identified additional SRCAP-like sequences in Apicomplexa for comparison by screening genomic databases. An analysis of SRCAP homologues between species reveals signature features that may be indicative of SRCAP members. Expression of mRNA encoding TgSRCAP is upregulated when tachyzoite (invasive form) parasites are induced to differentiate into bradyzoites (encysted form) in vitro. Recombinant TgSRCAP protein is functionally equivalent to the human homologue, being capable of increasing transcription mediated by CREB.

  4. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-11-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.

  5. A role for chromatin topology in imprinted domain regulation.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, William A; Sachani, Saqib S; White, Carlee R; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2016-02-01

    Recently, many advancements in genome-wide chromatin topology and nuclear architecture have unveiled the complex and hidden world of the nucleus, where chromatin is organized into discrete neighbourhoods with coordinated gene expression. This includes the active and inactive X chromosomes. Using X chromosome inactivation as a working model, we utilized publicly available datasets together with a literature review to gain insight into topologically associated domains, lamin-associated domains, nucleolar-associating domains, scaffold/matrix attachment regions, and nucleoporin-associated chromatin and their role in regulating monoallelic expression. Furthermore, we comprehensively review for the first time the role of chromatin topology and nuclear architecture in the regulation of genomic imprinting. We propose that chromatin topology and nuclear architecture are important regulatory mechanisms for directing gene expression within imprinted domains. Furthermore, we predict that dynamic changes in chromatin topology and nuclear architecture play roles in tissue-specific imprint domain regulation during early development and differentiation.

  6. Aging by epigenetics-A consequence of chromatin damage?

    SciTech Connect

    Sedivy, John M.; Banumathy, Gowrishankar; Adams, Peter D.

    Chromatin structure is not fixed. Instead, chromatin is dynamic and is subject to extensive developmental and age-associated remodeling. In some cases, this remodeling appears to counter the aging and age-associated diseases, such as cancer, and extend organismal lifespan. However, stochastic non-deterministic changes in chromatin structure might, over time, also contribute to the break down of nuclear, cell and tissue function, and consequently aging and age-associated diseases.

  7. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  8. A cluster of noncoding RNAs activates the ESR1 locus during breast cancer adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Saori; Abdalla, Mohamed Osama Ali; Fujiwara, Saori; Matsumori, Haruka; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Saitoh, Noriko; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-04-29

    Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells.

  9. A cluster of noncoding RNAs activates the ESR1 locus during breast cancer adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Saori; Abdalla, Mohamed Osama Ali; Fujiwara, Saori; Matsumori, Haruka; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Saitoh, Noriko; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells. PMID:25923108

  10. Epigenetics: Beyond Chromatin Modifications and Complex Genetic Regulation1

    PubMed Central

    Eichten, Steven R.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Springer, Nathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin modifications and epigenetics may play important roles in many plant processes, including developmental regulation, responses to environmental stimuli, and local adaptation. Chromatin modifications describe biochemical changes to chromatin state, such as alterations in the specific type or placement of histones, modifications of DNA or histones, or changes in the specific proteins or RNAs that associate with a genomic region. The term epigenetic is often used to describe a variety of unexpected patterns of gene regulation or inheritance. Here, we specifically define epigenetics to include the key aspects of heritability (stable transmission of gene expression states through mitotic or meiotic cell divisions) and independence from DNA sequence changes. We argue against generically equating chromatin and epigenetics; although many examples of epigenetics involve chromatin changes, those chromatin changes are not always heritable or may be influenced by genetic changes. Careful use of the terms chromatin modifications and epigenetics can help separate the biochemical mechanisms of regulation from the inheritance patterns of altered chromatin states. Here, we also highlight examples in which chromatin modifications and epigenetics affect important plant processes. PMID:24872382

  11. Regulation of chromatin structure in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Garrido, Manuel; Karbassi, Elaheh; Monte, Emma; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    It has been appreciated for some time that cardiovascular disease involves large-scale transcriptional changes in various cell types. What has become increasingly clear only in the past few years, however, is the role of chromatin remodeling in cardiovascular phenotypes in normal physiology, as well as in development and disease. This review summarizes the state of the chromatin field in terms of distinct mechanisms to regulate chromatin structure in vivo, identifying when these modes of regulation have been demonstrated in cardiovascular tissues. We describe areas in which a better understanding of chromatin structure is leading to new insights into the fundamental biology of cardiovascular disease. 

  12. The Centromere: Chromatin Foundation for the Kinetochore Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Earnshaw, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Since discovery of the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A, centromeres have come to be defined as chromatin structures that establish the assembly site for the complex kinetochore machinery. In most organisms, centromere activity is defined epigenetically, rather than by specific DNA sequences. In this review, we describe selected classic work and recent progress in studies of centromeric chromatin with a focus on vertebrates. We consider possible roles for repetitive DNA sequences found at most centromeres, chromatin factors and modifications that assemble and activate CENP-A chromatin for kinetochore assembly, plus the use of artificial chromosomes and kinetochores to study centromere function. PMID:25203206

  13. Chromatin assembly: Journey to the CENter of the chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes are packaged into basic units of DNA wrapped around histone proteins called nucleosomes. The ability of histones to specify a variety of epigenetic states at defined chromatin domains is essential for cell survival. The most distinctive type of chromatin is found at centromeres, which are marked by the centromere-specific histone H3 variant CENP-A. Many of the factors that regulate CENP-A chromatin have been identified; however, our understanding of the mechanisms of centromeric nucleosome assembly, maintenance, and reorganization remains limited. This review discusses recent insights into these processes and draws parallels between centromeric and noncentromeric chromatin assembly mechanisms. PMID:27377247

  14. An integrated model for detecting significant chromatin interactions from high-resolution Hi-C data

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Mark; Zamparo, Lee; Sahin, Merve; González, Alvaro; Pelossof, Raphael; Elemento, Olivier; Leslie, Christina S.

    2017-01-01

    Here we present HiC-DC, a principled method to estimate the statistical significance (P values) of chromatin interactions from Hi-C experiments. HiC-DC uses hurdle negative binomial regression account for systematic sources of variation in Hi-C read counts—for example, distance-dependent random polymer ligation and GC content and mappability bias—and model zero inflation and overdispersion. Applied to high-resolution Hi-C data in a lymphoblastoid cell line, HiC-DC detects significant interactions at the sub-topologically associating domain level, identifying potential structural and regulatory interactions supported by CTCF binding sites, DNase accessibility, and/or active histone marks. CTCF-associated interactions are most strongly enriched in the middle genomic distance range (∼700 kb–1.5 Mb), while interactions involving actively marked DNase accessible elements are enriched both at short (<500 kb) and longer (>1.5 Mb) genomic distances. There is a striking enrichment of longer-range interactions connecting replication-dependent histone genes on chromosome 6, potentially representing the chromatin architecture at the histone locus body. PMID:28513628

  15. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Protocol for Low-abundance Embryonic Samples.

    PubMed

    Rehimi, Rizwan; Bartusel, Michaela; Solinas, Francesca; Altmüller, Janine; Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro

    2017-08-29

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely-used technique for mapping the localization of post-translationally modified histones, histone variants, transcription factors, or chromatin-modifying enzymes at a given locus or on a genome-wide scale. The combination of ChIP assays with next-generation sequencing (i.e., ChIP-Seq) is a powerful approach to globally uncover gene regulatory networks and to improve the functional annotation of genomes, especially of non-coding regulatory sequences. ChIP protocols normally require large amounts of cellular material, thus precluding the applicability of this method to investigating rare cell types or small tissue biopsies. In order to make the ChIP assay compatible with the amount of biological material that can typically be obtained in vivo during early vertebrate embryogenesis, we describe here a simplified ChIP protocol in which the number of steps required to complete the assay were reduced to minimize sample loss. This ChIP protocol has been successfully used to investigate different histone modifications in various embryonic chicken and adult mouse tissues using low to medium cell numbers (5 x 10 4 - 5 x 10 5 cells). Importantly, this protocol is compatible with ChIP-seq technology using standard library preparation methods, thus providing global epigenomic maps in highly relevant embryonic tissues.

  16. Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Christophe; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Dejeans, Nicolas; Garbe, James C; Dieu, Marc; Verrax, Julien; Renard, Patricia; Huang, Peng; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 (Resox), in which catalase was overexpressed. Here we identify a novel promoter region responsible for the regulation of catalase expression at -1518/-1226 locus and the key molecules that interact with this promoter and affect catalase transcription. We show that the AP-1 family member JunB and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) mediate catalase transcriptional activation and repression, respectively, by controlling chromatin remodeling through a histone deacetylases-dependent mechanism. This regulatory mechanism plays an important role in redox adaptation to chronic exposure to H 2 O 2 in breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that cancer adaptation to oxidative stress may be regulated by transcriptional factors through chromatin remodeling, and reveals a potential new mechanism to target cancer cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Divergence of Mammalian Higher Order Chromatin Structure Is Associated with Developmental Loci

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Emily V.; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Semple, Colin A.

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have examined different aspects of mammalian higher order chromatin structure – replication timing, lamina association and Hi-C inter-locus interactions — and have suggested that most of these features of genome organisation are conserved over evolution. However, the extent of evolutionary divergence in higher order structure has not been rigorously measured across the mammalian genome, and until now little has been known about the characteristics of any divergent loci present. Here, we generate a dataset combining multiple measurements of chromatin structure and organisation over many embryonic cell types for both human and mouse that, for the first time, allows a comprehensive assessment of the extent of structural divergence between mammalian genomes. Comparison of orthologous regions confirms that all measurable facets of higher order structure are conserved between human and mouse, across the vast majority of the detectably orthologous genome. This broad similarity is observed in spite of many loci possessing cell type specific structures. However, we also identify hundreds of regions (from 100 Kb to 2.7 Mb in size) showing consistent evidence of divergence between these species, constituting at least 10% of the orthologous mammalian genome and encompassing many hundreds of human and mouse genes. These regions show unusual shifts in human GC content, are unevenly distributed across both genomes, and are enriched in human subtelomeric regions. Divergent regions are also relatively enriched for genes showing divergent expression patterns between human and mouse ES cells, implying these regions cause divergent regulation. Particular divergent loci are strikingly enriched in genes implicated in vertebrate development, suggesting important roles for structural divergence in the evolution of mammalian developmental programmes. These data suggest that, though relatively rare in the mammalian genome, divergence in higher order chromatin

  18. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    On a multi-mega base pair scale of the DNA, the arrangement of chromatin is non-random. In M10 epithelial cells, both telomere regions tend to be located towards the exterior of the chromosome domain, whereas the rest p-arm of the chromatin region towards the interior. In contrast, most of the q-arm of the chromatin is found in the peripheral of the domain. In lymphocytes, the p-arm chromatin regions towards the interior in close proximity with each other, whereas two q-arm regions are nearness in space. It indicates that G0 lymphocytes may lack secondary 3D chromatin folding. There chromatin folding patterns are consistent with our previous finding of non-random distribution of intra-chromosomal exchanges. In simulated microgravity conditions, the chromosome conformation may be altered and new regions in close proximity, especially to region 2 are suggested.

  19. Histone modifications influence mediator interactions with chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Bjornsdottir, Gudrun; Liu, Zhongle; Quan, Amy; Costanzo, Michael; Dávila López, Marcela; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Ronne, Hans; Boone, Charles; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The Mediator complex transmits activation signals from DNA bound transcription factors to the core transcription machinery. Genome wide localization studies have demonstrated that Mediator occupancy not only correlates with high levels of transcription, but that the complex also is present at transcriptionally silenced locations. We provide evidence that Mediator localization is guided by an interaction with histone tails, and that this interaction is regulated by their post-translational modifications. A quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map revealed links between Mediator components and factors affecting chromatin structure, especially histone deacetylases. Peptide binding assays demonstrated that pure wild-type Mediator forms stable complexes with the tails of Histone H3 and H4. These binding assays also showed Mediator—histone H4 peptide interactions are specifically inhibited by acetylation of the histone H4 lysine 16, a residue critical in transcriptional silencing. Finally, these findings were validated by tiling array analysis that revealed a broad correlation between Mediator and nucleosome occupancy in vivo, but a negative correlation between Mediator and nucleosomes acetylated at histone H4 lysine 16. Our studies show that chromatin structure and the acetylation state of histones are intimately connected to Mediator localization. PMID:21742760

  20. Energy homeostasis targets chromosomal reconfiguration of the human GH1 locus.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Hana; Jin, Yan; Cattini, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Levels of pituitary growth hormone (GH), a metabolic homeostatic factor with strong lipolytic activity, are decreased in obese individuals. GH declines prior to the onset of weight gain in response to excess caloric intake and hyperinsulinemia; however, the mechanism by which GH is reduced is not clear. We used transgenic mice expressing the human GH (hGH) gene, GH1, to assess the effect of high caloric intake on expression as well as the local chromosome structure of the intact GH1 locus. Animals exposed to 3 days of high caloric intake exhibited hyperinsulinemia without hyperglycemia and a decrease in both hGH synthesis and secretion, but no difference in endogenous production of murine GH. Efficient GH1 expression requires a long-range intrachromosomal interaction between remote enhancer sequences and the proximal promoter region through "looping" of intervening chromatin. High caloric intake disrupted this interaction and decreased both histone H3/H4 hyperacetylation and RNA polymerase II occupancy at the GH1 promoter. Incorporation of physical activity muted the effects of excess caloric intake on insulin levels, GH1 promoter hyperacetylation, chromosomal architecture, and expression. These results indicate that energy homeostasis alters postnatal hGH synthesis through dynamic changes in the 3-dimensional chromatin structure of the GH1 locus, including structures required for cell type specificity during development.

  1. New Face for Chromatin-Related Mesenchymal Modulator: n-CHD9 Localizes to Nucleoli and Interacts With Ribosomal Genes.

    PubMed

    Salomon-Kent, Ronit; Marom, Ronit; John, Sam; Dundr, Miroslav; Schiltz, Louis R; Gutierrez, Jose; Workman, Jerry; Benayahu, Dafna; Hager, Gordon L

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells' differentiation into several lineages is coordinated by a complex of transcription factors and co-regulators which bind to specific gene promoters. The Chromatin-Related Mesenchymal Modulator, CHD9 demonstrated in vitro its ability for remodeling activity to reposition nucleosomes in an ATP-dependent manner. Epigenetically, CHD9 binds with modified H3-(K9me2/3 and K27me3). Previously, we presented a role for CHD9 with RNA Polymerase II (Pol II)-dependent transcription of tissue specific genes. Far less is known about CHD9 function in RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) related transcription of the ribosomal locus that also drives specific cell fate. We here describe a new form, the nucleolar CHD9 (n-CHD9) that is dynamically associated with Pol I, fibrillarin, and upstream binding factor (UBF) in the nucleoli, as shown by imaging and molecular approaches. Inhibitors of transcription disorganized the nucleolar compartment of transcription sites where rDNA is actively transcribed. Collectively, these findings link n-CHD9 with RNA pol I transcription in fibrillar centers. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and tilling arrays (ChIP- chip), we find an association of n-CHD9 with Pol I related to rRNA biogenesis. Our new findings support the role for CHD9 in chromatin regulation and association with rDNA genes, in addition to its already known function in transcription control of tissue specific genes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tet2 and Tet3 cooperate with B-lineage transcription factors to regulate DNA modification and chromatin accessibility.

    PubMed

    Lio, Chan-Wang; Zhang, Jiayuan; González-Avalos, Edahí; Hogan, Patrick G; Chang, Xing; Rao, Anjana

    2016-11-21

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine, facilitating DNA demethylation and generating new epigenetic marks. Here we show that concomitant loss of Tet2 and Tet3 in mice at early B cell stage blocked the pro- to pre-B cell transition in the bone marrow, decreased Irf4 expression and impaired the germline transcription and rearrangement of the Igκ locus. Tet2/3-deficient pro-B cells showed increased CpG methylation at the Igκ 3' and distal enhancers that was mimicked by depletion of E2A or PU.1, as well as a global decrease in chromatin accessibility at enhancers. Importantly, re-expression of the Tet2 catalytic domain in Tet2/3-deficient B cells resulted in demethylation of the Igκ enhancers and restored their chromatin accessibility. Our data suggest that TET proteins and lineage-specific transcription factors cooperate to influence chromatin accessibility and Igκ enhancer function by modulating the modification status of DNA.

  3. Systematic Determination of Replication Activity Type Highlights Interconnections between Replication, Chromatin Structure and Nuclear Localization

    PubMed Central

    Polten, Andreas; Hezroni, Hadas; Eldar, Yonina C.; Meshorer, Eran; Yakhini, Zohar; Simon, Itamar

    2012-01-01

    DNA replication is a highly regulated process, with each genomic locus replicating at a distinct time of replication (ToR). Advances in ToR measurement technology enabled several genome-wide profiling studies that revealed tight associations between ToR and general genomic features and a remarkable ToR conservation in mammals. Genome wide studies further showed that at the hundreds kb-to-megabase scale the genome can be divided into constant ToR regions (CTRs) in which the replication process propagates at a faster pace due to the activation of multiple origins and temporal transition regions (TTRs) in which the replication process propagates at a slower pace. We developed a computational tool that assigns a ToR to every measured locus and determines its replication activity type (CTR versus TTR). Our algorithm, ARTO (Analysis of Replication Timing and Organization), uses signal processing methods to fit a constant piece-wise linear curve to the measured raw data. We tested our algorithm and provide performance and usability results. A Matlab implementation of ARTO is available at http://bioinfo.cs.technion.ac.il/people/zohar/ARTO/. Applying our algorithm to ToR data measured in multiple mouse and human samples allowed precise genome-wide ToR determination and replication activity type characterization. Analysis of the results highlighted the plasticity of the replication program. For example, we observed significant ToR differences in 10–25% of the genome when comparing different tissue types. Our analyses also provide evidence for activity type differences in up to 30% of the probes. Integration of the ToR data with multiple aspects of chromosome organization characteristics suggests that ToR plays a role in shaping the regional chromatin structure. Namely, repressive chromatin marks, are associated with late ToR both in TTRs and CTRs. Finally, characterization of the differences between TTRs and CTRs, with matching ToR, revealed that TTRs are associated with

  4. Allelic exclusion of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus is independent of its nuclear localization in mature B cells

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Sjoerd J. B.; van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Ribeiro de Almeida, Claudia; Bergen, Ingrid M.; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Verstegen, Marjon J. A. M.; Simonis, Marieke; Splinter, Erik; Wijchers, Patrick J.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; de Laat, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    In developing B cells, the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus is thought to move from repressive to permissive chromatin compartments to facilitate its scheduled rearrangement. In mature B cells, maintenance of allelic exclusion has been proposed to involve recruitment of the non-productive IgH allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here, we used an allele-specific chromosome conformation capture combined with sequencing (4C-seq) approach to unambigously follow the individual IgH alleles in mature B lymphocytes. Despite their physical and functional difference, productive and non-productive IgH alleles in B cells and unrearranged IgH alleles in T cells share many chromosomal contacts and largely reside in active chromatin. In brain, however, the locus resides in a different repressive environment. We conclude that IgH adopts a lymphoid-specific nuclear location that is, however, unrelated to maintenance of allelic exclusion. We additionally find that in mature B cells—but not in T cells—the distal VH regions of both IgH alleles position themselves away from active chromatin. This, we speculate, may help to restrict enhancer activity to the productively rearranged VH promoter element. PMID:23748562

  5. General method for rapid purification of native chromatin fragments.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Vyacheslav I; Haws, Spencer A; Fox, Catherine A; Denu, John M

    2018-05-24

    Biochemical, proteomic and epigenetic studies of chromatin rely on the efficient ability to isolate native nucleosomes in high yield and purity. However, isolation of native chromatin suitable for many downstream experiments remains a challenging task. This is especially true for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which continues to serve as an important model organism for the study of chromatin structure and function. Here, we developed a time- and cost-efficient universal protocol for isolation of native chromatin fragments from yeast, insect, and mammalian cells. The resulting protocol preserves histone posttranslational modification in the native chromatin state, and is applicable for both parallel multi-sample spin-column purification and large scale isolation. This protocol is based on the efficient and stable purification of polynucleosomes, features a combination of optimized cell lysis and purification conditions, three options for chromatin fragmentation, and a novel ion-exchange chromatographic purification strategy.  The procedure will aid chromatin researchers interested in isolating native chromatin material for biochemical studies, and as a mild, acid- and detergent-free sample preparation method for mass-spectrometry analysis. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The nucleosome: orchestrating DNA damage signaling and repair within chromatin.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Poonam; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-10-01

    DNA damage occurs within the chromatin environment, which ultimately participates in regulating DNA damage response (DDR) pathways and repair of the lesion. DNA damage activates a cascade of signaling events that extensively modulates chromatin structure and organization to coordinate DDR factor recruitment to the break and repair, whilst also promoting the maintenance of normal chromatin functions within the damaged region. For example, DDR pathways must avoid conflicts between other DNA-based processes that function within the context of chromatin, including transcription and replication. The molecular mechanisms governing the recognition, target specificity, and recruitment of DDR factors and enzymes to the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin, i.e., the nucleosome, are poorly understood. Here we present our current view of how chromatin recognition by DDR factors is achieved at the level of the nucleosome. Emerging evidence suggests that the nucleosome surface, including the nucleosome acidic patch, promotes the binding and activity of several DNA damage factors on chromatin. Thus, in addition to interactions with damaged DNA and histone modifications, nucleosome recognition by DDR factors plays a key role in orchestrating the requisite chromatin response to maintain both genome and epigenome integrity.

  7. Chromatin regulators as a guide for cancer treatment choice

    PubMed Central

    Gurard-Levin, Zachary A.; Wilson, Laurence O.W.; Pancaldi, Vera; Postel-Vinay, Sophie; Sousa, Fabricio G.; Reyes, Cecile; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Gentien, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pommier, Yves; Cottu, Paul; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    The limited capacity to predict a patient’s response to distinct chemotherapeutic agents is a major hurdle in cancer management. The efficiency of a large fraction of current cancer therapeutics (radio- and chemotherapies) is influenced by chromatin structure. Reciprocally, alterations in chromatin organization may impact resistance mechanisms. Here, we explore how the mis-expression of chromatin regulators—factors involved in the establishment and maintenance of functional chromatin domains—can inform about the extent of docetaxel response. We exploit gene Affymetrix and NanoString gene expression data for a set of chromatin regulators generated from breast cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and patient samples treated with docetaxel. Random Forest classification reveals specific panels of chromatin regulators, including key components of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler, which readily distinguish docetaxel high-responders and poor-responders. Further exploration of SWI/SNF components in the comprehensive NCI-60 dataset reveals that the expression inversely correlates with docetaxel sensitivity. Finally, we show that loss of the SWI/SNF subunit BRG1 (SMARCA4) in a model cell line leads to enhanced docetaxel sensitivity. Altogether, our findings point towards chromatin regulators as biomarkers for drug response as well as therapeutic targets to sensitize patients towards docetaxel and combat drug resistance. PMID:27196757

  8. An anti-silencer– and SATB1-dependent chromatin hub regulates Rag1 and Rag2 gene expression during thymocyte development

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Bingtao; Naik, Abani Kanta; Watanabe, Akiko; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Chen, Liang; Richards, Hunter W.; Kondo, Motonari; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2015-01-01

    Rag1 and Rag2 gene expression in CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes depends on the activity of a distant anti-silencer element (ASE) that counteracts the activity of an intergenic silencer. However, the mechanistic basis for ASE activity is unknown. Here, we show that the ASE physically interacts with the distant Rag1 and Rag2 gene promoters in DP thymocytes, bringing the two promoters together to form an active chromatin hub. Moreover, we show that the ASE functions as a classical enhancer that can potently activate these promoters in the absence of the silencer or other locus elements. In thymocytes lacking the chromatin organizer SATB1, we identified a partial defect in Tcra gene rearrangement that was associated with reduced expression of Rag1 and Rag2 at the DP stage. SATB1 binds to the ASE and Rag promoters, facilitating inclusion of Rag2 in the chromatin hub and the loading of RNA polymerase II to both the Rag1 and Rag2 promoters. Our results provide a novel framework for understanding ASE function and demonstrate a novel role for SATB1 as a regulator of Rag locus organization and gene expression in DP thymocytes. PMID:25847946

  9. Higher-order chromatin structure: bridging physics and biology.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Mirny, Leonid A

    2012-04-01

    Advances in microscopy and genomic techniques have provided new insight into spatial chromatin organization inside of the nucleus. In particular, chromosome conformation capture data has highlighted the relevance of polymer physics for high-order chromatin organization. In this context, we review basic polymer states, discuss how an appropriate polymer model can be determined from experimental data, and examine the success and limitations of various polymer models of higher-order interphase chromatin organization. By taking into account topological constraints acting on the chromatin fiber, recently developed polymer models of interphase chromatin can reproduce the observed scaling of distances between genomic loci, chromosomal territories, and probabilities of contacts between loci measured by chromosome conformation capture methods. Polymer models provide a framework for the interpretation of experimental data as ensembles of conformations rather than collections of loops, and will be crucial for untangling functional implications of chromosomal organization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Higher order chromatin structure: bridging physics and biology

    PubMed Central

    Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microscopy and genomic techniques have provided new insight into spatial chromatin organization inside of the nucleus. In particular, chromosome conformation capture data has highlighted the relevance of polymer physics for high-order chromatin organization. In this context, we review basic polymer states, discuss how an appropriate polymer model can be determined from experimental data, and examine the success and limitations of various polymer models of high-order interphase chromatin organization. By taking into account topological constraints acting on the chromatin fiber, recently-developed polymer models of interphase chromatin can reproduce the observed scaling of distances between genomic loci, chromosomal territories, and probabilities of contacts between loci measured by chromosome conformation capture methods. Polymer models provide a framework for the interpretation of experimental data as ensembles of conformations rather than collections of loops, and will be crucial for untangling functional implications of chromosomal organization. PMID:22360992

  11. Transcription upregulation via force-induced direct stretching of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Arash; Zhang, Yuejin; Wei, Fuxiang; Sun, Jian; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Wenwen; Singh, Rishi; Khanna, Nimish; Belmont, Andrew S.; Wang, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical forces play critical roles in the function of living cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of how forces influence nuclear events remain elusive. Here, we show that chromatin deformation as well as force-induced transcription of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bacterial-chromosome dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) transgene can be visualized in a living cell by using three-dimensional magnetic twisting cytometry to apply local stresses on the cell surface via an Arg-Gly-Asp-coated magnetic bead. Chromatin stretching depended on loading direction. DHFR transcription upregulation was sensitive to load direction and proportional to the magnitude of chromatin stretching. Disrupting filamentous actin or inhibiting actomyosin contraction abrogated or attenuated force-induced DHFR transcription, whereas activating endogenous contraction upregulated force-induced DHFR transcription. Our findings suggest that local stresses applied to integrins propagate from the tensed actin cytoskeleton to the LINC complex and then through lamina-chromatin interactions to directly stretch chromatin and upregulate transcription.

  12. HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Düringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Gustafsson, Lotta; Kimura, Hiroshi; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-10-24

    HAMLET is a folding variant of human alpha-lactalbumin in an active complex with oleic acid. HAMLET selectively enters tumor cells, accumulates in their nuclei and induces apoptosis-like cell death. This study examined the interactions of HAMLET with nuclear constituents and identified histones as targets. HAMLET was found to bind histone H3 strongly and to lesser extent histones H4 and H2B. The specificity of these interactions was confirmed using BIAcore technology and chromatin assembly assays. In vivo in tumor cells, HAMLET co-localized with histones and perturbed the chromatin structure; HAMLET was found associated with chromatin in an insoluble nuclear fraction resistant to salt extraction. In vitro, HAMLET bound strongly to histones and impaired their deposition on DNA. We conclude that HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei and propose that this interaction locks the cells into the death pathway by irreversibly disrupting chromatin organization.

  13. The 3D Structure of the Immunoglobulin Heavy-Chain Locus: Implications for Long-Range Genomic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; van Zelm, Menno C.; Peak, Mandy M.; Cutchin, Steve; Riblet, Roy; van Dongen, Jacques J.M.; Grosveld, Frank G.; Knoch, Tobias A.; Murre, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The immunoglobulin heavy-chain (Igh) locus is organized into distinct regions that contain multiple variable (VH), diversity (DH), joining (JH) and constant (CH) coding elements. How the Igh locus is structured in 3D space is unknown. To probe the topography of the Igh locus, spatial distance distributions were determined between 12 genomic markers that span the entire Igh locus. Comparison of the distance distributions to computer simulations of alternative chromatin arrangements predicted that the Igh locus is organized into compartments containing clusters of loops separated by linkers. Trilateration and triple-point angle measurements indicated the mean relative 3D positions of the VH, DH, JH, and CH elements, showed compartmentalization and striking conformational changes involving VH and DH-JH elements during early B cell development. In pro-B cells, the entire repertoire of VH regions (2 Mbp) appeared to have merged and juxtaposed to the DH elements, mechanistically permitting long-range genomic interactions to occur with relatively high frequency. PMID:18423198

  14. Baseline Chromatin Modification Levels May Predict ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genotype, and disease status to explain variability in responsiveness to toxicant exposure; however, these are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate the exposure effects. Unlike these factors, the epigenome is dynamic and shaped by an individual's environment. We sought to determine whether baseline levels of specific chromatin modifications correlated with the interindividual variability in their ozone (03)-mediated induction in an air-liquid interface model using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from a panel of 11 donors. We characterized the relationship between the baseline abundance of 6 epigenetic markers with established roles as key regulators of gene expression-histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), pan­acetyl H4 (H4ac), histone H3K27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3), unmodified H3, and5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)-and the variability in the 03-induced expression of IL-8, IL-6, COX2, and HMOX1. Baseline levels of H3K4me3, H3K27me2/3, and 5-hmC, but not H3K27ac, H4ac, and total H3, correlated with the interindividual variability in 03-mediated induction of HMOX1 and COX2. In contrast, none of the chromatin modifications that we examined correlated with the induction of IL-8 and IL-6. From these findings, we propose an "epigenetic see

  15. RNA polymerase III transcription - regulated by chromatin structure and regulator of nuclear chromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Pascali, Chiara; Teichmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) transcription is regulated by modifications of the chromatin. DNA methylation and post-translational modifications of histones, such as acetylation, phosphorylation and methylation have been linked to Pol III transcriptional activity. In addition to being regulated by modifications of DNA and histones, Pol III genes and its transcription factors have been implicated in the organization of nuclear chromatin in several organisms. In yeast, the ability of the Pol III transcription system to contribute to nuclear organization seems to be dependent on direct interactions of Pol III genes and/or its transcription factors TFIIIC and TFIIIB with the structural maintenance of chromatin (SMC) protein-containing complexes cohesin and condensin. In human cells, Pol III genes and transcription factors have also been shown to colocalize with cohesin and the transcription regulator and genome organizer CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF). Furthermore, chromosomal sites have been identified in yeast and humans that are bound by partial Pol III machineries (extra TFIIIC sites - ETC; chromosome organizing clamps - COC). These ETCs/COC as well as Pol III genes possess the ability to act as boundary elements that restrict spreading of heterochromatin.

  16. Three-Dimensional, Live-Cell Imaging of Chromatin Dynamics in Plant Nuclei Using Chromatin Tagging Systems.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Takeshi; Matsunaga, Sachihiro

    2016-01-01

    In plants, chromatin dynamics spatiotemporally change in response to various environmental stimuli. However, little is known about chromatin dynamics in the nuclei of plants. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional, live-cell imaging method that can monitor chromatin dynamics in nuclei via a chromatin tagging system that can visualize specific genomic loci in living plant cells. The chromatin tagging system is based on a bacterial operator/repressor system in which the repressor is fused to fluorescent proteins. A recent refinement of promoters for the system solved the problem of gene silencing and abnormal pairing frequencies between operators. Using this system, we can detect the spatiotemporal dynamics of two homologous loci as two fluorescent signals within a nucleus and monitor the distance between homologous loci. These live-cell imaging methods will provide new insights into genome organization, development processes, and subnuclear responses to environmental stimuli in plants.

  17. Fine-scale mapping of the FGFR2 breast cancer risk locus: putative functional variants differentially bind FOXA1 and E2F1.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Kerstin B; O'Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Carlebur, Saskia; Edwards, Stacey L; French, Juliet D; Prathalingham, Radhika; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; de Santiago, Ines; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van 't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A; Lux, Michael P; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Peto, Julian; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L; Zamora, M Pilar; Arias, Jose I; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dur, Christina C; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Engel, Christoph; Ditsch, Nina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dörk, Thilo; Helbig, Sonja; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Yip, Cheng-Har; Phuah, Sze-Yee; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hartef; Eriksson, Kimael; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm W R; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D P; Ghoussaini, Maya; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Lim, Wei-Yen; Buhari, Shaik A; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Fostira, Florentia; Pilarski, Robert; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Ponder, Bruce A J; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F

    2013-12-05

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kerstin B.; O’Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Carlebur, Saskia; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Prathalingham, Radhika; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; de Santiago, Ines; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van ’t Veer, Laura J.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Lux, Michael P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias, Jose I.; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dur, Christina C.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Ditsch, Nina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dörk, Thilo; Helbig, Sonja; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Yip, Cheng-Har; Phuah, Sze-Yee; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hartef; Eriksson, Kimael; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Lim, Wei-Yen; Buhari, Shaik A.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Fostira, Florentia; Pilarski, Robert; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease. PMID:24290378

  19. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia MacCollin, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Massachusetts General Hospital...Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0445 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Mia...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Schwannomatosis is a recently recognized third major type of neurofibromatosis. Our

  20. Investigation of the mechanism of meiotic DNA cleavage by VMA1-derived endonuclease uncovers a meiotic alteration in chromatin structure around the target site.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Ohta, Kunihiro; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2006-06-01

    VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE), a homing endonuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is encoded by the mobile intein-coding sequence within the nuclear VMA1 gene. VDE recognizes and cleaves DNA at the 31-bp VDE recognition sequence (VRS) in the VMA1 gene lacking the intein-coding sequence during meiosis to insert a copy of the intein-coding sequence at the cleaved site. The mechanism underlying the meiosis specificity of VMA1 intein-coding sequence homing remains unclear. We studied various factors that might influence the cleavage activity in vivo and found that VDE binding to the VRS can be detected only when DNA cleavage by VDE takes place, implying that meiosis-specific DNA cleavage is regulated by the accessibility of VDE to its target site. As a possible candidate for the determinant of this accessibility, we analyzed chromatin structure around the VRS and revealed that local chromatin structure near the VRS is altered during meiosis. Although the meiotic chromatin alteration exhibits correlations with DNA binding and cleavage by VDE at the VMA1 locus, such a chromatin alteration is not necessarily observed when the VRS is embedded in ectopic gene loci. This suggests that nucleosome positioning or occupancy around the VRS by itself is not the sole mechanism for the regulation of meiosis-specific DNA cleavage by VDE and that other mechanisms are involved in the regulation.

  1. Investigation of the Mechanism of Meiotic DNA Cleavage by VMA1-Derived Endonuclease Uncovers a Meiotic Alteration in Chromatin Structure around the Target Site

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Ohta, Kunihiro; Ohya, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    VMA1-derived endonuclease (VDE), a homing endonuclease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is encoded by the mobile intein-coding sequence within the nuclear VMA1 gene. VDE recognizes and cleaves DNA at the 31-bp VDE recognition sequence (VRS) in the VMA1 gene lacking the intein-coding sequence during meiosis to insert a copy of the intein-coding sequence at the cleaved site. The mechanism underlying the meiosis specificity of VMA1 intein-coding sequence homing remains unclear. We studied various factors that might influence the cleavage activity in vivo and found that VDE binding to the VRS can be detected only when DNA cleavage by VDE takes place, implying that meiosis-specific DNA cleavage is regulated by the accessibility of VDE to its target site. As a possible candidate for the determinant of this accessibility, we analyzed chromatin structure around the VRS and revealed that local chromatin structure near the VRS is altered during meiosis. Although the meiotic chromatin alteration exhibits correlations with DNA binding and cleavage by VDE at the VMA1 locus, such a chromatin alteration is not necessarily observed when the VRS is embedded in ectopic gene loci. This suggests that nucleosome positioning or occupancy around the VRS by itself is not the sole mechanism for the regulation of meiosis-specific DNA cleavage by VDE and that other mechanisms are involved in the regulation. PMID:16757746

  2. The induction of H3K9 methylation by PIWIL4 at the p16{sup Ink4a} locus

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Kage, Hidenori; Aki, Naomi

    The field of epigenetics has made progress by the identification of the small RNA-mediated epigenetic modification. However, little is known about the key proteins. Here, we report that the human PIWI-like family is a candidate protein that is involved in the pathway responsible for chromatin remodeling. The PIWI-like family proteins, expressed as the Flag-fusion proteins, formed a bulky body and localized to the nuclear periphery. Transient transfection of PIWI-like 4 (PIWIL4), only member of the PIWI-like family that was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, induced histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at the p16{sup Ink4a} (CDKN2A) locus. The elevated level ofmore » histone methylation resulted in the downregulation of the p16{sup Ink4a} gene. These results suggest PIWIL4 plays important roles in the chromatin-modifying pathway in human somatic cells.« less

  3. Chromatin ionic atmosphere analyzed by a mesoscale electrostatic approach.

    PubMed

    Gan, Hin Hark; Schlick, Tamar

    2010-10-20

    Characterizing the ionic distribution around chromatin is important for understanding the electrostatic forces governing chromatin structure and function. Here we develop an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin model as a function of conformation, number of nucleosome cores, and ionic strength and species using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. This approach enables us to visualize and measure the complex patterns of counterion condensation around chromatin by examining ionic densities, free energies, shielding charges, and correlations of shielding charges around the nucleosome core and various oligonucleosome conformations. We show that: counterions, especially divalent cations, predominantly condense around the nucleosomal and linker DNA, unburied regions of histone tails, and exposed chromatin surfaces; ionic screening is sensitively influenced by local and global conformations, with a wide ranging net nucleosome core screening charge (56-100e); and screening charge correlations reveal conformational flexibility and interactions among chromatin subunits, especially between the histone tails and parental nucleosome cores. These results provide complementary and detailed views of ionic effects on chromatin structure for modest computational resources. The electrostatic model developed here is applicable to other coarse-grained macromolecular complexes. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rapid and reversible epigenome editing by endogenous chromatin regulators.

    PubMed

    Braun, Simon M G; Kirkland, Jacob G; Chory, Emma J; Husmann, Dylan; Calarco, Joseph P; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2017-09-15

    Understanding the causal link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation remains a central question in chromatin biology. To edit the epigenome we developed the FIRE-Cas9 system for rapid and reversible recruitment of endogenous chromatin regulators to specific genomic loci. We enhanced the dCas9-MS2 anchor for genome targeting with Fkbp/Frb dimerizing fusion proteins to allow chemical-induced proximity of a desired chromatin regulator. We find that mSWI/SNF (BAF) complex recruitment is sufficient to oppose Polycomb within minutes, leading to activation of bivalent gene transcription in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, Hp1/Suv39h1 heterochromatin complex recruitment to active promoters deposits H3K9me3 domains, resulting in gene silencing that can be reversed upon washout of the chemical dimerizer. This inducible recruitment strategy provides precise kinetic information to model epigenetic memory and plasticity. It is broadly applicable to mechanistic studies of chromatin in mammalian cells and is particularly suited to the analysis of endogenous multi-subunit chromatin regulator complexes.Understanding the link between epigenetic marks and gene regulation requires the development of new tools to directly manipulate chromatin. Here the authors demonstrate a Cas9-based system to recruit chromatin remodelers to loci of interest, allowing rapid, reversible manipulation of epigenetic states.

  5. TDP-43 Promotes Neurodegeneration by Impairing Chromatin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Berson, Amit; Sartoris, Ashley; Nativio, Raffaella; Van Deerlin, Vivianna; Toledo, Jon B; Porta, Sílvia; Liu, Shichong; Chung, Chia-Yu; Garcia, Benjamin A; Lee, Virginia M-Y; Trojanowski, John Q; Johnson, F Brad; Berger, Shelley L; Bonini, Nancy M

    2017-12-04

    Regulation of chromatin structure is critical for brain development and function. However, the involvement of chromatin dynamics in neurodegeneration is less well understood. Here we find, launching from Drosophila models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia, that TDP-43 impairs the induction of multiple key stress genes required to protect from disease by reducing the recruitment of the chromatin remodeler Chd1 to chromatin. Chd1 depletion robustly enhances TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration and promotes the formation of stress granules. Conversely, upregulation of Chd1 restores nucleosomal dynamics, promotes normal induction of protective stress genes, and rescues stress sensitivity of TDP-43-expressing animals. TDP-43-mediated impairments are conserved in mammalian cells, and, importantly, the human ortholog CHD2 physically interacts with TDP-43 and is strikingly reduced in level in temporal cortex of human patient tissue. These findings indicate that TDP-43-mediated neurodegeneration causes impaired chromatin dynamics that prevents appropriate expression of protective genes through compromised function of the chromatin remodeler Chd1/CHD2. Enhancing chromatin dynamics may be a treatment approach to amyotrophic lateral scleorosis (ALS)/frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sperm chromatin alterations in fertile and subfertile bulls.

    PubMed

    Souza, Elisson Terêncio; Silva, Cláudio Vieira; Travençolo, Bruno Augusto Nassif; Alves, Benner Geraldo; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio

    2018-06-01

    Alterations in sperm chromatin have been related with subfertility in several mammals. In this study, chromatin alteration types (Base, Basal half, Central axis, Dispersed, and Whole) were assessed by toluidine blue (TB) staining, 6-diamidino-2-fenilindole (DAPI) and anti-protamine 1 antibody (anti-PR1) labeling in sperm samples of fertile and subfertile bulls. Semen samples were obtained from bulls kept in Artificial Insemination Center (fertile bulls) or from bulls subjected to scrotal insulation (subfertile bulls). The percentage of chromatin alterations identified by TB was similar (P > 0.05) in semen samples of fertile and subfertile bulls. In contrast, a greater (P < 0.01) chromatin decondensation and heterogeneity were recorded in semen samples of subfertile bulls. In DAPI and anti-PR1 methods, the subfertile bulls samples had a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of alteration in the base as well as overall chromatin alterations (P < 0.05). Moreover, the chromatin alterations recorded with TB, DAPI, and anti-PR1 were compared in semen samples of fertile and subfertile bulls. In fertile bulls, the overall chromatin alterations were similar (P > 0.05) among the methods In contrast, semen samples of subfertile bulls had a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of overall chromatin alterations when labeled with DAPI. In conclusion, our findings shown that all dye tested had specific sperm stainability and can be feasible to monitor subfertility condition in bulls. Also, different chromatin alteration types in sperm samples of fertile and suberftile bulls were recorded. Copyright © 2018 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chromatin regulation at the frontier of synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Albert J.; Joung, J. Keith; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2016-01-01

    As synthetic biology approaches are extended to diverse applications throughout medicine, biotechnology and basic biological research, there is an increasing need to engineer yeast, plant and mammalian cells. Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by the diverse biochemical and biophysical states of chromatin, which brings distinct challenges, as well as opportunities, over applications in bacteria. Recent synthetic approaches, including `epigenome editing', have allowed the direct and functional dissection of many aspects of physiological chromatin regulation. These studies lay the foundation for biomedical and biotechnological engineering applications that could take advantage of the unique combinatorial and spatiotemporal layers of chromatin regulation to create synthetic systems of unprecedented sophistication. PMID:25668787

  8. Chromatin regulation at the frontier of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Keung, Albert J; Joung, J Keith; Khalil, Ahmad S; Collins, James J

    2015-03-01

    As synthetic biology approaches are extended to diverse applications throughout medicine, biotechnology and basic biological research, there is an increasing need to engineer yeast, plant and mammalian cells. Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by the diverse biochemical and biophysical states of chromatin, which brings distinct challenges, as well as opportunities, over applications in bacteria. Recent synthetic approaches, including 'epigenome editing', have allowed the direct and functional dissection of many aspects of physiological chromatin regulation. These studies lay the foundation for biomedical and biotechnological engineering applications that could take advantage of the unique combinatorial and spatiotemporal layers of chromatin regulation to create synthetic systems of unprecedented sophistication.

  9. DNA packing in chromatine, a manifestation of the Bonnet transformation.

    PubMed

    Blum, Z; Lidin, S

    1988-08-01

    The packing of DNA is described using the formalism of differential geometry. Winding of the DNA double helix around the histone 2-5 octamer forming a nucleosome and the condensation of the so-formed bead-on-a-string chromatine aided by histone 1 is interpreted as two consecutive isometric, i.e. Bonnet, transformations. The DNA double helix can be approximated to a helicoid which can be transformed isometrically to a catenoid, an approximation of the nucleosome. Owing to the organization of the histone octamer the extended chromatine takes a helicoidal shape allowing a second Bonnet transformation to consummate the condensation into a chromatine fibre.

  10. A TAD boundary is preserved upon deletion of the CTCF-rich Firre locus.

    PubMed

    Barutcu, A Rasim; Maass, Philipp G; Lewandowski, Jordan P; Weiner, Catherine L; Rinn, John L

    2018-04-13

    The binding of the transcriptional regulator CTCF to the genome has been implicated in the formation of topologically associated domains (TADs). However, the general mechanisms of folding the genome into TADs are not fully understood. Here we test the effects of deleting a CTCF-rich locus on TAD boundary formation. Using genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), we focus on one TAD boundary on chromosome X harboring ~ 15 CTCF binding sites and located at the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) locus Firre. Specifically, this TAD boundary is invariant across evolution, tissues, and temporal dynamics of X-chromosome inactivation. We demonstrate that neither the deletion of this locus nor the ectopic insertion of Firre cDNA or its ectopic expression are sufficient to alter TADs in a sex-specific or allele-specific manner. In contrast, Firre's deletion disrupts the chromatin super-loop formation of the inactive X-chromosome. Collectively, our findings suggest that apart from CTCF binding, additional mechanisms may play roles in establishing TAD boundary formation.

  11. Triplication of a four-gene set during evolution of the goat beta-globin locus produced three genes now expressed differentially during development.

