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Sample records for a-globin locus chromatin

  1. Replication of the Chicken β-Globin Locus: Early-Firing Origins at the 5′ HS4 Insulator and the ρ- and βA-Globin Genes Show Opposite Epigenetic Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Prioleau, Marie-Noëlle; Gendron, Marie-Claude; Hyrien, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Chromatin structure is believed to exert a strong effect on replication origin function. We have studied the replication of the chicken β-globin locus, whose chromatin structure has been extensively characterized. This locus is delimited by hypersensitive sites (HSs) that mark the position of insulator elements. A stretch of condensed chromatin and another HS separate the β-globin domain from an adjacent folate receptor (FR) gene. We demonstrate here that in erythroid cells that express the FR but not the globin genes, replication initiates at four sites within the β-globin domain, one at the 5′ HS4 insulator and the other three near the ρ- and βA-globin genes. Three origins consist of G+C-rich sequences enriched in CpG dinucleotides. The fourth origin is A+T rich. Together with previous work, these data reveal that the insulator origin has unmethylated CpGs, hyperacetylated histones H3 and H4, and lysine 4-methylated histone H3. In contrast, opposite modifications are observed at the other G+C-rich origins. We also show that the whole region, including the stretch of condensed chromatin, replicates early in S phase in these cells. Therefore, different early-firing origins within the same locus may have opposite patterns of epigenetic modifications. The role of insulator elements in DNA replication is discussed. PMID:12724412

  2. Biochemical Analysis of Genome Functions Using Locus-Specific Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    To isolate specific genomic regions that retain their molecular interactions, allowing direct identification of chromatin-bound molecules, we developed two locus-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation (locus-specific ChIP) technologies, insertional ChIP (iChIP) and engineered DNA-binding molecule-mediated ChIP (enChIP) using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system or transcription activator-like (TAL) proteins. Essentially, a locus-specific ChIP consists of locus-tagging and affinity purification and can be combined with downstream analyses to identify molecules associated with the target genomic regions. In this review, we discuss the applications of locus-specific ChIP to analyze the genome functions, including transcription and epigenetic regulation. PMID:26819551

  3. Induced DNA demethylation can reshape chromatin topology at the IGF2-H19 locus

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoko; Nativio, Raffaella; Murrell, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Choriocarcinomas are embryonal tumours with loss of imprinting and hypermethylation at the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)-H19 locus. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-Aza-2′deoxycytidine (5-AzaCdR) is an approved epigenetic cancer therapy. However, it is not known to what extent 5-AzaCdR influences other epigenetic marks. In this study, we set out to determine whether 5-AzaCdR treatment can reprogram the epigenomic organization of the IGF2-H19 locus in a choriocarcinoma cancer cell line (JEG3). We found that localized DNA demethylation at the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) induced by 5-AzaCdR, reduced IGF2, increased H19 expression, increased CTCF and cohesin recruitment and changed histone modifications. Furthermore chromatin accessibility was increased locus-wide and chromatin looping topography was altered such that a CTCF site downstream of the H19 enhancers switched its association with the CTCF site upstream of the IGF2 promoters to associate with the ICR. We identified a stable chromatin looping domain, which forms independently of DNA methylation. This domain contains the IGF2 gene and is marked by a histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation block between CTCF site upstream of the IGF2 promoters and the Centrally Conserved Domain upstream of the ICR. Together, these data provide new insights into the responsiveness of chromatin topography to DNA methylation changes. PMID:23585276

  4. 3D chromatin interactions organize Yan chromatin occupancy and repression at the even-skipped locus

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Jemma L.; Zhang, Jie; Mitchell-Dick, Aaron; Rebay, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    Long-range integration of transcriptional inputs is critical for gene expression, yet the mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigated the molecular determinants that confer fidelity to expression of the heart identity gene even-skipped (eve). Targeted deletion of regions bound by the repressor Yan defined two novel enhancers that contribute repressive inputs to stabilize tissue-specific output from a third enhancer. Deletion of any individual enhancer reduced Yan occupancy at the other elements, impacting eve expression, cell fate specification, and cardiac function. These long-range interactions may be stabilized by three-dimensional chromatin contacts that we detected between the elements. Our work provides a new paradigm for chromatin-level integration of general repressive inputs with specific patterning information to achieve robust gene expression. PMID:24186975

  5. DNA methylation-independent removable insulator controls chromatin remodeling at the HOXA locus via retinoic acid signaling.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Ko; Nakamoto, Masafumi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-12-15

    Chromatin insulators partition the genome into functional units to control gene expression, particularly in complex chromosomal regions. The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an insulator-binding protein that functions in transcriptional regulation and higher-order chromatin formation. Variable CTCF-binding sites have been identified to be cell type-specific partly due to differential DNA methylation. Here, we show that DNA methylation-independent removable CTCF insulator is responsible for retinoic acid (RA)-mediated higher-order chromatin remodeling in the human HOXA gene locus. Detailed chromatin analysis characterized multiple CTCF-enriched sites and RA-responsive enhancers at this locus. These regulatory elements and transcriptionally silent HOXA genes are closely positioned under basal conditions. Notably, upon RA signaling, the RAR/RXR transcription factor induced loss of adjacent CTCF binding and changed the higher-order chromatin conformation of the overall locus. Targeted disruption of a CTCF site by genome editing with zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR/Cas9 system showed that the site is required for chromatin conformations that maintain the initial associations among insulators, enhancers and promoters. The results indicate that the initial chromatin conformation affects subsequent RA-induced HOXA gene activation. Our study uncovers that a removable insulator spatiotemporally switches higher-order chromatin and multiple gene activities via cooperation of CTCF and key transcription factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Transcription-dependent generation of a specialized chromatin structure at the TCRβ locus.

    PubMed

    Zacarías-Cabeza, Joaquin; Belhocine, Mohamed; Vanhille, Laurent; Cauchy, Pierre; Koch, Frederic; Pekowska, Aleksandra; Fenouil, Romain; Bergon, Aurélie; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Eick, Dirk; Imbert, Jean; Ferrier, Pierre; Andrau, Jean-Christophe; Spicuglia, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    V(D)J recombination assembles Ag receptor genes during lymphocyte development. Enhancers at AR loci are known to control V(D)J recombination at associated alleles, in part by increasing chromatin accessibility of the locus, to allow the recombination machinery to gain access to its chromosomal substrates. However, whether there is a specific mechanism to induce chromatin accessibility at AR loci is still unclear. In this article, we highlight a specialized epigenetic marking characterized by high and extended H3K4me3 levels throughout the Dβ-Jβ-Cβ gene segments. We show that extended H3K4 trimethylation at the Tcrb locus depends on RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-mediated transcription. Furthermore, we found that the genomic regions encompassing the two DJCβ clusters are highly enriched for Ser(5)-phosphorylated Pol II and short-RNA transcripts, two hallmarks of transcription initiation and early transcription. Of interest, these features are shared with few other tissue-specific genes. We propose that the entire DJCβ regions behave as transcription "initiation" platforms, therefore linking a specialized mechanism of Pol II transcription with extended H3K4 trimethylation and highly accessible Dβ and Jβ gene segments. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Large-scale chromatin remodeling at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus: a paradigm for multigene regulation.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Daniel J; Wood, Andrew L; Corcoran, Anne E

    2009-01-01

    complementary processes involved in this large-scale locus organisation. We will examine the structure of the Igh locus and the large-scale and higher-order chromatin remodelling processes associated with V(D)J recombination, at the level of the locus itself, its conformational changes and its dynamic localisation within the nucleus.

  8. Flowering Locus C’s Lessons: Conserved Chromatin Switches Underpinning Developmental Timing and Adaptation1

    PubMed Central

    Hepworth, Jo; Dean, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of how seasonal cues influence the timing of the floral transition has revealed many important principles for how epigenetic regulation can integrate a variety of environmental cues with developmental signals. The study of the pathways that necessitate overwintering in plants and their ability to respond to prolonged cold (the vernalization requirement and response pathways) has elaborated different chromatin regulatory pathways and the involvement of noncoding RNAs. The major target of these vernalization pathways in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is Flowering Locus C (FLC). A relatively simple picture of FLC regulation is emerging of a few core complexes and mechanisms that antagonize each other’s actions. This balance provides a fine degree of control that has nevertheless permitted evolution of a wide range of natural variation in vernalization in Arabidopsis. Similar simple routes of adaptation may underlie life history variation between species. PMID:26149571

  9. Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Gurumurthy, Aishwarya; Hayano, Takahide; Ahmadloo, Somayeh; Omer, Waleed H; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Akihito; Kurose, Keisuke; Enomoto, Takayuki; Akira, Shigeo; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have discovered numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with human complex disorders. However, functional characterization of the disease-associated SNPs remains a formidable challenge. Here we explored regulatory mechanism of a SNP on chromosome 9p21 associated with endometriosis by leveraging “allele-specific” functional genomic approaches. By re-sequencing 1.29 Mb of 9p21 region and scrutinizing DNase-seq data from the ENCODE project, we prioritized rs17761446 as a candidate functional variant that was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the original GWAS SNP (rs10965235) and located on DNase I hypersensitive site. Chromosome conformation capture followed by high-throughput sequencing revealed that the protective G allele of rs17761446 exerted stronger chromatin interaction with ANRIL promoter. We demonstrated that the protective allele exhibited preferential binding affinities to TCF7L2 and EP300 by bioinformatics and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. ChIP assays for histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation and RNA polymerase II reinforced the enhancer activity of the SNP site. The allele specific expression analysis for eutopic endometrial tissues and endometrial carcinoma cell lines showed that rs17761446 was a cis-regulatory variant where G allele was associated with increased ANRIL expression. Our work illuminates the allelic imbalances in a series of transcriptional regulation from factor binding to gene expression mediated by chromatin interaction underlie the molecular mechanism of 9p21 endometriosis risk locus. Functional genomics on common disease will unlock functional aspect of genotype-phenotype correlations in the post-GWAS stage. PMID:27055116

  10. Chromatin looping and eRNA transcription precede the transcriptional activation of gene in the β-globin locus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yea Woon; Lee, Sungkung; Yun, Jangmi; Kim, AeRi

    2015-01-01

    Enhancers are closely positioned with actively transcribed target genes by chromatin looping. Non-coding RNAs are often transcribed on active enhancers, referred to as eRNAs (enhancer RNAs). To explore the kinetics of enhancer–promoter looping and eRNA transcription during transcriptional activation, we induced the β-globin locus by chemical treatment and analysed cross-linking frequency between the β-globin gene and locus control region (LCR) and the amount of eRNAs transcribed on the LCR in a time course manner. The cross-linking frequency was increased after chemical induction but before the transcriptional activation of gene in the β-globin locus. Transcription of eRNAs was increased in concomitant with the increase in cross-linking frequency. These results show that chromatin looping and eRNA transcription precedes the transcriptional activation of gene. Concomitant occurrence of the two events suggests functional relationship between them. PMID:25588787

  11. The higher structure of chromatin in the LCR of the beta-globin locus changes during development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xiangdong; Yin, Wenxuan; Xiang, Ping; Han, Hemei; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Li, Qiliang

    2009-11-27

    The beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is able to enhance the expression of all globin genes throughout the course of development. However, the chromatin structure of the LCR at the different developmental stages is not well defined. We report DNase I and micrococcal nuclease hypersensitivity, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses for histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, and 3C (chromatin conformation capture) assays of the normal and mutant beta-globin loci, which demonstrate that nucleosomes at the DNase I hypersensitive sites of the LCR could be either depleted or retained depending on the stages of development. Furthermore, MNase sensitivity and 3C assays suggest that the LCR chromatin is more open in embryonic erythroblasts than in definitive erythroblasts at the primary- and secondary-structure levels; however, the LCR chromatin is packaged more tightly in embryonic erythroblasts than in definitive erythroblasts at the tertiary chromatin level. Our study provides the first evidence that the occupancy of nucleosomes at a DNase I hypersensitive site is a developmental stage-related event and that embryonic and adult cells possess distinct chromatin structures of the LCR.

  12. NF-E2 disrupts chromatin structure at human beta-globin locus control region hypersensitive site 2 in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J A; Emerson, B M

    1996-01-01

    The human beta-globin locus control region (LCR) is responsible for forming an active chromatin structure extending over the 100-kb locus, allowing expression of the beta-globin gene family. The LCR consists of four erythroid-cell-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HS1 to -4). DNase I hypersensitive sites are thought to represent nucleosome-free regions of DNA which are bound by trans-acting factors. Of the four hypersensitive sites only HS2 acts as a transcriptional enhancer. In this study, we examine the binding of an erythroid protein to its site within HS2 in chromatin in vitro. NF-E2 is a transcriptional activator consisting of two subunits, the hematopoietic cell-specific p45 and the ubiquitous DNA-binding subunit, p18. NF-E2 binds two tandem AP1-like sites in HS2 which form the core of its enhancer activity. In this study, we show that when bound to in vitro-reconstituted chromatin, NF-E2 forms a DNase I hypersensitive site at HS2 similar to the site observed in vivo. Moreover, NF-E2 binding in vitro results in a disruption of nucleosome structure which can be detected 200 bp away. Although NF-E2 can disrupt nucleosomes when added to preformed chromatin, the disruption is more pronounced when NF-E2 is added to DNA prior to chromatin assembly. Interestingly, the hematopoietic cell-specific subunit, p45, is necessary for binding to chromatin but not to naked DNA. Interaction of NF-E2 with its site in chromatin-reconstituted HS2 allows a second erythroid factor, GATA-1, to bind its nearby sites. Lastly, nucleosome disruption by NF-E2 is an ATP-dependent process, suggesting the involvement of energy-dependent nucleosome remodeling factors. PMID:8816476

  13. The yeast PHO5 promoter: from single locus to systems biology of a paradigm for gene regulation through chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Korber, Philipp; Barbaric, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin dynamics crucially contributes to gene regulation. Studies of the yeast PHO5 promoter were key to establish this nowadays accepted view and continuously provide mechanistic insight in chromatin remodeling and promoter regulation, both on single locus as well as on systems level. The PHO5 promoter is a context independent chromatin switch module where in the repressed state positioned nucleosomes occlude transcription factor sites such that nucleosome remodeling is a prerequisite for and not consequence of induced gene transcription. This massive chromatin transition from positioned nucleosomes to an extensive hypersensitive site, together with respective transitions at the co-regulated PHO8 and PHO84 promoters, became a prime model for dissecting how remodelers, histone modifiers and chaperones co-operate in nucleosome remodeling upon gene induction. This revealed a surprisingly complex cofactor network at the PHO5 promoter, including five remodeler ATPases (SWI/SNF, RSC, INO80, Isw1, Chd1), and demonstrated for the first time histone eviction in trans as remodeling mode in vivo. Recently, the PHO5 promoter and the whole PHO regulon were harnessed for quantitative analyses and computational modeling of remodeling, transcription factor binding and promoter input-output relations such that this rewarding single-locus model becomes a paradigm also for theoretical and systems approaches to gene regulatory networks. PMID:25190457

  14. Fetal iron deficiency induces chromatin remodeling at the Bdnf locus in adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K

    2015-02-15

    Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Long-range looping of a locus control region drives tissue-specific chromatin packing within a multigene cluster

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E.; Liebhaber, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The relationships of higher order chromatin organization to mammalian gene expression remain incompletely defined. The human Growth Hormone (hGH) multigene cluster contains five gene paralogs. These genes are selectively activated in either the pituitary or the placenta by distinct components of a remote locus control region (LCR). Prior studies have revealed that appropriate activation of the placental genes is dependent not only on the actions of the LCR, but also on the multigene composition of the cluster itself. Here, we demonstrate that the hGH LCR ‘loops’ over a distance of 28 kb in primary placental nuclei to make specific contacts with the promoters of the two GH genes in the cluster. This long-range interaction sequesters the GH genes from the three hCS genes which co-assemble into a tightly packed ‘hCS chromatin hub’. Elimination of the long-range looping, via specific deletion of the placental LCR components, triggers a dramatic disruption of the hCS chromatin hub. These data reveal a higher-order structural pathway by which long-range looping from an LCR impacts on local chromatin architecture that is linked to tissue-specific gene regulation within a multigene cluster. PMID:26893355

  16. Role of PTIP in class switch recombination and long-range chromatin interactions at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Kristopher R; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R; Dressler, Gregory R

    2011-04-01

    How distal transcriptional enhancer sequences interact with proximal promoters is poorly understood within the context of chromatin. In this report, we have used the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus to address the role of the PTIP protein in transcription regulation and class switch recombination in B cells, a process that depends on regulated transcription and DNA recombination via Pax5 and distal 3' enhancer sequences. We first show that PTIP is recruited to a Pax5 binding site to promote histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation. Using a CD19-Cre driver strain, we deleted PTIP in mature B cells. Loss of PTIP inhibited class switch recombination by suppressing transcription and histone H3K4 methylation at the germ line transcript promoters. In the absence of PTIP, Pax5 binding to the promoter regions is reduced and long-range chromatin interactions between the distal enhancer at the 3' regulatory region and the germ line transcript promoters are not detected. We propose a model whereby PTIP stabilizes the Pax5 DNA interactions that promote chromatin looping and regulate transcriptional responses needed for class switch recombination.

  17. Reconstitution of human beta-globin locus control region hypersensitive sites in the absence of chromatin assembly.

    PubMed

    Leach, K M; Nightingale, K; Igarashi, K; Levings, P P; Engel, J D; Becker, P B; Bungert, J

    2001-04-01

    The human beta-globin genes are regulated by the locus control region (LCR), an element composed of multiple DNase I-hypersensitive sites (HS sites) located 5' to the genes. Various functional studies indicate that the LCR confers high-level, position-independent, and copy number-dependent expression to linked globin genes in transgenic mice. However, the structural basis for LCR function is unknown. Here we show that LCR HS sites can be reconstituted in an erythroid cell-specific manner on chromatin-assembled LCR templates in vitro. Surprisingly, HS2 and HS3 are also formed with erythroid proteins in the absence of chromatin assembly, indicating that sensitivity to nucleases is not simply a consequence of nucleosome reorganization. The generation of LCR HS sites in the absence of chromatin assembly leads to the formation of S1- and KMnO(4)-sensitive regions in HS2 and HS3. These sites are also sensitive to S1 nuclease in erythroid cells in vivo, suggesting a distorted DNA structure in the LCR core enhancer elements. Finally, we show that RNA polymerase II initiates transcription in the HS2 and HS3 core enhancer regions in vitro. Transcription in both HS2 and HS3 proceeds in a unidirectional manner. Taken together, the data suggest that erythroid proteins interact with the core enhancer elements, distort the DNA structure, and recruit polymerase II transcription complexes. These results further our understanding of the structural basis for LCR function and provide an explanation for why the LCR core regions are so extremely sensitive to nucleases in erythroid cells.

  18. Differential contribution of cis-regulatory elements to higher order chromatin structure and expression of the CFTR locus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Kerschner, Jenny L.; Gosalia, Nehal; Neems, Daniel; Gorsic, Lidija K.; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E.; Kosak, Steven T.; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromatin structure establishes domains that organize the genome and coordinate gene expression. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of individual loci within a topological domain (TAD) are not fully understood. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene provides a paradigm for investigating these mechanisms. CFTR occupies a TAD bordered by CTCF/cohesin binding sites within which are cell-type-selective cis-regulatory elements for the locus. We showed previously that intronic and extragenic enhancers, when occupied by specific transcription factors, are recruited to the CFTR promoter by a looping mechanism to drive gene expression. Here we use a combination of CRISPR/Cas9 editing of cis-regulatory elements and siRNA-mediated depletion of architectural proteins to determine the relative contribution of structural elements and enhancers to the higher order structure and expression of the CFTR locus. We found the boundaries of the CFTR TAD are conserved among diverse cell types and are dependent on CTCF and cohesin complex. Removal of an upstream CTCF-binding insulator alters the interaction profile, but has little effect on CFTR expression. Within the TAD, intronic enhancers recruit cell-type selective transcription factors and deletion of a pivotal enhancer element dramatically decreases CFTR expression, but has minor effect on its 3D structure. PMID:26673704

  19. Chromatin configuration of the human CD2 gene locus during T-cell development

    SciTech Connect

    Wotton, D.; Flanagan, B.F.; Owen, M.J. )

    1989-06-01

    T investigate the molecular basis for the tissue-specific expression of the human CD2 gene, its chromatin configuration was assessed by determining DNase I hypersensitivity and the degree of methylation during T-cell lineage commitment and development. Tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites were found within the 5{prime} promoter region and a region 3{prime} of the gene essential for gene expression. DNase I hypersensitivity of the 5{prime} region correlated strictly with transcriptional activity, whereas hypersensitivity of the 3{prime} region correlated with T-cell progenitor activity or lineage commitment but not necessarily with transcription. Hha I and Hpa II sites around the 5{prime} and 3{prime} regions were undermethylated in CD2-expressing T cells but were more extensively methylated in other cell types. These results define likely regulatory elements both upstream and downstream of the CD2 gene that control its tissue-specific expression. Further, they show that the 3{prime} regulatory region adopts an open chromatin configuration prior to lineage commitment and during early stages of T-cell development before the CD2 gene is transcribed.

  20. Chromatin loop organization of the junb locus in mouse dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Tamara; Gomard, Tiphanie; Court, Franck; Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Brockly, Frédérique; Forné, Thierry; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The junb gene behaves as an immediate early gene in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), where its transient transcriptional activation is necessary for the induction of inflammatory cytokines. junb is a short gene and its transcriptional activation by LPS depends on the binding of NF-κB to an enhancer located just downstream of its 3′ UTR. Here, we have addressed the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional hyper-reactivity of junb. Using transfection and pharmacological assays to complement chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses addressing the localization of histones, polymerase II, negative elongation factor (NELF)-, DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF)- and Positive Transcription Factor b complexes, we demonstrate that junb is a RNA Pol II-paused gene where Pol II is loaded in the transcription start site domain but poorly active. Moreover, High salt-Recovered Sequence, chromosome conformation capture (3C)- and gene transfer experiments show that (i) junb is organized in a nuclear chromatin loop bringing into close spatial proximity the upstream promoter region and the downstream enhancer and (ii) this configuration permits immediate Pol II release on the junb body on binding of LPS-activated NF-κB to the enhancer. Thus, our work unveils a novel topological framework underlying fast junb transcriptional response in DCs. Moreover, it also points to a novel layer of complexity in the modes of action of NF-κB. PMID:23921639

  1. Chromatin configuration of the human CD2 gene locus during T-cell development.

    PubMed Central

    Wotton, D; Flanagan, B F; Owen, M J

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the molecular basis for the tissue-specific expression of the human CD2 gene, its chromatin configuration was assessed by determining DNase I hypersensitivity and the degree of methylation during T-cell lineage commitment and development. Tissue-specific DNase I-hypersensitive sites were found within the 5' promoter region and a region 3' of the gene essential for gene expression. DNase I hypersensitivity of the 5' region correlated strictly with transcriptional activity, whereas hypersensitivity of the 3' region correlated with T-cell progenitor activity or lineage commitment but not necessarily with transcription. Hha I and Hpa II sites around the 5' and 3' regions were undermethylated in CD2-expressing T cells but were more extensively methylated in other cell types. These results define likely regulatory elements both upstream and downstream of the CD2 gene that control its tissue-specific expression. Further, they show that the 3' regulatory region adopts an open chromatin configuration prior to lineage commitment and during early stages of T-cell development before the CD2 gene is transcribed. Images PMID:2567000

  2. Chromatin loop organization of the junb locus in mouse dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Salem, Tamara; Gomard, Tiphanie; Court, Franck; Moquet-Torcy, Gabriel; Brockly, Frédérique; Forné, Thierry; Piechaczyk, Marc

    2013-10-01

    The junb gene behaves as an immediate early gene in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), where its transient transcriptional activation is necessary for the induction of inflammatory cytokines. junb is a short gene and its transcriptional activation by LPS depends on the binding of NF-κB to an enhancer located just downstream of its 3' UTR. Here, we have addressed the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional hyper-reactivity of junb. Using transfection and pharmacological assays to complement chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses addressing the localization of histones, polymerase II, negative elongation factor (NELF)-, DRB sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF)- and Positive Transcription Factor b complexes, we demonstrate that junb is a RNA Pol II-paused gene where Pol II is loaded in the transcription start site domain but poorly active. Moreover, High salt-Recovered Sequence, chromosome conformation capture (3C)- and gene transfer experiments show that (i) junb is organized in a nuclear chromatin loop bringing into close spatial proximity the upstream promoter region and the downstream enhancer and (ii) this configuration permits immediate Pol II release on the junb body on binding of LPS-activated NF-κB to the enhancer. Thus, our work unveils a novel topological framework underlying fast junb transcriptional response in DCs. Moreover, it also points to a novel layer of complexity in the modes of action of NF-κB.

  3. Locus-specific proteomics by TChP: targeted chromatin purification.

    PubMed

    Pourfarzad, Farzin; Aghajanirefah, Ali; de Boer, Ernie; Ten Have, Sara; Bryn van Dijk, Thamar; Kheradmandkia, Sima; Stadhouders, Ralph; Thongjuea, Supat; Soler, Eric; Gillemans, Nynke; von Lindern, Marieke; Demmers, Jeroen; Philipsen, Sjaak; Grosveld, Frank

    2013-08-15

    Here, we show that transcription factors bound to regulatory sequences can be identified by purifying these unique sequences directly from mammalian cells in vivo. Using targeted chromatin purification (TChP), a double-pull-down strategy with a tetracycline-sensitive "hook" bound to a specific promoter, we identify transcription factors bound to the repressed γ-globin gene-associated regulatory regions. After validation of the binding, we show that, in human primary erythroid cells, knockdown of a number of these transcription factors induces γ-globin gene expression. Reactivation of γ-globin gene expression ameliorates the symptoms of β-thalassemia and sickle cell disease, and these factors provide potential targets for the development of therapeutics for treating these patients.

  4. The AT-hook Motif-containing Protein AHL22 Regulates Flowering Initiation by Modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T Chromatin in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ju; Kim, Youn-Sung; Jung, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2012-01-01

    Coordination of the onset of flowering with developmental status and seasonal cues is critical for reproductive success in plants. Molecular genetic studies on Arabidopsis mutants that have alterations in flowering time have identified a wide array of genes that belong to distinct genetic flowering pathways. The flowering time genes are regulated through versatile molecular and biochemical mechanisms, such as controlled RNA metabolism and chromatin modifications. Recent studies have shown that a group of AT-hook DNA-binding motif-containing proteins plays a role in plant developmental processes and stress responses. Here, we demonstrate that the AT-hook protein AHL22 (AT-hook motif nuclear localized 22) regulates flowering time by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) chromatin in Arabidopsis. AHL22 binds to a stretch of the AT-rich sequence in the FT locus. It interacts with a subset of histone deacetylases. An Arabidopsis mutant overexpressing the AHL22 gene (OE-AHL22) exhibited delayed flowering, and FT transcription was significantly reduced in the mutant. Consistent with the delayed flowering and FT suppression in the OE-AHL22 mutant, histone 3 (H3) acetylation was reduced and H3 lysine 9 dimethylation was elevated in the FT chromatin. We propose that AHL22 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor that modifies the architecture of FT chromatin by modulating both H3 acetylation and methylation. PMID:22442143

  5. 5C analysis of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex locus reveals distinct chromatin interaction networks between gene-rich and gene-poor TADs in skin epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Yarker, Joanne L; Malashchuk, Igor; Lajoie, Brian R; Mardaryev, Andrei N; Gdula, Michal R; Sharov, Andrey A; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi; Botchkarev, Vladimir A; Fessing, Michael Y

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian genomes contain several dozens of large (>0.5 Mbp) lineage-specific gene loci harbouring functionally related genes. However, spatial chromatin folding, organization of the enhancer-promoter networks and their relevance to Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) in these loci remain poorly understood. TADs are principle units of the genome folding and represents the DNA regions within which DNA interacts more frequently and less frequently across the TAD boundary. Here, we used Chromatin Conformation Capture Carbon Copy (5C) technology to characterize spatial chromatin interaction network in the 3.1 Mb Epidermal Differentiation Complex (EDC) locus harbouring 61 functionally related genes that show lineage-specific activation during terminal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis. 5C data validated by 3D-FISH demonstrate that the EDC locus is organized into several TADs showing distinct lineage-specific chromatin interaction networks based on their transcription activity and the gene-rich or gene-poor status. Correlation of the 5C results with genome-wide studies for enhancer-specific histone modifications (H3K4me1 and H3K27ac) revealed that the majority of spatial chromatin interactions that involves the gene-rich TADs at the EDC locus in keratinocytes include both intra- and inter-TAD interaction networks, connecting gene promoters and enhancers. Compared to thymocytes in which the EDC locus is mostly transcriptionally inactive, these interactions were found to be keratinocyte-specific. In keratinocytes, the promoter-enhancer anchoring regions in the gene-rich transcriptionally active TADs are enriched for the binding of chromatin architectural proteins CTCF, Rad21 and chromatin remodeler Brg1. In contrast to gene-rich TADs, gene-poor TADs show preferential spatial contacts with each other, do not contain active enhancers and show decreased binding of CTCF, Rad21 and Brg1 in keratinocytes. Thus, spatial interactions between gene promoters and

  6. The Compass-like Locus, Exclusive to the Ambulacrarians, Encodes a Chromatin Insulator Binding Protein in the Sea Urchin Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Melfi, Raffaella; Spinelli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are eukaryotic genome elements that upon binding of specific proteins display barrier and/or enhancer-blocking activity. Although several insulators have been described throughout various metazoans, much less is known about proteins that mediate their functions. This article deals with the identification and functional characterization in Paracentrotus lividus of COMPASS-like (CMPl), a novel echinoderm insulator binding protein. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the CMPl factor, encoded by the alternative spliced Cmp/Cmpl transcript, is the founder of a novel ambulacrarian-specific family of Homeodomain proteins containing the Compass domain. Specific association of CMPl with the boxB cis-element of the sns5 chromatin insulator is demonstrated by using a yeast one-hybrid system, and further corroborated by ChIP-qPCR and trans-activation assays in developing sea urchin embryos. The sns5 insulator lies within the early histone gene cluster, basically between the H2A enhancer and H1 promoter. To assess the functional role of CMPl within this locus, we challenged the activity of CMPl by two distinct experimental strategies. First we expressed in the developing embryo a chimeric protein, containing the DNA-binding domain of CMPl, which efficiently compete with the endogenous CMPl for the binding to the boxB sequence. Second, to titrate the embryonic CMPl protein, we microinjected an affinity-purified CMPl antibody. In both the experimental assays we congruently observed the loss of the enhancer-blocking function of sns5, as indicated by the specific increase of the H1 expression level. Furthermore, microinjection of the CMPl antiserum in combination with a synthetic mRNA encoding a forced repressor of the H2A enhancer-bound MBF1 factor restores the normal H1 mRNA abundance. Altogether, these results strongly support the conclusion that the recruitment of CMPl on sns5 is required for buffering the H1 promoter from the H2A enhancer activity, and this

  7. Dynamics of alpha-globin locus chromatin structure and gene expression during erythroid differentiation of human CD34(+) cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Milind C; Karmakar, Subhradip; Newburger, Peter E; Krause, Diane S; Weissman, Sherman M

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study has been to establish serum-free culture conditions for ex vivo expansion and differentiation of human CD34(+) cells into erythroid lineage and to study the chromatin structure, gene expression, and transcription factor recruitment at the alpha-globin locus in the developing erythron. A basal Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium cell culture medium with 1% bovine serum albumin as a serum replacement and a combination of cytokines and growth factors was used for expansion and differentiation of the CD34(+) cells. Expression patterns of the alpha- and beta-like genes at various stages of erythropoiesis was studied by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, profile of key erythroid transcription factors was investigated by Western blotting, and the chromatin structure and transcription factor recruitment at the alpha-globin locus was investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Human CD34(+) cells in the serum-free medium undergo near synchronous erythroid differentiation to yield large amount of cells at different differentiation stages. We observe distinct patterns of the histone modifications and transcription factor binding at the alpha-globin locus during erythroid differentiation of CD34(+) cells. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 (NF-E2) was present at upstream activator sites even before addition of erythropoietin (EPO), while bound GATA-1 was only detectable after EPO treatment. After 7 days of EPO treatment, H3K4Me2 modification uniformly increases throughout the alpha-globin locus. Acetylation at H3K9 and binding of Pol II, NF-E2, and GATA-1 were restricted to certain hypersensitive sites of the enhancer and theta gene, and were conspicuously low at the alpha-like globin promoters. Rearrangement of the insulator binding factor CTCF took place at and around the alpha-globin locus as CD34(+) cells differentiated into erythroid pathway. Our results

  8. The cold signaling attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 activates FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription via chromatin remodeling under short-term cold stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae-Hoon; Park, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Sangmin; To, Taiko Kim; Kim, Jong-Myong; Seki, Motoaki; Park, Chung-Mo

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to short-term cold stress delays flowering by activating the floral repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in Arabidopsis thaliana. The cold signaling attenuator HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENE1 (HOS1) negatively regulates cold responses. Notably, HOS1-deficient mutants exhibit early flowering, and FLC expression is suppressed in the mutants. However, it remains unknown how HOS1 regulates FLC expression. Here, we show that HOS1 induces FLC expression by antagonizing the actions of FVE and its interacting partner histone deacetylase 6 (HDA6) under short-term cold stress. HOS1 binds to FLC chromatin in an FVE-dependent manner, and FVE is essential for the HOS1-mediated activation of FLC transcription. HOS1 also interacts with HDA6 and inhibits the binding of HDA6 to FLC chromatin. Intermittent cold treatments induce FLC expression by activating HOS1, which attenuates the activity of HDA6 in silencing FLC chromatin, and the effects of intermittent cold are diminished in hos1 and fve mutants. These observations indicate that HOS1 acts as a chromatin remodeling factor for FLC regulation under short-term cold stress.

  9. Long-range chromatin interactions at the mouse Igf2/H19 locus reveal a novel paternally expressed long non-coding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Court, Franck; Baniol, Marion; Hagege, Hélène; Petit, Julie Sandrine; Lelay-Taha, Marie-Noëlle; Carbonell, Françoise; Weber, Michael; Cathala, Guy; Forne, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Parental genomic imprinting at the Igf2/H19 locus is controlled by a methylation-sensitive CTCF insulator that prevents the access of downstream enhancers to the Igf2 gene on the maternal chromosome. However, on the paternal chromosome, it remains unclear whether long-range interactions with the enhancers are restricted to the Igf2 promoters or whether they encompass the entire gene body. Here, using the quantitative chromosome conformation capture assay, we show that, in the mouse liver, the endodermal enhancers have low contact frequencies with the Igf2 promoters but display, on the paternal chromosome, strong interactions with the intragenic differentially methylated regions 1 and 2. Interestingly, we found that enhancers also interact with a so-far poorly characterized intergenic region of the locus that produces a novel imprinted long non-coding transcript that we named the paternally expressed Igf2/H19 intergenic transcript (PIHit) RNA. PIHit is expressed exclusively from the paternal chromosome, contains a novel discrete differentially methylated region in a highly conserved sequence and, surprisingly, does not require an intact ICR/H19 gene region for its imprinting. Altogether, our data reveal a novel imprinted domain in the Igf2/H19 locus and lead us to propose a model for chromatin folding of this locus on the paternal chromosome. PMID:21478171

  10. DNA damage and Repair Modify DNA methylation and Chromatin Domain of the Targeted Locus: Mechanism of allele methylation polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Giusi; Landi, Rosaria; Pezone, Antonio; Morano, Annalisa; Zuchegna, Candida; Romano, Antonella; Muller, Mark T.; Gottesman, Max E.; Porcellini, Antonio; Avvedimento, Enrico V.

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the changes in chromatin structure, DNA methylation and transcription during and after homologous DNA repair (HR). We find that HR modifies the DNA methylation pattern of the repaired segment. HR also alters local histone H3 methylation as well chromatin structure by inducing DNA-chromatin loops connecting the 5′ and 3′ ends of the repaired gene. During a two-week period after repair, transcription-associated demethylation promoted by Base Excision Repair enzymes further modifies methylation of the repaired DNA. Subsequently, the repaired genes display stable but diverse methylation profiles. These profiles govern the levels of expression in each clone. Our data argue that DNA methylation and chromatin remodelling induced by HR may be a source of permanent variation of gene expression in somatic cells. PMID:27629060

  11. Dynamics of α-globin locus chromatin structure and gene expression during erythroid differentiation of human CD34+ cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Milind C; Karmakar, Subhradip; Krause, Diane; Weissman, Sherman M

    2009-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study has been to establish serum free culture conditions for the ex vivo expansion and differentiation of human CD34+ cells into erythroid lineage and to study the chromatin structure, gene expression and transcription factor recruitment at the α–globin locus in the developing erythron. Methods A basal IMDM cell culture medium with 1% bovine serum albumin as a serum replacement and a combination of cytokines and growth factors was used for the expansion and differentiation of the CD34+ cells. Expression patterns of the alpha and beta like genes at various stages of erythropoiesis was studied by Reverse transcriptase (RT)-qPCR analysis, profile of key erythroid transcription factors was investigated by western blotting, and the chromatin structure and transcription factor recruitment at the alpha globin locus was investigated by ChIP-qPCR analysis. Results Human CD34+ cells in the serum free medium undergo near synchronous erythroid differentiation to yield large amount of cells at different differentiation stages. We observe distinct patterns of the histone modifications and transcription factor binding at the α-globin locus during erythroid differentiation of CD34+ cells. NF-E2 was present at upstream activator sites even before addition of erythropoietin (Epo), while bound GATA-1 was only detectable after Epo treatment. After seven days of erythropoietin treatment, H3K4Me2 modification uniformly increases throughout the α–globin locus. Acetylation at H3K9 and binding of Pol II, NF-E2 and GATA-1 were restricted to certain HS sites of the enhancer and theta gene, and were conspicuously low at the α-like globin promoters. Rearrangement of the insulator binding factor CTCF took place at and around the α-globin locus as CD34+ cells differentiated into erythroid pathway. Conclusion Our results indicate that remodeling of the upstream elements may be the primary event in activation of α–globin gene expression. Activation of

  12. Transcription factor complex formation and chromatin fine structure alterations at the murine c-fms (CSF-1 receptor) locus during maturation of myeloid precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Tagoh, Hiromi; Himes, Roy; Clarke, Deborah; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Riggs, Arthur D.; Hume, David; Bonifer, Constanze

    2002-01-01

    Expression of the gene for the macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (CSF-1R), c-fms, has been viewed as a hallmark of the commitment of multipotent precursor cells to macrophages. Lineage-restricted expression of the gene is controlled by conserved elements in the proximal promoter and within the first intron. To investigate the developmental regulation of c-fms at the level of chromatin structure, we developed an in vitro system to examine the maturation of multipotent myeloid precursor cells into mature macrophages. The dynamics of chromatin fine structure alterations and transcription factor occupancy at the c-fms promoter and intronic enhancer was examined by in vivo DMS and UV-footprinting. We show that the c-fms gene is already transcribed at low levels in early myeloid precursors on which no CSF-1R surface expression can be detected. At this stage of myelopoiesis, the formation of transcription factor complexes on the promoter was complete. By contrast, occupancy of the enhancer was acutely regulated during macrophage differentiation. Our data show that cell-intrinsic differentiation decisions at the c-fms locus precede the appearance of c-fms on the cell surface. They also suggest that complex lineage-specific enhancers such as the c-fms intronic enhancer regulate local chromatin structure through the coordinated assembly and disassembly of distinct transcription factor complexes. PMID:12101129

  13. An Intronic Locus Control Region Plays an Essential Role in the Establishment of an Autonomous Hepatic Chromatin Domain for the Human Vitamin D-Binding Protein Gene▿

    PubMed Central

    Hiroki, Tomoko; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Cooke, Nancy E.

    2007-01-01

    The human vitamin D-binding protein (hDBP) gene exists in a cluster of four liver-expressed genes. A minimal hDBP transgene, containing a defined set of liver-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs), is robustly expressed in mouse liver in a copy-number-dependent manner. Here we evaluate these HSs for function. Deletion of HSI, located 5′ to the promoter (kb −2.1) had no significant effect on hDBP expression. In contrast, deletion of HSIV and HSV from intron 1 repressed hDBP expression and eliminated copy number dependency without a loss of liver specificity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed peaks of histone H3 and H4 acetylation coincident with HSIV in the intact hDBP locus. This region contains a conserved array of binding sites for the liver-enriched transcription factor C/EBP. In vitro studies revealed selective binding of C/EBPα to HSIV. In vivo occupancy of C/EBPα at HSIV was demonstrated in hepatic chromatin, and depletion of C/EBPα in a hepatic cell line decreased hDBP expression. A nonredundant role for C/EBPα was confirmed in vivo by demonstrating a reduction of hDBP expression in C/EBPα-null mice. Parallel studies revealed in vivo occupancy of the liver-enriched factor HNF1α at HSIII (at kb 0.13) within the hDBP promoter. These data demonstrate a critical role for elements within intron 1 in the establishment of an autonomous and productive hDBP chromatin locus and suggest that this function is dependent upon C/EBPα. Cooperative interactions between these intronic complexes and liver-restricted complexes within the target promoter are likely to underlie the consistency and liver specificity of the hDBP activation. PMID:17785430

  14. An insulator embedded in the chicken α-globin locus regulates chromatin domain configuration and differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    Furlan-Magaril, Mayra; Rebollar, Eria; Guerrero, Georgina; Fernández, Almudena; Moltó, Eduardo; González-Buendía, Edgar; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluís; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Genome organization into transcriptionally active domains denotes one of the first levels of gene expression regulation. Although the chromatin domain concept is generally accepted, only little is known on how domain organization impacts the regulation of differential gene expression. Insulators might hold answers to address this issue as they delimit and organize chromatin domains. We have previously identified a CTCF-dependent insulator with enhancer-blocking activity embedded in the 5' non-coding region of the chicken α-globin domain. Here, we demonstrate that this element, called the αEHS-1.4 insulator, protects a transgene against chromosomal position effects in stably transfected cell lines and transgenic mice. We found that this insulator can create a regulated chromatin environment that coincides with the onset of adult α-globin gene expression. Furthermore, such activity is in part dependent on the in vivo regulated occupancy of CTCF at the αEHS-1.4 element. Insulator function is also regulated by CTCF poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Our results suggest that the αEHS-1.4 insulator contributes in organizing the chromatin structure of the α-globin gene domain and prevents activation of adult α-globin gene expression at the erythroblast stage via CTCF.

  15. An insulator embedded in the chicken α-globin locus regulates chromatin domain configuration and differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Furlan-Magaril, Mayra; Rebollar, Eria; Guerrero, Georgina; Fernández, Almudena; Moltó, Eduardo; González-Buendía, Edgar; Cantero, Marta; Montoliu, Lluís; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Genome organization into transcriptionally active domains denotes one of the first levels of gene expression regulation. Although the chromatin domain concept is generally accepted, only little is known on how domain organization impacts the regulation of differential gene expression. Insulators might hold answers to address this issue as they delimit and organize chromatin domains. We have previously identified a CTCF-dependent insulator with enhancer-blocking activity embedded in the 5′ non-coding region of the chicken α-globin domain. Here, we demonstrate that this element, called the αEHS-1.4 insulator, protects a transgene against chromosomal position effects in stably transfected cell lines and transgenic mice. We found that this insulator can create a regulated chromatin environment that coincides with the onset of adult α-globin gene expression. Furthermore, such activity is in part dependent on the in vivo regulated occupancy of CTCF at the αEHS-1.4 element. Insulator function is also regulated by CTCF poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Our results suggest that the αEHS-1.4 insulator contributes in organizing the chromatin structure of the α-globin gene domain and prevents activation of adult α-globin gene expression at the erythroblast stage via CTCF. PMID:20813760

  16. Control of V(D)J Recombination through Transcriptional Elongation and Changes in Locus Chromatin Structure and Nuclear Organization.

    PubMed

    Del Blanco, Beatriz; García, Vanina; García-Mariscal, Alberto; Hernández-Munain, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    V(D)J recombination is the assembly of gene segments at the antigen receptor loci to generate antigen receptor diversity in T and B lymphocytes. This process is regulated, according to defined developmental programs, by the action of a single specific recombinase complex formed by the recombination antigen gene (RAG-1/2) proteins that are expressed in immature lymphocytes. V(D)J recombination is strictly controlled by RAG-1/2 accessibility to specific recombination signal sequences in chromatin at several levels: cellular lineage, temporal regulation, gene segment order, and allelic exclusion. DNA cleavage by RAG-1/2 is regulated by the chromatin structure, transcriptional elongation, and three-dimensional architecture and position of the antigen receptor loci in the nucleus. Cis-elements specifically direct transcription and V(D)J recombination at these loci through interactions with transacting factors that form molecular machines that mediate a sequence of structural events. These events open chromatin to activate transcriptional elongation and to permit the access of RAG-1/2 to their recombination signal sequences to drive the juxtaposition of the V, D, and J segments and the recombination reaction itself. This chapter summarizes the advances in this area and the important role of the structure and position of antigen receptor loci within the nucleus to control this process.

  17. Bacterial-Chromatin Structural Proteins Regulate the Bimodal Expression of the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE) Pathogenicity Island in Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Leh, Hervé; Khodr, Ahmad; Bouger, Marie-Christine; Sclavi, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) encodes a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) essential for pathogenesis. This pathogenicity island comprises five major operons (LEE1 to LEE5), with the LEE5 operon encoding T3SS effectors involved in the intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes. The first operon, LEE1, encodes Ler (LEE-encoded regulator), an H-NS (nucleoid structuring protein) paralog that alleviates the LEE H-NS silencing. We observed that the LEE5 and LEE1 promoters present a bimodal expression pattern, depending on environmental stimuli. One key regulator of bimodal LEE1 and LEE5 expression is ler expression, which fluctuates in response to different growth conditions. Under conditions in vitro considered to be equivalent to nonoptimal conditions for virulence, the opposing regulatory effects of H-NS and Ler can lead to the emergence of two bacterial subpopulations. H-NS and Ler share nucleation binding sites in the LEE5 promoter region, but H-NS binding results in local DNA structural modifications distinct from those generated through Ler binding, at least in vitro. Thus, we show how two nucleoid-binding proteins can contribute to the epigenetic regulation of bacterial virulence and lead to opposing bacterial fates. This finding implicates for the first time bacterial-chromatin structural proteins in the bimodal regulation of gene expression. PMID:28790204

  18. The Non-coding Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility Locus, Mcs5c, Regulates Pappa Expression via Age-Specific Chromatin Folding and Allele-Dependent DNA Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Amanda N.; Haag, Jill D.; Smits, Bart M. G.; Gould, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    In understanding the etiology of breast cancer, the contributions of both genetic and environmental risk factors are further complicated by the impact of breast developmental stage. Specifically, the time period ranging from childhood to young adulthood represents a critical developmental window in a woman’s life when she is more susceptible to environmental hazards that may affect future breast cancer risk. Although the effects of environmental exposures during particular developmental Windows of Susceptibility (WOS) are well documented, the genetic mechanisms governing these interactions are largely unknown. Functional characterization of the Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility 5c, Mcs5c, congenic rat model of breast cancer at various stages of mammary gland development was conducted to gain insight into the interplay between genetic risk factors and WOS. Using quantitative real-time PCR, chromosome conformation capture, and bisulfite pyrosequencing we have found that Mcs5c acts within the mammary gland to regulate expression of the neighboring gene Pappa during a critical mammary developmental time period in the rat, corresponding to the human young adult WOS. Pappa has been shown to positively regulate the IGF signaling pathway, which is required for proper mammary gland/breast development and is of increasing interest in breast cancer pathogenesis. Mcs5c-mediated regulation of Pappa appears to occur through age-dependent and mammary gland-specific chromatin looping, as well as genotype-dependent CpG island shore methylation. This represents, to our knowledge, the first insight into cellular mechanisms underlying the WOS phenomenon and demonstrates the influence developmental stage can have on risk locus functionality. Additionally, this work represents a novel model for further investigation into how environmental factors, together with genetic factors, modulate breast cancer risk in the context of breast developmental stage. PMID:27537370

  19. Chromatin Architecture near a Potential 3′ End of the Igh Locus Involves Modular Regulation of Histone Modifications during B-Cell Development and In Vivo Occupancy at CTCF Sites

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Francine E.; Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Sepulveda, Manuel A.; Flanagan, Patrick; Volpi, Sabrina; Li, Fubin; Loukinov, Dmitry; Eckhardt, Laurel A.; Lobanenkov, Victor V.; Birshtein, Barbara K.

    2005-01-01

    The murine Igh locus has a 3′ regulatory region (3′ RR) containing four enhancers (hs3A, hs1,2, hs3B, and hs4) at DNase I-hypersensitive sites. The 3′ RR exerts long-range effects on class switch recombination (CSR) to several isotypes through its control of germ line transcription. By measuring levels of acetylated histones H3 and H4 and of dimethylated H3 (K4) with chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that early in B-cell development, chromatin encompassing the enhancers of the 3′ RR began to attain stepwise modifications typical of an open conformation. The hs4 enhancer was associated with active chromatin initially in pro- and pre-B cells and then together with hs3A, hs1,2, and hs3B in B and plasma cells. Histone modifications were similar in resting splenic B cells and in splenic B cells induced by lipopolysaccharide to undergo CSR. From the pro-B-cell stage onward, the ∼11-kb region immediately downstream of hs4 displayed H3 and H4 modifications indicative of open chromatin. This region contained newly identified DNase I-hypersensitive sites and several CTCF target sites, some of which were occupied in vivo in a developmentally regulated manner. The open chromatin environment of the extended 3′ RR in mature B cells was flanked by regions associated with dimethylated K9 of histone H3. Together, these data suggest that 3′ RR elements are located within a specific chromatin subdomain that contains CTCF binding sites and developmentally regulated modules. PMID:15684400

  20. The Pu.1 locus is differentially regulated at the level of chromatin structure and noncoding transcription by alternate mechanisms at distinct developmental stages of hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Krysinska, Hanna; Ingram, Richard; Huang, Gang; Barlow, Rachael; Clarke, Deborah; Ebralidze, Alexander; Zhang, Pu; Tagoh, Hiromi; Cockerill, Peter N; Tenen, Daniel G; Bonifer, Constanze

    2007-11-01

    The Ets family transcription factor PU.1 is crucial for the regulation of hematopoietic development. Pu.1 is activated in hematopoietic stem cells and is expressed in mast cells, B cells, granulocytes, and macrophages but is switched off in T cells. Many of the transcription factors regulating Pu.1 have been identified, but little is known about how they organize Pu.1 chromatin in development. We analyzed the Pu.1 promoter and the upstream regulatory element (URE) using in vivo footprinting and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. In B cells, Pu.1 was bound by a set of transcription factors different from that in myeloid cells and adopted alternative chromatin architectures. In T cells, Pu.1 chromatin at the URE was open and the same transcription factor binding sites were occupied as in B cells. The transcription factor RUNX1 was bound to the URE in precursor cells, but binding was down-regulated in maturing cells. In PU.1 knockout precursor cells, the Ets factor Fli-1 compensated for the lack of PU.1, and both proteins could occupy a subset of Pu.1 cis elements in PU.1-expressing cells. In addition, we identified novel URE-derived noncoding transcripts subject to tissue-specific regulation. Our results provide important insights into how overlapping, but different, sets of transcription factors program tissue-specific chromatin structures in the hematopoietic system.

  1. Chromatin potentiates transcription

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Shigeki; Davis, Ralph E.; Mattei, Pierre Jean; Eagen, Kyle Patrick; Kornberg, Roger D.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin isolated from the chromosomal locus of the PHO5 gene of yeast in a transcriptionally repressed state was transcribed with 12 pure proteins (80 polypeptides): RNA polymerase II, six general transcription factors, TFIIS, the Pho4 gene activator protein, and the SAGA, SWI/SNF, and Mediator complexes. Contrary to expectation, a nucleosome occluding the TATA box and transcription start sites did not impede transcription but rather, enhanced it: the level of chromatin transcription was at least sevenfold greater than that of naked DNA, and chromatin gave patterns of transcription start sites closely similar to those occurring in vivo, whereas naked DNA gave many aberrant transcripts. Both histone acetylation and trimethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me3) were important for chromatin transcription. The nucleosome, long known to serve as a general gene repressor, thus also performs an important positive role in transcription. PMID:28137832

  2. PAF1-complex-mediated histone methylation of FLOWERING LOCUS C chromatin is required for the vernalization-responsive, winter-annual habit in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuehui; Doyle, Mark R.; Amasino, Richard M.

    2004-01-01

    The winter-annual habit (which typically involves a requirement for exposure to the cold of winter to flower in the spring) in Arabidopsis thaliana is mainly due to the repression of flowering by relatively high levels of FLC expression. Exposure to prolonged cold attenuates FLC expression through a process known as vernalization and thus permits flowering to occur in the spring. Here we show that the elevated FLC expression characteristic of nonvernalized winter annuals requires two genes, EARLY FLOWERING 7 (ELF7) and EARLY FLOWERING 8 (ELF8), that are homologs of components of the PAF1 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, ELF7 and ELF8 are also required for the expression of other genes in the FLC clade of flowering repressors such as MAF2 and FLM. FLC, FLM, and MAF2 are involved in multiple flowering pathways that account for the broad effects of elf7 and elf8 mutations on flowering behavior. ELF7 and ELF8 are required for the enhancement of histone 3 trimethylation at Lys 4 in FLC chromatin. This modification of FLC chromatin appears to be required to elevate FLC expression to levels that can delay flowering in plants that have not been vernalized. A model of the role of ELF7, ELF8, and other previously described genes in the modification of the chromatin of flowering repressors is presented. PMID:15520273

  3. A novel small compound SH-2251 suppresses Th2 cell-dependent airway inflammation through selective modulation of chromatin status at the Il5 gene locus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junpei; Kuwahara, Makoto; Tofukuji, Soichi; Imamura, Masashi; Kato, Fuminori; Nakayama, Toshinori; Ohara, Osamu; Yamashita, Masakatsu

    2013-01-01

    IL-5 is a key cytokine that plays an important role in the development of pathological conditions in allergic inflammation. Identifying strategies to inhibit IL-5 production is important in order to establish new therapies for treating allergic inflammation. We found that SH-2251, a novel thioamide-related small compound, selectively inhibits the differentiation of IL-5-producing Th2 cells. SH-2251 inhibited the induction of active histone marks at the Il5 gene locus during Th2 cell differentiation. The recruitment of RNA polymerase II, and following expression of the Th2 cell-specific intergenic transcripts around the Il5 gene locus was also inhibited. Furthermore, Th2 cell-dependent airway inflammation in mice was suppressed by the oral administration of SH-2251. Gfi1, a transcriptional repressor, was identified as a downstream target molecule of SH-2251 using a DNA microarray analysis. The Gfi1 expression dramatically decreased in SH-2251-treated Th2 cells, and the SH-2251-mediated inhibition of IL-5-producing Th2 cell differentiation was restored by transduction of Gfi1. Therefore, our study unearthed SH-2251 as a novel therapeutic candidate for allergic inflammation that selectively inhibits active histone marks at the Il5 gene locus.

  4. A novel chromatin insulator regulates the chicken folate receptor gene from the influence of nearby constitutive heterochromatin and the β-globin locus.

    PubMed

    González-Buendía, Edgar; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martín; Pérez-Molina, Rosario; Tena, Juan J; Guerrero, Georgina; Suaste-Olmos, Fernando; Ayala-Ortega, Erandi; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2015-08-01

    The three-dimensional architecture of genomes provides new insights about genome organization and function, but many aspects remain unsolved at the local genomic scale. Here we investigate the regulation of two erythroid-specific loci, a folate receptor gene (FOLR1) and the β-globin gene cluster, which are separated by 16kb of constitutive heterochromatin. We found that in early erythroid differentiation the FOLR1 gene presents a permissive chromatin configuration that allows its expression. Once the transition to the next differentiation state occurs, the heterochromatin spreads into the FOLR1 domain, concomitant with the dissociation of CTCF from a novel binding site, thereby resulting in irreversible silencing of the FOLR1 gene. We demonstrate that the sequences surrounding the CTCF-binding site possess classical insulator properties in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the chicken cHS4 β-globin insulator present on the other side of the heterochromatic segment is in a constitutive open chromatin configuration, with CTCF constantly bound from the early stages of erythroid differentiation. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the 16kb of constitutive heterochromatin contributes to silencing of the FOLR1 gene during erythroid differentiation.

  5. Integration of Elf-4 into stem/progenitor and erythroid regulatory networks through locus-wide chromatin studies coupled with in vivo functional validation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aileen M; Calero-Nieto, Fernando J; Schütte, Judith; Kinston, Sarah; Timms, Richard T; Wilson, Nicola K; Hannah, Rebecca L; Landry, Josette-Renee; Göttgens, Berthold

    2012-02-01

    The ETS transcription factor Elf-4 is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and T cell homeostasis. To gain insights into the transcriptional circuitry within which Elf-4 operates, we used comparative sequence analysis coupled with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) assays for specific chromatin marks to identify three promoters and two enhancers active in hematopoietic and endothelial cell lines. Comprehensive functional validation of each of these regulatory regions in transgenic mouse embryos identified a tissue-specific enhancer (-10E) that displayed activity in fetal liver, dorsal aorta, vitelline vessels, yolk sac, and heart. Integration of a ChIP-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data set for 10 key stem cell transcription factors showed Pu.1, Fli-1, and Erg were bound to the -10E element, and mutation of three highly conserved ETS sites within the enhancer abolished its activity. Finally, the transcriptional repressor Gfi1b was found to bind to and repress one of the Elf-4 promoters (-30P), and we show that this repression of Elf-4 is important for the maturation of primary fetal liver erythroid cells. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive overview of the transcriptional control of Elf-4 within the hematopoietic system and, thus, integrate Elf-4 into the wider transcriptional regulatory networks that govern hematopoietic development.

  6. Characterization of Novel Paternal ncRNAs at the Plagl1 Locus, Including Hymai, Predicted to Interact with Regulators of Active Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Davide; Court, Franck; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Camprubi, Cristina; Bourc’his, Deborah; Hata, Kenichiro; Feil, Robert; Tartaglia, Gian; Arnaud, Philippe; Monk, David

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a complex epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control that utilizes DNA methylation and histone modifications to bring about parent-of-origin specific monoallelic expression in mammals. Genes subject to imprinting are often organised in clusters associated with large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), some of which have cis-regulatory functions. Here we have undertaken a detailed allelic expression analysis of an imprinted domain on mouse proximal chromosome 10 comprising the paternally expressed Plagl1 gene. We identified three novel Plagl1 transcripts, only one of which contains protein-coding exons. In addition, we characterised two unspliced ncRNAs, Hymai, the mouse orthologue of HYMAI, and Plagl1it (Plagl1 intronic transcript), a transcript located in intron 5 of Plagl1. Imprinted expression of these novel ncRNAs requires DNMT3L-mediated maternal DNA methylation, which is also indispensable for establishing the correct chromatin profile at the Plagl1 DMR. Significantly, the two ncRNAs are retained in the nucleus, consistent with a potential regulatory function at the imprinted domain. Analysis with catRAPID, a protein-ncRNA association prediction algorithm, suggests that Hymai and Plagl1it RNAs both have potentially high affinity for Trithorax chromatin regulators. The two ncRNAs could therefore help to protect the paternal allele from DNA methylation by attracting Trithorax proteins that mediate H3 lysine-4 methylation. Submitted GenBank nucleotides sequences: Plagl1it: JN595789 Hymai: JN595790 PMID:22723905

  7. Chromatin Computation

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In living cells, DNA is packaged along with protein and RNA into chromatin. Chemical modifications to nucleotides and histone proteins are added, removed and recognized by multi-functional molecular complexes. Here I define a new computational model, in which chromatin modifications are information units that can be written onto a one-dimensional string of nucleosomes, analogous to the symbols written onto cells of a Turing machine tape, and chromatin-modifying complexes are modeled as read-write rules that operate on a finite set of adjacent nucleosomes. I illustrate the use of this “chromatin computer” to solve an instance of the Hamiltonian path problem. I prove that chromatin computers are computationally universal – and therefore more powerful than the logic circuits often used to model transcription factor control of gene expression. Features of biological chromatin provide a rich instruction set for efficient computation of nontrivial algorithms in biological time scales. Modeling chromatin as a computer shifts how we think about chromatin function, suggests new approaches to medical intervention, and lays the groundwork for the engineering of a new class of biological computing machines. PMID:22567109

  8. Chromatin hydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Grosberg, Alexander Y; Rabin, Yitzhak; Zidovska, Alexandra

    2014-05-06

    Following recent observations of large scale correlated motion of chromatin inside the nuclei of live differentiated cells, we present a hydrodynamic theory-the two-fluid model-in which the content of a nucleus is described as a chromatin solution with the nucleoplasm playing the role of the solvent and the chromatin fiber that of a solute. This system is subject to both passive thermal fluctuations and active scalar and vector events that are associated with free energy consumption, such as ATP hydrolysis. Scalar events drive the longitudinal viscoelastic modes (where the chromatin fiber moves relative to the solvent) while vector events generate the transverse modes (where the chromatin fiber moves together with the solvent). Using linear response methods, we derive explicit expressions for the response functions that connect the chromatin density and velocity correlation functions to the corresponding correlation functions of the active sources and the complex viscoelastic moduli of the chromatin solution. We then derive general expressions for the flow spectral density of the chromatin velocity field. We use the theory to analyze experimental results recently obtained by one of the present authors and her co-workers. We find that the time dependence of the experimental data for both native and ATP-depleted chromatin can be well-fitted using a simple model-the Maxwell fluid-for the complex modulus, although there is some discrepancy in terms of the wavevector dependence. Thermal fluctuations of ATP-depleted cells are predominantly longitudinal. ATP-active cells exhibit intense transverse long wavelength velocity fluctuations driven by force dipoles. Fluctuations with wavenumbers larger than a few inverse microns are dominated by concentration fluctuations with the same spectrum as thermal fluctuations but with increased intensity.

  9. Chromatin Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Michael R.; Spector, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The expression patterns of many protein-coding genes are orchestrated in response to exogenous stimuli, as well as cell-type-specific developmental programs. In recent years, researchers have shown that dynamic chromatin movements and interactions in the nucleus play a crucial role in gene regulation. In this review, we highlight our current understanding of the organization of chromatin in the interphase nucleus and the impact of chromatin dynamics on gene expression. We also discuss the current state of knowledge with regard to the localization of active and inactive genes within the three-dimensional nuclear space. Furthermore, we address recent findings that demonstrate the movements of chromosomal regions and genomic loci in association with changes in transcriptional activity. Finally, we discuss the role of intra-and interchromosomal interactions in the control of coregulated genes. PMID:20462379

  10. Teaching resources. Chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Lue, Neal F

    2005-07-26

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes and slides for a class covering chromatin remodeling mechanisms and is part of the course "Cell Signaling Systems: a Course for Graduate Students." The lecture begins with a discussion of chromatin organization and then proceeds to describe the process of chromatin remodeling through a review of chromatin remodeling complexes and methods used to study their function.

  11. Chromatin insulation by a transcriptional activator

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, Nathan B.; Scalzo, David; Fiering, Steven; Groudine, Mark; Martin, David I. K.

    2003-01-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, transcriptionally active regions are interspersed with silent chromatin that may repress genes in its vicinity. Chromatin insulators are elements that can shield a locus from repressive effects of flanking chromatin. Few such elements have been characterized in higher eukaryotes, but transcriptional activating elements are an invariant feature of active loci and have been shown to suppress transgene silencing. Hence, we have assessed the ability of a transcriptional activator to cause chromatin insulation, i.e., to relieve position effects at transgene integration sites in cultured cells. The transgene contained a series of binding sites for the metal-inducible transcriptional activator MTF, linked to a GFP reporter. Clones carrying single integrated transgenes were derived without selection for expression, and in most clones the transgene was silent. Induction of MTF resulted in transition of the transgene from the silent to the active state, prolongation of the active state, and a marked narrowing of the range of expression levels at different genomic sites. At one genomic site, prolonged induction of MTF resulted in suppression of transgene silencing that persisted after withdrawal of the induction stimulus. These results are consistent with MTF acting as a chromatin insulator and imply that transcriptional activating elements can insulate active loci against chromatin repression. PMID:12547916

  12. Chromatin enrichment for proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Kustatscher, Georg; Wills, Karen L. H.; Furlan, Cristina; Rappsilber, Juri

    2015-01-01

    During interphase, chromatin hosts fundamental cellular processes, such as gene expression, DNA replication and DNA damage repair. To analyze chromatin on a proteomic scale, we have developed chromatin enrichment for proteomics (ChEP), which is a simple biochemical procedure that enriches interphase chromatin in all its complexity. It enables researchers to take a ‘snapshot’ of chromatin and to isolate and identify even transiently bound factors. In ChEP, cells are fixed with formaldehyde; subsequently, DNA together with all cross-linked proteins is isolated by centrifugation under denaturing conditions. This approach enables the analysis of global chromatin composition and its changes, which is in contrast with existing chromatin enrichment procedures, which either focus on specific chromatin loci (e.g., affinity purification) or are limited in specificity, such as the analysis of the chromatin pellet (i.e., analysis of all insoluble nuclear material). ChEP takes half a day to complete and requires no specialized laboratory skills or equipment. ChEP enables the characterization of chromatin response to drug treatment or physiological processes. Beyond proteomics, ChEP may preclear chromatin for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. PMID:25101823

  13. Long range chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Luciana I Gómez; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2014-01-01

    Splicing is a predominantly co-transcriptional process that has been shown to be tightly coupled to transcription. Chromatin structure is a key factor that mediates this functional coupling. In light of recent evidence that shows the importance of higher order chromatin organization in the coordination and regulation of gene expression, we discuss here the possible roles of long-range chromatin organization in splicing and alternative splicing regulation. PMID:25764333

  14. CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator as a built-in attenuator of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianrong; Tang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    VEGF is a pivotal pro-angiogenic growth factor and its dosage decisively impacts vascularization. We recently identified a CTCF-dependent chromatin insulator that critically restrains the transcriptional induction of VEGF and angiogenesis. We postulate that CTCF may exert enhancer blocking by mediating chromatin looping and/or RNA polymerase pausing at the VEGF locus.

  15. Chromatin reorganization through mitosis.

    PubMed

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome condensation is one of the major chromatin-remodeling events that occur during cell division. The changes in chromatin compaction and higher-order structure organization are essential requisites for ensuring a faithful transmission of the replicated genome to daughter cells. Although the observation of mitotic chromosome condensation has fascinated Scientists for a century, we are still far away from understanding how the process works from a molecular point of view. In this chapter, I will analyze our current understanding of chromatin condensation during mitosis with particular attention to the major molecular players that trigger and maintain this particular chromatin conformation. However, within the chromosome, not all regions of the chromatin are organized in the same manner. I will address separately the structure and functions of particular chromatin domains such as the centromere. Finally, the transition of the chromatin through mitosis represents just an interlude for gene expression between two cell cycles. How the transcriptional information that governs cell linage identity is transmitted from mother to daughter represents a big and interesting question. I will present how cells take care of the aspect ensuring that mitotic chromosome condensation and the block of transcription does not wipe out the cell identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Globin Domain in a Neuronal Transmembrane Receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum

    PubMed Central

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P.; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. PMID:25666609

  17. Chromatin Topological Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavelle, C.; Bancaud, A.; Recouvreux, P.; Barbi, M.; Victor, J.; Viovy, J.

    DNA transaction events occurring during a cell cycle (transcription,repair, replication) are always associated with severe topological constraints on the double helix. However, since nuclear DNA is bound to various proteins (including histones) that control its accessibility and 3D organization, these topological constraints propagate or accumulate on a chromatin substrate. This paper focuses on chromatin fiber response to physiological mechanical constraints expected to occur during transcription elongation. We will show in particular how recent single molecule techniques help us to understand how chromatin conformational dynamics could manage harsh DNA supercoiling changes.

  18. Facilitated diffusion of proteins on chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bénichou, O; Chevalier, C; Meyer, B; Voituriez, R

    2011-01-21

    We present a theoretical model of facilitated diffusion of proteins in the cell nucleus. This model, which takes into account the successive binding and unbinding events of proteins to DNA, relies on a fractal description of the chromatin which has been recently evidenced experimentally. Facilitated diffusion is shown quantitatively to be favorable for a fast localization of a target locus by a transcription factor and even to enable the minimization of the search time by tuning the affinity of the transcription factor with DNA. This study shows the robustness of the facilitated diffusion mechanism, invoked so far only for linear conformations of DNA.

  19. Dietary control of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiguang; Cai, Ling; Tu, Benjamin P

    2015-01-01

    Organisms must be able to rapidly alter gene expression in response to changes in their nutrient environment. This review summarizes evidence that epigenetic modifications of chromatin depend on particular metabolites of intermediary metabolism, enabling the facile regulation of gene expression in tune with metabolic state. Nutritional or dietary control of chromatin is an often-overlooked, yet fundamental regulatory mechanism directly linked to human physiology. Nutrient-sensitive epigenetic marks are dynamic, suggesting rapid turnover, and may have functions beyond the regulation of gene transcription, including pH regulation and as carbon sources in cancer cells. PMID:26094239

  20. Chromatin fiber allostery and the epigenetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, Annick; Foray, Nicolas; Cathala, Guy; Forné, Thierry; Wong, Hua; Victor, Jean-Marc

    2015-02-01

    The notion of allostery introduced for proteins about fifty years ago has been extended since then to DNA allostery, where a locally triggered DNA structural transition remotely controls other DNA-binding events. We further extend this notion and propose that chromatin fiber allosteric transitions, induced by histone-tail covalent modifications, may play a key role in transcriptional regulation. We present an integrated scenario articulating allosteric mechanisms at different scales: allosteric transitions of the condensed chromatin fiber induced by histone-tail acetylation modify the mechanical constraints experienced by the embedded DNA, thus possibly controlling DNA-binding of allosteric transcription factors or further allosteric mechanisms at the linker DNA level. At a higher scale, different epigenetic constraints delineate different statistically dominant subsets of accessible chromatin fiber conformations, which each favors the assembly of dedicated regulatory complexes, as detailed on the emblematic example of the mouse Igf2-H19 gene locus and its parental imprinting. This physical view offers a mechanistic and spatially structured explanation of the observed correlation between transcriptional activity and histone modifications. The evolutionary origin of allosteric control supports to speak of an ‘epigenetic code’, by which events involved in transcriptional regulation are encoded in histone modifications in a context-dependent way.

  1. Multiple modes of chromatin configuration at natural meiotic recombination hot spots in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Kouji; Steiner, Walter W; Shibata, Takehiko; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2007-11-01

    The ade6-M26 meiotic recombination hot spot of fission yeast is defined by a cyclic AMP-responsive element (CRE)-like heptanucleotide sequence, 5'-ATGACGT-3', which acts as a binding site for the Atf1/Pcr1 heterodimeric transcription factor required for hot spot activation. We previously demonstrated that the local chromatin around the M26 sequence motif alters to exhibit higher sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease before the initiation of meiotic recombination. In this study, we have examined whether or not such alterations in chromatin occur at natural meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. At one of the most prominent DSB sites, mbs1 (meiotic break site 1), the chromatin structure has a constitutively accessible configuration at or near the DSB sites. The establishment of the open chromatin state and DSB formation are independent of the CRE-binding transcription factor, Atf1. Analysis of the chromatin configuration at CRE-dependent DSB sites revealed both differences from and similarities to mbs1. For example, the tdh1+ locus, which harbors a CRE consensus sequence near the DSB site, shows a meiotically induced open chromatin configuration, similar to ade6-M26. In contrast, the cds1+ locus is similar to mbs1 in that it exhibits a constitutive open configuration. Importantly, Atf1 is required for the open chromatin formation in both tdh1+ and cds1+. These results suggest that CRE-dependent meiotic chromatin changes are intrinsic processes related to DSB formation in fission yeast meiosis. In addition, the results suggest that the chromatin configuration in natural meiotic recombination hot spots can be classified into at least three distinct categories: (i) an Atf1-CRE-independent constitutively open chromatin configuration, (ii) an Atf1-CRE-dependent meiotically induced open chromatin configuration, and (iii) an Atf1-CRE-dependent constitutively open chromatin configuration.

  2. Archaeal chromatin proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ZhenFeng; Guo, Li; Huang, Li

    2012-05-01

    Archaea, along with Bacteria and Eukarya, are the three domains of life. In all living cells, chromatin proteins serve a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of the structure and function of the genome. An array of small, abundant and basic DNA-binding proteins, considered candidates for chromatin proteins, has been isolated from the Euryarchaeota and the Crenarchaeota, the two major phyla in Archaea. While most euryarchaea encode proteins resembling eukaryotic histones, crenarchaea appear to synthesize a number of unique DNA-binding proteins likely involved in chromosomal organization. Several of these proteins (e.g., archaeal histones, Sac10b homologs, Sul7d, Cren7, CC1, etc.) have been extensively studied. However, whether they are chromatin proteins and how they function in vivo remain to be fully understood. Future investigation of archaeal chromatin proteins will lead to a better understanding of chromosomal organization and gene expression in Archaea and provide valuable information on the evolution of DNA packaging in cellular life.

  3. Chromatin and DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    MacAlpine, David M.; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-01-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program. PMID:23751185

  4. Analysis of Chromatin Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: chromatin, nucleases, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, melting point, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide, autoradiography, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, Sanger sequencing, restriction endonucleases, exonucleases, linker DNA, chloroform extraction, nucleosomes,…

  5. Analysis of Chromatin Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: chromatin, nucleases, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, melting point, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide, autoradiography, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, Sanger sequencing, restriction endonucleases, exonucleases, linker DNA, chloroform extraction, nucleosomes,…

  6. Chromatin and DNA replication.

    PubMed

    MacAlpine, David M; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-08-01

    The size of a eukaryotic genome presents a unique challenge to the cell: package and organize the DNA to fit within the confines of the nucleus while at the same time ensuring sufficient dynamics to allow access to specific sequences and features such as genes and regulatory elements. This is achieved via the dynamic nucleoprotein organization of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, comprises a core particle with 147 bp of DNA wrapped 1.7 times around an octamer of histones. The nucleosome is a highly versatile and modular structure, both in its composition, with the existence of various histone variants, and through the addition of a series of posttranslational modifications on the histones. This versatility allows for both short-term regulatory responses to external signaling, as well as the long-term and multigenerational definition of large functional chromosomal domains within the nucleus, such as the centromere. Chromatin organization and its dynamics participate in essentially all DNA-templated processes, including transcription, replication, recombination, and repair. Here we will focus mainly on nucleosomal organization and describe the pathways and mechanisms that contribute to assembly of this organization and the role of chromatin in regulating the DNA replication program.