    PubMed Central

    Townes, T M; Fitzgerald, M C; Lingrel, J B

    1984-01-01

    Distinct hemoglobins are synthesized in goats at different stages of development, similar to humans. Embryonic hemoglobins (zeta 2 epsilon 2 and alpha 2 epsilon 2) are synthesized initially and are followed sequentially by fetal (alpha 2 beta F2), preadult (alpha 2 beta C2), and adult (alpha 2 beta A2) hemoglobins. To help understand the basis of these switches, the genes of the beta-globin locus have been cloned and their linkage arrangement has been determined by the isolation of lambda phage carrying overlapping inserts of genomic goat DNA. The locus extends over 120 kilobase pairs and consists of 12 genes arranged in the following order: epsilon I-epsilon II-psi beta X-beta C-epsilon III-epsilon IV-psi beta Z-beta A-epsilon V-epsilon VI-psi beta Y-beta F. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the 12 genes shows that the locus is organized into three homologous four-gene sets that presumably evolved by the triplication of an ancestral set of four genes (epsilon-epsilon-psi beta-beta). Interestingly, the three genes (beta C, beta A, and beta F) located at the ends of the four-gene sets are expressed at different stages of development. Therefore, the goat beta F-, beta C-, and beta A-globin genes appear to have evolved by a mechanism that includes the triplication of 40-50 kilobase pairs of DNA and the recruitment of newly formed genes for expression in fetal, preadult, and adult life. PMID:6593719

  12. The quantitative architecture of centromeric chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, Dani L; Mata, João F; Sergeev, Mikhail; David, Ana Filipa; Salimian, Kevan J; Panchenko, Tanya; Cleveland, Don W; Black, Ben E; Shah, Jagesh V; Jansen, Lars ET

    2014-01-01

    The centromere, responsible for chromosome segregation during mitosis, is epigenetically defined by CENP-A containing chromatin. The amount of centromeric CENP-A has direct implications for both the architecture and epigenetic inheritance of centromeres. Using complementary strategies, we determined that typical human centromeres contain ∼400 molecules of CENP-A, which is controlled by a mass-action mechanism. This number, despite representing only ∼4% of all centromeric nucleosomes, forms a ∼50-fold enrichment to the overall genome. In addition, although pre-assembled CENP-A is randomly segregated during cell division, this amount of CENP-A is sufficient to prevent stochastic loss of centromere function and identity. Finally, we produced a statistical map of CENP-A occupancy at a human neocentromere and identified nucleosome positions that feature CENP-A in a majority of cells. In summary, we present a quantitative view of the centromere that provides a mechanistic framework for both robust epigenetic inheritance of centromeres and the paucity of neocentromere formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02137.001 PMID:25027692

  13. Centromeric chromatin and its dynamics in plants.

    PubMed

    Lermontova, Inna; Sandmann, Michael; Mascher, Martin; Schmit, Anne-Catherine; Chabouté, Marie-Edith

    2015-07-01

    Centromeres are chromatin structures that are required for proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis. The centromere is composed of centromeric DNA, often enriched in satellite repeats, and kinetochore complex proteins. To date, over 100 kinetochore components have been identified in various eukaryotes. Kinetochore assembly begins with incorporation of centromeric histone H3 variant CENH3 into centromeric nucleosomes. Protein components of the kinetochore are either present at centromeres throughout the cell cycle or localize to centromeres transiently, prior to attachment of microtubules to each kinetochore in prometaphase of mitotic cells. This is the case for the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins in animal cells. The SAC complex ensures equal separation of chromosomes between daughter nuclei by preventing anaphase onset before metaphase is complete, i.e. the sister kinetochores of all chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers from opposite poles. In this review, we focus on the organization of centromeric DNA and the kinetochore assembly in plants. We summarize recent advances regarding loading of CENH3 into the centromere, and the subcellular localization and protein-protein interactions of Arabidopsis thaliana proteins involved in kinetochore assembly and function. We describe the transcriptional activity of corresponding genes based on in silico analysis of their promoters and cell cycle-dependent expression. Additionally, barley homologs of all selected A. thaliana proteins have been identified in silico, and their sequences and domain structures are presented. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Shelterin Protects Chromosome Ends by Compacting Telomeric Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bandaria, Jigar N.; Qin, Peiwu; Berk, Veysel; Chu, Steven; Yildiz, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences at chromosome ends, are shielded against the DNA damage response (DDR) by the shelterin complex. To understand how shelterin protects telomere ends, we investigated the structural organization of telomeric chromatin in human cells using super-resolution microscopy. We found that telomeres form compact globular structures through a complex network of interactions between shelterin subunits and telomeric DNA, and not by DNA methylation, histone deacetylation or histone trimethylation at telomeres and subtelomeric regions. Mutations that abrogate shelterin assembly or removal of individual subunits from telomeres cause up to a 10-fold increase in telomere volume. Decompacted telomeres become more accessible to telomere-associated proteins and accumulate DDR signals. Recompaction of telomeric chromatin using an orthogonal method displaces DDR signals from telomeres. These results reveal the chromatin remodeling activity of shelterin and demonstrate that shelterin-mediated compaction of telomeric chromatin provides robust protection of chromosome ends against the DDR machinery. PMID:26871633

  15. Of giraffes' necks and the inheritance of chromatin states.

    PubMed

    Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2017-05-26

    New work reports that both derepressed and hyper-repressed chromatin states in animals can be transmitted to progeny for many generations. Transmission depends on genomic architecture and histone modifications.

  16. A multiplexed system for quantitative comparisons of chromatin landscapes

    PubMed Central

    van Galen, Peter; Viny, Aaron D.; Ram, Oren; Ryan, Russell J.H.; Cotton, Matthew J.; Donohue, Laura; Sievers, Cem; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Carroll, Kaitlin M.; Cross, Michael B.; Levine, Ross L.; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications can provide systematic insight into the regulatory elements and programs engaged in a given cell type. However, conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) does not capture quantitative information on histone modification levels, requires large amounts of starting material, and involves tedious processing of each individual sample. Here we address these limitations with a technology that leverages DNA barcoding to profile chromatin quantitatively and in multiplexed format. We concurrently map relative levels of multiple histone modifications across multiple samples, each comprising as few as a thousand cells. We demonstrate the technology by monitoring dynamic changes following inhibition of P300, EZH2 or KDM5, by linking altered epigenetic landscapes to chromatin regulator mutations, and by mapping active and repressive marks in purified human hematopoietic stem cells. Hence, this technology enables quantitative studies of chromatin state dynamics across rare cell types, genotypes, environmental conditions and drug treatments. PMID:26687680

  17. Cohesin organizes chromatin loops at DNA replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, Emmanuelle; Ibarra, Arkaitz; Coulon, Vincent; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rico, Daniel; Casal, Ignacio; Schwob, Etienne; Losada, Ana; Méndez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Genomic DNA is packed in chromatin fibers organized in higher-order structures within the interphase nucleus. One level of organization involves the formation of chromatin loops that may provide a favorable environment to processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. However, little is known about the mechanistic basis of this structuration. Here we demonstrate that cohesin participates in the spatial organization of DNA replication factories in human cells. Cohesin is enriched at replication origins and interacts with prereplication complex proteins. Down-regulation of cohesin slows down S-phase progression by limiting the number of active origins and increasing the length of chromatin loops that correspond with replicon units. These results give a new dimension to the role of cohesin in the architectural organization of interphase chromatin, by showing its participation in DNA replication. PMID:21159821

  18. Polymer Physics of the Large-Scale Structure of Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Simona; Chiariello, Andrea Maria; Annunziatella, Carlo; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We summarize the picture emerging from recently proposed models of polymer physics describing the general features of chromatin large scale spatial architecture, as revealed by microscopy and Hi-C experiments.

  19. Separate roles for chromatin and lamins in nuclear mechanics.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Andrew D; Banigan, Edward J; Marko, John F

    2018-01-01

    The cell nucleus houses, protects, and arranges the genome within the cell. Therefore, nuclear mechanics and morphology are important for dictating gene regulation, and these properties are perturbed in many human diseases, such as cancers and progerias. The field of nuclear mechanics has long been dominated by studies of the nuclear lamina, the intermediate filament shell residing just beneath the nuclear membrane. However, a growing body of work shows that chromatin and chromatin-related factors within the nucleus are an essential part of the mechanical response of the cell nucleus to forces. Recently, our group demonstrated that chromatin and the lamina provide distinct mechanical contributions to nuclear mechanical response. The lamina is indeed important for robust response to large, whole-nucleus stresses, but chromatin dominates the short-extension response. These findings offer a clarifying perspective on varied nuclear mechanics measurements and observations, and they suggest several new exciting possibilities for understanding nuclear morphology, organization, and mechanics.

  20. From neural development to cognition: unexpected roles for chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ronan, Jehnna L.; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recent genome-sequencing studies in human neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders have uncovered mutations in many chromatin regulators. These human genetic studies, along with studies in model organisms, are providing insight into chromatin regulatory mechanisms in neural development and how alterations to these mechanisms can cause cognitive deficits, such as intellectual disability. We discuss several implicated chromatin regulators, including BAF (also known as SWI/SNF) and CHD8 chromatin remodellers, HDAC4 and the Polycomb component EZH2. Interestingly, mutations in EZH2 and certain BAF complex components have roles in both neurodevelopmental disorders and cancer, and overlapping point mutations are suggesting functionally important residues and domains. We speculate on the contribution of these similar mutations to disparate disorders. PMID:23568486

  1. ChIP-less analysis of chromatin states.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhangli; Boersma, Melissa D; Lee, Jin-Hee; Oliver, Samuel S; Liu, Shichong; Garcia, Benjamin A; Denu, John M

    2014-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key epigenetic regulators in chromatin-based processes. Increasing evidence suggests that vast combinations of PTMs exist within chromatin histones. These complex patterns, rather than individual PTMs, are thought to define functional chromatin states. However, the ability to interrogate combinatorial histone PTM patterns at the nucleosome level has been limited by the lack of direct molecular tools. Here we demonstrate an efficient, quantitative, antibody-free, chromatin immunoprecipitation-less (ChIP-less) method for interrogating diverse epigenetic states. At the heart of the workflow are recombinant chromatin reader domains, which target distinct chromatin states with combinatorial PTM patterns. Utilizing a newly designed combinatorial histone peptide microarray, we showed that three reader domains (ATRX-ADD, ING2-PHD and AIRE-PHD) displayed greater specificity towards combinatorial PTM patterns than corresponding commercial histone antibodies. Such specific recognitions were employed to develop a chromatin reader-based affinity enrichment platform (matrix-assisted reader chromatin capture, or MARCC). We successfully applied the reader-based platform to capture unique chromatin states, which were quantitatively profiled by mass spectrometry to reveal interconnections between nucleosomal histone PTMs. Specifically, a highly enriched signature that harbored H3K4me0, H3K9me2/3, H3K79me0 and H4K20me2/3 within the same nucleosome was identified from chromatin enriched by ATRX-ADD. This newly reported PTM combination was enriched in heterochromatin, as revealed by the associated DNA. Our results suggest the broad utility of recombinant reader domains as an enrichment tool specific to combinatorial PTM patterns, which are difficult to probe directly by antibody-based approaches. The reader affinity platform is compatible with several downstream analyses to investigate the physical coexistence of nucleosomal PTM

  2. The effect of human sperm chromatin maturity on ICSI outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kamil; Rosiak, Aleksandra; Gaczarzewicz, Dariusz; Jakubik, Joanna; Kurzawa, Rafal; Kazienko, Anna; Rymaszewska, Anna; Laszczynska, Maria; Grochans, Elzbieta; Piasecka, Malgorzata

    2018-03-29

    Because sperm chromatin may play a key role in reproductive success, we verify the associations between sperm chromatin abnormalities, embryo development and the ability to achieve pregnancy. The evaluation of sperm chromatin maturity using aniline blue (AB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) and toluidine blue (TB) staining were carried out in group of males from infertile couples that underwent ICSI. Low levels of sperm chromatin abnormalities (< 16%) were found in most subjects (> 50%). A higher percentage of TB-positive sperm cells were discovered in the men from couples who achieved ≤ 50% fertilized oocytes compared to men who achieved > 50%. No significant differences were discovered by the applied tests between the men from couples who achieved ≤ 50% and those who achieved > 50% high-quality embryos on the 3rd or 5th day after fertilization, nor between the men from couples who achieved pregnancy and those who failed. The sperm chromatin maturity did not correlate with the ICSI results. However, the ROC analysis revealed a significant predictive value of TB-positive spermatozoa only for fertilization. Therefore, the TB assay can be considered as a useful test for the prediction of fertilization. Our findings suggest that the level of sperm chromatin abnormalities of the examined men was not clinically significant. No found associations between sperm chromatin maturity and embryo development and the ability to achieve pregnancy. We could not exclude the effects of the repairing processes in the fertilized oocyte. The use of complementary tests that verify the status of the sperm chromatin seems justified.

  3. Prediction of Developmentally Competent Chromatin Conformation in Mouse Antral Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Daszkiewicz, Regina; Szymoniak, Magdalena; Gąsior, Łukasz; Polański, Zbigniew

    Mouse prophase oocytes isolated from antral follicles may possess two alternative types of chromatin configuration: NSN configuration represents more dispersed chromatin and is characteristic mainly for growing oocytes whereas SN configuration, attained upon oocyte growth, comprises more condensed chromatin with a significant fraction concentrated around the nucleolus. Importantly, fully grown oocytes isolated from antral follicles represent a non-homogenous population in which some oocytes posses NSN-type and others SN-type of chromatin conformation. From these two, only oocytes with SN configuration are able to complete full development upon fertilization. We show that among mouse oocytes isolated from antral follicles, those surrounded by cumulus cells were larger and more frequently possessed SN chromatin than oocytes lacking the complete cumulus cell layer. Females primed with PMSG gave a higher number of oocytes with a complete layer of cumulus cells and the frequency of oocytes with SN chromatin was also elevated. Within the whole population of isolated antral oocytes, we observed subtle variation in size which allowed fractionation of oocytes under a stereomicroscope into groups representing oocytes of slightly different sizes. The occurrence of SN chromatin configuration was highly dependent on the oocyte size and its frequency increased gradually in subsequent size groups reaching 95-100% in the group representing the largest oocytes. These findings demonstrate that the subtle differences in the size of antral oocytes allow prediction of the status of their chromatin, thus providing a simple, fast, non-invasive and non-expensive way to select good quality oocytes for ART purposes in mammals.

  4. A Bayesian mixture model for chromatin interaction data.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liang; Lin, Shili

    2015-02-01

    Chromatin interactions mediated by a particular protein are of interest for studying gene regulation, especially the regulation of genes that are associated with, or known to be causative of, a disease. A recent molecular technique, Chromatin interaction analysis by paired-end tag sequencing (ChIA-PET), that uses chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and high throughput paired-end sequencing, is able to detect such chromatin interactions genomewide. However, ChIA-PET may generate noise (i.e., pairings of DNA fragments by random chance) in addition to true signal (i.e., pairings of DNA fragments by interactions). In this paper, we propose MC_DIST based on a mixture modeling framework to identify true chromatin interactions from ChIA-PET count data (counts of DNA fragment pairs). The model is cast into a Bayesian framework to take into account the dependency among the data and the available information on protein binding sites and gene promoters to reduce false positives. A simulation study showed that MC_DIST outperforms the previously proposed hypergeometric model in terms of both power and type I error rate. A real data study showed that MC_DIST may identify potential chromatin interactions between protein binding sites and gene promoters that may be missed by the hypergeometric model. An R package implementing the MC_DIST model is available at http://www.stat.osu.edu/~statgen/SOFTWARE/MDM.

  5. Repressive Chromatin in Caenorhabditis elegans: Establishment, Composition, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahringer, Julie; Gasser, Susan M.

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin is organized and compacted in the nucleus through the association of histones and other proteins, which together control genomic activity. Two broad types of chromatin can be distinguished: euchromatin, which is generally transcriptionally active, and heterochromatin, which is repressed. Here we examine the current state of our understanding of repressed chromatin in Caenorhabditis elegans, focusing on roles of histone modifications associated with repression, such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3) or the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (MES-2/3/6)-deposited modification H3K27me3, and on proteins that recognize these modifications. Proteins involved in chromatin repression are important for development, and have demonstrated roles in nuclear organization, repetitive element silencing, genome integrity, and the regulation of euchromatin. Additionally, chromatin factors participate in repression with small RNA pathways. Recent findings shed light on heterochromatin function and regulation in C. elegans, and should inform our understanding of repressed chromatin in other animals. PMID:29378810

  6. Minor Groove Binder Distamycin Remodels Chromatin but Inhibits Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Parijat; Banerjee, Amrita; Shandilya, Jayasha; Senapati, Parijat; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Kundu, Tapas K.; Dasgupta, Dipak

    2013-01-01

    The condensed structure of chromatin limits access of cellular machinery towards template DNA. This in turn represses essential processes like transcription, replication, repair and recombination. The repression is alleviated by a variety of energy dependent processes, collectively known as “chromatin remodeling”. In a eukaryotic cell, a fine balance between condensed and de-condensed states of chromatin helps to maintain an optimum level of gene expression. DNA binding small molecules have the potential to perturb such equilibrium. We present herein the study of an oligopeptide antibiotic distamycin, which binds to the minor groove of B-DNA. Chromatin mobility assays and circular dichroism spectroscopy have been employed to study the effect of distamycin on chromatosomes, isolated from the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that distamycin is capable of remodeling both chromatosomes and reconstituted nucleosomes, and the remodeling takes place in an ATP-independent manner. Binding of distamycin to the linker and nucleosomal DNA culminates in eviction of the linker histone and the formation of a population of off-centered nucleosomes. This hints at a possible corkscrew type motion of the DNA with respect to the histone octamer. Our results indicate that distamycin in spite of remodeling chromatin, inhibits transcription from both DNA and chromatin templates. Therefore, the DNA that is made accessible due to remodeling is either structurally incompetent for transcription, or bound distamycin poses a roadblock for the transcription machinery to advance. PMID:23460895

  7. On the physical and chemical dynamics of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apratim, Manjul

    The research performed leading to this dissertation is an endeavor to explore two broad classes of developmental phenomena in the chromatin complex in eukaryotic cells---physical, for instance, long range interactions between enhancers and promoters, and chemical, such as epigenetic chromatin silencing. I begin by introducing the reader to both types of phenomena, and then set the stage for our strategy in the exploration of the physical side of these processes by creating a new machinery from existing pieces of polymer physics. I then make a brief foray into theoretical realms in an attempt to answer the question of what kinds of conformations of polymers dominate in what regimes. Subsequently, I proceed to consider the problem of analyzing and interpreting data from a major technique of probing the behavior of the chromatin complex in vivo --- Chromosome Conformation Capture --- towards which end we have developed and implemented a new and robust algorithm called 'G.R.O.M.A.T.I.N.'. Subsequently, I explore how similar ideas may be invoked in the analysis of direct microscopic observations of native chromatin structure via Fluorescence in situ Hybridization. Following this, I look at the problems of epigenetic chromatin silencing domain formation and stability in the presence of titration feedback and of stochastic noise, and demonstrate how the widely accepted polymerization model of silencing is consistent with Chromatin Immunoprecipitation data from silencing domains in budding yeast. I finally conclude with musings on recent evidence pinpointing the need to unify the physical and chemical pictures into one grand formulation.

  8. Characterizing the molecular architectures of chromatin-modifying complexes.

    PubMed

    Setiaputra, Dheva T; Yip, Calvin K

    2017-11-01

    Eukaryotic cells package their genome in the form of a DNA-protein complex known as chromatin. This organization not only condenses the genome to fit within the confines of the nucleus, but also provides a platform for a cell to regulate accessibility to different gene sequences. The basic packaging element of chromatin is the nucleosome, which consists of 146 base pairs of DNA wrapped around histone proteins. One major means that a cell regulates chromatin structure is by depositing post-translational modifications on nucleosomal histone proteins, and thereby altering internucleosomal interactions and/or binding to different chromatin associated factors. These chromatin modifications are often catalyzed by multi-subunit enzyme complexes, whose large size, sophisticated composition, and inherent conformational flexibility pose significant technical challenges to their biochemical and structural characterization. Multiple structural approaches including nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, single-particle electron microscopy, and crosslinking coupled to mass spectrometry are often used synergistically to probe the overall architecture, subunit organization, and catalytic mechanisms of these macromolecular assemblies. In this review, we highlight several recent chromatin-modifying complexes studies that embodies this multipronged structural approach, and explore common themes amongst them. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biophysics in Canada, edited by Lewis Kay, John Baenziger, Albert Berghuis and Peter Tieleman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Epigenetic regulation of open chromatin in pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Kikyo, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    The recent progress in pluripotent stem cell research has opened new avenues of disease modeling, drug screening, and transplantation of patient-specific tissues that had been unimaginable until a decade ago. The central mechanism underlying pluripotency is epigenetic gene regulation; the majority of cell signaling pathways, both extracellular and cytoplasmic, eventually alter the epigenetic status of their target genes during the process of activating or suppressing the genes to acquire or maintain pluripotency. It has long been thought that the chromatin of pluripotent stem cells is globally open to enable the timely activation of essentially all genes in the genome during differentiation into multiple lineages. The current article reviews descriptive observations and the epigenetic machinery relevant to what is supposed to be globally open chromatin in pluripotent stem cells. This includes microscopic appearance, permissive gene transcription, chromatin remodeling complexes, histone modifications, DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, dynamic movement of chromatin proteins, nucleosome accessibility and positioning, and long-range chromosomal interactions. Detailed analyses of each element, however, have revealed that the globally open chromatin hypothesis is not necessarily supported by some of the critical experimental evidence, such as genome-wide nucleosome accessibility and nucleosome positioning. Further understanding of the epigenetic gene regulation is expected to determine the true nature of the so-called globally open chromatin in pluripotent stem. PMID:24695097

  10. Ectopically tethered CP190 induces large-scale chromatin decondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahanger, Sajad H.; Günther, Katharina; Weth, Oliver; Bartkuhn, Marek; Bhonde, Ramesh R.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Insulator mediated alteration in higher-order chromatin and/or nucleosome organization is an important aspect of epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have suggested a key role for CP190 in such processes. In this study, we analysed the effects of ectopically tethered insulator factors on chromatin structure and found that CP190 induces large-scale decondensation when targeted to a condensed lacO array in mammalian and Drosophila cells. In contrast, dCTCF alone, is unable to cause such a decondensation, however, when CP190 is present, dCTCF recruits it to the lacO array and mediates chromatin unfolding. The CP190 induced opening of chromatin may not be correlated with transcriptional activation, as binding of CP190 does not enhance luciferase activity in reporter assays. We propose that CP190 may mediate histone modification and chromatin remodelling activity to induce an open chromatin state by its direct recruitment or targeting by a DNA binding factor such as dCTCF.

  11. A chromatin remodelling complex that loads cohesin onto human chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimi, Mohamed-Ali; Bochar, Daniel A.; Schmiesing, John A.; Dong, Yuanshu; Barak, Orr G.; Speicher, David W.; Yokomori, Kyoko; Shiekhattar, Ramin

    2002-08-01

    Nucleosomal DNA is arranged in a higher-order structure that presents a barrier to most cellular processes involving protein DNA interactions. The cellular machinery involved in sister chromatid cohesion, the cohesin complex, also requires access to the nucleosomal DNA to perform its function in chromosome segregation. The machineries that provide this accessibility are termed chromatin remodelling factors. Here, we report the isolation of a human ISWI (SNF2h)-containing chromatin remodelling complex that encompasses components of the cohesin and NuRD complexes. We show that the hRAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex directly interacts with the ATPase subunit SNF2h. Mapping of hRAD21, SNF2h and Mi2 binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveals the specific association of these three proteins with human DNA elements containing Alu sequences. We find a correlation between modification of histone tails and association of the SNF2h/cohesin complex with chromatin. Moreover, we show that the association of the cohesin complex with chromatin can be regulated by the state of DNA methylation. Finally, we present evidence pointing to a role for the ATPase activity of SNF2h in the loading of hRAD21 on chromatin.

  12. Environmental-stress-induced Chromatin Regulation and its Heritability

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lei; Wuptra, Kenly; Chen, Danqi; Li, Hongjie; Huang, Shau-Ku; Jin, Chunyuan; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is subject to proofreading and repair mechanisms during the process of DNA replication, as well as repair to maintain genetic and epigenetic information and genome stability. The dynamic structure of chromatin modulates various nuclear processes, including transcription and replication, by altering the accessibility of the DNA to regulatory factors. Structural changes in chromatin are affected by the chemical modification of histone proteins and DNA, remodeling of nucleosomes, incorporation of variant histones, noncoding RNAs, and nonhistone DNA-binding proteins. Phenotypic diversity and fidelity can be balanced by controlling stochastic switching of chromatin structure and dynamics in response to the environmental disruptors and endogenous stresses. The dynamic chromatin remodeling can, therefore, serve as a sensor, through which environmental and/or metabolic agents can alter gene expression, leading to global cellular changes involving multiple interactive networks. Furthermore its recent evidence also suggests that the epigenetic changes are heritable during the development. This review will discuss the environmental sensing system for chromatin regulation and genetic and epigenetic controls from developmental perspectives. PMID:25045581

  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Centromere Chromatin Stability by Dietary and Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Saavedra, Diego; Strakovsky, Rita S; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-11-01

    The centromere is a genomic locus required for the segregation of the chromosomes during cell division. This chromosomal region together with pericentromeres has been found to be susceptible to damage, and thus the perturbation of the centromere could lead to the development of aneuploidic events. Metabolic abnormalities that underlie the generation of cancer include inflammation, oxidative stress, cell cycle deregulation, and numerous others. The micronucleus assay, an early clinical marker of cancer, has been shown to provide a reliable measure of genotoxic damage that may signal cancer initiation. In the current review, we will discuss the events that lead to micronucleus formation and centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin instability, as well transcripts emanating from these regions, which were previously thought to be inactive. Studies were selected in PubMed if they reported the effects of nutritional status (macro- and micronutrients) or environmental toxicant exposure on micronucleus frequency or any other chromosomal abnormality in humans, animals, or cell models. Mounting evidence from epidemiologic, environmental, and nutritional studies provides a novel perspective on the origination of aneuploidic events. Although substantial evidence exists describing the role that nutritional status and environmental toxicants have on the generation of micronuclei and other nuclear aberrations, limited information is available to describe the importance of macro- and micronutrients on centromeric and pericentromeric chromatin stability. Moving forward, studies that specifically address the direct link between nutritional status, excess, or deficiency and the epigenetic regulation of the centromere will provide much needed insight into the nutritional and environmental regulation of this chromosomal region and the initiation of aneuploidy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 Encodes a SMARCA3-Like Chromatin Remodeling Factor Regulating Elongation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Kailiang; Behera, Tusar K.; Pandey, Sudhakar; Wen, Changlong; Wang, Yuhui; Simon, Philipp W.; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the UVR8-mediated signaling pathway is employed to attain UVB protection and acclimation to deal with low-dosage UVB (LDUVB)-induced stresses. Here, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), which regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation by modulating the UVR8 signaling pathway. We showed that hypocotyl elongation in cucumbers carrying the recessive sh1 allele was LDUVB insensitive and that Sh1 encoded a human SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor. The allele frequency and distribution pattern at this locus among natural populations supported the wild cucumber origin of sh1 for local adaptation, which was under selection during domestication. The cultivated cucumber carries predominantly the Sh1 allele; the sh1 allele is nearly fixed in the semiwild Xishuangbanna cucumber, and the wild cucumber population is largely at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two alleles. The SH1 protein sequence was highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms, but its regulation of hypocotyl elongation in cucumber seems to be a novel function. While Sh1 expression was inhibited by LDUVB, its transcript abundance was highly correlated with hypocotyl elongation rate and the expression level of cell-elongation-related genes. Expression profiling of key regulators in the UVR8 signaling pathway revealed significant differential expression of CsHY5 between two near isogenic lines of Sh1. Sh1 and CsHY5 acted antagonistically at transcriptional level. A working model was proposed in which Sh1 regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation in cucumber through changing the chromatin states and thus the accessibility of CsHY5 in the UVR8 signaling pathway to promoters of LDUVB-responsive genes for hypocotyl elongation. PMID:27559036

  15. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-Chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels both in cultured cells and animal models. It has been suggested that the packaging of chromatin fibers in the interphase nucleus is closely related to genome function, and the changes in transcriptional activity are tightly correlated with changes in chromatin folding. This study explores the changes of chromatin conformation and chromatin-chromatin interactions in the simulated microgravity environment, and investigates their correlation to the expression of genes located at different regions of the chromosome. To investigate the folding of chromatin in interphase under various culture conditions, human epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were fixed in the G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome as separate colors. After images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multi-mega base pair scale. In order to determine the effects of microgravity on chromosome conformation and orientation, measures such as distance between homologous pairs, relative orientation of chromosome arms about a shared midpoint, and orientation of arms within individual chromosomes were all considered as potentially impacted by simulated microgravity conditions. The studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested an association of interphase chromatin folding with radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. Interestingly, the distributions of genes with expression changes over chromosome 3 in cells cultured under microgravity environment are apparently clustered on specific loci and chromosomes. This data provides important insights into how mammalian cells respond to microgravity at molecular level.

  16. Locus of control and decision to abort.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P N; Strano, D A; Willingham, W

    1984-04-01

    The relationship of locus of control to deciding on an abortion was investigated by administering Rotter's Locus of Control Scale to 118 women immediately prior to abortion and 2 weeks and 3 months following abortion. Subjects' scores were compared across the 3 time periods, and the abortion group's pretest scores were compared with those of a nonpregnant control, group. As hypothesized, the aborting group scored significantly more internal than the general population but no differences in locus of control were found across the 3 time period. The length of delay in deciding to abort an unwanted pregnancy following confirmation was also assessed. Women seeking 1st trimester abortions were divided into internal and external groups on the Rotter Scale and the lengths of delay were compared. The hypothesis that external scores would delay the decision longer than internal ones was confirmed. The results confirm characteristics of the locus of control construct and add information about personality characteristics of women undergoing abortion.

  17. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia MacCollin Scott R. Plotkin, M.D., Ph.D...DATES COVERED 1 July 2003 – 30 June 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b...In 2007, mutations in the SMARCB1 tumor suppressor (also known as INI1 and hSNF5), which lies in the familial schwannomatosis candidate region, were

  18. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...NUMBER Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0445 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...can be found on next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS schwannomatosis , tumor suppressor gene, NF2, molecular genetics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  19. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia MacCollin, M.D...COVERED (From - To) 1 Jul 2005 – 30 Jun 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Background: Schwannomatosis is a recently recognized third major type of

  20. LCR 5′ hypersensitive site specificity for globin gene activation within the active chromatin hub

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Kenneth R.; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Harju-Baker, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The DNaseI hypersensitive sites (HSs) of the human β-globin locus control region (LCR) may function as part of an LCR holocomplex within a larger active chromatin hub (ACH). Differential activation of the globin genes during development may be controlled in part by preferential interaction of each gene with specific individual HSs during globin gene switching, a change in conformation of the LCR holocomplex, or both. To distinguish between these possibilities, human β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) lines were produced in which the ε-globin gene was replaced with a second marked β-globin gene (βm), coupled to an intact LCR, a 5′HS3 complete deletion (5′ΔHS3) or a 5′HS3 core deletion (5′ΔHS3c). The 5′ΔHS3c mice expressed βm-globin throughout development; γ-globin was co-expressed in the embryonic yolk sac, but not in the fetal liver; and wild-type β-globin was co-expressed in adult mice. Although the 5′HS3 core was not required for βm-globin expression, previous work showed that the 5′HS3 core is necessary for ε-globin expression during embryonic erythropoiesis. A similar phenotype was observed in 5′HS complete deletion mice, except βm-globin expression was higher during primitive erythropoiesis and γ-globin expression continued into fetal definitive erythropoiesis. These data support a site specificity model of LCR HS-globin gene interaction. PMID:23042246

  1. LCR 5' hypersensitive site specificity for globin gene activation within the active chromatin hub.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kenneth R; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Harju-Baker, Susanna

    2012-12-01

    The DNaseI hypersensitive sites (HSs) of the human β-globin locus control region (LCR) may function as part of an LCR holocomplex within a larger active chromatin hub (ACH). Differential activation of the globin genes during development may be controlled in part by preferential interaction of each gene with specific individual HSs during globin gene switching, a change in conformation of the LCR holocomplex, or both. To distinguish between these possibilities, human β-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome (β-YAC) lines were produced in which the ε-globin gene was replaced with a second marked β-globin gene (β(m)), coupled to an intact LCR, a 5'HS3 complete deletion (5'ΔHS3) or a 5'HS3 core deletion (5'ΔHS3c). The 5'ΔHS3c mice expressed β(m)-globin throughout development; γ-globin was co-expressed in the embryonic yolk sac, but not in the fetal liver; and wild-type β-globin was co-expressed in adult mice. Although the 5'HS3 core was not required for β(m)-globin expression, previous work showed that the 5'HS3 core is necessary for ε-globin expression during embryonic erythropoiesis. A similar phenotype was observed in 5'HS complete deletion mice, except β(m)-globin expression was higher during primitive erythropoiesis and γ-globin expression continued into fetal definitive erythropoiesis. These data support a site specificity model of LCR HS-globin gene interaction.

  2. Micron-scale coherence in interphase chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zidovska, Alexandra; Weitz, David A.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin structure and dynamics control all aspects of DNA biology yet are poorly understood, especially at large length scales. We developed an approach, displacement correlation spectroscopy based on time-resolved image correlation analysis, to map chromatin dynamics simultaneously across the whole nucleus in cultured human cells. This method revealed that chromatin movement was coherent across large regions (4–5 µm) for several seconds. Regions of coherent motion extended beyond the boundaries of single-chromosome territories, suggesting elastic coupling of motion over length scales much larger than those of genes. These large-scale, coupled motions were ATP dependent and unidirectional for several seconds, perhaps accounting for ATP-dependent directed movement of single genes. Perturbation of major nuclear ATPases such as DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase II, and topoisomerase II eliminated micron-scale coherence, while causing rapid, local movement to increase; i.e., local motions accelerated but became uncoupled from their neighbors. We observe similar trends in chromatin dynamics upon inducing a direct DNA damage; thus we hypothesize that this may be due to DNA damage responses that physically relax chromatin and block long-distance communication of forces. PMID:24019504

  3. Role of chromatin in water stress responses in plants

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wagner, Doris

    2014-01-01

    As sessile organisms, plants are exposed to environmental stresses throughout their life. They have developed survival strategies such as developmental and morphological adaptations, as well as physiological responses, to protect themselves from adverse environments. In addition, stress sensing triggers large-scale transcriptional reprogramming directed at minimizing the deleterious effect of water stress on plant cells. Here, we review recent findings that reveal a role of chromatin in water stress responses. In addition, we discuss data in support of the idea that chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may be direct targets of stress signalling pathways. Modulation of chromatin regulator activity by these signaling pathways may be critical in minimizing potential trade-offs between growth and stress responses. Alterations in the chromatin organization and/or in the activity of chromatin remodelling and modifying enzymes may furthermore contribute to stress memory. Mechanistic insight into these phenomena derived from studies in model plant systems should allow future engineering of broadly drought-tolerant crop plants that do not incur unnecessary losses in yield or growth. PMID:24302754

  4. Dissecting the chromatin interactome of microRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dijun; Fu, Liang-Yu; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Guoliang; Zhang, Hang; Jiang, Li; Harrison, Andrew P; Shanahan, Hugh P; Klukas, Christian; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Ruan, Yijun; Chen, Ling-Ling; Chen, Ming

    2014-03-01

    Our knowledge of the role of higher-order chromatin structures in transcription of microRNA genes (MIRs) is evolving rapidly. Here we investigate the effect of 3D architecture of chromatin on the transcriptional regulation of MIRs. We demonstrate that MIRs have transcriptional features that are similar to protein-coding genes. RNA polymerase II-associated ChIA-PET data reveal that many groups of MIRs and protein-coding genes are organized into functionally compartmentalized chromatin communities and undergo coordinated expression when their genomic loci are spatially colocated. We observe that MIRs display widespread communication in those transcriptionally active communities. Moreover, miRNA-target interactions are significantly enriched among communities with functional homogeneity while depleted from the same community from which they originated, suggesting MIRs coordinating function-related pathways at posttranscriptional level. Further investigation demonstrates the existence of spatial MIR-MIR chromatin interacting networks. We show that groups of spatially coordinated MIRs are frequently from the same family and involved in the same disease category. The spatial interaction network possesses both common and cell-specific subnetwork modules that result from the spatial organization of chromatin within different cell types. Together, our study unveils an entirely unexplored layer of MIR regulation throughout the human genome that links the spatial coordination of MIRs to their co-expression and function.

  5. The molecular topography of silenced chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Thurtle, Deborah M.; Rine, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin imparts regional, promoter-independent repression of genes and is epigenetically heritable. Understanding how silencing achieves this regional repression is a fundamental problem in genetics and development. Current models of yeast silencing posit that Sir proteins, recruited by transcription factors bound to the silencers, spread throughout the silenced region. To test this model directly at high resolution, we probed the silenced chromatin architecture by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) of Sir proteins, histones, and a key histone modification, H4K16-acetyl. These analyses revealed that Sir proteins are strikingly concentrated at and immediately adjacent to the silencers, with lower levels of enrichment over the promoters at HML and HMR, the critical targets for transcriptional repression. The telomeres also showed discrete peaks of Sir enrichment yet a continuous domain of hypoacetylated histone H4K16. Surprisingly, ChIP-seq of cross-linked chromatin revealed a distribution of nucleosomes at silenced loci that was similar to Sir proteins, whereas native nucleosome maps showed a regular distribution throughout silenced loci, indicating that cross-linking captured a specialized chromatin organization imposed by Sir proteins. This specialized chromatin architecture observed in yeast informs the importance of a steric contribution to regional repression in other organisms. PMID:24493645

  6. DNA Looping Facilitates Targeting of a Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Yadon, Adam N; Singh, Badri Nath; Hampsey, Michael; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Summary ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes are highly abundant and play pivotal roles regulating DNA-dependent processes. The mechanisms by which they are targeted to specific loci have not been well understood on a genome-wide scale. Here we present evidence that a major targeting mechanism for the Isw2 chromatin remodeling enzyme to specific genomic loci is through sequence-specific transcription factor (TF)-dependent recruitment. Unexpectedly, Isw2 is recruited in a TF-dependent fashion to a large number of loci without TF binding sites. Using the 3C assay, we show that Isw2 can be targeted by Ume6- and TFIIB-dependent DNA looping. These results identify DNA looping as a previously unknown mechanism for the recruitment of a chromatin remodeling enzyme and defines a novel function for DNA looping. We also present evidence suggesting that Ume6-dependent DNA looping is involved in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional repression, revealing a mechanism by which the three-dimensional folding of chromatin affects DNA-dependent processes. PMID:23478442

  7. Histone modifications and chromatin dynamics: a focus on filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Gerald; Loidl, Peter; Graessle, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The readout of the genetic information of eukaryotic organisms is significantly regulated by modifications of DNA and chromatin proteins. Chromatin alterations induce genome-wide and local changes in gene expression and affect a variety of processes in response to internal and external signals during growth, differentiation, development, in metabolic processes, diseases, and abiotic and biotic stresses. This review aims at summarizing the roles of histone H1 and the acetylation and methylation of histones in filamentous fungi and links this knowledge to the huge body of data from other systems. Filamentous fungi show a wide range of morphologies and have developed a complex network of genes that enables them to use a great variety of substrates. This fact, together with the possibility of simple and quick genetic manipulation, highlights these organisms as model systems for the investigation of gene regulation. However, little is still known about regulation at the chromatin level in filamentous fungi. Understanding the role of chromatin in transcriptional regulation would be of utmost importance with respect to the impact of filamentous fungi in human diseases and agriculture. The synthesis of compounds (antibiotics, immunosuppressants, toxins, and compounds with adverse effects) is also likely to be regulated at the chromatin level. PMID:18221488

  8. Osmotic Challenge Drives Rapid and Reversible Chromatin Condensation in Chondrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Irianto, Jerome; Swift, Joe; Martins, Rui P.; McPhail, Graham D.; Knight, Martin M.; Discher, Dennis E.; Lee, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in extracellular osmolality have been shown to alter gene expression patterns and metabolic activity of various cell types, including chondrocytes. However, mechanisms by which physiological or pathological changes in osmolality impact chondrocyte function remain unclear. Here we use quantitative image analysis, electron microscopy, and a DNase I assay to show that hyperosmotic conditions (>400 mOsm/kg) induce chromatin condensation, while hypoosmotic conditions (100 mOsm/kg) cause decondensation. Large density changes (p < 0.001) occur over a very narrow range of physiological osmolalities, which suggests that chondrocytes likely experience chromatin condensation and decondensation during a daily loading cycle. The effect of changes in osmolality on nuclear morphology (p < 0.01) and chromatin condensation (p < 0.001) also differed between chondrocytes in monolayer culture and three-dimensional agarose, suggesting a role for cell adhesion. The relationship between condensation and osmolality was accurately modeled by a polymer gel model which, along with the rapid nature of the chromatin condensation (<20 s), reveals the basic physicochemical nature of the process. Alterations in chromatin structure are expected to influence gene expression and thereby regulate chondrocyte activity in response to osmotic changes. PMID:23442954

  9. Chromatin organization and radio resistance in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus.

    PubMed

    Lieber, Arnon; Leis, Andrew; Kushmaro, Ariel; Minsky, Abraham; Medalia, Ohad

    2009-03-01

    The organization of chromatin has a major impact on cellular activities, such as gene expression. For bacteria, it was suggested that the spatial organization of the genetic material correlates with transcriptional levels, implying a specific architecture of the chromosome within the cytoplasm. Accordingly, recent technological advances have emphasized the organization of the genetic material within nucleoid structures. Gemmata obscuriglobus, a member of the phylum Planctomycetes, exhibits a distinctive nucleoid structure in which chromatin is encapsulated within a discrete membrane-bound compartment. Here, we show that this soil and freshwater bacterium tolerates high doses of UV and ionizing radiation. Cryoelectron tomography of frozen hydrated sections and electron microscopy of freeze-substituted cells have indicated a more highly ordered condensed-chromatin organization in actively dividing and stationary-phase G. obscuriglobus cells. These three-dimensional analyses revealed a complex network of double membranes that engulf the condensed DNA. Bioinformatics analysis has revealed the existence of a putative component involved in nonhomologous DNA end joining that presumably plays a role in maintaining chromatin integrity within the bacterium. Thus, our observations further support the notion that packed chromatin organization enhances radiation tolerance.

  10. Ubiquitin Utilizes an Acidic Surface Patch to Alter Chromatin Structure

    PubMed Central

    Debelouchina, Galia T.; Gerecht, Karola; Muir, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitylation of histone H2B, associated with gene activation, leads to chromatin decompaction through an unknown mechanism. We used a hydrogen-deuterium exchange strategy coupled with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to map the ubiquitin surface responsible for its structural effects on chromatin. Our studies revealed that a previously uncharacterized acidic patch on ubiquitin comprising residues Glu16 and Glu18 is essential for decompaction. These residues mediate promiscuous electrostatic interactions with the basic histone proteins, potentially positioning the ubiquitin moiety as a dynamic “wedge” that prevents the intimate association of neighboring nucleosomes. Using two independent cross-linking strategies and an oligomerization assay, we also showed that ubiquitin-ubiquitin contacts occur in the chromatin environment and are important for the solubilization of the chromatin polymers. Our work highlights a novel, chromatin-related aspect of the “ubiquitin code”, and sheds light on how the information rich ubiquitin modification can orchestrate different biochemical outcomes using different surface features. PMID:27870837

  11. Distinct modes of DNA accessibility in plant chromatin.

    PubMed

    Shu, Huan; Wildhaber, Thomas; Siretskiy, Alexey; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hennig, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The accessibility of DNA to regulatory proteins is a major property of the chromatin environment that favours or hinders transcription. Recent studies in flies reported that H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin is accessible while H3K27me3-marked chromatin forms extensive domains of low accessibility. Here we show that plants regulate DNA accessibility differently. H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin is the least accessible in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, and H3K27me3-marked chromatin also has low accessibility. We see that very long genes without H3K9me2 or H3K27me3 are often inaccessible and generated significantly lower amounts of antisense transcripts than other genes, suggesting that reduced accessibility is associated with reduced recognition of alternative promoters. Low accessibility of H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin and long genes depend on cytosine methylation, explaining why chromatin accessibility differs between plants and flies. Together, we conclude that restriction of DNA accessibility is a local property of chromatin and not necessarily a consequence of microscopically visible compaction.

  12. Nucleosomal chromatin in the mature sperm of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Elnfati, Abdul Hakim; Iles, David; Miller, David

    2016-03-01

    During spermiogenesis in mammals and many other vertebrate classes, histone-containing nucleosomes are replaced by protamine toroids, which can repackage chromatin at a 10 to 20-fold higher density than in a typical somatic nucleus. However, recent evidence suggests that sperm of many species, including human and mouse retain a small compartment of nucleosomal chromatin, particularly near genes important for embryogenesis. As in mammals, spermiogenesis in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster has also been shown to undergo a programmed substitution of nucleosomes with protamine-like proteins. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and whole-genome tiling array hybridization (ChIP-chip), supported by immunocytochemical evidence, we show that in a manner analogous to nucleosomal chromatin retention in mammalian spermatozoa, distinct domains packaged by the canonical histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 are present in the fly sperm nucleus. We also find evidence for the retention of nucleosomes with specific histone H3 trimethylation marks characteristic of chromatin repression (H3K9me3, H3K27me3) and active transcription (H3K36me3). Raw and processed data from the experiments are available at GEO, accession GSE52165.

  13. Circadian expression profiles of chromatin remodeling factor genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Gil; Lee, Kyounghee; Jang, Kiyoung; Seo, Pil Joon

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a biological time keeper mechanism that regulates biological rhythms to a period of approximately 24 h. The circadian clock enables organisms to anticipate environmental cycles and coordinates internal cellular physiology with external environmental cues. In plants, correct matching of the clock with the environment confers fitness advantages to plant survival and reproduction. Therefore, circadian clock components are regulated at multiple layers to fine-tune the circadian oscillation. Epigenetic regulation provides an additional layer of circadian control. However, little is known about which chromatin remodeling factors are responsible for circadian control. In this work, we analyzed circadian expression of 109 chromatin remodeling factor genes and identified 17 genes that display circadian oscillation. In addition, we also found that a candidate interacts with a core clock component, supporting that clock activity is regulated in part by chromatin modification. As an initial attempt to elucidate the relationship between chromatin modification and circadian oscillation, we identified novel regulatory candidates that provide a platform for future investigations of chromatin regulation of the circadian clock.

  14. GIGANTEA directly activates Flowering Locus T in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Mariko; Kay, Steve A

    2011-07-12

    Plants perceive environmental signals such as day length and temperature to determine optimal timing for the transition from vegetative to floral stages. Arabidopsis flowers under long-day conditions through the CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulatory module. It is thought that the environmental cues for photoperiodic control of flowering are initially perceived in the leaves. We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) regulates the timing of CO expression, together with FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX protein 1. Normally, CO and FT are expressed exclusively in vascular bundles, whereas GI is expressed in various tissues. To better elucidate the role of tissue-specific expression of GI in the flowering pathway, we established transgenic lines in which GI is expressed exclusively in mesophyll, vascular bundles, epidermis, shoot apical meristem, or root. We found that GI expressed in either mesophyll or vascular bundles rescues the late-flowering phenotype of the gi-2 loss-of-function mutant under both short-day and long-day conditions. Interestingly, GI expressed in mesophyll or vascular tissues increases FT expression without up-regulating CO expression under short-day conditions. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between GI and FT repressors in mesophyll. We found that GI can bind to three FT repressors: SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TEMPRANILLO (TEM)1, and TEM2. Finally, our chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that GI binds to FT promoter regions that are near the SVP binding sites. Taken together, our data further elucidate the multiple roles of GI in the regulation of flowering time.

  15. Large scale genomic reorganization of topological domains at the HoxD locus.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Pierre J; Leleu, Marion; Mormann, Benjamin H; Lopez-Delisle, Lucille; Noordermeer, Daan; Beccari, Leonardo; Duboule, Denis

    2017-08-07

    The transcriptional activation of HoxD genes during mammalian limb development involves dynamic interactions with two topologically associating domains (TADs) flanking the HoxD cluster. In particular, the activation of the most posterior HoxD genes in developing digits is controlled by regulatory elements located in the centromeric TAD (C-DOM) through long-range contacts. To assess the structure-function relationships underlying such interactions, we measured compaction levels and TAD discreteness using a combination of chromosome conformation capture (4C-seq) and DNA FISH. We assessed the robustness of the TAD architecture by using a series of genomic deletions and inversions that impact the integrity of this chromatin domain and that remodel long-range contacts. We report multi-partite associations between HoxD genes and up to three enhancers. We find that the loss of native chromatin topology leads to the remodeling of TAD structure following distinct parameters. Our results reveal that the recomposition of TAD architectures after large genomic re-arrangements is dependent on a boundary-selection mechanism in which CTCF mediates the gating of long-range contacts in combination with genomic distance and sequence specificity. Accordingly, the building of a recomposed TAD at this locus depends on distinct functional and constitutive parameters.

  16. Locus coeruleus activation accelerates perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Glennon, Erin; Carcea, Ioana; Martins, Ana Raquel O; Multani, Jasmin; Shehu, Ina; Svirsky, Mario A; Froemke, Robert C

    2018-05-31

    Neural representations of the external world are constructed and updated in a manner that depends on behavioral context. For neocortical networks, this contextual information is relayed by a diverse range of neuromodulatory systems, which govern attention and signal the value of internal state variables such as arousal, motivation, and stress. Neuromodulators enable cortical circuits to differentially process specific stimuli and modify synaptic strengths in order to maintain short- or long-term memory traces of significant perceptual events and behavioral episodes. One of the most important subcortical neuromodulatory systems for attention and arousal is the noradrenergic locus coeruleus. Here we report that the noradrenergic system can enhance behavior in rats performing a self-initiated auditory recognition task, and optogenetic stimulation of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons accelerated the rate at which trained rats began correctly responding to a change in reward contingency. Animals successively progressed through distinct behavioral epochs, including periods of perseverance and exploration that occurred much more rapidly when animals received locus coeruleus stimulation. In parallel, we made recordings from primary auditory cortex and found that pairing tones with locus coeruleus stimulation led to a similar set of changes to cortical tuning profiles. Thus both behavioral and neural responses go through phases of adjustment for exploring and exploiting environmental reward contingencies. Furthermore, behavioral engagement does not necessarily recruit optimal locus coeruleus activity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The chromatin remodeling complex Swi/Snf regulates splicing of meiotic transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Stephen; Galivanche, Anoop R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite its relatively streamlined genome, there are important examples of regulated RNA splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as splicing of meiotic transcripts. Like other eukaryotes, S. cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic reprogramming of gene expression during meiosis, including regulated splicing of a number of crucial meiosis-specific RNAs. Splicing of a subset of these is dependent upon the splicing activator Mer1. Here we show a crucial role for the chromatin remodeler Swi/Snf in regulation of splicing of meiotic genes and find that the complex affects meiotic splicing in two ways. First, we show that Swi/Snf regulates nutrient-dependent downregulation of ribosomal protein encoding RNAs, leading to the redistribution of spliceosomes from this abundant class of intron-containing RNAs (the ribosomal protein genes) to Mer1-regulated transcripts. We also demonstrate that Mer1 expression is dependent on Snf2, its acetylation state and histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation at the MER1 locus. Hence, Snf2 exerts systems level control of meiotic gene expression through two temporally distinct mechanisms, demonstrating that it is a key regulator of meiotic splicing in S. cerevisiae. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby the cell redirects its energy from maintaining its translational capacity to the process of meiosis. PMID:28637241

  18. Effects of short peptides on lymphocyte chromatin in senile subjects.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Lezhava, T A; Malinin, V V

    2004-01-01

    Effects of synthetic short peptides (Vilon, Epithalon, Livagen, Prostamax, and Cortagen) on activity of ribosome genes, parameters of common heterochromatin melting, polymorphism of structural heterochromatin (C segments) of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16, and variability of facultative heterochromatin were studied in leukocytes of subjects aged 75-88 years. All the studied peptides induced activation of ribosome genes, decondensation of densely packed chromatin fibrils, and release of genes repressed as a result of age-specific condensation of the cellular euchromatin regions (deheterochromatinization of facultative chromatin). Treatment with Epithalon, Livagen, and Prostamax led to decondensation of chromosome 1 pericentromeric structural chromatin, while Epithalon and Livagen treatment led to changes in chromosome 9 as well. Hence, short peptides activate heterochromatin and heterochromatinized regions of cell chromosomes in senile subjects.