  7. Chromatin regulators: weaving epigenetic nets.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Muñoz, Inmaculada

    2010-10-01

    In multicellular organisms differentiated cells must maintain their cellular memory, which will be faithfully inherited and maintained by their progeny. In addition, these specialized cells are exposed to specific environmental and cell-intrinsic signals and will have to appropriately respond to them. Some of these stimuli lead to changes in a subset of genes or to a genome-wide reprogramming of the cells that will remain after stimuli removal and, in some instances, will be inherited by the daughter cells. The molecular substrate that integrates cellular memory and plasticity is the chromatin, a complex of DNA and histones unique to eukaryotes. The nucleosome is the fundamental unit of the chromatin and nucleosomal organization defines different chromatin conformations. Chromatin regulators affect chromatin conformation and accessibility by covalently modifying the DNA or the histones, substituting histone variants, remodeling the nucleosome position or modulating chromatin looping and folding. These regulators frequently act in multiprotein complexes and highly specific interplays among chromatin marks and different chromatin regulators allow a remarkable array of possibilities. Therefore, chromatin regulator nets act to propagate the conformation of different chromatin regions through DNA replication and mitosis, and to remodel the chromatin fiber to regulate the accessibility of the DNA to transcription factors and to the transcription and repair machineries. Here, the state-of-the-art of the best-known chromatin regulators is reviewed.

  8. Proteomic Interrogation of Human Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P.; Zee, Barry M.; Young, Nicolas L.; Baliban, Richard C.; LeRoy, Gary; Floudas, Christodoulos A.; Hake, Sandra B.; Garcia, Benjamin A.

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin proteins provide a scaffold for DNA packaging and a basis for epigenetic regulation and genomic maintenance. Despite understanding its functional roles, mapping the chromatin proteome (i.e. the “Chromatome”) is still a continuing process. Here, we assess the biological specificity and proteomic extent of three distinct chromatin preparations by identifying proteins in selected chromatin-enriched fractions using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. These experiments allowed us to produce a chromatin catalog, including several proteins ranging from highly abundant histone proteins to less abundant members of different chromatin machinery complexes. Using a Normalized Spectral Abundance Factor approach, we quantified relative abundances of the proteins across the chromatin enriched fractions giving a glimpse into their chromosomal abundance. The large-scale data sets also allowed for the discovery of a variety of novel post-translational modifications on the identified chromatin proteins. With these comparisons, we find one of the probed methods to be qualitatively superior in specificity for chromatin proteins, but inferior in proteomic extent, evidencing a compromise that must be made between biological specificity and broadness of characterization. Additionally, we attempt to identify proteins in eu- and heterochromatin, verifying the enrichments by characterizing the post-translational modifications detected on histone proteins from these chromatin regions. In summary, our results provide insights into the value of different methods to extract chromatin-associated proteins and provide starting points to study the factors that may be involved in directing gene expression and other chromatin-related processes. PMID:21935452

  9. Pre-TCR signaling and CD8 gene bivalent chromatin resolution during thymocyte development.

    PubMed

    Harker, Nicola; Garefalaki, Anna; Menzel, Ursula; Ktistaki, Eleni; Naito, Taku; Georgopoulos, Katia; Kioussis, Dimitris

    2011-06-01

    The CD8 gene is silent in CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes, expressed in CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive cells, and silenced in cells committing to the CD4(+) single-positive (SP) lineage, remaining active in the CD8(+) SP lineage. In this study, we show that the chromatin of the CD8 locus is remodeled in C57BL/6 and B6/J Rag1(-/-) MOM double-negative thymocytes as indicated by DNaseI hypersensitivity and widespread bivalent chromatin marks. Pre-TCR signaling coincides with chromatin bivalency resolution into monovalent activating modifications in double-positive and CD8 SP cells. Shortly after commitment to CD4 SP cell lineage, monovalent repressive characteristics and chromatin inaccessibility are established. Differential binding of Ikaros, NuRD, and heterochromatin protein 1α on the locus during these processes may participate in the complex regulation of CD8.

  10. Interplay of dynamic transcription and chromatin remodeling: lessons from yeast.

    PubMed

    Niederacher, Gerhard; Klopf, Eva; Schüller, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of transcription involves dynamic rearrangements of chromatin structure. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a variety of highly conserved factors necessary for these reconstructions. Chromatin remodelers, histone modifiers and histone chaperones directly associate to promoters and open reading frames of exposed genes and facilitate activation and repression of transcription. We compare two distinct patterns of induced transcription: Sustained transcribed genes switch to an activated state where they remain as long as the induction signal is present. In contrast, single pulsed transcribed genes show a quick and strong induction pulse resulting in high transcript levels followed by adaptation and repression to basal levels. We discuss intensively studied promoters and coding regions from both groups for their co-factor requirements during transcription. Interplay between chromatin restructuring factors and dynamic transcription is highly variable and locus dependent.

  11. MNase titration reveals differences between nucleosome occupancy and chromatin accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowski, Jakub; Cook, April; Bowman, Sarah K.; Mueller, Britta; Alver, Burak H.; Kundu, Sharmistha; Deaton, Aimee M.; Urban, Jennifer A.; Larschan, Erica; Park, Peter J.; Kingston, Robert E.; Tolstorukov, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin accessibility plays a fundamental role in gene regulation. Nucleosome placement, usually measured by quantifying protection of DNA from enzymatic digestion, can regulate accessibility. We introduce a metric that uses micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion in a novel manner to measure chromatin accessibility by combining information from several digests of increasing depths. This metric, MACC (MNase accessibility), quantifies the inherent heterogeneity of nucleosome accessibility in which some nucleosomes are seen preferentially at high MNase and some at low MNase. MACC interrogates each genomic locus, measuring both nucleosome location and accessibility in the same assay. MACC can be performed either with or without a histone immunoprecipitation step, and thereby compares histone and non-histone protection. We find that changes in accessibility at enhancers, promoters and other regulatory regions do not correlate with changes in nucleosome occupancy. Moreover, high nucleosome occupancy does not necessarily preclude high accessibility, which reveals novel principles of chromatin regulation. PMID:27151365

  12. Generation of bivalent chromatin domains during cell fate decisions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In self-renewing, pluripotent cells, bivalent chromatin modification is thought to silence (H3K27me3) lineage control genes while 'poising' (H3K4me3) them for subsequent activation during differentiation, implying an important role for epigenetic modification in directing cell fate decisions. However, rather than representing an equivalently balanced epigenetic mark, the patterns and levels of histone modifications at bivalent genes can vary widely and the criteria for identifying this chromatin signature are poorly defined. Results Here, we initially show how chromatin status alters during lineage commitment and differentiation at a single well characterised bivalent locus. In addition we have determined how chromatin modifications at this locus change with gene expression in both ensemble and single cell analyses. We also show, on a global scale, how mRNA expression may be reflected in the ratio of H3K4me3/H3K27me3. Conclusions While truly 'poised' bivalently modified genes may exist, the original hypothesis that all bivalent genes are epigenetically premarked for subsequent expression might be oversimplistic. In fact, from the data presented in the present work, it is equally possible that many genes that appear to be bivalent in pluripotent and multipotent cells may simply be stochastically expressed at low levels in the process of multilineage priming. Although both situations could be considered to be forms of 'poising', the underlying mechanisms and the associated implications are clearly different. PMID:21645363

  13. Polymerized and polyethylene glycol-conjugated hemoglobins: a globin-based calibration curve for dynamic light scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, Serena; Ronda, Luca; Bruno, Stefano; Jankevics, Hanna; Mozzarelli, Andrea

    2010-06-15

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique capable of determining the hydrodynamic radius of proteins. From this parameter, a molecular weight can be assessed provided that an appropriate calibration curve is available. To this goal, a globin-based calibration curve was used to determine the polymerization state of a recombinant hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier and to assess the equivalent molecular weight of hemoglobins conjugated with polyethylene glycol molecules. The good agreement between DLS values and those obtained from gel filtration chromatography is a consequence of the high similarity in structure, shape, and density within the globin superfamily. Moreover, globins and heme proteins in general share similar spectroscopic properties, thereby reducing possible systematic errors associated with the absorption of the probe radiation by the chromophore.

  14. Understanding the chromatin remodeling code.

    PubMed

    Ha, Misook

    2013-10-01

    Remodeling a chromatin structure enables the genetic elements stored in a genome to function in a condition-specific manner and predisposes the interactions between cis-regulatory elements and trans-acting factors. A chromatin signature can be an indicator of the activity of the underlying genetic elements. This paper reviews recent studies showing that the combination and arrangements of chromatin remodeling marks play roles as chromatin code affecting the activity of genetic elements. This paper also reviews recent studies inferring the primary DNA sequence contexts associated with chromatin remodeling that suggest interactions between genetic and epigenetic factors. We conclude that chromatin remodeling, which provides accurate models of gene expression and morphological variations, may help to find the biological marks that cannot be detected by genome-wide association study or genetic study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Toxicology of Chromatin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    FINAL 01 Jan 89 TO 31 Dec 91 4. ITL ANO SUS Y, L RE %UMAS MOLECULAR TOXICOLOGY OF CHROMATIN AFOSR-89-0231 PE - 61102F AUT PR - 2312 TA - A5 Dr Ernest Kun...Waterbury, CT), 2-mercaptoethanol, NAD+, NADPH, nucleo- tides, sodium tungstate , hydrogen peroxide, Tris and MES buffers from Sigma (St. Louis, MO...ml) with sodium tungstate (5.93 g, in 20 ml H20) for 1.5 h followed by extraction of the green product into ethyl acetate, washing with 0.1 N HCl, and

  16. Cas9 Functionally Opens Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Barkal, Amira A.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Gifford, David K.; Sherwood, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    Using a nuclease-dead Cas9 mutant, we show that Cas9 reproducibly induces chromatin accessibility at previously inaccessible genomic loci. Cas9 chromatin opening is sufficient to enable adjacent binding and transcriptional activation by the settler transcription factor retinoic acid receptor at previously unbound motifs. Thus, we demonstrate a new use for Cas9 in increasing surrounding chromatin accessibility to alter local transcription factor binding. PMID:27031353

  17. Mapping chromatin modifications in nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shuang Fang; Karpusenko, Alena; Riehn, Robert

    2013-03-01

    DNA and chromatin are elongated to a fixed fraction of their contour length when introduced into quasi-1d nanochannels. Because single molecules are analyzed, their hold great potential for the analysis for the genetic analysis of material from single cells. In this study, we have reconstituted chromatin with histones from a variety of sources, and mapped the modification profile of the chromatin. We monitored methylation and acetylation patterns of the histone tail protein residues using fluorescently labelled antibodies. Using those, we distinguished chromatin reconstituted from chicken erythrocytes, calf thymus, and HeLa cells. We discuss prospects for profiling histone modifications for whole chromosomes from single cells.

  18. Chromatin structure in barley nuclei.

    PubMed

    Mithieux, G; Roux, B

    1983-10-03

    In order to study the chromatin structure of a higher plant we used a high-yield method, which allows one to obtain up to 10(9) nuclei/kg fresh barley leaves. Significant amounts of low-ionic-strength-soluble chromatin can be extracted from these nuclei. Physicochemical properties were examined and discussed. Electric birefringence allowed us to observe the same transition in electro-optical properties as has been observed for animal chromatin, and suggested the existence of a symetrical structure occurring for approximately six nucleosomes. Circular dichroism showed that barley oligonucleosomes exhibit a higher molar ellipticity at 282 nm than total soluble chromatin and than their animal counterparts.

  19. As a Nucleus Enters a Small Pore, Chromatin Stretches and Maintains Integrity, Even with DNA Breaks.

    PubMed

    Irianto, Jerome; Xia, Yuntao; Pfeifer, Charlotte R; Greenberg, Roger A; Discher, Dennis E

    2017-02-07

    As a cell pushes or pulls its nucleus through a small constriction, the chromatin must distort and somehow maintain genomic stability despite ever-present double-strand breaks in the DNA. Here we visualize within a living cell the pore-size dependent deformation of a specific locus engineered into chromosome-1 and cleaved. An mCherry-tagged nuclease targets the submicron locus, causing DNA cleavage and recruiting repair factors such as GFP-53BP1 to a large region around the locus. Aspiration of a cell and its nucleus into a micropipette shows that chromatin aligns and stretches parallel to the pore. Extension is largest in small pores, increasing >10-fold but remaining 30-fold shorter than the DNA contour length in the locus. Brochard and de Gennes' blob model for tube geometry fits the data, with a simple modification for chromatin crowding. Continuity of the highly extended, cleaved chromatin is also maintained, consistent with folding and cross bridging of the DNA. Surprisingly, extensional integrity is unaffected by an inhibitor of the DNA repair scaffold. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Chromatin condensation during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baobing; Yang, Jing; Ji, Peng

    2016-09-02

    Mammalian terminal erythropoiesis involves gradual but dramatic chromatin condensation steps that are essential for cell differentiation. Chromatin and nuclear condensation is followed by a unique enucleation process, which is believed to liberate more spaces for hemoglobin enrichment and enable the generation of a physically flexible mature red blood cell. Although these processes have been known for decades, the mechanisms are still unclear. Our recent study reveals an unexpected nuclear opening formation during mouse terminal erythropoiesis that requires caspase-3 activity. Major histones, except H2AZ, are partially released from the opening, which is important for chromatin condensation. Block of the nuclear opening through caspase inhibitor or knockdown of caspase-3 inhibits chromatin condensation and enucleation. We also demonstrate that nuclear opening and histone release are cell cycle regulated. These studies reveal a novel mechanism for chromatin condensation in mammalia terminal erythropoiesis.

  1. PHYTOCHROME B and HISTONE DEACETYLASE 6 Control Light-Induced Chromatin Compaction in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Penka; Clifton, Rachel; Pontvianne, Frédéric; Snoek, L. Basten; Millenaar, Frank F.; Schulkes, Roeland Kees; van Driel, Roel; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Spillane, Charles; Pikaard, Craig S.; Fransz, Paul; Peeters, Anton J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Natural genetic variation in Arabidopsis thaliana exists for many traits and often reflects acclimation to local environments. Studying natural variation has proven valuable in the characterization of phenotypic traits and, in particular, in identifying genetic factors controlling these traits. It has been previously shown that chromatin compaction changes during development and biotic stress. To gain more insight into the genetic control of chromatin compaction, we investigated the nuclear phenotype of 21 selected Arabidopsis accessions from different geographic origins and habitats. We show natural variation in chromatin compaction and demonstrate a positive correlation with latitude of geographic origin. The level of compaction appeared to be dependent on light intensity. A novel approach, combining Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping and microscopic examination, pointed at PHYTOCHROME-B (PHYB) and HISTONE DEACETYLASE-6 (HDA6) as positive regulators of light-controlled chromatin compaction. Indeed, mutant analyses demonstrate that both factors affect global chromatin organization. HDA6, in addition, strongly promotes the light-mediated compaction of the Nucleolar Organizing Regions (NORs). The accession Cape Verde Islands-0 (Cvi-0), which shows sequence polymorphism in the PHYB gene and in the HDA6 promotor, resembles the hda6 mutant in having reduced chromatin compaction and decreased methylation levels of DNA and histone H3K9 at the NORs. We provide evidence that chromatin organization is controlled by light intensity. We propose that chromatin plasticity is associated with acclimation of Arabidopsis to its environment. The polymorphic alleles such as PHYB and HDA6 control this process. PMID:19730687

  2. CCSI: a database providing chromatin-chromatin spatial interaction information.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaowei; Ma, Wenbin; Songyang, Zhou; Luo, Zhenhua; Huang, Junfeng; Dai, Zhiming; Xiong, Yuanyan

    2016-01-01

    Distal regulatory elements have been shown to regulate gene transcription through spatial interactions, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are linked with distal gene expression by spatial proximity, which helps to explain the causal role of disease-associated SNPs in non-coding region. Therefore, studies on spatial interactions between chromatin have created a new avenue for elucidating the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in disease pathogenesis. Recently, a growing number of chromatin interactions have been revealed by means of 3C, 4C, 5C, ChIA-PET and Hi-C technologies. To interpret and utilize these interactions, we constructed chromatin-chromatin spatial interaction (CCSI) database by integrating and annotating 91 sets of chromatin interaction data derived from published literature, UCSC database and NCBI GEO database, resulting in a total of 3,017,962 pairwise interactions (false discovery rate < 0.05), covering human, mouse and yeast. A web interface has been designed to provide access to the chromatin interactions. The main features of CCSI are (i) showing chromatin interactions and corresponding genes, enhancers and SNPs within the regions in the search page; (ii) offering complete interaction datasets, enhancer and SNP information in the download page; and (iii) providing analysis pipeline for the annotation of interaction data. In conclusion, CCSI will facilitate exploring transcriptional regulatory mechanism in disease pathogenesis associated with spatial interactions among genes, regulatory regions and SNPs. Database URL: http://songyanglab.sysu.edu.cn/ccsi.

  3. Chromatin dynamics during interphase explored by single particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    Our view of the structure and function of the interphase nucleus has drastically changed in the last years. It is now widely accepted that the nucleus is a well organized and highly compartmentalized organelle and that this organization is intimately related to nuclear function. In this context, chromatin -initially considered a randomly entangled polymer- has also been shown to be structurally organized in interphase and its organization was found to be very important to gene regulation. Relevant and not completely answered questions are how chromatin organization is achieved and what mechanisms are responsible for changes in the positions of chromatin loci in the nucleus. A significant advance in the field resulted from tagging chromosome sites with bacterial operator sequences, and visualizing these tags using green fluorescent protein fused with the appropriate repressor protein. Simultaneously, fluorescence imaging techniques significantly evolved during the last years allowing the observation of the time evolution of processes in living specimens. In this context, the motion of the tagged locus was observed and analyzed to extract quantitative information regarding its dynamics. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of chromatin dynamics in interphase with the emphasis placed on the information obtained from single particle tracking (SPT) experiments. We introduce the basis of SPT methods and trajectories analysis, and summarize what has been learnt by using this new technology in the context of chromatin dynamics. Finally, we briefly describe a method of SPT in a two-photon excitation microscope that has several advantages over methods based on conventional microscopy and review the information obtained by using this novel approach to study chromatin dynamics. PMID:18461483

  4. Chromatin dynamics during interphase explored by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Levi, Valeria; Gratton, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Our view of the structure and function of the interphase nucleus has changed drastically in recent years. It is now widely accepted that the nucleus is a well organized and highly compartmentalized organelle and that this organization is intimately related to nuclear function. In this context, chromatin-initially considered a randomly entangled polymer-has also been shown to be structurally organized in interphase and its organization was found to be very important to gene regulation. Relevant and not completely answered questions are how chromatin organization is achieved and what mechanisms are responsible for changes in the positions of chromatin loci in the nucleus. A significant advance in the field resulted from tagging chromosome sites with bacterial operator sequences, and visualizing these tags using green fluorescent protein fused with the appropriate repressor protein. Simultaneously, fluorescence imaging techniques evolved significantly during recent years, allowing observation of the time evolution of processes in living specimens. In this context, the motion of the tagged locus was observed and analyzed to extract quantitative information regarding its dynamics. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of chromatin dynamics in interphase with the emphasis placed on the information obtained from single-particle tracking (SPT) experiments. We introduce the basis of SPT methods and trajectory analysis, and summarize what has been learnt by using this new technology in the context of chromatin dynamics. Finally, we briefly describe a method of SPT in a two-photon excitation microscope that has several advantages over methods based on conventional microscopy and review the information obtained using this novel approach to study chromatin dynamics.

  5. Differential association of chromatin proteins identifies BAF60a/SMARCD1 as a regulator of embryonic stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Alajem, Adi; Biran, Alva; Harikumar, Arigela; Sailaja, Badi Sri; Aaronson, Yair; Livyatan, Ilana; Nissim-Rafinia, Malka; Sommer, Andreia Gianotti; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Gerbasi, Vincent R; Golden, Daniel E; Datta, Arnab; Sze, Siu Kwan; Meshorer, Eran

    2015-03-31

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) possess a distinct chromatin conformation maintained by specialized chromatin proteins. To identify chromatin regulators in ESCs, we developed a simple biochemical assay named D-CAP (differential chromatin-associated proteins), using brief micrococcal nuclease digestion of chromatin, followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Using D-CAP, we identified several differentially chromatin-associated proteins between undifferentiated and differentiated ESCs, including the chromatin remodeling protein SMARCD1. SMARCD1 depletion in ESCs led to altered chromatin and enhanced endodermal differentiation. Gene expression and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses suggested that SMARCD1 is both an activator and a repressor and is enriched at developmental regulators and that its chromatin binding coincides with H3K27me3. SMARCD1 knockdown caused H3K27me3 redistribution and increased H3K4me3 around the transcription start site (TSS). One of the identified SMARCD1 targets was Klf4. In SMARCD1-knockdown clones, KLF4, as well as H3K4me3 at the Klf4 locus, remained high and H3K27me3 was abolished. These results propose a role for SMARCD1 in restricting pluripotency and activating lineage pathways by regulating H3K27 methylation.

  6. Structure of chromatin in spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Björndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    The specialized structure of the sperm chromatin has a dual function - first to protect the DNA from damage during storage and transport to the oocyte, and then to enable a rapid and complete unpacking of the undamaged paternal genome in the ooplasm. It is evident that zinc has a pivotal role in maintaining the structural stability and in enabling a rapid decondensation at the appropriate time. It is important for the sperm chromatin structure that the spermatozoa are ejaculated together with the zinc-rich prostatic secretion. Early exposure to zinc-binding seminal vesicular fluid can deplete the sperm chromatin of zinc and most likely induce surplus formation of disulfide bridges, likely to cause incomplete and delayed decondensation of the sperm chromatin in the oocyte. A premature decrease in sperm chromatin structure stability is likely to increase the risk for damage to the DNA due to increased access to the genome for DNA damaging compounds. The status of the sperm chromatin structure can vary in vitro depending on the exposure to zinc-depleting conditions when spermatozoa are stored in semen after ejaculation. When sperm DNA damage tests are evaluated and validated, it is therefore essential to also take into account the dynamics of zinc-dependent and zinc-independent sperm chromatin stability.

  7. Single Molecule Studies of Chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jeans, C; Colvin, M E; Thelen, M P; Noy, A

    2004-01-06

    The DNA in eukaryotic cells is tightly packaged as chromatin through interactions with histone proteins to form nucleosomes. These nucleosomes are themselves packed together through interactions with linker histone and non-histone proteins. In order for processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription to occur, the chromatin fiber must be remodeled such that the necessary enzymes can access the DNA. The structure of the chromatin fiber beyond the level of the single nucleosome and the structural changes which accompany the remodeling process are poorly understood. We are studying the structures and forces behind the remodeling process through the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM). This allows both high-resolution imaging of the chromatin, and manipulation of individual fibers. Pulling a single chromatin fiber apart using the AFM tip yields information on the forces which hold the structure together. We have isolated chromatin fibers from chicken erythrocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. AFM images of these fibers will be presented, along with preliminary data from the manipulation of these fibers using the AFM tip. The implications of these data for the structure of chromatin undergoing the remodeling process are discussed.

  8. Models of chromatin spatial organisation in the cell nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicodemi, Mario

    2014-03-01

    In the cell nucleus chromosomes have a complex architecture serving vital functional purposes. Recent experiments have started unveiling the interaction map of DNA sites genome-wide, revealing different levels of organisation at different scales. The principles, though, which orchestrate such a complex 3D structure remain still mysterious. I will overview the scenario emerging from some classical polymer physics models of the general aspect of chromatin spatial organisation. The available experimental data, which can be rationalised in a single framework, support a picture where chromatin is a complex mixture of differently folded regions, self-organised across spatial scales according to basic physical mechanisms. I will also discuss applications to specific DNA loci, e.g. the HoxB locus, where models informed with biological details, and tested against targeted experiments, can help identifying the determinants of folding.

  9. piRNA clusters and open chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are major structural components of eukaryotic genomes; however, mobilization of TEs generally has negative effects on the host genome. To counteract this threat, host cells have evolved genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that keep TEs silenced. One such mechanism involves the Piwi-piRNA complex, which represses TEs in animal gonads either by cleaving TE transcripts in the cytoplasm or by directing specific chromatin modifications at TE loci in the nucleus. Most Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are derived from genomic piRNA clusters. There has been remarkable progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying piRNA biogenesis. However, little is known about how a specific locus in the genome is converted into a piRNA-producing site. In this review, we will discuss a possible link between chromatin boundaries and piRNA cluster formation. PMID:25126116

  10. Mesoscale Modeling of Chromatin Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlick, Tamar

    2009-03-01

    Eukaryotic chromatin is the fundamental protein/nucleic acid unit that stores the genetic material. Understanding how chromatin fibers fold and unfold in physiological conditions is important for interpreting fundamental biological processes like DNA replication and transcription regulation. Using a mesoscopic model of oligonucleosome chains and tailored sampling protocols, we elucidate the energetics of oligonucleosome folding/unfolding and the role of each histone tail, linker histones, and divalent ions in regulating chromatin structure. The resulting compact topologies reconcile features of the zigzag model with straight linker DNAs with the solenoid model with bent linker DNAs for optimal fiber organization and reveal dynamic and energetic aspects involved.

  11. Chromatin and Transcription in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Oliver J.; Winston, Fred

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which chromatin structure controls eukaryotic transcription has been an intense area of investigation for the past 25 years. Many of the key discoveries that created the foundation for this field came from studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including the discovery of the role of chromatin in transcriptional silencing, as well as the discovery of chromatin-remodeling factors and histone modification activities. Since that time, studies in yeast have continued to contribute in leading ways. This review article summarizes the large body of yeast studies in this field. PMID:22345607

  12. Chromatin condensation of Xist genomic loci during oogenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Mitani, Atsushi; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Akutsu, Hidenori

    2015-12-01

    Repression of maternal Xist (Xm-Xist) during preimplantation in mouse embryos is essential for establishing imprinted X chromosome inactivation. Nuclear transplantation (NT) studies using nuclei derived from non-growing (ng) and full-grown (fg) oocytes have indicated that maternal-specific repressive modifications are imposed on Xm-Xist during oogenesis, as well as on autosomal imprinted genes. Recent studies have revealed that histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) enrichments on Xm-Xist promoter regions are involved in silencing at the preimplantation stages. However, whether H3K9me3 is imposed on Xm-Xist during oogenesis is not known. Here, we dissected the chromatin states in ng and fg oocytes and early preimplantation stage embryos. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments against H3K9me3 revealed that there was no significant enrichment within the Xm-Xist region during oogenesis. However, NT embryos with ng nuclei (ngNT) showed extensive Xm-Xist derepression and H3K9me3 hypomethylation of the promoter region at the 4-cell stage, which corresponds to the onset of paternal Xist expression. We also found that the chromatin state at the Xist genomic locus became markedly condensed as oocyte growth proceeded. Although the condensed Xm-Xist genomic locus relaxed during early preimplantation phases, the extent of the relaxation across Xm-Xist loci derived from normally developed oocytes was significantly smaller than those of paternal-Xist and ngNT-Xist genomic loci. Furthermore, Xm-Xist from 2-cell metaphase nuclei became derepressed following NT. We propose that chromatin condensation is associated with imprinted Xist repression and that skipping of the condensation step by NT leads to Xist activation during the early preimplantation phase.

  13. A globin domain in a neuronal transmembrane receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum: molecular modeling and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-04-17

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Regulation of cellular chromatin state

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Dhawan, Jyotsna

    2010-01-01

    The identity and functionality of eukaryotic cells is defined not just by their genomic sequence which remains constant between cell types, but by their gene expression profiles governed by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic controls maintain and change the chromatin state throughout development, as exemplified by the setting up of cellular memory for the regulation and maintenance of homeotic genes in proliferating progenitors during embryonic development. Higher order chromatin structure in reversibly arrested adult stem cells also involves epigenetic regulation and in this review we highlight common trends governing chromatin states, focusing on quiescence and differentiation during myogenesis. Together, these diverse developmental modules reveal the dynamic nature of chromatin regulation providing fresh insights into the role of epigenetic mechanisms in potentiating development and differentiation. PMID:20592864

  15. Unusual chromatin in human telomeres.

    PubMed Central

    Tommerup, H; Dousmanis, A; de Lange, T

    1994-01-01

    We report that human telomeres have an unusual chromatin structure characterized by diffuse micrococcal nuclease patterns. The altered chromatin manifested itself only in human telomeres that are relatively short (2 to 7 kb). In contrast, human and mouse telomeres with telomeric repeat arrays of 14 to 150 kb displayed a more canonical chromatin structure with extensive arrays of tightly packed nucleosomes. All telomeric nucleosomes showed a shorter repeat size than bulk nucleosomes, and telomeric mononucleosomal particles were found to be hypersensitive to micrococcal nuclease. However, telomeric nucleosomes were similar to bulk nucleosomes in the rate at which they sedimented through sucrose gradients. We speculate that mammalian telomeres have a bipartite structure with unusual chromatin near the telomere terminus and a more canonical nucleosomal organization in the proximal part of the telomere. Images PMID:8065312

  16. Disruption of CTCF/cohesin-mediated high-order chromatin structures by DNA methylation downregulates PTGS2 expression.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y; Song, S H; Yun, J; Jeon, M S; Kim, H P; Han, S W; Kim, T Y

    2015-11-05

    The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)/cohesin complex regulates gene transcription via high-order chromatin organization of the genome. De novo methylation of CpG islands in the promoter region is an epigenetic hallmark of gene silencing in cancer. Although the CTCF/cohesin complex preferentially targets hypomethylated DNA, it remains unclear whether the CTCF/cohesin-mediated high-order chromatin structure is affected by DNA methylation during tumorigenesis. We found that DNA methylation downregulates the expression of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), which is an inducible, rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin synthesis, by disrupting CTCF/cohesin-mediated chromatin looping. We show that the CTCF/cohesin complex is enriched near a CpG island associated with PTGS2 and that the PTGS2 locus forms chromatin loops through methylation-sensitive binding of the CTCF/cohesin complex. DNA methylation abolishes the association of the CTCF/cohesin complex with the PTGS2 CpG island. Disruption of chromatin looping by DNA methylation abrogates the enrichment of transcriptional components, such as positive elongation factor b, at the transcriptional start site of the PTGS2 locus. These alterations result in the downregulation of PTGS2. Our results provide evidence that CTCF/cohesin-mediated chromatin looping of the PTGS2 locus is dynamically influenced by the DNA methylation status.

  17. Linker DNA destabilizes condensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Green, G R; Ferlita, R R; Walkenhorst, W F; Poccia, D L

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the linker region to maintenance of condensed chromatin was examined in two model systems, namely sea urchin sperm nuclei and chicken red blood cell nuclei. Linkerless nuclei, prepared by extensive digestion with micrococcal nuclease, were compared with Native nuclei using several assays, including microscopic appearance, nuclear turbidity, salt stability, and trypsin resistance. Chromatin in the Linkerless nuclei was highly condensed, resembling pyknotic chromatin in apoptotic cells. Linkerless nuclei were more stable in low ionic strength buffers and more resistant to trypsin than Native nuclei. Analysis of histones from the trypsinized nuclei by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that specific histone H1, H2B, and H3 tail regions stabilized linker DNA in condensed nuclei. Thermal denaturation of soluble chromatin preparations from differentially trypsinized sperm nuclei demonstrated that the N-terminal regions of histones Sp H1, Sp H2B, and H3 bind tightly to linker DNA, causing it to denature at a high temperature. We conclude that linker DNA exerts a disruptive force on condensed chromatin structure which is counteracted by binding of specific histone tail regions to the linker DNA. The inherent instability of the linker region may be significant in all eukaryotic chromatins and may promote gene activation in living cells.

  18. METHODS IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: ASSAYING CHROMATIN SIRTUINS

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Dafne M.; Sebastian, Carlos; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Most of the sirtuins’ nuclear substrates indentified so far are histones or other chromatin-associated proteins and, thus, it is of special relevance the development of good biochemical techniques to analyze the biology of these proteins in the context of chromatin. Here, we describe several of the chromatin-based techniques to identify sirtuins’ substrates, including a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol, an acid-extraction protocol, and a nucleosomal immunoprecipitation protocol to analyze putative sirtuin chromatin interactors. PMID:24014405

  19. Imprinting regulates mammalian snoRNA-encoding chromatin decondensation and neuronal nucleolar size

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Karen N.; Vallero, Roxanne O.; DuBose, Amanda J.; Resnick, James L.; LaSalle, Janine M.

    2009-01-01

    Imprinting, non-coding RNA and chromatin organization are modes of epigenetic regulation that modulate gene expression and are necessary for mammalian neurodevelopment. The only two known mammalian clusters of genes encoding small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), SNRPN through UBE3A(15q11–q13/7qC) and GTL2(14q32.2/12qF1), are neuronally expressed, localized to imprinted loci and involved in at least five neurodevelopmental disorders. Deficiency of the paternal 15q11–q13 snoRNA HBII-85 locus is necessary to cause the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS). Here we show epigenetically regulated chromatin decondensation at snoRNA clusters in human and mouse brain. An 8-fold allele-specific decondensation of snoRNA chromatin was developmentally regulated specifically in maturing neurons, correlating with HBII-85 nucleolar accumulation and increased nucleolar size. Reciprocal mouse models revealed a genetic and epigenetic requirement of the 35 kb imprinting center (IC) at the Snrpn–Ube3a locus for transcriptionally regulated chromatin decondensation. PWS human brain and IC deletion mouse Purkinje neurons showed significantly decreased nucleolar size, demonstrating the essential role of the 15q11–q13 HBII-85 locus in neuronal nucleolar maturation. These results are relevant to understanding the molecular pathogenesis of multiple human neurodevelopmental disorders, including PWS and some causes of autism. PMID:19656775

  20. Influence of a CTCF-Dependent Insulator on Multiple Aspects of Enhancer-Mediated Chromatin Organization.

    PubMed

    Varma, Garima; Rawat, Pratishtha; Jalan, Manisha; Vinayak, Manjula; Srivastava, Madhulika

    2015-10-01

    Developmental stage-specific enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions regulate the chromatin configuration necessary for transcription at various loci and additionally for VDJ recombination at antigen receptor loci that encode immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. To investigate these regulatory interactions, we analyzed the epigenetic landscape of the murine T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) locus in the presence and absence of an ectopic CTCF-dependent enhancer-blocking insulator, H19-ICR, in genetically manipulated mice. Our analysis demonstrated the ability of the H19-ICR insulator to restrict several aspects of enhancer-based chromatin alterations that are observed during activation of the TCRβ locus for transcription and recombination. The H19-ICR insulator abrogated enhancer-promoter contact-dependent chromatin alterations and additionally prevented Eβ-mediated histone modifications that have been suggested to be independent of enhancer-promoter interaction. Observed enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions, in conjunction with the chromatin structure of the Eβ-regulated domain at the nucleosomal level, provide useful insights regarding the activity of the regulatory elements in addition to supporting the accessibility hypothesis of VDJ recombination. Analysis of H19-ICR in the heterologous context of the developmentally regulated TCRβ locus suggests that different mechanisms proposed for CTCF-dependent insulator action might be manifested simultaneously or selectively depending on the genomic context and the nature of enhancer activity being curtailed.

  1. Influence of a CTCF-Dependent Insulator on Multiple Aspects of Enhancer-Mediated Chromatin Organization

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Garima; Rawat, Pratishtha; Jalan, Manisha; Vinayak, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    Developmental stage-specific enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions regulate the chromatin configuration necessary for transcription at various loci and additionally for VDJ recombination at antigen receptor loci that encode immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. To investigate these regulatory interactions, we analyzed the epigenetic landscape of the murine T-cell receptor β (TCRβ) locus in the presence and absence of an ectopic CTCF-dependent enhancer-blocking insulator, H19-ICR, in genetically manipulated mice. Our analysis demonstrated the ability of the H19-ICR insulator to restrict several aspects of enhancer-based chromatin alterations that are observed during activation of the TCRβ locus for transcription and recombination. The H19-ICR insulator abrogated enhancer-promoter contact-dependent chromatin alterations and additionally prevented Eβ-mediated histone modifications that have been suggested to be independent of enhancer-promoter interaction. Observed enhancer-promoter-insulator interactions, in conjunction with the chromatin structure of the Eβ-regulated domain at the nucleosomal level, provide useful insights regarding the activity of the regulatory elements in addition to supporting the accessibility hypothesis of VDJ recombination. Analysis of H19-ICR in the heterologous context of the developmentally regulated TCRβ locus suggests that different mechanisms proposed for CTCF-dependent insulator action might be manifested simultaneously or selectively depending on the genomic context and the nature of enhancer activity being curtailed. PMID:26240285

  2. Chromatin structure and DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation examines the structure and structural transitions of chromatin in relation to DNA damage. The ability of intact and histone H1 depleted chromatin fibers to fold into higher ordered structures in vitro was examined following DNA photodamage introduced by two different agents. (1) 254-nm UV radiation and (2) trimethylpsoralen (plus near-UV radiation). Both agents are highly specific for DNA and form adducts predicted to cause different degrees of distortion in the DNA helix. The salt-induced structural transitions of intact and histone H1 depleted chromatin fibers were monitored by both analytical ultracentrifugation and light scattering. Our results show that even in the presence of extremely large, nonphysiological amounts of photodamage by either agent the ability of chromatin to fold into higher ordered structures is not affected. The compact, 30 nm fiber must therefore be able to accommodate a large amount of DNA damage without any measurable changes in the overall size or degree of compaction of this structure. The distribution of pyrimidine dimers was mapped at the single nucleotide level in nucleosome core DNA from UV-irradiated mononucleosomes, chromatin fibers, and human cells in culture using the 3' ..-->.. 5' exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase.