  19. Chromatin insulator elements: establishing barriers to set heterochromatin boundaries.

    PubMed

    Barkess, Gráinne; West, Adam G

    2012-02-01

    Epigenomic profiling has revealed that substantial portions of genomes in higher eukaryotes are organized into extensive domains of transcriptionally repressive chromatin. The boundaries of repressive chromatin domains can be fixed by DNA elements known as barrier insulators, to both shield neighboring gene expression and to maintain the integrity of chromosomal silencing. Here, we examine the current progress in identifying vertebrate barrier elements and their binding factors. We overview the design of the reporter assays used to define enhancer-blocking and barrier insulators. We look at the mechanisms vertebrate barrier proteins, such as USF1 and VEZF1, employ to counteract Polycomb- and heterochromatin-associated repression. We also undertake a critical analysis of whether CTCF could also act as a barrier protein. There is good evidence that barrier elements in vertebrates can form repressive chromatin domain boundaries. Future studies will determine whether barriers are frequently used to define repressive domain boundaries in vertebrates.

  20. Common ground: small RNA programming and chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Erwan; Allshire, Robin C

    2011-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms regulate genome structure and expression profiles in eukaryotes. RNA interference (RNAi) and other small RNA-based chromatin-modifying activities can act to reset the epigenetic landscape at defined chromatin domains. Centromeric heterochromatin assembly is a RNAi-dependent process in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and provides a paradigm for detailed examination of such epigenetic processes. Here we review recent progress in understanding the mechanisms that underpin RNAi-mediated heterochromatin formation in S. pombe. We discuss recent analyses of the events that trigger RNAi and manipulations which uncouple RNAi and chromatin modification. Finally we provide an overview of similar molecular machineries across species where related small RNA pathways appear to drive the epigenetic reprogramming in germ cells and/or during early development in metazoans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial organization of chromatin domains and compartments in single chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siyuan; Su, Jun-Han; Beliveau, Brian; Bintu, Bogdan; Moffitt, Jeffrey; Wu, Chao-Ting; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    The spatial organization of chromatin critically affects genome function. Recent chromosome-conformation-capture studies have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) as a conserved feature of chromatin organization, but how TADs are spatially organized in individual chromosomes remains unknown. Here, we developed an imaging method for mapping the spatial positions of numerous genomic regions along individual chromosomes and traced the positions of TADs in human interphase autosomes and X chromosomes. We observed that chromosome folding deviates from the ideal fractal-globule model at large length scales and that TADs are largely organized into two compartments spatially arranged in a polarized manner in individual chromosomes. Active and inactive X chromosomes adopt different folding and compartmentalization configurations. These results suggest that the spatial organization of chromatin domains can change in response to regulation.

  2. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Kreuz, Sarah; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences chromatin structure, DNA methylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of histones and DNA-binding proteins. The effects of oxidative stress on these chromatin alterations mediate a number of cellular changes, including modulation of gene expression, cell death, cell survival and mutagenesis, which are disease-driving mechanisms in human pathologies. Targeting oxidative stress-dependent pathways is thus a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. We summarize recent research developments connecting oxidative stress and chromatin regulation. PMID:27319358

  3. Chromatin Regulation and the Histone Code in HIV Latency
.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anne-Marie W; Margolis, David M

    2017-06-01

    The formation of a latent reservoir of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection hidden from immune clearance remains a significant obstacle to approaches to eradicate HIV infection. Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of HIV persistence, there is a growing body of work implicating epigenetic regulation of chromatin in establishment and maintenance of this latent reservoir. Here we discuss recent advances in the field of chromatin regulation, specifically in our understanding of the histone code, and how these discoveries relate to our current knowledge of the chromatin mechanisms linked to HIV transcriptional repression and the reversal of latency. We also examine mechanisms unexplored in the context of HIV latency and briefly discuss current therapies aimed at the induction of proviral expression within latently infected cells. We aim to emphasize that a greater understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms which govern HIV latency could lead to new therapeutic targets for latency reversal and clearance cure strategies.

  4. Chromatin Regulation and the Histone Code in HIV Latency


    PubMed Central

    Turner, Anne-Marie W.; Margolis, David M.

    2017-01-01

    The formation of a latent reservoir of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection hidden from immune clearance remains a significant obstacle to approaches to eradicate HIV infection. Towards an understanding of the mechanisms of HIV persistence, there is a growing body of work implicating epigenetic regulation of chromatin in establishment and maintenance of this latent reservoir. Here we discuss recent advances in the field of chromatin regulation, specifically in our understanding of the histone code, and how these discoveries relate to our current knowledge of the chromatin mechanisms linked to HIV transcriptional repression and the reversal of latency. We also examine mechanisms unexplored in the context of HIV latency and briefly discuss current therapies aimed at the induction of proviral expression within latently infected cells. We aim to emphasize that a greater understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms which govern HIV latency could lead to new therapeutic targets for latency reversal and clearance cure strategies. PMID:28656010

  5. Statistical physics of nucleosome positioning and chromatin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexandre

    2012-02-01

    Genomic DNA is packaged into chromatin in eukaryotic cells. The fundamental building block of chromatin is the nucleosome, a 147 bp-long DNA molecule wrapped around the surface of a histone octamer. Arrays of nucleosomes are positioned along DNA according to their sequence preferences and folded into higher-order chromatin fibers whose structure is poorly understood. We have developed a framework for predicting sequence-specific histone-DNA interactions and the effective two-body potential responsible for ordering nucleosomes into regular higher-order structures. Our approach is based on the analogy between nucleosomal arrays and a one-dimensional fluid of finite-size particles with nearest-neighbor interactions. We derive simple rules which allow us to predict nucleosome occupancy solely from the dinucleotide content of the underlying DNA sequences.Dinucleotide content determines the degree of stiffness of the DNA polymer and thus defines its ability to bend into the nucleosomal superhelix. As expected, the nucleosome positioning rules are universal for chromatin assembled in vitro on genomic DNA from baker's yeast and from the nematode worm C.elegans, where nucleosome placement follows intrinsic sequence preferences and steric exclusion. However, the positioning rules inferred from in vivo C.elegans chromatin are affected by global nucleosome depletion from chromosome arms relative to central domains, likely caused by the attachment of the chromosome arms to the nuclear membrane. Furthermore, intrinsic nucleosome positioning rules are overwritten in transcribed regions, indicating that chromatin organization is actively managed by the transcriptional and splicing machinery.

  6. A Method to Identify Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin Domains (NADs).

    PubMed

    Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Picart-Picolo, Ariadna; Pontvianne, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear context needs to be taken into consideration to better understand the mechanisms shaping the epigenome and its organization, and therefore its impact on gene expression. For example, in Arabidopsis, heterochromatin is preferentially localized at the nuclear and the nucleolar periphery. Although chromatin domains associating with the nuclear periphery remain to be identified in plant cells, Nucleolus Associated chromatin Domains (NADs) can be identified thanks to a protocol allowing the isolation of pure nucleoli. We describe here the protocol enabling the identification of NADs in Arabidopsis. Providing the transfer of a nucleolus marker as described here in other crop species, this protocol is broadly applicable.

  7. Chromatin versus pathogens: the function of epigenetics in plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses. Recent evidence has demonstrated that plants utilize the epigenetic control of gene expression to fine-tune their defense when challenged by pathogens. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens. Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed. PMID:26388882

  8. Chromatin versus pathogens: the function of epigenetics in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Bo; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2015-01-01

    To defend against pathogens, plants have developed a sophisticated innate immunity that includes effector recognition, signal transduction, and rapid defense responses. Recent evidence has demonstrated that plants utilize the epigenetic control of gene expression to fine-tune their defense when challenged by pathogens. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of histone modifications (i.e., methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination) and chromatin remodeling that contribute to plant immunity against pathogens. Functions of key histone-modifying and chromatin remodeling enzymes are discussed.

  9. Chromatin remodelling: the industrial revolution of DNA around histones.

    PubMed

    Saha, Anjanabha; Wittmeyer, Jacqueline; Cairns, Bradley R

    2006-06-01

    Chromatin remodellers are specialized multi-protein machines that enable access to nucleosomal DNA by altering the structure, composition and positioning of nucleosomes. All remodellers have a catalytic ATPase subunit that is similar to known DNA-translocating motor proteins, suggesting DNA translocation as a unifying aspect of their mechanism. Here, we explore the diversity and specialization of chromatin remodellers, discuss how nucleosome modifications regulate remodeller activity and consider a model for the exposure of nucleosomal DNA that involves the use of directional DNA translocation to pump 'DNA waves' around the nucleosome.

  10. Epigenetics meets mathematics: towards a quantitative understanding of chromatin biology.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Philipp A; Fonseca, João P; Ringrose, Leonie

    2012-10-01

    How fast? How strong? How many? So what? Why do numbers matter in biology? Chromatin binding proteins are forever in motion, exchanging rapidly between bound and free pools. How do regulatory systems whose components are in constant flux ensure stability and flexibility? This review explores the application of quantitative and mathematical approaches to mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. We discuss methods for measuring kinetic parameters and protein quantities in living cells, and explore the insights that have been gained by quantifying and modelling dynamics of chromatin binding proteins. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Retention of the Native Epigenome in Purified Mammalian Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Ehrensberger, Andreas H.; Franchini, Don-Marc; East, Philip; George, Roger; Matthews, Nik; Maslen, Sarah L.; Svejstrup, Jesper Q.

    2015-01-01

    A protocol is presented for the isolation of native mammalian chromatin as fibers of 25–250 nucleosomes under conditions that preserve the natural epigenetic signature. The material is composed almost exclusively of histones and DNA and conforms to the structure expected by electron microscopy. All sequences probed for were retained, indicating that the material is representative of the majority of the genome. DNA methylation marks and histone marks resembled the patterns observed in vivo. Importantly, nucleosome positions also remained largely unchanged, except on CpG islands, where nucleosomes were found to be unstable. The technical challenges of reconstituting biochemical reactions with native mammalian chromatin are discussed. PMID:26248330

  12. A Caenorhabditis elegans protein with a PRDM9-like SET domain localizes to chromatin-associated foci and promotes spermatocyte gene expression, sperm production and fertility.

    PubMed

    Engert, Christoph G; Droste, Rita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Horvitz, H Robert

    2018-04-01

    To better understand the tissue-specific regulation of chromatin state in cell-fate determination and animal development, we defined the tissue-specific expression of all 36 C. elegans presumptive lysine methyltransferase (KMT) genes using single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH). Most KMTs were expressed in only one or two tissues. The germline was the tissue with the broadest KMT expression. We found that the germline-expressed C. elegans protein SET-17, which has a SET domain similar to that of the PRDM9 and PRDM7 SET-domain proteins, promotes fertility by regulating gene expression in primary spermatocytes. SET-17 drives the transcription of spermatocyte-specific genes from four genomic clusters to promote spermatid development. SET-17 is concentrated in stable chromatin-associated nuclear foci at actively transcribed msp (major sperm protein) gene clusters, which we term msp locus bodies. Our results reveal the function of a PRDM9/7-family SET-domain protein in spermatocyte transcription. We propose that the spatial intranuclear organization of chromatin factors might be a conserved mechanism in tissue-specific control of transcription.

  13. 15q11.2–13.3 chromatin analysis reveals epigenetic regulation of CHRNA7 with deficiencies in Rett and autism brain

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Dag H.; Scoles, Haley A.; Horike, Shin-ichi; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Dunaway, Keith W.; Schroeder, Diane I.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2011-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) within human 15q11.2–13.3 show reduced penetrance and variable expressivity in a range of neurologic disorders. Therefore, characterizing 15q11.2–13.3 chromatin structure is important for understanding the regulation of this locus during normal neuronal development. Deletion of the Prader–Willi imprinting center (PWS-IC) within 15q11.2–13.3 disrupts long-range imprinted gene expression resulting in Prader–Willi syndrome. Previous results establish that MeCP2 binds to the PWS-IC and is required for optimal expression of distal GABRB3 and UBE3A. To examine the hypothesis that MeCP2 facilitates 15q11.2–13.3 transcription by linking the PWS-IC with distant elements, chromosome capture conformation on chip (4C) analysis was performed in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. SH-SY5Y neurons had 2.84-fold fewer 15q11.2–13.3 PWS-IC chromatin interactions than undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblasts, revealing developmental chromatin de-condensation of the locus. Out of 68 PWS-IC interactions with15q11.2–13.3 identified by 4C analysis and 62 15q11.2–13.3 MeCP2-binding sites identified by previous ChIP-chip studies, only five sites showed overlap. Remarkably, two of these overlapping PWS-IC- and MeCP2-bound sites mapped to sites flanking CHRNA7 (cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7) encoding the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7. PWS-IC interaction with CHRNA7 in neurons was independently confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. Subsequent quantitative transcriptional analyses of frontal cortex from Rett syndrome and autism patients revealed significantly reduced CHRNA7 expression compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that transcription of CHRNA7 is modulated by chromatin interactions with the PWS-IC. Thus, loss of long-range chromatin interactions within 15q11.2–13.3 may contribute to multiple human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:21840925

  14. 15q11.2-13.3 chromatin analysis reveals epigenetic regulation of CHRNA7 with deficiencies in Rett and autism brain.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Dag H; Scoles, Haley A; Horike, Shin-Ichi; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Dunaway, Keith W; Schroeder, Diane I; Lasalle, Janine M

    2011-11-15

    Copy number variations (CNVs) within human 15q11.2-13.3 show reduced penetrance and variable expressivity in a range of neurologic disorders. Therefore, characterizing 15q11.2-13.3 chromatin structure is important for understanding the regulation of this locus during normal neuronal development. Deletion of the Prader-Willi imprinting center (PWS-IC) within 15q11.2-13.3 disrupts long-range imprinted gene expression resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome. Previous results establish that MeCP2 binds to the PWS-IC and is required for optimal expression of distal GABRB3 and UBE3A. To examine the hypothesis that MeCP2 facilitates 15q11.2-13.3 transcription by linking the PWS-IC with distant elements, chromosome capture conformation on chip (4C) analysis was performed in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. SH-SY5Y neurons had 2.84-fold fewer 15q11.2-13.3 PWS-IC chromatin interactions than undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblasts, revealing developmental chromatin de-condensation of the locus. Out of 68 PWS-IC interactions with15q11.2-13.3 identified by 4C analysis and 62 15q11.2-13.3 MeCP2-binding sites identified by previous ChIP-chip studies, only five sites showed overlap. Remarkably, two of these overlapping PWS-IC- and MeCP2-bound sites mapped to sites flanking CHRNA7 (cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7) encoding the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7. PWS-IC interaction with CHRNA7 in neurons was independently confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis. Subsequent quantitative transcriptional analyses of frontal cortex from Rett syndrome and autism patients revealed significantly reduced CHRNA7 expression compared with controls. Together, these results suggest that transcription of CHRNA7 is modulated by chromatin interactions with the PWS-IC. Thus, loss of long-range chromatin interactions within 15q11.2-13.3 may contribute to multiple human neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. Combinatorial Treatment of DNA and Chromatin-Modifying Drugs Cause Cell Death in Human and Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Thayanithy, Venugopal; Park, ChangWon; Sarver, Aaron L.; Kartha, Reena V.; Korpela, Derek M.; Graef, Ashley J.; Steer, Clifford J.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Subramanian, Subbaya

    2012-01-01

    Downregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) at the 14q32 locus stabilizes the expression of cMYC, thus significantly contributing to osteosarcoma (OS) pathobiology. Here, we show that downregulation of 14q32 miRNAs is epigenetically regulated. The predicted promoter regions of miRNA clusters at 14q32 locus showed no recurrent patterns of differential methylation, but Saos2 cells showed elevated histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyrate increased acetylation of histones associated with 14q32 miRNAs, but interestingly, robust restoration of 14q32 miRNA expression, attenuation of cMYC expression, and induction of apoptosis required concomitant treatment with 5-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methylation. These events were associated with genome-wide gene expression changes including induction of pro-apoptotic genes and downregulation of cell cycle genes. Comparable effects were achieved in human and canine OS cells using the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA/Vorinostat) and the DNA methylation inhibitor Zebularine (Zeb), with significantly more pronounced cytotoxicity in cells whose molecular phenotypes were indicative of aggressive biological behavior. These results suggested that the combination of these chromatin-modifying drugs may be a useful adjuvant in the treatment of rapidly progressive OS. PMID:22957032

  16. Do chromatin changes around a nascent double strand DNA break spread spherically into linearly non-adjacent chromatin?

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Velibor

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, a lot has been done in elucidating the sequence of events that occur at the nascent double strand DNA break. Nevertheless, the overall structure formed by the DNA damage response (DDR) factors around the break site, the repair focus, remains poorly understood. Although most of the data presented so far only address events that occur in chromatin in cis around the break, there are strong indications that in mammalian systems it may also occur in trans, analogous to the recent findings showing this if budding yeast. There have been attempts to address the issue but the final proof is still missing due to lack of a proper experimental system. If found to be true, the spatial distribution of DDR factors would have a major impact on the neighboring chromatin both in cis and in trans, significantly affecting local chromatin function; gene transcription and potentially other functions. PMID:23882282

  17. Do chromatin changes around a nascent double strand DNA break spread spherically into linearly non-adjacent chromatin?

    PubMed

    Savic, Velibor

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, a lot has been done in elucidating the sequence of events that occur at the nascent double strand DNA break. Nevertheless, the overall structure formed by the DNA damage response (DDR) factors around the break site, the repair focus, remains poorly understood. Although most of the data presented so far only address events that occur in chromatin in cis around the break, there are strong indications that in mammalian systems it may also occur in trans, analogous to the recent findings showing this if budding yeast. There have been attempts to address the issue but the final proof is still missing due to lack of a proper experimental system. If found to be true, the spatial distribution of DDR factors would have a major impact on the neighboring chromatin both in cis and in trans, significantly affecting local chromatin function; gene transcription and potentially other functions.

  18. The human desmin locus: gene organization and LCR-mediated transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Tam, Jennifer L Y; Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas; Todd, Helen; Raguz, Selina; de Wit, Ton; Morgan, Jennifer E; Partridge, Terence A; Makrinou, Eleni; Grosveld, Frank; Antoniou, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are defined by their ability to confer reproducible physiological levels of transgene expression in mice and therefore thought to possess the ability to generate dominantly a transcriptionally active chromatin structure. We report the first characterization of a muscle-cell-specific LCR, which is linked to the human desmin gene (DES). The DES LCR consists of five regions of muscle-specific DNase I hypersensitivity (HS) localized between -9 and -18 kb 5' of DES and reproducibly drives full physiological levels of expression in all muscle cell types. The DES LCR DNase I HS regions are highly conserved between humans and other mammals and can potentially bind a broad range of muscle-specific and ubiquitous transcription factors. Bioinformatics and direct molecular analysis show that the DES locus consists of three muscle-specific (DES) or muscle preferentially expressed genes (APEG1 and SPEG, the human orthologue of murine striated-muscle-specific serine/threonine protein kinase, Speg). The DES LCR may therefore regulate expression of SPEG and APEG1 as well as DES.

  19. β-Globin locus control region HS2 and HS3 interact structurally and functionally

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, David A.; McDowell, Jennifer C.; Dean, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The overall structure of the DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) that comprise the β-globin locus control region (LCR) is highly conserved among mammals, implying that the HSs have conserved functions. However, it is not well understood how the LCR HSs, either individually or collectively, activate transcription. We analyzed the interactions of HS2, HS3 and HS4 with the human ε- and β-globin genes in chromatinized episomes in fetal/embryonic K562 cells. Only HS2 activates transcription of the ε-globin gene, while all three HSs activate the β-globin gene. HS3 stimulates the β-globin gene constitutively, but HS2 and HS4 transactivation requires expression of the transcription factor EKLF, which is not present in K562 cells but is required for β-globin expression in vivo. To begin addressing how the individual HSs may interact with one another in a complex, we linked the β-globin gene to both the HS2 and HS3. HS2 and HS3 together resulted in synergistic stimulation of β-globin transcription. Unexpectedly, mutated, inactive forms of HS2 impeded the activation of the β-globin gene by HS3. Thus, there appear to be distinct interactions among the HSs and between the HSs and the globin genes. These preferential, non-exclusive interactions may underlie an important structural and functional cooperativity among the regulatory sequences of the β-globin locus in vivo. PMID:12582237

  20. Brahma regulates a specific trans-splicing event at the mod(mdg4) locus of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Simei; Waldholm, Johan; Böhm, Stefanie; Visa, Neus

    2014-01-01

    The mod(mdg4) locus of Drosophila melanogaster contains several transcription units encoded on both DNA strands. The mod(mdg4) pre-mRNAs are alternatively spliced, and a very significant fraction of the mature mod(mdg4) mRNAs are formed by trans-splicing. We have studied the transcripts derived from one of the anti-sense regions within the mod(mdg4) locus in order to shed light on the expression of this complex locus. We have characterized the expression of anti-sense mod(mdg4) transcripts in S2 cells, mapped their transcription start sites and cleavage sites, identified and quantified alternatively spliced transcripts, and obtained insight into the regulation of the mod(mdg4) trans-splicing. In a previous study, we had shown that the alternative splicing of some mod(mdg4) transcripts was regulated by Brahma (BRM), the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Here we show, using RNA interference and overexpression of recombinant BRM proteins, that the levels of BRM affect specifically the abundance of a trans-spliced mod(mdg4) mRNA isoform in both S2 cells and larvae. This specific effect on trans-splicing is accompanied by a local increase in the density of RNA polymerase II and by a change in the phosphorylation state of the C-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Interestingly, the regulation of the mod(mdg4) splicing by BRM is independent of the ATPase activity of BRM, which suggests that the mechanism by which BRM modulates trans-splicing is independent of its chromatin-remodeling activity. PMID:24526065

  1. Evolution of histone 2A for chromatin compaction in eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Macadangdang, Benjamin R; Oberai, Amit; Spektor, Tanya; Campos, Oscar A; Sheng, Fang; Carey, Michael F; Vogelauer, Maria; Kurdistani, Siavash K

    2014-01-01

    During eukaryotic evolution, genome size has increased disproportionately to nuclear volume, necessitating greater degrees of chromatin compaction in higher eukaryotes, which have evolved several mechanisms for genome compaction. However, it is unknown whether histones themselves have evolved to regulate chromatin compaction. Analysis of histone sequences from 160 eukaryotes revealed that the H2A N-terminus has systematically acquired arginines as genomes expanded. Insertion of arginines into their evolutionarily conserved position in H2A of a small-genome organism increased linear compaction by as much as 40%, while their absence markedly diminished compaction in cells with large genomes. This effect was recapitulated in vitro with nucleosomal arrays using unmodified histones, indicating that the H2A N-terminus directly modulates the chromatin fiber likely through intra- and inter-nucleosomal arginine–DNA contacts to enable tighter nucleosomal packing. Our findings reveal a novel evolutionary mechanism for regulation of chromatin compaction and may explain the frequent mutations of the H2A N-terminus in cancer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02792.001 PMID:24939988

  2. Wt1 flip-flops chromatin in a CTCF domain.

    PubMed

    Gurudatta, B V; Corces, Victor G

    2011-09-13

    CTCF plays diverse roles in nuclear organization and transcriptional regulation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Essafi et al. (2011) report a mechanism by which the repressive or active state of chromatin in a domain defined by CTCF can be switched by the Wt1 transcription factor to regulate gene expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wt1 Flip-Flops Chromatin in a CTCF Domain

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatta, B. V.; Corces, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    CTCF plays diverse roles in nuclear organization and transcriptional regulation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Essafi et al. (2011) report a mechanism by which the repressive or active state of chromatin in a domain defined by CTCF can be switched by the Wt1 transcription factor to regulate gene expression. PMID:21920307

  4. Connecting the dots: chromatin and alternative splicing in EMT.

    PubMed

    Warns, Jessica A; Davie, James R; Dhasarathy, Archana

    2016-02-01

    Nature has devised sophisticated cellular machinery to process mRNA transcripts produced by RNA Polymerase II, removing intronic regions and connecting exons together, to produce mature RNAs. This process, known as splicing, is very closely linked to transcription. Alternative splicing, or the ability to produce different combinations of exons that are spliced together from the same genomic template, is a fundamental means of regulating protein complexity. Similar to transcription, both constitutive and alternative splicing can be regulated by chromatin and its associated factors in response to various signal transduction pathways activated by external stimuli. This regulation can vary between different cell types, and interference with these pathways can lead to changes in splicing, often resulting in aberrant cellular states and disease. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to cancer metastasis, is influenced by alternative splicing events of chromatin remodelers and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will discuss the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin, chromatin remodelers, DNA methyltransferases, and microRNAs in the context of alternative splicing, and discuss their potential involvement in alternative splicing during the EMT process.

  5. Structure of transcribed chromatin is a sensor of DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Pestov, Nikolay A.; Gerasimova, Nadezhda S.; Kulaeva, Olga I.; Studitsky, Vasily M.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and repair of damaged DNA is essential for cell functioning and survival. Although multiple cellular systems are involved in the repair of single-strand DNA breaks (SSBs), it remains unknown how SSBs present in the nontemplate strand (NT-SSBs) of DNA organized in chromatin are detected. The effect of NT-SSBs on transcription through chromatin by RNA polymerase II was studied. NT-SSBs localized in the promoter-proximal region of nucleosomal DNA and hidden in the nucleosome structure can induce a nearly quantitative arrest of RNA polymerase downstream of the break, whereas more promoter-distal SSBs moderately facilitate transcription. The location of the arrest sites on nucleosomal DNA suggests that formation of small intranucleosomal DNA loops causes the arrest. This mechanism likely involves relief of unconstrained DNA supercoiling accumulated during transcription through chromatin by NT-SSBs. These data suggest the existence of a novel chromatin-specific mechanism that allows the detection of NT-SSBs by the transcribing enzyme. PMID:26601207

  6. Epigenetic regulation and chromatin remodeling in learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Somi; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2017-01-13

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms of memory formation and maintenance has been a major goal in the field of neuroscience. Memory formation and maintenance are tightly controlled complex processes. Among the various processes occurring at different levels, gene expression regulation is especially crucial for proper memory processing, as some genes need to be activated while some genes must be suppressed. Epigenetic regulation of the genome involves processes such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications. These processes edit genomic properties or the interactions between the genome and histone cores. They then induce structural changes in the chromatin and lead to transcriptional changes of different genes. Recent studies have focused on the concept of chromatin remodeling, which consists of 3D structural changes in chromatin in relation to gene regulation, and is an important process in learning and memory. In this review, we will introduce three major epigenetic processes involved in memory regulation: DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation. We will also discuss general mechanisms of long-term memory storage and relate the epigenetic control of learning and memory to chromatin remodeling. Finally, we will discuss how epigenetic mechanisms can contribute to the pathologies of neurological disorders and cause memory-related symptoms.

  7. Connecting the dots: chromatin and alternative splicing in EMT

    PubMed Central

    Warns, Jessica A.; Davie, James R.; Dhasarathy, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Nature has devised sophisticated cellular machinery to process mRNA transcripts produced by RNA Polymerase II, removing intronic regions and connecting exons together, to produce mature RNAs. This process, known as splicing, is very closely linked to transcription. Alternative splicing, or the ability to produce different combinations of exons that are spliced together from the same genomic template, is a fundamental means of regulating protein complexity. Similar to transcription, both constitutive and alternative splicing can be regulated by chromatin and its associated factors in response to various signal transduction pathways activated by external stimuli. This regulation can vary between different cell types, and interference with these pathways can lead to changes in splicing, often resulting in aberrant cellular states and disease. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which leads to cancer metastasis, is influenced by alternative splicing events of chromatin remodelers and epigenetic factors such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will discuss the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin, chromatin remodelers, DNA methyltransferases and microRNAs in the context of alternative splicing, and discuss their potential involvement in alternative splicing during the EMT process. PMID:26291837

  8. CYTOGENETIC ABNORMALITY IN MAN—Wider Implications of Theories of Sex Chromatin Origin

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Charles P.

    1962-01-01

    Female nuclei may be identified by means of sex chromatin. In general the number of sex chromatin bodies is one less than the number of X chromosomes. An exception to this rule is a case of sex chromatin-positive XO Turner's syndrome. This case suggests the possibility of sex chromatin-positive XY males, and it may be evidence for chromosomal differentiation. PMID:14473851

  9. Human Genome Replication Proceeds through Four Chromatin States

    PubMed Central

    Julienne, Hanna; Zoufir, Azedine; Audit, Benjamin; Arneodo, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Advances in genomic studies have led to significant progress in understanding the epigenetically controlled interplay between chromatin structure and nuclear functions. Epigenetic modifications were shown to play a key role in transcription regulation and genome activity during development and differentiation or in response to the environment. Paradoxically, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the initiation and the maintenance of the spatio-temporal replication program in higher eukaryotes, and in particular their links to epigenetic modifications, still remain elusive. By integrative analysis of the genome-wide distributions of thirteen epigenetic marks in the human cell line K562, at the 100 kb resolution of corresponding mean replication timing (MRT) data, we identify four major groups of chromatin marks with shared features. These states have different MRT, namely from early to late replicating, replication proceeds though a transcriptionally active euchromatin state (C1), a repressive type of chromatin (C2) associated with polycomb complexes, a silent state (C3) not enriched in any available marks, and a gene poor HP1-associated heterochromatin state (C4). When mapping these chromatin states inside the megabase-sized U-domains (U-shaped MRT profile) covering about 50% of the human genome, we reveal that the associated replication fork polarity gradient corresponds to a directional path across the four chromatin states, from C1 at U-domains borders followed by C2, C3 and C4 at centers. Analysis of the other genome half is consistent with early and late replication loci occurring in separate compartments, the former correspond to gene-rich, high-GC domains of intermingled chromatin states C1 and C2, whereas the latter correspond to gene-poor, low-GC domains of alternating chromatin states C3 and C4 or long C4 domains. This new segmentation sheds a new light on the epigenetic regulation of the spatio-temporal replication program in human and provides a

  10. Structural Fluctuations of the Chromatin Fiber within Topologically Associating Domains.

    PubMed

    Tiana, Guido; Amitai, Assaf; Pollex, Tim; Piolot, Tristan; Holcman, David; Heard, Edith; Giorgetti, Luca

    2016-03-29

    Experiments based on chromosome conformation capture have shown that mammalian genomes are partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), within which the chromatin fiber preferentially interacts. TADs may provide three-dimensional scaffolds allowing genes to contact their appropriate distal regulatory DNA sequences (e.g., enhancers) and thus to be properly regulated. Understanding the cell-to-cell and temporal variability of the chromatin fiber within TADs, and what determines them, is thus of great importance to better understand transcriptional regulation. We recently described an equilibrium polymer model that can accurately predict cell-to-cell variation of chromosome conformation within single TADs, from chromosome conformation capture-based data. Here we further analyze the conformational and energetic properties of our model. We show that the chromatin fiber within TADs can easily fluctuate between several conformational states, which are hierarchically organized and are not separated by important free energy barriers, and that this is facilitated by the fact that the chromatin fiber within TADs is close to the onset of the coil-globule transition. We further show that in this dynamic state the properties of the chromatin fiber, and its contact probabilities in particular, are determined in a nontrivial manner not only by site-specific interactions between strongly interacting loci along the fiber, but also by nonlocal correlations between pairs of contacts. Finally, we use live-cell experiments to measure the dynamics of the chromatin fiber in mouse embryonic stem cells, in combination with dynamical simulations, and predict that conformational changes within one TAD are likely to occur on timescales that are much shorter than the duration of one cell cycle. This suggests that genes and their regulatory elements may come together and disassociate several times during a cell cycle. These results have important implications for transcriptional

  11. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Louise S; Bolland, Daniel J; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa ( Igκ ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain ( Igh ) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh , as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations.

  12. Local Chromatin Features Including PU.1 and IKAROS Binding and H3K4 Methylation Shape the Repertoire of Immunoglobulin Kappa Genes Chosen for V(D)J Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, Louise S.; Bolland, Daniel J.; Chovanec, Peter; Krueger, Felix; Andrews, Simon; Koohy, Hashem; Corcoran, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is essential for the generation of diverse antigen receptor (AgR) repertoires. In B cells, immunoglobulin kappa (Igκ) light chain recombination follows immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) recombination. We recently developed the DNA-based VDJ-seq assay for the unbiased quantitation of Igh VH and DH repertoires. Integration of VDJ-seq data with genome-wide datasets revealed that two chromatin states at the recombination signal sequence (RSS) of VH genes are highly predictive of recombination in mouse pro-B cells. It is unknown whether local chromatin states contribute to Vκ gene choice during Igκ recombination. Here we adapt VDJ-seq to profile the Igκ VκJκ repertoire and present a comprehensive readout in mouse pre-B cells, revealing highly variable Vκ gene usage. Integration with genome-wide datasets for histone modifications, DNase hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding and germline transcription identified PU.1 binding at the RSS, which was unimportant for Igh, as highly predictive of whether a Vκ gene will recombine or not, suggesting that it plays a binary, all-or-nothing role, priming genes for recombination. Thereafter, the frequency with which these genes recombine was shaped both by the presence and level of enrichment of several other chromatin features, including H3K4 methylation and IKAROS binding. Moreover, in contrast to the Igh locus, the chromatin landscape of the promoter, as well as of the RSS, contributes to Vκ gene recombination. Thus, multiple facets of local chromatin features explain much of the variation in Vκ gene usage. Together, these findings reveal shared and divergent roles for epigenetic features and transcription factors in AgR V(D)J recombination and provide avenues for further investigation of chromatin signatures that may underpin V(D)J-mediated chromosomal translocations. PMID:29204143

  13. Activation of the alpha-globin gene expression correlates with dramatic upregulation of nearby non-globin genes and changes in local and large-scale chromatin spatial structure.

    PubMed

    Ulianov, Sergey V; Galitsyna, Aleksandra A; Flyamer, Ilya M; Golov, Arkadiy K; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Imakaev, Maxim V; Abdennur, Nezar A; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gavrilov, Alexey A; Razin, Sergey V

    2017-07-11

    In homeotherms, the alpha-globin gene clusters are located within permanently open genome regions enriched in housekeeping genes. Terminal erythroid differentiation results in dramatic upregulation of alpha-globin genes making their expression comparable to the rRNA transcriptional output. Little is known about the influence of the erythroid-specific alpha-globin gene transcription outburst on adjacent, widely expressed genes and large-scale chromatin organization. Here, we have analyzed the total transcription output, the overall chromatin contact profile, and CTCF binding within the 2.7 Mb segment of chicken chromosome 14 harboring the alpha-globin gene cluster in cultured lymphoid cells and cultured erythroid cells before and after induction of terminal erythroid differentiation. We found that, similarly to mammalian genome, the chicken genomes is organized in TADs and compartments. Full activation of the alpha-globin gene transcription in differentiated erythroid cells is correlated with upregulation of several adjacent housekeeping genes and the emergence of abundant intergenic transcription. An extended chromosome region encompassing the alpha-globin cluster becomes significantly decompacted in differentiated erythroid cells, and depleted in CTCF binding and CTCF-anchored chromatin loops, while the sub-TAD harboring alpha-globin gene cluster and the upstream major regulatory element (MRE) becomes highly enriched with chromatin interactions as compared to lymphoid and proliferating erythroid cells. The alpha-globin gene domain and the neighboring loci reside within the A-like chromatin compartment in both lymphoid and erythroid cells and become further segregated from the upstream gene desert upon terminal erythroid differentiation. Our findings demonstrate that the effects of tissue-specific transcription activation are not restricted to the host genomic locus but affect the overall chromatin structure and transcriptional output of the encompassing

  14. Citrullination regulates pluripotency and histone H1 binding to chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophorou, Maria A.; Castelo-Branco, Gonçalo; Halley-Stott, Richard P.; Oliveira, Clara Slade; Loos, Remco; Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Mowen, Kerri A.; Bertone, Paul; Silva, José C. R.; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena; Nielsen, Michael L.; Gurdon, John B.; Kouzarides, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Citrullination is the post-translational conversion of an arginine residue within a protein to the non-coded amino acid citrulline. This modification leads to the loss of a positive charge and reduction in hydrogen-bonding ability. It is carried out by a small family of tissue-specific vertebrate enzymes called peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) and is associated with the development of diverse pathological states such as autoimmunity, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, prion diseases and thrombosis. Nevertheless, the physiological functions of citrullination remain ill-defined, although citrullination of core histones has been linked to transcriptional regulation and the DNA damage response. PADI4 (also called PAD4 or PADV), the only PADI with a nuclear localization signal, was previously shown to act in myeloid cells where it mediates profound chromatin decondensation during the innate immune response to infection. Here we show that the expression and enzymatic activity of Padi4 are also induced under conditions of ground-state pluripotency and during reprogramming in mouse. Padi4 is part of the pluripotency transcriptional network, binding to regulatory elements of key stem-cell genes and activating their expression. Its inhibition lowers the percentage of pluripotent cells in the early mouse embryo and significantly reduces reprogramming efficiency. Using an unbiased proteomic approach we identify linker histone H1 variants, which are involved in the generation of compact chromatin, as novel PADI4 substrates. Citrullination of a single arginine residue within the DNA-binding site of H1 results in its displacement from chromatin and global chromatin decondensation. Together, these results uncover a role for citrullination in the regulation of pluripotency and provide new mechanistic insights into how citrullination regulates chromatin compaction.

  15. Identification and Potential Regulatory Properties of Evolutionary Conserved Regions (ECRs) at the Schizophrenia-Associated MIR137 Locus.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Olympia; Griffiths, Daniel; Myers, Paul; Collier, David A; Bubb, Vivien J; Quinn, John P

    2016-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a region at chromosome 1p21.3, containing the microRNA MIR137, to be among the most significant associations for schizophrenia. However, the mechanism by which genetic variation at this locus increases risk of schizophrenia is unknown. Identifying key regulatory regions around MIR137 is crucial to understanding the potential role of this gene in the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. Through alignment of vertebrate genomes, we identified seven non-coding regions at the MIR137 locus with conservation comparable to exons (>70 %). Bioinformatic analysis using the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS dataset for schizophrenia showed five of the ECRs to have genome-wide significant SNPs in or adjacent to their sequence. Analysis of available datasets on chromatin marks and histone modification data showed that three of the ECRs were predicted to be functional in the human brain, and three in development. In vitro analysis of ECR activity using reporter gene assays showed that all seven of the selected ECRs displayed transcriptional regulatory activity in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. This data suggests a regulatory role in the developing and adult brain for these highly conserved regions at the MIR137 schizophrenia-associated locus and further that these domains could act individually or synergistically to regulate levels of MIR137 expression.

  16. The 3’-Jα Region of the TCRα Locus Bears Gene Regulatory Activity in Thymic and Peripheral T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kučerová-Levisohn, Martina; Knirr, Stefan; Mejia, Rosa I.; Ortiz, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the important cis-mediated controls on mouse TCRα gene function, including identification of the Eα enhancer and TCRα locus control region (LCR). Nevertheless, previous data have suggested that other cis-regulatory elements may reside in the locus outside of the Eα/LCR. Based on prior findings, we hypothesized the existence of gene regulatory elements in a 3.9-kb region 5’ of the Cα exons. Using DNase hypersensitivity assays and TCRα BAC reporter transgenes in mice, we detected gene regulatory activity within this 3.9-kb region. This region is active in both thymic and peripheral T cells, and selectively affects upstream, but not downstream, gene expression. Together, these data indicate the existence of a novel cis-acting regulatory complex that contributes to TCRα transgene expression in vivo. The active chromatin sites we discovered within this region would remain in the locus after TCRα gene rearrangement, and thus may contribute to endogenous TCRα gene activity, particularly in peripheral T cells, where the Eα element has been found to be inactive. PMID:26177549

  17. Chromatin conformation in living cells: support for a zig-zag model of the 30 nm chromatin fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rydberg, B.; Holley, W. R.; Mian, I. S.; Chatterjee, A.

    1998-01-01

    A new method was used to probe the conformation of chromatin in living mammalian cells. The method employs ionizing radiation and is based on the concept that such radiation induces correlated breaks in DNA strands that are in spatial proximity. Human dermal fibroblasts in G0 phase of the cell cycle and Chinese hamster ovary cells in mitosis were irradiated by X-rays or accelerated ions. Following lysis of the cells, DNA fragments induced by correlated breaks were end-labeled and separated according to size on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. A characteristic peak was obtained for a fragment size of 78 bases, which is the size that corresponds to one turn of DNA around the nucleosome. Additional peaks between 175 and 450 bases reflect the relative position of nearest-neighbor nucleosomes. Theoretical calculations that simulate the indirect and direct effect of radiation on DNA demonstrate that the fragment size distributions are closely related to the chromatin structure model used. Comparison of the experimental data with theoretical results support a zig-zag model of the chromatin fiber rather than a simple helical model. Thus, radiation-induced damage analysis can provide information on chromatin structure in the living cell. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  18. A Brg1 mutation that uncouples ATPase activity from chromatin remodeling reveals an essential role for SWI/SNF-related complexes in β-globin expression and erythroid development

    PubMed Central

    Bultman, Scott J.; Gebuhr, Thomas C.; Magnuson, Terry

    2005-01-01

    The Brg1 catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF-related complexes has been implicated in many developmental and physiological processes, but null homozygotes die as blastocysts prior to implantation. To circumvent this early embryonic lethality, we performed an ENU mutagenesis screen and generated a Brg1 hypomorph mutation in the ATPase domain. The mutant Brg1 protein is stable, assembles into SWI/SNF-related complexes, and exhibits normal ATPase activity but is unable to establish DNase I hypersensitivity sites characteristic of open chromatin. Mutant embryos develop normally until midgestation but then exhibit a distinct block in the development of the erythroid lineage, leading to anemia and death. The mutant Brg1 protein is recruited to the β-globin locus, but chromatin remodeling and transcription are perturbed. Histone acetylation and DNA methylation are also affected. To our knowledge, Brg1 is the first chromatin-modifying factor shown to be required for β-globin regulation and erythropoiesis in vivo. Not only does this mutation establish a role for Brg1 during organogenesis, it also demonstrates that ATPase activity can be uncoupled from chromatin remodeling. PMID:16287714

  19. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  20. The Impact of Locus of Control on Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani

    2012-01-01

    This study hypothesized that students' loci of control affected their language achievement. 198 (N = 198) EFL students took the Rotter's (1966) locus of control test and were classified as locus-internal (ni = 78), and locus-external (ne = 120). They then took their ordinary courses and at the end of the semester, they were given their exams.…

  1. Chromatin analyses of Zymoseptoria tritici: Methods for chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq).

    PubMed

    Soyer, Jessica L; Möller, Mareike; Schotanus, Klaas; Connolly, Lanelle R; Galazka, Jonathan M; Freitag, Michael; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2015-06-01

    The presence or absence of specific transcription factors, chromatin remodeling machineries, chromatin modification enzymes, post-translational histone modifications and histone variants all play crucial roles in the regulation of pathogenicity genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) provides an important tool to study genome-wide protein-DNA interactions to help understand gene regulation in the context of native chromatin. ChIP-seq is a convenient in vivo technique to identify, map and characterize occupancy of specific DNA fragments with proteins against which specific antibodies exist or which can be epitope-tagged in vivo. We optimized existing ChIP protocols for use in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and closely related sister species. Here, we provide a detailed method, underscoring which aspects of the technique are organism-specific. Library preparation for Illumina sequencing is described, as this is currently the most widely used ChIP-seq method. One approach for the analysis and visualization of representative sequence is described; improved tools for these analyses are constantly being developed. Using ChIP-seq with antibodies against H3K4me2, which is considered a mark for euchromatin or H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, which are considered marks for heterochromatin, the overall distribution of euchromatin and heterochromatin in the genome of Z. tritici can be determined. Our ChIP-seq protocol was also successfully applied to Z. tritici strains with high levels of melanization or aberrant colony morphology, and to different species of the genus (Z. ardabiliae and Z. pseudotritici), suggesting that our technique is robust. The methods described here provide a powerful framework to study new aspects of chromatin biology and gene regulation in this prominent wheat pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mapping protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers.

    PubMed

    Hota, Swetansu K; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Prasad, Punit; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin plays a key regulatory role in several DNA-dependent processes as it regulates DNA access to different protein factors. Several multisubunit protein complexes interact, modify, or mobilize nucleosomes: the basic unit of chromatin, from its original location in an ATP-dependent manner to facilitate processes, such as transcription, replication, repair, and recombination. Knowledge of the interactions of chromatin remodelers with nucleosomes is a crucial requirement to understand the mechanism of chromatin remodeling. Here, we describe several methods to analyze the interactions of multisubunit chromatin-remodeling enzymes with nucleosomes.

  3. Immune subversion by chromatin manipulation: a 'new face' of host-bacterial pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Arbibe, Laurence

    2008-08-01

    Bacterial pathogens have evolved various strategies to avoid immune surveillance, depending of their in vivo'lifestyle'. The identification of few bacterial effectors capable to enter the nucleus and modifying chromatin structure in host raises the fascinating questions of how pathogens modulate chromatin structure and why. Chromatin is a dynamic structure that maintains the stability and accessibility of the host DNA genome to the transcription machinery. This review describes the various strategies used by pathogens to interface with host chromatin. In some cases, chromatin injury can be a strategy to take control of major cellular functions, such as the cell cycle. In other cases, manipulation of chromatin structure at specific genomic locations by modulating epigenetic information provides a way for the pathogen to impose its own transcriptional signature onto host cells. This emerging field should strongly influence our understanding of chromatin regulation at interphase nucleus and may provide invaluable openings to the control of immune gene expression in inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  4. Comparison of the effect of UV laser radiation and of a radiomimetic substance on chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulescu, Irina; Radu, Liliana; Serbanescu, Ruxandra; Nelea, V. D.; Martin, C.; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    1998-07-01

    The damages of the complex of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins from chromatin, produced by the UV laser radiation and/or by treatment with a radiomimetic substance, bleomycin, were compared. The laser radiation and bleomycin effects on chromatin structure were determined by the static and dynamic fluorimetry of chromatin complexes with the DNA specific ligand-- proflavine and by the analysis of tryptophan chromatin intrinsic fluorescence. Time resolved spectroscopy is a sensitive technique which allows to determine the excited state lifetimes of chromatin--proflavine complexes. Also, the percentage contributions to the fluorescence of proflavine, bound and unbound to chromatin DNA, were evaluated. The damages produced by the UV laser radiation on chromatin are similar with those of radiomimetic substance action and consists in DNA and proteins destruction. The DNA damage degree has been determined. The obtained results may constitute some indications in the laser utilization in radiochimiotherapy.