  3. Chromatin shapes the mitotic spindle.

    PubMed

    Dinarina, Ana; Pugieux, Céline; Corral, Maria Mora; Loose, Martin; Spatz, Joachim; Karsenti, Eric; Nédélec, François

    2009-08-07

    In animal and plant cells, mitotic chromatin locally generates microtubules that self-organize into a mitotic spindle, and its dimensions and bipolar symmetry are essential for accurate chromosome segregation. By immobilizing microscopic chromatin-coated beads on slide surfaces using a microprinting technique, we have examined the effect of chromatin on the dimensions and symmetry of spindles in Xenopus laevis cytoplasmic extracts. While circular spots with diameters around 14-18 microm trigger bipolar spindle formation, larger spots generate an incorrect number of poles. We also examined lines of chromatin with various dimensions. Their length determined the number of poles that formed, with a 6 x 18 microm rectangular patch generating normal spindle morphology. Around longer lines, multiple poles formed and the structures were disorganized. While lines thinner than 10 mum generated symmetric structures, thicker lines induced the formation of asymmetric structures where all microtubules are on the same side of the line. Our results show that chromatin defines spindle shape and orientation. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file available with the online Supplemental Data.

  4. Chromatin modification in zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Cayuso Mas, Jordi; Noël, Emily S; Ober, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    The generation of complex organisms requires that an initial population of cells with identical gene expression profiles can adopt different cell fates during development by progressively diverging transcriptional programs. These programs depend on the binding of transcritional regulators to specific genomic sites, which in turn is controlled by modifications of the chromatin. Chromatin modifications may occur directly upon DNA by methylation of specific nucleotides, or may involve post-translational modification of histones. Local regulation of histone post-translational modifications regionalizes the genome into euchromatic regions, which are more accessible to DNA-binding factors, and condensed heterochromatic regions, inhibiting the binding of such factors. In addition, these modifications may be required in a genome-wide fashion for processes such as DNA replication or chromosome condensation. From an embryologist's point of view chromatin modifications are intensively studied in the context of imprinting and have more recently received increasing attention in understanding the basis of pluripotency and cellular differentiation. Here, we describe recently uncovered roles of chromatin modifications in zebrafish development and regeneration, as well as available resources and commonly used techniques. We provide a general introduction into chromatin modifications and their respective functions with a focus on gene transcription, as well as key aspects of their roles in the early zebrafish embryo, neural development, formation of the digestive system and tissue regeneration.

  5. Single Molecule Studies of Chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Jeans, C; Thelen, M P; Noy, A

    2006-02-06

    In eukaryotic cells, DNA is packaged as chromatin, a highly ordered structure formed through the wrapping of the DNA around histone proteins, and further packed through interactions with a number of other proteins. In order for processes such as DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription to occur, the structure of chromatin must be remodeled such that the necessary enzymes can access the DNA. A number of remodeling enzymes have been described, but our understanding of the remodeling process is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the fine structure of chromatin, and how this structure is modulated in the living cell. We have carried out single molecule experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the packaging arrangements in chromatin from a variety of cell types. Comparison of the structures observed reveals differences which can be explained in terms of the cell type and its transcriptional activity. During the course of this project, sample preparation and AFM techniques were developed and optimized. Several opportunities for follow-up work are outlined which could provide further insight into the dynamic structural rearrangements of chromatin.

  6. Biallelic Germline Transcription at the κ Immunoglobulin Locus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nandita; Bergman, Yehudit; Cedar, Howard; Chess, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Rearrangement of antigen receptor genes generates a vast array of antigen receptors on lymphocytes. The establishment of allelic exclusion in immunoglobulin genes requires differential treatment of the two sequence identical alleles. In the case of the κ immunoglobulin locus, changes in chromatin structure, methylation, and replication timing of the two alleles are all potentially involved in regulating rearrangement. Additionally, germline transcription of the κ locus which precedes rearrangement has been proposed to reflect an opening of the chromatin structure rendering it available for rearrangement. As the initial restriction of rearrangement to one allele is critical to the establishment of allelic exclusion, a key question is whether or not germline transcription at the κ locus is monoallelic or biallelic. We have used a sensitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and an RNA–fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to show that germline transcription of the κ locus is biallelic in wild-type immature B cells and in recombination activating gene (RAG)−/−, μ+ B cells. Therefore, germline transcription is unlikely to dictate which allele will be rearranged first and rather reflects a general opening on both alleles that must be accompanied by a mechanism allowing one of the two alleles to be rearranged first. PMID:12629064

  7. Chromatin remodelling and the Arabidopsis biological clock.

    PubMed

    Más, Paloma

    2008-02-01

    Plants, as sessile organisms, rely on accurate time measurement to synchronize their physiology and development to the most favourable time-of-day or time-of-year. The biological clock is the endogenous mechanism responsible for the integration of the photoperiodic information thus coordinating metabolism in resonance with the environmental cycle. Despite the importance of circadian clock function in plant reproduction and survival, we are still far from understanding the specific molecular mechanisms governing the rhythmic expression of clock components. Recently, we have described a new mechanism of circadian regulation that involves changes in chromatin structure at the TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) locus. The mechanism is defined by activators and repressors that are precisely coordinated to favor a hyper- or hypo-acetylated state of histones that leads to TOC1 transcriptional activation or repression, respectively. The clockcontrolled rhythms in histone acetylation/deacetylation at the TOC1 promoter are differentially modulated by day-length or photoperiod suggesting a mechanism by which plants ensure the phase of entrainment in physiological and developmental outputs.

  8. Chromatin Remodeling and Plant Immunity.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Zhu, Q; Liu, Y; Zhang, Q

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling, an important facet of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes, is performed by two major types of multisubunit complexes, covalent histone- or DNA-modifying complexes, and ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes. Snf2 family DNA-dependent ATPases constitute the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling complexes, which accounts for energy supply during chromatin remodeling. Increasing evidence indicates a critical role of chromatin remodeling in the establishment of long-lasting, even transgenerational immune memory in plants, which is supported by the findings that DNA methylation, histone deacetylation, and histone methylation can prime the promoters of immune-related genes required for disease defense. So what are the links between Snf2-mediated ATP-dependent chromosome remodeling and plant immunity, and what mechanisms might support its involvement in disease resistance?

  9. Image simulation using LOCUS

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J.D.; Roberts, J.A.

    1989-09-01

    The LOCUS data base program has been used to simulate images and to solve simple equations. This has been accomplished by making each record (which normally would represent a data entry)represent sequenced or random number pairs.

  10. Snapshots: Chromatin Control of Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, David M.; Lieberman, Paul M.; Jung, Jae U.; McBride, Alison A.; Morris, Kevin V.; Ott, Melanie; Margolis, David; Nieto, Amelia; Nevels, Michael; Parks, Robin J.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Like their cellular host counterparts, many invading viral pathogens must contend with, modulate, and utilize the host cell’s chromatin machinery to promote efficient lytic infection or control persistent-latent states. While not intended to be comprehensive, this review represents a compilation of conceptual snapshots of the dynamic interplay of viruses with the chromatin environment. Contributions focus on chromatin dynamics during infection, viral circumvention of cellular chromatin repression, chromatin organization of large DNA viruses, tethering and persistence, viral interactions with cellular chromatin modulation machinery, and control of viral latency-reactivation cycles. PMID:23217624

  11. The insulation of genes from external enhancers and silencing chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Burgess-Beusse, Bonnie; Farrell, Catherine; Gaszner, Miklos; Litt, Michael; Mutskov, Vesco; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Simpson, Melanie; West, Adam; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2002-01-01

    Insulators are DNA sequence elements that can serve in some cases as barriers to protect a gene against the encroachment of adjacent inactive condensed chromatin. Some insulators also can act as blocking elements to protect against the activating influence of distal enhancers associated with other genes. Although most of the insulators identified so far derive from Drosophila, they also are found in vertebrates. An insulator at the 5′ end of the chicken β-globin locus marks a boundary between an open chromatin domain and a region of constitutively condensed chromatin. Detailed analysis of this element shows that it possesses both enhancer blocking activity and the ability to screen reporter genes against position effects. Enhancer blocking is associated with binding of the protein CTCF; sites that bind CTCF are found at other critical points in the genome. Protection against position effects involves other properties that appear to be associated with control of histone acetylation and methylation. Insulators thus are complex elements that can help to preserve the independent function of genes embedded in a genome in which they are surrounded by regulatory signals they must ignore. PMID:12154228

  12. Predicting chromatin architecture from models of polymer physics.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Simona; Chiariello, Andrea M; Annunziatella, Carlo; Esposito, Andrea; Nicodemi, Mario

    2017-01-09

    We review the picture of chromatin large-scale 3D organization emerging from the analysis of Hi-C data and polymer modeling. In higher mammals, Hi-C contact maps reveal a complex higher-order organization, extending from the sub-Mb to chromosomal scales, hierarchically folded in a structure of domains-within-domains (metaTADs). The domain folding hierarchy is partially conserved throughout differentiation, and deeply correlated to epigenomic features. Rearrangements in the metaTAD topology relate to gene expression modifications: in particular, in neuronal differentiation models, topologically associated domains (TADs) tend to have coherent expression changes within architecturally conserved metaTAD niches. To identify the nature of architectural domains and their molecular determinants within a principled approach, we discuss models based on polymer physics. We show that basic concepts of interacting polymer physics explain chromatin spatial organization across chromosomal scales and cell types. The 3D structure of genomic loci can be derived with high accuracy and its molecular determinants identified by crossing information with epigenomic databases. In particular, we illustrate the case of the Sox9 locus, linked to human congenital disorders. The model in-silico predictions on the effects of genomic rearrangements are confirmed by available 5C data. That can help establishing new diagnostic tools for diseases linked to chromatin mis-folding, such as congenital disorders and cancer.

  13. The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Robert E.; Rynes, Eric; Humbert, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Maurano, Matthew T.; Haugen, Eric; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Stergachis, Andrew B.; Wang, Hao; Vernot, Benjamin; Garg, Kavita; Sandstrom, Richard; Bates, Daniel; Canfield, Theresa K.; Diegel, Morgan; Dunn, Douglas; Ebersol, Abigail K.; Frum, Tristan; Giste, Erika; Harding, Lisa; Johnson, Audra K.; Johnson, Ericka M.; Kutyavin, Tanya; Lajoie, Bryan; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Lee, Kristen; London, Darin; Lotakis, Dimitra; Neph, Shane; Neri, Fidencio; Nguyen, Eric D.; Reynolds, Alex P.; Roach, Vaughn; Safi, Alexias; Sanchez, Minerva E.; Sanyal, Amartya; Shafer, Anthony; Simon, Jeremy M.; Song, Lingyun; Vong, Shinny; Weaver, Molly; Zhang, Zhancheng; Zhang, Zhuzhu; Lenhard, Boris; Tewari, Muneesh; Dorschner, Michael O.; Hansen, R. Scott; Navas, Patrick A.; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Lieb, Jason D.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Akey, Joshua M.; Sabo, Peter J.; Kaul, Rajinder; Furey, Terrence S.; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E.; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2013-01-01

    DNaseI hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers, and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We identify ~2.9 million DHSs that encompass virtually all known experimentally-validated cis-regulatory sequences and expose a vast trove of novel elements, most with highly cell-selective regulation. Annotating these elements using ENCODE data reveals novel relationships between chromatin accessibility, transcription, DNA methylation, and regulatory factor occupancy patterns. We connect ~580,000 distal DHSs with their target promoters, revealing systematic pairing of different classes of distal DHSs and specific promoter types. Patterning of chromatin accessibility at many regulatory regions is choreographed with dozens to hundreds of co-activated elements, and the trans-cellular DNaseI sensitivity pattern at a given region can predict cell type-specific functional behaviors. The DHS landscape shows signatures of recent functional evolutionary constraint. However, the DHS compartment in pluripotent and immortalized cells exhibits higher mutation rates than that in highly differentiated cells, exposing an unexpected link between chromatin accessibility, proliferative potential and patterns of human variation. PMID:22955617

  14. The accessible chromatin landscape of the human genome.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Robert E; Rynes, Eric; Humbert, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Maurano, Matthew T; Haugen, Eric; Sheffield, Nathan C; Stergachis, Andrew B; Wang, Hao; Vernot, Benjamin; Garg, Kavita; John, Sam; Sandstrom, Richard; Bates, Daniel; Boatman, Lisa; Canfield, Theresa K; Diegel, Morgan; Dunn, Douglas; Ebersol, Abigail K; Frum, Tristan; Giste, Erika; Johnson, Audra K; Johnson, Ericka M; Kutyavin, Tanya; Lajoie, Bryan; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Lee, Kristen; London, Darin; Lotakis, Dimitra; Neph, Shane; Neri, Fidencio; Nguyen, Eric D; Qu, Hongzhu; Reynolds, Alex P; Roach, Vaughn; Safi, Alexias; Sanchez, Minerva E; Sanyal, Amartya; Shafer, Anthony; Simon, Jeremy M; Song, Lingyun; Vong, Shinny; Weaver, Molly; Yan, Yongqi; Zhang, Zhancheng; Zhang, Zhuzhu; Lenhard, Boris; Tewari, Muneesh; Dorschner, Michael O; Hansen, R Scott; Navas, Patrick A; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Lieb, Jason D; Sunyaev, Shamil R; Akey, Joshua M; Sabo, Peter J; Kaul, Rajinder; Furey, Terrence S; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2012-09-06

    DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We identify ∼2.9 million DHSs that encompass virtually all known experimentally validated cis-regulatory sequences and expose a vast trove of novel elements, most with highly cell-selective regulation. Annotating these elements using ENCODE data reveals novel relationships between chromatin accessibility, transcription, DNA methylation and regulatory factor occupancy patterns. We connect ∼580,000 distal DHSs with their target promoters, revealing systematic pairing of different classes of distal DHSs and specific promoter types. Patterning of chromatin accessibility at many regulatory regions is organized with dozens to hundreds of co-activated elements, and the transcellular DNase I sensitivity pattern at a given region can predict cell-type-specific functional behaviours. The DHS landscape shows signatures of recent functional evolutionary constraint. However, the DHS compartment in pluripotent and immortalized cells exhibits higher mutation rates than that in highly differentiated cells, exposing an unexpected link between chromatin accessibility, proliferative potential and patterns of human variation.

  15. Global Quantitative Modeling of Chromatin Factor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin is the driver of gene regulation, yet understanding the molecular interactions underlying chromatin factor combinatorial patterns (or the “chromatin codes”) remains a fundamental challenge in chromatin biology. Here we developed a global modeling framework that leverages chromatin profiling data to produce a systems-level view of the macromolecular complex of chromatin. Our model ultilizes maximum entropy modeling with regularization-based structure learning to statistically dissect dependencies between chromatin factors and produce an accurate probability distribution of chromatin code. Our unsupervised quantitative model, trained on genome-wide chromatin profiles of 73 histone marks and chromatin proteins from modENCODE, enabled making various data-driven inferences about chromatin profiles and interactions. We provided a highly accurate predictor of chromatin factor pairwise interactions validated by known experimental evidence, and for the first time enabled higher-order interaction prediction. Our predictions can thus help guide future experimental studies. The model can also serve as an inference engine for predicting unknown chromatin profiles — we demonstrated that with this approach we can leverage data from well-characterized cell types to help understand less-studied cell type or conditions. PMID:24675896

  16. Combgap Promotes Ovarian Niche Development and Chromatin Association of EcR-Binding Regions in BR-C

    PubMed Central

    Gancz, Dana; Lifshitz, Aviezer; Tanay, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The development of niches for tissue-specific stem cells is an important aspect of stem cell biology. Determination of niche size and niche numbers during organogenesis involves precise control of gene expression. How this is achieved in the context of a complex chromatin landscape is largely unknown. Here we show that the nuclear protein Combgap (Cg) supports correct ovarian niche formation in Drosophila by controlling ecdysone-Receptor (EcR)- mediated transcription and long-range chromatin contacts in the broad locus (BR-C). Both cg and BR-C promote ovarian growth and the development of niches for germ line stem cells. BR-C levels were lower when Combgap was either reduced or over-expressed, indicating an intricate regulation of the BR-C locus by Combgap. Polytene chromosome stains showed that Cg co-localizes with EcR, the major regulator of BR-C, at the BR-C locus and that EcR binding to chromatin was sensitive to changes in Cg levels. Proximity ligation assay indicated that the two proteins could reside in the same complex. Finally, chromatin conformation analysis revealed that EcR-bound regions within BR-C, which span ~30 KBs, contacted each other. Significantly, these contacts were stabilized in an ecdysone- and Combgap-dependent manner. Together, these results highlight Combgap as a novel regulator of chromatin structure that promotes transcription of ecdysone target genes and ovarian niche formation. PMID:27846223

  17. Using targeted chromatin regulators to engineer combinatorial and spatial transcriptional regulation

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Albert J.; Bashor, Caleb J.; Kiriakov, Szilvia; Collins, James J.; Khalil, Ahmad S.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription of genomic information in eukaryotes is regulated in large part by chromatin. How a diverse array of chromatin regulator (CR) proteins with different functions and genomic localization patterns coordinates chromatin activity to control transcription remains unclear. Here we take a synthetic biology approach to decipher the complexity of chromatin regulation by studying emergent transcriptional behaviors from engineered combinatorial, spatial, and temporal patterns of individual CRs. We fuse 223 yeast CRs to programmable zinc finger proteins. Site-specific and combinatorial recruitment of CRs to distinct intra-locus locations reveals a range of transcriptional logic and behaviors, including synergistic activation, long-range and spatial regulation, and gene expression memory. Comparing these transcriptional behaviors with annotated CR complex and function terms provides design principles for the engineering of transcriptional regulation. This work presents a bottom-up approach to investigating chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation, and introduces new, chromatin-based components and systems for synthetic biology and cellular engineering. PMID:24995982

  18. Sperm chromatin released by nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nazarov, Igor B; Shlyakhtenko, Luda S; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Zalenskaya, Irina A; Zalensky, Andrei O

    2008-01-01

    In human spermatozoa, 15-20% of histones are retained in the nucleus to coexist with protamines. Hypothetically, nucleohistone regions of sperm chromatin mark DNA sequences for distinctive processing during fertilization and early embryogenesis. The structural organization and molecular composition of nucleohistones in human spermatozoa is poorly studied. Here, we isolate and characterize fractions of sperm chromatin that are solubilized by endogenous and micrococcal nucleases. Chromatin isolated by either nuclease have a nucleosomal organization with the periodicity of approximately 195 bp (endogenous nuclease digest) and approximately 189 bp (micrococcal nuclease digest), which is similar to that of somatic cells. A distinct feature of sperm nucleohistone is its specific compact supra-nucleosomal organization that was demonstrated by two-dimensional electrophoresis and by atomic force microscopy. The latter technique showed compacted fiber arrays composed of globular particles with the prevailing diameter of approximately 16 nm. A rough estimation indicates that histones may cover continuous stretches of >50 kbp of sperm DNA. This initial characterization of sperm chromatin solubilized by nucleases is important for our understanding of the bipartite structural organization of the paternal genome.

  19. [Current insights into chromatin structure organization].

    PubMed

    Ilatovskiĭ, A V; Lebedev, D V; Filatov, M V; Petukhov, M G; Isaev-Ivanov, V V

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes current insights into organization of chromatin structure at different levels of DNA compaction. Analysis of available experimental data allowed concluding that only nucleosomal level of structural organization was sufficiently investigated, whereas structure of a 30-nm chromatin fiber remains an open issue. The data on the chromatin structure obtained at the level of the nucleus speak in favor of a biphasic fractal organization of chromatin.

  20. Coming to terms with chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Even-Faitelson, Liron; Hassan-Zadeh, Vahideh; Baghestani, Zahra; Bazett-Jones, David P

    2016-03-01

    Chromatin, once thought to serve only as a means to package DNA, is now recognized as a major regulator of gene activity. As a result of the wide range of methods used to describe the numerous levels of chromatin organization, the terminology that has emerged to describe these organizational states is often imprecise and sometimes misleading. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of chromatin architecture and propose terms to describe the various biochemical and structural states of chromatin.

  1. Regulation of TCR delta and alpha repertoires by local and long-distance control of variable gene segment chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Hawwari, Abbas; Krangel, Michael S

    2005-08-15

    Murine Tcrd and Tcra gene segments reside in a single genetic locus and undergo recombination in CD4- CD8- (double negative [DN]) and CD4+ CD8+ (double positive [DP]) thymocytes, respectively. TcraTcrd locus variable gene segments are subject to complex regulation. Only a small subset of approximately 100 variable gene segments contributes substantially to the adult TCRdelta repertoire. Moreover, although most contribute to the TCRalpha repertoire, variable gene segments that are Jalpha proximal are preferentially used during primary Tcra recombination. We investigate the role of local chromatin accessibility in determining the developmental pattern of TcraTcrd locus variable gene segment recombination. We find variable gene segments to be heterogeneous with respect to acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Those that dominate the adult TCRdelta repertoire are hyperacetylated in DN thymocytes, independent of their position in the locus. Moreover, proximal variable gene segments show dramatic increases in histone acetylation and germline transcription in DP thymocytes, a result of super long-distance regulation by the Tcra enhancer. Our results imply that differences in chromatin accessibility contribute to biases in TcraTcrd locus variable gene segment recombination in DN and DP thymocytes and extend the distance over which the Tcra enhancer can regulate chromatin structure to a remarkable 525 kb.

  2. Tethering RNA to chromatin for fluorescence microscopy based analysis of nuclear organization.

    PubMed

    Pankert, Teresa; Jegou, Thibaud; Caudron-Herger, Maïwen; Rippe, Karsten

    2017-02-14

    Nuclear RNAs emerge as important factors to orchestrate the dynamic organization of the nucleus into functional subcompartments. By tethering RNAs to distinct genomic loci, RNA-dependent chromatin changes can be dissected by fluorescence microscopic analysis. Here we describe how this approach is implemented in mammalian cells. It involves two high-affinity protein-nucleic acid interactions that can be established with a number of different protein domains and DNA and RNA sequences. A prototypic system is described here in detail: It consists of the binding of MS2 bacteriophage coat protein to its RNA recognition sequence and the interaction between the bacterial LacI repressor protein to its target lacO operator DNA sequence. Via these interactions RNAs tagged with the MS2 recognition sequences can be recruited to a locus with integrated lacO repeats. By inducing RNA-chromatin binding a number of RNA-dependent activities can be dissected: (i) The RNA-induced compaction or decondensation of chromatin, (ii) identification of RNA-interacting chromatin modifiers that set epigenetic signals such as posttranslational histone modifications, and (iii) nuclear relocation of a genomic locus targeted by the tethered RNA. Thus, a variety of RNA-dependent activities can be evaluated with the MS2-LacI system, which are crucial for understanding how RNA shapes nuclear organization.

  3. A functional link between rhythmic changes in chromatin structure and the Arabidopsis biological clock.

    PubMed

    Perales, Mariano; Más, Paloma

    2007-07-01

    Circadian clocks rhythmically coordinate biological processes in resonance with the environmental cycle. The clock function relies on negative feedback loops that generate 24-h rhythms in multiple outputs. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the clock component TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1) integrates the environmental information to coordinate circadian responses. Here, we use chromatin immunoprecipitation as well as physiological and luminescence assays to demonstrate that proper photoperiodic phase of TOC1 expression is important for clock synchronization of plant development with the environment. Our studies show that TOC1 circadian induction is accompanied by clock-controlled cycles of histone acetylation that favor transcriptionally permissive chromatin structures at the TOC1 locus. At dawn, TOC1 repression relies on the in vivo circadian binding of the clock component CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), while histone deacetylase activities facilitate the switch to repressive chromatin structures and contribute to the declining phase of TOC1 waveform around dusk. The use of cca1 late elongated hypocotyl double mutant and CCA1-overexpressing plants suggests a highly repressing function of CCA1, antagonizing H3 acetylation to regulate TOC1 mRNA abundance. The chromatin remodeling activities relevant at the TOC1 locus are distinctively modulated by photoperiod, suggesting a mechanism by which the clock sets the phase of physiological and developmental outputs.

  4. Direct evidence for SIR2 modulation of chromatin structure in yeast rDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Fritze, C E; Verschueren, K; Strich, R; Easton Esposito, R

    1997-01-01

    The yeast SIR2 gene maintains inactive chromatin domains required for transcriptional repression at the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. We previously demonstrated that SIR2 also acts to repress mitotic and meiotic recombination between the tandem ribosomal RNA gene array (rDNA). Here we address whether rDNA chromatin structure is altered by loss of SIR2 function by in vitro and in vivo assays of sensitivity to micrococcal nuclease and dam methyltransferase, respectively, and present the first chromatin study that maps sites of SIR2 action within the rDNA locus. Control studies at the MAT alpha locus also revealed a previously undetected MNase-sensitive site at the a1-alpha 2 divergent promoter which is protected in sir2 mutant cells by the derepressed a1-alpha 2 regulator. In rDNA, SIR2 is required for a more closed chromatin structure in two regions: SRR1, the major SIR-Responsive Region in the non-transcribed spacer, and SRR2, in the 18S rRNA coding region. None of the changes in rDNA detected in sir2 mutants are due to the presence of the a1-alpha 2 repressor. Reduced recombination in the rDNA correlates with a small, reproducible transcriptional silencing position effect. Deletion and overexpression studies demonstrate that SIR2, but not SIR1, SIR3 or SIR4, is required for this rDNA position effect. Significantly, rDNA transcriptional silencing and rDNA chromatin accessibility respond to SIR2 dosage, indicating that SIR2 is a limiting component required for chromatin modeling in rDNA. PMID:9351831

  5. Locus-specific epigenetic remodeling controls addiction- and depression-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Heller, Elizabeth A; Cates, Hannah M; Peña, Catherine J; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A; Herman, James P; Walsh, Jessica J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J; Tamminga, Carol S; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Zhang, H Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-12-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin-modifying enzymes and histone post-translational modifications in discrete brain regions. Given the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. We investigated the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific mouse gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the Fosb locus in nucleus accumbens, a brain reward region, was sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allowed us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior.

  6. Histone lysine methylation and chromatin replication.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Carlos; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Almouzni, Geneviève; Loyola, Alejandra

    2014-12-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, the replication of the DNA sequence and its organization into chromatin are critical to maintain genome integrity. Chromatin components, such as histone variants and histone post-translational modifications, along with the higher-order chromatin structure, impact several DNA metabolic processes, including replication, transcription, and repair. In this review we focus on lysine methylation and the relationships between this histone mark and chromatin replication. We first describe studies implicating lysine methylation in regulating early steps in the replication process. We then discuss chromatin reassembly following replication fork passage, where the incorporation of a combination of newly synthesized histones and parental histones can impact the inheritance of lysine methylation marks on the daughter strands. Finally, we elaborate on how the inheritance of lysine methylation can impact maintenance of the chromatin landscape, using heterochromatin as a model chromatin domain, and we discuss the potential mechanisms involved in this process.

  7. Chromatin structure as a mediator of aging.

    PubMed

    Feser, Jason; Tyler, Jessica

    2011-07-07

    The aging process is characterized by gradual changes to an organism's macromolecules, which negatively impacts biological processes. The complex macromolecular structure of chromatin regulates all nuclear processes requiring access to the DNA sequence. As such, maintenance of chromatin structure is an integral component to deter premature aging. In this review, we describe current research that links aging to chromatin structure. Histone modifications influence chromatin compaction and gene expression and undergo many changes during aging. Histone protein levels also decline during aging, dramatically affecting chromatin structure. Excitingly, lifespan can be extended by manipulations that reverse the age-dependent changes to chromatin structure, indicating the pivotal role chromatin structure plays during aging. Copyright © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid

    PubMed Central

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valerie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC. PMID:24504145

  9. Phospholipids in plant and animal chromatin.

    PubMed

    Viola-Magni, M P; Gahan, P B; Pacy, J

    1985-01-01

    Isolated hepatic nuclei and hepatic chromatin have been analysed for their DNA, RNA, protein and phospholipid content. The protein/DNA ratio is 3 for nuclei and 1.95 for chromatin extracted from Triton X-100 treated nuclei. The phospholipids, (2.36 +/- 0.91 (S.D.) per cent of the total nuclear material), are lost during the chromatin preparation mainly during the Triton X-100 washings of the nuclei. Nevertheless, 10 per cent of the total nuclear phospholipids remain bound to the chromatin. The comparative analysis of both nuclei and chromatin shows a difference in phospholipids and fatty acid composition. Thus, the chromatin-associated phospholipid cannot be attributed simply to contaminating nuclear membrane. This is supported by the autoradiographic study of semi-thin sections of interphase nuclei from root apices of Vicia faba in which [3H] ethanolamine is clearly localized in the chromatin and nucleolar regions of the nuclei.

  10. Chromatin structure in telomere dynamics.

    PubMed

    Galati, Alessandra; Micheli, Emanuela; Cacchione, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a specific nucleoprotein structure, the telomere, is required to ensure the protection of chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage sites. Telomere shortening below a critical length triggers a DNA damage response that leads to replicative senescence. In normal human somatic cells, characterized by telomere shortening with each cell division, telomere uncapping is a regulated process associated with cell turnover. Nevertheless, telomere dysfunction has also been associated with genomic instability, cell transformation, and cancer. Despite the essential role telomeres play in chromosome protection and in tumorigenesis, our knowledge of the chromatin structure involved in telomere maintenance is still limited. Here we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications associated with the dynamic changes of telomeres from protected to deprotected state and their role in telomere functions.

  11. Organisation of subunits in chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, B G; Baldwin, J P; Bradbury, E M; Ibel, K

    1976-01-01

    There is considerable current interest in the organisation of nucleosomes in chromatin. A strong X-ray and neutron semi-meridional diffraction peak at approximately 10 nm had previously been attributed to the interparticle specing of a linear array of nucleosomes. This diffraction peak could also result from a close packed helical array of nucleosomes. A direct test of these proposals is whether the 10 nm peak is truly meridional as would be expected for a linear array of nucleosomes or is slightly off the meridian as expected for a helical array. Neutron diffraction studies of H1-depleted chromatin support the latter alternative. The 10 nm peak has maxima which form a cross-pattern with semi-meridional angle of 8 to 9 degrees. This is consistent with a coil of nucleosomes of pitch 10 nm and outer diameter of approximately 30 nm. These dimensions correspond to about six nucleosomes per turn of the coli. PMID:967672

  12. Organisation of subunits in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, B G; Baldwin, J P; Bradbury, E M; Ibel, K

    1976-07-01

    There is considerable current interest in the organisation of nucleosomes in chromatin. A strong X-ray and neutron semi-meridional diffraction peak at approximately 10 nm had previously been attributed to the interparticle specing of a linear array of nucleosomes. This diffraction peak could also result from a close packed helical array of nucleosomes. A direct test of these proposals is whether the 10 nm peak is truly meridional as would be expected for a linear array of nucleosomes or is slightly off the meridian as expected for a helical array. Neutron diffraction studies of H1-depleted chromatin support the latter alternative. The 10 nm peak has maxima which form a cross-pattern with semi-meridional angle of 8 to 9 degrees. This is consistent with a coil of nucleosomes of pitch 10 nm and outer diameter of approximately 30 nm. These dimensions correspond to about six nucleosomes per turn of the coli.

  13. Chromatin Structure in Telomere Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Alessandra; Micheli, Emanuela; Cacchione, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of a specific nucleoprotein structure, the telomere, is required to ensure the protection of chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage sites. Telomere shortening below a critical length triggers a DNA damage response that leads to replicative senescence. In normal human somatic cells, characterized by telomere shortening with each cell division, telomere uncapping is a regulated process associated with cell turnover. Nevertheless, telomere dysfunction has also been associated with genomic instability, cell transformation, and cancer. Despite the essential role telomeres play in chromosome protection and in tumorigenesis, our knowledge of the chromatin structure involved in telomere maintenance is still limited. Here we review the recent findings on chromatin modifications associated with the dynamic changes of telomeres from protected to deprotected state and their role in telomere functions. PMID:23471416

  14. Nuclear phosphoinositide regulation of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Bree L; Blind, Raymond D

    2018-01-01

    Phospholipid signaling has clear connections to a wide array of cellular processes, particularly in gene expression and in controlling the chromatin biology of cells. However, most of the work elucidating how phospholipid signaling pathways contribute to cellular physiology have studied cytoplasmic membranes, while relatively little attention has been paid to the role of phospholipid signaling in the nucleus. Recent work from several labs has shown that nuclear phospholipid signaling can have important roles that are specific to this cellular compartment. This review focuses on the nuclear phospholipid functions and the activities of phospholipid signaling enzymes that regulate metazoan chromatin and gene expression. In particular, we highlight the roles that nuclear phosphoinositides play in several nuclear-driven physiological processes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and gene expression. Taken together, the recent discovery of several specifically nuclear phospholipid functions could have dramatic impact on our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that enable tight control of cellular physiology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The IGF2 Locus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  16. Tethering of Lsh at the Oct4 locus promotes gene repression associated with epigenetic changes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jianke; Hathaway, Nathaniel A; Crabtree, Gerald R; Muegge, Kathrin

    2017-06-16

    Lsh is a chromatin remodeling factor that regulates DNA methylation and chromatin function in mammals. The dynamics of these chromatin changes and whether they are directly controlled by Lsh remain unclear. To understand the molecular mechanisms of Lsh chromatin controlled regulation of gene expression, we established a tethering system that recruits a Gal4-Lsh fusion protein to an engineered Oct4 locus through Gal4 binding sites in murine embryonic stem (ES) cells. We examined the molecular epigenetic events induced by Lsh binding including: histone modification, DNA methylation and chromatin accessibility to determine nucleosome occupancy before and after embryonic stem cell differentiation. Our results indicate that Lsh assists gene repression upon binding to the Oct4 promoter region. Furthermore, we detected less chromatin accessibility and reduced active histone modifications at the tethered site in undifferentiated ES, while GFP reporter gene expression and DNA methylation patterns remained unchanged at this stage. Upon differentiation, association of Lsh promotes transcriptional repression of the reporter gene accompanied by the increase of repressive histone marks and a gain of DNA methylation at distal and proximal Oct4 enhancer sites. Taken together, this approach allowed us to examine Lsh mediated epigenetic regulation as a dynamic process and revealed chromatin accessibility changes as the primary consequence of Lsh function.

  17. Chromatin signatures of the Drosophila replication program

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Matthew L.; Prinz, Joseph A.; MacAlpine, Heather K.; Tretyakov, George; Kharchenko, Peter V.; MacAlpine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    DNA replication initiates from thousands of start sites throughout the Drosophila genome and must be coordinated with other ongoing nuclear processes such as transcription to ensure genetic and epigenetic inheritance. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding how chromatin modifications regulate the transcription program; in contrast, we know relatively little about the role of the chromatin landscape in defining how start sites of DNA replication are selected and regulated. Here, we describe the Drosophila replication program in the context of the chromatin and transcription landscape for multiple cell lines using data generated by the modENCODE consortium. We find that while the cell lines exhibit similar replication programs, there are numerous cell line-specific differences that correlate with changes in the chromatin architecture. We identify chromatin features that are associated with replication timing, early origin usage, and ORC binding. Primary sequence, activating chromatin marks, and DNA-binding proteins (including chromatin remodelers) contribute in an additive manner to specify ORC-binding sites. We also generate accurate and predictive models from the chromatin data to describe origin usage and strength between cell lines. Multiple activating chromatin modifications contribute to the function and relative strength of replication origins, suggesting that the chromatin environment does not regulate origins of replication as a simple binary switch, but rather acts as a tunable rheostat to regulate replication initiation events. PMID:21177973

  18. Chromatin signatures of the Drosophila replication program.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Matthew L; Prinz, Joseph A; MacAlpine, Heather K; Tretyakov, George; Kharchenko, Peter V; MacAlpine, David M

    2011-02-01

    DNA replication initiates from thousands of start sites throughout the Drosophila genome and must be coordinated with other ongoing nuclear processes such as transcription to ensure genetic and epigenetic inheritance. Considerable progress has been made toward understanding how chromatin modifications regulate the transcription program; in contrast, we know relatively little about the role of the chromatin landscape in defining how start sites of DNA replication are selected and regulated. Here, we describe the Drosophila replication program in the context of the chromatin and transcription landscape for multiple cell lines using data generated by the modENCODE consortium. We find that while the cell lines exhibit similar replication programs, there are numerous cell line-specific differences that correlate with changes in the chromatin architecture. We identify chromatin features that are associated with replication timing, early origin usage, and ORC binding. Primary sequence, activating chromatin marks, and DNA-binding proteins (including chromatin remodelers) contribute in an additive manner to specify ORC-binding sites. We also generate accurate and predictive models from the chromatin data to describe origin usage and strength between cell lines. Multiple activating chromatin modifications contribute to the function and relative strength of replication origins, suggesting that the chromatin environment does not regulate origins of replication as a simple binary switch, but rather acts as a tunable rheostat to regulate replication initiation events.

  19. Chromatin endogenous cleavage and psoralen crosslinking assays to analyze rRNA gene chromatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Griesenbeck, Joachim; Wittner, Manuel; Charton, Romain; Conconi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple copies of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes co-exist in two different chromatin states: actively transcribed (nucleosome depleted) chromatin, and nontranscribed (nucleosomal) chromatin. The presence of two rRNA gene populations compromises the interpretation of analyses obtained by the standard biochemical methods that are used to study chromatin structure (e.g., nuclease digestion and chromatin immunoprecipitation). Here, we provide a protocol to investigate the specific association of proteins with the two rRNA gene chromatin populations in vivo, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryote.