  5. A Symmetric Two-Locus Fertility Model

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Marcus W.; Liberman, Uri

    1985-01-01

    A model in which selection is mediated by differential fertilities among the genotypes at two diallelic loci is proposed. Fertility depends only on the number of heterozygous loci participating in the mating. Classes analogous to symmetric equilibria in symmetric viability models are determined explicitly and shown to exhibit stability behavior very different from the viability results. Linkage equilibrium is shown to occur in a relatively asymmetric fashion and to overlap in stability with linkage disequilibrium. In many cases single-locus or two-locus polymorphism is shown to be stable simultaneously with chromosome fixation even under very tight linkage. It is suggested that historical effects may be of great significance in the evolution of systems in which fertility is the primary agent of natural selection. PMID:3967817

  6. Chromatin Challenges during DNA Replication: A Systems Representation

    PubMed Central

    Aladjem, Mirit I.; Weinstein, John N.; Pommier, Yves

    2008-01-01

    In a recent review, A. Groth and coworkers presented a comprehensive account of nucleosome disassembly in front of a DNA replication fork, assembly behind the replication fork, and the copying of epigenetic information onto the replicated chromatin. Understanding those processes however would be enhanced by a comprehensive graphical depiction analogous to a circuit diagram. Accordingly, we have constructed a molecular interaction map (MIM) that preserves in essentially complete detail the processes described by Groth et al. The MIM organizes and elucidates the information presented by Groth et al. on the complexities of chromatin replication, thereby providing a tool for system-level comprehension of the effects of genetic mutations, altered gene expression, and pharmacologic intervention. PMID:17959828

  7. Encounter times of chromatin loci influenced by polymer decondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitai, A.; Holcman, D.

    2018-03-01

    The time for a DNA sequence to find its homologous counterpart depends on a long random search inside the cell nucleus. Using polymer models, we compute here the mean first encounter time (MFET) between two sites located on two different polymer chains and confined locally by potential wells. We find that reducing tethering forces acting on the polymers results in local decondensation, and numerical simulations of the polymer model show that these changes are associated with a reduction of the MFET by several orders of magnitude. We derive here new asymptotic formula for the MFET, confirmed by Brownian simulations. We conclude from the present modeling approach that the fast search for homology is mediated by a local chromatin decondensation due to the release of multiple chromatin tethering forces. The present scenario could explain how the homologous recombination pathway for double-stranded DNA repair is controlled by its random search step.

  8. Structure of chromatin and the linking number of DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Worcel, A; Strogatz, S; Riley, D

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that the basic supranucleosomal structure of chromatin is a zigzag helical ribbon with a repeat unit made of two nucleosomes connected by a relaxed spacer DNA. A remarkable feature of one particular ribbon is that it solves the apparent paradox between the number of DNA turns per nucleosome and the total linking number of a nucleosome-containing closed circular DNA molecule. We show here that the repeat unit of the proposed structure, which contains two nucleosomes with -1 3/4 DNA turns per nucleosome and one spacer crossover per repeat, contributes -2 to the linking number of closed circular DNA. Space-filling models show that the cylindrical 250-A chromatin fiber can be generated by twisting the ribbon. Images PMID:6940168

  9. A chromatin insulator determines the nuclear localization of DNA.

    PubMed

    Gerasimova, T I; Byrd, K; Corces, V G

    2000-11-01

    Chromatin insulators might regulate gene expression by controlling the subnuclear organization of DNA. We found that a DNA sequence normally located inside of the nucleus moved to the periphery when the gypsy insulator was placed within the sequence. The presence of the gypsy insulator also caused two sequences, normally found in different regions of the nucleus, to come together at a single location. Alterations in this subnuclear organization imposed by the gypsy insulator correlated with changes in gene expression that took place during the heat-shock response. These global changes in transcription were accompanied by dramatic alterations in the distribution of insulator proteins and DNA. The results suggest that the nuclear organization imposed by the gypsy insulator on the chromatin fiber is important for gene expression.

  10. GRID-seq reveals the global RNA-chromatin interactome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Zhou, Bing; Chen, Liang; Gou, Lan-Tao; Li, Hairi; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    Higher eukaryotic genomes are bound by a large number of coding and non-coding RNAs, but approaches to comprehensively map the identity and binding sites of these RNAs are lacking. Here we report a method to in situ capture global RNA interactions with DNA by deep sequencing (GRID-seq), which enables the comprehensive identification of the entire repertoire of chromatin-interacting RNAs and their respective binding sites. In human, mouse and Drosophila cells, we detected a large set of tissue-specific coding and non-coding RNAs that are bound to active promoters and enhancers, especially super-enhancers. Assuming that most mRNA-chromatin interactions indicate the physical proximity of a promoter and an enhancer, we constructed a three-dimensional global connectivity map of promoters and enhancers, revealing transcription activity-linked genomic interactions in the nucleus. PMID:28922346

  11. Atomic force microscopy on chromosomes, chromatin and DNA: a review.

    PubMed

    Kalle, Wouter; Strappe, Padraig

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the achievements and progress that has been made in the use of atomic force microscopy in DNA related research in the last 25 years. For this review DNA related research is split up in chromosomal-, chromatin- and DNA focused research to achieve a logical flow from large- to smaller structures. The focus of this review is not only on the AFM as imaging tool but also on the AFM as measuring tool using force spectroscopy, as therein lays its greatest advantage and future. The amazing technological and experimental progress that has been made during the last 25 years is too extensive to fully cover in this review but some key developments and experiments have been described to give an overview of the evolution of AFM use from 'imaging tool' to 'measurement tool' on chromosomes, chromatin and DNA. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  13. Sperm nuclear protamines: A checkpoint to control sperm chromatin quality.

    PubMed

    Steger, Klaus; Balhorn, Rod

    2018-05-23

    Protamines are nuclear proteins which are specifically expressed in haploid male germ cells. Their replacement of histones and binding to DNA is followed by chromatin hypercondensation that protects DNA from negative influences by environmental factors. Mammalian sperm contain two types of protamines: PRM1 and PRM2. While the proportion of the two protamines is highly variable between different species, abnormal ratios within a species are known to be associated with male subfertility. Therefore, it is more than likely that correct protamine expression represents a kind of chromatin checkpoint during sperm development rendering protamines as suitable biomarkers for the estimation of sperm quality. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge on protamines comparing gene and protein structures between different mammalian species with particular consideration given to man, mouse and stallion. At last, recent insights into the possible role of inherited sperm histones for early embryo development are provided. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Chromatin and Epigenetics at the Forefront: Finding Clues among Peaks

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The Keystone Symposium on Chromatin and Epigenetics, organized by Luciano Di Croce (Center for Genomic Regulation, Spain) and Yang Shi (Harvard Medical School, USA), took place 20 to 24 March 2016 at Whistler (British Columbia, Canada). The symposium brought together some of the most outstanding scientists studying how chromatin structure and epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene function in both development and disease. Junior scientists had the opportunity to interact with experienced researchers by presenting their work and discussing ideas and novel hypotheses. In order to foster interaction and networking, the scientific agenda was balanced with an extended social agenda. This meeting review describes several of the most provocative and exciting talks from the symposium, revealing how fast this research field is evolving and the profound impact it will have on human health. PMID:27402863

  15. A quantitative telomeric chromatin isolation protocol identifies different telomeric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grolimund, Larissa; Aeby, Eric; Hamelin, Romain; Armand, Florence; Chiappe, Diego; Moniatte, Marc; Lingner, Joachim

    2013-11-01

    Telomere composition changes during tumourigenesis, aging and in telomere syndromes in a poorly defined manner. Here we develop a quantitative telomeric chromatin isolation protocol (QTIP) for human cells, in which chromatin is cross-linked, immunopurified and analysed by mass spectrometry. QTIP involves stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to compare and identify quantitative differences in telomere protein composition of cells from various states. With QTIP, we specifically enrich telomeric DNA and all shelterin components. We validate the method characterizing changes at dysfunctional telomeres, and identify and validate known, as well as novel telomere-associated polypeptides including all THO subunits, SMCHD1 and LRIF1. We apply QTIP to long and short telomeres and detect increased density of SMCHD1 and LRIF1 and increased association of the shelterins TRF1, TIN2, TPP1 and POT1 with long telomeres. Our results validate QTIP to study telomeric states during normal development and in disease.

  16. Pleiotropic roles of Clostridium difficile sin locus

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Junjun; Dupuy, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression. The C. difficile genome carries two sinR homologs in the operon that we named sinR and sinR’, coding for SinR (112 aa) and SinR’ (105 aa), respectively. In this study, we constructed and characterized sin locus mutants in two different C. difficile strains R20291 and JIR8094, to decipher the locus’s role in C. difficile physiology. Transcriptome analysis of the sinRR’ mutants revealed their pleiotropic roles in controlling several pathways including sporulation, toxin production, and motility in C. difficile. Through various genetic and biochemical experiments, we have shown that SinR can regulate transcription of key regulators in these pathways, which includes sigD, spo0A, and codY. We have found that SinR’ acts as an antagonist to SinR by blocking its repressor activity. Using a hamster model, we have also demonstrated that the sin locus is needed for successful C. difficile infection. This study reveals the sin locus as a central link that connects the gene regulatory networks of sporulation, toxin production, and motility; three key pathways that are important for C. difficile pathogenesis. PMID:29529083

  17. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...COVERED (Leave blank) July 2004 Annual (1 Jul 2003 - 30 Jun 2004) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis ...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 Words) Background: Schwannomatosis is a recently recognized

  18. Differential Acetylation of Histone H3 at the Regulatory Region of OsDREB1b Promoter Facilitates Chromatin Remodelling and Transcription Activation during Cold Stress

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Dipan; Paul, Amit; Roy, Adrita; Ghosh, Ritesh; Ganguly, Payel; Chaudhuri, Shubho

    2014-01-01

    The rice ortholog of DREB1, OsDREB1b, is transcriptionally induced by cold stress and over-expression of OsDREB1b results in increase tolerance towards high salt and freezing stress. This spatio-temporal expression of OsDREB1b is preceded by the change in chromatin structure at the promoter and the upstream region for gene activation. The promoter and the upstream region of OsDREB1b genes appear to be arranged into a nucleosome array. Nucleosome mapping of ∼700bp upstream region of OsDREB1b shows two positioned nucleosomes between −610 to −258 and a weakly positioned nucleosome at the core promoter and the TSS. Upon cold stress, there is a significant change in the nucleosome arrangement at the upstream region with increase in DNaseI hypersensitivity or MNase digestion in the vicinity of cis elements and TATA box at the core promoter. ChIP assays shows hyper-acetylation of histone H3K9 throughout the locus whereas region specific increase was observed in H3K14ac and H3K27ac. Moreover, there is an enrichment of RNA PolII occupancy at the promoter region during transcription activation. There is no significant change in the H3 occupancy in OsDREB1b locus negating the possibility of nucleosome loss during cold stress. Interestingly, cold induced enhanced transcript level of OsDREB1b as well as histone H3 acetylation at the upstream region was found to diminish when stressed plants were returned to normal temperature. The result indicates absolute necessity of changes in chromatin conformation for the transcription up-regulation of OsDREB1b gene in response to cold stress. The combined results show the existence of closed chromatin conformation at the upstream and promoter region of OsDREB1b in the transcription “off” state. During cold stress, changes in region specific histone modification marks promote the alteration of chromatin structure to facilitate the binding of transcription machinery for proper gene expression. PMID:24940877

  19. Chromatin fibers: from classical descriptions to modern interpretation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Maria A; Sheval, Eugene V

    2016-11-01

    The first description of intrachromosomal fibers was made by Baranetzky in 1880. Since that time, a plethora of fibrillar substructures have been described inside the mitotic chromosomes, and published data indicate that chromosomes may be formed as a result of the hierarchical folding of chromatin fibers. In this review, we examine the evolution and the current state of research on the morphological organization of mitotic chromosomes. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  20. Light scattering measurements supporting helical structures for chromatin in solution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A M; Cotter, R I; Pardon, J F

    1978-05-01

    Laser light scattering measurements have been made on a series of polynucleosomes containing from 50 to 150 nucleosomes. Radii of gyration have been determined as a function of polynucleosome length for different ionic strength solutions. The results suggest that at low ionic strength the chromatin adopts a loosely helical structure rather than a random coil. The helix becomes more regular on increasing the ionic strength, the dimension resembling those proposed by Finch and Klug for their solenoid model.

  1. Telomere fusion in Drosophila: The role of subtelomeric chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Marzullo, Marta; Gatti, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila telomeres are maintained by transposition to chromosome ends of the HeT-A, TART and TAHRE retrotransposons, collectively designated as HTT. Although all Drosophila telomeres terminate with HTT arrays and are capped by the terminin complex, they differ in the type of subtelomeric chromatin. The HTT sequences of YS, YL, XR, and 4L are juxtaposed to constitutive heterochromatin, while the HTTs of the other telomeres are linked to either the TAS repeat-associated chromatin (XL, 2L, 2R, 3L, 3R) or to the specialized 4R chromatin. We found that mutations in pendolino (peo) cause (telomeric fusions) that preferentially involve the heterochromatin-associated telomeres (Ha-telomeres), a telomeric fusion pattern never observed in the other 10 telomere-capping mutants characterized so far. Peo, is homologous to the E2 variant ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and is required for DNA replication. Our analyses lead us to hypothesize that DNA replication in Peo-depleted cells results in specific fusigenic lesions concentrated in Ha-telomeres. These data provide the first demonstration that subtelomeres can affect telomere fusion. PMID:26786804

  2. Preservation of large-scale chromatin structure in FISH experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hepperger, Claudia; Otten, Simone; von Hase, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear organization of specific endogenous chromatin regions can be investigated only by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). One of the two fixation procedures is typically applied: (1) buffered formaldehyde or (2) hypotonic shock with methanol acetic acid fixation followed by dropping of nuclei on glass slides and air drying. In this study, we compared the effects of these two procedures and some variations on nuclear morphology and on FISH signals. We analyzed mouse erythroleukemia and mouse embryonic stem cells because their clusters of subcentromeric heterochromatin provide an easy means to assess preservation of chromatin. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that formaldehyde fixation provided good preservation of large-scale chromatin structures, while classical methanol acetic acid fixation after hypotonic treatment severely impaired nuclear shape and led to disruption of chromosome territories, heterochromatin structures, and large transgene arrays. Our data show that such preparations do not faithfully reflect in vivo nuclear architecture. Electronic supplementary material Supplementary material is available in the online version of this article at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00412-006-0084-2 and is accessible for authorized users. PMID:17119992

  3. Genetic Rearrangements Can Modify Chromatin Features at Epialleles

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, Andrea M.; Dinh, Huy Q.; Sedman, Laura; Wohlrab, Bonnie; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2011-01-01

    Analogous to genetically distinct alleles, epialleles represent heritable states of different gene expression from sequence-identical genes. Alleles and epialleles both contribute to phenotypic heterogeneity. While alleles originate from mutation and recombination, the source of epialleles is less well understood. We analyze active and inactive epialleles that were found at a transgenic insert with a selectable marker gene in Arabidopsis. Both converse expression states are stably transmitted to progeny. The silent epiallele was previously shown to change its state upon loss-of-function of trans-acting regulators and drug treatments. We analyzed the composition of the epialleles, their chromatin features, their nuclear localization, transcripts, and homologous small RNA. After mutagenesis by T-DNA transformation of plants carrying the silent epiallele, we found new active alleles. These switches were associated with different, larger or smaller, and non-overlapping deletions or rearrangements in the 3′ regions of the epiallele. These cis-mutations caused different degrees of gene expression stability depending on the nature of the sequence alteration, the consequences for transcription and transcripts, and the resulting chromatin organization upstream. This illustrates a tight dependence of epigenetic regulation on local structures and indicates that sequence alterations can cause epigenetic changes at some distance in regions not directly affected by the mutation. Similar effects may also be involved in gene expression and chromatin changes in the vicinity of transposon insertions or excisions, recombination events, or DNA repair processes and could contribute to the origin of new epialleles. PMID:22028669

  4. Novel chromatin texture features for the classification of pap smears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejnordi, Babak E.; Moshavegh, Ramin; Sujathan, K.; Malm, Patrik; Bengtsson, Ewert; Mehnert, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a set of novel structural texture features for quantifying nuclear chromatin patterns in cells on a conventional Pap smear. The features are derived from an initial segmentation of the chromatin into bloblike texture primitives. The results of a comprehensive feature selection experiment, including the set of proposed structural texture features and a range of different cytology features drawn from the literature, show that two of the four top ranking features are structural texture features. They also show that a combination of structural and conventional features yields a classification performance of 0.954±0.019 (AUC±SE) for the discrimination of normal (NILM) and abnormal (LSIL and HSIL) slides. The results of a second classification experiment, using only normal-appearing cells from both normal and abnormal slides, demonstrates that a single structural texture feature measuring chromatin margination yields a classification performance of 0.815±0.019. Overall the results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed structural approach and that it is possible to detect malignancy associated changes (MACs) in Papanicoloau stain.

  5. Human tRNA genes function as chromatin insulators

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Jesse R; Chiu, Jonathan; Zhu, Jingchun; Katzman, Sol; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Wade, Paul A; Haussler, David; Kamakaka, Rohinton T

    2012-01-01

    Insulators help separate active chromatin domains from silenced ones. In yeast, gene promoters act as insulators to block the spread of Sir and HP1 mediated silencing while in metazoans most insulators are multipartite autonomous entities. tDNAs are repetitive sequences dispersed throughout the human genome and we now show that some of these tDNAs can function as insulators in human cells. Using computational methods, we identified putative human tDNA insulators. Using silencer blocking, transgene protection and repressor blocking assays we show that some of these tDNA-containing fragments can function as barrier insulators in human cells. We find that these elements also have the ability to block enhancers from activating RNA pol II transcribed promoters. Characterization of a putative tDNA insulator in human cells reveals that the site possesses chromatin signatures similar to those observed at other better-characterized eukaryotic insulators. Enhanced 4C analysis demonstrates that the tDNA insulator makes long-range chromatin contacts with other tDNAs and ETC sites but not with intervening or flanking RNA pol II transcribed genes. PMID:22085927

  6. Chromatin immunoprecipitation in microfluidic droplets: towards fast and cheap analyses.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Champ, Jerome; Londono-Vallejo, Arturo; Descroix, Stéphanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Draskovic, Irena; Mottet, Guillaume

    2017-01-31

    Genetic organization is governed by the interaction of DNA with histone proteins, and differential modifications of these proteins is a fundamental mechanism of gene regulation. Histone modifications are primarily studied through chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, however conventional ChIP procedures are time consuming, laborious and require a large number of cells. Here we report for the first time the development of ChIP in droplets based on a microfluidic platform combining nanoliter droplets, magnetic beads (MB) and magnetic tweezers (MT). The droplet approach enabled compartmentalization and improved mixing, while reducing the consumption of samples and reagents in an integrated workflow. Anti-histone antibodies grafted to MB were used as a solid support to capture and transfer the target chromatin from droplets to droplets in order to perform chromatin immunoprecipitation, washing, elution and purification of DNA. We designed a new ChIP protocol to investigate four different types of modified histones with known roles in gene activation or repression. We evaluated the performances of this new ChIP in droplet assay in comparison with conventional methods. The proposed technology dramatically reduces analytical time from a few days to 7 hours, simplifies the ChIP protocol and decreases the number of cells required by 100 fold while maintaining a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Therefore this droplet-based ChIP assay represents a new, highly advantageous and convenient approach to epigenetic analyses.

  7. Facilitated diffusion in chromatin lattices: mechanistic diversity and regulatory potential.

    PubMed

    Kampmann, Martin

    2005-08-01

    The interaction between a protein and a specific DNA site is the molecular basis for vital processes in all organisms. Location of the DNA target site by the protein commonly involves facilitated diffusion. Mechanisms of facilitated diffusion vary among proteins; they include one- and two-dimensional sliding along DNA, direct transfer between uncorrelated sites, as well as combinations of these mechanisms. Facilitated diffusion has almost exclusively been studied in vitro. This review discusses facilitated diffusion in the context of the living cell and proposes a theoretical model for facilitated diffusion in chromatin lattices. Chromatin structure differentially affects proteins in different modes of diffusion. The interplay of facilitated diffusion and chromatin structure can determine the rate of protein association with the target site, the frequency of association-dissociation events at the target site, and, under particular conditions, the occupancy of the target site. Facilitated diffusion is required in vivo for efficient DNA repair and bacteriophage restriction and has potential roles in fine-tuning gene regulatory networks and kinetically compartmentalizing the eukaryotic nucleus.

  8. The Prefoldin Complex Regulates Chromatin Dynamics during Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; Peñate, Xenia; de Miguel-Jiménez, Lola; Morillo-Huesca, Macarena; Krogan, Nevan; Chávez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional elongation requires the concerted action of several factors that allow RNA polymerase II to advance through chromatin in a highly processive manner. In order to identify novel elongation factors, we performed systematic yeast genetic screening based on the GLAM (Gene Length-dependent Accumulation of mRNA) assay, which is used to detect defects in the expression of long transcription units. Apart from well-known transcription elongation factors, we identified mutants in the prefoldin complex subunits, which were among those that caused the most dramatic phenotype. We found that prefoldin, so far involved in the cytoplasmic co-translational assembly of protein complexes, is also present in the nucleus and that a subset of its subunits are recruited to chromatin in a transcription-dependent manner. Prefoldin influences RNA polymerase II the elongation rate in vivo and plays an especially important role in the transcription elongation of long genes and those whose promoter regions contain a canonical TATA box. Finally, we found a specific functional link between prefoldin and histone dynamics after nucleosome remodeling, which is consistent with the extensive network of genetic interactions between this factor and the machinery regulating chromatin function. This study establishes the involvement of prefoldin in transcription elongation, and supports a role for this complex in cotranscriptional histone eviction. PMID:24068951

  9. The prefoldin complex regulates chromatin dynamics during transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Millán-Zambrano, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; Peñate, Xenia; de Miguel-Jiménez, Lola; Morillo-Huesca, Macarena; Krogan, Nevan; Chávez, Sebastián

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional elongation requires the concerted action of several factors that allow RNA polymerase II to advance through chromatin in a highly processive manner. In order to identify novel elongation factors, we performed systematic yeast genetic screening based on the GLAM (Gene Length-dependent Accumulation of mRNA) assay, which is used to detect defects in the expression of long transcription units. Apart from well-known transcription elongation factors, we identified mutants in the prefoldin complex subunits, which were among those that caused the most dramatic phenotype. We found that prefoldin, so far involved in the cytoplasmic co-translational assembly of protein complexes, is also present in the nucleus and that a subset of its subunits are recruited to chromatin in a transcription-dependent manner. Prefoldin influences RNA polymerase II the elongation rate in vivo and plays an especially important role in the transcription elongation of long genes and those whose promoter regions contain a canonical TATA box. Finally, we found a specific functional link between prefoldin and histone dynamics after nucleosome remodeling, which is consistent with the extensive network of genetic interactions between this factor and the machinery regulating chromatin function. This study establishes the involvement of prefoldin in transcription elongation, and supports a role for this complex in cotranscriptional histone eviction.

  10. All roads lead to chromatin: multiple pathways for histone deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Burgess, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin, a complex of DNA and associated proteins, governs diverse processes including gene transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair. The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, consisting of 147 bp of DNA wound about 1.6 turns around a histone octamer of one (H3-H4)2 tetramer and two H2A-H2B dimers. In order to form nucleosomes, (H3-H4)2 tetramers are deposited first, followed by the rapid deposition of H2A-H2B. It is believed that the assembly of (H3-H4)2 tetramers into nucleosomes is the rate-limiting step of nucleosome assembly. Moreover, assembly of H3-H4 into nucleosomes following DNA replication, DNA repair and gene transcription is likely to be a key step in the inheritance of epigenetic information and maintenance of genome integrity. In this review, we discuss how nucleosome assembly of H3-H4 is regulated by concerted actions of histone chaperones and modifications on newly synthesized H3 and H4. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and Chromatin assembly.

  11. All roads lead to chromatin: Multiple pathways for histone deposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Burgess, Rebecca; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2012-03-01

    Chromatin, a complex of DNA and associated proteins, governs diverse processes including gene transcription, DNA replication and DNA repair. The fundamental unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, consisting of 147bp of DNA wound about 1.6 turns around a histone octamer of one (H3-H4)(2) tetramer and two H2A-H2B dimers. In order to form nucleosomes, (H3-H4)(2) tetramers are deposited first, followed by the rapid deposition of H2A-H2B. It is believed that the assembly of (H3-H4)(2) tetramers into nucleosomes is the rate-limiting step of nucleosome assembly. Moreover, assembly of H3-H4 into nucleosomes following DNA replication, DNA repair and gene transcription is likely to be a key step in the inheritance of epigenetic information and maintenance of genome integrity. In this review, we discuss how nucleosome assembly of H3-H4 is regulated by concerted actions of histone chaperones and modifications on newly synthesized H3 and H4. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and Chromatin assembly. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Chromatin Insulator Function

    PubMed Central

    Matzat, Leah H.; Dale, Ryan K.; Moshkovich, Nellie; Lei, Elissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin insulators organize the genome into distinct transcriptional domains and contribute to cell type–specific chromatin organization. However, factors regulating tissue-specific insulator function have not yet been discovered. Here we identify the RNA recognition motif-containing protein Shep as a direct interactor of two individual components of the gypsy insulator complex in Drosophila. Mutation of shep improves gypsy-dependent enhancer blocking, indicating a role as a negative regulator of insulator activity. Unlike ubiquitously expressed core gypsy insulator proteins, Shep is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) with lower expression in other tissues. We developed a novel, quantitative tissue-specific barrier assay to demonstrate that Shep functions as a negative regulator of insulator activity in the CNS but not in muscle tissue. Additionally, mutation of shep alters insulator complex nuclear localization in the CNS but has no effect in other tissues. Consistent with negative regulatory activity, ChIP–seq analysis of Shep in a CNS-derived cell line indicates substantial genome-wide colocalization with a single gypsy insulator component but limited overlap with intact insulator complexes. Taken together, these data reveal a novel, tissue-specific mode of regulation of a chromatin insulator. PMID:23209434

  13. Footprint traversal by adenosine-triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeler motor.

    PubMed

    Garai, Ashok; Mani, Jesrael; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-04-01

    Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CREs) are biomolecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, ATP. CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific segments of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp ∼ 50 nm of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. The helical path of histone-DNA contact on a nucleosome is also called "footprint." We investigate the mechanism of footprint traversal by a CRE that translocates along the dsDNA. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechanochemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean time of traversal. Our predictions on the ATP dependence of the mean traversal time can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments on mononucleosomes.

  14. ATM and KAT5 safeguard replicating chromatin against formaldehyde damage

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Atienza, Sara; Wong, Victor C.; DeLoughery, Zachary; Luczak, Michal W.; Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    Many carcinogens damage both DNA and protein constituents of chromatin, and it is unclear how cells respond to this compound injury. We examined activation of the main DNA damage-responsive kinase ATM and formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) by formaldehyde (FA) that forms histone adducts and replication-blocking DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC). We found that low FA doses caused a strong and rapid activation of ATM signaling in human cells, which was ATR-independent and restricted to S-phase. High FA doses inactivated ATM via its covalent dimerization and formation of larger crosslinks. FA-induced ATM signaling showed higher CHK2 phosphorylation but much lower phospho-KAP1 relative to DSB inducers. Replication blockage by DPC did not produce damaged forks or detectable amounts of DSB during the main wave of ATM activation, which did not require MRE11. Chromatin-monitoring KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase was responsible for acetylation and activation of ATM by FA. KAT5 and ATM were equally important for triggering of intra-S-phase checkpoint and ATM signaling promoted recovery of normal human cells after low-dose FA. Our results revealed a major role of the KAT5-ATM axis in protection of replicating chromatin against damage by the endogenous carcinogen FA. PMID:26420831

  15. The noncoding RNA IPW regulates the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 locus in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stelzer, Yonatan; Sagi, Ido; Yanuka, Ofra; Eiges, Rachel; Benvenisty, Nissim

    2014-06-01

    Parental imprinting is a form of epigenetic regulation that results in parent-of-origin differential gene expression. To study Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a developmental imprinting disorder, we generated case-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) harboring distinct aberrations in the affected region on chromosome 15. In studying PWS-iPSCs and human parthenogenetic iPSCs, we unexpectedly found substantial upregulation of virtually all maternally expressed genes (MEGs) in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 locus on chromosome 14. Subsequently, we determined that IPW, a long noncoding RNA in the critical region of the PWS locus, is a regulator of the DLK1-DIO3 region, as its overexpression in PWS and parthenogenetic iPSCs resulted in downregulation of MEGs in this locus. We further show that gene expression changes in the DLK1-DIO3 region coincide with chromatin modifications rather than DNA methylation levels. Our results suggest that a subset of PWS phenotypes may arise from dysregulation of an imprinted locus distinct from the PWS region.

  16. Fine-mapping of the HNF1B multicancer locus identifies candidate variants that mediate endometrial cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Jodie N.; O'Mara, Tracy A.; Batra, Jyotsna; Cheng, Timothy; Lose, Felicity A.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Ahmed, Shahana; Ferguson, Kaltin; Healey, Catherine S.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Hillman, Kristine M.; Walpole, Carina; Moya, Leire; Pollock, Pamela; Jones, Angela; Howarth, Kimberley; Martin, Lynn; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; De Polanco, Ma. Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Santos, Erika; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Montgomery, Grant W.; Webb, Penelope M.; Scott, Rodney J.; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth; Martin, Nicholas G.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Henders, Anjali K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Renner, Stefan P.; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Winterhoff, Boris; Dowdy, Sean C.; Goode, Ellen L.; Teoman, Attila; Salvesen, Helga B.; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S.; Werner, Henrica M.J.; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Tzortzatos, Gerasimos; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Ekici, Arif B.; Ruebner, Matthias; Johnson, Nicola; Peto, Julian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Moisse, Matthieu; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Bruinsma, Fiona; Cunningham, Julie M.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Orr, Nicholas; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Chen, Zhihua; Shah, Mitul; French, Juliet D.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Easton, Douglas F.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Thompson, Deborah J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.

    2015-01-01

    Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10−14, odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82–0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression. PMID:25378557

  17. Fine-mapping of the HNF1B multicancer locus identifies candidate variants that mediate endometrial cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Painter, Jodie N; O'Mara, Tracy A; Batra, Jyotsna; Cheng, Timothy; Lose, Felicity A; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Ahmed, Shahana; Ferguson, Kaltin; Healey, Catherine S; Kaufmann, Susanne; Hillman, Kristine M; Walpole, Carina; Moya, Leire; Pollock, Pamela; Jones, Angela; Howarth, Kimberley; Martin, Lynn; Gorman, Maggie; Hodgson, Shirley; De Polanco, Ma Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Santos, Erika; Teixeira, Manuel R; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Long, Jirong; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Montgomery, Grant W; Webb, Penelope M; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth; Martin, Nicholas G; Nyholt, Dale R; Henders, Anjali K; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Renner, Stefan P; Dörk, Thilo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dürst, Matthias; Runnebaum, Ingo; Lambrechts, Diether; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Amant, Frederic; Winterhoff, Boris; Dowdy, Sean C; Goode, Ellen L; Teoman, Attila; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie; Proietto, Tony; Otton, Geoffrey; Tzortzatos, Gerasimos; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Jingmei; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Ekici, Arif B; Ruebner, Matthias; Johnson, Nicola; Peto, Julian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Moisse, Matthieu; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Giles, Graham G; Bruinsma, Fiona; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Orr, Nicholas; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Chen, Zhihua; Shah, Mitul; French, Juliet D; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Tomlinson, Ian; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Stacey L; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2015-03-01

    Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. CHD3 and CHD4 recruitment and chromatin remodeling activity at DNA breaks is promoted by early poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent chromatin relaxation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca; Sellou, Hafida; Chapuis, Catherine; Huet, Sébastien; Timinszky, Gyula

    2018-05-04

    One of the first events to occur upon DNA damage is the local opening of the compact chromatin architecture, facilitating access of repair proteins to DNA lesions. This early relaxation is triggered by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP1 in addition to ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. CHD4 recruits to DNA breaks in a PAR-dependent manner, although it lacks any recognizable PAR-binding domain, and has the ability to relax chromatin structure. However, its role in chromatin relaxation at the site of DNA damage has not been explored. Using a live cell fluorescence three-hybrid assay, we demonstrate that the recruitment of CHD4 to DNA damage, while being poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-dependent, is not through binding poly(ADP-ribose). Additionally, we show that CHD3 is recruited to DNA breaks in the same manner as CHD4 and that both CHD3 and CHD4 play active roles in chromatin remodeling at DNA breaks. Together, our findings reveal a two-step mechanism for DNA damage induced chromatin relaxation in which PARP1 and the PAR-binding remodeler activities of Alc1/CHD1L induce an initial chromatin relaxation phase that promotes the subsequent recruitment of CHD3 and CHD4 via binding to DNA for further chromatin remodeling at DNA breaks.

  19. Role of the BAHD1 Chromatin-Repressive Complex in Placental Development and Regulation of Steroid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lakisic, Goran; Wendling, Olivia; Libertini, Emanuele; Radford, Elizabeth J.; Le Guillou, Morwenna; Champy, Marie-France; Wattenhofer-Donzé, Marie; Soubigou, Guillaume; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Feunteun, Jean; Sorg, Tania; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Cossart, Pascale; Bierne, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    BAHD1 is a vertebrate protein that promotes heterochromatin formation and gene repression in association with several epigenetic regulators. However, its physiological roles remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ablation of the Bahd1 gene results in hypocholesterolemia, hypoglycemia and decreased body fat in mice. It also causes placental growth restriction with a drop of trophoblast glycogen cells, a reduction of fetal weight and a high neonatal mortality rate. By intersecting transcriptome data from murine Bahd1 knockout (KO) placentas at stages E16.5 and E18.5 of gestation, Bahd1-KO embryonic fibroblasts, and human cells stably expressing BAHD1, we also show that changes in BAHD1 levels alter expression of steroid/lipid metabolism genes. Biochemical analysis of the BAHD1-associated multiprotein complex identifies MIER proteins as novel partners of BAHD1 and suggests that BAHD1-MIER interaction forms a hub for histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, chromatin readers and transcription factors. We further show that overexpression of BAHD1 leads to an increase of MIER1 enrichment on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). In addition, BAHD1 and MIER1/3 repress expression of the steroid hormone receptor genes ESR1 and PGR, both playing important roles in placental development and energy metabolism. Moreover, modulation of BAHD1 expression in HEK293 cells triggers epigenetic changes at the ESR1 locus. Together, these results identify BAHD1 as a core component of a chromatin-repressive complex regulating placental morphogenesis and body fat storage and suggest that its dysfunction may contribute to several human diseases. PMID:26938916

  20. Chromatin organisation and cancer prognosis: a pan-cancer study.

    PubMed

    Kleppe, Andreas; Albregtsen, Fritz; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Pradhan, Manohar; Nielsen, Birgitte; Hveem, Tarjei S; Askautrud, Hanne A; Kristensen, Gunnar B; Nesbakken, Arild; Trovik, Jone; Wæhre, Håkon; Tomlinson, Ian; Shepherd, Neil A; Novelli, Marco; Kerr, David J; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2018-03-01

    Chromatin organisation affects gene expression and regional mutation frequencies and contributes to carcinogenesis. Aberrant organisation of DNA has been correlated with cancer prognosis in analyses of the chromatin component of tumour cell nuclei using image texture analysis. As yet, the methodology has not been sufficiently validated to permit its clinical application. We aimed to define and validate a novel prognostic biomarker for the automatic detection of heterogeneous chromatin organisation. Machine learning algorithms analysed the chromatin organisation in 461 000 images of tumour cell nuclei stained for DNA from 390 patients (discovery cohort) treated for stage I or II colorectal cancer at the Aker University Hospital (Oslo, Norway). The resulting marker of chromatin heterogeneity, termed Nucleotyping, was subsequently independently validated in six patient cohorts: 442 patients with stage I or II colorectal cancer in the Gloucester Colorectal Cancer Study (UK); 391 patients with stage II colorectal cancer in the QUASAR 2 trial; 246 patients with stage I ovarian carcinoma; 354 patients with uterine sarcoma; 307 patients with prostate carcinoma; and 791 patients with endometrial carcinoma. The primary outcome was cancer-specific survival. In all patient cohorts, patients with chromatin heterogeneous tumours had worse cancer-specific survival than patients with chromatin homogeneous tumours (univariable analysis hazard ratio [HR] 1·7, 95% CI 1·2-2·5, in the discovery cohort; 1·8, 1·0-3·0, in the Gloucester validation cohort; 2·2, 1·1-4·5, in the QUASAR 2 validation cohort; 3·1, 1·9-5·0, in the ovarian carcinoma cohort; 2·5, 1·8-3·4, in the uterine sarcoma cohort; 2·3, 1·2-4·6, in the prostate carcinoma cohort; and 4·3, 2·8-6·8, in the endometrial carcinoma cohort). After adjusting for established prognostic patient characteristics in multivariable analyses, Nucleotyping was prognostic in all cohorts except for the prostate carcinoma

  1. Linker histone partial phosphorylation: effects on secondary structure and chromatin condensation

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rita; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Bartolomé, Salvador; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Linker histones are involved in chromatin higher-order structure and gene regulation. We have successfully achieved partial phosphorylation of linker histones in chicken erythrocyte soluble chromatin with CDK2, as indicated by HPCE, MALDI-TOF and Tandem MS. We have studied the effects of linker histone partial phosphorylation on secondary structure and chromatin condensation. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a gradual increase of β-structure in the phosphorylated samples, concomitant to a decrease in α-helix/turns, with increasing linker histone phosphorylation. This conformational change could act as the first step in the phosphorylation-induced effects on chromatin condensation. A decrease of the sedimentation rate through sucrose gradients of the phosphorylated samples was observed, indicating a global relaxation of the 30-nm fiber following linker histone phosphorylation. Analysis of specific genes, combining nuclease digestion and qPCR, showed that phosphorylated samples were more accessible than unphosphorylated samples, suggesting local chromatin relaxation. Chromatin aggregation was induced by MgCl2 and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Phosphorylated chromatin had lower percentages in volume of aggregated molecules and the aggregates had smaller hydrodynamic diameter than unphosphorylated chromatin, indicating that linker histone phosphorylation impaired chromatin aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the effects of linker histone phosphorylation in chromatin condensation. PMID:25870416

  2. Chromatin-unstable boar spermatozoa have little chance of reaching oocytes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ardón, Florencia; Helms, Dietmar; Sahin, Evrim; Bollwein, Heinrich; Töpfer-Petersen, Edda; Waberski, Dagmar

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, the prevalence of chromatin instability in the fertilizing-competent sperm population in the porcine oviduct in vivo was examined through qualitative analysis of the chromatin structure status of accessory boar sperm found in in vivo-derived embryos. The binding of chromatin-unstable sperm to oviductal epithelium in vitro was also studied. To examine the sperm chromatin state, a modified fluorescence microscopic sperm chromatin structure assay was used. Among a population of 173 fertile boars, individuals were selected for according to their chromatin status: 25 animals showed more than 5% of chromatin-unstable sperm in their ejaculates, and 7 showed consistently elevated percentages of chromatin-unstable sperm in three successively collected semen samples. A positive correlation was found between incidence of chromatin instability and attached cytoplasmic droplets (r=0.44, P<0.01). Analyses of accessory spermatozoa from in vivo-derived embryos demonstrated that the proportion of chromatin-unstable sperm was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in the population of fertilizing-competent sperm in the oviduct compared with the inseminated sperm. Populations of sperm bound to the oviduct in vitro had significantly (P<0.05) lower percentages of chromatin instability than in the original diluted semen sample. In conclusion, numbers of sperm with unstable chromatin are reduced in the oviductal sperm reservoir, possibly because of associated changes in the plasma membrane that prevent sperm from binding to the oviductal epithelium. We conclude that in vivo the likelihood that sperm with unstable chromatin will reach the egg and fertilize it is low.

  3. Protein and Genetic Composition of Four Chromatin Types in Drosophila melanogaster Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Boldyreva, Lidiya V; Goncharov, Fyodor P; Demakova, Olga V; Zykova, Tatyana Yu; Levitsky, Victor G; Kolesnikov, Nikolay N; Pindyurin, Alexey V; Semeshin, Valeriy F; Zhimulev, Igor F

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we analyzed genome-wide protein binding data for the Drosophila cell lines S2, Kc, BG3 and Cl.8 (modENCODE Consortium) and identified a set of 12 proteins enriched in the regions corresponding to interbands of salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Using these data, we developed a bioinformatic pipeline that partitioned the Drosophila genome into four chromatin types that we hereby refer to as aquamarine, lazurite, malachite and ruby. Here, we describe the properties of these chromatin types across different cell lines. We show that aquamarine chromatin tends to harbor transcription start sites (TSSs) and 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRs) of the genes, is enriched in diverse "open" chromatin proteins, histone modifications, nucleosome remodeling complexes and transcription factors. It encompasses most of the tRNA genes and shows enrichment for non-coding RNAs and miRNA genes. Lazurite chromatin typically encompasses gene bodies. It is rich in proteins involved in transcription elongation. Frequency of both point mutations and natural deletion breakpoints is elevated within lazurite chromatin. Malachite chromatin shows higher frequency of insertions of natural transposons. Finally, ruby chromatin is enriched for proteins and histone modifications typical for the "closed" chromatin. Ruby chromatin has a relatively low frequency of point mutations and is essentially devoid of miRNA and tRNA genes. Aquamarine and ruby chromatin types are highly stable across cell lines and have contrasting properties. Lazurite and malachite chromatin types also display characteristic protein composition, as well as enrichment for specific genomic features. We found that two types of chromatin, aquamarine and ruby, retain their complementary protein patterns in four Drosophila cell lines.

  4. RNA is an integral component of chromatin that contributes to its structural organization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Campos, Antonio; Azorín, Fernando

    2007-11-14

    Chromatin structure is influenced by multiples factors, such as pH, temperature, nature and concentration of counterions, post-translational modifications of histones and binding of structural non-histone proteins. RNA is also known to contribute to the regulation of chromatin structure as chromatin-induced gene silencing was shown to depend on the RNAi machinery in S. pombe, plants and Drosophila. Moreover, both in Drosophila and mammals, dosage compensation requires the contribution of specific non-coding RNAs. However, whether RNA itself plays a direct structural role in chromatin is not known. Here, we report results that indicate a general structural role for RNA in eukaryotic chromatin. RNA is found associated to purified chromatin prepared from chicken liver, or cultured Drosophila S2 cells, and treatment with RNase A alters the structural properties of chromatin. Our results indicate that chromatin-associated RNAs, which account for 2%-5% of total chromatin-associated nucleic acids, are polyA(-) and show a size similar to that of the DNA contained in the corresponding chromatin fragments. Chromatin-associated RNA(s) are not likely to correspond to nascent transcripts as they are also found bound to chromatin when cells are treated with alpha-amanitin. After treatment with RNase A, chromatin fragments of molecular weight >3.000 bp of DNA showed reduced sedimentation through sucrose gradients and increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease digestion. This structural transition, which is observed both at euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, proceeds without loss of histone H1 or any significant change in core-histone composition and integrity.

  5. RNA Is an Integral Component of Chromatin that Contributes to Its Structural Organization

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Campos, Antonio; Azorín, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Chromatin structure is influenced by multiples factors, such as pH, temperature, nature and concentration of counterions, post-translational modifications of histones and binding of structural non-histone proteins. RNA is also known to contribute to the regulation of chromatin structure as chromatin-induced gene silencing was shown to depend on the RNAi machinery in S. pombe, plants and Drosophila. Moreover, both in Drosophila and mammals, dosage compensation requires the contribution of specific non-coding RNAs. However, whether RNA itself plays a direct structural role in chromatin is not known. Here, we report results that indicate a general structural role for RNA in eukaryotic chromatin. RNA is found associated to purified chromatin prepared from chicken liver, or cultured Drosophila S2 cells, and treatment with RNase A alters the structural properties of chromatin. Our results indicate that chromatin-associated RNAs, which account for 2%–5% of total chromatin-associated nucleic acids, are polyA− and show a size similar to that of the DNA contained in the corresponding chromatin fragments. Chromatin-associated RNA(s) are not likely to correspond to nascent transcripts as they are also found bound to chromatin when cells are treated with α-amanitin. After treatment with RNase A, chromatin fragments of molecular weight >3.000 bp of DNA showed reduced sedimentation through sucrose gradients and increased sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease digestion. This structural transition, which is observed both at euchromatic and heterochromatic regions, proceeds without loss of histone H1 or any significant change in core-histone composition and integrity. PMID:18000552

  6. Tissue- and age-specific DNA replication patterns at the CTG/CAG-expanded human myotonic dystrophy type 1 locus.

    PubMed

    Cleary, John D; Tomé, Stéphanie; López Castel, Arturo; Panigrahi, Gagan B; Foiry, Laurent; Hagerman, Katharine A; Sroka, Hana; Chitayat, David; Gourdon, Geneviève; Pearson, Christopher E

    2010-09-01

    Myotonic dystrophy, caused by DM1 CTG/CAG repeat expansions, shows varying instability levels between tissues and across ages within patients. We determined DNA replication profiles at the DM1 locus in patient fibroblasts and tissues from DM1 transgenic mice of various ages showing different instability. In patient cells, the repeat is flanked by two replication origins demarcated by CTCF sites, with replication diminished at the expansion. In mice, the expansion replicated from only the downstream origin (CAG as lagging template). In testes from mice of three different ages, replication toward the repeat paused at the earliest age and was relieved at later ages-coinciding with increased instability. Brain, pancreas and thymus replication varied with CpG methylation at DM1 CTCF sites. CTCF sites between progressing forks and repeats reduced replication depending on chromatin. Thus, varying replication progression may affect tissue- and age-specific repeat instability.

  7. The chromatin-binding protein HMGN3 stimulates histone acetylation and transcription across the Glyt1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Barkess, Gráinne; Postnikov, Yuri; Campos, Chrisanne D.; Mishra, Shivam; Mohan, Gokula; Verma, Sakshi; Bustin, Michael; West, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    HMGNs are nucleosome-binding proteins that alter the pattern of histone modifications and modulate the binding of linker histones to chromatin. The HMGN3 family member exists as two splice forms, HMGN3a which is full-length and HMGN3b which lacks the C-terminal RD (regulatory domain). In the present study, we have used the Glyt1 (glycine transporter 1) gene as a model system to investigate where HMGN proteins are bound across the locus in vivo, and to study how the two HMGN3 splice variants affect histone modifications and gene expression. We demonstrate that HMGN1, HMGN2, HMGN3a and HMGN3b are bound across the Glyt1 gene locus and surrounding regions, and are not enriched more highly at the promoter or putative enhancer. We conclude that the peaks of H3K4me3 (trimethylated Lys4 of histone H3) and H3K9ac (acetylated Lys9 of histone H3) at the active Glyt1a promoter do not play a major role in recruiting HMGN proteins. HMGN3a/b binding leads to increased H3K14 (Lys14 of histone H3) acetylation and stimulates Glyt1a expression, but does not alter the levels of H3K4me3 or H3K9ac enrichment. Acetylation assays show that HMGN3a stimulates the ability of PCAF [p300/CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-binding protein-associated factor] to acetylate nucleosomal H3 in vitro, whereas HMGN3b does not. We propose a model where HMGN3a/b-stimulated H3K14 acetylation across the bodies of large genes such as Glyt1 can lead to more efficient transcription elongation and increased mRNA production. PMID:22150271

  8. DNA repair goes hip-hop: SMARCA and CHD chromatin remodellers join the break dance.

    PubMed

    Rother, Magdalena B; van Attikum, Haico

    2017-10-05

    Proper signalling and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is critical to prevent genome instability and diseases such as cancer. The packaging of DNA into chromatin, however, has evolved as a mere obstacle to these DSB responses. Posttranslational modifications and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling help to overcome this barrier by modulating nucleosome structures and allow signalling and repair machineries access to DSBs in chromatin. Here we recap our current knowledge on how ATP-dependent SMARCA- and CHD-type chromatin remodellers alter chromatin structure during the signalling and repair of DSBs and discuss how their dysfunction impacts genome stability and human disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. IL-1β-specific recruitment of GCN5 histone acetyltransferase induces the release of PAF1 from chromatin for the de-repression of inflammatory response genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nari; Sun, Hwa-Young; Youn, Min-Young; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2013-04-01

    To determine the functional specificity of inflammation, it is critical to orchestrate the timely activation and repression of inflammatory responses. Here, we explored the PAF1 (RNA polymerase II associated factor)-mediated signal- and locus-specific repression of genes induced through the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. Using microarray analysis, we identified the PAF1 target genes whose expression was further enhanced by PAF1 knockdown in IL-1β-stimulated HepG2 hepatocarcinomas. PAF1 bound near the transcription start sites of target genes and dissociated on stimulation. In PAF1-deficient cells, more elongating RNA polymerase II and acetylated histones were observed, although IL-1β-mediated activation and recruitment of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) were not altered. Under basal conditions, PAF1 blocked histone acetyltransferase general control non-depressible 5 (GCN5)-mediated acetylation on H3K9 and H4K5 residues. On IL-1β stimulation, activated GCN5 discharged PAF1 from chromatin, allowing productive transcription to occur. PAF1 bound to histones but not to acetylated histones, and the chromatin-binding domain of PAF1 was essential for target gene repression. Moreover, IL-1β-induced cell migration was similarly controlled through counteraction between PAF1 and GCN5. These results suggest that the IL-1β signal-specific exchange of PAF1 and GCN5 on the target locus limits inappropriate gene induction and facilitates the timely activation of inflammatory responses.

  10. Identification of a crenarchaeal orthologue of Elf1: implications for chromatin and transcription in Archaea.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Jan-Peter; Kelly, Steven; Wickstead, Bill; Gull, Keith

    2009-07-29

    The transcription machineries of Archaea and eukaryotes are similar in many aspects, but little is understood about archaeal chromatin and its role in transcription. Here, we describe the identification in hyperthermophilic Crenarchaeota and a Korarchaeon of an orthologue of the eukaryotic transcription elongation factor Elf1, which has been shown to function in chromatin structure maintenance of actively transcribed templates. Our discovery has implications for the relationship of chromatin and transcription in Archaea and the evolution of these processes in eukaryotes.

  11. Chromatin configurations in the ferret germinal vesicle that reflect developmental competence for in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Li, Z; Yi, Y; Ding, W; Chen, J; Engelhardt, J F; Leno, G H

    2009-04-01

    In several mammalian species, the configuration of germinal vesicle (GV) chromatin correlates with the developmental competence of oocytes. Yet, no study has been published on the configuration of GV chromatin in ferret, nor is it known whether a specific configuration predicts meiotic competence in this species, in spite of the potential importance of ferret cloning to the study of human disease and to species conservation efforts. Here, we report on an analysis of the chromatin configuration in ferret GV oocytes and on how they correlate with meiotic development. Three distinct configurations were identified based on the degree of chromatin condensation: (1) fibrillar chromatin (FC), featuring strands of intertwined chromatin occupying most of the visible GV region; (2) intermediate condensed chromatin (ICC), characterized by dense, irregular chromatin masses throughout the GV; and (3) condensed chromatin (CC), which is highly compact and centered around the nucleolus. We also found that chromatin configuration was related to the extent of association with cumulus cells in cumulus-oocyte complexes; CC-configured oocytes were most often surrounded by a compact cumulus layer and also a compact corona but FC-configured oocytes were associated with neither. In addition, increasing chromatin condensation corresponded to an increase in oocyte diameter. Finally, following in vitro culture, significantly more CC-configured oocytes underwent maturation to meiotic metaphase II than did FC- or ICC-configured oocytes. We conclude that, in ferret, chromatin condensation is related to the sequential achievement of meiotic competencies during oocyte growth and differentiation, and thus can be used as a predictor of competence.

  12. Formation of new chromatin domains determines pathogenicity of genomic duplications.

    PubMed

    Franke, Martin; Ibrahim, Daniel M; Andrey, Guillaume; Schwarzer, Wibke; Heinrich, Verena; Schöpflin, Robert; Kraft, Katerina; Kempfer, Rieke; Jerković, Ivana; Chan, Wing-Lee; Spielmann, Malte; Timmermann, Bernd; Wittler, Lars; Kurth, Ingo; Cambiaso, Paola; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Houge, Gunnar; Lambie, Lindsay; Brancati, Francesco; Pombo, Ana; Vingron, Martin; Spitz, Francois; Mundlos, Stefan

    2016-10-13

    Chromosome conformation capture methods have identified subchromosomal structures of higher-order chromatin interactions called topologically associated domains (TADs) that are separated from each other by boundary regions. By subdividing the genome into discrete regulatory units, TADs restrict the contacts that enhancers establish with their target genes. However, the mechanisms that underlie partitioning of the genome into TADs remain poorly understood. Here we show by chromosome conformation capture (capture Hi-C and 4C-seq methods) that genomic duplications in patient cells and genetically modified mice can result in the formation of new chromatin domains (neo-TADs) and that this process determines their molecular pathology. Duplications of non-coding DNA within the mouse Sox9 TAD (intra-TAD) that cause female to male sex reversal in humans, showed increased contact of the duplicated regions within the TAD, but no change in the overall TAD structure. In contrast, overlapping duplications that extended over the next boundary into the neighbouring TAD (inter-TAD), resulted in the formation of a new chromatin domain (neo-TAD) that was isolated from the rest of the genome. As a consequence of this insulation, inter-TAD duplications had no phenotypic effect. However, incorporation of the next flanking gene, Kcnj2, in the neo-TAD resulted in ectopic contacts of Kcnj2 with the duplicated part of the Sox9 regulatory region, consecutive misexpression of Kcnj2, and a limb malformation phenotype. Our findings provide evidence that TADs are genomic regulatory units with a high degree of internal stability that can be sculptured by structural genomic variations. This process is important for the interpretation of copy number variations, as these variations are routinely detected in diagnostic tests for genetic disease and cancer. This finding also has relevance in an evolutionary setting because copy-number differences are thought to have a crucial role in the evolution of

  13. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Confers BRG1 Dependency on the CIITA Locus.

    PubMed

    Abou El Hassan, Mohamed; Yu, Tao; Song, Lan; Bremner, Rod

    2015-05-15

    CIITA (or MHC2TA) coordinates constitutive and IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II genes. IFN-γ responsiveness of CIITA requires BRG1 (SMARCA4), the ATPase engine of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex (also called BAF). SWI/SNF is defective in many human cancers, providing a mechanism to explain IFN-γ resistance. BRG1 dependency is mediated through remote elements. Short CIITA reporters lacking these elements respond to IFN-γ, even in BRG1-deficient cells, suggesting that BRG1 counters a remote repressive influence. The nature of this distal repressor is unknown, but it would represent a valuable therapeutic target to reactivate IFN-γ responsiveness in cancer. In this article, we show that the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components EZH2 and SUZ12, as well as the associated histone mark H3K27me3, are codetected at interenhancer regions across the CIITA locus. IFN-γ caused a BRG1-dependent reduction in H3K27me3, associated with nucleosome displacement. SUZ12 knockdown restored IFN-γ responsiveness in BRG1-null cells, and it mimicked the ability of BRG1 to induce active histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me) at the -50-kb enhancer. Thus, PRC2 confers BRG1 dependency on the CIITA locus. Our data suggest that, in addition to its known roles in promoting stemness and proliferation, PRC2 may inhibit immune surveillance, and it could be targeted to reactivate CIITA expression in SWI/SNF deficient cancers. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Adapting in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation to the study of locus control regions.

    PubMed

    Lahiji, Armin; Kučerová-Levisohn, Martina; Holmes, Roxanne; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Ortiz, Benjamin D

    2014-05-01

    Numerous locus control region (LCR) activities have been discovered in gene loci important to immune cell development and function. LCRs are a distinct class of cis-acting gene regulatory elements that appear to contain all the DNA sequence information required to establish an independently and predictably regulated gene expression program at any genomic site in native chromatin of a whole animal. As such, LCR-regulated transgenic reporter systems provide invaluable opportunities to investigate the mechanisms of gene regulatory DNA action during development. Furthermore the qualities of LCR-driven gene expression, including spatiotemporal specificity and "integration site-independence" would be highly desirable to incorporate into vectors used in therapeutic genetic engineering. Thus, advancement in the methods used to investigate LCRs is of considerable basic and translational significance. We study the LCR present in the mouse T cell receptor (TCR)-α gene locus. Until recently, transgenic mice provided the only experimental model capable of supporting the entire spectrum of LCR activities. We have recently reported complete manifestation of TCRα LCR function in T cells derived in vitro from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC), thus validating a complete cell culture model for the full range of LCR activities seen in transgenic mice. Here we discuss the critical parameters involved in studying LCR-regulated gene expression during in vitro hematopoietic differentiation from ESCs. This advance provides an approach to speed progress in the LCR field, and facilitate the clinical application of its findings, particularly to the genetic engineering of T cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Immunofluorescence Analysis of Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Dillinger, Stefan; Németh, Attila

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of eu- and heterochromatin is nonrandom, heterogeneous, and dynamic, which is mirrored by specific spatiotemporal arrangements of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Here we describe a semiautomated method for the analysis of histone PTM localization patterns within the mammalian nucleus using confocal laser scanning microscope images of fixed, immunofluorescence stained cells as data source. The ImageJ-based process includes the segmentation of the nucleus, furthermore measurements of total fluorescence intensities, the heterogeneity of the staining, and the frequency of the brightest pixels in the region of interest (ROI). In the presented image analysis pipeline, the perinucleolar chromatin is selected as primary ROI, and the nuclear periphery as secondary ROI.

  16. Peptide Epitalon activates chromatin at the old age.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, Vladimir Kh; Lezhava, Teimuraz A; Monaselidze, Jamlet R; Jokhadze, Tinatin A; Dvalishvili, Nana A; Bablishvili, Nino K; Trofimova, Svetlana V

    2003-10-01

    OBJECTIVES and design. We have studied the effect of synthetic peptide Epitalon on the activity of ribosomal genes, denaturation parameters of total heterochromatin, polymorphism of structural C-heterochromatin and the variability of facultative heterochromatin in cultured lymphocytes of persons aged 76-80 years. The obtained data demonstrate that Epitalon induces the activation of ribosomal genes, decondensation of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin and the release of genes repressed due to the age-related condensation of euchromatic chromosome regions. Epitalon has shown its ability to activate chromatin by modifying heterochromatin and heterochromatinized chromosome regions in the cells of older persons.

  17. Chromatin organization and global regulation of Hox gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Montavon, Thomas; Duboule, Denis

    2013-01-01

    During development, a properly coordinated expression of Hox genes, within their different genomic clusters is critical for patterning the body plans of many animals with a bilateral symmetry. The fascinating correspondence between the topological organization of Hox clusters and their transcriptional activation in space and time has served as a paradigm for understanding the relationships between genome structure and function. Here, we review some recent observations, which revealed highly dynamic changes in the structure of chromatin at Hox clusters, in parallel with their activation during embryonic development. We discuss the relevance of these findings for our understanding of large-scale gene regulation. PMID:23650639

  18. Relationships between locus of control and paranormal beliefs.

    PubMed

    Newby, Robert W; Davis, Jessica Boyette

    2004-06-01

    The present study investigated the associations between scores on paranormal beliefs, locus of control, and certain psychological processes such as affect and cognitions as measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count. Analysis yielded significant correlations between scores on Locus of Control and two subscales of Tobacyk's (1988) Revised Paranormal Beliefs Scale, New Age Philosophy and Traditional Paranormal Beliefs. A step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that Locus of Control was significantly related to New Age Philosophy. Other correlations were found between Tobacyk's subscales, Locus of Control, and three processes measured by the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count.

  19. Toxic effects of lead and nickel nitrate on rat liver chromatin components.

    PubMed

    Rabbani-Chadegani Iii, Azra; Fani, Nesa; Abdossamadi, Sayeh; Shahmir, Nosrat

    2011-01-01

    The biological activity of heavy metals is related to their physicochemical interaction with biological receptors. In the present study, the effect of low concentrations of nickel nitrate and lead nitrate (<0.3 mM) on rat liver soluble chromatin and histone proteins was examined. The results showed that addition of various concentrations of metals to chromatin solution preceded the chromatin into aggregation and precipitation in a dose-dependant manner; however, the extent of absorbance changes at 260 and 400 nm was different between two metals. Gel electrophoresis of histone proteins and DNA of the supernatants obtained from the metal-treated chromatin and the controls revealed higher affinity of lead nitrate to chromatin compared to nickel nitrate. Also, the binding affinity of lead nitrate to histone proteins free in solution was higher than nickel. On the basis of the results, it is concluded that lead reacts with chromatin components even at very low concentrations and induce chromatin aggregation through histone-DNA cross-links. Whereas, nickel nitrate is less effective on chromatin at low concentrations, suggesting higher toxicity of lead nitrate on chromatin compared to nickel. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A DEK Domain-Containing Protein Modulates Chromatin Structure and Function in Arabidopsis[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Waidmann, Sascha; Kusenda, Branislav; Mayerhofer, Juliane; Mechtler, Karl; Jonak, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is a major determinant in the regulation of virtually all DNA-dependent processes. Chromatin architectural proteins interact with nucleosomes to modulate chromatin accessibility and higher-order chromatin structure. The evolutionarily conserved DEK domain-containing protein is implicated in important chromatin-related processes in animals, but little is known about its DNA targets and protein interaction partners. In plants, the role of DEK has remained elusive. In this work, we identified DEK3 as a chromatin-associated protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. DEK3 specifically binds histones H3 and H4. Purification of other proteins associated with nuclear DEK3 also established DNA topoisomerase 1α and proteins of the cohesion complex as in vivo interaction partners. Genome-wide mapping of DEK3 binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing revealed enrichment of DEK3 at protein-coding genes throughout the genome. Using DEK3 knockout and overexpressor lines, we show that DEK3 affects nucleosome occupancy and chromatin accessibility and modulates the expression of DEK3 target genes. Furthermore, functional levels of DEK3 are crucial for stress tolerance. Overall, data indicate that DEK3 contributes to modulation of Arabidopsis chromatin structure and function. PMID:25387881

  1. Mapping of protein- and chromatin-interactions at the nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Nard; Voncken, Jan Willem; Misteli, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear envelope and the lamina define the nuclear periphery and are implicated in many nuclear processes including chromatin organization, transcription and DNA replication. Mutations in lamin A proteins, major components of the lamina, interfere with these functions and cause a set of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. The phenotypic diversity of laminopathies is thought to be the result of alterations in specific protein- and chromatin interactions due to lamin A mutations. Systematic identification of lamin A-protein and -chromatin interactions will be critical to uncover the molecular etiology of laminopathies. Here we summarize and critically discuss recent technology to analyze lamina-protein and-chromatin interactions.

  2. Nucleolar chromatin organization at different activities of soybean root meristematic cell nucleoli.

    PubMed

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2013-06-01

    Nucleolar chromatin, including nucleolus-associated chromatin as well as active and inactive condensed ribosomal DNA (rDNA) chromatin, derives mostly from secondary constrictions known as nucleolus organizer regions containing rDNA genes on nucleolus-forming chromosomes. This chromatin may occupy different nucleolar positions being in various condensation states which may imply different rDNA transcriptional competence. Sections of nucleoli originating from root meristematic cells of soybean seedlings grown at 25 °C (the control), then subjected to chilling stress (10 °C), and next transferred again to 25 °C (the recovery) were used to measure profile areas occupied by nucleolar condensed chromatin disclosed with sodium hydroxide methylation-acetylation plus uranyl acetate technique. The biggest total area of condensed chromatin was found in the nucleoli of chilled plants, while the smallest was found in those of recovered plants in relation to the amounts of chromatin in the control nucleoli. The condensed nucleolar chromatin, in the form of different-sized and different-shaped clumps, was mainly located in fibrillar centers. One can suppose that changes of condensed rDNA chromatin amounts might be a mechanism controlling the number of transcriptionally active rDNA genes as the nucleoli of plants grown under these experimental conditions show different transcriptional activity and morphology.

  3. Chromatin Dynamics in Genome Stability: Roles in Suppressing Endogenous DNA Damage and Facilitating DNA Repair

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Nidhi; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin through packaging with histone and non-histone proteins. Importantly, DNA accessibility is dynamically regulated to ensure genome stability. This is exemplified in the response to DNA damage where chromatin relaxation near genomic lesions serves to promote access of relevant enzymes to specific DNA regions for signaling and repair. Furthermore, recent data highlight genome maintenance roles of chromatin through the regulation of endogenous DNA-templated processes including transcription and replication. Here, we review research that shows the importance of chromatin structure regulation in maintaining genome integrity by multiple mechanisms including facilitating DNA repair and directly suppressing endogenous DNA damage. PMID:28698521

  4. p53 targets chromatin structure alteration to repress alpha-fetoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ogden, S K; Lee, K C; Wernke-Dollries, K; Stratton, S A; Aronow, B; Barton, M C

    2001-11-09

    Many of the functions ascribed to p53 tumor suppressor protein are mediated through transcription regulation. We have shown that p53 represses hepatic-specific alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression by direct interaction with a composite HNF-3/p53 DNA binding element. Using solid-phase, chromatin-assembled AFP DNA templates and analysis of chromatin structure and transcription in vitro, we find that p53 binds DNA and alters chromatin structure at the AFP core promoter to regulate transcription. Chromatin assembled in the presence of hepatoma extracts is activated for AFP transcription with an open, accessible core promoter structure. Distal (-850) binding of p53 during chromatin assembly, but not post-assembly, reverses transcription activation concomitant with promoter inaccessibility to restriction enzyme digestion. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity by trichostatin-A (TSA) addition, prior to and during chromatin assembly, activated chromatin transcription in parallel with increased core promoter accessibility. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed increased H3 and H4 acetylated histones at the core promoter in the presence of TSA, while histone acetylation remained unchanged at the site of distal p53 binding. Our data reveal that p53 targets chromatin structure alteration at the core promoter, independently of effects on histone acetylation, to establish repressed AFP gene expression.

  5. The FRIGIDA Complex Activates Transcription of FLC, a Strong Flowering Repressor in Arabidopsis, by Recruiting Chromatin Modification Factors[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyuha; Kim, Juhyun; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Chulmin; Kim, Sang Yeol; Lee, Ilha

    2011-01-01

    The flowering of Arabidopsis thaliana winter annuals is delayed until the subsequent spring by the strong floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). FRIGIDA (FRI) activates the transcription of FLC, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The fri mutation causes early flowering with reduced FLC expression similar to frl1, fes1, suf4, and flx, which are mutants of FLC-specific regulators. Here, we report that FRI acts as a scaffold protein interacting with FRL1, FES1, SUF4, and FLX to form a transcription activator complex (FRI-C). Each component of FRI-C has a specialized function. SUF4 binds to a cis-element of the FLC promoter, FLX and FES1 have transcriptional activation potential, and FRL1 and FES1 stabilize the complex. FRI-C recruits a general transcription factor, a TAF14 homolog, and chromatin modification factors, the SWR1 complex and SET2 homolog. Complex formation was confirmed by the immunoprecipitation of FRI-associated proteins followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Our results provide insight into how a specific transcription activator recruits chromatin modifiers to regulate a key flowering gene. PMID:21282526

  6. New Alzheimer's disease locus on chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Giedraitis, V; Hedlund, M; Skoglund, L; Blom, E; Ingvast, S; Brundin, R; Lannfelt, L; Glaser, A

    2006-12-01

    Family history is one of the most consistent risk factors for dementia. Therefore, analysis of families with a distinct inheritance pattern of disease can be a powerful approach for the identification of previously unknown disease genes. To map susceptibility regions for Alzheimer's disease. A complete genome scan with 369 microsatellite markers was carried out in 12 extended families collected in Sweden. Age at disease onset ranged from 53 to 78 years, but in 10 of the families there was at least one member with age at onset of < or =65 years. Mutations in known early-onset Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes have been excluded. All people were genotyped for APOE, but no clear linkage with the epsilon4 allele was observed. Although no common disease locus could be found in all families, in two families an extended haplotype was identified on chromosome 8q shared by all affected members. In one of the families, a non-parametric multimarker logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 4.2 (p = 0.004) was obtained and analysis based on a dominant model showed a parametric LOD score of 2.4 for this region. All six affected members of this family shared a haplotype of 10 markers spanning about 40 cM. Three affected members in another family also shared a haplotype in the same region. On the basis of our data, we propose the existence of a dominantly acting Alzheimer's disease susceptibility locus on chromosome 8.

  7. Arabidopsis homologs of retinoblastoma-associated protein 46/48 associate with a histone deacetylase to act redundantly in chromatin silencing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Danhua; Yang, Wannian; Jacob, Yannick; Michaels, Scott D; He, Yuehui

    2011-11-01

    RNA molecules such as small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and antisense RNAs (asRNAs) trigger chromatin silencing of target loci. In the model plant Arabidopsis, RNA-triggered chromatin silencing involves repressive histone modifications such as histone deacetylation, histone H3 lysine-9 methylation, and H3 lysine-27 monomethylation. Here, we report that two Arabidopsis homologs of the human histone-binding proteins Retinoblastoma-Associated Protein 46/48 (RbAp46/48), known as MSI4 (or FVE) and MSI5, function in partial redundancy in chromatin silencing of various loci targeted by siRNAs or asRNAs. We show that MSI5 acts in partial redundancy with FVE to silence FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which is a crucial floral repressor subject to asRNA-mediated silencing, FLC homologs, and other loci including transposable and repetitive elements which are targets of siRNA-directed DNA Methylation (RdDM). Both FVE and MSI5 associate with HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 (HDA6) to form complexes and directly interact with the target loci, leading to histone deacetylation and transcriptional silencing. In addition, these two genes function in de novo CHH (H = A, T, or C) methylation and maintenance of symmetric cytosine methylation (mainly CHG methylation) at endogenous RdDM target loci, and they are also required for establishment of cytosine methylation in the previously unmethylated sequences directed by the RdDM pathway. This reveals an important functional divergence of the plant RbAp46/48 relatives from animal counterparts.

  8. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Sequencing (ChIP-Seq) for Transcription Factors and Chromatin Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Roots: From Material Collection to Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cortijo, Sandra; Charoensawan, Varodom; Roudier, François; Wigge, Philip A

    2018-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) is a powerful technique to investigate in vivo transcription factor (TF) binding to DNA, as well as chromatin marks. Here we provide a detailed protocol for all the key steps to perform ChIP-seq in Arabidopsis thaliana roots, also working on other A. thaliana tissues and in most non-ligneous plants. We detail all steps from material collection, fixation, chromatin preparation, immunoprecipitation, library preparation, and finally computational analysis based on a combination of publicly available tools.

  9. Chromatin Structure and Radiation-Induced Intrachromosome Exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangala; Zhang, Ye; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    We have recently investigated the location of breaks involved in intrachromosomal type exchange events, using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique for human chromosome 3. In human epithelial cells exposed to both low- and high-LET radiations in vitro, intrachromosome exchanges were found to occur preferentially between a break in the 3p21 and one in the 3q11. Exchanges were also observed between a break in 3p21 and one in 3q26, but few exchanges were observed between breaks in 3q11 and 3q26, even though the two regions were on the same arm of the chromosome. To explore the relationships between intrachromosome exchanges and chromatin structure, we used probes that hybridize the three regions of 3p21, 3q11 and 3q26, and measured the distance between two of the three regions in interphase cells. We further analyzed fragile sites on the chromosome that have been identified in various types of cancers. Our results demonstrated that the distribution of breaks involved in radiation-induced intrachromosome aberrations depends upon both the location of fragile sites and the folding of chromatins

  10. The activities of eukaryotic replication origins in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Weinreich, Michael; Palacios DeBeer, Madeleine A; Fox, Catherine A

    2004-03-15

    DNA replication initiates at chromosomal positions called replication origins. This review will focus on the activity, regulation and roles of replication origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. All eukaryotic cells, including S. cerevisiae, depend on the initiation (activity) of hundreds of replication origins during a single cell cycle for the duplication of their genomes. However, not all origins are identical. For example, there is a temporal order to origin activation with some origins firing early during the S-phase and some origins firing later. Recent studies provide evidence that posttranslational chromatin modifications, heterochromatin-binding proteins and nucleosome positioning can control the efficiency and/or timing of chromosomal origin activity in yeast. Many more origins exist than are necessary for efficient replication. The availability of excess replication origins leaves individual origins free to evolve distinct forms of regulation and/or roles in chromosomes beyond their fundamental role in DNA synthesis. We propose that some origins have acquired roles in controlling chromatin structure and/or gene expression. These roles are not linked obligatorily to replication origin activity per se, but instead exploit multi-subunit replication proteins with the potential to form context-dependent protein-protein interactions.

  11. Epigenetic Regulation of Chromatin States in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Allshire, Robin C.; Ekwall, Karl

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the advances made in epigenetic research using the model organism fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. S. pombe has been used for epigenetic research since the discovery of position effect variegation (PEV). This is a phenomenon in which a transgene inserted within heterochromatin is variably expressed, but can be stably inherited in subsequent cell generations. PEV occurs at centromeres, telomeres, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci, and mating-type regions of S. pombe chromosomes. Heterochromatin assembly in these regions requires enzymes that modify histones and the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery. One of the key histone-modifying enzymes is the lysine methyltransferase Clr4, which methylates histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), a classic hallmark of heterochromatin. The kinetochore is assembled on specialized chromatin in which histone H3 is replaced by the variant CENP-A. Studies in fission yeast have contributed to our understanding of the establishment and maintenance of CENP-A chromatin and the epigenetic activation and inactivation of centromeres. PMID:26134317

  12. Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism.

    PubMed

    De Rubeis, Silvia; He, Xin; Goldberg, Arthur P; Poultney, Christopher S; Samocha, Kaitlin; Cicek, A Erucment; Kou, Yan; Liu, Li; Fromer, Menachem; Walker, Susan; Singh, Tarinder; Klei, Lambertus; Kosmicki, Jack; Shih-Chen, Fu; Aleksic, Branko; Biscaldi, Monica; Bolton, Patrick F; Brownfeld, Jessica M; Cai, Jinlu; Campbell, Nicholas G; Carracedo, Angel; Chahrour, Maria H; Chiocchetti, Andreas G; Coon, Hilary; Crawford, Emily L; Curran, Sarah R; Dawson, Geraldine; Duketis, Eftichia; Fernandez, Bridget A; Gallagher, Louise; Geller, Evan; Guter, Stephen J; Hill, R Sean; Ionita-Laza, Juliana; Jimenz Gonzalez, Patricia; Kilpinen, Helena; Klauck, Sabine M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Lee, Irene; Lei, Irene; Lei, Jing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Ma'ayan, Avi; Marshall, Christian R; McInnes, Alison L; Neale, Benjamin; Owen, Michael J; Ozaki, Noriio; Parellada, Mara; Parr, Jeremy R; Purcell, Shaun; Puura, Kaija; Rajagopalan, Deepthi; Rehnström, Karola; Reichenberg, Abraham; Sabo, Aniko; Sachse, Michael; Sanders, Stephan J; Schafer, Chad; Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Skuse, David; Stevens, Christine; Szatmari, Peter; Tammimies, Kristiina; Valladares, Otto; Voran, Annette; Li-San, Wang; Weiss, Lauren A; Willsey, A Jeremy; Yu, Timothy W; Yuen, Ryan K C; Cook, Edwin H; Freitag, Christine M; Gill, Michael; Hultman, Christina M; Lehner, Thomas; Palotie, Aaarno; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Sklar, Pamela; State, Matthew W; Sutcliffe, James S; Walsh, Christiopher A; Scherer, Stephen W; Zwick, Michael E; Barett, Jeffrey C; Cutler, David J; Roeder, Kathryn; Devlin, Bernie; Daly, Mark J; Buxbaum, Joseph D

    2014-11-13

    The genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorder involves the interplay of common and rare variants and their impact on hundreds of genes. Using exome sequencing, here we show that analysis of rare coding variation in 3,871 autism cases and 9,937 ancestry-matched or parental controls implicates 22 autosomal genes at a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, plus a set of 107 autosomal genes strongly enriched for those likely to affect risk (FDR < 0.30). These 107 genes, which show unusual evolutionary constraint against mutations, incur de novo loss-of-function mutations in over 5% of autistic subjects. Many of the genes implicated encode proteins for synaptic formation, transcriptional regulation and chromatin-remodelling pathways. These include voltage-gated ion channels regulating the propagation of action potentials, pacemaking and excitability-transcription coupling, as well as histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodellers-most prominently those that mediate post-translational lysine methylation/demethylation modifications of histones.

  13. Nuclear location of a chromatin insulator in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghao; Li, Mo; Adams, Jessica; Cai, Haini N

    2004-03-01

    Chromatin-related functions are associated with spatial organization in the nucleus. We have investigated the relationship between the enhancer-blocking activity and subnuclear localization of the Drosophila melanogaster suHw insulator. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we observed that genomic loci containing the gypsy retrotransposon were distributed closer to the nuclear periphery than regions without the gypsy retrotransposon. However, transgenes containing a functional 340 bp suHw insulator did not exhibit such biased distribution towards the nuclear periphery, which suggests that the suHw insulator sequence is not responsible for the peripheral localization of the gypsy retrotransposon. Antibody stains showed that the two proteins essential for the suHw insulator activity, SUHW and MOD(MDG4), are not restricted to the nuclear periphery. The enhancer-blocking activity of suHw remained intact under the heat shock conditions, which was shown to disrupt the association of gypsy, SUHW and MOD(MDG4) with the nuclear periphery. Our results indicate that the suHw insulator can function in the nuclear interior, possibly through local interactions with chromatin components or other nuclear structures.

  14. Chromatin loops as allosteric modulators of enhancer-promoter interactions.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Boryana; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Imakaev, Maxim; Mirny, Leonid A

    2014-10-01

    The classic model of eukaryotic gene expression requires direct spatial contact between a distal enhancer and a proximal promoter. Recent Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) studies show that enhancers and promoters are embedded in a complex network of looping interactions. Here we use a polymer model of chromatin fiber to investigate whether, and to what extent, looping interactions between elements in the vicinity of an enhancer-promoter pair can influence their contact frequency. Our equilibrium polymer simulations show that a chromatin loop, formed by elements flanking either an enhancer or a promoter, suppresses enhancer-promoter interactions, working as an insulator. A loop formed by elements located in the region between an enhancer and a promoter, on the contrary, facilitates their interactions. We find that different mechanisms underlie insulation and facilitation; insulation occurs due to steric exclusion by the loop, and is a global effect, while facilitation occurs due to an effective shortening of the enhancer-promoter genomic distance, and is a local effect. Consistently, we find that these effects manifest quite differently for in silico 3C and microscopy. Our results show that looping interactions that do not directly involve an enhancer-promoter pair can nevertheless significantly modulate their interactions. This phenomenon is analogous to allosteric regulation in proteins, where a conformational change triggered by binding of a regulatory molecule to one site affects the state of another site.

  15. CTCF and cohesin regulate chromatin loop stability with distinct dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anders S; Pustova, Iryna; Cattoglio, Claudia; Tjian, Robert; Darzacq, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Folding of mammalian genomes into spatial domains is critical for gene regulation. The insulator protein CTCF and cohesin control domain location by folding domains into loop structures, which are widely thought to be stable. Combining genomic and biochemical approaches we show that CTCF and cohesin co-occupy the same sites and physically interact as a biochemically stable complex. However, using single-molecule imaging we find that CTCF binds chromatin much more dynamically than cohesin (~1–2 min vs. ~22 min residence time). Moreover, after unbinding, CTCF quickly rebinds another cognate site unlike cohesin for which the search process is long (~1 min vs. ~33 min). Thus, CTCF and cohesin form a rapidly exchanging 'dynamic complex' rather than a typical stable complex. Since CTCF and cohesin are required for loop domain formation, our results suggest that chromatin loops are dynamic and frequently break and reform throughout the cell cycle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25776.001 PMID:28467304

  16. Breast cancer risk-associated SNPs modulate the affinity of chromatin for FOXA1 and alter gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cowper-Sal·lari, Richard; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wright, Jason B.; Bailey, Swneke D.; Cole, Michael D.; Eeckhoute, Jerome; Moore, Jason H.; Lupien, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human traits and diseases. But because the vast majority of these SNPs are located in the noncoding regions of the genome their risk promoting mechanisms are elusive. Employing a new methodology combining cistromics, epigenomics and genotype imputation we annotate the noncoding regions of the genome in breast cancer cells and systematically identify the functional nature of SNPs associated with breast cancer risk. Our results demonstrate that breast cancer risk-associated SNPs are enriched in the cistromes of FOXA1 and ESR1 and the epigenome of H3K4me1 in a cancer and cell-type-specific manner. Furthermore, the majority of these risk-associated SNPs modulate the affinity of chromatin for FOXA1 at distal regulatory elements, which results in allele-specific gene expression, exemplified by the effect of the rs4784227 SNP on the TOX3 gene found within the 16q12.1 risk locus. PMID:23001124

  17. Physical proximity of chromatin to nuclear pores prevents harmful R loop accumulation contributing to maintain genome stability.

    PubMed

    García-Benítez, Francisco; Gaillard, Hélène; Aguilera, Andrés

    2017-10-10

    During transcription, the mRNA may hybridize with DNA, forming an R loop, which can be physiological or pathological, constituting in this case a source of genomic instability. To understand the mechanism by which eukaryotic cells prevent harmful R loops, we used human activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to identify genes preventing R loops. A screening of 400 Saccharomyces cerevisiae selected strains deleted in nuclear genes revealed that cells lacking the Mlp1/2 nuclear basket proteins show AID-dependent genomic instability and replication defects that were suppressed by RNase H1 overexpression. Importantly, DNA-RNA hybrids accumulated at transcribed genes in mlp1/2 mutants, indicating that Mlp1/2 prevents R loops. Consistent with the Mlp1/2 role in gene gating to nuclear pores, artificial tethering to the nuclear periphery of a transcribed locus suppressed R loops in mlp1 ∆ cells. The same occurred in THO-deficient hpr1 ∆ cells. We conclude that proximity of transcribed chromatin to the nuclear pore helps restrain pathological R loops.

  18. Cyclic AMP-induced Chromatin Changes Support the NFATc-mediated Recruitment of GATA-3 to the Interleukin 5 Promoter*

    PubMed Central

    Klein-Hessling, Stefan; Bopp, Tobias; Jha, Mithilesh K.; Schmidt, Arthur; Miyatake, Shoichiro; Schmitt, Edgar; Serfling, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    Elevated intracellular cyclic AMP levels, which suppress the proliferation of naive T cells and type 1 T helper (Th1) cells are a property of T helper 2 (Th2) cells and regulatory T cells. While cyclic AMP signals interfere with the IL-2 promoter induction, they support the induction of Th2-type genes, in particular of il-5 gene. We show here that cyclic AMP signals support the generation of three inducible DNase I hypersensitive chromatin sites over the il-5 locus, including its promoter region. In addition, cyclic AMP signals enhance histone H3 acetylation at the IL-5 promoter and the concerted binding of GATA-3 and NFATc to the promoter. This is facilitated by direct protein-protein interactions involving the C-terminal Zn2+-finger of GATA-3 and the C-terminal region of the NFATc1 DNA binding domain. Because inhibition of NFATc binding to the IL-5 promoter in vivo also affects the binding of GATA-3, one may conclude that upon induction of Th2 effector cells NFATc recruits GATA-3 to Th2-type genes. These data demonstrate the functional importance of cyclic AMP signals for the interplay between GATA-3 and NFATc factors in the transcriptional control of lymphokine expression in Th2 effector cells. PMID:18772129

  19. Mating-type switching by chromosomal inversion in methylotrophic yeasts suggests an origin for the three-locus Saccharomyces cerevisiae system

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sara J.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a complex system for switching the mating type of haploid cells, requiring the genome to have three mating-type (MAT)–like loci and a mechanism for silencing two of them. How this system originated is unknown, because the three-locus system is present throughout the family Saccharomycetaceae, whereas species in the sister Candida clade have only one locus and do not switch. Here we show that yeasts in a third clade, the methylotrophs, have a simpler two-locus switching system based on reversible inversion of a section of chromosome with MATa genes at one end and MATalpha genes at the other end. In Hansenula polymorpha the 19-kb invertible region lies beside a centromere so that, depending on the orientation, either MATa or MATalpha is silenced by centromeric chromatin. In Pichia pastoris, the orientation of a 138-kb invertible region puts either MATa or MATalpha beside a telomere and represses transcription of MATa2 or MATalpha2. Both species are homothallic, and inversion of their MAT regions can be induced by crossing two strains of the same mating type. The three-locus system of S. cerevisiae, which uses a nonconservative mechanism to replace DNA at MAT, likely evolved from a conservative two-locus system that swapped genes between expression and nonexpression sites by inversion. The increasing complexity of the switching apparatus, with three loci, donor bias, and cell lineage tracking, can be explained by continuous selection to increase sporulation ability in young colonies. Our results provide an evolutionary context for the diversity of switching and silencing mechanisms. PMID:25349420

  20. Mating-type switching by chromosomal inversion in methylotrophic yeasts suggests an origin for the three-locus Saccharomyces cerevisiae system.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Sara J; Byrne, Kevin P; Wolfe, Kenneth H

    2014-11-11

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a complex system for switching the mating type of haploid cells, requiring the genome to have three mating-type (MAT)-like loci and a mechanism for silencing two of them. How this system originated is unknown, because the three-locus system is present throughout the family Saccharomycetaceae, whereas species in the sister Candida clade have only one locus and do not switch. Here we show that yeasts in a third clade, the methylotrophs, have a simpler two-locus switching system based on reversible inversion of a section of chromosome with MATa genes at one end and MATalpha genes at the other end. In Hansenula polymorpha the 19-kb invertible region lies beside a centromere so that, depending on the orientation, either MATa or MATalpha is silenced by centromeric chromatin. In Pichia pastoris, the orientation of a 138-kb invertible region puts either MATa or MATalpha beside a telomere and represses transcription of MATa2 or MATalpha2. Both species are homothallic, and inversion of their MAT regions can be induced by crossing two strains of the same mating type. The three-locus system of S. cerevisiae, which uses a nonconservative mechanism to replace DNA at MAT, likely evolved from a conservative two-locus system that swapped genes between expression and nonexpression sites by inversion. The increasing complexity of the switching apparatus, with three loci, donor bias, and cell lineage tracking, can be explained by continuous selection to increase sporulation ability in young colonies. Our results provide an evolutionary context for the diversity of switching and silencing mechanisms.

  1. Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ghoussaini, Maya; Edwards, Stacey L.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Nord, Silje; Cowper-Sal·lari, Richard; Desai, Kinjal; Kar, Siddhartha; Hillman, Kristine M.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Glubb, Dylan M.; Beesley, Jonathan; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Klevebring, Daniel; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Broeks, Annegien; Van’t Veer, Laura J.; Th Rutgers, Emiel J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; TEO, Soo Hwang; YIP, Cheng Har; Lee, Daphne S. C.; Wong, Tien Y.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Collée, J. Margriet; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Kapuscinski, Miroslav K.; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed; Teo, Yik Ying; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Koto, Yon-Dschun; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Volorio, Sara; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Helbig, Sonja; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; de Santiago, Ines; Carroll, Jason; Caldas, Carlos; Brown, Melissa A.; Lupien, Mathieu; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; French, Juliet D; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Webb, Penny; Bowtell, David; De Fazio, Anna

    2014-01-01

    GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the ‘iCOGS’ genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84−0.87; P=1.7 × 10−43) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology. PMID:25248036

  2. Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghoussaini, Maya; Edwards, Stacey L; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Nord, Silje; Cowper-Sal Lari, Richard; Desai, Kinjal; Kar, Siddhartha; Hillman, Kristine M; Kaufmann, Susanne; Glubb, Dylan M; Beesley, Jonathan; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dicks, Ed; Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Klevebring, Daniel; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Th Rutgers, Emiel J; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Peto, Julian; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Gibson, Lorna; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M Pilar; Perez, Jose Ignacio Arias; Menéndez, Primitiva; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Lee, Daphne S C; Wong, Tien Y; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Tsimiklis, Helen; Kapuscinski, Miroslav K; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Buhari, Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed; Teo, Yik Ying; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Koto, Yon-Dschun; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Volorio, Sara; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Helbig, Sonja; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Zheng, Wei; Long, Jirong; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Alvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; de Santiago, Ines; Carroll, Jason; Caldas, Carlos; Brown, Melissa A; Lupien, Mathieu; Kristensen, Vessela N; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; French, Juliet D; Easton, Douglas F; Dunning, Alison M

    2014-09-23

    GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.

  3. The ''self-stirred'' genome: Bulk and surface dynamics of the chromatin globule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidovska, Alexandra

    Chromatin structure and dynamics control all aspects of DNA biology yet are poorly understood. In interphase, time between two cell divisions, chromatin fills the cell nucleus in its minimally condensed polymeric state. Chromatin serves as substrate to a number of biological processes, e.g. gene expression and DNA replication, which require it to become locally restructured. These are energy-consuming processes giving rise to non-equilibrium dynamics. Chromatin dynamics has been traditionally studied by imaging of fluorescently labeled nuclear proteins and single DNA-sites, thus focusing only on a small number of tracer particles. Recently, we developed an approach, displacement correlation spectroscopy (DCS) based on time-resolved image correlation analysis, to map chromatin dynamics simultaneously across the whole nucleus in cultured human cells. DCS revealed that chromatin movement was coherent across large regions (4-5 μm) for several seconds. Regions of coherent motion extended beyond the boundaries of single-chromosome territories, suggesting elastic coupling of motion over length scales much larger than those of genes. These large-scale, coupled motions were ATP-dependent and unidirectional for several seconds. Following these observations, we developed a hydrodynamic theory of active chromatin dynamics, using the two-fluid model and describing the content of cell nucleus as a chromatin solution, which is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active (ATP-consuming) scalar and vector events. In this work we continue in our efforts to elucidate the mechanism and function of the chromatin dynamics in interphase. We investigate the chromatin interactions with the nuclear envelope and compare the surface dynamics of the chromatin globule with its bulk dynamics.

  4. Differential Chromatin Structure Encompassing Replication Origins in Transformed and Normal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Paola, Domenic; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Chan, Man Kid

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the chromatin structure encompassing replication origins in transformed and normal cells. Analysis of the global levels of histone H3 acetylated at K9&14 (open chromatin) and histone H3 trimethylated at K9 (closed chromatin) revealed a higher ratio of open to closed chromatin in the transformed cells. Also, the trithorax and polycomb group proteins, Brg-1 and Bmi-1, respectively, were overexpressed and more abundantly bound to chromatin in the transformed cells. Quantitative comparative analyses of episomal and in situ chromosomal replication origin activity as well as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, using specific antibodies targeting members of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) as well as open/closed chromatin markers encompassing both episomal and chromosomal origins, revealed that episomal origins had similar levels of in vivo activity, nascent DNA abundance, pre-RC protein association, and elevated open chromatin structure at the origin in both cell types. In contrast, the chromosomal origins corresponding to 20mer1, 20mer2, and c-myc displayed a 2- to 3-fold higher activity and pre-RC protein abundance as well as higher ratios of open to closed chromatin and of Brg-1 to Bmi-1 in the transformed cells, whereas the origin associated with the housekeeping lamin B2 gene exhibited similar levels of activity, pre-RC protein abundance, and higher ratios of open to closed chromatin and of Brg-1 to Bmi-1 in both cell types. Nucleosomal positioning analysis, using an MNase-Southern blot assay, showed that all the origin regions examined were situated within regions of inconsistently positioned nucleosomes, with the nucleosomes being spaced farther apart from each other prior to the onset of S phase in both cell types. Overall, the results indicate that cellular transformation is associated with differential epigenetic regulation, whereby chromatin structure is more open, rendering replication origins more accessible to initiator

  5. Comparative analysis of Histone modifications and DNA methylation at OsBZ8 locus under salinity stress in IR64 and Nonabokra rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Paul, Amit; Dasgupta, Pratiti; Roy, Dipan; Chaudhuri, Shubho

    2017-09-01

    Rice being an important cereal crop is highly sensitive to salinity stress causing growth retardation and loss in productivity. However, certain rice genotypes like Nonabokra and Pokkali show a high level of tolerance towards salinity stress compared to IR64 variety. This differential response of tolerant varieties towards salinity stress may be a cumulative effect of genetic and epigenetic factors. In this study, we have compared the salinity-induced changes in chromatin modifications at the OsBZ8 locus in salt-tolerant Nonabokra and salt-sensitive IR64 rice varieties. Expression analysis indicates that the OsBZ8 gene is highly induced in Nonabokra plants even in the absence of salt stress, whereas in IR64, the expression significantly increases only during salt stress. Sequence analysis and nucleosomal arrangement within the region -2000 to +1000 of OsBZ8 gene show no difference between the two rice varieties. However, there was a considerable difference in histone modifications and DNA methylation at the locus between these varieties. In Nonabokra, the upstream region was hyperacetylated at H3K9 and H3K27, and this acetylation did not change during salt stress. However, in IR64, histone acetylation was observed only during salt stress. Moreover, the upstream region of OsBZ8 gene has highly dynamic nucleosome arrangement in Nonabokra, compared to IR64. Furthermore, loss of DNA methylation was observed at OsBZ8 locus in Nonabokra control plants along with low H3K27me3 and high H3K4me3. Control IR64 plants show high DNA methylation and enriched H3K27me3. Collectively these results indicate a significant difference in chromatin modifications between the rice varieties that regulates differential expression of OsBZ8 gene during salt stress.

  6. Using Science Activities To Internalize Locus of Control. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Paul McD.

    This project was designed to investigate the effect of the use of cause-and-effect activities in the science curriculum on the locus of control of the learner. The purpose of this research is to find the effect of the activities on the learner's locus of control and attitude toward science at grades 7 through 10. A multivariate analysis of…

  7. Physical Attractiveness, Locus of Control, Sex Role, and Conversational Assertiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Keith F.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship among physical attractiveness, locus of control, sex role orientation, and assertiveness in undergraduate students. Reviews videotapes of mixed-sex student groups engaged in discussion. Finds an internal locus of control positively correlated with assertiveness. Uses a behavioral measure of assertiveness rather than…

  8. Anxiety, locus of control and appraisal of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, P.L.; Simpson-Housley, P.; de Man, A.F.

    1987-06-01

    100 residents of Santiago de Chile took part in a study of the relationship among locus of control, trait-anxiety, and perception of air pollution. Concern over the problem of atmospheric pollution and number of antipollution measures taken was related to trait-anxiety. Locus of control was associated with variation in awareness of pollution hazard.

  9. Reevaluating the serotype II capsular locus of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Martins, E R; Melo-Cristino, J; Ramirez, M

    2007-10-01

    We report a novel sequence of the serotype II capsular locus of group B streptococcus that resolves inconsistencies among the results of various groups and the sequence in GenBank. This locus was found in diverse lineages and presents genes consistent with the complete synthesis of the type II polysaccharide.

  10. The Relationship of Locus of Control and Attribution to Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, L. Morgan, III; Goggin, William C.

    Both external locus of control (i.e., a generalized expectancy that reinforcement is controlled by luck or fate instead of oneself) and internal locus of attribution (i.e., beliefs that success or failure result from an individual's actions rather than external causes) have been related to depression. To examine the relationship of attributions…

  11. Childrearing and Child Development Correlates of Maternal Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    A longitudinal study tested the hypotheses that in relation to parents with an external locus of control, parents with an internal locus of control: would have a higher level of mother-infant interaction, would have more self-directing and less conforming values for children, and would have children who showed more academic competence. The initial…

  12. Personality and Locus of Control among School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandya, Archana A.; Jogsan, Yogesh A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation is to find out the sex differences in personality traits and locus of control among school children. A total 60 children (30 boys and 30 girls) were taken as a sample. The research tool for personality, children personality questionnaire was used, which was made by Cattell and Porter. Locus of control was…

  13. Metacognition: As a Predictor of One's Academic Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arslan, Serhat; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of metacognition on one's academic locus of control. The study's sample group consists of 451 university students enrolled in various programs at Sakarya University, Turkey. In this study, the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory and the Academic Locus of Control Scale were used. The correlations and…

  14. Changing Locus of Control: Steelworkers Adjusting to Forced Unemployment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerski, Elizabeth Miklya; Cornwall, Marie; O'Neil, Brock

    2006-01-01

    Using an abbreviated version of Levenson's (1981) locus of control scale, we examine change over time in the locus of control of displaced steelworkers. The first data collection occurred approximately six months after plant shutdown, the second occurred a year later. Utilizing a multidimensional measurement model, we test the major assumption…

  15. Specification of unique Pit-1 activity in the hGH locus control region

    PubMed Central

    Shewchuk, Brian M.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Cooke, Nancy E.