  20. Epigenetic modifications and chromatin loop organization explain the different expression profiles of the Tbrg4, WAP and Ramp3 genes

    SciTech Connect

    Montazer-Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Hue-Beauvais, Cathy; Droineau, Stephanie; Ballester, Maria; Coant, Nicolas; Aujean, Etienne; Petitbarat, Marie; Rijnkels, Monique; Devinoy, Eve

    2008-03-10

    Whey Acidic Protein (WAP) gene expression is specific to the mammary gland and regulated by lactogenic hormones to peak during lactation. It differs markedly from the more constitutive expression of the two flanking genes, Ramp3 and Tbrg4. Our results show that the tight regulation of WAP gene expression parallels variations in the chromatin structure and DNA methylation profile throughout the Ramp3-WAP-Tbrg4 locus. Three Matrix Attachment Regions (MAR) have been predicted in this locus. Two of them are located between regions exhibiting open and closed chromatin structures in the liver. The third, located around the transcription start site of the Tbrg4 gene, interacts with topoisomerase II in HC11 mouse mammary cells, and in these cells anchors the chromatin loop to the nuclear matrix. Furthermore, if lactogenic hormones are present in these cells, the chromatin loop surrounding the WAP gene is more tightly attached to the nuclear structure, as observed after a high salt treatment of the nuclei and the formation of nuclear halos. Taken together, our results point to a combination of several epigenetic events that may explain the differential expression pattern of the WAP locus in relation to tissue and developmental stages.

  1. Epigenetic modifications and chromatin loop organization explain the different expression profiles of the Tbrg4, WAP and Ramp3 genes.

    PubMed

    Montazer-Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Hue-Beauvais, Cathy; Droineau, Stéphanie; Ballester, Maria; Coant, Nicolas; Aujean, Etienne; Petitbarat, Marie; Rijnkels, Monique; Devinoy, Eve

    2008-03-10

    Whey Acidic Protein (WAP) gene expression is specific to the mammary gland and regulated by lactogenic hormones to peak during lactation. It differs markedly from the more constitutive expression of the two flanking genes, Ramp3 and Tbrg4. Our results show that the tight regulation of WAP gene expression parallels variations in the chromatin structure and DNA methylation profile throughout the Ramp3-WAP-Tbrg4 locus. Three Matrix Attachment Regions (MAR) have been predicted in this locus. Two of them are located between regions exhibiting open and closed chromatin structures in the liver. The third, located around the transcription start site of the Tbrg4 gene, interacts with topoisomerase II in HC11 mouse mammary cells, and in these cells anchors the chromatin loop to the nuclear matrix. Furthermore, if lactogenic hormones are present in these cells, the chromatin loop surrounding the WAP gene is more tightly attached to the nuclear structure, as observed after a high salt treatment of the nuclei and the formation of nuclear halos. Taken together, our results point to a combination of several epigenetic events that may explain the differential expression pattern of the WAP locus in relation to tissue and developmental stages.

  2. Chromatin stretch enhancer states drive cell-specific gene regulation and harbor human disease risk variants

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Stephen C. J.; Stitzel, Michael L.; Taylor, D. Leland; Orozco, Jose Miguel; Erdos, Michael R.; Akiyama, Jennifer A.; van Bueren, Kelly Lammerts; Chines, Peter S.; Narisu, Narisu; Black, Brian L.; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A.; Collins, Francis S.; Becker, Jesse; Benjamin, Betty; Blakesley, Robert; Bouffard, Gerry; Brooks, Shelise; Coleman, Holly; Dekhtyar, Mila; Gregory, Michael; Guan, Xiaobin; Gupta, Jyoti; Han, Joel; Hargrove, April; Johnson, Taccara; Legaspi, Richelle; Lovett, Sean; Maduro, Quino; Masiello, Cathy; Maskeri, Baishali; McDowell, Jenny; Montemayor, Casandra; Mullikin, James; Park, Morgan; Riebow, Nancy; Schandler, Karen; Schmidt, Brian; Sison, Christina; Stantripop, Mal; Thomas, James; Thomas, Pam; Vemulapalli, Meg; Young, Alice

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin-based functional genomic analyses and genomewide association studies (GWASs) together implicate enhancers as critical elements influencing gene expression and risk for common diseases. Here, we performed systematic chromatin and transcriptome profiling in human pancreatic islets. Integrated analysis of islet data with those from nine cell types identified specific and significant enrichment of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative trait GWAS variants in islet enhancers. Our integrated chromatin maps reveal that most enhancers are short (median = 0.8 kb). Each cell type also contains a substantial number of more extended (≥3 kb) enhancers. Interestingly, these stretch enhancers are often tissue-specific and overlap locus control regions, suggesting that they are important chromatin regulatory beacons. Indeed, we show that (i) tissue specificity of enhancers and nearby gene expression increase with enhancer length; (ii) neighborhoods containing stretch enhancers are enriched for important cell type–specific genes; and (iii) GWAS variants associated with traits relevant to a particular cell type are more enriched in stretch enhancers compared with short enhancers. Reporter constructs containing stretch enhancer sequences exhibited tissue-specific activity in cell culture experiments and in transgenic mice. These results suggest that stretch enhancers are critical chromatin elements for coordinating cell type–specific regulatory programs and that sequence variation in stretch enhancers affects risk of major common human diseases. PMID:24127591

  3. Chromatin stretch enhancer states drive cell-specific gene regulation and harbor human disease risk variants.

    PubMed

    Parker, Stephen C J; Stitzel, Michael L; Taylor, D Leland; Orozco, Jose Miguel; Erdos, Michael R; Akiyama, Jennifer A; van Bueren, Kelly Lammerts; Chines, Peter S; Narisu, Narisu; Black, Brian L; Visel, Axel; Pennacchio, Len A; Collins, Francis S

    2013-10-29

    Chromatin-based functional genomic analyses and genomewide association studies (GWASs) together implicate enhancers as critical elements influencing gene expression and risk for common diseases. Here, we performed systematic chromatin and transcriptome profiling in human pancreatic islets. Integrated analysis of islet data with those from nine cell types identified specific and significant enrichment of type 2 diabetes and related quantitative trait GWAS variants in islet enhancers. Our integrated chromatin maps reveal that most enhancers are short (median = 0.8 kb). Each cell type also contains a substantial number of more extended (≥ 3 kb) enhancers. Interestingly, these stretch enhancers are often tissue-specific and overlap locus control regions, suggesting that they are important chromatin regulatory beacons. Indeed, we show that (i) tissue specificity of enhancers and nearby gene expression increase with enhancer length; (ii) neighborhoods containing stretch enhancers are enriched for important cell type-specific genes; and (iii) GWAS variants associated with traits relevant to a particular cell type are more enriched in stretch enhancers compared with short enhancers. Reporter constructs containing stretch enhancer sequences exhibited tissue-specific activity in cell culture experiments and in transgenic mice. These results suggest that stretch enhancers are critical chromatin elements for coordinating cell type-specific regulatory programs and that sequence variation in stretch enhancers affects risk of major common human diseases.

  4. Characterization of the RNA content of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Tanmoy; Rasmussen, Markus; Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Isaksson, Anders; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar

    2010-01-01

    Noncoding RNA (ncRNA) constitutes a significant portion of the mammalian transcriptome. Emerging evidence suggests that it regulates gene expression in cis or trans by modulating the chromatin structure. To uncover the functional role of ncRNA in chromatin organization, we deep sequenced chromatin-associated RNAs (CARs) from human fibroblast (HF) cells. This resulted in the identification of 141 intronic regions and 74 intergenic regions harboring CARs. The intronic and intergenic CARs show significant conservation across 44 species of placental mammals. Functional characterization of one of the intergenic CARs, Intergenic10, revealed that it regulates gene expression of neighboring genes through modulating the chromatin structure in cis. Our data suggest that ncRNA is an integral component of chromatin and that it may regulate various biological functions through fine-tuning of the chromatin architecture. PMID:20404130

  5. Proteomics of a fuzzy organelle: interphase chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Kustatscher, Georg; Hégarat, Nadia; Wills, Karen L H; Furlan, Cristina; Bukowski-Wills, Jimi-Carlo; Hochegger, Helfrid; Rappsilber, Juri

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin proteins mediate replication, regulate expression, and ensure integrity of the genome. So far, a comprehensive inventory of interphase chromatin has not been determined. This is largely due to its heterogeneous and dynamic composition, which makes conclusive biochemical purification difficult, if not impossible. As a fuzzy organelle, it defies classical organellar proteomics and cannot be described by a single and ultimate list of protein components. Instead, we propose a new approach that provides a quantitative assessment of a protein's probability to function in chromatin. We integrate chromatin composition over a range of different biochemical and biological conditions. This resulted in interphase chromatin probabilities for 7635 human proteins, including 1840 previously uncharacterized proteins. We demonstrate the power of our large-scale data-driven annotation during the analysis of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) regulation in chromatin. Quantitative protein ontologies may provide a general alternative to list-based investigations of organelles and complement Gene Ontology. PMID:24534090

  6. Distinct polymer physics principles govern chromatin dynamics in mouse and Drosophila topological domains.

    PubMed

    Ea, Vuthy; Sexton, Tom; Gostan, Thierry; Herviou, Laurie; Baudement, Marie-Odile; Zhang, Yunzhe; Berlivet, Soizik; Le Lay-Taha, Marie-Noëlle; Cathala, Guy; Lesne, Annick; Victor, Jean-Marc; Fan, Yuhong; Cavalli, Giacomo; Forné, Thierry

    2015-08-15

    In higher eukaryotes, the genome is partitioned into large "Topologically Associating Domains" (TADs) in which the chromatin displays favoured long-range contacts. While a crumpled/fractal globule organization has received experimental supports at higher-order levels, the organization principles that govern chromatin dynamics within these TADs remain unclear. Using simple polymer models, we previously showed that, in mouse liver cells, gene-rich domains tend to adopt a statistical helix shape when no significant locus-specific interaction takes place. Here, we use data from diverse 3C-derived methods to explore chromatin dynamics within mouse and Drosophila TADs. In mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (mESC), that possess large TADs (median size of 840 kb), we show that the statistical helix model, but not globule models, is relevant not only in gene-rich TADs, but also in gene-poor and gene-desert TADs. Interestingly, this statistical helix organization is considerably relaxed in mESC compared to liver cells, indicating that the impact of the constraints responsible for this organization is weaker in pluripotent cells. Finally, depletion of histone H1 in mESC alters local chromatin flexibility but not the statistical helix organization. In Drosophila, which possesses TADs of smaller sizes (median size of 70 kb), we show that, while chromatin compaction and flexibility are finely tuned according to the epigenetic landscape, chromatin dynamics within TADs is generally compatible with an unconstrained polymer configuration. Models issued from polymer physics can accurately describe the organization principles governing chromatin dynamics in both mouse and Drosophila TADs. However, constraints applied on this dynamics within mammalian TADs have a peculiar impact resulting in a statistical helix organization.

  7. FGF Signalling Regulates Chromatin Organisation during Neural Differentiation via Mechanisms that Can Be Uncoupled from Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nishal S.; Rhinn, Muriel; Semprich, Claudia I.; Halley, Pamela A.; Dollé, Pascal; Bickmore, Wendy A.; Storey, Kate G.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in higher order chromatin organisation have been linked to transcriptional regulation; however, little is known about how such organisation alters during embryonic development or how it is regulated by extrinsic signals. Here we analyse changes in chromatin organisation as neural differentiation progresses, exploiting the clear spatial separation of the temporal events of differentiation along the elongating body axis of the mouse embryo. Combining fluorescence in situ hybridisation with super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we show that chromatin around key differentiation gene loci Pax6 and Irx3 undergoes both decompaction and displacement towards the nuclear centre coincident with transcriptional onset. Conversely, down-regulation of Fgf8 as neural differentiation commences correlates with a more peripheral nuclear position of this locus. During normal neural differentiation, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signalling is repressed by retinoic acid, and this vitamin A derivative is further required for transcription of neural genes. We show here that exposure to retinoic acid or inhibition of FGF signalling promotes precocious decompaction and central nuclear positioning of differentiation gene loci. Using the Raldh2 mutant as a model for retinoid deficiency, we further find that such changes in higher order chromatin organisation are dependent on retinoid signalling. In this retinoid deficient condition, FGF signalling persists ectopically in the elongating body, and importantly, we find that inhibiting FGF receptor (FGFR) signalling in Raldh2−/− embryos does not rescue differentiation gene transcription, but does elicit both chromatin decompaction and nuclear position change. These findings demonstrate that regulation of higher order chromatin organisation during differentiation in the embryo can be uncoupled from the machinery that promotes transcription and, for the first time, identify FGF as an extrinsic signal that can direct

  8. Modulated contact frequencies at gene-rich loci support a statistical helix model for mammalian chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its critical role for mammalian gene regulation, the basic structural landscape of chromatin in living cells remains largely unknown within chromosomal territories below the megabase scale. Results Here, using the 3C-qPCR method, we investigate contact frequencies at high resolution within interphase chromatin at several mouse loci. We find that, at several gene-rich loci, contact frequencies undergo a periodical modulation (every 90 to 100 kb) that affects chromatin dynamics over large genomic distances (a few hundred kilobases). Interestingly, this modulation appears to be conserved in human cells, and bioinformatic analyses of locus-specific, long-range cis-interactions suggest that it may underlie the dynamics of a significant number of gene-rich domains in mammals, thus contributing to genome evolution. Finally, using an original model derived from polymer physics, we show that this modulation can be understood as a fundamental helix shape that chromatin tends to adopt in gene-rich domains when no significant locus-specific interaction takes place. Conclusions Altogether, our work unveils a fundamental aspect of chromatin dynamics in mammals and contributes to a better understanding of genome organization within chromosomal territories. PMID:21569291

  9. The Molecular Revolution in Cutaneous Biology: EDC and Locus Control.

    PubMed

    Oh, Inez Y; de Guzman Strong, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    The epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) locus consists of a cluster of genes important for the terminal differentiation of the epidermis. While early studies identified the functional importance of individual EDC genes, the recognition of the EDC genes as a cluster with its shared biology, homology, and physical linkage was pivotal to later studies that investigated the transcriptional regulation of the locus. Evolutionary conservation of the EDC and the transcriptional activation during epidermal differentiation suggested a cis-regulatory mechanism via conserved noncoding elements or enhancers. This line of pursuit led to the identification of CNE 923, an epidermal-specific enhancer that was found to mediate chromatin remodeling of the EDC in an AP-1 dependent manner. These genomic studies, as well as the advent of high-throughput sequencing and genome engineering techniques, have paved the way for future investigation into enhancer-mediated regulatory networks in cutaneous biology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Scrutinizing the FTO locus: compelling evidence for a complex, long-range regulatory context.

    PubMed

    Rask-Andersen, Mathias; Almén, Markus Sällman; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-11-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a genetic region including the first two introns of the gene encoding FTO have consistently been shown to be the strongest genetic factors influencing body mass index (BMI). However, this same also contains several regulatory DNA elements that affect the expression of IRX3 and IRX5, which respectively, are located approximately 500 kb and 1.2 Mbp downstream from the BMI-associated FTO locus. Through these affected regulatory elements, genetic variation at the FTO locus influences adipocyte development leading to decreased thermogenesis and increased lipid storage. These findings provide a genomic model for the functional implications of genetic variations at this locus, and also demonstrate the importance of accounting for chromatin-chromatin interactions when constructing hypotheses for the mechanisms of trait and disease-associated common genetic variants. Several consortia have generated genome-wide datasets describing different aspects of chromatin biology which can be utilized to predict functionality and propose biologically relevant descriptions of specific DNA regions. Here, we review some of the publically available data resources on genome function and organization that can be used to gain an overview of genetic regions of interest and to generate testable hypotheses for future studies. We use the BMI- and obesity-associated FTO locus as a subject as it poses an illustrative example on the value of these resources. We find that public databases strongly support long-range interactions between regulatory elements in the FTO locus with the IRXB cluster genes IRX3 and IRX5. Chromatin configuration capture data also support interactions across a large region stretching across from the RPGRIP1L gene, FTO and the IRXB gene cluster.

  11. Histone Chaperone Nap1 Is a Major Regulator of Histone H2A-H2B Dynamics at the Inducible GAL Locus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xu; D'Arcy, Sheena; Radebaugh, Catherine A.; Krzizike, Daniel D.; Giebler, Holli A.; Huang, Liangquan; Nyborg, Jennifer K.; Luger, Karolin

    2016-01-01

    Histone chaperones, like nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1), play a critical role in the maintenance of chromatin architecture. Here, we use the GAL locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the influence of Nap1 on chromatin structure and histone dynamics during distinct transcriptional states. When the GAL locus is not expressed, cells lacking Nap1 show an accumulation of histone H2A-H2B but not histone H3-H4 at this locus. Excess H2A-H2B interacts with the linker DNA between nucleosomes, and the interaction is independent of the inherent DNA-binding affinity of H2A-H2B for these particular sequences as measured in vitro. When the GAL locus is transcribed, excess H2A-H2B is reversed, and levels of all chromatin-bound histones are depleted in cells lacking Nap1. We developed an in vivo system to measure histone exchange at the GAL locus and observed considerable variability in the rate of exchange across the locus in wild-type cells. We recapitulate this variability with in vitro nucleosome reconstitutions, which suggests a contribution of DNA sequence to histone dynamics. We also find that Nap1 is required for transcription-dependent H2A-H2B exchange. Altogether, these results indicate that Nap1 is essential for maintaining proper chromatin composition and modulating the exchange of H2A-H2B in vivo. PMID:26884462

  12. Reactivation of developmentally silenced globin genes by forced chromatin looping

    PubMed Central

    Krivega, Ivan; Breda, Laura; Motta, Irene; Jahn, Kristen S.; Reik, Andreas; Gregory, Philip D.; Rivella, Stefano; Dean, Ann; Blobel, Gerd A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Distal enhancers commonly contact target promoters via chromatin looping. In erythroid cells, the locus control region (LCR) contacts β-type globin genes in a developmental stage-specific manner to stimulate transcription. Previously, we induced LCR-promoter looping by tethering the self-association domain (SA) of Ldb1 to the β-globin promoter via artificial zinc fingers. Here, we show that targeting the SA to a developmentally silenced embryonic globin gene in adult murine erythroblasts triggered its transcriptional reactivation. This activity depended on the LCR, consistent with an LCR-promoter looping mechanism. Strikingly, targeting SA to the fetal γ-globin promoter in primary adult human erythroblasts increased γ-globin promoter-LCR contacts, stimulating transcription to approximately 85% of total β-globin synthesis with a reciprocal reduction in adult β-globin expression. Our findings demonstrate that forced chromatin looping can override a stringent developmental gene expression program and suggest a novel approach to control the balance of globin gene transcription for therapeutic applications. PMID:25126789

  13. Nuclear constriction segregates mobile nuclear proteins away from chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Irianto, Jerome; Pfeifer, Charlotte R.; Bennett, Rachel R.; Xia, Yuntao; Ivanovska, Irena L.; Liu, Andrea J.; Greenberg, Roger A.; Discher, Dennis E.

    2016-01-01

    As a cell squeezes its nucleus through adjacent tissue, penetrates a basement membrane, or enters a small blood capillary, chromatin density and nuclear factors could in principle be physically perturbed. Here, in cancer cell migration through rigid micropores and in passive pulling into micropipettes, local compaction of chromatin is observed coincident with depletion of mobile factors. Heterochromatin/euchromatin was previously estimated from molecular mobility measurements to occupy a volume fraction f of roughly two-thirds of the nuclear volume, but based on the relative intensity of DNA and histones in several cancer cell lines drawn into narrow constrictions, f can easily increase locally to nearly 100%. By contrast, mobile proteins in the nucleus, including a dozen that function as DNA repair proteins (e.g., BRCA1, 53BP1) or nucleases (e.g., Cas9, FokI), are depleted within the constriction, approaching 0%. Such losses—compounded by the occasional rupture of the nuclear envelope—can have important functional consequences. Studies of a nuclease that targets a locus in chromosome-1 indeed show that constricted migration delays DNA damage. PMID:27798234

  14. The Chd Family of Chromatin Remodelers

    PubMed Central

    Marfella, Concetta G.A.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.

    2007-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling enzymes contribute to the dynamic changes that occur in chromatin structure during cellular processes such as transcription, recombination, repair, and replication. Members of the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding (Chd) family of enzymes belong to the SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers. The Chd proteins are distinguished by the presence of two N-terminal chromodomains that function as interaction surfaces for a variety of chromatin components. Genetic, biochemical, and structural studies demonstrate that Chd proteins are important regulators of transcription and play critical roles during developmental processes. Numerous Chd proteins are also implicated in human disease. PMID:17350655

  15. Genome-Wide Views of Chromatin Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Oliver J.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are packaged into a nucleoprotein complex known as chromatin, which affects most processes that occur on DNA. Along with genetic and biochemical studies of resident chromatin proteins and their modifying enzymes, mapping of chromatin structure in vivo is one of the main pillars in our understanding of how chromatin relates to cellular processes. In this review, we discuss the use of genomic technologies to characterize chromatin structure in vivo, with a focus on data from budding yeast and humans. The picture emerging from these studies is the detailed chromatin structure of a typical gene, where the typical behavior gives insight into the mechanisms and deep rules that establish chromatin structure. Important deviation from the archetype is also observed, usually as a consequence of unique regulatory mechanisms at special genomic loci. Chromatin structure shows substantial conservation from yeast to humans, but mammalian chromatin has additional layers of complexity that likely relate to the requirements of multicellularity such as the need to establish faithful gene regulatory mechanisms for cell differentiation. PMID:19317649

  16. Integrative modeling reveals the principles of multi-scale chromatin boundary formation in human nuclear organization.

    PubMed

    Moore, Benjamin L; Aitken, Stuart; Semple, Colin A

    2015-05-27

    Interphase chromosomes adopt a hierarchical structure, and recent data have characterized their chromatin organization at very different scales, from sub-genic regions associated with DNA-binding proteins at the order of tens or hundreds of bases, through larger regions with active or repressed chromatin states, up to multi-megabase-scale domains associated with nuclear positioning, replication timing and other qualities. However, we have lacked detailed, quantitative models to understand the interactions between these different strata. Here we collate large collections of matched locus-level chromatin features and Hi-C interaction data, representing higher-order organization, across three human cell types. We use quantitative modeling approaches to assess whether locus-level features are sufficient to explain higher-order structure, and identify the most influential underlying features. We identify structurally variable domains between cell types and examine the underlying features to discover a general association with cell-type-specific enhancer activity. We also identify the most prominent features marking the boundaries of two types of higher-order domains at different scales: topologically associating domains and nuclear compartments. We find parallel enrichments of particular chromatin features for both types, including features associated with active promoters and the architectural proteins CTCF and YY1. We show that integrative modeling of large chromatin dataset collections using random forests can generate useful insights into chromosome structure. The models produced recapitulate known biological features of the cell types involved, allow exploration of the antecedents of higher-order structures and generate testable hypotheses for further experimental studies.

  17. Identification of lamin B–regulated chromatin regions based on chromatin landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaobin; Kim, Youngjo; Zheng, Yixian

    2015-01-01

    Lamins, the major structural components of the nuclear lamina (NL) found beneath the nuclear envelope, are known to interact with most of the nuclear peripheral chromatin in metazoan cells. Although NL–chromatin associations correlate with a repressive chromatin state, the role of lamins in tethering chromatin to NL and how such tether influences gene expression have remained challenging to decipher. Studies suggest that NL proteins regulate chromatin in a context-dependent manner. Therefore understanding the context of chromatin states based on genomic features, including chromatin–NL interactions, is important to the study of lamins and other NL proteins. By modeling genome organization based on combinatorial patterns of chromatin association with lamin B1, core histone modification, and core and linker histone occupancy, we report six distinct large chromatin landscapes, referred to as histone lamin landscapes (HiLands)-red (R), -orange (O), -yellow (Y), -green (G), -blue (B), and -purple (P), in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). This HiLands model demarcates the previously mapped lamin-associated chromatin domains (LADs) into two HiLands, HiLands-B and HiLands-P, which are similar to facultative and constitutive heterochromatins, respectively. Deletion of B-type lamins in mESCs caused a reduced interaction between regions of HiLands-B and NL as measured by emerin–chromatin interaction. Our findings reveal the importance of analyzing specific chromatin types when studying the function of NL proteins in chromatin tether and regulation. PMID:25995381

  18. The Sea Urchin sns5 Chromatin Insulator Shapes the Chromatin Architecture of a Lentivirus Vector Integrated in the Mammalian Genome.

    PubMed

    Baiamonte, Elena; Spinelli, Giovanni; Maggio, Aurelio; Acuto, Santina; Cavalieri, Vincenzo

    2016-10-01

    Lentivirus vectors are presently the favorite vehicles for therapeutic gene transfer in hematopoietic cells. Nonetheless, these vectors integrate randomly throughout the genome, exhibiting variegation of transgene expression due to the spreading of heterochromatin into the vector sequences. Moreover, the cis-regulatory elements harbored by the vector could disturb the proper transcription of resident genes neighboring the integration site. The incorporation of chromatin insulators in flanking position to the transferred unit can alleviate both the above-mentioned dangerous effects, due to the insulator-specific barrier and enhancer-blocking activities. In this study, we report the valuable properties of the sea urchin-derived sns5 insulator in improving the expression efficiency of a lentivirus vector integrated in the mammalian erythroid genome. We show that these results neither reflect an intrinsic sns5 enhancer activity nor rely on the recruitment of the erythroid-specific GATA-1 factor to sns5. Furthermore, by using the Chromosome Conformation Capture technology, we report that a single copy of the sns5-insulated vector is specifically organized into an independent chromatin loop at the provirus locus. Our results not only provide new clues concerning the molecular mechanism of sns5 function in the erythroid genome but also reassure the use of sns5 to improve the performance of gene therapy vectors.

  19. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes. PMID:27465215

  20. Allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR at the p16INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Yuno, Miyuki; Fujii, Hodaka

    2016-07-28

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system has been adopted for a wide range of biological applications including genome editing. In some cases, dissection of genome functions requires allele-specific genome editing, but the use of CRISPR for this purpose has not been studied in detail. In this study, using the p16INK4a gene in HCT116 as a model locus, we investigated whether chromatin states, such as CpG methylation, or a single-nucleotide gap form in a target site can be exploited for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR in vivo. First, we showed that allele-specific locus binding and genome editing could be achieved by targeting allele-specific CpG-methylated regions, which was successful for one, but not all guide RNAs. In this regard, molecular basis underlying the success remains elusive at this stage. Next, we demonstrated that an allele-specific single-nucleotide gap form could be employed for allele-specific locus binding and genome editing by CRISPR, although it was important to avoid CRISPR tolerance of a single nucleotide mismatch brought about by mismatched base skipping. Our results provide information that might be useful for applications of CRISPR in studies of allele-specific functions in the genomes.

  1. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Every cellular process mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. As results from ENCODE show, open chromatin assays can efficiently integrate across diverse regulatory elements, revealing functional non-coding genome. In this study, we use a MNase hypersensitivity assay to discover o...

  2. Chromatin remodeling: nucleosomes bulging at the seams.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Craig L

    2002-04-02

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes, such as SWI/SNF, hydrolyze thousands of ATPs to regulate gene expression on chromatin fibers. Recent mechanistic studies suggest that these enzymes generate localized changes in DNA topology that drive formation of multiple, remodeled nucleosomal states.

  3. Chromatin roadblocks to reprogramming 50 years on.

    PubMed

    Skene, Peter J; Henikoff, Steven

    2012-10-29

    A half century after John Gurdon demonstrated nuclear reprogramming, for which he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, his group provides insights into the molecular mechanisms whereby chromatin remodeling is required for nuclear reprogramming. Among the issues addressed in Gurdon's latest work are the chromatin impediments to artificially induced reprogramming, discovered by Shinya Yamanaka, who shared the award with Gurdon.

  4. Interactions of transcription factors with chromatin.

    PubMed

    van Bakel, Harm

    2011-01-01

    Sequence-specific transcription factors (TFs) play a central role in regulating transcription initiation by directing the recruitment and activity of the general transcription machinery and accessory factors. It is now well established that many of the effects exerted by TFs in eukaryotes are mediated through interactions with a host of coregulators that modify the chromatin state, resulting in a more open (in case of activation) or closed conformation (in case of repression). The relationship between TFs and chromatin is a two-way street, however, as chromatin can in turn influence the recognition and binding of target sequences by TFs. The aim of this chapter is to highlight how this dynamic interplay between TF-directed remodelling of chromatin and chromatin-adjusted targeting of TF binding determines where and how transcription is initiated, and to what degree it is productive.

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: The physics of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiessel, Helmut

    2003-05-01

    Recent progress has been made in the understanding of the physical properties of chromatin - the dense complex of DNA and histone proteins that occupies the nuclei of plant and animal cells. Here I will focus on the two lowest levels of the hierarchy of DNA folding into the chromatin complex. (i) The nucleosome, the chromatin repeating unit consisting of a globular aggregate of eight histone proteins with the DNA wrapped around it: its overcharging, the DNA unwrapping transition, the 'sliding' of the octamer along the DNA. (ii) The 30 nm chromatin fibre, the necklace-like structure of nucleosomes connected via linker DNA: its geometry, its mechanical properties under stretching and its response to changing ionic conditions. I will stress that chromatin combines two seemingly contradictory features: (1) high compaction of DNA within the nuclear envelope and, at the same time, (2) accessibility to genes, promoter regions and gene regulatory sequences.

  6. Initiation of meiotic recombination in chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takatomi; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2013-08-01

    Meiotic homologous recombination is markedly activated during meiotic prophase to play central roles in faithful chromosome segregation and conferring genetic diversity to gametes. It is initiated by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the conserved protein Spo11, and preferentially occurs at discrete sites called hotspots. Since the functions of Spo11 are influenced by both of local chromatin at hotspots and higher-order chromosome structures, formation of meiotic DSBs is under regulation of chromatin structure. Therefore, investigating features and roles of meiotic chromatin is crucial to elucidate the in vivo mechanism of meiotic recombination initiation. Recent progress in genome-wide chromatin analyses tremendously improved our understanding on this point, but many critical questions are left unaddressed. In this review, we summarize current knowledge in the field, and also discuss the future problems that must be solved to understand the role of chromatin structure in meiotic recombination.

  7. Computational strategies to address chromatin structure problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perišić, Ognjen; Schlick, Tamar

    2016-06-01

    While the genetic information is contained in double helical DNA, gene expression is a complex multilevel process that involves various functional units, from nucleosomes to fully formed chromatin fibers accompanied by a host of various chromatin binding enzymes. The chromatin fiber is a polymer composed of histone protein complexes upon which DNA wraps, like yarn upon many spools. The nature of chromatin structure has been an open question since the beginning of modern molecular biology. Many experiments have shown that the chromatin fiber is a highly dynamic entity with pronounced structural diversity that includes properties of idealized zig-zag and solenoid models, as well as other motifs. This diversity can produce a high packing ratio and thus inhibit access to a majority of the wound DNA. Despite much research, chromatin’s dynamic structure has not yet been fully described. Long stretches of chromatin fibers exhibit puzzling dynamic behavior that requires interpretation in the light of gene expression patterns in various tissue and organisms. The properties of chromatin fiber can be investigated with experimental techniques, like in vitro biochemistry, in vivo imagining, and high-throughput chromosome capture technology. Those techniques provide useful insights into the fiber’s structure and dynamics, but they are limited in resolution and scope, especially regarding compact fibers and chromosomes in the cellular milieu. Complementary but specialized modeling techniques are needed to handle large floppy polymers such as the chromatin fiber. In this review, we discuss current approaches in the chromatin structure field with an emphasis on modeling, such as molecular dynamics and coarse-grained computational approaches. Combinations of these computational techniques complement experiments and address many relevant biological problems, as we will illustrate with special focus on epigenetic modulation of chromatin structure.

  8. Analysis of locus-specific changes in methylation patterns using a COBRA (combined bisulfite restriction analysis) assay.

    PubMed

    Boyko, Alex; Kovalchuk, Igor

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is a major mechanism for the reversible control of gene expression, chromatin structure, and genome stability. Methylation analysis at a given locus allows one to evaluate levels of chromatin packaging, gene expression, and even homologous recombination. We have shown that the combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) assay makes it possible to analyze methylation levels at a defined locus. The major steps are: bisulfite conversion of nonmethylate cytosines to uracils, locus-specific PCR amplification of converted DNA, restriction digestion, and analysis of restriction patterns on the gel. Due to the availability of various restriction enzymes that have cytosines in the restriction recognition sequence, the assay allows analysis of various cytosines, including those potentially targeted for symmetrical and nonsymmetrical methylation.

  9. A long noncoding RNA maintains active chromatin to coordinate homeotic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin C; Yang, Yul W; Liu, Bo; Sanyal, Amartya; Corces-Zimmerman, Ryan; Chen, Yong; Lajoie, Bryan R; Protacio, Angeline; Flynn, Ryan A; Gupta, Rajnish A; Wysocka, Joanna; Lei, Ming; Dekker, Job; Helms, Jill A; Chang, Howard Y

    2011-04-07

    The genome is extensively transcribed into long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs), many of which are implicated in gene silencing. Potential roles of lincRNAs in gene activation are much less understood. Development and homeostasis require coordinate regulation of neighbouring genes through a process termed locus control. Some locus control elements and enhancers transcribe lincRNAs, hinting at possible roles in long-range control. In vertebrates, 39 Hox genes, encoding homeodomain transcription factors critical for positional identity, are clustered in four chromosomal loci; the Hox genes are expressed in nested anterior-posterior and proximal-distal patterns colinear with their genomic position from 3' to 5'of the cluster. Here we identify HOTTIP, a lincRNA transcribed from the 5' tip of the HOXA locus that coordinates the activation of several 5' HOXA genes in vivo. Chromosomal looping brings HOTTIP into close proximity to its target genes. HOTTIP RNA binds the adaptor protein WDR5 directly and targets WDR5/MLL complexes across HOXA, driving histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation and gene transcription. Induced proximity is necessary and sufficient for HOTTIP RNA activation of its target genes. Thus, by serving as key intermediates that transmit information from higher order chromosomal looping into chromatin modifications, lincRNAs may organize chromatin domains to coordinate long-range gene activation. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  10. Extremely long range chromatin loops link topological domains to facilitate a diverse antibody repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, Lindsey; Wuerffel, Robert; Roqueiro, Damian; Lajoie, Bryan; Guo, Changying; Gerasimova, Tatiana; De, Supriyo; Wood, William; Becker, Kevin G.; Dekker, Job; Liang, Jie; Sen, Ranjan; Kenter, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Early B cell development is characterized by large scale Igh locus contraction prior to V(D)J recombination to facilitate a highly diverse Ig repertoire. However, an understanding of the molecular architecture that mediates locus contraction remains unclear. We have combined high resolution chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques with 3D DNA FISH to identify three conserved topological sub-domains. Each of these topological folds encompasses a major VH gene family that become juxtaposed in pro-B cells via Mb-scale chromatin looping. The transcription factor Pax5 organizes the sub-domain that spans the VHJ558 gene family. In its absence the J558 VH genes fail to associate with the proximal VH genes, thereby providing a plausible explanation for reduced VHJ558 gene rearrangements in Pax5-deficient pro-B cells. We propose that Igh locus contraction is the cumulative effect of several independently controlled chromatin sub-domains that provide the structural infrastructure to coordinate optimal antigen receptor assembly. PMID:26804913

  11. Single-nucleus Hi-C reveals unique chromatin reorganization at oocyte-to-zygote transition.

    PubMed

    Flyamer, Ilya M; Gassler, Johanna; Imakaev, Maxim; Brandão, Hugo B; Ulianov, Sergey V; Abdennur, Nezar; Razin, Sergey V; Mirny, Leonid A; Tachibana-Konwalski, Kikuë

    2017-04-06

    Chromatin is reprogrammed after fertilization to produce a totipotent zygote with the potential to generate a new organism. The maternal genome inherited from the oocyte and the paternal genome provided by sperm coexist as separate haploid nuclei in the zygote. How these two epigenetically distinct genomes are spatially organized is poorly understood. Existing chromosome conformation capture-based methods are not applicable to oocytes and zygotes owing to a paucity of material. To study three-dimensional chromatin organization in rare cell types, we developed a single-nucleus Hi-C (high-resolution chromosome conformation capture) protocol that provides greater than tenfold more contacts per cell than the previous method. Here we show that chromatin architecture is uniquely reorganized during the oocyte-to-zygote transition in mice and is distinct in paternal and maternal nuclei within single-cell zygotes. Features of genomic organization including compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs) and loops are present in individual oocytes when averaged over the genome, but the presence of each feature at a locus varies between cells. At the sub-megabase level, we observed stochastic clusters of contacts that can occur across TAD boundaries but average into TADs. Notably, we found that TADs and loops, but not compartments, are present in zygotic maternal chromatin, suggesting that these are generated by different mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that the global chromatin organization of zygote nuclei is fundamentally different from that of other interphase cells. An understanding of this zygotic chromatin 'ground state' could potentially provide insights into reprogramming cells to a state of totipotency.

  12. Effect of hyperthermia on replicating chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Warters, R.L.; Roti Roti, J.L.

    1981-10-01

    The extent of heat-induced structural alterations in chromatin containing nascent (pulse-labeled) DNA was assayed using the enzyme micrococcal nuclease. The basic nucleosome structure in nascent and mature chromatin of S-phase cells appeared unaltered for up to 16 hr after exposure to hyperthermic temperatures as high as 48/sup 0/C for 15 min. However, the rate of nuclease digestion of DNA in both nascent and mature chromatin is inhibited following exposure to hyperthermic temperatures. In unheated cells, pulse-labeled nascent DNA matured into mature chromatin structure with a half-time of 2.5 min. The half-time for the maturation of pulse-labeled DNA from nascent into mature chromatin increased in a linear manner as a function of increasing temperature of exposure with constant heating time at temperatures above 43/sup 0/C. Both the reduced nuclease digestibility of nascent DNA and the increased time for chromatin structural changes could be due to the increased protein mass of chromatin following hyperthermia.