    2002-01-01

    The human GH (hGH) gene cluster is regulated by a remote 5′ locus control region (LCR). HSI, an LCR component located 14.5 kb 5′ to the hGH-N promoter, constitutes the primary determinant of high-level hGH-N activation in pituitary somatotropes. HSI encompasses an array of three binding sites for the pituitary-specific POU homeodomain factor Pit-1. In the present report we demonstrate that all three Pit-1 sites in the HSI array contribute to LCR activity in vivo. Furthermore, these three sites as a unit are fully sufficient for position-independent and somatotrope-restricted hGH-N transgene activation. In contrast, the hGH-N transgene is not activated by Pit-1 sites native to either the hGH-N or rat (r)GH gene promoters. These findings suggest that the structures of the Pit-1 binding sites at HSI specify distinct chromatin-dependent activities essential for LCR-mediated activation of hGH in the developing pituitary. PMID:12189206

  16. Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T by a MicroRNA in Brachypodium distachyon[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Liu, Dongfeng; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Qin, Zhengrui; Liu, Danmei; Li, Aili; Fu, Daolin; Zhai, Wenxue; Mao, Long

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) functions at the core of the flowering pathways. Extensive studies have examined the transcriptional regulation of FT; however, other layers of FT regulation remain unclear. Here, we identified miR5200 a Pooideae-specific microRNA that is expressed in leaves and targets Brachypodium distachyon FT orthologs for mRNA cleavage. miR5200 was abundantly expressed in plants grown under short-day (SD) conditions but was dramatically repressed in plants transferred to long-day (LD) conditions. We also found that the epigenetic chromatin status, specifically the levels of histone methylation marks, at miR5200 precursor loci changed in response to daylength. Moreover, artificial interruption of miR5200 activity by target mimicry in B. distachyon altered flowering time in SD but not in LD conditions, suggesting that miR5200 functions in photoperiod-mediated flowering time regulation. Together, these findings illustrate a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of FT and provide insights into understanding of the multiple concerted pathways for flowering time control in plants. PMID:24285787

  17. Monocyte-specific Accessibility of a Matrix Attachment Region in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Locus*

    PubMed Central

    Biglione, Sebastian; Tsytsykova, Alla V.; Goldfeld, Anne E.

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of TNF gene expression is cell type- and stimulus-specific. We have previously identified highly conserved noncoding regulatory elements within DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HSS) located 9 kb upstream (HSS−9) and 3 kb downstream (HSS+3) of the TNF gene, which play an important role in the transcriptional regulation of TNF in T cells. They act as enhancers and interact with the TNF promoter and with each other, generating a higher order chromatin structure. Here, we report a novel monocyte-specific AT-rich DNase I-hypersensitive element located 7 kb upstream of the TNF gene (HSS−7), which serves as a matrix attachment region in monocytes. We show that HSS−7 associates with topoisomerase IIα (Top2) in vivo and that induction of endogenous TNF mRNA expression is suppressed by etoposide, a Top2 inhibitor. Moreover, Top2 binds to and cleaves HSS−7 in in vitro analysis. Thus, HSS−7, which is selectively accessible in monocytes, can tether the TNF locus to the nuclear matrix via matrix attachment region formation, potentially promoting TNF gene expression by acting as a Top2 substrate. PMID:22027829

  18. Chromatin Remodeling Factors Isw2 and Ino80 Regulate Checkpoint Activity and Chromatin Structure in S Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura; Rodriguez, Jairo; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    When cells undergo replication stress, proper checkpoint activation and deactivation are critical for genomic stability and cell survival and therefore must be highly regulated. Although mechanisms of checkpoint activation are well studied, mechanisms of checkpoint deactivation are far less understood. Previously, we reported that chromatin remodeling factors Isw2 and Ino80 attenuate the S-phase checkpoint activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially during recovery from hydroxyurea. In this study, we found that Isw2 and Ino80 have a more pronounced role in attenuating checkpoint activity during late S phase in the presence of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). We therefore screened for checkpoint factors required for Isw2 and Ino80 checkpoint attenuation in the presence of MMS. Here we demonstrate that Isw2 and Ino80 antagonize checkpoint activators and attenuate checkpoint activity in S phase in MMS either through a currently unknown pathway or through RPA. Unexpectedly, we found that Isw2 and Ino80 increase chromatin accessibility around replicating regions in the presence of MMS through a novel mechanism. Furthermore, through growth assays, we provide additional evidence that Isw2 and Ino80 partially counteract checkpoint activators specifically in the presence of MMS. Based on these results, we propose that Isw2 and Ino80 attenuate S-phase checkpoint activity through a novel mechanism. PMID:25701287

  19. Chromatin and epigenetics in all their states: Meeting report of the first conference on Epigenetic and Chromatin Regulation of Plant Traits - January 14 - 15, 2016 - Strasbourg, France.

    PubMed

    Bey, Till; Jamge, Suraj; Klemme, Sonja; Komar, Dorota Natalia; Le Gall, Sabine; Mikulski, Pawel; Schmidt, Martin; Zicola, Johan; Berr, Alexandre

    2016-08-02

    In January 2016, the first Epigenetic and Chromatin Regulation of Plant Traits conference was held in Strasbourg, France. An all-star lineup of speakers, a packed audience of 130 participants from over 20 countries, and a friendly scientific atmosphere contributed to make this conference a meeting to remember. In this article we summarize some of the new insights into chromatin, epigenetics, and epigenomics research and highlight nascent ideas and emerging concepts in this exciting area of research.

  20. Chromatin and epigenetics in all their states: Meeting report of the first conference on Epigenetic and Chromatin Regulation of Plant Traits - January 14 – 15, 2016 - Strasbourg, France

    PubMed Central

    Bey, Till; Jamge, Suraj; Klemme, Sonja; Komar, Dorota Natalia; Le Gall, Sabine; Mikulski, Pawel; Schmidt, Martin; Zicola, Johan; Berr, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In January 2016, the first Epigenetic and Chromatin Regulation of Plant Traits conference was held in Strasbourg, France. An all-star lineup of speakers, a packed audience of 130 participants from over 20 countries, and a friendly scientific atmosphere contributed to make this conference a meeting to remember. In this article we summarize some of the new insights into chromatin, epigenetics, and epigenomics research and highlight nascent ideas and emerging concepts in this exciting area of research. PMID:27184433

  1. Chromatin Controls DNA Replication Origin Selection, Lagging-Strand Synthesis, and Replication Fork Rates.

    PubMed

    Kurat, Christoph F; Yeeles, Joseph T P; Patel, Harshil; Early, Anne; Diffley, John F X

    2017-01-05

    The integrity of eukaryotic genomes requires rapid and regulated chromatin replication. How this is accomplished is still poorly understood. Using purified yeast replication proteins and fully chromatinized templates, we have reconstituted this process in vitro. We show that chromatin enforces DNA replication origin specificity by preventing non-specific MCM helicase loading. Helicase activation occurs efficiently in the context of chromatin, but subsequent replisome progression requires the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). The FACT-associated Nhp6 protein, the nucleosome remodelers INO80 or ISW1A, and the lysine acetyltransferases Gcn5 and Esa1 each contribute separately to maximum DNA synthesis rates. Chromatin promotes the regular priming of lagging-strand DNA synthesis by facilitating DNA polymerase α function at replication forks. Finally, nucleosomes disrupted during replication are efficiently re-assembled into regular arrays on nascent DNA. Our work defines the minimum requirements for chromatin replication in vitro and shows how multiple chromatin factors might modulate replication fork rates in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The condensed chromatin fiber: an allosteric chemo-mechanical machine for signal transduction and genome processing.

    PubMed

    Lesne, Annick; Bécavin, Christophe; Victor, Jean-Marc

    2012-02-01

    Allostery is a key concept of molecular biology which refers to the control of an enzyme activity by an effector molecule binding the enzyme at another site rather than the active site (allos = other in Greek). We revisit here allostery in the context of chromatin and argue that allosteric principles underlie and explain the functional architecture required for spacetime coordination of gene expression at all scales from DNA to the whole chromosome. We further suggest that this functional architecture is provided by the chromatin fiber itself. The structural, mechanical and topological features of the chromatin fiber endow chromosomes with a tunable signal transduction from specific (or nonspecific) effectors to specific (or nonspecific) active sites. Mechanical constraints can travel along the fiber all the better since the fiber is more compact and regular, which speaks in favor of the actual existence of the (so-called 30 nm) chromatin fiber. Chromatin fiber allostery reconciles both the physical and biochemical approaches of chromatin. We illustrate this view with two supporting specific examples. Moreover, from a methodological point of view, we suggest that the notion of chromatin fiber allostery is particularly relevant for systemic approaches. Finally we discuss the evolutionary power of allostery in the context of chromatin and its relation to modularity.

  3. The condensed chromatin fiber: an allosteric chemo-mechanical machine for signal transduction and genome processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Annick; Bécavin, Christophe; Victor, Jean–Marc

    2012-02-01

    Allostery is a key concept of molecular biology which refers to the control of an enzyme activity by an effector molecule binding the enzyme at another site rather than the active site (allos = other in Greek). We revisit here allostery in the context of chromatin and argue that allosteric principles underlie and explain the functional architecture required for spacetime coordination of gene expression at all scales from DNA to the whole chromosome. We further suggest that this functional architecture is provided by the chromatin fiber itself. The structural, mechanical and topological features of the chromatin fiber endow chromosomes with a tunable signal transduction from specific (or nonspecific) effectors to specific (or nonspecific) active sites. Mechanical constraints can travel along the fiber all the better since the fiber is more compact and regular, which speaks in favor of the actual existence of the (so-called 30 nm) chromatin fiber. Chromatin fiber allostery reconciles both the physical and biochemical approaches of chromatin. We illustrate this view with two supporting specific examples. Moreover, from a methodological point of view, we suggest that the notion of chromatin fiber allostery is particularly relevant for systemic approaches. Finally we discuss the evolutionary power of allostery in the context of chromatin and its relation to modularity.

  4. Promyelocytic extracellular chromatin exacerbates coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Muhua; Li, Tao; He, Zhangxiu; Wang, Lixiu; Yang, Xiaoyan; Kou, Yan; Zou, Lili; Dong, Xue; Novakovic, Valerie A.; Bi, Yayan; Kou, Junjie; Yu, Bo; Fang, Shaohong; Wang, Jinghua; Zhou, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Despite routine treatment of unselected acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), early death because of hemorrhage remains unacceptably common, and the mechanism underlying this complication remains elusive. We have recently demonstrated that APL cells undergo a novel cell death program, termed ETosis, which involves release of extracellular chromatin. However, the role of promyelocytic extracellular chromatin in APL-associated coagulation remains unclear. Our objectives were to identify the novel role of ATRA-promoted extracellular chromatin in inducing a hypercoagulable and hyperfibrinolytic state in APL and to evaluate its interaction with fibrin and endothelial cells (ECs). Results from a series of coagulation assays have shown that promyelocytic extracellular chromatin increases thrombin and plasmin generation, causes a shortening of plasma clotting time of APL cells, and increases fibrin formation. DNase I but not anti-tissue factor antibody could inhibit these effects. Immunofluorescence staining showed that promyelocytic extracellular chromatin and phosphatidylserine on APL cells provide platforms for fibrin deposition and render clots more resistant to fibrinolysis. Additionally, coincubation assays revealed that promyelocytic extracellular chromatin is cytotoxic to ECs, converting them to a procoagulant phenotype. This cytotoxity was blocked by DNase I by 20% or activated protein C by 31%. Our current results thus delineate the pathogenic role of promyelocytic extracellular chromatin in APL coagulopathy. Furthermore, the remaining coagulation disturbance in high-risk APL patients after ATRA administration may be treatable by intrinsic pathway inhibition via accelerating extracellular chromatin degradation. PMID:28053193

  5. Chromatin states and nuclear organization in development--a view from the nuclear lamina.

    PubMed

    Mattout, Anna; Cabianca, Daphne S; Gasser, Susan M

    2015-08-25

    The spatial distribution of chromatin domains in interphase nuclei changes dramatically during development in multicellular organisms. A crucial question is whether nuclear organization is a cause or a result of differentiation. Genetic perturbation of lamina-heterochromatin interactions is helping to reveal the cross-talk between chromatin states and nuclear organization.

  6. Insulation of the Chicken β-Globin Chromosomal Domain from a Chromatin-Condensing Protein, MENT

    PubMed Central

    Istomina, Natalia E.; Shushanov, Sain S.; Springhetti, Evelyn M.; Karpov, Vadim L.; A. Krasheninnikov, Igor; Stevens, Kimberly; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Singh, Prim B.; Grigoryev, Sergei A.

    2003-01-01

    Active genes are insulated from developmentally regulated chromatin condensation in terminally differentiated cells. We mapped the topography of a terminal stage-specific chromatin-condensing protein, MENT, across the active chicken β-globin domain. We observed two sharp transitions of MENT concentration coinciding with the β-globin boundary elements. The MENT distribution profile was opposite to that of acetylated core histones but correlated with that of histone H3 dimethylated at lysine 9 (H3me2K9). Ectopic MENT expression in NIH 3T3 cells caused a large-scale and specific remodeling of chromatin marked by H3me2K9. MENT colocalized with H3me2K9 both in chicken erythrocytes and NIH 3T3 cells. Mutational analysis of MENT and experiments with deacetylase inhibitors revealed the essential role of the reaction center loop domain and an inhibitory affect of histone hyperacetylation on the MENT-induced chromatin remodeling in vivo. In vitro, the elimination of the histone H3 N-terminal peptide containing lysine 9 by trypsin blocked chromatin self-association by MENT, while reconstitution with dimethylated but not acetylated N-terminal domain of histone H3 specifically restored chromatin self-association by MENT. We suggest that histone H3 modification at lysine 9 directly regulates chromatin condensation by recruiting MENT to chromatin in a fashion that is spatially constrained from active genes by gene boundary elements and histone hyperacetylation. PMID:12944473

  7. Hi-C Chromatin Interaction Networks Predict Co-expression in the Mouse Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hulsman, Marc; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; de Ridder, Jeroen; Reinders, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The three dimensional conformation of the genome in the cell nucleus influences important biological processes such as gene expression regulation. Recent studies have shown a strong correlation between chromatin interactions and gene co-expression. However, predicting gene co-expression from frequent long-range chromatin interactions remains challenging. We address this by characterizing the topology of the cortical chromatin interaction network using scale-aware topological measures. We demonstrate that based on these characterizations it is possible to accurately predict spatial co-expression between genes in the mouse cortex. Consistent with previous findings, we find that the chromatin interaction profile of a gene-pair is a good predictor of their spatial co-expression. However, the accuracy of the prediction can be substantially improved when chromatin interactions are described using scale-aware topological measures of the multi-resolution chromatin interaction network. We conclude that, for co-expression prediction, it is necessary to take into account different levels of chromatin interactions ranging from direct interaction between genes (i.e. small-scale) to chromatin compartment interactions (i.e. large-scale). PMID:25965262

  8. Chd1 remodelers maintain open chromatin and regulate the epigenetics of differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, Jenna; Ekwall, Karl, E-mail: karl.ekwall@ki.se; School of Life Sciences, University College Sodertorn, NOVUM, Huddinge

    Eukaryotic DNA is packaged around octamers of histone proteins into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin. In addition to enabling meters of DNA to fit within the confines of a nucleus, the structure of chromatin has functional implications for cell identity. Covalent chemical modifications to the DNA and to histones, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, small noncoding RNAs and the level of chromatin compaction all contribute to chromosomal structure and to the activity or silencing of genes. These chromatin-level alterations are defined as epigenetic when they are heritable from mother to daughter cell. The great diversity of epigenomes that canmore » arise from a single genome permits a single, totipotent cell to generate the hundreds of distinct cell types found in humans. Two recent studies in mouse and in fly have highlighted the importance of Chd1 chromatin remodelers for maintaining an open, active chromatin state. Based on evidence from fission yeast as a model system, we speculate that Chd1 remodelers are involved in the disassembly of nucleosomes at promoter regions, thus promoting active transcription and open chromatin. It is likely that these nucleosomes are specifically marked for disassembly by the histone variant H2A.Z.« less

  9. Function of Brg1 Chromatin Remodeling Factor in Sonic Hedgehog-Dependent Medulloblastoma Initiation and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Remodeling Factor in Sonic Hedgehog -Dependent Medulloblastoma Initiation and Maintenance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xuanming Shi CONTRACTING...Function of Brg1 Chromatin Remodeling Factor in Sonic Hedgehog -Dependent 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0527 Medulloblastoma Initiation and Maintenance...medulloblastoma. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Medulloblastoma, Sonic Hedgehog , Chromatin remodeling, BAF complex, Brg1, mouse model of shh-subtype medulloblastoma

  10. Nuclear size as estrogen-responsive chromatin quality parameter of mouse spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Altucci, Lucia; Viggiano, Andrea; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda

    2013-11-01

    Recently, we have investigated the endocannabinoid involvement in chromatin remodeling events occurring in male spermatids. Indeed, we have demonstrated that genetic inactivation of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (Cnr1) negatively influences chromatin remodeling mechanisms, by reducing histone displacement and indices of sperm chromatin quality (chromatin condensation and DNA integrity). Conversely, Cnr1 knock-out (Cnr1(-/-)) male mice, treated with estrogens, replaced histones and rescued chromatin condensation as well as DNA integrity. In the present study, by exploiting Cnr1(+/+), Cnr(+/-) and Cnr1(-/-) epididymal sperm samples, we show that histone retention directly correlates with low values of sperm chromatin quality indices determining sperm nuclear size elongation. Moreover, we demonstrate that estrogens, by promoting histone displacement and chromatin condensation rescue, are able to efficiently reduce the greater nuclear length observed in Cnr1(-/-) sperm. As a consequence of our results, we suggest that nucleus length may be used as a morphological parameter useful to screen out spermatozoa with low chromatin quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The tethering of chromatin to the nuclear envelope supports nuclear mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Sarah M.; Koo, Peter K.; Zhao, Yao; Mochrie, Simon G. J.; King, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear lamina is thought to be the primary mechanical defence of the nucleus. However, the lamina is integrated within a network of lipids, proteins and chromatin; the interdependence of this network poses a challenge to defining the individual mechanical contributions of these components. Here, we isolate the role of chromatin in nuclear mechanics by using a system lacking lamins. Using novel imaging analyses, we observe that untethering chromatin from the inner nuclear membrane results in highly deformable nuclei in vivo, particularly in response to cytoskeletal forces. Using optical tweezers, we find that isolated nuclei lacking inner nuclear membrane tethers are less stiff than wild-type nuclei and exhibit increased chromatin flow, particularly in frequency ranges that recapitulate the kinetics of cytoskeletal dynamics. We suggest that modulating chromatin flow can define both transient and long-lived changes in nuclear shape that are biologically important and may be altered in disease. PMID:26074052

  12. Acetyllysine-binding and function of bromodomain-containing proteins in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Dyson, M H; Rose, S; Mahadevan, L C

    2001-08-01

    Acetylated histones are generally associated with active chromatin. The bromodomain has recently been identified as a protein module capable of binding to acetylated lysine residues, and hence is able to mediate the recruitment of factors to acetylated chromatin. Functional studies of bromodomain-containing proteins indicate how this domain contributes to the activity of a number of nuclear factors including histone acetyltransferases and chromatin remodelling complexes. Here, we review the characteristics of acetyllysine-binding by bromodomains, discuss associated domains found in these proteins, and address the function of the bromodomain in the context of chromatin. Finally, the modulation of bromodomain binding by neighbouring post-translational modifications within histone tails might provide a mechanism through which combinations of covalent marks could exert control on chromatin function.

  13. Osmotic modulation of chromatin impacts on efficiency and kinetics of cell fate modulation.

    PubMed

    Lima, A F; May, G; Colunga, J; Pedreiro, S; Paiva, A; Ferreira, L; Enver, T; Iborra, F J; Pires das Neves, R

    2018-05-08

    Chromatin structure is a major regulator of transcription and gene expression. Herein we explore the use of osmotic modulation to modify the chromatin structure and reprogram gene expression. In this study we use the extracellular osmotic pressure as a chromatin structure and transcriptional modulator. Hyposmotic modulation promotes chromatin loosening and induces changes in RNA polymerase II (Pol II) activity. The chromatin decondensation opens space for higher amounts of DNA engaged RNA Pol II. Hyposmotic modulation constitutes an alternative route to manipulate cell fate decisions. This technology was tested in model protocols of induced pluripotency and transdifferentiation in cells growing in suspension and adherent to substrates, CD34 + umbilical-cord-blood (UCB), fibroblasts and B-cells. The efficiency and kinetics of these cell fate modulation processes were improved by transient hyposmotic modulation of the cell environment.

  14. A Temporal Chromatin Signature in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Identifies Regulators of Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Paige, Sharon L.; Thomas, Sean; Stoick-Cooper, Cristi L.; Wang, Hao; Maves, Lisa; Sandstrom, Richard; Pabon, Lil; Reinecke, Hans; Pratt, Gabriel; Keller, Gordon; Moon, Randall T.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Murry, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiovascular cells provides a model for studying molecular mechanisms of human cardiovascular development. Though it is known that chromatin modification patterns in ESCs differ markedly from those in lineage-committed progenitors and differentiated cells, the temporal dynamics of chromatin alterations during differentiation along a defined lineage have not been studied. We show that differentiation of human ESCs into cardiovascular cells is accompanied by programmed temporal alterations in chromatin structure that distinguish key regulators of cardiovascular development from other genes. We used this temporal chromatin signature to identify regulators of cardiac development, including the homeobox gene MEIS2. We demonstrate using the zebrafish model that MEIS2 is critical for proper heart tube formation and subsequent cardiac looping. Temporal chromatin signatures should be broadly applicable to other models of stem cell differentiation to identify regulators and provide key insights into major developmental decisions. PMID:22981225

  15. Preliminary testing for the Markov property of the fifteen chromatin states of the Broad Histone Track.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Hyun-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic computational analyses based on Markov chains can integrate dependencies between regions in the genome that are directly adjacent. In this paper, the BED files of fifteen chromatin states of the Broad Histone Track of the ENCODE project are parsed, and comparative nucleotide frequencies of regional chromatin blocks are thoroughly analyzed to detect the Markov property in them. We perform various tests to examine the Markov property embedded in a frequency domain by checking for the presence of the Markov property in the various chromatin states. We apply these tests to each region of the fifteen chromatin states. The results of our simulation indicate that some of the chromatin states possess a stronger Markov property than others. We discuss the significance of our findings in statistical models of nucleotide sequences that are necessary for the computational analysis of functional units in noncoding DNA.

  16. Chromatin: Its history, current research, and the seminal researchers and their philosophy.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2015-01-01

    The concept of chromatin as a complex of nucleic acid and proteins in the cell nucleus was developed by cytologists and biochemists in the late 19th century. It was the starting point for biochemical research on DNA and nuclear proteins. Although interest in chromatin declined rapidly at the beginning of the 20th century, a few decades later a new focus on chromatin emerged, which was not only related to its structure, but also to its function in gene regulatory processes in the development of higher organisms. Since the late 20th century, research on chromatin modifications has also been conducted under the label of epigenetics. This article highlights the major phases of chromatin research until the present time and introduces major investigators and their scientific and philosophical outlooks.

  17. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces egress channels through marginalized host chromatin

    DOE PAGES

    Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa; Aho, Vesa; ...

    2016-06-28

    Lytic infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) induces profound modification of the cell nucleus including formation of a viral replication compartment and chromatin marginalization into the nuclear periphery. Here, we used three-dimensional soft X-ray tomography, combined with cryogenic fluorescence, confocal and electron microscopy, to analyse the transformation of peripheral chromatin during HSV-1 infection. Our data showed an increased presence of low-density gaps in the marginalized chromatin at late infection. Advanced data analysis indicated the formation of virus-nucleocapsid-sized (or wider) channels extending through the compacted chromatin of the host. Importantly, confocal and electron microscopy analysis showed that these gapsmore » frequently contained viral nucleocapsids. Our results demonstrated that HSV-1 infection induces the formation of channels penetrating the compacted layer of cellular chromatin and allowing for the passage of progeny viruses to the nuclear envelope, their site of nuclear egress.« less

  18. Sex chromatin in the epithelium of the mucosa and the vagina in antitumor therapy (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhina, Z.P.

    1973-08-01

    Mean indicators of sex chromatin in cells of the mucosa and vagina do not differ before and after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and ovary excision. All forms of antitumor therapy cause large individual variation of the concentration of sex chromatin in parts of the sick both with decrease and increase of the indicators. With the introduction of sinestro1 and prednisolone a significant decrease of the sex chromatin concentration occurs in the epithelium of the mucosa. In all forms of hormona1 treatment the concentration of sex chromatin in the vaginal epithelium alters in dependence on the changes of the types of vaginalmore » greasing. The dependences between the reactions of the peripheral b1ood and the tumor on treatment on the one hand and the osciltations of the sex chromatin indicators in the epithelium of the mucosa and vagina on the other were not established. (tr-auth)« less

  19. Chromatin Configuration Determines Cell Responses to Hormone Stimuli | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Ever since selective gene expression was established as the central driver of cell behavior, researchers have been working to understand the forces that control gene transcription. Aberrant gene expression can cause or promote many diseases, including cancer, and alterations in gene expression are the goal of many therapeutic agents. Recent work has focused on the potential role of chromatin structure as a contributor to gene regulation. Chromatin can exist in a tightly packed/inaccessible or loose/accessible configuration depending on the interactions between DNA and its associated proteins. Patterns of chromatin structure can differ between cell types and can also change within cells in response to certain signals. Cancer researchers are particularly interested in the role of chromatin in gene regulation because many of the genomic regions found to be associated with cancer risk are in open chromatin structures.

  20. Regulation of Chromatin Assembly and Cell Transformation by Formaldehyde Exposure in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danqi; Fang, Lei; Mei, Shenglin; Li, Hongjie; Xu, Xia; Des Marais, Thomas L.; Lu, Kun; Liu, X. Shirley

    2017-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational chemical carcinogen. Recent studies have shown that exogenous FA causes only a modest increase in DNA adduct formation compared with the amount of adducts formed by endogenous FA, raising the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to FA-mediated carcinogenicity. Objectives: We investigated the effects of FA exposure on histone modifications and chromatin assembly. We also examined the role of defective chromatin assembly in FA-mediated transcription and cell transformation. Methods: Cellular fractionation and Western blot analysis were used to measure the levels of histone modifications in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and human nasal RPMI2650 cells in the presence of FA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digest assays were performed to examine the changes in chromatin assembly and accessibility after FA exposure. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine transcriptional dysregulation. Finally, anchorage-independent cell growth ability was tested by soft agar assay following FA exposure. Results: Exposure to FA dramatically decreased the acetylation of the N-terminal tails of cytosolic histones. These modifications are important for histone nuclear import and subsequent chromatin assembly. Histone proteins were depleted in both the chromatin fraction and at most of the genomic loci tested following FA exposure, suggesting that FA compromises chromatin assembly. Moreover, FA increased chromatin accessibility and altered the expression of hundreds of cancer-related genes. Knockdown of the histone H3.3 gene (an H3 variant), which mimics inhibition of chromatin assembly, facilitated FA-mediated anchorage-independent cell growth. Conclusions: We propose that the inhibition of chromatin assembly represents a novel mechanism of cell transformation induced by the environmental and occupational

  1. Cytology of DNA Replication Reveals Dynamic Plasticity of Large-Scale Chromatin Fibers.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiang; Zhironkina, Oxana A; Cherepanynets, Varvara D; Strelkova, Olga S; Kireev, Igor I; Belmont, Andrew S

    2016-09-26

    In higher eukaryotic interphase nuclei, the 100- to >1,000-fold linear compaction of chromatin is difficult to reconcile with its function as a template for transcription, replication, and repair. It is challenging to imagine how DNA and RNA polymerases with their associated molecular machinery would move along the DNA template without transient decondensation of observed large-scale chromatin "chromonema" fibers [1]. Transcription or "replication factory" models [2], in which polymerases remain fixed while DNA is reeled through, are similarly difficult to conceptualize without transient decondensation of these chromonema fibers. Here, we show how a dynamic plasticity of chromatin folding within large-scale chromatin fibers allows DNA replication to take place without significant changes in the global large-scale chromatin compaction or shape of these large-scale chromatin fibers. Time-lapse imaging of lac-operator-tagged chromosome regions shows no major change in the overall compaction of these chromosome regions during their DNA replication. Improved pulse-chase labeling of endogenous interphase chromosomes yields a model in which the global compaction and shape of large-Mbp chromatin domains remains largely invariant during DNA replication, with DNA within these domains undergoing significant movements and redistribution as they move into and then out of adjacent replication foci. In contrast to hierarchical folding models, this dynamic plasticity of large-scale chromatin organization explains how localized changes in DNA topology allow DNA replication to take place without an accompanying global unfolding of large-scale chromatin fibers while suggesting a possible mechanism for maintaining epigenetic programming of large-scale chromatin domains throughout DNA replication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating epigenomic data and 3D genomic structure with a new measure of chromatin assortativity.

    PubMed

    Pancaldi, Vera; Carrillo-de-Santa-Pau, Enrique; Javierre, Biola Maria; Juan, David; Fraser, Peter; Spivakov, Mikhail; Valencia, Alfonso; Rico, Daniel

    2016-07-08

    Network analysis is a powerful way of modeling chromatin interactions. Assortativity is a network property used in social sciences to identify factors affecting how people establish social ties. We propose a new approach, using chromatin assortativity, to integrate the epigenomic landscape of a specific cell type with its chromatin interaction network and thus investigate which proteins or chromatin marks mediate genomic contacts. We use high-resolution promoter capture Hi-C and Hi-Cap data as well as ChIA-PET data from mouse embryonic stem cells to investigate promoter-centered chromatin interaction networks and calculate the presence of specific epigenomic features in the chromatin fragments constituting the nodes of the network. We estimate the association of these features with the topology of four chromatin interaction networks and identify features localized in connected areas of the network. Polycomb group proteins and associated histone marks are the features with the highest chromatin assortativity in promoter-centered networks. We then ask which features distinguish contacts amongst promoters from contacts between promoters and other genomic elements. We observe higher chromatin assortativity of the actively elongating form of RNA polymerase 2 (RNAPII) compared with inactive forms only in interactions between promoters and other elements. Contacts among promoters and between promoters and other elements have different characteristic epigenomic features. We identify a possible role for the elongating form of RNAPII in mediating interactions among promoters, enhancers, and transcribed gene bodies. Our approach facilitates the study of multiple genome-wide epigenomic profiles, considering network topology and allowing the comparison of chromatin interaction networks.

  3. Chromatin remodeling in stem cell maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Hui; Xu, Lin

    2009-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells are able to both self-renew and generate undifferentiated cells for the formation of new tissues and organs. In higher plants, stem cells found in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and the root apical meristem (RAM) are origins of organogenesis occurring post-embryonically. It is important to understand how the regulation of stem cell fate is coordinated to enable the meristem to constantly generate different types of lateral organs. Much knowledge has accumulated on specific transcription factors controlling SAM and RAM activity. Here, we review recent evidences for a role of chromatin remodeling in the maintenance of stable expression states of transcription factor genes and the control of stem cell activity in Arabidopsis.

  4. Chromatin Constrains the Initiation and Elongation of DNA Replication.

    PubMed

    Devbhandari, Sujan; Jiang, Jieqing; Kumar, Charanya; Whitehouse, Iestyn; Remus, Dirk

    2017-01-05

    Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA is faithfully replicated in a complex series of cell-cycle-regulated events that are incompletely understood. Here we report the reconstitution of DNA replication free in solution with purified proteins from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The system recapitulates regulated bidirectional origin activation; synthesis of leading and lagging strands by the three replicative DNA polymerases Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ε; and canonical maturation of Okazaki fragments into continuous daughter strands. We uncover a dual regulatory role for chromatin during DNA replication: promoting origin dependence and determining Okazaki fragment length by restricting Pol δ progression. This system thus provides a functional platform for the detailed mechanistic analysis of eukaryotic chromosome replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recognition Imaging of Acetylated Chromatin Using a DNA Aptamer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liyun; Fu, Qiang; Williams, Berea A.R.; Azzaz, Abdelhamid M.; Shogren-Knaak, Michael A.; Chaput, John C.; Lindsay, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Histone acetylation plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. A DNA aptamer generated by in vitro selection to be highly specific for histone H4 protein acetylated at lysine 16 was used as a recognition element for atomic force microscopy-based recognition imaging of synthetic nucleosomal arrays with precisely controlled acetylation. The aptamer proved to be reasonably specific at recognizing acetylated histones, with recognition efficiencies of 60% on-target and 12% off-target. Though this selectivity is much poorer than the >2000:1 equilibrium specificity of the aptamer, it is a large improvement on the performance of a ChIP-quality antibody, which is not selective at all in this application, and it should permit high-fidelity recognition with repeated imaging. The ability to image the precise location of posttranslational modifications may permit nanometer-scale investigation of their effect on chromatin structure. PMID:19751687

  6. Anti-aging peptide bioregulators induce reactivation of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Lezhava, T; Monaselidze, J; Kadotani, T; Dvalishvili, N; Buadze, T

    2006-04-01

    The effect of synthetic peptide bioregulators (Epitalon, Livagen and Vilon) on structural and facultative heterochromatin of cultivated lymphocytes have been studied among old (75-88yr.) people. The data obtained indicate that epitalon, livagen and vilon: 1) activate synthetic processes, caused by reactivation of ribosomal genes as a result of deheterochromatinization (decondensation) of nucleolus organizer regions; 2) induce unrolling (deheterochromatinization) of total heterochromatin; 3) release genes repressed by heterochromatinization (condensation) of euchromatic regions forming facultative heterochromatin; 4) epitalon and livagen induce deheterochromatinization (decondensation) of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin of the chromosomes1 and 9. However, vilon does not induce deheterochromatinization of pericentromeric structural heterochromatin. These results indicate that peptide bioregulators Epitalon, Livagen and Vilon cause activation (deheterochromatinization) of chromatin in lymphocytes of old individuals.

  7. [Effect of irradiation on the degradation of rat thymocyte chromatin].

    PubMed

    Tsudzevich, B O; Parkhomets', Iu P; Andriĭchuk, T R; Iurkina, V V

    1998-01-01

    Genome instability of adaptive nature is formed under the experimental influence on a cell. Under critical conditions, strategy of organism is to damage the cells that cannot be restored and controlled by including the program of apoptosis. The ordered internucleosomal DNA degradation is considered to be one of the proof attributes of immunocompetent cell apoptosis. We investigated the effects of various doses of irradiation on the thymocytes chromatine fragmentation in 1,2,3 hours after a single X-ray exposure or after chronic influence in conditions of Chernobyl research base. By the means of electrophoresis in agarose and judging by polydeoxyribonucleotides accumulation we observed the "ladder pattern" of degradation in 3 hr after single 1 Gr irradiation (the smallest dose displaying the effect). We suppose that the influence of both chronic low-intensity irradiation taking place in Chernobyl and single X-ray exposure result in intensifying of DNA fragmentation in the cells of immunocompetent organs.

  8. Transcriptional and chromatin regulation during fasting – The genomic era

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ido; Hager, Gordon L.

    2015-01-01

    An elaborate metabolic response to fasting is orchestrated by the liver and is heavily reliant upon transcriptional regulation. In response to hormones (glucagon, glucocorticoids) many transcription factors (TFs) are activated and regulate various genes involved in metabolic pathways aimed at restoring homeostasis: gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, ketogenesis and amino acid shuttling. We summarize the recent discoveries regarding fasting-related TFs with an emphasis on genome-wide binding patterns. Collectively, the summarized findings reveal a large degree of co-operation between TFs during fasting which occurs at motif-rich DNA sites bound by a combination of TFs. These new findings implicate transcriptional and chromatin regulation as major determinants of the response to fasting and unravels the complex, multi-TF nature of this response. PMID:26520657

  9. Impact of sperm DNA chromatin in the clinic.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Dimitrios; Miller, David; Griffin, Darren K; Tempest, Helen G

    2016-02-01

    The paternal contribution to fertilization and embryogenesis is frequently overlooked as the spermatozoon is often considered to be a silent vessel whose only function is to safely deliver the paternal genome to the maternal oocyte. In this article, we hope to demonstrate that this perception is far from the truth. Typically, infertile men have been unable to conceive naturally (or through regular IVF), and therefore, a perturbation of the genetic integrity of sperm heads in infertile males has been under-considered. The advent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) however has led to very successful treatment of male factor infertility and subsequent widespread use in IVF clinics worldwide. Until recently, little concern has been raised about the genetic quality of sperm in ICSI patients or the impact genetic aberrations could have on fertility and embryogenesis. This review highlights the importance of chromatin packaging in the sperm nucleus as essential for the establishment and maintenance of a viable pregnancy.

  10. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in T cells

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Andrea L.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    One of the best studied systems for mammalian chromatin remodeling is transcriptional regulation during T cell development. The variety of these studies have led to important findings in T cell gene regulation and cell fate determination. Importantly, these findings have also advanced our knowledge of the function of remodeling enzymes in mammalian gene regulation. In this review, first we briefly present biochemical/cell-free analysis of 3 types of ATP dependent remodeling enzymes (SWI/SNF, Mi2, and ISWI), to construct an intellectual framework to understand how these enzymes might be working. Second, we compare and contrast the function of these enzymes, during early (thymic) and late (peripheral) T cell development. Finally, we examine some of the gaps in our present understanding. PMID:21999456

  11. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling in T cells.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Andrea L; Pazin, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    One of the best studied systems for mammalian chromatin remodeling is transcriptional regulation during T cell development. The variety of these studies have led to important findings in T cell gene regulation and cell fate determination. Importantly, these findings have also advanced our knowledge of the function of remodeling enzymes in mammalian gene regulation. First we briefly present biochemical and cell-free analysis of 3 types of ATP dependent remodeling enzymes (SWI/SNF, Mi2, and ISWI) to construct an intellectual framework to understand how these enzymes might be working. Second, we compare and contrast the function of these enzymes during early (thymic) and late (peripheral) T cell development. Finally, we examine some of the gaps in our present understanding.

  12. Chromatin accessibility prediction via a hybrid deep convolutional neural network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiao; Xia, Fei; Yin, Qijin; Jiang, Rui

    2018-03-01

    A majority of known genetic variants associated with human-inherited diseases lie in non-coding regions that lack adequate interpretation, making it indispensable to systematically discover functional sites at the whole genome level and precisely decipher their implications in a comprehensive manner. Although computational approaches have been complementing high-throughput biological experiments towards the annotation of the human genome, it still remains a big challenge to accurately annotate regulatory elements in the context of a specific cell type via automatic learning of the DNA sequence code from large-scale sequencing data. Indeed, the development of an accurate and interpretable model to learn the DNA sequence signature and further enable the identification of causative genetic variants has become essential in both genomic and genetic studies. We proposed Deopen, a hybrid framework mainly based on a deep convolutional neural network, to automatically learn the regulatory code of DNA sequences and predict chromatin accessibility. In a series of comparison with existing methods, we show the superior performance of our model in not only the classification of accessible regions against background sequences sampled at random, but also the regression of DNase-seq signals. Besides, we further visualize the convolutional kernels and show the match of identified sequence signatures and known motifs. We finally demonstrate the sensitivity of our model in finding causative noncoding variants in the analysis of a breast cancer dataset. We expect to see wide applications of Deopen with either public or in-house chromatin accessibility data in the annotation of the human genome and the identification of non-coding variants associated with diseases. Deopen is freely available at https://github.com/kimmo1019/Deopen. ruijiang@tsinghua.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  13. Chromatin Changes at the PPAR-γ2 Promoter During Bone Marrow-Derived Multipotent Stromal Cell Culture Correlate With Loss of Gene Activation Potential.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Patrick J; Thompson, Elaine E; McGinnis, Kathleen; Rovira Gonzalez, Yazmin I; Lo Surdo, Jessica; Bauer, Steven R; Hursh, Deborah A

    2015-07-01

    Bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (BM-MSCs) display a broad range of therapeutically valuable properties, including the capacity to form skeletal tissues and dampen immune system responses. However, to use BM-MSCs in a clinical setting, amplification is required, which may introduce epigenetic changes that affect biological properties. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation to compare post-translationally modified histones at a subset of gene promoters associated with developmental and environmental plasticity in BM-MSCs from multiple donors following culture expansion. At many locations, we observed localization of both transcriptionally permissive (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) histone modifications. These chromatin signatures were consistent among BM-MSCs from multiple donors. Since promoter activity depends on the relative levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, we examined the ratio of H3K4me3 to H3K27me3 (K4/K27) at promoters during culture expansion. The H3K4me3 to H3K27me3 ratios were maintained at most assayed promoters over time. The exception was the adipose-tissue specific promoter for the PPAR-γ2 isoform of PPAR-γ, which is a critical positive regulator of adipogenesis. At PPAR-γ2, we observed a change in K4/K27 levels favoring the repressed chromatin state during culture. This change correlated with diminished promoter activity in late passage cells exposed to adipogenic stimuli. In contrast to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts, lineage-restricted preadipocytes exhibited levels of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 that favored the permissive chromatin state at PPAR-γ2. These results demonstrate that locus-specific changes in H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 levels can occur during BM-MSC culture that may affect their properties. Stem Cells 2015;33:2169-2181. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Replicative and Nonreplicative Forms Reveals Important Insights into Chromatin Biology of Trypanosoma cruzi*

    PubMed Central

    Leandro de Jesus, Teresa Cristina; Calderano, Simone Guedes; Vitorino, Francisca Nathalia de Luna; Llanos, Ricardo Pariona; Lopes, Mariana de Camargo; de Araújo, Christiane Bezerra; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique; Reis, Marcelo da Silva; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin associated proteins are key regulators of many important processes in the cell. Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoa flagellate that causes Chagas disease, alternates between replicative and nonreplicative forms accompanied by a shift on global transcription levels and by changes in its chromatin architecture. Here, we investigated the T. cruzi chromatin proteome using three different protocols and compared it between replicative (epimastigote) and nonreplicative (trypomastigote) forms by high-resolution mass spectrometry. More than 2000 proteins were identified and quantified both in chromatin and nonchromatin extracts. Besides histones and other known nuclear proteins, trypanosomes chromatin also contains metabolic (mainly from carbohydrate pathway), cytoskeleton and many other proteins with unknown functions. Strikingly, the two parasite forms differ greatly regarding their chromatin-associated factors composition and amount. Although the nucleosome content is the same for both life forms (as seen by MNase digestion), the remaining proteins were much less detected in nonreplicative forms, suggesting that they have a naked chromatin. Proteins associated to DNA proliferation, such as PCNA, RPA, and DNA topoisomerases were exclusively found in the chromatin of replicative stages. On the other hand, the nonreplicative stages have an enrichment of a histone H2B variant. Furthermore, almost 20% of replicative stages chromatin-associated proteins are expressed in nonreplicative forms, but located at nonchromatin space. We identified different classes of proteins including phosphatases and a Ran-binding protein, that may shuttle between chromatin and nonchromatin space during differentiation. Seven proteins, including those with unknown functions, were selected for further validation. We confirmed their location in chromatin and their differential expression, using Western blotting assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Our results indicate that the

  15. Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, Daniel; Swinyard, Bruce M.; Ellison, Brian N.; Aylward, Alan D.; Aruliah, Anasuya; Plane, John M. C.; Feng, Wuhu; Saunders, Christopher; Friend, Jonathan; Bird, Rachel; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Parkes, Steve

    2014-05-01

    near future. We describe the current instrument configuration of LOCUS, and give a first preview of the expected science return such a mission would yield. The LOCUS instrument concept calls for four spectral bands, a first band at 4.7 THz to target atomic oxygen (O), a second band at 3.5 THz to target hydroxyl (OH), a third band at 1.1 THz to cover several diatomic species (NO, CO, O3, H2O) and finally a fourth band at 0.8 THz to retrieve pointing information from molecular oxygen (O2). LOCUS would be the first satellite instrument to measure atomic oxygen on a global scale with a precision that will allow the retrieval of the global O distribution. It would also be the first time that annual and diurnal changes in O are measured. This will be a significant step forward in understanding the chemistry and dynamics of the MLT. Current indications (derived from CRISTA measurement) lead us to believe that current models only give a poor representation of upper atmospheric O. The secondary target species can help us to address additional scientific questions related to both Climate (distribution of climate relevant gases, highly geared cooling of the MLT in response to Climate change, increased occurrence of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC), etc) and Space Weather (precipitation of electrically charged particles and impact on NOx chemistry, fluctuations of solar Lyman-alpha flux through shown in the the distribution of photochemically active species, etc).

  16. Sperm chromatin maturity and integrity correlated to zygote development in ICSI program.

    PubMed

    Asmarinah; Syauqy, Ahmad; Umar, Liya Agustin; Lestari, Silvia Werdhy; Mansyur, Eliza; Hestiantoro, Andon; Paradowszka-Dogan, Agnieszka

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sperm chromatin maturity and integrity of that injected into good-quality oocytes in an in vitro fertilization-intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI) program. A cut-off value of sperm chromatin maturity and integrity was developed as a function of their correlation to the zygote development, i.e., embryo formation and cleavage rate. The study assessed sperm chromatin maturity using aniline blue (AB) staining, whereas toluidine blue (TB) staining was used to assess sperm chromatin integrity. Ejaculates from 59 patients undergoing ICSI and 46 fertile normozoospermic donors for determination of normal values of sperm chromatin status were used in this study. Embryo formation and cleavage rates were observed for the period of 3 days after ICSI. There was a significant difference in the percentage of sperm with mature chromatin between ejaculate from ICSI patients and fertile donor (p=0.020); while there was no significant difference in sperm chromatin integrity of both samples (p=0.120). There was no significant correlation between sperm chromatin maturity and either embryo formation or cleavage rate; as well as sperm chromatin integrity to both parameters of zygote development (p>0.05). Furthermore, we found that the cut-off value of sperm chromatin maturity and integrity of the fertile normozoospermic ejaculates were 87.2% and 80.2%, respectively. Using the cut-offs, we found that low sperm chromatin maturity at the level of <87% correlated significantly with the cleavage rate of the zygote (p=0.022; r=0.371); whereas poor sperm chromatin integrity at the level of <80% correlated with embryo formation (p=0.048; r=0,485). In conclusion, this study showed that poor maturity and integrity of sperm chromatin (AB<87% and TB<80%, respectively), could affect zygote development following ICSI. AB: aniline blue; CMA3: chromomycin A3; ICSI: intra cytoplasmic sperm injection; IVF: in vitro fertilization; PBS: phosphate buffer saline; SPSS

  17. Relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Turnipseed, David L; Bacon, Calvin M

    2009-12-01

    The relation of organizational citizenship behavior and locus of control was assessed in a sample of 286 college students (52% men; M age = 24 yr.) who worked an average of 26 hr. per week. Measures were Spector's Work Locus of Control Scale and Podsakoff, et al.'s Organization Citizenship Behavior scale. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated positive association of scores on work locus of control with scores on each of the four tested dimensions of organizational citizenship, as well as total organizational citizenship behavior.

  18. Isolation of active regulatory elements from eukaryotic chromatin using FAIRE (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements)

    PubMed Central

    Giresi, Paul G.; Lieb, Jason D.

    2009-01-01

    The binding of sequence-specific regulatory factors and the recruitment of chromatin remodeling activities cause nucleosomes to be evicted from chromatin in eukaryotic cells. Traditionally, these active sites have been identified experimentally through their sensitivity to nucleases. Here we describe the details of a simple procedure for the genome-wide isolation of nucleosome-depleted DNA from human chromatin, termed FAIRE (Formaldehyde Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements). We also provide protocols for different methods of detecting FAIRE-enriched DNA, including use of PCR, DNA microarrays, and next-generation sequencing. FAIRE works on all eukaryotic chromatin tested to date. To perform FAIRE, chromatin is crosslinked with formaldehyde, sheared by sonication, and phenol-chloroform extracted. Most genomic DNA is crosslinked to nucleosomes and is sequestered to the interphase, whereas DNA recovered in the aqueous phase corresponds to nucleosome-depleted regions of the genome. The isolated regions are largely coincident with the location of DNaseI hypersensitive sites, transcriptional start sites, enhancers, insulators, and active promoters. Given its speed and simplicity, FAIRE has utility in establishing chromatin profiles of diverse cell types in health and disease, isolating DNA regulatory elements en masse for further characterization, and as a screening assay for the effects of small molecules on chromatin organization. PMID:19303047

  19. Protective role of RAD50 on chromatin bridges during abnormal cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Schröder-Heurich, Bianca; Wieland, Britta; Lavin, Martin F; Schindler, Detlev; Dörk, Thilo

    2014-03-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation is required for preserving genomic integrity. Failure of this process may entail chromatin bridges preventing normal cytokinesis. To test whether RAD50, a protein normally involved in DNA double-strand break repair, is involved in abnormal cytokinesis and formation of chromatin bridges, we used immunocytochemical and protein interaction assays. RAD50 localizes to chromatin bridges during aberrant cytokinesis and subsequent stages of the cell cycle, either decorating the entire bridge or focally accumulating at the midbody zone. Ionizing radiation led to an ∼4-fold increase in the rate of chromatin bridges in an ataxia telangiectatica mutated (ATM)-dependent manner in human RAD50-proficient fibroblasts but not in RAD50-deficient cells. Cells with a RAD50-positive chromatin bridge were able to continue cell cycling and to progress through S phase (44%), whereas RAD50 knockdown caused a deficiency in chromatin bridges as well as an ∼4-fold prolonged duration of mitosis. RAD50 colocalized and directly interacted with Aurora B kinase and phospho-histone H3, and Aurora B kinase inhibition led to a deficiency in RAD50-positive bridges. Based on these observations, we propose that RAD50 is a crucial factor for the stabilization and shielding of chromatin bridges. Our study provides evidence for a hitherto unknown role of RAD50 in abnormal cytokinesis.