  13. Ribonucleic Acid Synthesis by Cucumber Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth D.; Purves, William K.

    1970-01-01

    When intact etiolated 2-day cucumber (Cucumis sativus) embryos were treated with indoleacetic acid (IAA), gibberellin A7 (GA7), or kinetin, chromatin derived from the embryonic axes exhibited an increased capacity to support RNA synthesis in either the presence or the absence of bacterial RNA polymerase. An IAA effect on cucumber RNA polymerase activity was evident after 4 hours of hormone treatment; the IAA effect on DNA template activity (bacterial RNA polymerase added) occurred after longer treatments (12 hours). GA7 also promoted template activity, but again only after a prior stimulation of endogenous chromatin activity. After 12 hours of kinetin treatment, both endogenous chromatin and DNA template activities were substantially above control values, but longer kinetin treatments caused these activities to decline in magnitude. When chromatin was prepared from hypocotyl segments that were floated on a GA7 solution, a GA-induced increase in endogenous chromatin activity occurred, but only if cotyledon tissue was left attached to the segments during the period of hormone treatment. Age of the seedling tissue had a profound influence on the chromatin characteristics. With progression of development from the 2-day to the 4-day stage, the endogenous chromatin activity declined while the DNA template activity increased. PMID:16657509

  14. Remodelling chromatin to shape development of plants.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Matthew; Hennig, Lars

    2014-02-01

    Establishment and dynamic regulation of a higher order chromatin structure is an essential component of development. Chromatin remodelling complexes such as the SWI2/SNF2 family of ATP-dependent chromatin remodellers can alter chromatin architecture by changing nucleosome positioning or substituting histones with histone variants. These remodellers often act in concert with chromatin modifiers such as the polycomb group proteins which confer repressive states through modification of histone tails. These mechanisms are highly conserved across the eukaryotic kingdom although in plants, owing to the maintenance of dedifferentiated cell states that allow for post-embyronic changes in development, strict control of chromatin remodelling is even more paramount. Recent and ongoing studies in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have found that while the major families of the SWI2/SNF2 ATPase chromatin remodellers are represented, a number of redundancies and divergent functions have emerged that show a break from the roles of their metazoan counterparts. This review focusses on the SNF2 and CHD families of ATP-dependent remodellers and their roles in plant development. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Locus-Specific Epigenetic Remodeling Controls Addiction- and Depression-Related Behaviors (NN-A50213-T)

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Elizabeth A.; Cates, Hannah M.; Peña, Catherine J.; Sun, Haosheng; Shao, Ningyi; Feng, Jian; Golden, Sam A.; Herman, James P.; Walsh, Jessica J.; Mazei-Robison, Michelle; Ferguson, Deveroux; Knight, Scott; Gerber, Mark A.; Nievera, Christian; Han, Ming-Hu; Russo, Scott J.; Tamminga, Carol S.; Neve, Rachael L.; Shen, Li; Zhang, H. Steve; Zhang, Feng; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse or stress regulates transcription factors, chromatin modifying enzymes, and histone posttranslational modifications in discrete brain regions. Due to the promiscuity of the enzymes involved, it has not yet been possible to obtain direct causal evidence to implicate the regulation of transcription and consequent behavioral plasticity by chromatin remodeling that occurs at a single gene. Here, we investigate the mechanism linking chromatin dynamics to neurobiological phenomena by applying engineered transcription factors to selectively modify chromatin at a specific gene in vivo. We found that histone methylation or acetylation at the FosB locus in nucleus accumbens—a brain reward region—is sufficient to control drug- and stress-evoked transcriptional and behavioral responses via interactions with the endogenous transcriptional machinery. This approach allows us to relate the epigenetic landscape at a given gene directly to regulation of its expression and to its subsequent effects on reward behavior. PMID:25347353

  16. The chromatin remodeling factor CHD7 controls cerebellar development by regulating reelin expression.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Danielle E; Riegman, Kimberley L H; Kasah, Sahrunizam; Mohan, Conor; Yu, Tian; Sala, Blanca Pijuan; Hebaishi, Husam; Caruso, Angela; Marques, Ana Claudia; Michetti, Caterina; Smachetti, María Eugenia Sanz; Shah, Apar; Sabbioni, Mara; Kulhanci, Omer; Tee, Wee-Wei; Reinberg, Danny; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Volk, Holger; McGonnell, Imelda; Wardle, Fiona C; Fernandes, Cathy; Basson, M Albert

    2017-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits associated with CHARGE syndrome, which include cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, coordination problems, and autistic features, have not been identified. CHARGE syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CHD7. CHD7 is expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells, but its role in neurogenesis during brain development remains unknown. Here we have shown that deletion of Chd7 from cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCps) results in reduced GCp proliferation, cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, and motor deficits in mice. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed downregulated expression of the gene encoding the glycoprotein reelin (Reln) in Chd7-deficient GCps. Recessive RELN mutations have been associated with severe cerebellar hypoplasia in humans. We found molecular and genetic evidence that reductions in Reln expression contribute to GCp proliferative defects and cerebellar hypoplasia in GCp-specific Chd7 mouse mutants. Finally, we showed that CHD7 is necessary for maintaining an open, accessible chromatin state at the Reln locus. Taken together, this study shows that Reln gene expression is regulated by chromatin remodeling, identifies CHD7 as a previously unrecognized upstream regulator of Reln, and provides direct in vivo evidence that a mammalian CHD protein can control brain development by modulating chromatin accessibility in neuronal progenitors.

  17. The chromatin remodeling factor CHD7 controls cerebellar development by regulating reelin expression

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Danielle E.; Riegman, Kimberley L.H.; Kasah, Sahrunizam; Mohan, Conor; Yu, Tian; Sala, Blanca Pijuan; Hebaishi, Husam; Caruso, Angela; Marques, Ana Claudia; Michetti, Caterina; Smachetti, María Eugenia Sanz; Shah, Apar; Sabbioni, Mara; Kulhanci, Omer; Tee, Wee-Wei; Reinberg, Danny; Scattoni, Maria Luisa; McGonnell, Imelda; Wardle, Fiona C.; Fernandes, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neurodevelopmental deficits associated with CHARGE syndrome, which include cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, coordination problems, and autistic features, have not been identified. CHARGE syndrome has been associated with mutations in the gene encoding the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler CHD7. CHD7 is expressed in neural stem and progenitor cells, but its role in neurogenesis during brain development remains unknown. Here we have shown that deletion of Chd7 from cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCps) results in reduced GCp proliferation, cerebellar hypoplasia, developmental delay, and motor deficits in mice. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed downregulated expression of the gene encoding the glycoprotein reelin (Reln) in Chd7-deficient GCps. Recessive RELN mutations have been associated with severe cerebellar hypoplasia in humans. We found molecular and genetic evidence that reductions in Reln expression contribute to GCp proliferative defects and cerebellar hypoplasia in GCp-specific Chd7 mouse mutants. Finally, we showed that CHD7 is necessary for maintaining an open, accessible chromatin state at the Reln locus. Taken together, this study shows that Reln gene expression is regulated by chromatin remodeling, identifies CHD7 as a previously unrecognized upstream regulator of Reln, and provides direct in vivo evidence that a mammalian CHD protein can control brain development by modulating chromatin accessibility in neuronal progenitors. PMID:28165338

  18. Restraint of angiogenesis by zinc finger transcription factor CTCF-dependent chromatin insulation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ming; Chen, Bo; Pardo, Carolina; Pampo, Christine; Chen, Jing; Lien, Ching-Ling; Wu, Lizi; Wang, Heiman; Yao, Kai; Oh, S. Paul; Seto, Edward; Smith, Lois E. H.; Siemann, Dietmar W.; Kladde, Michael P.; Cepko, Constance L.; Lu, Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis is meticulously controlled by a fine balance between positive and negative regulatory activities. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a predominant angiogenic factor and its dosage is precisely regulated during normal vascular formation. In cancer, VEGF is commonly overproduced, resulting in abnormal neovascularization. VEGF is induced in response to various stimuli including hypoxia; however, very little is known about the mechanisms that confine its induction to ensure proper angiogenesis. Chromatin insulation is a key transcription mechanism that prevents promiscuous gene activation by interfering with the action of enhancers. Here we show that the chromatin insulator-binding factor CTCF binds to the proximal promoter of VEGF. Consistent with the enhancer-blocking mode of chromatin insulators, CTCF has little effect on basal expression of VEGF but specifically affects its activation by enhancers. CTCF knockdown cells are sensitized for induction of VEGF and exhibit elevated proangiogenic potential. Cancer-derived CTCF missense mutants are mostly defective in blocking enhancers at the VEGF locus. Moreover, during mouse retinal development, depletion of CTCF causes excess angiogenesis. Therefore, CTCF-mediated chromatin insulation acts as a crucial safeguard against hyperactivation of angiogenesis. PMID:21896759

  19. Redundant mechanisms to form silent chromatin at pericentromeric regions rely on BEND3 and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Saksouk, Nehmé; Barth, Teresa K; Ziegler-Birling, Celine; Olova, Nelly; Nowak, Agnieszka; Rey, Elodie; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Urbach, Serge; Reik, Wolf; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Imhof, Axel; Déjardin, Jérome; Simboeck, Elisabeth

    2014-11-20

    Constitutive heterochromatin is typically defined by high levels of DNA methylation and H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9Me3), whereas facultative heterochromatin displays DNA hypomethylation and high H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27Me3). The two chromatin types generally do not coexist at the same loci, suggesting mutual exclusivity. During development or in cancer, pericentromeric regions can adopt either epigenetic state, but the switching mechanism is unknown. We used a quantitative locus purification method to characterize changes in pericentromeric chromatin-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells deficient for either the methyltransferases required for DNA methylation or H3K9Me3. DNA methylation controls heterochromatin architecture and inhibits Polycomb recruitment. BEND3, a protein enriched on pericentromeric chromatin in the absence of DNA methylation or H3K9Me3, allows Polycomb recruitment and H3K27Me3, resulting in a redundant pathway to generate repressive chromatin. This suggests that BEND3 is a key factor in mediating a switch from constitutive to facultative heterochromatin.

  20. Activation of DNA damage response signaling by condensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Rebecca C; Burman, Bharat; Kruhlak, Michael J; Misteli, Tom

    2014-12-11

    The DNA damage response (DDR) occurs in the context of chromatin, and architectural features of chromatin have been implicated in DNA damage signaling and repair. Whereas a role of chromatin decondensation in the DDR is well established, we show here that chromatin condensation is integral to DDR signaling. We find that, in response to DNA damage chromatin regions transiently expand before undergoing extensive compaction. Using a protein-chromatin-tethering system to create defined chromatin domains, we show that interference with chromatin condensation results in failure to fully activate DDR. Conversely, forced induction of local chromatin condensation promotes ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and ATR-dependent activation of upstream DDR signaling in a break-independent manner. Whereas persistent chromatin compaction enhanced upstream DDR signaling from irradiation-induced breaks, it reduced recovery and survival after damage. Our results demonstrate that chromatin condensation is sufficient for activation of DDR signaling and is an integral part of physiological DDR signaling.

  1. Chromatin structure analysis of single gene molecules by psoralen cross-linking and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher R; Eskin, Julian A; Hamperl, Stephan; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Jurica, Melissa S; Boeger, Hinrich

    2015-01-01

    Nucleosomes occupy a central role in regulating eukaryotic gene expression by blocking access of transcription factors to their target sites on chromosomal DNA. Analysis of chromatin structure and function has mostly been performed by probing DNA accessibility with endonucleases. Such experiments average over large numbers of molecules of the same gene, and more recently, over entire genomes. However, both digestion and averaging erase the structural variation between molecules indicative of dynamic behavior, which must be reconstructed for any theory of regulation. Solution of this problem requires the structural analysis of single gene molecules. In this chapter, we describe a method by which single gene molecules are purified from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cross-linked with psoralen, allowing the determination of nucleosome configurations by transmission electron microscopy. We also provide custom analysis software that semi-automates the analysis of micrograph data. This single-gene technique enables detailed examination of chromatin structure at any genomic locus in yeast.

  2. Chromatin targeting drugs in cancer and immunity.

    PubMed

    Prinjha, Rab; Tarakhovsky, Alexander

    2013-08-15

    Recent advances in the enzymology of transcription and chromatin regulation have led to the discovery of proteins that play a prominent role in cell differentiation and the maintenance of specialized cell functions. Knowledge about post-synthetic DNA and histone modifications as well as information about the rules that guide the formation of multimolecular chromatin-bound complexes have helped to delineate gene-regulating pathways and describe how these pathways are altered in various pathological conditions. The present review focuses on the emerging area of therapeutic interference with chromatin function for the purpose of cancer treatment and immunomodulation.

  3. reSETting chromatin during transcription elongation

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Michaela; Workman, Jerry L.; Venkatesh, Swaminathan

    2013-01-01

    Maintenance of ordered chromatin structure over the body of genes is vital for the regulation of transcription. Increased access to the underlying DNA sequence results in the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to inappropriate, promoter-like sites within genes, resulting in unfettered transcription. Two new papers show how the Set2-mediated methylation of histone H3 on Lys36 (H3K36me) maintains chromatin structure by limiting histone dynamics over gene bodies, either by recruiting chromatin remodelers that preserve ordered nucleosomal distribution or by lowering the binding affinity of histone chaperones for histones, preventing their removal. PMID:23257840

  4. Nucleosome structure in chromatin from heated cells

    SciTech Connect

    Warters, R.L.; Roti Roti, J.L.; Winward, R.T.

    1980-12-01

    The effect of hyperthermia (40 to 80/sup 0/C) on the nucleosome structure of mammalian chromatin was determined using the enzyme micrococcal nuclease. At equivalent fractional DNA digestion it was found that neither the size of DNA nor the total fraction of cellular DNA associated with nucleosome structure is altered by heat exposure up to 48/sup 0/C for 30 min. It is proposed that this heat-induced reduction in the accessibility to nuclease attack of DNA in chromatin from heated cells is due to the increased protein mass associated with chromatin.

  5. Chromatin Fiber Dynamics under Tension and Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Christophe; Victor, Jean-Marc; Zlatanova, Jordanka

    2010-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic information in eukaryotic cells is carried on chromosomes, basically consisting of large compact supercoiled chromatin fibers. Micromanipulations have recently led to great advances in the knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying the regulation of DNA transaction events by nucleosome and chromatin structural changes. Indeed, magnetic and optical tweezers have allowed opportunities to handle single nucleosomal particles or nucleosomal arrays and measure their response to forces and torques, mimicking the molecular constraints imposed in vivo by various molecular motors acting on the DNA. These challenging technical approaches provide us with deeper understanding of the way chromatin dynamically packages our genome and participates in the regulation of cellular metabolism. PMID:20480035

  6. Unraveling chromatin structure using magnetic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noort, John

    2010-03-01

    The compact, yet dynamic organization of chromatin plays an essential role in regulating gene expression. Although the static structure of chromatin fibers has been studied extensively, the controversy about the higher order folding remains. The compaction of eukaryotic DNA into chromatin has been implicated in the regulation of all DNA processes. To understand the relation between gene regulation and chromatin structure it is essential to uncover the mechanisms by which chromatin fibers fold and unfold. We used magnetic tweezers to probe the mechanical properties of individual nucleosomes and chromatin fibers consisting of a single, well-defined array of 25 nucleosomes. From these studies five major features appeared upon forced extension of chromatin fibers: the elastic stretching of chromatin's higher order structure, the breaking of internucleosomal contacts, unwrapping of the first turn of DNA, unwrapping of the second turn of DNA, and the dissociation of histone octamers. These events occur sequentially at the increasing force. Neighboring nucleosomes stabilize DNA folding into a nucleosome relative to isolated nucleosomes. When an array of nucleosomes is folded into a 30 nm fiber, representing the first level of chromatin condensation, the fiber stretched like a Hookian spring at forces up to 4 pN. Together with a nucleosome-nucleosome stacking energy of 14 kT this points to a solenoid as the underlying topology of the 30 nm fiber. Surprisingly, linker histones do not affect the length or stiffness of the fibers, but stabilize fiber folding up to forces of 7 pN. The stiffness of the folded chromatin fiber points at histone tails that mediate nucleosome stacking. Fibers with a nucleosome repeat length of 167 bp instead of 197 bp are significantly stiffer, consistent with a two-start helical arrangement. The extensive thermal breathing of the chromatin fiber that is a consequence of the observed high compliance provides a structural basis for understanding the

  7. Proteomics to study DNA-bound and chromatin-associated gene regulatory complexes

    PubMed Central

    Wierer, Michael; Mann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is a powerful method for the identification of soluble protein complexes and large-scale affinity purification screens can decode entire protein interaction networks. In contrast, protein complexes residing on chromatin have been much more challenging, because they are difficult to purify and often of very low abundance. However, this is changing due to recent methodological and technological advances in proteomics. Proteins interacting with chromatin marks can directly be identified by pulldowns with synthesized histone tails containing posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Similarly, pulldowns with DNA baits harbouring single nucleotide polymorphisms or DNA modifications reveal the impact of those DNA alterations on the recruitment of transcription factors. Accurate quantitation – either isotope-based or label free – unambiguously pinpoints proteins that are significantly enriched over control pulldowns. In addition, protocols that combine classical chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) methods with mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS) target gene regulatory complexes in their in-vivo context. Similar to classical ChIP, cells are crosslinked with formaldehyde and chromatin sheared by sonication or nuclease digested. ChIP-MS baits can be proteins in tagged or endogenous form, histone PTMs, or lncRNAs. Locus-specific ChIP-MS methods would allow direct purification of a single genomic locus and the proteins associated with it. There, loci can be targeted either by artificial DNA-binding sites and corresponding binding proteins or via proteins with sequence specificity such as TAL or nuclease deficient Cas9 in combination with a specific guide RNA. We predict that advances in MS technology will soon make such approaches generally applicable tools in epigenetics. PMID:27402878

  8. Roles of chromatin insulator proteins in higher-order chromatin organization and transcription regulation

    PubMed Central

    Vogelmann, Jutta; Valeri, Alessandro; Guillou, Emmanuelle; Cuvier, Olivier; Nollmann, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic chromosomes are condensed into several hierarchical levels of complexity: DNA is wrapped around core histones to form nucleosomes, nucleosomes form a higher-order structure called chromatin, and chromatin is subsequently compartmentalized in part by the combination of multiple specific or unspecific long-range contacts. The conformation of chromatin at these three levels greatly influences DNA metabolism and transcription. One class of chromatin regulatory proteins called insulator factors may organize chromatin both locally, by setting up barriers between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and globally by establishing platforms for long-range interactions. Here, we review recent data revealing a global role of insulator proteins in the regulation of transcription through the formation of clusters of long-range interactions that impact different levels of chromatin organization. PMID:21983085

  9. Centromeric chromatin in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Janet F

    2008-05-01

    A fundamental requirement for life is the ability of cells to divide properly and to pass on to their daughters a full complement of genetic material. The centromere of the chromosome is essential for this process, as it provides the DNA sequences on which the kinetochore (the proteinaceous structure that links centromeric DNA to the spindle microtubules) assembles to allow segregation of the chromosomes during mitosis. It has long been recognized that kinetochore assembly is subject to epigenetic control, and deciphering how centromeres promote faithful chromosome segregation provides a fascinating intellectual challenge. This challenge is made more difficult by the scale and complexity of DNA sequences in metazoan centromeres, thus much research has focused on dissecting centromere function in the single celled eukaryotic yeasts. Interestingly, in spite of similarities in the genome size of budding and fission yeasts, they seem to have adopted some striking differences in their strategy for passing on their chromosomes. Budding yeast have "point" centromeres, where a 125 base sequence is sufficient for mitotic propagation, whereas fission yeast centromeres are more reminiscent of the large repetitive centromeres of metazoans. In addition, the centromeric heterochromatin which coats centromeric domains of fission yeast and metazoan centromeres and is critical for their function, is largely absent from budding yeast centromeres. This review focuses on the assembly and maintenance of centromeric chromatin in the fission yeast.

  10. Chromatin dynamics during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Ziv, Raz; Voichek, Yoav; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin is composed of DNA and histones, which provide a unified platform for regulating DNA-related processes, mostly through their post-translational modification. During DNA replication, histone arrangement is perturbed, first to allow progression of DNA polymerase and then during repackaging of the replicated DNA. To study how DNA replication influences the pattern of histone modification, we followed the cell-cycle dynamics of 10 histone marks in budding yeast. We find that histones deposited on newly replicated DNA are modified at different rates: While some marks appear immediately upon replication (e.g., H4K16ac, H3K4me1), others increase with transcription-dependent delays (e.g., H3K4me3, H3K36me3). Notably, H3K9ac was deposited as a wave preceding the replication fork by ∼5–6 kb. This replication-guided H3K9ac was fully dependent on the acetyltransferase Rtt109, while expression-guided H3K9ac was deposited by Gcn5. Further, topoisomerase depletion intensified H3K9ac in front of the replication fork and in sites where RNA polymerase II was trapped, suggesting supercoiling stresses trigger H3K9 acetylation. Our results assign complementary roles for DNA replication and gene expression in defining the pattern of histone modification. PMID:27225843

  11. Role of Chromatin Loops In DNA Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechhoefer, John; Jun, Suckjoon; Herrick, John; Bensimon, Aaron

    2003-03-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packed together with proteins (histones) into a structure known as the 30-nm chromatin fiber, whose behavior can be modeled as a wormlike polymer chain. We have investigated the relationship between the distributions of chromatin loop sizes and DNA replication in Xenopus laevis egg extracts. We find that the loop-size distribution predicted from the worm-like chain model of chromatin agrees well with the reported spatial distribution of replication origins in this system and that loops can explain quantitatively the observed tendency for nearby origins to start synchronously. Thus, in Xenopus egg extracts, the persistence length of chromatin fiber determines the separation between and synchrony of DNA replication origins.

  12. The stem cell--chromatin connection.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yi; Wu, Miin-Feng; Wagner, Doris

    2009-12-01

    Stem cells self-renew and give rise to all differentiated cell types of the adult body. They are classified as toti-, pluri- or multi-potent based on the number of different cell types they can give rise to. Recently it has become apparent that chromatin regulation plays a critical role in determining the fate of stem cells and their descendants. In this review we will discuss the role of chromatin regulators in maintenance of stem cells and their ability to give rise to differentiating cells in both the animal and plant kingdom. We will highlight similarities and differences in chromatin-mediated control of stem cell fate in plants and animals. We will consider possible reasons why chromatin regulators play a central role in pluripotency in both kingdoms given that multicellularity evolved independently in each.

  13. Chromatin modifiers: regulators of cellular differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Taiping; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular differentiation, by definition, is epigenetic. Genome-wide profiling of pluripotent cells and differentiated cells suggests global chromatin remodeling during differentiation, resulting in progressive transition from a relatively open chromatin configuration to a more compact state. Genetic studies in mouse models demonstrate major roles for a variety of histone modifiers and chromatin remodelers in key developmental transitions, such as the segregation of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages in blastocyst stage embryos, the formation of the three germ layers during gastrulation, and differentiation of adult stem cells. Furthermore, rather than merely stabilizing the gene expression changes driven by developmental transcription factors, evidence is emerging that chromatin regulators have multifaceted roles in cell fate decisions. PMID:24366184

  14. Transcription of nucleosomes from human chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, P A; Sahasrabuddhe, C G; Hodo, H G; Saunders, G F

    1978-01-01

    Nucleosomes (chromatin subunits) prepared by micrococcal nuclease digestion of human nuclei are similar in histone content but substantially reduced in non-histone proteins as compared to undigested chromatin. Chromatin transcription experiments indicate that the DNA in the nucleosomes is accessible to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase in vitro. The template capacities of chromatin and nucleosomes are 1.5 and 10%, respectively, relative to high molecular weight DNA, with intermediate values for oligonucleosomes. Three distinct sizes of transcripts, 150, 120 and 95 nucleotides in length, are obtained when nucleosomes are used as templates. However, when nucleosomal DNA is used as a template, the predominant size of transcripts is 150 nucleotides. When oligonucleosomes are used as templates longer transcripts are obtained. This indicates that RNA polymerase can transcribe the DNA contained in the nucleosomes. PMID:693325

  15. Hitchhiking on Host Chromatin: how Papillomaviruses Persist

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Alison A.; Sakakibara, Nozomi; Stepp, Wesley H.; Jang, Moon Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Persistent viruses need mechanisms to protect their genomes from cellular defenses and to ensure that they are efficiently propagated to daughter host cells. One mechanism by which papillomaviruses achieve this is through the association of viral genomes with host chromatin, mediated by the viral E2 tethering protein. Association of viral DNA with regions of active host chromatin ensures that the virus remains transcriptionally active and is not relegated to repressed heterochromatin. In addition, viral genomes are tethered to specific regions of host mitotic chromosomes to efficiently partition their DNA to daughter cells. Vegetative viral DNA replication also initiates at specific regions of host chromatin, where the viral E1 and E2 proteins initiate a DNA damage response that recruits cellular DNA damage and repair proteins to viral replication foci for efficient viral DNA synthesis. Thus, these small viruses have capitalized on interactions with chromatin to efficiently target their genomes to beneficial regions of the host nucleus. PMID:22306660

  16. Predictive Computational Modeling of Chromatin Folding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Pierro, Miichele; Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter J.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    In vivo, the human genome folds into well-determined and conserved three-dimensional structures. The mechanism driving the folding process remains unknown. We report a theoretical model (MiChroM) for chromatin derived by using the maximum entropy principle. The proposed model allows Molecular Dynamics simulations of the genome using as input the classification of loci into chromatin types and the presence of binding sites of loop forming protein CTCF. The model was trained to reproduce the Hi-C map of chromosome 10 of human lymphoblastoid cells. With no additional tuning the model was able to predict accurately the Hi-C maps of chromosomes 1-22 for the same cell line. Simulations show unknotted chromosomes, phase separation of chromatin types and a preference of chromatin of type A to sit at the periphery of the chromosomes.

  17. Polymer chain models of DNA and chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langowski, J.

    2006-03-01

    Many properties of the genome in the cell nucleus can be understood by modeling DNA and chromatin as a flexible polymer chain. This article introduces into current models for such a coarse-grained description and reviews some recent results from our own group. Examples given are the unrolling of DNA from the histone core and the response of the 30nm chromatin fiber to mechanical stretching.

  18. Nucleosome repeat lengths and columnar chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Edward N

    2016-06-01

    Thorough quantitative study of nucleosome repeat length (NRL) distributions, conducted in 1992 by J. Widom, resulted in a striking observation that the linker lengths between the nucleosomes are quantized. Comparison of the NRL average values with the MNase cut distances predicted from the hypothetical columnar structure of chromatin (this work) shows a close correspondence between the two. This strongly suggests that the NRL distribution, actually, reflects the dominant role of columnar chromatin structure common for all eukaryotes.

  19. Chromatin fiber functional organization: Some plausible models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, A.; Victor, J.-M.

    2006-03-01

    We here present a modeling study of the chromatin fiber functional organization. Multi-scale modeling is required to unravel the complex interplay between the fiber and the DNA levels. It suggests plausible scenarios, including both physical and biological aspects, for fiber condensation, its targeted decompaction, and transcription regulation. We conclude that a major role of the chromatin fiber structure might be to endow DNA with allosteric potentialities and to control DNA transactions by an epigenetic tuning of its mechanical and topological constraints.

  20. Recruitment of Phosphorylated Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 to Chromatin after UV Irradiation of Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Emmanuelle; Roche, Danièle M.J.; Marheineke, Kathrin; Verreault, Alain; Almouzni, Geneviève

    1998-01-01

    The subcellular distribution and posttranslational modification of human chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) have been investigated after UV irradiation of HeLa cells. In an asynchronous cell population only a subfraction of the two large CAF-1 subunits, p150 and p60, were found to exist in a chromatin-associated fraction. This fraction is most abundant during S phase in nonirradiated cells and is much reduced in G2 cells. After UV irradiation, the chromatin-associated form of CAF-1 dramatically increased in all cells irrespective of their position in the cell cycle. Such chromatin recruitment resembles that seen for PCNA, a DNA replication and repair factor. The chromatin-associated fraction of p60 was predominantly hypophosphorylated in nonirradiated G2 cells. UV irradiation resulted in the rapid recruitment to chromatin of phosphorylated forms of the p60 subunit. Furthermore, the amount of the p60 and p150 subunits of CAF-1 associated with chromatin was a function of the dose of UV irradiation. Consistent with these in vivo observations, we found that the amount of CAF-1 required to stimulate nucleosome assembly during the repair of UV photoproducts in vitro depended upon both the number of lesions and the phosphorylation state of CAF-1. The recruitment of CAF-1 to chromatin in response to UV irradiation of human cells described here supports a physiological role for CAF-1 in linking chromatin assembly to DNA repair. PMID:9813080

  1. Transcriptional Coactivator PC4, a Chromatin-Associated Protein, Induces Chromatin Condensation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Das, Chandrima; Hizume, Kohji; Batta, Kiran; Kumar, B. R. Prashanth; Gadad, Shrikanth S.; Ganguly, Semanti; Lorain, Stephanie; Verreault, Alain; Sadhale, Parag P.; Takeyasu, Kunio; Kundu, Tapas K.

    2006-01-01

    Human transcriptional coactivator PC4 is a highly abundant multifunctional protein which plays diverse important roles in cellular processes, including transcription, replication, and repair. It is also a unique activator of p53 function. Here we report that PC4 is a bona fide component of chromatin with distinct chromatin organization ability. PC4 is predominantly associated with the chromatin throughout the stages of cell cycle and is broadly distributed on the mitotic chromosome arms in a punctate manner except for the centromere. It selectively interacts with core histones H3 and H2B; this interaction is essential for PC4-mediated chromatin condensation, as demonstrated by micrococcal nuclease (MNase) accessibility assays, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images show that PC4 compacts the 100-kb reconstituted chromatin distinctly compared to the results seen with the linker histone H1. Silencing of PC4 expression in HeLa cells results in chromatin decompaction, as evidenced by the increase in MNase accessibility. Knocking down of PC4 up-regulates several genes, leading to the G2/M checkpoint arrest of cell cycle, which suggests its physiological role as a chromatin-compacting protein. These results establish PC4 as a new member of chromatin-associated protein family, which plays an important role in chromatin organization. PMID:16982701

  2. Programming smooth muscle plasticity with chromatin dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Oliver G; Owens, Gary K

    2007-05-25

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) possess remarkable phenotypic plasticity that allows rapid adaptation to fluctuating environmental cues. For example, vascular SMCs undergo profound changes in their phenotype during neointimal formation in response to vessel injury or within atherosclerotic plaques. Recent studies have shown that interaction of serum response factor (SRF) and its numerous accessory cofactors with CArG box DNA sequences within promoter chromatin of SMC genes is a nexus for integrating signals that influence SMC differentiation in development and disease. During development, SMC-restricted sets of posttranslational histone modifications are acquired within the CArG box chromatin of SMC genes. These modifications in turn control the chromatin-binding properties of SRF. The histone modifications appear to encode a SMC-specific epigenetic program that is used by extracellular cues to influence SMC differentiation, by regulating binding of SRF and its partners to the chromatin template. Thus, SMC differentiation is dynamically regulated by the interplay between SRF accessory cofactors, the SRF-CArG interaction, and the underlying histone modification program. As such, the inherent plasticity of the SMC lineage offers unique glimpses into how cellular differentiation is dynamically controlled at the level of chromatin within the context of changing microenvironments. Further elucidation of how chromatin regulates SMC differentiation will undoubtedly yield valuable insights into both normal developmental processes and the pathogenesis of several vascular diseases that display detrimental SMC phenotypic behavior.

  3. Links between genome replication and chromatin landscapes.

    PubMed

    Sequeira-Mendes, Joana; Gutierrez, Crisanto

    2015-07-01

    Post-embryonic organogenesis in plants requires the continuous production of cells in the organ primordia, their expansion and a coordinated exit to differentiation. Genome replication is one of the most important processes that occur during the cell cycle, as the maintenance of genomic integrity is of primary relevance for development. As it is chromatin that must be duplicated, a strict coordination occurs between DNA replication, the deposition of new histones, and the introduction of histone modifications and variants. In turn, the chromatin landscape affects several stages during genome replication. Thus, chromatin accessibility is crucial for the initial stages and to specify the location of DNA replication origins with different chromatin signatures. The chromatin landscape also determines the timing of activation during the S phase. Genome replication must occur fully, but only once during each cell cycle. The re-replication avoidance mechanisms rely primarily on restricting the availability of certain replication factors; however, the presence of specific histone modifications are also revealed as contributing to the mechanisms that avoid re-replication, in particular for heterochromatin replication. We provide here an update of genome replication mostly focused on data from Arabidopsis, and the advances that genomic approaches are likely to provide in the coming years. The data available, both in plants and animals, point to the relevance of the chromatin landscape in genome replication, and require a critical evaluation of the existing views about the nature of replication origins, the mechanisms of origin specification and the relevance of epigenetic modifications for genome replication.

  4. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  5. Bifurcations of the conjugate locus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The conjugate locus of a point p in a surface S will have a certain number of cusps. As the point p is moved in the surface the conjugate locus may spontaneously gain or lose cusps. In this paper we explain this 'bifurcation' in terms of the vanishing of higher derivatives of the exponential map; we derive simple equations for these higher derivatives in terms of scalar invariants; we classify the bifurcations of cusps in terms of the local structure of the conjugate locus; and we describe an intuitive picture of the bifurcation as the intersection between certain contours in the tangent plane.

  6. Functional Interrogation of an Odorant Receptor Locus Reveals Multiple Axes of Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fleischmann, Alexander; Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Sayed, Atef; Shykind, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The odorant receptor (OR) genes constitute the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion, through an unknown mechanism that likely exploits positive and negative regulation. We devised a genetic strategy in mice to examine OR selection by determining the transcriptional activity of an exogenous promoter homologously integrated into an OR locus. Using the tetracycline-dependent transactivator responsive promoter (teto), we observed that the OR locus imposes spatial and temporal constraints on teto-driven transcription. Conditional expression experiments reveal a developmental change in the permissiveness of the locus. Further, expression of an OR transgene that suppresses endogenous ORs similarly represses the OR-integrated teto. Neurons homozygous for the teto-modified allele demonstrate predominantly monoallelic expression, despite their potential to express both copies. These data reveal multiple axes of regulation, and support a model of initiation of OR choice limited by nonpermissive chromatin and maintained by repression of nonselected alleles. PMID:23700388

  7. A role for the Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 protein in chromatin organization at the histone gene cluster and in suppression of position-effect variegation.

    PubMed Central

    Ner, Sarbjit S; Harrington, Michael J; Grigliatti, Thomas A

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for Su(var)3-9 are dominant suppressors of position-effect variegation (PEV). We show that SU(VAR)3-9 is a chromatin-associated protein and identify the large multicopy histone gene cluster (HIS-C) as one of its target loci. The organization of nucleosomes over the entire HIS-C region is altered in Su(var)3-9 mutants and there is a concomitant increase in expression of the histone genes. SU(VAR)3-9 is a histone H3 methyltransferase and, using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that SU(VAR)3-9 is present at the HIS-C locus and that the histone H3 at the HIS-C locus is methylated. We propose that SU(VAR)3-9 is involved in packaging HIS-C into a distinct chromatin domain that has some of the characteristics of beta-heterochromatin. We suggest that methylation of histone H3 is important for the chromatin structure at HIS-C. The chromosomal deficiency for the HIS-C is also a suppressor of PEV. In contrast to what might be expected, we show that hemizygosity for the HIS-C locus leads to a substantial increase in the histone transcripts. PMID:12524347

  8. Chromatin Dynamics during Lytic Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Kristen L.; Schang, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Latent HSV-1 genomes are chromatinized with silencing marks. Since 2004, however, there has been an apparent inconsistency in the studies of the chromatinization of the HSV-1 genomes in lytically infected cells. Nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggested that the genomes were not regularly chromatinized, having only low histone occupancy. However, the chromatin modifications associated with transcribed and non-transcribed HSV-1 genes were those associated with active or repressed transcription, respectively. Moreover, the three critical HSV-1 transcriptional activators all had the capability to induce chromatin remodelling, and interacted with critical chromatin modifying enzymes. Depletion or overexpression of some, but not all, chromatin modifying proteins affected HSV-1 transcription, but often in unexpected manners. Since 2010, it has become clear that both cellular and HSV-1 chromatins are highly dynamic in infected cells. These dynamics reconcile the weak interactions between HSV-1 genomes and chromatin proteins, detected by nuclease protection and chromatin immunoprecipitation, with the proposed regulation of HSV-1 gene expression by chromatin, supported by the marks in the chromatin in the viral genomes and the abilities of the HSV-1 transcription activators to modulate chromatin. It also explains the sometimes unexpected results of interventions to modulate chromatin remodelling activities in infected cells. PMID:23863878

  9. Changing chromatin fiber conformation by nucleosome repositioning.

    PubMed

    Müller, Oliver; Kepper, Nick; Schöpflin, Robert; Ettig, Ramona; Rippe, Karsten; Wedemann, Gero

    2014-11-04

    Chromatin conformation is dynamic and heterogeneous with respect to nucleosome positions, which can be changed by chromatin remodeling complexes in the cell. These molecular machines hydrolyze ATP to translocate or evict nucleosomes, and establish loci with regularly and more irregularly spaced nucleosomes as well as nucleosome-depleted regions. The impact of nucleosome repositioning on the three-dimensional chromatin structure is only poorly understood. Here, we address this issue by using a coarse-grained computer model of arrays of 101 nucleosomes considering several chromatin fiber models with and without linker histones, respectively. We investigated the folding of the chain in dependence of the position of the central nucleosome by changing the length of the adjacent linker DNA in basepair steps. We found in our simulations that these translocations had a strong effect on the shape and properties of chromatin fibers: i), Fiber curvature and flexibility at the center were largely increased and long-range contacts between distant nucleosomes on the chain were promoted. ii), The highest destabilization of the fiber conformation occurred for a nucleosome shifted by two basepairs from regular spacing, whereas effects of linker DNA changes of ?10 bp in phase with the helical twist of DNA were minimal. iii), A fiber conformation can stabilize a regular spacing of nucleosomes inasmuch as favorable stacking interactions between nucleosomes are facilitated. This can oppose nucleosome translocations and increase the energetic costs for chromatin remodeling. Our computational modeling framework makes it possible to describe the conformational heterogeneity of chromatin in terms of nucleosome positions, and thus advances theoretical models toward a better understanding of how genome compaction and access are regulated within the cell.

  10. Changing Chromatin Fiber Conformation by Nucleosome Repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Oliver; Kepper, Nick; Schöpflin, Robert; Ettig, Ramona; Rippe, Karsten; Wedemann, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin conformation is dynamic and heterogeneous with respect to nucleosome positions, which can be changed by chromatin remodeling complexes in the cell. These molecular machines hydrolyze ATP to translocate or evict nucleosomes, and establish loci with regularly and more irregularly spaced nucleosomes as well as nucleosome-depleted regions. The impact of nucleosome repositioning on the three-dimensional chromatin structure is only poorly understood. Here, we address this issue by using a coarse-grained computer model of arrays of 101 nucleosomes considering several chromatin fiber models with and without linker histones, respectively. We investigated the folding of the chain in dependence of the position of the central nucleosome by changing the length of the adjacent linker DNA in basepair steps. We found in our simulations that these translocations had a strong effect on the shape and properties of chromatin fibers: i), Fiber curvature and flexibility at the center were largely increased and long-range contacts between distant nucleosomes on the chain were promoted. ii), The highest destabilization of the fiber conformation occurred for a nucleosome shifted by two basepairs from regular spacing, whereas effects of linker DNA changes of ∼10 bp in phase with the helical twist of DNA were minimal. iii), A fiber conformation can stabilize a regular spacing of nucleosomes inasmuch as favorable stacking interactions between nucleosomes are facilitated. This can oppose nucleosome translocations and increase the energetic costs for chromatin remodeling. Our computational modeling framework makes it possible to describe the conformational heterogeneity of chromatin in terms of nucleosome positions, and thus advances theoretical models toward a better understanding of how genome compaction and access are regulated within the cell. PMID:25418099

  11. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the {beta}-globin locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} The {beta}-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. {yields} Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. {yields} Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. {yields} Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human {beta}-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human {beta}-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the {beta}-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  12. Chromatin Regulation of the EGFR Locus in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    beta were regulated by ECM. Chromatinimmunoprecipitation(ChIP) assays demonstrated that levels of acetylated histones as well as binding of Stat5 and C...Brg1 significantly reduced both beta -andgamma-casein expression, indicating that ATP-depend entchromatinremodeling is required for transcription of...remodeling, histone acetylation, beta -casein 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  13. A Computer Lab Exploring Evolutionary Aspects of Chromatin Structure and Dynamics for an Undergraduate Chromatin Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromatin constitutes one of the most active research fields in life sciences, being subject to constant revisions that continuously redefine the state of the art in its knowledge. As every other rapidly changing field, chromatin biology requires clear and straightforward educational strategies able to efficiently translate such a…

  14. Two Distinct Mechanisms of Chromatin Interaction by the Isw2 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fazzio, Thomas G.; Gelbart, Marnie E.; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isw2 complex slides nucleosomes to remodel chromatin in vivo. Our data suggested a model in which Isw2 complex binds the histone octamer and DNA separately to generate the force necessary for nucleosome movement. Here we find that the histone H4 “basic patch” is the only portion of any amino-terminal histone tail required for both target-specific association of Isw2 complex with chromatin and chromatin remodeling in vivo, whereas it is dispensable for basal levels of chromatin binding. Similarly, we find that nonremodeled chromatin structure and integrity of Isw2 complex are required only for target-specific association of Isw2 with chromatin. These data demonstrate fundamental differences between the target-specific and basal modes of chromatin binding by Isw2 complex in vivo and suggest that only the former involves contributions from DNA, histone H4, and sequence-specific DNA binding proteins. We propose a model for target recognition and chromatin remodeling by Isw2 complex in vivo. PMID:16227570

  15. A Computer Lab Exploring Evolutionary Aspects of Chromatin Structure and Dynamics for an Undergraduate Chromatin Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eirin-Lopez, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromatin constitutes one of the most active research fields in life sciences, being subject to constant revisions that continuously redefine the state of the art in its knowledge. As every other rapidly changing field, chromatin biology requires clear and straightforward educational strategies able to efficiently translate such a…

  16. A computer lab exploring evolutionary aspects of chromatin structure and dynamics for an undergraduate chromatin course*.

    PubMed

    Eirín-López, José M

    2013-01-01

    The study of chromatin constitutes one of the most active research fields in life sciences, being subject to constant revisions that continuously redefine the state of the art in its knowledge. As every other rapidly changing field, chromatin biology requires clear and straightforward educational strategies able to efficiently translate such a vast body of knowledge to the classroom. With this aim, the present work describes a multidisciplinary computer lab designed to introduce undergraduate students to the dynamic nature of chromatin, within the context of the one semester course "Chromatin: Structure, Function and Evolution." This exercise is organized in three parts including (a) molecular evolutionary biology of histone families (using the H1 family as example), (b) histone structure and variation across different animal groups, and (c) effect of histone diversity on nucleosome structure and chromatin dynamics. By using freely available bioinformatic tools that can be run on common computers, the concept of chromatin dynamics is interactively illustrated from a comparative/evolutionary perspective. At the end of this computer lab, students are able to translate the bioinformatic information into a biochemical context in which the relevance of histone primary structure on chromatin dynamics is exposed. During the last 8 years this exercise has proven to be a powerful approach for teaching chromatin structure and dynamics, allowing students a higher degree of independence during the processes of learning and self-assessment.

  17. Chromatin Ring Formation at Plant Centromeres

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Veit; Ruban, Alevtina; Houben, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We observed the formation of chromatin ring structures at centromeres of somatic rye and Arabidopsis chromosomes. To test whether this behavior is present also in other plant species and tissues we analyzed Arabidopsis, rye, wheat, Aegilops and barley centromeres during cell divisions and in interphase nuclei by immunostaining and FISH. Furthermore, structured illumination microscopy (super-resolution) was applied to investigate the ultrastructure of centromere chromatin beyond the classical refraction limit of light. It became obvious, that a ring formation at centromeres may appear during mitosis, meiosis and in interphase nuclei in all species analyzed. However, varying centromere structures, as ring formations or globular organized chromatin fibers, were identified in different tissues of one and the same species. In addition, we found that a chromatin ring formation may also be caused by subtelomeric repeats in barley. Thus, we conclude that the formation of chromatin rings may appear in different plant species and tissues, but that it is not specific for centromere function. Based on our findings we established a model describing the ultrastructure of plant centromeres and discuss it in comparison to previous models proposed for animals and plants. PMID:26913037

  18. Chromatin associations in Arabidopsis interphase nuclei.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Veit; Rudnik, Radoslaw; Schubert, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of chromatin within interphase nuclei seems to be caused by topological constraints and related to gene expression depending on tissue and developmental stage. In yeast and animals it was found that homologous and heterologous chromatin association are required to realize faithful expression and DNA repair. To test whether such associations are present in plants we analyzed Arabidopsis thaliana interphase nuclei by FISH using probes from different chromosomes. We found that chromatin fiber movement and variable associations, although in general relatively seldom, may occur between euchromatin segments along chromosomes, sometimes even over large distances. The combination of euchromatin segments bearing high or low co-expressing genes did not reveal different association frequencies probably due to adjacent genes of deviating expression patterns. Based on previous data and on FISH analyses presented here, we conclude that the global interphase chromatin organization in A. thaliana is relatively stable, due to the location of its 10 centromeres at the nuclear periphery and of the telomeres mainly at the centrally localized nucleolus. Nevertheless, chromatin movement enables a flexible spatial genome arrangement in plant nuclei.

  19. Chromatin Proteins: Key Responders to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Karen T.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress. PMID:22859908

  20. Elucidate Chromatin Folding at the Mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiangyun

    Knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of chromatin, an active participant of all gene-directed processes, is required to decode its (epi)genetics-structure-function relationships. Albeit often simplified as ``beads-on-a-string'', chromatin possesses daunting complexity in its intricate intra- and inter-nucleosome interactions, as well as the myriad types of molecules acting on it. On the other hand, the folding of chromatin from an extended chain of nucleosomes is highly constrained, e.g., by rather bulky nucleosomes and semi-rigid linker dsDNAs. Further given the well-defined nucleosome and dsDNA structures at the nanometer scale, this creates an opportunity for low-resolution structural methods such as small angle scattering to obtain mesoscale structures of chromatin, which can be further refined computationally to yield atomistic structures of chromatin. Here we present results from our recent studies of recombinant nucleosome arrays with solution small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and ensemble structure modeling.

  1. Toxicants and human sperm chromatin integrity.

    PubMed

    Delbès, Geraldine; Hales, Barbara F; Robaire, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The integrity of the paternal genome is essential as the spermatozoon can bring genetic damage into the oocyte at fertilization and contribute to the development of abnormal pregnancy outcome. During the past two decades, many assays have been developed to measure sperm DNA strand breaks, chromatin structure and compaction and assess the proteins associated with the DNA, as well as epigenetic modifications. Using these assays, it has been shown that exposure to physical agents or chemicals, including therapeutic drugs and environmental toxicants, can affect the integrity of sperm chromatin, inducing structural, genetic and/or epigenetic abnormalities. The mechanisms by which such damage is triggered are still largely unresolved and the susceptibility of each individual will depend on their genetic background, lifestyle and exposure to various insults. Depending on the nature of the chemicals, they may directly target the DNA, induce an oxidative stress, or modify the epigenetic elements. The significance of measuring the sperm chromatin integrity comes from the fact that this end-point correlates well with the low IVF and ICSI outcomes, and idiopathic infertility. Nevertheless, it is hard to establish a direct link between the paternal sperm chromatin integrity and the health of the future generations. Thus, it seems essential to undertake studies that will resolve the impact of chemical and environmental factors on chromatin structure and epigenetic components of human spermatozoa and to elucidate what sperm nuclear end-points are predictors of the quality of progeny outcome.

  2. Transcription elongation through a chromatin template.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Christophe

    2007-04-01

    DNA transaction events occurring during cell life (replication, transcription, recombination, repair, cell division) are always linked to severe changes in the topological state of the double helix. However, since naked DNA almost does not exist in eukaryote nucleus but rather interacts with various proteins, including ubiquitous histones, these topological changes happen in a chromatin context. This review focuses on the role of chromatin fiber structure and dynamics in the regulation of transcription, with an almost exclusive emphasis on the elongation step. Beside a brief overview of our knowledge about transcribed chromatin, we will see how recent mechanistic and biochemical studies give us new insights into the way cell could modulate DNA supercoiling and chromatin conformational dynamics. The participation of topoisomerases in this complex ballet is discussed, since recent data suggest that their role could be closely related to the precise chromatin structure. Lastly, some future prospects to carry on are proposed, hoping this review will help in stimulating discussions and further investigations in the field.

  3. Reshaping chromatin after DNA damage: the choreography of histone proteins.

    PubMed

    Polo, Sophie E

    2015-02-13

    DNA damage signaling and repair machineries operate in a nuclear environment where DNA is wrapped around histone proteins and packaged into chromatin. Understanding how chromatin structure is restored together with the DNA sequence during DNA damage repair has been a topic of intense research. Indeed, chromatin integrity is central to cell functions and identity. However, chromatin shows remarkable plasticity in response to DNA damage. This review presents our current knowledge of chromatin dynamics in the mammalian cell nucleus in response to DNA double strand breaks and UV lesions. I provide an overview of the key players involved in regulating histone dynamics in damaged chromatin regions, focusing on histone chaperones and their concerted action with histone modifiers, chromatin remodelers and repair factors. I also discuss how these dynamics contribute to reshaping chromatin and, by altering the chromatin landscape, may affect the maintenance of epigenetic information.

  4. Stc1: A Critical Link between RNAi and Chromatin Modification Required for Heterochromatin Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Elizabeth H.; White, Sharon A.; Kagansky, Alexander; Bijos, Dominika A.; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Park, Han-Oh; Ponting, Chris P.; Rappsilber, Juri; Allshire, Robin C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In fission yeast, RNAi directs heterochromatin formation at centromeres, telomeres, and the mating type locus. Noncoding RNAs transcribed from repeat elements generate siRNAs that are incorporated into the Argonaute-containing RITS complex and direct it to nascent homologous transcripts. This leads to recruitment of the CLRC complex, including the histone methyltransferase Clr4, promoting H3K9 methylation and heterochromatin formation. A key question is what mediates the recruitment of Clr4/CLRC to transcript-bound RITS. We have identified a LIM domain protein, Stc1, that is required for centromeric heterochromatin integrity. Our analyses show that Stc1 is specifically required to establish H3K9 methylation via RNAi, and interacts both with the RNAi effector Ago1, and with the chromatin-modifying CLRC complex. Moreover, tethering Stc1 to a euchromatic locus is sufficient to induce silencing and heterochromatin formation independently of RNAi. We conclude that Stc1 associates with RITS on centromeric transcripts and recruits CLRC, thereby coupling RNAi to chromatin modification. PMID:20211136

  5. Distal chromatin structure influences local nucleosome positions and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jansen, An; van der Zande, Elisa; Meert, Wim; Fink, Gerald R; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2012-05-01

    The positions of nucleosomes across the genome influence several cellular processes, including gene transcription. However, our understanding of the factors dictating where nucleosomes are located and how this affects gene regulation is still limited. Here, we perform an extensive in vivo study to investigate the influence of the neighboring chromatin structure on local nucleosome positioning and gene expression. Using truncated versions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene, we show that nucleosome positions in the URA3 promoter are at least partly determined by the local DNA sequence, with so-called 'anti-nucleosomal elements' like poly(dA:dT) tracts being key determinants of nucleosome positions. In addition, we show that changes in the nucleosome positions in the URA3 promoter strongly affect the promoter activity. Most interestingly, in addition to demonstrating the effect of the local DNA sequence, our study provides novel in vivo evidence that nucleosome positions are also affected by the position of neighboring nucleosomes. Nucleosome structure may therefore be an important selective force for conservation of gene order on a chromosome, because relocating a gene to another genomic position (where the positions of neighboring nucleosomes are different from the original locus) can have dramatic consequences for the gene's nucleosome structure and thus its expression.

  6. Doxorubicin, DNA torsion, and chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Teves, Sheila S.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Henikoff, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most important anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, being widely used for the treatment of solid tumors and acute leukemias. The action of doxorubicin and other anthracycline drugs has been intensively investigated during the last several decades, but the mechanisms that have been proposed for cell killing remain disparate and controversial. In this review, we examine the proposed models for doxorubicin action from the perspective of the chromatin landscape, which is altered in many types of cancer due to recurrent mutations in chromatin modifiers. We highlight recent evidence for effects of anthracyclines on DNA torsion and chromatin dynamics that may underlie basic mechanisms of doxorubicin-mediated cell death and suggest new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. PMID:24361676

  7. Linker Histones Incorporation Maintains Chromatin Fiber Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Recouvreux, Pierre; Lavelle, Christophe; Barbi, Maria; Conde e Silva, Natalia; Le Cam, Eric; Victor, Jean-Marc; Viovy, Jean-Louis

    2011-01-01

    Genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells is organized in supercoiled chromatin fibers, which undergo dynamic changes during such DNA metabolic processes as transcription or replication. Indeed, DNA-translocating enzymes like polymerases produce physical constraints in vivo. We used single-molecule micromanipulation by magnetic tweezers to study the response of chromatin to mechanical constraints in the same range as those encountered in vivo. We had previously shown that under positive torsional constraints, nucleosomes can undergo a reversible chiral transition toward a state of positive topology. We demonstrate here that chromatin fibers comprising linker histones present a torsional plasticity similar to that of naked nucleosome arrays. Chromatosomes can undergo a reversible chiral transition toward a state of positive torsion (reverse chromatosome) without loss of linker histones. PMID:21641318

  8. Chromatin Higher-order Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Christopher L.; Ghosh, Rajarshi P.

    2010-01-01

    The primary role of the nucleus as an information storage, retrieval, and replication site requires the physical organization and compaction of meters of DNA. Although it has been clear for many years that nucleosomes constitute the first level of chromatin compaction, this contributes a relatively small fraction of the condensation needed to fit the typical genome into an interphase nucleus or set of metaphase chromosomes, indicating that there are additional “higher order” levels of chromatin condensation. Identifying these levels, their interrelationships, and the principles that govern their occurrence has been a challenging and much discussed problem. In this article, we focus on recent experimental advances and the emerging evidence indicating that structural plasticity and chromatin dynamics play dominant roles in genome organization. We also discuss novel approaches likely to yield important insights in the near future, and suggest research areas that merit further study. PMID:20452954

  9. 4D chromatin dynamics in cycling cells

    PubMed Central

    Strickfaden, Hilmar; Zunhammer, Andreas; van Koningsbruggen, Silvana; Köhler, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    This live cell study of chromatin dynamics in four dimensions (space and time) in cycling human cells provides direct evidence for three hypotheses first proposed by Theodor Boveri in seminal studies of fixed blastomeres from Parascaris equorum embryos: (I) Chromosome territory (CT) arrangements are stably maintained during interphase. (II) Chromosome proximity patterns change profoundly during prometaphase. (III) Similar CT proximity patterns in pairs of daughter nuclei reflect symmetrical chromosomal movements during anaphase and telophase, but differ substantially from the arrangement in mother cell nucleus. Hypothesis I could be confirmed for the majority of interphase cells. A minority, however, showed complex, rotational movements of CT assemblies with large-scale changes of CT proximity patterns, while radial nuclear arrangements were maintained. A new model of chromatin dynamics is proposed. It suggests that long-range DNA-DNA interactions in cell nuclei may depend on a combination of rotational CT movements and locally constrained chromatin movements. PMID:21327076

  10. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  11. The Chromatin Fiber: Multiscale Problems and Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Gungor; Luque, Antoni; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    The structure of chromatin, affected by many factors from DNA linker lengths to posttranslational modifications, is crucial to the regulation of eukaryotic cells. Combined experimental and computational methods have led to new insights into its structural and dynamical features, from interactions due to the flexible core histone tails of the nucleosomes to the physical mechanism driving the formation of chromosomal domains. Here we present a perspective of recent advances in chromatin modeling techniques at the atomic, mesoscopic, and chromosomal scales with a view toward developing multiscale computational strategies to integrate such findings. Innovative modeling methods that connect molecular to chromosomal scales are crucial for interpreting experiments and eventually deciphering the complex dynamic organization and function of chromatin in the cell. PMID:26057099

  12. Nucleosome dynamics during chromatin remodeling in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Srinivas; Henikoff, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Precise positioning of nucleosomes around regulatory sites is achieved by the action of chromatin remodelers, which use the energy of ATP to slide, evict or change the composition of nucleosomes. Chromatin remodelers act to bind nucleosomes, disrupt histone-DNA interactions and translocate the DNA around the histone core to reposition nucleosomes. Hence, remodeling is expected to involve nucleosomal intermediates with a structural organization that is distinct from intact nucleosomes. We describe the identification of a partially unwrapped nucleosome structure using methods that map histone-DNA contacts genome-wide. This alternative nucleosome structure is likely formed as an intermediate or by-product during nucleosome remodeling by the RSC complex. Identification of the loss of histone-DNA contacts during chromatin remodeling by RSC in vivo has implications for the regulation of transcriptional initiation.

  13. Predictive chromatin signatures in the mammalian genome

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Gary C.; Hawkins, R. David; Ren, Bing

    2009-01-01

    The DNA sequence of an organism is a blueprint of life: it harbors not only the information about proteins and other molecules produced in each cell, but also instructions on when and where such molecules are made. Chromatin, the structure of histone and DNA that has co-evolved with eukaryotic genome, also contains information that indicates the function and activity of the underlying DNA sequences. Such information exists in the form of covalent modifications to the histone proteins that comprise the nucleosome. Thanks to the development of high throughput technologies such as DNA microarrays and next generation DNA sequencing, we have begun to associate the various combinations of chromatin modification patterns with functional sequences in the human genome. Here, we review the rapid progress from descriptive observations of histone modification profiles to highly predictive models enabling use of chromatin signatures to enumerate novel functional sequences in mammalian genomes that have escaped previous detection. PMID:19808796

  14. Chromatin Remodeling, DNA Damage Repair and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Yip, Raymond KH; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and endogenous conditions causing DNA damage, which is detected and repaired by conserved DNA repair pathways to maintain genomic integrity. Chromatin remodeling is critical in this process, as the organization of eukaryotic DNA into compact chromatin presents a natural barrier to all DNA-related events. Studies on human premature aging syndromes together with normal aging have suggested that accumulated damages might lead to exhaustion of resources that are required for physiological functions and thus accelerate aging. In this manuscript, combining the present understandings and latest findings, we focus mainly on discussing the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and regulation of aging. PMID:23633913

  15. Functions of the Proteasome on Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Tyler S.; Tansey, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The proteasome is a large self-compartmentalized protease complex that recognizes, unfolds, and destroys ubiquitylated substrates. Proteasome activities are required for a host of cellular functions, and it has become clear in recent years that one set of critical actions of the proteasome occur on chromatin. In this review, we discuss some of the ways in which proteasomes directly regulate the structure and function of chromatin and chromatin regulatory proteins, and how this influences gene transcription. We discuss lingering controversies in the field, the relative importance of proteolytic versus non-proteolytic proteasome activities in this process, and highlight areas that require further investigation. Our intention is to show that proteasomes are involved in major steps controlling the expression of the genetic information, that proteasomes use both proteolytic mechanisms and ATP-dependent protein remodeling to accomplish this task, and that much is yet to be learned about the full spectrum of ways that proteasomes influence the genome. PMID:25422899

  16. Dynamics of Histone Tails within Chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Morgan; North, Justin; Page, Michael; Jaroniec, Christopher; Hammel, Christopher; Poirier, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Genetic information in humans is encoded within DNA molecules that is wrapped around histone octamer proteins and compacted into a highly conserved structural polymer, chromatin. The physical and material properties of chromatin appear to influence gene expression by altering the accessibility of proteins to the DNA. The tails of the histones are flexible domains that are thought to play a role in regulating DNA accessibility and compaction; however the molecular mechanisms for these phenomena are not understood. I will present CW-EPR studies on site directed spin labeled nucleosomes that probe the structure and dynamics of these histone tails within nucleosomes.

  17. CHD chromatin remodelers and the transcription cycle

    PubMed Central

    Murawska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers modulate DNA access of transcription factors and RNA polymerases by “opening” or “closing” chromatin structure. However, this view is far too simplistic. Recent findings have demonstrated that these enzymes not only set the stage for the transcription machinery to act but also are actively involved at every step of the transcription process. As a consequence, they affect initiation, elongation, termination and RNA processing. In this review we will use the CHD family as a paradigm to illustrate the progress that has been made in revealing these new concepts. PMID:22223048

  18. Spindle assembly on immobilized chromatin micropatterns.

    PubMed

    Pugieux, Céline; Dmitrieff, Serge; Tarnawska, Katarzyna; Nédélec, François

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to assemble meiotic spindles on immobilized micropatterns of chromatin built on a first layer of biotinylated BSA deposited by microcontact printing. Such chromatin patterns routinely produce bipolar spindles with a yield of 60%, and offer the possibility to follow spindle assembly dynamics, from the onset of nucleation to the establishment of a quasi steady state. Hundreds of spindles can be recorded in parallel for different experimental conditions. We also describe the semi-automated image analysis pipeline, which is used to analyze the assembly kinetics of spindle arrays, or the final morphological diversity of the spindles.

  19. CHD chromatin remodelers and the transcription cycle.

    PubMed

    Murawska, Magdalena; Brehm, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is well established that ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers modulate DNA access of transcription factors and RNA polymerases by "opening" or "closing" chromatin structure. However, this view is far too simplistic. Recent findings have demonstrated that these enzymes not only set the stage for the transcription machinery to act but are actively involved at every step of the transcription process. As a consequence, they affect initiation, elongation, termination and RNA processing. In this review we will use the CHD family as a paradigm to illustrate the progress that has been made in revealing these new concepts.

  20. Allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show genetic influence on chromatin state in human genome.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Mitsutaka; Yang, Howard H; Hu, Nan; Wang, Chaoyu; Hu, Ying; Taylor, Philip R; Buetow, Kenneth H; Lee, Maxwell P

    2007-05-18

    Several recent studies have shown a genetic influence on gene expression variation, including variation between the two chromosomes within an individual and variation between individuals at the population level. We hypothesized that genetic inheritance may also affect variation in chromatin states. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed chromatin states in 12 lymphoblastoid cells derived from two Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain families using an allele-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-chip) assay with Affymetrix 10K SNP chip. We performed the allele-specific ChIP-on-chip assays for the 12 lymphoblastoid cells using antibodies targeting at RNA polymerase II and five post-translation modified forms of the histone H3 protein. The use of multiple cell lines from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain families allowed us to evaluate variation of chromatin states across pedigrees. These studies demonstrated that chromatin state clustered by family. Our results support the idea that genetic inheritance can determine the epigenetic state of the chromatin as shown previously in model organisms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration in humans that genetics may be an important factor that influences global chromatin state mediated by histone modification, the hallmark of the epigenetic phenomena.

  1. Rapid and unbiased extraction of chromatin associated RNAs from purified native chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhongwu; Yang, Yi; Konieczny, Stephen F.; Irudayaraj, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    An ultra fast and unbiased method that uses salicylic acid coated magnetic nanoparticles (SAMNPs) and magnetophoretic chromatography is developed to extract chromatin associated RNAs (CARs). The SAMNPs were first used for enriching cells from the cell culture media and further used for capturing chromatin after cells were lysed. The formed SAMNPs-chromatin complexes were transferred to a viscous polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution stored in a 200-μL pipette tip. Due to the difference in viscosities, a bi-layer liquid was formed inside the pipette tip. The SAMNPs-chromatin complexes were separated from the free SAMNPs and free RNA-SAMNPs complexes by applying an external magnetic field. The CARs were further extracted from the SAMNP-chromatin complexes directly. The extracted CARs were reverse transcribed as cDNA and further characterized by real-time qPCR. The total assay time taken for cell separation, chromatin purification and chromatin associated RNAs extraction can be accomplished in less than 2h. PMID:26643718

  2. Widespread Collaboration of Isw2 and Sin3-Rpd3 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Fazzio, Thomas G.; Kooperberg, Charles; Goldmark, Jesse P.; Neal, Cassandra; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffrey; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Isw2 chromatin remodeling complex functions in parallel with the Sin3-Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex to repress early meiotic genes upon recruitment by Ume6p. For many of these genes, the effect of an isw2 mutation is partially masked by a functional Sin3-Rpd3 complex. To identify the full range of genes repressed or activated by these factors and uncover hidden targets of Isw2-dependent regulation, we performed full genome expression analyses using cDNA microarrays. We find that the Isw2 complex functions mainly in repression of transcription in a parallel pathway with the Sin3-Rpd3 complex. In addition to Ume6 target genes, we find that many Ume6-independent genes are derepressed in mutants lacking functional Isw2 and Sin3-Rpd3 complexes. Conversely, we find that ume6 mutants, but not isw2 sin3 or isw2 rpd3 double mutants, have reduced fidelity of mitotic chromosome segregation, suggesting that one or more functions of Ume6p are independent of Sin3-Rpd3 and Isw2 complexes. Chromatin structure analyses of two nonmeiotic genes reveals increased DNase I sensitivity within their regulatory regions in an isw2 mutant, as seen previously for one meiotic locus. These data suggest that the Isw2 complex functions at Ume6-dependent and -independent loci to create DNase I-inaccessible chromatin structure by regulating the positioning or placement of nucleosomes. PMID:11533234

  3. Elucidating Protein-DNA Interactions in Human Alphoid Chromatin via Hybridization Capture and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Katherine E; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Shortreed, Michael R; Zaidan, Nur Zafirah; Olivier, Michael; Scalf, Mark; Sridharan, Rupa; Smith, Lloyd M

    2017-09-01

    The centromere is the chromosomal locus where the kinetochore forms and is critical for ensuring proper segregation of sister chromatids during cell division. A substantial amount of effort has been devoted to understanding the characteristic features and roles of the centromere, yet some fundamental aspects of the centromere, such as the complete list of elements that define it, remain obscure. It is well-known that human centromeres include a highly repetitive class of DNA known as alpha satellite, or alphoid, DNA. We present here the first DNA-centric examination of human protein-alpha satellite interactions, employing an approach known as HyCCAPP (hybridization capture of chromatin-associated proteins for proteomics) to identify the protein components of alphoid chromatin in a human cell line. Using HyCCAPP, cross-linked alpha satellite chromatin was isolated from cell lysate, and captured proteins were analyzed via mass spectrometry. After being compared to proteins identified in control pulldown experiments, 90 proteins were identified as enriched at alphoid DNA. This list included many known centromere-binding proteins in addition to multiple novel alpha satellite-binding proteins, such as LRIF1, a heterochromatin-associated protein. The ability of HyCCAPP to reveal both known as well as novel alphoid DNA-interacting proteins highlights the validity and utility of this approach.

  4. NoRC--a novel member of mammalian ISWI-containing chromatin remodeling machines.

    PubMed

    Strohner, R; Nemeth, A; Jansa, P; Hofmann-Rohrer, U; Santoro, R; Längst, G; Grummt, I

    2001-09-03

    Transcription by RNA polymerase I on nucleosomal templates requires binding of the transcription termination factor TTF-I to a cognate site 160 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Binding of TTF-I is accompanied by changes in the chromatin architecture which suggests that TTF-I recruits a remodeling activity to the rDNA promoter. We have cloned a cDNA that encodes TIP5 (TTF-I-interacting protein 5), a 205 kDa protein that shares a number of important protein domains with WSTF (Williams syndrome transcription factor) and hAcf1/WCRF180, the largest subunits of human chromatin remodeling complexes hCHRAC and WCRF. TIP5 co-localizes with the basal RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF in the nucleolus and is associated with SNF2h. The cellular TIP5-SNF2h complex, termed NoRC (nucleolar remodeling complex), induces nucleosome sliding in an ATP- and histone H4 tail-dependent fashion. The results suggest that NoRC is a novel nucleolar chromatin remodeling machine that may serve a role in the regulation of the rDNA locus.

  5. NoRC—a novel member of mammalian ISWI-containing chromatin remodeling machines

    PubMed Central

    Strohner, Ralf; Nemeth, Attila; Jansa, Petr; Hofmann-Rohrer, Urs; Santoro, Raffaella; Längst, Gernot; Grummt, Ingrid

    2001-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase I on nucleosomal templates requires binding of the transcription termination factor TTF-I to a cognate site 160 bp upstream of the transcription start site. Binding of TTF-I is accompanied by changes in the chromatin architecture which suggests that TTF-I recruits a remodeling activity to the rDNA promoter. We have cloned a cDNA that encodes TIP5 (TTF-I-interacting protein 5), a 205 kDa protein that shares a number of important protein domains with WSTF (Williams syndrome transcription factor) and hAcf1/WCRF180, the largest subunits of human chromatin remodeling complexes hCHRAC and WCRF. TIP5 co-localizes with the basal RNA polymerase I transcription factor UBF in the nucleolus and is associated with SNF2h. The cellular TIP5–SNF2h complex, termed NoRC (nucleolar remodeling complex), induces nucleosome sliding in an ATP- and histone H4 tail-dependent fashion. The results suggest that NoRC is a novel nucleolar chromatin remodeling machine that may serve a role in the regulation of the rDNA locus. PMID:11532953

  6. Changes in chromatin structure at recombination initiation sites during yeast meiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, K; Shibata, T; Nicolas, A

    1994-01-01

    Transient double-strand breaks (DSBs) occur during Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis at recombination hot spots and are thought to initiate most, if not all, homologous recombination between chromosomes. To uncover the regulatory mechanisms active in DSB formation, we have monitored the change in local chromatin structure at the ARG4 and CYS3 recombination hot spots over the course of meiosis. Micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion of isolated meiotic chromatin followed by indirect end-labeling revealed that the DSB sites in both loci are hypersensitive to MNase and that their sensitivity increases 2- to 4-fold prior to the appearance of meiotic DSBs and recombination products. Other sensitive sites are not significantly altered. The study of hyper- and hypo-recombinogenic constructs at the ARG4 locus, also revealed that the MNase sensitivity at the DSB site correlates with both the extent of DSBs and the rate of gene conversion. These results suggest that the local chromatin structure and its modification in early meiosis play an important role in the positioning and frequency of meiotic DSBs, leading to meiotic recombination. Images PMID:7988571

  7. The RNA-induced transcriptional silencing complex targets chromatin exclusively via interacting with nascent transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Yukiko; Mohn, Fabio; Bühler, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs regulate chromatin modification and transcriptional gene silencing across the eukaryotic kingdom. Although these processes have been well studied, fundamental mechanistic aspects remain obscure. Specifically, it is unclear exactly how small RNA-loaded Argonaute protein complexes target chromatin to mediate silencing. Here, using fission yeast, we demonstrate that transcription of the target locus is essential for RNA-directed formation of heterochromatin. However, high transcriptional activity is inhibitory; thus, a transcriptional window exists that is optimal for silencing. We further found that pre-mRNA splicing is compatible with RNA-directed heterochromatin formation. However, the kinetics of pre-mRNA processing is critical. Introns close to the 5′ end of a transcript that are rapidly spliced result in a bistable response whereby the target either remains euchromatic or becomes fully silenced. Together, our results discount siRNA–DNA base pairing in RNA-mediated heterochromatin formation, and the mechanistic insights further reveal guiding paradigms for the design of small RNA-directed chromatin silencing studies in multicellular organisms. PMID:27941123

  8. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Chromatin Organization, Nuclear Positioning and Activity of 45S rDNA Loci in Cycling Cells of Q. robur

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Tomislav; Maglica, Željka; Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization. PMID:25093501

  9. IL-10 transcription is negatively regulated by BAF180, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes play a critical role in the development of T helper lymphocytes, including Th2 cells, and directly program chromatin structure at Th2 cytokine genes. Different versions of SWI/SNF complexes, including BAF and PBAF, have been described based on unique subunit composition. However, the relative role of BAF and PBAF in Th cell function and cytokine expression has not been reported. Results Here we examine the role of the PBAF SWI/SNF complex in Th cell development and gene expression using mice deficient for a PBAF-specific component, BAF180. We find that T cell development in the thymus and lymphoid periphery is largely normal when the BAF180 gene is deleted late in thymic development. However, BAF180-deficient Th2 cells express high levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. BAF180 binds directly to regulatory elements in the Il-10 locus but is replaced by BAF250 BAF complexes in the absence of BAF180, resulting in increased histone acetylation and CBP recruitment to the IL-10 locus. Conclusions These results demonstrate that BAF180 is a repressor of IL-10 transcription in Th2 cells and suggest that the differential recruitment of different SWI/SNF subtypes can have direct consequences on chromatin structure and gene transcription. PMID:22336179

  10. [Study on preferred retinal locus].

    PubMed

    Dai, Bing-Fa; Hu, Jian-Min; Xu, Duan-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Preferred retinal locus (PRL) is always found in the age-related macular degeneration and other macular damages in patients with low vision, and it is a very important anatomic position in patients with central vision impairment to achieve the rehabilitation. In recent years, the training of preferred retinal locus (PRL) has become a research hotspot of low vision rehabilitation, it can clearly improve functional vision and quality of life. The authors reviewed relevant literatures, and summarized the definition, position, characteristics, training and clinical implications of the PRL.

  11. Chromatin as an expansive canvas for chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Fierz, Beat; Muir, Tom W

    2012-04-17

    Chromatin is extensively chemically modified and thereby acts as a dynamic signaling platform controlling gene function. Chromatin regulation is integral to cell differentiation, lineage commitment and organism development, whereas chromatin dysregulation can lead to age-related and neurodegenerative disorders as well as cancer. Investigating chromatin biology presents a unique challenge, as the issue spans many disciplines, including cell and systems biology, biochemistry and molecular biophysics. In recent years, the application of chemical biology methods for investigating chromatin processes has gained considerable traction. Indeed, chemical biologists now have at their disposal powerful chemical tools that allow chromatin biology to be scrutinized at the level of the cell all the way down to the single chromatin fiber. Here we present recent examples of how this rapidly expanding palette of chemical tools is being used to paint a detailed picture of chromatin function in organism development and disease.

  12. Chemical biology: Chromatin chemistry goes cellular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischle, Wolfgang; Schwarzer, Dirk; Mootz, Henning D.

    2015-05-01

    Analysing post-translational modifications of histone proteins as they occur within chromatin is challenging due to their large number and chemical diversity. A major step forward has now been achieved by using split intein chemistry to engineer functionalized histones within cells.

  13. Chromatin organization regulates viral egress dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Aho, Vesa; Myllys, Markko; Ruokolainen, Visa; ...