  20. In vivo dynamical behavior of yeast chromatin modeled as an entangled polymer network with constraint release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chenxi; Kilfoil, Maria L.

    2013-03-01

    The high fidelity segregation of chromatin is the central problem in cell mitosis. The role of mechanics underlying this, however, is undetermined. Work in this area has largely focused on cytoskeletal elements of the process. Preliminary work in our lab suggests the mechanical properties of chromatin are fundamental in this process. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of chromatin in the cellular context are not well-characterized. For better understanding of the role of mechanics in this cellular process, and of the chromatin mechanics in vivo generally, a systematic dynamical description of chromatin in vivo is required. Accordingly, we label specific sites on chromatin with fluorescent proteins of different wave lengths, enabling us to detect multiple spots separately in 3D and track their displacements in time inside living yeast cells. We analyze the pairwise cross-correlated motion between spots as a function of relative distance along the DNA contour. Comparison between the reptation model and our data serves to test our conjecture that chromatin in the cell is basically an entangled polymer network under constraints to thermal motion, and removal of constraints by non-thermal cellular processes is expected to affect its dynamic behavior.

  1. Intestinal Master Transcription Factor CDX2 Controls Chromatin Access for Partner Transcription Factor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Verzi, Michael P.; Shin, Hyunjin; San Roman, Adrianna K.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-specific gene expression requires modulation of nucleosomes, allowing transcription factors to occupy cis elements that are accessible only in selected tissues. Master transcription factors control cell-specific genes and define cellular identities, but it is unclear if they possess special abilities to regulate cell-specific chromatin and if such abilities might underlie lineage determination and maintenance. One prevailing view is that several transcription factors enable chromatin access in combination. The homeodomain protein CDX2 specifies the embryonic intestinal epithelium, through unknown mechanisms, and partners with transcription factors such as HNF4A in the adult intestine. We examined enhancer chromatin and gene expression following Cdx2 or Hnf4a excision in mouse intestines. HNF4A loss did not affect CDX2 binding or chromatin, whereas CDX2 depletion modified chromatin significantly at CDX2-bound enhancers, disrupted HNF4A occupancy, and abrogated expression of neighboring genes. Thus, CDX2 maintains transcription-permissive chromatin, illustrating a powerful and dominant effect on enhancer configuration in an adult tissue. Similar, hierarchical control of cell-specific chromatin states is probably a general property of master transcription factors. PMID:23129810

  2. [Automated morphometric evaluation of the chromatin structure of liver cell nuclei after vagotomy].

    PubMed

    Butusova, N N; Zhukotskiĭ, A V; Sherbo, I V; Gribkov, E N; Dubovaia, T K

    1989-05-01

    The morphometric analysis of the interphase chromatine structure of the hepatic cells nuclei was carried out on the automated TV installation for the quantitative analysis of images "IBAS-2" (by the OPTON firm, the FRG) according to 50 optical and geometric parameters during various periods (1.2 and 4 weeks) after the vagotomy operation. It is determined that upper-molecular organisation of chromatine undergoes the biggest changes one week after operation, and changes of granular component are more informative than changes of the nongranular component (with the difference 15-20%). It was also revealed that chromatine components differ in tinctorial properties, which are evidently dependent on physicochemical characteristics of the chromatine under various functional conditions of the cell. As a result of the correlation analysis the group of morphometric indices of chromatine structure was revealed, which are highly correlated with level of transcription activity of chromatine during various terms after denervation. The correlation quotient of these parameters is 0.85-0.97. The summing up: vagus denervation of the liver causes changes in the morphofunctional organisation of the chromatine.

  3. [Comparative investigation of the non-histone proteins of chromatin from pigeon erythroblasts and erythrocytes].

    PubMed

    Fedina, A B; Gazarian, G G

    1976-01-01

    Chromosomal non-histone proteins are obtained from nuclei of two types of pigeon erythroid cells: erythroblasts (cells active in RNA synthesis) and erythrocytes (cells with repressed RNA synthesis). They are well soluble in solutions of low ionic strength. Electrophoretic separation of the obtained non-histone proteins in polyacrylamide gels with urea and SDS shows the presence of qualitative differences in the pattern of non-histone proteins of chromatine from erythroblasts and erythrocytes. By electrophoresis in urea some protein bands of non-histone proteins of chromatine from erythroblasts were found which disappear with the aging of cells. At the same time two protein fractions were observed in chromatine from erythrocytes which were absent in that of erythroblasts. Disappearance of some high molecular weight protein fractions from erythrocyte chromatine as compared to erythroblasts was observed by separation of the non-histone proteins in the presence of SDS. These fractions of the non-histone proteins disappearing during aging of cells are well extractable from erythroblast chromatine by 0.35 M NaCl solution. In the in vitro system with E. coli RNA polymerase addition of non-histone proteins of chromatine from erythroblasts to chromatine from erythrocytes increases RNA synthesis 2--3 times. At the same time addition of non-histone proteins from erythrocytes is either without any influence on this process or somewhat inhibiting.

  4. NOTCH-mediated non-cell autonomous regulation of chromatin structure during senescence.

    PubMed

    Parry, Aled J; Hoare, Matthew; Bihary, Dóra; Hänsel-Hertsch, Robert; Smith, Stephen; Tomimatsu, Kosuke; Mannion, Elizabeth; Smith, Amy; D'Santos, Paula; Russell, I Alasdair; Balasubramanian, Shankar; Kimura, Hiroshi; Samarajiwa, Shamith A; Narita, Masashi

    2018-05-09

    Senescent cells interact with the surrounding microenvironment achieving diverse functional outcomes. We have recently identified that NOTCH1 can drive 'lateral induction' of a unique senescence phenotype in adjacent cells by specifically upregulating the NOTCH ligand JAG1. Here we show that NOTCH signalling can modulate chromatin structure autonomously and non-autonomously. In addition to senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF), oncogenic RAS-induced senescent (RIS) cells exhibit a massive increase in chromatin accessibility. NOTCH signalling suppresses SAHF and increased chromatin accessibility in this context. Strikingly, NOTCH-induced senescent cells, or cancer cells with high JAG1 expression, drive similar chromatin architectural changes in adjacent cells through cell-cell contact. Mechanistically, we show that NOTCH signalling represses the chromatin architectural protein HMGA1, an association found in multiple human cancers. Thus, HMGA1 is involved not only in SAHFs but also in RIS-driven chromatin accessibility. In conclusion, this study identifies that the JAG1-NOTCH-HMGA1 axis mediates the juxtacrine regulation of chromatin architecture.

  5. Chromatibody, a novel non-invasive molecular tool to explore and manipulate chromatin in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Denis; Vignard, Julien; Fedor, Yoann; Béry, Nicolas; Olichon, Aurélien; Crozatier, Michèle; Erard, Monique; Cassard, Hervé; Ducommun, Bernard; Salles, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromatin function is involved in many cellular processes, its visualization or modification being essential in many developmental or cellular studies. Here, we present the characterization of chromatibody, a chromatin-binding single-domain, and explore its use in living cells. This non-intercalating tool specifically binds the heterodimer of H2A–H2B histones and displays a versatile reactivity, specifically labeling chromatin from yeast to mammals. We show that this genetically encoded probe, when fused to fluorescent proteins, allows non-invasive real-time chromatin imaging. Chromatibody is a dynamic chromatin probe that can be modulated. Finally, chromatibody is an efficient tool to target an enzymatic activity to the nucleosome, such as the DNA damage-dependent H2A ubiquitylation, which can modify this epigenetic mark at the scale of the genome and result in DNA damage signaling and repair defects. Taken together, these results identify chromatibody as a universal non-invasive tool for either in vivo chromatin imaging or to manipulate the chromatin landscape. PMID:27206857

  6. Modulation of chromatin structure by the FACT histone chaperone complex regulates HIV-1 integration.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Julien; Lesbats, Paul; Mauro, Eric; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Dupuy, Jean-William; Lopez, Angelica P; Benleulmi, Mohamed Salah; Calmels, Christina; Andreola, Marie-Line; Ruff, Marc; Llano, Manuel; Delelis, Olivier; Lavigne, Marc; Parissi, Vincent

    2017-07-28

    Insertion of retroviral genome DNA occurs in the chromatin of the host cell. This step is modulated by chromatin structure as nucleosomes compaction was shown to prevent HIV-1 integration and chromatin remodeling has been reported to affect integration efficiency. LEDGF/p75-mediated targeting of the integration complex toward RNA polymerase II (polII) transcribed regions ensures optimal access to dynamic regions that are suitable for integration. Consequently, we have investigated the involvement of polII-associated factors in the regulation of HIV-1 integration. Using a pull down approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we have selected the FACT (FAcilitates Chromatin Transcription) complex as a new potential cofactor of HIV-1 integration. FACT is a histone chaperone complex associated with the polII transcription machinery and recently shown to bind LEDGF/p75. We report here that a tripartite complex can be formed between HIV-1 integrase, LEDGF/p75 and FACT in vitro and in cells. Biochemical analyzes show that FACT-dependent nucleosome disassembly promotes HIV-1 integration into chromatinized templates, and generates highly favored nucleosomal structures in vitro. This effect was found to be amplified by LEDGF/p75. Promotion of this FACT-mediated chromatin remodeling in cells both increases chromatin accessibility and stimulates HIV-1 infectivity and integration. Altogether, our data indicate that FACT regulates HIV-1 integration by inducing local nucleosomes dissociation that modulates the functional association between the incoming intasome and the targeted nucleosome.

  7. Contactin 4 as an Autism Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Catherine E.; Bir, Natalie; Varga, Elizabeth; Alvarez, Carlos E.; Bouyain, Samuel; Zernzach, Randall; LambThrush, Devon; Evans, Johnna; Trimarchi, Michael; Butter, Eric M.; Cunningham, David; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; McBride, Kim; Herman, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific Abstract Structural and sequence variation have been described in several members of the contactin (CNTN) and contactin associated protein (CNTNAP) gene families in association with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Using array comparative genome hybridization (CGH), we identified a maternally inherited ~535 kb deletion at 3p26.3 encompassing the 5′ end of the contactin 4 gene (CNTN4) in a patient with autism. Based on this finding and previous reports implicating genomic rearrangements of CNTN4 in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and 3p− microdeletion syndrome, we undertook sequencing of the coding regions of the gene in a local ASD cohort in comparison with a set of controls. Unique missense variants were identified in 4/75 unrelated individuals with an ASD, as well as in 1/107 controls. All of the amino acid substitutions were nonsynonomous, occurred at evolutionarily conserved positions, and were, thus, felt likely to be deleterious. However, these data did not reach statistical significance, nor did the variants segregate with disease within all of the ASD families. Finally, there was no detectable difference in binding of two of the variants to the interacting protein PTPRG in vitro. Thusadditional, larger studies will be necessary to determine whether CNTN4 functions as an autism susceptibility locus in combination with other genetic and/or environmental factors. PMID:21308999

  8. Structural hierarchy of chromatin in chicken erythrocyte nuclei based on small-angle neutron scattering: Fractal nature of the large-scale chromatin organization

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, D. V., E-mail: isaev@omrb.pnpi.spb.ru; Filatov, M. V.; Kuklin, A. I.

    The chromatin organization in chicken erythrocyte nuclei was studied by small-angle neutron scattering in the scattering-vector range from 1.5 x 10{sup -1} to 10{sup -4} A{sup -1} with the use of the contrast-variation technique. This scattering-vector range corresponds to linear dimensions from 4 nm to 6 {mu}m and covers the whole hierarchy of chromatin structures, from the nucleosomal structure to the entire nucleus. The results of the present study allowed the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) both the chromatin-protein structure and the structure of the nucleic acid component in chicken erythrocyte nuclei have mass-fractal properties, (2) the structure ofmore » the protein component of chromatin exhibits a fractal behavior on scales extending over two orders of magnitude, from the nucleosomal size to the size of an entire nucleus, and (3) the structure of the nucleic acid component of chromatin in chicken erythrocyte nuclei is likewise of a fractal nature and has two levels of organization or two phases with the crossover point at about 300-400 nm.« less

  9. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) promoter targeting through a novel chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shigeaki; Fujiki, Ryoji; Kitagawa, Hirochika

    2004-05-01

    We have purified nuclear complexes for Vitamin D receptor (VDR), and identified one of them as a novel ATP-dependent chromatine remodeling containing Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF), that is supposed to be responsible for Williams syndrome. This complex (WSTF including nucleosome assembly complex (WINAC)) exhibited an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity in vitro. Transient expression assays revealed that WINAC potentiates ligand-induced function of VDR in gene activation and repression. Thus, this study describes a molecular basis of the VDR function on chromosomal DNA through chromatine remodeling.

  10. Is Racial Attitude Change a Function of Locus of Control?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Vijay

    1977-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between counselors' locus of control and the degree of change on racial attitudes followed by a structured awareness program and counseling experience on racial and multi-ethnic cultures. (Author)

  11. A locus for isolated cataract on human Xp.

    PubMed

    Francis, P J; Berry, V; Hardcastle, A J; Maher, E R; Moore, A T; Bhattacharya, S S

    2002-02-01

    To genetically map the gene causing isolated X linked cataract in a large European pedigree. Using the patient registers at Birmingham Women's Hospital, UK, we identified and examined 23 members of a four generation family with nuclear cataract. Four of six affected males also had complex congenital heart disease. Pedigree data were collated and leucocyte DNA extracted from venous blood. Linkage analysis by PCR based microsatellite marker genotyping was used to identify the disease locus and mutations within candidate genes screened by direct sequencing. The disease locus was genetically refined to chromosome Xp22, within a 3 cM linkage interval flanked by markers DXS9902 and DXS999 (Zmax=3.64 at theta=0 for marker DXS8036). This is the first report of a locus for isolated inherited cataract on the X chromosome. The disease interval lies within the Nance-Horan locus suggesting allelic heterogeneity. The apparent association with congenital cardiac anomalies suggests a possible new oculocardiac syndrome.

  12. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans

    PubMed Central

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-01-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. PMID:25855212

  13. Multidimensional profiles of health locus of control in Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Brian R; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2016-10-01

    Latent profile analysis identified health locus of control profiles among 436 Hispanic Americans who completed the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales. Results revealed four profiles: Internally Oriented-Weak, -Moderate, -Strong, and Externally Oriented. The profile groups were compared on sociocultural and demographic characteristics, health beliefs and behaviors, and physical and mental health outcomes. The Internally Oriented-Strong group had less cancer fatalism, religiosity, and equity health attributions, and more alcohol consumption than the other three groups; the Externally Oriented group had stronger equity health attributions and less alcohol consumption. Deriving multidimensional health locus of control profiles through latent profile analysis allows examination of the relationships of health locus of control subtypes to health variables. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Sex Role Flexibility, Locus of Control, and Occupational Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalka, George M.; Lachenmeyer, Juliana Rasic

    1988-01-01

    Examination of 69 men and women revealed that individuals employed in supervisory leadership positions were more androgynous and obtained more internal locus of control scores than those in nonsupervisory positions. Sex differences were noted. Implications are discussed. (Author/BJV)

  15. The Chromatin Remodeler SPLAYED Negatively Regulates SNC1-Mediated Immunity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kaeli C M; Xia, Shitou; Feng, Xiaoqi; Li, Xin

    2015-08-01

    SNC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1, CONSTITUTIVE 1) is one of a suite of intracellular Arabidopsis NOD-like receptor (NLR) proteins which, upon activation, result in the induction of defense responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying NLR activation and the subsequent provocation of immune responses are only partially characterized. To identify negative regulators of NLR-mediated immunity, a forward genetic screen was undertaken to search for enhancers of the dwarf, autoimmune gain-of-function snc1 mutant. To avoid lethality resulting from severe dwarfism, the screen was conducted using mos4 (modifier of snc1, 4) snc1 plants, which display wild-type-like morphology and resistance. M2 progeny were screened for mutant, snc1-enhancing (muse) mutants displaying a reversion to snc1-like phenotypes. The muse9 mos4 snc1 triple mutant was found to exhibit dwarf morphology, elevated expression of the pPR2-GUS defense marker reporter gene and enhanced resistance to the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Noco2. Via map-based cloning and Illumina sequencing, it was determined that the muse9 mutation is in the gene encoding the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler SYD (SPLAYED), and was thus renamed syd-10. The syd-10 single mutant has no observable alteration from wild-type-like resistance, although the syd-4 T-DNA insertion allele displays enhanced resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326. Transcription of SNC1 is increased in both syd-4 and syd-10. These data suggest that SYD plays a subtle, specific role in the regulation of SNC1 expression and SNC1-mediated immunity. SYD may work with other proteins at the chromatin level to repress SNC1 transcription; such regulation is important for fine-tuning the expression of NLR-encoding genes to prevent unpropitious autoimmunity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  16. Dysregulation of chromatin remodelling complexes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tibshirani, Michael; Zhao, Beibei; Gentil, Benoit J; Minotti, Sandra; Marques, Christine; Keith, Julia; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Zinman, Lorne; Rouaux, Caroline; Robertson, Janice; Durham, Heather D

    2017-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with paralysis resulting from dysfunction and loss of motor neurons. A common neuropathological finding is attrition of motor neuron dendrites, which make central connections vital to motor control. The chromatin remodelling complex, neuronal Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1)-associated factor complex (nBAF), is critical for neuronal differentiation, dendritic extension and synaptic function. We have identified loss of the crucial nBAF subunits Brg1, Brg1-associated factor 53b and calcium responsive transactivator in cultured motor neurons expressing FUS or TAR-DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) mutants linked to familial ALS. When plasmids encoding wild-type or mutant human FUS or TDP-43 were expressed in motor neurons of dissociated spinal cord cultures prepared from E13 mice, mutant proteins in particular accumulated in the cytoplasm. Immunolabelling of nBAF subunits was reduced in proportion to loss of nuclear FUS or TDP-43 and depletion of Brg1 was associated with nuclear retention of Brg1 mRNA. Dendritic attrition (loss of intermediate and terminal dendritic branches) occurred in motor neurons expressing mutant, but not wild-type, FUS or TDP-43. This attrition was delayed by ectopic over-expression of Brg1 and was reproduced by inhibiting Brg1 activity either through genetic manipulation or treatment with the chemical inhibitor, (E)-1-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-((1R, 4R)-5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2, 5-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one, demonstrating the importance of Brg1 to maintenance of dendritic architecture. Loss of nBAF subunits was also documented in spinal motor neurons in autopsy tissue from familial amyotrophic sclerosis (chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 with G4C2 nucleotide expansion) and from sporadic cases with no identified mutation, pointing to dysfunction of nBAF chromatin remodelling in multiple forms of ALS. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  17. Science Study For A Low Cost Upper Atmosphere Sounder (LOCUS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Ellison, B. N.; Siddans, R.; Kerridge, B. J.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.

    2013-12-01

    We present the findings of an initial science study to define the spectral bands for the proposed Mesosphere / Lower Thermosphere (MLT) sounder LOCUS. The LOCUS mission (Fig 1) uses disruptive technologies to make key MLT species detectable globally by satellite remote sensing for the first time. This presentation summarises the technological and scientific foundation on which the current 4-band Terahertz (THz) and sub- millimetre wave (SMW) instrument configuration was conceived.

  18. Fixation probability in a two-locus intersexual selection model.

    PubMed

    Durand, Guillermo; Lessard, Sabin

    2016-06-01

    We study a two-locus model of intersexual selection in a finite haploid population reproducing according to a discrete-time Moran model with a trait locus expressed in males and a preference locus expressed in females. We show that the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a male ornament introduced at random at the trait locus given any initial frequency state at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and recombination, weak or strong. Moreover, this probability exceeds the initial frequency of the mutant allele even in the case of a costly male ornament if intersexual selection is not too weak. On the other hand, the probability of ultimate fixation of a single mutant allele for a female preference towards a male ornament introduced at random at the preference locus is increased by weak intersexual selection and weak recombination if the female preference is not costly, and is strong enough in the case of a costly male ornament. The analysis relies on an extension of the ancestral recombination-selection graph for samples of haplotypes to take into account events of intersexual selection, while the symbolic calculation of the fixation probabilities is made possible in a reasonable time by an optimizing algorithm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Health locus of control of patients in disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Schnee, M; Grikscheit, F

    2013-06-01

    Health locus of control beliefs plays a major role in improving self-management skills of the chronically ill - a main goal in disease management programmes (DMP). This study aims at characterising participants in disease management regarding their health locus of control. Data are based on 4 cross-sectional postal surveys between spring and autumn of 2006 and 2007 within the Health Care Monitor of the Bertelsmann Foundation. Among the 6 285 respondents, 1 266 are chronically ill and not enrolled in a DMP and 327 are participating in a DMP. A high internal locus of control (HLC) occurs significantly less often in DMP patients than in normal chronically ill patients (and healthy people) controlling for age, gender and social class. With increasing age, a high internal locus of control is also significantly less likely. When comparing healthy people, the chronically ill and the DMP participants a social gradient of a high internal locus of control belief can be observed. The weaker internal and higher doctor-related external locus of control of DMP participants should be carefully observed by the physician when trying to strengthen the patients' self-management skills. Evaluators of DMP should take into account the different baselines of DMP patients and relevant control groups and incorporate these differences into the evaluation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Neurolinguistic programming training, trait anxiety, and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Konefal, J; Duncan, R C; Reese, M A

    1992-06-01

    Training in the neurolinguistic programming techniques of shifting perceptual position, visual-kinesthetic dissociation, timelines, and change-history, all based on experiential cognitive processing of remembered events, leads to an increased awareness of behavioral contingencies and a more sensitive recognition of environmental cues which could serve to lower trait anxiety and increase the sense of internal control. This study reports on within-person and between-group changes in trait anxiety and locus of control as measured on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Wallston, Wallston, and DeVallis' Multiple Health Locus of Control immediately following a 21-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant with-in-person decreases in trait-anxiety scores and increases in internal locus of control scores were observed as predicted. Chance and powerful other locus of control scores were unchanged. Significant differences were noted on trait anxiety and locus of control scores between European and U.S. participants, although change scores were similar for the two groups. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that this training may lower trait-anxiety scores and increase internal locus of control scores. A matched control group was not available, and follow-up was unfortunately not possible.

  1. DNA modification study of major depressive disorder: beyond locus-by-locus comparisons.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gabriel; Wang, Sun-Chong; Pal, Mrinal; Chen, Zheng Fei; Khare, Tarang; Tochigi, Mamoru; Ng, Catherine; Yang, Yeqing A; Kwan, Andrew; Kaminsky, Zachary A; Mill, Jonathan; Gunasinghe, Cerisse; Tackett, Jennifer L; Gottesman, Irving I; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J C; Vink, Jacqueline M; Slagboom, P Eline; Wray, Naomi R; Heath, Andrew C; Montgomery, Grant W; Turecki, Gustavo; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I; McGuffin, Peter; Kustra, Rafal; Petronis, Art

    2015-02-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined. We performed DNA modification analysis in white blood cells from monozygotic twins discordant for MDD, in brain prefrontal cortex, and germline (sperm) samples from affected individuals and control subjects (total N = 304) using 8.1K CpG island microarrays and fine mapping. In addition to the traditional locus-by-locus comparisons, we explored the potential of new analytical approaches in epigenomic studies. In the microarray experiment, we detected a number of nominally significant DNA modification differences in MDD and validated selected targets using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Some MDD epigenetic changes, however, overlapped across brain, blood, and sperm more often than expected by chance. We also demonstrated that stratification for disease severity and age may increase the statistical power of epimutation detection. Finally, a series of new analytical approaches, such as DNA modification networks and machine-learning algorithms using binary and quantitative depression phenotypes, provided additional insights on the epigenetic contributions to MDD. Mapping epigenetic differences in MDD (and other psychiatric diseases) is a complex task. However, combining traditional and innovative analytical strategies may lead to identification of disease-specific etiopathogenic epimutations. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  2. DNA Modification Study of Major Depressive Disorder: Beyond Locus-by-Locus Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gabriel; Wang, Sun-Chong; Pal, Mrinal; Chen, Zheng Fei; Khare, Tarang; Tochigi, Mamoru; Ng, Catherine; Yang, Yeqing A.; Kwan, Andrew; Kaminsky, Zachary A.; Mill, Jonathan; Gunasinghe, Cerisse; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Gottesman, Irving I.; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Wray, Naomi R.; Heath, Andrew C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turecki, Gustavo; Martin, Nicholas G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; McGuffin, Peter; Kustra, Rafal; Petronis, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) exhibits numerous clinical and molecular features that are consistent with putative epigenetic misregulation. Despite growing interest in epigenetic studies of psychiatric diseases, the methodologies guiding such studies have not been well defined. Methods We performed DNA modification analysis in white blood cells from monozygotic twins discordant for MDD, in brain prefrontal cortex, and germline (sperm) samples from affected individuals and control subjects (total N = 304) using 8.1K CpG island microarrays and fine mapping. In addition to the traditional locus-by-locus comparisons, we explored the potential of new analytical approaches in epigenomic studies. Results In the microarray experiment, we detected a number of nominally significant DNA modification differences in MDD and validated selected targets using bisulfite pyrosequencing. Some MDD epigenetic changes, however, overlapped across brain, blood, and sperm more often than expected by chance. We also demonstrated that stratification for disease severity and age may increase the statistical power of epimutation detection. Finally, a series of new analytical approaches, such as DNA modification networks and machine-learning algorithms using binary and quantitative depression phenotypes, provided additional insights on the epigenetic contributions to MDD. Conclusions Mapping epigenetic differences in MDD (and other psychiatric diseases) is a complex task. However, combining traditional and innovative analytical strategies may lead to identification of disease-specific etiopathogenic epimutations. PMID:25108803

  3. Molecular analysis of the glucocerebrosidase gene locus

    SciTech Connect

    Winfield, S.L.; Martin, B.M.; Fandino, A.

    1994-09-01

    Gaucher disease is due to a deficiency in the activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Both the functional gene for this enzyme and a pseudogene are located in close proximity on chromosome 1q21. Analysis of the mutations present in patient samples has suggested interaction between the functional gene and the pseudogene in the origin of mutant genotypes. To investigate the involvement of regions flanking the functional gene and pseudogene in the origin of mutations found in Gaucher disease, a YAC clone containing DNA from this locus has been subcloned and characterized. The original YAC containing {approximately}360 kb was truncated withmore » the use of fragmentation plasmids to about 85 kb. A lambda library derived from this YAC was screened to obtain clones containing glucocerebrosidase sequences. PCR amplification was used to identify subclones containing 5{prime}, central, or 3{prime} sequences of the functional gene or of the pseudogene. Clones spanning the entire distance from the last exon of the functional gene to intron 1 of the pseudogene, the 5{prime} end of the functional gene and 16 kb of 5{prime} flanking region and approximately 15 kb of 3{prime} flanking region of the pseudogene were sequenced. Sequence data from 48 kb of intergenic and flanking regions of the glucocerebrosidase gene and its pseudogene has been generated. A large number of Alu sequences and several simple repeats have been found. Two of these repeats exhibit fragment length polymorphism. There is almost 100% homology between the 3{prime} flanking regions of the functional gene and the pseudogene, extending to about 4 kb past the termination codons. A much lower degree of homology is observed in the 5{prime} flanking region. Patient samples are currently being screened for polymorphisms in these flanking regions.« less

  4. R-LOCUS DELETERIOUS FACTORS IN MORMONIELLA

    SciTech Connect

    Whiting, P.W.

    1962-01-01

    New data are presented on 37 R-locus mutant genes containing deleterious factors or crossover suppressors. Twenty-seven of these genes are among the 206 recognizable eye-color mutants previously found by others in experiments in which wild-type males were irradiated and mated, siring 11062 daughters examined, mutation rate 1.86%. With the addition of eight mutants from later simdlar tests there were 38 mutants failing to breed, probably being dominant steriles, and seven immature, probably dominant lethals. Of the l60 mutants given successful breeding test, 80 were normal and 80 contained delcterious factors of different types - lethals, near-steriles, femalesteriles, and male-stertles. Ratemore » of deleterious factor productdon differs according to the factor mutating to produce the eye-color marker. Among the l07 genes changed in factor S alone, 68 were also deleterious (63.6%) but for the 45 in O, there were only nine (20.0%), suggesting a more sensitive region near S. More than one deleterious factor may be produced simultaneously with an eye-color change and one defeet may mask others. The gene which forms a temporary unit of segregation in heterozygotes is of a higher order of magnitude than units of heredity (gene elements, cistrons) which may be permanently present dn the germ plasm. Because of the high mutation rate to the marker eye colors scarlet and oyster white, the genetical structure of the R region may be easily studied. (auth)« less

  5. Sulforaphane Modifies Histone H3, Unpacks Chromatin, and Primes Defense.

    PubMed

    Schillheim, Britta; Jansen, Irina; Baum, Stephani; Beesley, Alexander; Bolm, Carsten; Conrath, Uwe

    2018-03-01

    Modern crop production calls for agrochemicals that prime plants for enhanced defense. Reliable test systems for spotting priming-inducing chemistry, however, are rare. We developed an assay for the high-throughput search for compounds that prime microbial pattern-induced secretion of antimicrobial furanocoumarins (phytoalexins) in cultured parsley cells. The screen produced 1-isothiocyanato-4-methylsulfinylbutane (sulforaphane; SFN), a secondary metabolite in many crucifers, as a novel defense priming compound. While elucidating SFN's mode of action in defense priming, we found that in Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) the isothiocyanate provokes covalent modification (K4me3, K9ac) of histone H3 in the promoter and promoter-proximal region of defense genes WRKY6 and PDF1 2 , but not PR1 SFN-triggered H3K4me3 and H3K9ac coincide with chromatin unpacking in the WRKY6 and PDF1 2 regulatory regions, primed WRKY6 expression, unprimed PDF1 2 activation, and reduced susceptibility to downy mildew disease ( Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis ). Because SFN also directly inhibits H arabidopsidis and other plant pathogens, the isothiocyanate is promising for the development of a plant protectant with a dual mode of action. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Chromatin remodeling and stem cell theory of relativity.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jan; Quesenberry, Peter J

    2004-10-01

    The field of stem cell biology is currently being redefined. Stem cell (hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic) differentiation has been considered hierarchical in nature, but recent data suggest that there is no progenitor/stem cell hierarchy, but rather a reversible continuum. The stem cell (hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic) phenotype, the total differentiation capacity (hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic), gene expression as well as other stem cell functional characteristics (homing, receptor and adhesion molecule expression) vary throughout a cell-cycle transit widely. This seems to be dependent on shifting chromatin and gene expression with cell-cycle transit. The published data on DNA methylation, histone acetylation, and also RNAi, the major regulators of gene expression, conjoins very well and provides an explanation for the major issues of stem cell biology. Those features of stem cells mentioned above can be rather difficult to apprehend when a classical hierarchy biology view is applied, but they become clear and easier to understand once they are correlated with the underlining epigenetic changes. We are entering a new era of stem cell biology the era of "chromatinomics." We are one step closer to the practical use of cellular therapy for degenerative diseases.

  7. Gene Expression and Chromatin Modifications Associated with Maize Centromeres.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hainan; Zhu, Xiaobiao; Wang, Kai; Gent, Jonathan I; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-11-12

    Centromeres are defined by the presence of CENH3, a variant of histone H3. Centromeres in most plant species contain exclusively highly repetitive DNA sequences, which has hindered research on structure and function of centromeric chromatin. Several maize centromeres have been nearly completely sequenced, providing a sequence-based platform for genomic and epigenomic research of plant centromeres. Here we report a high resolution map of CENH3 nucleosomes in the maize genome. Although CENH3 nucleosomes are spaced ∼190 bp on average, CENH3 nucleosomes that occupied CentC, a 156-bp centromeric satellite repeat, showed clear positioning aligning with CentC monomers. Maize centromeres contain alternating CENH3-enriched and CENH3-depleted subdomains, which account for 87% and 13% of the centromeres, respectively. A number of annotated genes were identified in the centromeres, including 11 active genes that were located exclusively in CENH3-depleted subdomains. The euchromatic histone modification marks, including H3K4me3, H3K36me3 and H3K9ac, detected in maize centromeres were associated mainly with the active genes. Interestingly, maize centromeres also have lower levels of the heterochromatin histone modification mark H3K27me2 relative to pericentromeric regions. We conclude that neither H3K27me2 nor the three euchromatic histone modifications are likely to serve as functionally important epigenetic marks of centromere identity in maize. Copyright © 2016 Zhao et al.

  8. Gene Expression and Chromatin Modifications Associated with Maize Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hainan; Zhu, Xiaobiao; Wang, Kai; Gent, Jonathan I.; Zhang, Wenli; Dawe, R. Kelly; Jiang, Jiming

    2015-01-01

    Centromeres are defined by the presence of CENH3, a variant of histone H3. Centromeres in most plant species contain exclusively highly repetitive DNA sequences, which has hindered research on structure and function of centromeric chromatin. Several maize centromeres have been nearly completely sequenced, providing a sequence-based platform for genomic and epigenomic research of plant centromeres. Here we report a high resolution map of CENH3 nucleosomes in the maize genome. Although CENH3 nucleosomes are spaced ∼190 bp on average, CENH3 nucleosomes that occupied CentC, a 156-bp centromeric satellite repeat, showed clear positioning aligning with CentC monomers. Maize centromeres contain alternating CENH3-enriched and CENH3-depleted subdomains, which account for 87% and 13% of the centromeres, respectively. A number of annotated genes were identified in the centromeres, including 11 active genes that were located exclusively in CENH3-depleted subdomains. The euchromatic histone modification marks, including H3K4me3, H3K36me3 and H3K9ac, detected in maize centromeres were associated mainly with the active genes. Interestingly, maize centromeres also have lower levels of the heterochromatin histone modification mark H3K27me2 relative to pericentromeric regions. We conclude that neither H3K27me2 nor the three euchromatic histone modifications are likely to serve as functionally important epigenetic marks of centromere identity in maize. PMID:26564952

  9. Chromatin Insulators: A Role in Nuclear Organization and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingping; Corces, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes with broad functions in nuclear biology. Based on the ability of insulator proteins to interact with each other, it was originally thought that insulators form loops that could constitute functional domains of co-regulated gene expression. Nevertheless, data from genome-wide localization studies indicate that insulator proteins can be present in intergenic regions as well as at the 5′, introns or 3′ of genes, suggesting a broader role in chromosome biology. Cells have developed mechanisms to control insulator activity by recruiting specialized proteins or by covalent modification of core components. Recent results suggest that insulators mediate intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions to affect transcription, imprinting and recombination. It is possible that these interactions set up cell-specific blueprints of nuclear organization that may contribute to the establishment of different patterns of gene expression during cell differentiation. As a consequence, disruption of insulator activity could result in the development of cancer or other disease states. PMID:21704228

  10. Chromatin differentiation between Theobroma cacao L. and T. grandiflorum Schum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis of mitotic chromosomes of Theobroma cacao (cacao) and T. grandiflorum (cupuaçu) was performed aiming to identify cytological differences between the two most important species of this genus. Both species have symmetric karyotypes, with 2n = 20 metacentric chromosomes ranging in size from 2.00 to 1.19 μm (cacao) and from 2.21 to 1.15 μm (cupuaçu). The interphase nuclei of both species were of the arreticulate type, displaying up to 20 chromocentres, which were more regularly shaped in cacao than in cupuaçu. Prophase chromosomes of both species were more condensed in the proximal region, sometimes including the whole short arm. Both species exhibited only one pair of terminal heterochromatic bands, positively stained with chromomycin A 3 , which co-localized with the single 45S rDNA site. Each karyotype displayed a single 5S rDNA site in the proximal region of another chromosome pair. Heterochromatic bands were also observed on the centromeric/pericentromeric regions of all 20 chromosomes of cacao after C-banding followed by Giemsa or DAPI staining, whereas in cupuaçu they were never detected. These data suggest that the chromosomes of both species have been largely conserved and their pericentromeric chromatin is the only citologically differentiated region. PMID:21637611

  11. Two independent modes of chromatin organization revealed by cohesin removal.

    PubMed

    Schwarzer, Wibke; Abdennur, Nezar; Goloborodko, Anton; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Loe-Mie, Yann; Fonseca, Nuno A; Huber, Wolfgang; H Haering, Christian; Mirny, Leonid; Spitz, Francois

    2017-11-02

    Imaging and chromosome conformation capture studies have revealed several layers of chromosome organization, including segregation into megabase-sized active and inactive compartments, and partitioning into sub-megabase domains (TADs). It remains unclear, however, how these layers of organization form, interact with one another and influence genome function. Here we show that deletion of the cohesin-loading factor Nipbl in mouse liver leads to a marked reorganization of chromosomal folding. TADs and associated Hi-C peaks vanish globally, even in the absence of transcriptional changes. By contrast, compartmental segregation is preserved and even reinforced. Strikingly, the disappearance of TADs unmasks a finer compartment structure that accurately reflects the underlying epigenetic landscape. These observations demonstrate that the three-dimensional organization of the genome results from the interplay of two independent mechanisms: cohesin-independent segregation of the genome into fine-scale compartments, defined by chromatin state; and cohesin-dependent formation of TADs, possibly by loop extrusion, which helps to guide distant enhancers to their target genes.

  12. Relocalization of human chromatin remodeling cofactor TIP48 in mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sigala, Barbara; Edwards, Mina; Puri, Teena

    2005-11-01

    TIP48 is a highly conserved eukaryotic AAA{sup +} protein which is an essential cofactor for several complexes involved in chromatin acetylation and remodeling, transcriptional and developmental regulation and nucleolar organization and trafficking. We show that TIP48 abundance in HeLa cells did not change during the cell cycle, nor did its distribution in various biochemical fractions. However, we observed distinct changes in the subcellular localization of TIP48 during M phase using immunofluorescence microscopy. Our studies demonstrate that in interphase cells TIP48 was found mainly in the nucleus and exhibited a distinct localization in the nuclear periphery. As the cells entered mitosis,more » TIP48 was excluded from the condensing chromosomes but showed association with the mitotic apparatus. During anaphase, some TIP48 was detected in the centrosome colocalizing with tubulin but the strongest staining appeared in the mitotic equator associated with the midzone central spindle. Accumulation of TIP48 in the midzone and the midbody was observed in late telophase and cytokinesis. This redeployment of TIP48 during anaphase and cytokinesis was independent of microtubule assembly. The relocation of endogenous TIP48 to the midzone/midbody under physiological conditions suggests a novel and distinct function for TIP48 in mitosis and possible involvement in the exit of mitosis.« less

  13. Computational characterization of chromatin domain boundary-associated genomic elements

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seungpyo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Topologically associated domains (TADs) are 3D genomic structures with high internal interactions that play important roles in genome compaction and gene regulation. Their genomic locations and their association with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites and transcription start sites (TSSs) were recently reported. However, the relationship between TADs and other genomic elements has not been systematically evaluated. This was addressed in the present study, with a focus on the enrichment of these genomic elements and their ability to predict the TAD boundary region. We found that consensus CTCF-binding sites were strongly associated with TAD boundaries as well as with the transcription factors (TFs) Zinc finger protein (ZNF)143 and Yin Yang (YY)1. TAD boundary-associated genomic elements include DNase I-hypersensitive sites, H3K36 trimethylation, TSSs, RNA polymerase II, and TFs such as Specificity protein 1, ZNF274 and SIX homeobox 5. Computational modeling with these genomic elements suggests that they have distinct roles in TAD boundary formation. We propose a structural model of TAD boundaries based on these findings that provides a basis for studying the mechanism of chromatin structure formation and gene regulation. PMID:28977568

  14. Interplay between chromatin modulators and histone acetylation regulates the formation of accessible chromatin in the upstream regulatory region of fission yeast fbp1.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Akira; Senmatsu, Satoshi; Asada, Ryuta; Abe, Takuya; Hoffman, Charles S; Ohta, Kunihiro; Hirota, Kouji

    2018-05-03

    Numerous noncoding RNA transcripts are detected in eukaryotic cells. Noncoding RNAs transcribed across gene promoters are involved in the regulation of mRNA transcription via chromatin modulation. This function of noncoding RNA transcription was first demonstrated for the fission yeast fbp1 gene, where a cascade of noncoding RNA transcription events induces chromatin remodeling to facilitate transcription factor binding. We recently demonstrated that the noncoding RNAs from the fbp1 upstream region facilitate binding of the transcription activator Atf1 and thereby promote histone acetylation. Histone acetylation by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers (ADCRs) are implicated in chromatin remodeling, but the interplay between HATs and ADCRs in this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we examine the roles played by two distinct ADCRs, Snf22 and Hrp3, and by the HAT Gcn5 in the transcriptional activation of fbp1. Snf22 and Hrp3 redundantly promote disassembly of chromatin in the fbp1 upstream region. Gcn5 critically contributes to nucleosome eviction in the absence of either Snf22 or Hrp3, presumably by recruiting Hrp3 in snf22∆ cells and Snf22 in hrp3∆ cells. Conversely, Gcn5-dependent histone H3 acetylation is impaired in snf22∆/hrp3∆ cells, suggesting that both redundant ADCRs induce recruitment of Gcn5 to the chromatin array in the fbp1 upstream region. These results reveal a previously unappreciated interplay between ADCRs and histone acetylation in which histone acetylation facilitates recruitment of ADCRs, while ADCRs are required for histone acetylation.

  15. Budding yeast chromatin is dispersed in a crowded nucleoplasm in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Lim, Hong Hwa; Shi, Jian; Tamura, Sachiko; Maeshima, Kazuhiro; Surana, Uttam; Gan, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin organization has an important role in the regulation of eukaryotic systems. Although recent studies have refined the three-dimensional models of chromatin organization with high resolution at the genome sequence level, little is known about how the most fundamental units of chromatin—nucleosomes—are positioned in three dimensions in vivo. Here we use electron cryotomography to study chromatin organization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Direct visualization of yeast nuclear densities shows no evidence of 30-nm fibers. Aside from preribosomes and spindle microtubules, few nuclear structures are larger than a tetranucleosome. Yeast chromatin does not form compact structures in interphase or mitosis and is consistent with being in an “open” configuration that is conducive to high levels of transcription. From our study and those of others, we propose that yeast can regulate its transcription using local nucleosome–nucleosome associations. PMID:27605704

  16. Fast kinetics of chromatin assembly revealed by single-molecule videomicroscopy and scanning force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ladoux, Benoit; Quivy, Jean-Pierre; Doyle, Patrick; Roure, Olivia du; Almouzni, Geneviève; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescence videomicroscopy and scanning force microscopy were used to follow, in real time, chromatin assembly on individual DNA molecules immersed in cell-free systems competent for physiological chromatin assembly. Within a few seconds, molecules are already compacted into a form exhibiting strong similarities to native chromatin fibers. In these extracts, the compaction rate is more than 100 times faster than expected from standard biochemical assays. Our data provide definite information on the forces involved (a few piconewtons) and on the reaction path. DNA compaction as a function of time revealed unique features of the assembly reaction in these extracts. They imply a sequential process with at least three steps, involving DNA wrapping as the final event. An absolute and quantitative measure of the kinetic parameters of the early steps in chromatin assembly under physiological conditions could thus be obtained. PMID:11114182

  17. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  18. Macrogenomic engineering via modulation of the scaling of chromatin packing density.

    PubMed

    Almassalha, Luay M; Bauer, Greta M; Wu, Wenli; Cherkezyan, Lusik; Zhang, Di; Kendra, Alexis; Gladstein, Scott; Chandler, John E; VanDerway, David; Seagle, Brandon-Luke L; Ugolkov, Andrey; Billadeau, Daniel D; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Mazar, Andrew P; Roy, Hemant K; Szleifer, Igal; Shahabi, Shohreh; Backman, Vadim

    2017-11-01

    Many human diseases result from the dysregulation of the complex interactions between tens to thousands of genes. However, approaches for the transcriptional modulation of many genes simultaneously in a predictive manner are lacking. Here, through the combination of simulations, systems modelling and in vitro experiments, we provide a physical regulatory framework based on chromatin packing-density heterogeneity for modulating the genomic information space. Because transcriptional interactions are essentially chemical reactions, they depend largely on the local physical nanoenvironment. We show that the regulation of the chromatin nanoenvironment allows for the predictable modulation of global patterns in gene expression. In particular, we show that the rational modulation of chromatin density fluctuations can lead to a decrease in global transcriptional activity and intercellular transcriptional heterogeneity in cancer cells during chemotherapeutic responses to achieve near-complete cancer cell killing in vitro. Our findings represent a 'macrogenomic engineering' approach to modulating the physical structure of chromatin for whole-scale transcriptional modulation.

  19. Chromatin Insulators and Topological Domains: Adding New Dimensions to 3D Genome Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, Navneet K.; Ahanger, Sajad H.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of metazoan genomes has a direct influence on fundamental nuclear processes that include transcription, replication, and DNA repair. It is imperative to understand the mechanisms that shape the 3D organization of the eukaryotic genomes. Chromatin insulators have emerged as one of the central components of the genome organization tool-kit across species. Recent advancements in chromatin conformation capture technologies have provided important insights into the architectural role of insulators in genomic structuring. Insulators are involved in 3D genome organization at multiple spatial scales and are important for dynamic reorganization of chromatin structure during reprogramming and differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the classical view and our renewed understanding of insulators as global genome organizers. We will also discuss the plasticity of chromatin structure and its re-organization during pluripotency and differentiation and in situations of cellular stress. PMID:26340639

  20. Nucleosome-free DNA regions differentially affect distant communication in chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Nizovtseva, Ekaterina V.; Clauvelin, Nicolas; Todolli, Stefjord; Kulaeva, Olga I.; Wengrzynek, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Communication between distantly spaced genomic regions is one of the key features of gene regulation in eukaryotes. Chromatin per se can stimulate efficient enhancer-promoter communication (EPC); however, the role of chromatin structure and dynamics in this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that nucleosome spacing and the presence of nucleosome-free DNA regions can modulate chromatin structure/dynamics and, in turn, affect the rate of EPC in vitro and in silico. Increasing the length of internucleosomal linker DNA from 25 to 60 bp results in more efficient EPC. The presence of longer nucleosome-free DNA regions can positively or negatively affect the rate of EPC, depending upon the length and location of the DNA region within the chromatin fiber. Thus the presence of histone-free DNA regions can differentially affect the efficiency of EPC, suggesting that gene regulation over a distance could be modulated by changes in the length of internucleosomal DNA spacers. PMID:27940560

  1. Discovery and Characterization of Chromatin States for Systematic Annotation of the Human Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Jason; Kellis, Manolis

    A plethora of epigenetic modifications have been described in the human genome and shown to play diverse roles in gene regulation, cellular differentiation and the onset of disease. Although individual modifications have been linked to the activity levels of various genetic functional elements, their combinatorial patterns are still unresolved and their potential for systematic de novo genome annotation remains untapped. Here, we use a multivariate Hidden Markov Model to reveal chromatin states in human T cells, based on recurrent and spatially coherent combinations of chromatin marks.We define 51 distinct chromatin states, including promoter-associated, transcription-associated, active intergenic, largescale repressed and repeat-associated states. Each chromatin state shows specific enrichments in functional annotations, sequence motifs and specific experimentally observed characteristics, suggesting distinct biological roles. This approach provides a complementary functional annotation of the human genome that reveals the genome-wide locations of diverse classes of epigenetic function.

  2. Micro- and nanoscale devices for the investigation of epigenetics and chromatin dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Carlos A.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2013-10-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the blueprint on which life is based and transmitted, but the way in which chromatin -- a dynamic complex of nucleic acids and proteins -- is packaged and behaves in the cellular nucleus has only begun to be investigated. Epigenetic modifications sit 'on top of' the genome and affect how DNA is compacted into chromatin and transcribed into ribonucleic acid (RNA). The packaging and modifications around the genome have been shown to exert significant influence on cellular behaviour and, in turn, human development and disease. However, conventional techniques for studying epigenetic or conformational modifications of chromosomes have inherent limitations and, therefore, new methods based on micro- and nanoscale devices have been sought. Here, we review the development of these devices and explore their use in the study of DNA modifications, chromatin modifications and higher-order chromatin structures.

  3. Genome-wide chromatin state transitions associated with developmental and environmental cues.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Adli, Mazhar; Zou, James Y; Verstappen, Griet; Coyne, Michael; Zhang, Xiaolan; Durham, Timothy; Miri, Mohammad; Deshpande, Vikram; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A; Houmard, Joseph A; Muoio, Deborah M; Onder, Tamer T; Camahort, Ray; Cowan, Chad A; Meissner, Alexander; Epstein, Charles B; Shoresh, Noam; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2013-01-31

    Differences in chromatin organization are key to the multiplicity of cell states that arise from a single genetic background, yet the landscapes of in vivo tissues remain largely uncharted. Here, we mapped chromatin genome-wide in a large and diverse collection of human tissues and stem cells. The maps yield unprecedented annotations of functional genomic elements and their regulation across developmental stages, lineages, and cellular environments. They also reveal global features of the epigenome, related to nuclear architecture, that also vary across cellular phenotypes. Specifically, developmental specification is accompanied by progressive chromatin restriction as the default state transitions from dynamic remodeling to generalized compaction. Exposure to serum in vitro triggers a distinct transition that involves de novo establishment of domains with features of constitutive heterochromatin. We describe how these global chromatin state transitions relate to chromosome and nuclear architecture, and discuss their implications for lineage fidelity, cellular senescence, and reprogramming. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Heritable Individual-Specific and Allele-Specific Chromatin Signatures in Humans

    PubMed Central

    McDaniell, Ryan; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Song, Lingyun; Liu, Zheng; Boyle, Alan P.; Erdos, Michael R.; Scott, Laura J.; Morken, Mario A.; Kucera, Katerina S.; Battenhouse, Anna; Keefe, Damian; Collins, Francis S.; Willard, Huntington F.; Lieb, Jason D.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Birney, Ewan

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which variation in chromatin structure and transcription factor binding may influence gene expression, and thus underlie or contribute to variation in phenotype, is unknown. To address this question, we cataloged both individual-to-individual variation and differences between homologous chromosomes within the same individual (allele-specific variation) in chromatin structure and transcription factor binding in lymphoblastoid cells derived from individuals of geographically diverse ancestry. Ten percent of active chromatin sites were individual-specific; a similar proportion were allele-specific. Both individual-specific and allele-specific sites were commonly transmitted from parent to child, which suggests that they are heritable features of the human genome. Our study shows that heritable chromatin status and transcription factor binding differ as a result of genetic variation and may underlie phenotypic variation in humans. PMID:20299549

  5. Radial chromatin positioning is shaped by local gene density, not by gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    G- and R-bands of metaphase chromosomes are characterized by profound differences in gene density, CG content, replication timing, and chromatin compaction. The preferential localization of gene-dense, transcriptionally active, and early replicating chromatin in the nuclear interior and of gene-poor, later replicating chromatin at the nuclear envelope has been demonstrated to be evolutionary-conserved in various cell types. Yet, the impact of different local chromatin features on the radial nuclear arrangement of chromatin is still not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether radial chromatin positioning is preferentially shaped by local gene density per se or by other related parameters such as replication timing or transcriptional activity. The interdependence of these distinct chromatin features on the linear deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence precludes a simple dissection of these parameters with respect to their importance for the reorganization of the linear DNA organization into the distinct radial chromatin arrangements observed in the nuclear space. To analyze this problem, we generated probe sets of pooled bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from HSA 11, 12, 18, and 19 representing R/G-band-assigned chromatin, segments with different gene density and gene loci with different expression levels. Using multicolor 3D flourescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and 3D image analysis, we determined their localization in the nucleus and their positions within or outside the corresponding chromosome territory (CT). For each BAC data on local gene density within 2- and 10-Mb windows, as well as GC (guanine and cytosine) content, replication timing and expression levels were determined. A correlation analysis of these parameters with nuclear positioning revealed regional gene density as the decisive parameter determining the radial positioning of chromatin in the nucleus in contrast to band assignment, replication timing, and transcriptional

  6. Epigenetic Control of Cytokine Gene Expression: Regulation of the TNF/LT Locus and T Helper Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Falvo, James V.; Jasenosky, Luke D.; Kruidenier, Laurens; Goldfeld, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics encompasses transient and heritable modifications to DNA and nucleosomes in the native chromatin context. For example, enzymatic addition of chemical moieties to the N-terminal “tails” of histones, particularly acetylation and methylation of lysine residues in the histone tails of H3 and H4, plays a key role in regulation of gene transcription. The modified histones, which are physically associated with gene regulatory regions that typically occur within conserved noncoding sequences, play a functional role in active, poised, or repressed gene transcription. The “histone code” defined by these modifications, along with the chromatin-binding acetylases, deacetylases, methylases, demethylases, and other enzymes that direct modifications resulting in specific patterns of histone modification, shows considerable evolutionary conservation from yeast to humans. Direct modifications at the DNA level, such as cytosine methylation at CpG motifs that represses promoter activity, are another highly conserved epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation. Furthermore, epigenetic modifications at the nucleosome or DNA level can also be coupled with higher-order intra- or interchromosomal interactions that influence the location of regulatory elements and that can place them in an environment of specific nucleoprotein complexes associated with transcription. In the mammalian immune system, epigenetic gene regulation is a crucial mechanism for a range of physiological processes, including the innate host immune response to pathogens and T cell differentiation driven by specific patterns of cytokine gene expression. Here, we will review current findings regarding epigenetic regulation of cytokine genes important in innate and/or adaptive immune responses, with a special focus upon the tumor necrosis factor/lymphotoxin locus and cytokine-driven CD4+ T cell differentiation into the Th1, Th2, and Th17 lineages. PMID:23683942

  7. Self-Affinity and Lacunarity of Chromatin Texture in Benign and Malignant Breast Epithelial Cell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Wu, Hai-Shan; Gil, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Methods are presented for characterizing the self-affinity and lacunarity of arbitrarily shaped images. Chromatin appearance in breast epithelial cell nuclei is shown to be statistically self-affine. Spectral and Minkowski dimensions are lesser in nuclei of malignant cases than in nuclei of benign cases, and lacunarity further quantifies morphologic differences such as chromatin clumping and nucleoli. Fractal texture features are used as the basis for an accurate cytologic diagnosis of breast cancer.

  8. Immunocytochemical localization of a histone H2A variant in the mammalian nucleolar chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Y M; McCullar, M K; Chronister, R B

    1984-11-01

    The distribution of protein "A", a minor variant of H2A present in the mouse testis, was studied in the liver and brain nuclei using peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique. The data presented here suggest that nucleolar-associated chromatin is highly enriched in protein "A". Microspectrophotometric measurements corroborate the immunocytochemical data. The regional differentiation in the eukaryotic chromatin, therefore, may involve qualitative changes in the histone composition.

  9. Function of Brg1 Chromatin Remodeling Factor in Sonic Hedgehog-Dependent Medulloblastoma Initiation and Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Remodeling Factor in Sonic Hedgehog -Dependent Medulloblastoma Initiation and Maintenance PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xuanming Shi CONTRACTING...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0527 Function of Brg1 Chromatin Remodeling Factor in Sonic Hedgehog -Dependent 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1...drug development and therapy of pediatric brain tumor and other Shh- dependent tumors. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Medulloblastoma, Sonic Hedgehog , Chromatin

  10. Active chromatin and transcription play a key role in chromosome partitioning into topologically associating domains

    PubMed Central

    Ulianov, Sergey V.; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.; Gavrilov, Alexey A.; Flyamer, Ilya M.; Kos, Pavel; Mikhaleva, Elena A.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Imakaev, Maxim V.; Chertovich, Alexander; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Shevelyov, Yuri Y.; Razin, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances enabled by the Hi-C technique have unraveled many principles of chromosomal folding that were subsequently linked to disease and gene regulation. In particular, Hi-C revealed that chromosomes of animals are organized into topologically associating domains (TADs), evolutionary conserved compact chromatin domains that influence gene expression. Mechanisms that underlie partitioning of the genome into TADs remain poorly understood. To explore principles of TAD folding in Drosophila melanogaster, we performed Hi-C and poly(A)+ RNA-seq in four cell lines of various origins (S2, Kc167, DmBG3-c2, and OSC). Contrary to previous studies, we find that regions between TADs (i.e., the inter-TADs and TAD boundaries) in Drosophila are only weakly enriched with the insulator protein dCTCF, while another insulator protein Su(Hw) is preferentially present within TADs. However, Drosophila inter-TADs harbor active chromatin and constitutively transcribed (housekeeping) genes. Accordingly, we find that binding of insulator proteins dCTCF and Su(Hw) predicts TAD boundaries much worse than active chromatin marks do. Interestingly, inter-TADs correspond to decompacted inter-bands of polytene chromosomes, whereas TADs mostly correspond to densely packed bands. Collectively, our results suggest that TADs are condensed chromatin domains depleted in active chromatin marks, separated by regions of active chromatin. We propose the mechanism of TAD self-assembly based on the ability of nucleosomes from inactive chromatin to aggregate, and lack of this ability in acetylated nucleosomal arrays. Finally, we test this hypothesis by polymer simulations and find that TAD partitioning may be explained by different modes of inter-nucleosomal interactions for active and inactive chromatin. PMID:26518482

  11. Macronuclear chromatin structure dynamics in Colpoda inflata (Protista, Ciliophora) resting encystment.

    PubMed

    Tiano, L; Chessa, M G; Carrara, S; Tagliafierro, G; Delmonte Corrado, M U

    1999-01-01

    The chromatin structure dynamics of the Colpoda inflata macronucleus have been investigated in relation to its functional condition, concerning chromatin body extrusion regulating activity. Samples of 2- and 25-day-old resting cysts derived from a standard culture, and of 1-year-old resting cysts derived from a senescent culture, were examined by means of histogram analysis performed on acquired optical microscopy images. Three groups of histograms were detected in each sample. Histogram classification, clustering and matching were assessed in order to obtain the mean histogram of each group. Comparative analysis of the mean histogram showed a similarity in the grey level range of 25-day- and 1-year-old cysts, unlike the wider grey level range found in 2-day-old cysts. Moreover, the respective mean histograms of the three cyst samples appeared rather similar in shape. All this implies that macronuclear chromatin structural features of 1-year-old cysts are common to both cyst standard cultures. The evaluation of the acquired images and their respective histograms evidenced a dynamic state of the macronuclear chromatin, appearing differently condensed in relation to the chromatin body extrusion regulating activity of the macronucleus. The coexistence of a chromatin-decondensed macronucleus with a pycnotic extrusion body suggests that chromatin unable to decondense, thus inactive, is extruded. This finding, along with the presence of chromatin structural features common to standard and senescent cyst populations, supports the occurrence of 'rejuvenated' cell lines from 1-year-old encysted senescent cells, a phenomenon which could be a result of accomplished macronuclear renewal.

  12. Sequential changes in chromatin structure during transcriptional activation in the beta globin LCR and its target gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihoon; Kim, AeRi

    2010-09-01

    Chromatin structure is modulated during transcriptional activation. The changes include the association of transcriptional activators, formation of hypersensitive sites and covalent modifications of histones. To understand the order of the various changes accompanying transcriptional activation, we analyzed the mouse beta globin gene, which is transcriptionally inducible in erythroid MEL cells over a time course of HMBA treatment. Transcription of the globin genes requires the locus control region (LCR) consisting of several hypersensitive sites (HSs). Erythroid specific transcriptional activators such as NF-E2, GATA-1, TAL1 and EKLF were associated with the LCR in the uninduced state before transcriptional activation. The HSs of the LCR were formed in this state as revealed by high sensitivity to DNase I and MNase attack. However the binding of transcriptional activators and the depletion of histones were observed in the promoter of the beta globin gene only after transcriptional activation. In addition, various covalent histone modifications were sequentially detected in lysine residues of histone H3 during the activation. Acetylation of K9, K36 and K27 was notable in both LCR HSs and gene after induction but before transcriptional initiation. Inactive histone marks such as K9me2, K36me2 and K27me2 were removed coincident with transcriptional initiation in the gene region. Taken together, these results indicate that LCR has a substantially active structure in the uninduced state while transcriptional activation serially adds active marks, including histone modifications, and removes inactive marks in the target gene of the LCR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Chromatin Structure and Replication Origins: Determinants Of Chromosome Replication And Nuclear Organization

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Owen K.; Aladjem, Mirit I.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA replication program is, in part, determined by the epigenetic landscape that governs local chromosome architecture and directs chromosome duplication. Replication must coordinate with other biochemical processes occurring concomitantly on chromatin, such as transcription and remodeling, to insure accurate duplication of both genetic and epigenetic features and to preserve genomic stability. The importance of genome architecture and chromatin looping in coordinating cellular processes on chromatin is illustrated by two recent sets of discoveries. First, chromatin-associated proteins that are not part of the core replication machinery were shown to affect the timing of DNA replication. These chromatin-associated proteins could be working in concert, or perhaps in competition, with the transcriptional machinery and with chromatin modifiers to determine the spatial and temporal organization of replication initiation events. Second, epigenetic interactions are mediated by DNA sequences that determine chromosomal replication. In this review we summarize recent findings and current models linking spatial and temporal regulation of the replication program with epigenetic signaling. We discuss these issues in the context of the genome’s three-dimensional structure with an emphasis on events occurring during the initiation of DNA replication. PMID:24905010

  14. Chk1 protects against chromatin bridges by constitutively phosphorylating BLM serine 502 to inhibit BLM degradation.

    PubMed

    Petsalaki, Eleni; Dandoulaki, Maria; Morrice, Nick; Zachos, George

    2014-09-15

    Chromatin bridges represent incompletely segregated chromosomal DNA connecting the anaphase poles and can result in chromosome breakage. The Bloom's syndrome protein helicase (BLM, also known as BLMH) suppresses formation of chromatin bridges. Here, we show that cells deficient in checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1, also known as CHEK1) exhibit higher frequency of chromatin bridges and reduced BLM protein levels compared to controls. Chk1 inhibition leads to BLM ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation during interphase. Furthermore, Chk1 constitutively phosphorylates human BLM at serine 502 (S502) and phosphorylated BLM localises to chromatin bridges. Mutation of S502 to a non-phosphorylatable alanine residue (BLM-S502A) reduces the stability of BLM, whereas expression of a phospho-mimicking BLM-S502D, in which S502 is mutated to aspartic acid, stabilises BLM and prevents chromatin bridges in Chk1-deficient cells. In addition, wild-type but not BLM-S502D associates with cullin 3, and cullin 3 depletion rescues BLM accumulation and localisation to chromatin bridges after Chk1 inhibition. We propose that Chk1 phosphorylates BLM-S502 to inhibit cullin-3-mediated BLM degradation during interphase. These results suggest that Chk1 prevents deleterious anaphase bridges by stabilising BLM. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. HIRA orchestrates a dynamic chromatin landscape in senescence and is required for suppression of neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Cole, John J.; Nelson, David M.; Dikovskaya, Dina; Faller, William J.; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Hewitt, Rachael N.; Anannya, Orchi; McBryan, Tony; Manoharan, Indrani; van Tuyn, John; Morrice, Nicholas; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A.; Ivanov, Andre; Brock, Claire; Drotar, Mark E.; Nixon, Colin; Clark, William; Sansom, Owen J.; Anderson, Kurt I.; King, Ayala; Blyth, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest that suppresses tumorigenesis. Cellular senescence and associated tumor suppression depend on control of chromatin. Histone chaperone HIRA deposits variant histone H3.3 and histone H4 into chromatin in a DNA replication-independent manner. Appropriately for a DNA replication-independent chaperone, HIRA is involved in control of chromatin in nonproliferating senescent cells, although its role is poorly defined. Here, we show that nonproliferating senescent cells express and incorporate histone H3.3 and other canonical core histones into a dynamic chromatin landscape. Expression of canonical histones is linked to alternative mRNA splicing to eliminate signals that confer mRNA instability in nonproliferating cells. Deposition of newly synthesized histones H3.3 and H4 into chromatin of senescent cells depends on HIRA. HIRA and newly deposited H3.3 colocalize at promoters of expressed genes, partially redistributing between proliferating and senescent cells to parallel changes in expression. In senescent cells, but not proliferating cells, promoters of active genes are exceptionally enriched in H4K16ac, and HIRA is required for retention of H4K16ac. HIRA is also required for retention of H4K16ac in vivo and suppression of oncogene-induced neoplasia. These results show that HIRA controls a specialized, dynamic H4K16ac-decorated chromatin landscape in senescent cells and enforces tumor suppression. PMID:25512559

  16. HIRA orchestrates a dynamic chromatin landscape in senescence and is required for suppression of neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Rai, Taranjit Singh; Cole, John J; Nelson, David M; Dikovskaya, Dina; Faller, William J; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Hewitt, Rachael N; Anannya, Orchi; McBryan, Tony; Manoharan, Indrani; van Tuyn, John; Morrice, Nicholas; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Ivanov, Andre; Brock, Claire; Drotar, Mark E; Nixon, Colin; Clark, William; Sansom, Owen J; Anderson, Kurt I; King, Ayala; Blyth, Karen; Adams, Peter D

    2014-12-15

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest that suppresses tumorigenesis. Cellular senescence and associated tumor suppression depend on control of chromatin. Histone chaperone HIRA deposits variant histone H3.3 and histone H4 into chromatin in a DNA replication-independent manner. Appropriately for a DNA replication-independent chaperone, HIRA is involved in control of chromatin in nonproliferating senescent cells, although its role is poorly defined. Here, we show that nonproliferating senescent cells express and incorporate histone H3.3 and other canonical core histones into a dynamic chromatin landscape. Expression of canonical histones is linked to alternative mRNA splicing to eliminate signals that confer mRNA instability in nonproliferating cells. Deposition of newly synthesized histones H3.3 and H4 into chromatin of senescent cells depends on HIRA. HIRA and newly deposited H3.3 colocalize at promoters of expressed genes, partially redistributing between proliferating and senescent cells to parallel changes in expression. In senescent cells, but not proliferating cells, promoters of active genes are exceptionally enriched in H4K16ac, and HIRA is required for retention of H4K16ac. HIRA is also required for retention of H4K16ac in vivo and suppression of oncogene-induced neoplasia. These results show that HIRA controls a specialized, dynamic H4K16ac-decorated chromatin landscape in senescent cells and enforces tumor suppression. © 2014 Rai et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Architectural roles of multiple chromatin insulators at the human apolipoprotein gene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Ishihara, Ko; Hino, Shinjiro; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Long-range regulatory elements and higher-order chromatin structure coordinate the expression of multiple genes in cluster, and CTCF/cohesin-mediated chromatin insulator may be a key in this regulation. The human apolipoprotein (APO) A1/C3/A4/A5 gene region, whose alterations increase the risk of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, is partitioned at least by three CTCF-enriched sites and three cohesin protein RAD21-enriched sites (two overlap with the CTCF sites), resulting in the formation of two transcribed chromatin loops by interactions between insulators. The C3 enhancer and APOC3/A4/A5 promoters reside in the same loop, where the APOC3/A4 promoters are pointed towards the C3 enhancer, whereas the APOA1 promoter is present in the different loop. The depletion of either CTCF or RAD21 disrupts the chromatin loop structure, together with significant changes in the APO expression and the localization of transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and transcriptionally active form of RNA polymerase II at the APO promoters. Thus, CTCF/cohesin-mediated insulators maintain the chromatin loop formation and the localization of transcriptional apparatus at the promoters, suggesting an essential role of chromatin insulation in controlling the expression of clustered genes. PMID:19322193

  18. Chromatin Switches during Neural Cell Differentiation and Their Dysregulation by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Gavin, David P; Grayson, Dennis R; Varghese, Sajoy P; Guizzetti, Marina

    2017-05-11

    Prenatal alcohol exposure causes persistent neuropsychiatric deficits included under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Cellular identity emerges from a cascade of intrinsic and extrinsic (involving cell-cell interactions and signaling) processes that are partially initiated and maintained through changes in chromatin structure. Prenatal alcohol exposure influences neuronal and astrocyte development, permanently altering brain connectivity. Prenatal alcohol exposure also alters chromatin structure through histone and DNA modifications. However, the data linking alcohol-induced differentiation changes with developmental alterations in chromatin structure remain to be elucidated. In the first part of this review, we discuss the sequence of chromatin structural changes involved in neural cell differentiation during normal development. We then discuss the effects of prenatal alcohol on developmental histone modifications and DNA methylation in the context of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis. We attempt to synthesize the developmental literature with the FASD literature, proposing that alcohol-induced changes to chromatin structure account for altered neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis as well as altered neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Together these changes may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in FASD. Future studies using standardized alcohol exposure paradigms at specific developmental stages will advance the understanding of how chromatin structural changes impact neural cell fate and maturation in FASD.

  19. Chromatin Switches during Neural Cell Differentiation and Their Dysregulation by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, David P.; Grayson, Dennis R.; Varghese, Sajoy P.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure causes persistent neuropsychiatric deficits included under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Cellular identity emerges from a cascade of intrinsic and extrinsic (involving cell-cell interactions and signaling) processes that are partially initiated and maintained through changes in chromatin structure. Prenatal alcohol exposure influences neuronal and astrocyte development, permanently altering brain connectivity. Prenatal alcohol exposure also alters chromatin structure through histone and DNA modifications. However, the data linking alcohol-induced differentiation changes with developmental alterations in chromatin structure remain to be elucidated. In the first part of this review, we discuss the sequence of chromatin structural changes involved in neural cell differentiation during normal development. We then discuss the effects of prenatal alcohol on developmental histone modifications and DNA methylation in the context of neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis. We attempt to synthesize the developmental literature with the FASD literature, proposing that alcohol-induced changes to chromatin structure account for altered neurogenesis and astrogliogenesis as well as altered neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Together these changes may contribute to the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in FASD. Future studies using standardized alcohol exposure paradigms at specific developmental stages will advance the understanding of how chromatin structural changes impact neural cell fate and maturation in FASD. PMID:28492482

  20. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Kase, Y; Nakano, T; Kanai, T; Ando, K

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/micrometer, 76 keV/micrometer) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/micrometer beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  1. Chromatin remodeller SMARCA4 recruits topoisomerase 1 and suppresses transcription-associated genomic instability.

    PubMed

    Husain, Afzal; Begum, Nasim A; Taniguchi, Takako; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Kobayashi, Maki; Honjo, Tasuku

    2016-02-04

    Topoisomerase 1, an enzyme that relieves superhelical tension, is implicated in transcription-associated mutagenesis and genome instability-associated with neurodegenerative diseases as well as activation-induced cytidine deaminase. From proteomic analysis of TOP1-associated proteins, we identify SMARCA4, an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeller; FACT, a histone chaperone; and H3K4me3, a transcriptionally active chromatin marker. Here we show that SMARCA4 knockdown in a B-cell line decreases TOP1 recruitment to chromatin, and leads to increases in Igh/c-Myc chromosomal translocations, variable and switch region mutations and negative superhelicity, all of which are also observed in response to TOP1 knockdown. In contrast, FACT knockdown inhibits association of TOP1 with H3K4me3, and severely reduces DNA cleavage and Igh/c-Myc translocations, without significant effect on TOP1 recruitment to chromatin. We thus propose that SMARCA4 is involved in the TOP1 recruitment to general chromatin, whereas FACT is required for TOP1 binding to H3K4me3 at non-B DNA containing chromatin for the site-specific cleavage.

  2. Histone H4 acetylation required for chromatin decompaction during DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Kun; Yamamoto, Takaharu G; Asakawa, Haruhiko; Chikashige, Yuji; Kimura, Hiroshi; Masukata, Hisao; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2015-07-30

    Faithful DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell proliferation. Several cytological studies have shown that chromosome structures alter in the S-phase of the cell cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms behind the alteration of chromosome structures associated with DNA replication have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated chromatin structures and acetylation of specific histone residues during DNA replication using the meiotic nucleus of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The S. pombe meiotic nucleus provides a unique opportunity for measuring the levels of compaction of chromatin along the chromosome in a defined orientation. By direct measurement of chromatin compaction in living cells, we demonstrated that decompaction of chromatin occurs during meiotic DNA replication. This chromatin decompaction was suppressed by depletion of histone acetyltransferase Mst1 or by arginine substitution of specific lysine residues (K8 and K12) of histone H4. These results suggest that acetylation of histone H4 residues K8 and K12 plays a critical role in loosening chromatin structures during DNA replication.

  3. Role of Histone Acetylation in the Assembly and Modulation of Chromatin Structures

    PubMed Central

    Annunziato, Anthony T.; Hansen, Jeffrey C.

    2000-01-01

    The acetylation of the core histone N-terminal “tail” domains is now recognized as a highly conserved mechanism for regulating chromatin functional states. The following article examines possible roles of acetylation in two critically important cellular processes: replication-coupled nucleosome assembly, and reversible transitions in chromatin higher order structure. After a description of the acetylation of newly synthesized histones, and of the likely acetyltransferases involved, an overview of histone octamer assembly is presented. Our current understanding of the factors thought to assemble chromatin in vivo is then described. Genetic and biochemical investigations of the function the histone tails, and their acetylation, in nucleosome assembly are detailed, followed by an analysis of the importance of histone deacetylation in the maturation of newly replicated chromatin. In the final section the involvement of the histone tail domains in chromatin higher order structures is addressed, along with the role of histone acetylation in chromatin folding. Suggestions for future research are offered in the concluding remarks. PMID:11097424

  4. Telomere Chromatin Condensation Assay (TCCA): a novel approach to study structural telomere integrity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Vasconcellos, Iria; Alonso-Rodríguez, Silvia; López-Baltar, Isidoro; Fernández, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres, the DNA-protein complexes located at the end of linear eukaryotic chromosomes are essential for genome stability. Improper higher-order chromatin organization at the chromosome ends can give rise to telomeric recombination and genomic instability. We report the development of an assay to quantify differences in the condensation of telomeric chromatin, thereby offering new opportunities to study telomere biology and stability. We have combined a DNA nuclease digestion with a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay of telomeric DNA, which we term the Telomere Chromatin Condensation Assay (TCCA). By quantifying the relative quantities of telomeric DNA that are progressively digested with the exonuclease Bal 31 the method can discriminate between different levels of telomeric chromatin condensation. The structural chromatin packaging at telomeres shielded against exonuclease digestion delivered an estimate, which we term Chromatin Protection Factor (CPF) that ranged from 1.7 to 2.3 fold greater than that present in unpacked DNA. The CPF was significantly decreased when cell cultures were incubated with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-azacytidine, demonstrating the ability of the TCCA assay to discriminate between packaging levels of telomeric DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biophysical Regulation of Chromatin Architecture Instills a Mechanical Memory in Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Su-Jin; Thorpe, Stephen D.; Driscoll, Tristan P.; Duncan, Randall L.; Lee, David A.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical cues direct the lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we identified the operative molecular mechanisms through which dynamic tensile loading (DL) regulates changes in chromatin organization and nuclear mechanics in MSCs. Our data show that, in the absence of exogenous differentiation factors, short term DL elicits a rapid increase in chromatin condensation, mediated by acto-myosin based cellular contractility and the activity of the histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2. The resulting change in chromatin condensation stiffened the MSC nucleus, making it less deformable when stretch was applied to the cell. We also identified stretch induced ATP release and purinergic calcium signaling as a central mediator of this chromatin condensation process. Further, we showed that DL, through differential stabilization of the condensed chromatin state, established a ‘mechanical memory’ in these cells. That is, increasing strain levels and number of loading events led to a greater degree of chromatin condensation that persisted for longer periods of time after the cessation of loading. These data indicate that, with mechanical perturbation, MSCs develop a mechanical memory encoded in structural changes in the nucleus which may sensitize them to future mechanical loading events and define the trajectory and persistence of their lineage specification. PMID:26592929

  6. A Method for Visualization of Incoming Adenovirus Chromatin Complexes in Fixed and Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Dacheux, Denis; Kreppel, Florian; Nagata, Kyosuke; Wodrich, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Inside the adenovirus virion, the genome forms a chromatin-like structure with viral basic core proteins. Core protein VII is the major DNA binding protein and was shown to remain associated with viral genomes upon virus entry even after nuclear delivery. It has been suggested that protein VII plays a regulatory role in viral gene expression and is a functional component of viral chromatin complexes in host cells. As such, protein VII could be used as a maker to track adenoviral chromatin complexes in vivo. In this study, we characterize a new monoclonal antibody against protein VII that stains incoming viral chromatin complexes following nuclear import. Furthermore, we describe the development of a novel imaging system that uses Template Activating Factor-I (TAF-I/SET), a cellular chromatin protein tightly bound to protein VII upon infection. This setup allows us not only to rapidly visualize protein VII foci in fixed cells but also to monitor their movement in living cells. These powerful tools can provide novel insights into the spatio-temporal regulation of incoming adenoviral chromatin complexes. PMID:26332038

  7. Chromatin organization at the nuclear periphery as revealed by image analysis of structured illumination microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Fišerová, Jindřiška; Efenberková, Michaela; Sieger, Tomáš; Maninová, Miloslava; Uhlířová, Jana; Hozák, Pavel

    2017-06-15

    The nuclear periphery (NP) plays a substantial role in chromatin organization. Heterochromatin at the NP is interspersed with active chromatin surrounding nuclear pore complexes (NPCs); however, details of the peripheral chromatin organization are missing. To discern the distribution of epigenetic marks at the NP of HeLa nuclei, we used structured illumination microscopy combined with a new MATLAB software tool for automatic NP and NPC detection, measurements of fluorescent intensity and statistical analysis of measured data. Our results show that marks for both active and non-active chromatin associate differentially with NPCs. The incidence of heterochromatin marks, such as H3K27me2 and H3K9me2, was significantly lower around NPCs. In contrast, the presence of marks of active chromatin such as H3K4me2 was only decreased very slightly around the NPCs or not at all (H3K9Ac). Interestingly, the histone demethylases LSD1 (also known as KDM1A) and KDM2A were enriched within the NPCs, suggesting that there was a chromatin-modifying mechanism at the NPCs. Inhibition of transcription resulted in a larger drop in the distribution of H1, H3K9me2 and H3K23me2, which implies that transcription has a role in the organization of heterochromatin at the NP. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Kase, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kanai, T.; Ando, K.

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/μm, 76 keV/μm) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/μm beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  9. A high-resolution map of the three-dimensional chromatin interactome in human cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fulai; Li, Yan; Dixon, Jesse R; Selvaraj, Siddarth; Ye, Zhen; Lee, Ah Young; Yen, Chia-An; Schmitt, Anthony D; Espinoza, Celso A; Ren, Bing

    2013-11-14

    A large number of cis-regulatory sequences have been annotated in the human genome, but defining their target genes remains a challenge. One strategy is to identify the long-range looping interactions at these elements with the use of chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based techniques. However, previous studies lack either the resolution or coverage to permit a whole-genome, unbiased view of chromatin interactions. Here we report a comprehensive chromatin interaction map generated in human fibroblasts using a genome-wide 3C analysis method (Hi-C). We determined over one million long-range chromatin interactions at 5-10-kb resolution, and uncovered general principles of chromatin organization at different types of genomic features. We also characterized the dynamics of promoter-enhancer contacts after TNF-α signalling in these cells. Unexpectedly, we found that TNF-α-responsive enhancers are already in contact with their target promoters before signalling. Such pre-existing chromatin looping, which also exists in other cell types with different extracellular signalling, is a strong predictor of gene induction. Our observations suggest that the three-dimensional chromatin landscape, once established in a particular cell type, is relatively stable and could influence the selection or activation of target genes by a ubiquitous transcription activator in a cell-specific manner.

  10. Ectopic expression of homeobox gene NKX2-1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is mediated by aberrant chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors ubiquitously involved in basic developmental processes, deregulation of which promotes cell transformation in multiple cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, NKL-family homeobox genes TLX1, TLX3 and NKX2-5 are ectopically activated by chromosomal rearrangements in T-cell neoplasias. Here, using transcriptional microarray profiling and RQ-PCR we identified ectopic expression of NKL-family member NKX2-1, in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line SU-DHL-5. Moreover, in silico analysis demonstrated NKX2-1 overexpression in 5% of examined DLBCL patient samples. NKX2-1 is physiologically expressed in lung and thyroid tissues where it regulates differentiation. Chromosomal and genomic analyses excluded rearrangements at the NKX2-1 locus in SU-DHL-5, implying alternative activation. Comparative expression profiling implicated several candidate genes in NKX2-1 regulation, variously encoding transcription factors, chromatin modifiers and signaling components. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression studies confirmed involvement of transcription factor HEY1, histone methyltransferase MLL and ubiquitinated histone H2B in NKX2-1 deregulation. Chromosomal aberrations targeting MLL at 11q23 and the histone gene cluster HIST1 at 6p22 which we observed in SU-DHL-5 may, therefore, represent fundamental mutations mediating an aberrant chromatin structure at NKX2-1. Taken together, we identified ectopic expression of NKX2-1 in DLBCL cells, representing the central player in an oncogenic regulative network compromising B-cell differentiation. Thus, our data extend the paradigm of NKL homeobox gene deregulation in lymphoid malignancies.

  11. Ectopic Expression of Homeobox Gene NKX2-1 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Is Mediated by Aberrant Chromatin Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors ubiquitously involved in basic developmental processes, deregulation of which promotes cell transformation in multiple cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, NKL-family homeobox genes TLX1, TLX3 and NKX2-5 are ectopically activated by chromosomal rearrangements in T-cell neoplasias. Here, using transcriptional microarray profiling and RQ-PCR we identified ectopic expression of NKL-family member NKX2-1, in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line SU-DHL-5. Moreover, in silico analysis demonstrated NKX2-1 overexpression in 5% of examined DLBCL patient samples. NKX2-1 is physiologically expressed in lung and thyroid tissues where it regulates differentiation. Chromosomal and genomic analyses excluded rearrangements at the NKX2-1 locus in SU-DHL-5, implying alternative activation. Comparative expression profiling implicated several candidate genes in NKX2-1 regulation, variously encoding transcription factors, chromatin modifiers and signaling components. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression studies confirmed involvement of transcription factor HEY1, histone methyltransferase MLL and ubiquitinated histone H2B in NKX2-1 deregulation. Chromosomal aberrations targeting MLL at 11q23 and the histone gene cluster HIST1 at 6p22 which we observed in SU-DHL-5 may, therefore, represent fundamental mutations mediating an aberrant chromatin structure at NKX2-1. Taken together, we identified ectopic expression of NKX2-1 in DLBCL cells, representing the central player in an oncogenic regulative network compromising B-cell differentiation. Thus, our data extend the paradigm of NKL homeobox gene deregulation in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23637834

  12. The SUVR4 Histone Lysine Methyltransferase Binds Ubiquitin and Converts H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 on Transposon Chromatin in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Veiseth, Silje V.; Rahman, Mohummad A.; Yap, Kyoko L.; Fischer, Andreas; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Reuter, Gunter; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Aalen, Reidunn B.; Thorstensen, Tage

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin structure and gene expression are regulated by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on the N-terminal tails of histones. Mono-, di-, or trimethylation of lysine residues by histone lysine methyltransferases (HKMTases) can have activating or repressive functions depending on the position and context of the modified lysine. In Arabidopsis, trimethylation of lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9me3) is mainly associated with euchromatin and transcribed genes, although low levels of this mark are also detected at transposons and repeat sequences. Besides the evolutionarily conserved SET domain which is responsible for enzyme activity, most HKMTases also contain additional domains which enable them to respond to other PTMs or cellular signals. Here we show that the N-terminal WIYLD domain of the Arabidopsis SUVR4 HKMTase binds ubiquitin and that the SUVR4 product specificity shifts from di- to trimethylation in the presence of free ubiquitin, enabling conversion of H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunocytological analysis showed that SUVR4 in vivo specifically converts H3K9me1 to H3K9me3 at transposons and pseudogenes and has a locus-specific repressive effect on the expression of such elements. Bisulfite sequencing indicates that this repression involves both DNA methylation–dependent and –independent mechanisms. Transcribed genes with high endogenous levels of H3K4me3, H3K9me3, and H2Bub1, but low H3K9me1, are generally unaffected by SUVR4 activity. Our results imply that SUVR4 is involved in the epigenetic defense mechanism by trimethylating H3K9 to suppress potentially harmful transposon activity. PMID:21423664

  13. Organization of the murine Cd22 locus

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Che-Leung; Torres, R.M.; Sundeberg, H.A.

    1993-07-01

    Murine CD22 (mCD22) is a B cell-associated adhesion protein with seven extracellular Ig-like domains that has 62% amino acid identify to its human homologue. Southern analysis on genomic DNA isolated from tissues and cell lines from several mouse strains using mCD22 cDNA demonstrated that the Cd22 locus encoding mCD22 is a single copy gene of [le]30 kb. Digestion of genomic DNA preparations with four restriction endonucleases revealed the presence of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) in BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H strains vs DBA/2j, NZB, and NZC strains, suggesting the presence of two or more Cd22 alleles. Using a mCD22 cDNAmore » clone derived from the BALB/c strain, the authors isolated genomic clones from a DBA/2 genomic library that contained all the exons necessary to encode the full length mCD22 cDNA. Fifteen exons, including exon 3 that encodes the translation start codon, were identified. Each extracellular Ig-like domain of mCD22 is encoded by a single exon. A comparison between the nucleotide sequences of the BALB/c CD22 cDNA and the exons of the DBA/2j CD22 genomic clones revealed an 18-nucleotide deletion in exon 4 (encoding the most distal Ig-like domain 1 of mCD22) of the DBA/2j genomic sequence in addition to a number of substitutions, insertions, and deletions in other exons. These nucleotide differences were also present in a cDNA clone isolated from total RNA of LPS-activated DBA/2j splenocytes mosome 7, a region sytenic to human chromosome 19q, close to the previously reported loci, Lyb-8 and Mag (a homologue of Cd22). An antibody (CY34) against the Lyb-8.2 B cell marker reacted with a BHK transfectant expressing the full length mCd22 cDNA, thus demonstrating that Lyb-8 and Cd22 loci are identical. Furthermore, a rat anti-mCD22 mAb, NIM-R6, bound to slgM[sup +] DBA/2j B cells, confirming the expression of a CD22 protein by the Cd22[sup a]/lyb-8[sup a] allele. 63 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.« less

  14. Subcultural Determinants of Locus of Control (IE) Development. A Locus of Control (IE) Measure for Preschool-Age Children: Model, Method, and Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Mark; Delys, Pamela

    Both papers are concerned with locus of control (of reinforcement) expectancies among young children, especially preschoolers. The first reviews a number of studies which examined the relationship between locus of control, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. The results indicate that (1) economic status is consistently related to locus of…

  15. Genome Editing a Mouse Locus Encoding a Variant Histone, H3.3B, to Report on its Expression in Live Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Duancheng; Noh, Kyung-Min; Goldberg, Aaron D.; Allis, C. David; Rosenwaks, Zev; Rafii, Shahin; Banaszynski, Laura A.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Chromatin remodeling via incorporation of histone variants plays a key role in the regulation of embryonic development. The histone variant H3.3 has been associated with a number of early events including formation of the paternal pronucleus upon fertilization. The small number of amino acid differences between H3.3 and its canonical counterparts (H3.1 and H3.2) has limited studies of the developmental significance of H3.3 deposition into chromatin due to difficulties in distinguishing the H3 isoforms. To this end, we used zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) mediated gene editing to introduce a small C-terminal hemagglutinin (HA) tag to the endogenous H3.3B locus in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), along with an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and a separately translated fluorescent reporter of expression. This system will allow detection of expression driven by the reporter in cells, animals, and embryos, and will facilitate investigation of differential roles of paternal and maternal H3.3 protein during embryogenesis that would not be possible using variant-specific antibodies. Further, the ability to monitor endogenous H3.3 protein in various cell lineages will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of this histone variant over the course of development. genesis PMID:25262655

  16. Nuclear chromatin-concentrated osteoblasts in renal bone diseases.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Junichiro James; Yamamoto, Suguru; Narita, Ichiei; Kurihara, Satoshi

    2011-06-01

    The morphological appearance of an osteoblast largely alters with its differentiation and maturation, along with the change of cell function. We quantitatively observed the osteoblast morphology and compared it with bone metabolism. Biopsied iliac bone samples obtained from 77 dialysis patients (14 mild change, 37 osteitis fibrosa, 2 osteomalacia, 8 mixed, and 16 adynamic bone) were included in the study. Osteoblast appearances were classified into three groups: (i) type II and III osteoblasts, namely, active osteoblasts characterized by cuboidal or columnar shapes with or without a nuclear clear zone; (ii) type IV osteoblasts, lining osteoblasts characterized by extremely thin cytoplasm; and (iii) type V osteoblasts, apoptotic osteoblasts characterized by nuclear chromatin concentration. The results were quantitatively expressed as the length of bone surface covered by each type of osteoblasts. The type II and III osteoblasts were predominant in osteitis fibrosa, mixed, and mild change. The type IV osteoblasts were overwhelmingly predominant in adynamic bone. The type V osteoblasts appeared most frequently in osteitis fibrosa, followed by mixed and mild change. Both absolute and relative lengths of bone surface covered by the type V osteoblasts were significantly higher in the high-turnover bone group (osteitis fibrosa and mixed) than the low-turnover bone group (adynamic bone and osteomalacia). The type V osteoblasts were slightly correlated with serum intact parathyroid hormone levels. In conclusion, a high bone-turnover condition seems to be associated with the promotion of osteoblastic apoptosis in dialysis patients. This finding may explain the fact that osteopenia develops faster in CKD patients with high turnover of bone. © 2011 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2011 International Society for Apheresis.

  17. Chromatin Landscapes of Retroviral and Transposon Integration Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Badhai, Jitendra; Rust, Alistair G.; Rad, Roland; Hilkens, John; Berns, Anton; van Lohuizen, Maarten; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; de Ridder, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The ability of retroviruses and transposons to insert their genetic material into host DNA makes them widely used tools in molecular biology, cancer research and gene therapy. However, these systems have biases that may strongly affect research outcomes. To address this issue, we generated very large datasets consisting of to unselected integrations in the mouse genome for the Sleeping Beauty (SB) and piggyBac (PB) transposons, and the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV). We analyzed (epi)genomic features to generate bias maps at both local and genome-wide scales. MMTV showed a remarkably uniform distribution of integrations across the genome. More distinct preferences were observed for the two transposons, with PB showing remarkable resemblance to bias profiles of the Murine Leukemia Virus. Furthermore, we present a model where target site selection is directed at multiple scales. At a large scale, target site selection is similar across systems, and defined by domain-oriented features, namely expression of proximal genes, proximity to CpG islands and to genic features, chromatin compaction and replication timing. Notable differences between the systems are mainly observed at smaller scales, and are directed by a diverse range of features. To study the effect of these biases on integration sites occupied under selective pressure, we turned to insertional mutagenesis (IM) screens. In IM screens, putative cancer genes are identified by finding frequently targeted genomic regions, or Common Integration Sites (CISs). Within three recently completed IM screens, we identified 7%–33% putative false positive CISs, which are likely not the result of the oncogenic selection process. Moreover, results indicate that PB, compared to SB, is more suited to tag oncogenes. PMID:24721906

  18. Locus coeruleus and dopaminergic consolidation of everyday memory.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Tomonori; Duszkiewicz, Adrian J; Sonneborn, Alex; Spooner, Patrick A; Yamasaki, Miwako; Watanabe, Masahiko; Smith, Caroline C; Fernández, Guillén; Deisseroth, Karl; Greene, Robert W; Morris, Richard G M

    2016-09-15

    The retention of episodic-like memory is enhanced, in humans and animals, when something novel happens shortly before or after encoding. Using an everyday memory task in mice, we sought the neurons mediating this dopamine-dependent novelty effect, previously thought to originate exclusively from the tyrosine-hydroxylase-expressing (TH + ) neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Here we report that neuronal firing in the locus coeruleus is especially sensitive to environmental novelty, locus coeruleus TH + neurons project more profusely than ventral tegmental area TH + neurons to the hippocampus, optogenetic activation of locus coeruleus TH + neurons mimics the novelty effect, and this novelty-associated memory enhancement is unaffected by ventral tegmental area inactivation. Surprisingly, two effects of locus coeruleus TH + photoactivation are sensitive to hippocampal D 1 /D 5 receptor blockade and resistant to adrenoceptor blockade: memory enhancement and long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in CA1 ex vivo. Thus, locus coeruleus TH + neurons can mediate post-encoding memory enhancement in a manner consistent with possible co-release of dopamine in the hippocampus.

  19. Inferring Demographic History Using Two-Locus Statistics.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Aaron P; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2017-06-01

    Population demographic history may be learned from contemporary genetic variation data. Methods based on aggregating the statistics of many single loci into an allele frequency spectrum (AFS) have proven powerful, but such methods ignore potentially informative patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between neighboring loci. To leverage such patterns, we developed a composite-likelihood framework for inferring demographic history from aggregated statistics of pairs of loci. Using this framework, we show that two-locus statistics are more sensitive to demographic history than single-locus statistics such as the AFS. In particular, two-locus statistics escape the notorious confounding of depth and duration of a bottleneck, and they provide a means to estimate effective population size based on the recombination rather than mutation rate. We applied our approach to a Zambian population of Drosophila melanogaster Notably, using both single- and two-locus statistics, we inferred a substantially lower ancestral effective population size than previous works and did not infer a bottleneck history. Together, our results demonstrate the broad potential for two-locus statistics to enable powerful population genetic inference. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. APPLICATION OF THE SPERM CHROMATIN STRUCTURE ASSAY TO THE TEPLICE PROGRAM SEMEN STUDIES: A NEW METHOD FOR EVALUATING SPERM NUCLEAR CHROMATIN DAMAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    A measure of sperm chromatin integrity was added to the routine semen end points evaluated in the Teplice Program male reproductive health studies. To address the hypothesis that exposure to periods of elevated air pollution may be associated with abnormalities in sp...

  1. Statistical models for detecting differential chromatin interactions mediated by a protein.

    PubMed

    Niu, Liang; Li, Guoliang; Lin, Shili

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest are of great scientific interest. Recent studies show that protein-mediated chromatin interactions can have different intensities in different types of cells or in different developmental stages of a cell. Such differences can be associated with a disease or with the development of a cell. Thus, it is of great importance to detect protein-mediated chromatin interactions with different intensities in different cells. A recent molecular technique, Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET), which uses formaldehyde cross-linking and paired-end sequencing, is able to detect genome-wide chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest. Here we proposed two models (One-Step Model and Two-Step Model) for two sample ChIA-PET count data (one biological replicate in each sample) to identify differential chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest. Both models incorporate the data dependency and the extent to which a fragment pair is related to a pair of DNA loci of interest to make accurate identifications. The One-Step Model makes use of the data more efficiently but is more computationally intensive. An extensive simulation study showed that the models can detect those differentially interacted chromatins and there is a good agreement between each classification result and the truth. Application of the method to a two-sample ChIA-PET data set illustrates its utility. The two models are implemented as an R package MDM (available at http://www.stat.osu.edu/~statgen/SOFTWARE/MDM).

  2. Statistical Models for Detecting Differential Chromatin Interactions Mediated by a Protein

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Liang; Li, Guoliang; Lin, Shili

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest are of great scientific interest. Recent studies show that protein-mediated chromatin interactions can have different intensities in different types of cells or in different developmental stages of a cell. Such differences can be associated with a disease or with the development of a cell. Thus, it is of great importance to detect protein-mediated chromatin interactions with different intensities in different cells. A recent molecular technique, Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing (ChIA-PET), which uses formaldehyde cross-linking and paired-end sequencing, is able to detect genome-wide chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest. Here we proposed two models (One-Step Model and Two-Step Model) for two sample ChIA-PET count data (one biological replicate in each sample) to identify differential chromatin interactions mediated by a protein of interest. Both models incorporate the data dependency and the extent to which a fragment pair is related to a pair of DNA loci of interest to make accurate identifications. The One-Step Model makes use of the data more efficiently but is more computationally intensive. An extensive simulation study showed that the models can detect those differentially interacted chromatins and there is a good agreement between each classification result and the truth. Application of the method to a two-sample ChIA-PET data set illustrates its utility. The two models are implemented as an R package MDM (available at http://www.stat.osu.edu/~statgen/SOFTWARE/MDM). PMID:24835279

  3. High temporal-resolution view of transcription and chromatin states across distinct metabolic states in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Zheng; Cai, Ling; Zhang, Xuekui; Ji, Hongkai; Tu, Benjamin P.; Boeke, Jef D.

    2014-01-01

    Under continuous, glucose-limited conditions, budding yeast exhibit robust metabolic cycles associated with major oscillations of gene expression. How such fluctuations are linked to changes in chromatin status is not well understood. Here we examine the correlated genome-wide transcription and chromatin states across the yeas