    2017-06-16

    Various types of DNA viruses are known to elicit the formation of a large nuclear viral replication compartment and marginalization of the cell chromatin. We used three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography, confocal and electron microscopy, combined with numerical modelling of capsid diffusion to analyse the molecular organization of chromatin in herpes simplex virus 1 infection and its effect on the transport of progeny viral capsids to the nuclear envelope. Our data showed that the formation of the viral replication compartment at late infection resulted in the enrichment of heterochromatin in the nuclear periphery accompanied by the compaction of chromatin. Random walkmore » modelling of herpes simplex virus 1–sized particles in a three-dimensional soft x-ray tomography reconstruction of an infected cell nucleus demonstrated that the peripheral, compacted chromatin restricts viral capsid diffusion, but due to interchromatin channels capsids are able to reach the nuclear envelope, the site of their nuclear egress.« less

  14. Chromatin Modifications Associated With Diabetes and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Schones, Dustin E; Leung, Amy; Natarajan, Rama

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of obesity across the globe has doubled over the past several decades, leading to escalating rates of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other complications. Given this dramatic rise in disease incidence, understanding the cause of these diseases is therefore of paramount importance. Metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, result from a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. Although the genetic basis of these diseases has been extensively studied, the molecular pathways whereby environmental factors influence disease progression are only beginning to be understood. One manner by which environmental factors can contribute to disease progression is through modifications to chromatin. The highly structured packaging of the genome into the nucleus through chromatin has been shown to be fundamental to tissue-specific gene regulation. Modifications to chromatin can regulate gene expression and are involved in a myriad of biological functions, and hence, disruption of these modifications is central to many human diseases. These modifications can furthermore be epigenetic in nature, thereby contributing to prolonged disease risk. Recent work has demonstrated that modifications to chromatin are associated with the progression of both diabetes mellitus and obesity, which is the subject of this review. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Histone variants: key players of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Biterge, Burcu; Schneider, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Histones are fundamental structural components of chromatin. Eukaryotic DNA is wound around an octamer of the core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Binding of linker histone H1 promotes higher order chromatin organization. In addition to their structural role, histones impact chromatin function and dynamics by, e.g., post-translational histone modifications or the presence of specific histone variants. Histone variants exhibit differential expression timings (DNA replication-independent) and mRNA characteristics compared to canonical histones. Replacement of canonical histones with histone variants can affect nucleosome stability and help to create functionally distinct chromatin domains. In line with this, several histone variants have been implicated in the regulation of cellular processes such as DNA repair and transcriptional activity. In this review, we focus on recent progress in the study of core histone variants H2A.X, H2A.Z, macroH2A, H3.3, and CENP-A, as well as linker histone H1 variants, their functions and their links to development and disease.

  16. An Isochore Framework Underlies Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Kamel; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    A recent investigation showed the existence of correlations between the architectural features of mammalian interphase chromosomes and the compositional properties of isochores. This result prompted us to compare maps of the Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and of the Lamina Associated Domains (LADs) with the corresponding isochore maps of mouse and human chromosomes. This approach revealed that: 1) TADs and LADs correspond to isochores, i.e., isochores are the genomic units that underlie chromatin domains; 2) the conservation of TADs and LADs in mammalian genomes is explained by the evolutionary conservation of isochores; 3) chromatin domains corresponding to GC-poor isochores (e.g., LADs) show not only self-interactions but also intrachromosomal interactions with other domains also corresponding to GC-poor isochores even if located far away; in contrast, chromatin domains corresponding to GC-rich isochores (e.g., TADs) show more localized chromosomal interactions, many of which are inter-chromosomal. In conclusion, this investigation establishes a link between DNA sequences and chromatin architecture, explains the evolutionary conservation of TADs and LADs and provides new information on the spatial distribution of GC-poor/gene-poor and GC-rich/gene-rich chromosomal regions in the interphase nucleus. PMID:28060840

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of chromatin stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumann, Frank; Lankas, Filip; Caudron, Maïwen; Langowski, Jörg

    2006-04-01

    We present Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the stretching of a single 30nm chromatin fiber. The model approximates the DNA by a flexible polymer chain with Debye-Hückel electrostatics and uses a two-angle zigzag model for the geometry of the linker DNA connecting the nucleosomes. The latter are represented by flat disks interacting via an attractive Gay-Berne potential. Our results show that the stiffness of the chromatin fiber strongly depends on the linker DNA length. Furthermore, changing the twisting angle between nucleosomes from 90° to 130° increases the stiffness significantly. An increase in the opening angle from 22° to 34° leads to softer fibers for small linker lengths. We observe that fibers containing a linker histone at each nucleosome are stiffer compared to those without the linker histone. The simulated persistence lengths and elastic moduli agree with experimental data. Finally, we show that the chromatin fiber does not behave as an isotropic elastic rod, but its rigidity depends on the direction of deformation: Chromatin is much more resistant to stretching than to bending.

  18. Epigenetic chromatin silencing: bistability and front propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedighi, Mohammad; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2007-12-01

    The role of post-translational modification of histones in eukaryotic gene regulation is well recognized. Epigenetic silencing of genes via heritable chromatin modifications plays a major role in cell fate specification in higher organisms. We formulate a coarse-grained model of chromatin silencing in yeast and study the conditions under which the system becomes bistable, allowing for different epigenetic states. We also study the dynamics of the boundary between the two locally stable states of chromatin: silenced and unsilenced. The model could be of use in guiding the discussion on chromatin silencing in general. In the context of silencing in budding yeast, it helps us understand the phenotype of various mutants, some of which may be non-trivial to see without the help of a mathematical model. One such example is a mutation that reduces the rate of background acetylation of particular histone side chains that competes with the deacetylation by Sir2p. The resulting negative feedback due to a Sir protein depletion effect gives rise to interesting counter-intuitive consequences. Our mathematical analysis brings forth the different dynamical behaviors possible within the same molecular model and guides the formulation of more refined hypotheses that could be addressed experimentally.

  19. The great repression: chromatin and cryptic transcription.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Bianca P; Fischer, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic chromatin structure is essential in correctly defining transcription units. Impairing this structure can activate cryptic promoters, and lead to the accumulation of aberrant RNA transcripts. Here we discuss critical pathways that are responsible for the repression of cryptic transcription and the maintenance of genome integrity.

  20. Trivalent chromatin marks the way in.

    PubMed

    Hysolli, Eriona; Park, In-Hyun

    2013-11-07

    Recently in Cell, Wapinski et al. (2013) investigated the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the direct conversion of fibroblasts to induced neurons (iNs). They found that Ascl1 acts as a pioneer factor at neurogenic loci marked by a closed "trivalent" chromatin state in cells permissive to direct conversion, but not in restrictive cell types. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromatin modifications that support acetylcholine receptor gene activation are established during muscle cell determination and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Carter A; Snell, Jeff; Fromm, Larry

    2011-02-01

    Localization of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the postsynaptic region of muscle is mediated in part by transcriptional mechanisms. An important way of regulating transcription is through targeting histone modifications on chromatin to distinct gene loci. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we examined the developmental regulation of certain histone modifications at the AChR epsilon subunit locus, including methylations at lysine residues K4 and K27 and acetylations at K9 and K14. We modeled various stages of muscle development in cell culture, including pre-determined cells, committed but undifferentiated myoblasts, and differentiated myotubes, and modeled synaptic myotube nuclei by stimulating myotubes with neuregulin (NRG) 1. We found that a pattern of histone modifications associated with transcriptional activation is targeted to the AChR epsilon subunit locus in myotubes prior to stimulation with NRG1 and does not change upon addition of NRG1. Instead, we found that during muscle cell determination and differentiation, specific histone modifications are targeted to the AChR epsilon subunit locus. Within the gene, at K4, dimethylation is induced during muscle cell determination, while trimethylation is induced during differentiation. At K27, loss of trimethylation and appearance of monomethylation occurs during determination and differentiation. In addition, in a region upstream of the gene, K4 di- and trimethylation, and K9/14 acetylation are induced in a distinct developmental pattern, which may reflect a functional regulatory element. These results suggest synaptic signaling does not directly target histone modifications but rather the histone modification pattern necessary for transcriptional activation is previously established in a series of steps during muscle development.

  2. Histone Chaperone Nap1 Is a Major Regulator of Histone H2A-H2B Dynamics at the Inducible GAL Locus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; D'Arcy, Sheena; Radebaugh, Catherine A; Krzizike, Daniel D; Giebler, Holli A; Huang, Liangquan; Nyborg, Jennifer K; Luger, Karolin; Stargell, Laurie A

    2016-04-01

    Histone chaperones, like nucleosome assembly protein 1 (Nap1), play a critical role in the maintenance of chromatin architecture. Here, we use the GAL locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the influence of Nap1 on chromatin structure and histone dynamics during distinct transcriptional states. When the GAL locus is not expressed, cells lacking Nap1 show an accumulation of histone H2A-H2B but not histone H3-H4 at this locus. Excess H2A-H2B interacts with the linker DNA between nucleosomes, and the interaction is independent of the inherent DNA-binding affinity of H2A-H2B for these particular sequences as measured in vitro When the GAL locus is transcribed, excess H2A-H2B is reversed, and levels of all chromatin-bound histones are depleted in cells lacking Nap1. We developed an in vivo system to measure histone exchange at the GAL locus and observed considerable variability in the rate of exchange across the locus in wild-type cells. We recapitulate this variability with in vitro nucleosome reconstitutions, which suggests a contribution of DNA sequence to histone dynamics. We also find that Nap1 is required for transcription-dependent H2A-H2B exchange. Altogether, these results indicate that Nap1 is essential for maintaining proper chromatin composition and modulating the exchange of H2A-H2B in vivo. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Influenza Virus and Chromatin: Role of the CHD1 Chromatin Remodeler in the Virus Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Villar, Laura; Pazo, Alejandra; Nieto, Amelia

    2016-01-20

    Influenza A virus requires ongoing cellular transcription to carry out the cap-snatching process. Chromatin remodelers modify chromatin structure to produce an active or inactive conformation, which enables or prevents the recruitment of transcriptional complexes to specific genes; viral transcription thus depends on chromatin dynamics. Influenza virus polymerase associates with chromatin components of the infected cell, such as RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) or the CHD6 chromatin remodeler. Here we show that another CHD family member, CHD1 protein, also interacts with the influenza virus polymerase complex. CHD1 recognizes the H3K4me3 (histone 3 with a trimethyl group in lysine 4) histone modification, a hallmark of active chromatin. Downregulation of CHD1 causes a reduction in viral polymerase activity, viral RNA transcription, and the production of infectious particles. Despite the dependence of influenza virus on cellular transcription, RNAP II is degraded when viral transcription is complete, and recombinant viruses unable to degrade RNAP II show decreased pathogenicity in the murine model. We describe the CHD1-RNAP II association, as well as the parallel degradation of both proteins during infection with viruses showing full or reduced induction of degradation. The H3K4me3 histone mark also decreased during influenza virus infection, whereas a histone mark of inactive chromatin, H3K27me3, remained unchanged. Our results indicate that CHD1 is a positive regulator of influenza virus multiplication and suggest a role for chromatin remodeling in the control of the influenza virus life cycle. Although influenza virus is not integrated into the genome of the infected cell, it needs continuous cellular transcription to synthesize viral mRNA. This mechanism implies functional association with host genome expression and thus depends on chromatin dynamics. Influenza virus polymerase associates with transcription-related factors, such as RNA polymerase II, and with

  4. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-04-30

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Inferential modeling of 3D chromatin structure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Siyu; Xu, Jinbo; Zeng, Jianyang

    2015-01-01

    For eukaryotic cells, the biological processes involving regulatory DNA elements play an important role in cell cycle. Understanding 3D spatial arrangements of chromosomes and revealing long-range chromatin interactions are critical to decipher these biological processes. In recent years, chromosome conformation capture (3C) related techniques have been developed to measure the interaction frequencies between long-range genome loci, which have provided a great opportunity to decode the 3D organization of the genome. In this paper, we develop a new Bayesian framework to derive the 3D architecture of a chromosome from 3C-based data. By modeling each chromosome as a polymer chain, we define the conformational energy based on our current knowledge on polymer physics and use it as prior information in the Bayesian framework. We also propose an expectation-maximization (EM) based algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters of the Bayesian model and infer an ensemble of chromatin structures based on interaction frequency data. We have validated our Bayesian inference approach through cross-validation and verified the computed chromatin conformations using the geometric constraints derived from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments. We have further confirmed the inferred chromatin structures using the known genetic interactions derived from other studies in the literature. Our test results have indicated that our Bayesian framework can compute an accurate ensemble of 3D chromatin conformations that best interpret the distance constraints derived from 3C-based data and also agree with other sources of geometric constraints derived from experimental evidence in the previous studies. The source code of our approach can be found in https://github.com/wangsy11/InfMod3DGen. PMID:25690896

  6. Discovery of Chromatin-Associated Proteins via Sequence-Specific Capture and Mass Spectrometric Protein Identification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Guillen-Ahlers, Hector; Shortreed, Michael R; Scalf, Mark; Frey, Brian L; Kendziorski, Christina; Olivier, Michael; Gasch, Audrey P; Smith, Lloyd M

    2014-08-01

    DNA-protein interactions play critical roles in the control of genome expression and other fundamental processes. An essential element in understanding how these systems function is to identify their molecular components. We present here a novel strategy, Hybridization Capture of Chromatin Associated Proteins for Proteomics (HyCCAPP), to identify proteins that are interacting with any given region of the genome. This technology identifies and quantifies the proteins that are specifically interacting with a genomic region of interest by sequence-specific hybridization capture of the target region from in vivo cross-linked chromatin, followed by mass spectrometric identification and quantification of associated proteins. We demonstrate the utility of HyCCAPP by identifying proteins associated with three multicopy and one single-copy loci in yeast. In each case, a locus-specific pattern of target-associated proteins was revealed. The binding of previously unknown proteins was confirmed by ChIP in 11 of 17 cases. The identification of many previously known proteins at each locus provides strong support for the ability of HyCCAPP to correctly identify DNA-associated proteins in a sequence-specific manner, while the discovery of previously unknown proteins provides new biological insights into transcriptional and regulatory processes at the target locus.

  7. Discovery of Chromatin-Associated Proteins via Sequence-Specific Capture and Mass Spectrometric Protein Identification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA–protein interactions play critical roles in the control of genome expression and other fundamental processes. An essential element in understanding how these systems function is to identify their molecular components. We present here a novel strategy, Hybridization Capture of Chromatin Associated Proteins for Proteomics (HyCCAPP), to identify proteins that are interacting with any given region of the genome. This technology identifies and quantifies the proteins that are specifically interacting with a genomic region of interest by sequence-specific hybridization capture of the target region from in vivo cross-linked chromatin, followed by mass spectrometric identification and quantification of associated proteins. We demonstrate the utility of HyCCAPP by identifying proteins associated with three multicopy and one single-copy loci in yeast. In each case, a locus-specific pattern of target-associated proteins was revealed. The binding of previously unknown proteins was confirmed by ChIP in 11 of 17 cases. The identification of many previously known proteins at each locus provides strong support for the ability of HyCCAPP to correctly identify DNA-associated proteins in a sequence-specific manner, while the discovery of previously unknown proteins provides new biological insights into transcriptional and regulatory processes at the target locus. PMID:24999558

  8. Direct Chromatin PCR (DC-PCR): Hypotonic Conditions Allow Differentiation of Chromatin States during Thermal Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Vatolin, Sergei; Khan, Shahper N.; Reu, Frederic J.

    2012-01-01

    Current methods to study chromatin configuration are not well suited for high throughput drug screening since they require large cell numbers and multiple experimental steps that include centrifugation for isolation of nuclei or DNA. Here we show that site specific chromatin analysis can be achieved in one step by simply performing direct chromatin PCR (DC-PCR) on cells. The basic underlying observation was that standard hypotonic PCR buffers prevent global cellular chromatin solubilization during thermal cycling while more loosely organized chromatin can be amplified. Despite repeated heating to >90°C, 41 of 61 tested 5′ sequences of silenced genes (CDKN2A, PU.1, IRF4, FOSB, CD34) were not amplifiable while 47 could be amplified from expressing cells. Two gene regions (IRF4, FOSB) even required pre-heating of cells in isotonic media to allow this differentiation; otherwise none of 19 assayed sequences yielded PCR products. Cells with baseline expression or epigenetic reactivation gave similar DC-PCR results. Silencing during differentiation of CD34 positive cord blood cells closed respective chromatin while treatment of myeloma cells with an IRF4 transcriptional inhibitor opened a site to DC-PCR that was occupied by RNA polymerase II and NFκB as determined by ChIP. Translation into real-time PCR can not be achieved with commercial real-time PCR buffers which potently open chromatin, but even with simple ethidium bromide addition to standard PCR mastermix we were able to identify hits in small molecules screens that suppressed IRF4 expression or reactivated CDKN2A in myeloma cells using densitometry or visual inspection of PCR plates under UV light. While need in drug development inspired this work, application to genome-wide analysis appears feasible using phi29 for selective amplification of open cellular chromatin followed by library construction from supernatants since such supernatants yielded similar results as gene specific DC-PCR. PMID:22984542

  9. The many faces of plant chromatin: Meeting summary of the 4th European workshop on plant chromatin 2015, Uppsala, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mozgová, Iva; Köhler, Claudia; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the fourth European Workshop on Plant Chromatin took place in Uppsala, Sweden, bringing together 80 researchers studying various aspects of plant chromatin and epigenetics. The intricate relationships between plant chromatin dynamics and gene expression change, chromatin organization within the plant cell nucleus, and the impact of chromatin structure on plant development were discussed. Among the main highlights of the meeting were an ever-growing list of newly identified players in chromatin structure establishment and the development of novel tools and approaches to foster our understanding of chromatin-mediated gene regulation, taking into account the context of the plant cell nucleus and its architecture. In this report, we summarize some of the main advances and prospects of plant chromatin research presented at this meeting.

  10. The many faces of plant chromatin: Meeting summary of the 4th European workshop on plant chromatin 2015, Uppsala, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Mozgová, Iva; Köhler, Claudia; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In June 2015, the fourth European Workshop on Plant Chromatin took place in Uppsala, Sweden, bringing together 80 researchers studying various aspects of plant chromatin and epigenetics. The intricate relationships between plant chromatin dynamics and gene expression change, chromatin organization within the plant cell nucleus, and the impact of chromatin structure on plant development were discussed. Among the main highlights of the meeting were an ever-growing list of newly identified players in chromatin structure establishment and the development of novel tools and approaches to foster our understanding of chromatin-mediated gene regulation, taking into account the context of the plant cell nucleus and its architecture. In this report, we summarize some of the main advances and prospects of plant chromatin research presented at this meeting. PMID:26646904

  11. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Collado, Manuel; Villasante, Aranzazu; Strati, Katerina; Ortega, Sagrario; Cañamero, Marta; Blasco, Maria A.; Serrano, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells by Oct4, Klf4 and Sox2 (3F) remain poorly understood 1. The Ink4/Arf tumour suppressor locus encodes three potent inhibitors of proliferation, namely p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b and Arf, which are basally expressed in differentiated cells and upregulated by aberrant mitogenic signals 2-4. We show here that the locus is completely silenced in iPS cells, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells, acquiring the epigenetic marks of a bivalent chromatin domain, and retaining the ability to be reactivated upon differentiation. Cell culture conditions during reprogramming enhance the expression of the Ink4/Arf locus, further highlighting the importance of silencing the locus to allow proliferation and reprogramming. Indeed, the 3F together repress the Ink4/Arf locus soon after their expression and concomitant with the appearance of the first molecular markers of stemness. This downregulation also occurs in cells carrying the oncoprotein large-T, which functionally inactivates the pathways regulated by the Ink4/Arf locus, thus implying that the silencing of the locus is intrinsic to reprogramming and not the result of a selective process. Genetic inhibition of the Ink4/Arf locus has a profound positive impact on the efficiency of iPS generation, increasing both the kinetics of reprogramming and the number of emerging iPS colonies. In murine cells, Arf, rather than Ink4a, is the main barrier to reprogramming through activation of p53 and p21; whereas, in human fibroblasts, INK4a is more important than ARF. Finally, organismal aging upregulates the Ink4/Arf locus 2,5 and, accordingly, reprogramming is less efficient in cells from old organisms, but this defect can be rescued by inhibiting the locus with an shRNA. All together, we conclude that the silencing of Ink4/Arf locus is rate limiting for reprogramming, and its transient inhibition may significantly improve the

  12. The Ink4/Arf locus is a barrier for iPS cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Collado, Manuel; Villasante, Aranzazu; Strati, Katerina; Ortega, Sagrario; Cañamero, Marta; Blasco, Maria A; Serrano, Manuel

    2009-08-27

    The mechanisms involved in the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells by the three transcription factors Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Klf4 and Sox2 remain poorly understood. The Ink4/Arf locus comprises the Cdkn2a-Cdkn2b genes encoding three potent tumour suppressors, namely p16(Ink4a), p19(Arf) and p15(Ink4b), which are basally expressed in differentiated cells and upregulated by aberrant mitogenic signals. Here we show that the locus is completely silenced in iPS cells, as well as in embryonic stem (ES) cells, acquiring the epigenetic marks of a bivalent chromatin domain, and retaining the ability to be reactivated after differentiation. Cell culture conditions during reprogramming enhance the expression of the Ink4/Arf locus, further highlighting the importance of silencing the locus to allow proliferation and reprogramming. Indeed, the three factors together repress the Ink4/Arf locus soon after their expression and concomitant with the appearance of the first molecular markers of 'stemness'. This downregulation also occurs in cells carrying the oncoprotein large-T, which functionally inactivates the pathways regulated by the Ink4/Arf locus, thus indicating that the silencing of the locus is intrinsic to reprogramming and not the result of a selective process. Genetic inhibition of the Ink4/Arf locus has a profound positive effect on the efficiency of iPS cell generation, increasing both the kinetics of reprogramming and the number of emerging iPS cell colonies. In murine cells, Arf, rather than Ink4a, is the main barrier to reprogramming by activation of p53 (encoded by Trp53) and p21 (encoded by Cdkn1a); whereas, in human fibroblasts, INK4a is more important than ARF. Furthermore, organismal ageing upregulates the Ink4/Arf locus and, accordingly, reprogramming is less efficient in cells from old organisms, but this defect can be rescued by inhibiting the locus with a short hairpin RNA. All together, we conclude that

  13. The Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex restores chromatin structure during UV DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sovan; Kiely, Rhian

    2010-01-01

    Chromatin structure is modulated during deoxyribonucleic acid excision repair, but how this is achieved is unclear. Loss of the yeast Ino80 chromatin-remodeling complex (Ino80-C) moderately sensitizes cells to ultraviolet (UV) light. In this paper, we show that INO80 acts in the same genetic pathway as nucleotide excision repair (NER) and that the Ino80-C contributes to efficient UV photoproduct removal in a region of high nucleosome occupancy. Moreover, Ino80 interacts with the early NER damage recognition complex Rad4–Rad23 and is recruited to chromatin by Rad4 in a UV damage–dependent manner. Using a modified chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we find that chromatin disruption during UV lesion repair is normal, whereas the restoration of nucleosome structure is defective in ino80 mutant cells. Collectively, our work suggests that Ino80 is recruited to sites of UV lesion repair through interactions with the NER apparatus and is required for the restoration of chromatin structure after repair. PMID:21135142

  14. Separation of satellite DNA chromatin and main band DNA chromatin from mouse brain.

    PubMed Central

    Mazrimas, J A; Balhorn, R; Hatch, F T

    1979-01-01

    Using restriction endonucleases which preferentially digest mouse main band DNA and leave satellite DNA intact, we have isolated highly purified chromatin fractions containing only mouse satellite or main band DNA. Following the digestion of mouse brain nuclei with EndoR Alu I, main band DNA chromatin is selectively extracted with 10mM Tris, 10mM EDTA. Satellite DNA chromatin is subsequently extracted from the nuclear pellet with Tris-3M urea and further purified on sucrose gradients. Chromatin extracted from digested nuclei with Tris-EDTA contains only main band DNA and has a molecular weight lower than 2 x 10(6). Chromatin fractions obtained from the lower regions of sucrose gradients of the Tris-Urea extracts contain 40--95% satellite DNA and have a molecular weight of 6 to 8 x 10(6). Both the satellite DNA and main band DNA chromatins contain all five histones and have a protein to DNA ratio of 1.3 to 1. Images PMID:116196

  15. Locus of Control and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, C. A.; Strongman, K. T.

    1984-01-01

    Assessed delinquent and nondelinquent male adolescents (N=43) on locus of control and intellectual achievement responsibilty. Results supported a multidimensional model. There was no difference in expectancy of control for negative academic events between delinquents and nondelinquents. Birth order and delinquency were the most important…

  16. Locus of Control and Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Predicted that an external locus of control would characterize undersocialization. Tested this hypothesis on a random sample of secondary school children (N=97). Scores from the Child Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Scale were found to predict undersocialization in the expected direction. Suggested several possible interpretations of this…

  17. Locus of Control and Interpersonal Attraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, M. Michael

    1980-01-01

    The role of locus of control in interpersonal attraction was examined by administering 1) the Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale and 2) a sociometric test of friendship to 200 eighth graders. (CM)

  18. Chromatin reader Brd4 functions in Ig class switching as a repair complex adaptor of nonhomologous end-joining.

    PubMed

    Stanlie, Andre; Yousif, Ashraf S; Akiyama, Hideo; Honjo, Tasuku; Begum, Nasim A

    2014-07-03

    Class switch recombination (CSR) is a B cell-specific genomic alteration induced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-dependent DNA break at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus, followed by repair. Although chromatin-associated factors in promoting AID-induced DNA break have been widely reported, the involvement of chromatin adaptors at the repair phase of CSR remains unknown. Here, we show that the acetylated histone reader Brd4 is critical for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) repair of AID- and I-SceI-induced DNA breaks. Brd4 was recruited to the DNA break regions, and its depletion from the chromatin caused CSR impairment without affecting the DNA break generation. Inhibition of Brd4 suppressed the accumulation of 53BP1 and uracil DNA glycosylase at the switch regions, perturbed the switch junctional microhomology, and reduced Igh/c-myc translocation. We conclude that Brd4 serves as a chromatin platform required for the recruitment of repair components during CSR and general DNA damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Let dependence of cell death, mutation induction and chromatin damage in human cells irradiated with accelerated carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, M.; Watanabe, M.; Kanai, T.; Kase, Y.; Yatagai, F.; Kato, T.; Matsubara, S.

    We investigated the LET dependence of cell death, mutation induction and chromatin break induction in human embryo (HE) cells irradiated by accelerated carbon-ion beams. The results showed that cell death, mutation induction and induction of non-rejoining chromatin breaks detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique had the same LET dependence. Carbon ions of 110 to 124keV/mum were the most effective at all endpoints. However, the number of initially induced chromatin breaks was independent of LET. About 10 to 15 chromatin breaks per Gy per cell were induced in the LET range of 22 to 230 keV/mum. The deletion pattern of exons in the HPRT locus, analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was LET-specific. Almost all the mutants induced by 124 keV/mum carbon-ion beams showed deletion of the entire gene, while all mutants induced by 230keV/mum carbon-ion beams showed no deletion. These results suggest that the difference in the density distribution of carbon-ion track and secondary electron with various LET is responsible for the LET dependency of biological effects.

  20. Locus of Control and Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensman, Miriam Roza; Haller, Archibald O.

    Utilizing data derived from 277 rural, male respondents initially enrolled in Lenawee County, Michigan high schools, the Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale was employed to test the hypothesis that locus of control will have interactive rather than additive effects on the process of status attainment. Locus of control was defined as…

  1. Mechanisms of ATP-Dependent Chromatin Remodeling Motors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Coral Y; Johnson, Stephanie L; Gamarra, Nathan I; Narlikar, Geeta J

    2016-07-05

    Chromatin remodeling motors play essential roles in all DNA-based processes. These motors catalyze diverse outcomes ranging from sliding the smallest units of chromatin, known as nucleosomes, to completely disassembling chromatin. The broad range of actions carried out by these motors on the complex template presented by chromatin raises many stimulating mechanistic questions. Other well-studied nucleic acid motors provide examples of the depth of mechanistic understanding that is achievable from detailed biophysical studies. We use these studies as a guiding framework to discuss the current state of knowledge of chromatin remodeling mechanisms and highlight exciting open questions that would continue to benefit from biophysical analyses.

  2. Which Sry locus is the hypertensive Y chromosome locus?

    PubMed

    Turner, Monte E; Farkas, Joel; Dunmire, Jeff; Ely, Daniel; Milsted, Amy

    2009-02-01

    The Y chromosome of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) contains a genetic component that raises blood pressure compared with the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) Y chromosome. This research tests the Sry gene complex as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome. The Sry loci were sequenced in 1 strain with a hypertensive Y chromosome (SHR/Akr) and 2 strains with a normotensive Y chromosome (SHR/Crl and WKY/Akr). Both SHR strains have 7 Sry loci, whereas the WKY strain has 6. The 6 loci in common between SHR and WKY strains were identical in the sequence compared (coding region, 392-bp 5' prime flanking, 1200-bp 3' flanking). Both SHR strains have a locus (Sry3) not found in WKY rats, but this locus is different between SHR/Akr and SHR/Crl rats. Six mutations have accumulated in Sry3 between the SHR strains, whereas the other 6 Sry loci are identical. This pattern of an SHR-specific locus and mutation in this locus in SHR/Crl coinciding with the loss of Y chromosome hypertension is an expected pattern if Sry3 is the Y chromosome-hypertensive component. The SHR/y strain showed a significant increase in total Sry expression in the kidney between 4 and 15 weeks of age. There are significant differences in Sry expression between adrenal glands and the kidney (15 to 30 times higher in kidneys) but no significant differences between strains. These results, along with previous studies demonstrating an interaction of Sry with the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter and increased blood pressure with exogenous Sry expression, suggest the Sry loci as the hypertensive component of the SHR Y chromosome.

  3. Physical properties of unacetylated chromatin as examined by magnetic tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Kerry; Dunlap, David; Lucchesi, John

    2011-10-01

    As the source of genetic material, DNA is involved in a variety of biological processes like transcription, cell replication, and more. In these processes, DNA is manipulated into different structures and is subjected to different levels of physical force on a molecular scale. When tension is applied to one hierarchical structure called chromatin, it appears to behave like a Hookian spring. The base component of chromatin is a nucleosome, which is constructed when DNA coils around octamers of histone proteins. The histones can become acetylated---a chemical process in which an acetyl functional group attaches to amino acids of the histones, often lysines. Acetylation may loosen chromatin's coils and therefore lower the amount of tension required to stretch the chromatin. Comparing the levels of tension required to stretch acetylated chromatin could reveal, directly, physical differences in the chromatin fiber that bear ion the function of the DNA molecule. Work presented will be the investigation of unacetylated chromatin.

  4. Quantification of chromatin condensation level by image processing.

    PubMed

    Irianto, Jerome; Lee, David A; Knight, Martin M

    2014-03-01

    The level of chromatin condensation is related to the silencing/activation of chromosomal territories and therefore impacts on gene expression. Chromatin condensation changes during cell cycle, progression and differentiation, and is influenced by various physicochemical and epigenetic factors. This study describes a validated experimental technique to quantify chromatin condensation. A novel image processing procedure is developed using Sobel edge detection to quantify the level of chromatin condensation from nuclei images taken by confocal microscopy. The algorithm was developed in MATLAB and used to quantify different levels of chromatin condensation in chondrocyte nuclei achieved through alteration in osmotic pressure. The resulting chromatin condensation parameter (CCP) is in good agreement with independent multi-observer qualitative visual assessment. This image processing technique thereby provides a validated unbiased parameter for rapid and highly reproducible quantification of the level of chromatin condensation. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Minireview: Conversing With Chromatin: The Language of Nuclear Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors that are activated by physiological stimuli to bind DNA in the context of chromatin and regulate complex biological pathways. Major advances in nuclear receptor biology have been aided by genome scale examinations of receptor interactions with chromatin. In this review, we summarize the roles of the chromatin landscape in regulating nuclear receptor function. Chromatin acts as a central integrator in the nuclear receptor-signaling axis, operating in distinct temporal modalities. Chromatin effects nuclear receptor action by specifying its genomic localization and interactions with regulatory elements. On receptor binding, changes in chromatin operate as an effector of receptor signaling to modulate transcriptional events. Chromatin is therefore an integral component of the pathways that guide nuclear receptor action in cell-type-specific and cell state-dependent manners. PMID:24196351

  6. Calorie restriction and the exercise of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero, Alejandro; Reinberg, Danny

    2009-01-01

    Since the earliest stages of evolution, organisms have faced the challenge of sensing and adapting to environmental changes for their survival under compromising conditions such as food depletion or stress. Implicit in these responses are mechanisms developed during evolution that include the targeting of chromatin to allow or prevent expression of fundamental genes and to protect genome integrity. Among the different approaches to study these mechanisms, the analysis of the response to a moderate reduction of energy intake, also known as calorie restriction (CR), has become one of the best sources of information regarding the factors and pathways involved in metabolic adaptation from lower to higher eukaryotes. Furthermore, responses to CR are involved in life span regulation—conserved from yeast to mammals—and therefore have garnered major research interest. Herein we review current knowledge of responses to CR at the molecular level and their functional link to chromatin. PMID:19608767

  7. Solenoidal model for superstructure in chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Finch, J T; Klug, A

    1976-01-01

    Chromatin prepared by brief digestion of nuclei with micrococcal nuclease, and extracted in 0.2 mM EDTA, appears in the electron microscope as filaments of about 100 A diameter which coil loosely. In 0.2 mM Mg++ these "nucleofilaments" condense into a supercoil or solenoidal structure of pitch about 110 A corresponding to the diameter of a nucleofilament. It is proposed that the x-ray reflections at orders of 110 A observed in chromatin originate in the spacing between turns of the solenoid rather than that between nucleosomes along the nucleofilament. The solenoidal structure appears to need histone H1 for its stabilization. Under certain conditions, isolated nucleosomes can also aggregate into a similar structure. The solenoidal structure can be correlated with the "thread" of diameter about 300 A observed by other workers in nuclei. Images PMID:1064861

  8. Chromatin remodelling during male gametophyte development.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    The plant life cycle alternates between a diploid sporophytic phase and haploid gametophytic phase, with the latter giving rise to the gametes. Male gametophyte development encompasses two mitotic divisions that results in a simple three-celled structure knows as the pollen grain, in which two sperm cells are encased within a larger vegetative cell. Both cell types exhibit a very different type of chromatin organization - highly condensed in sperm cell nuclei and highly diffuse in the vegetative cell. Distinct classes of histone variants have dynamic and differential expression in the two cell lineages of the male gametophyte. Here we review how the dynamics of histone variants are linked to reprogramming of chromatin activities in the male gametophyte, compaction of the sperm cell genome and zygotic transitions post-fertilization.

  9. Mechanobiology of Chromatin and the Nuclear Interior.

    PubMed

    Spagnol, Stephen T; Armiger, Travis J; Dahl, Kris Noel

    2016-06-01

    The view of the cell nucleus has evolved from an isolated, static organelle to a dynamic structure integrated with other mechanical elements of the cell. Both dynamics and integration appear to contribute to a mechanical regulation of genome expression. Here, we review physical structures inside the nucleus at different length scales and the dynamic reorganization modulated by cellular forces. First, we discuss nuclear organization focusing on self-assembly and disassembly of DNA structures and various nuclear bodies. We then discuss the importance of connections from the chromatin fiber through the nuclear envelope to the rest of the cell as they relate to mechanobiology. Finally, we discuss how cell stimulation, both chemical and physical, can alter nuclear structures and ultimately cellular function in healthy cells and in some model diseases. The view of chromatin and nuclear bodies as mechanical entities integrated with force generation from the cytoskeleton combines polymer physics with cell biology and medicine.

  10. Dynamic chromatin regulation at Notch target genes

    PubMed Central

    Giaimo, Benedetto Daniele; Oswald, Franz; Borggrefe, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT RBPJ is the central transcription factor that controls the Notch-dependent transcriptional response by coordinating repressing histone H3K27 deacetylation and activating histone H3K4 methylation. Here, we discuss the molecular mechanisms how RBPJ interacts with opposing NCoR/HDAC-corepressing or KMT2D/UTX-coactivating complexes and how this is controlled by phosphorylation of chromatin modifiers. PMID:28027012

  11. Transcription, chromatin condensation, and gene migration

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The binding of fluorescently tagged proteins to tandem DNA arrays has been instrumental in understanding nuclear organization and function. Through the use of more natural tandem DNA arrays, Hu et al. (Hu, Y., I. Kireev, M. Plutz, N. Ashourian, and A.S. Belmont. 2009. J. Cell Biol. 185:87–100) gain new insights into chromatin organization and dynamics, and into the association of splicing factors with active genes. PMID:19349577

  12. Reproducibility of 3D chromatin configuration reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Mark R.; Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Vazquez, Mariel; Arsuaga, Javier

    2014-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of eukaryotic chromatin plays an important role in processes such as gene regulation and cancer-driving gene fusions. Observing or inferring this 3D structure at even modest resolutions had been problematic, since genomes are highly condensed and traditional assays are coarse. However, recently devised high-throughput molecular techniques have changed this situation. Notably, the development of a suite of chromatin conformation capture (CCC) assays has enabled elicitation of contacts—spatially close chromosomal loci—which have provided insights into chromatin architecture. Most analysis of CCC data has focused on the contact level, with less effort directed toward obtaining 3D reconstructions and evaluating the accuracy and reproducibility thereof. While questions of accuracy must be addressed experimentally, questions of reproducibility can be addressed statistically—the purpose of this paper. We use a constrained optimization technique to reconstruct chromatin configurations for a number of closely related yeast datasets and assess reproducibility using four metrics that measure the distance between 3D configurations. The first of these, Procrustes fitting, measures configuration closeness after applying reflection, rotation, translation, and scaling-based alignment of the structures. The others base comparisons on the within-configuration inter-point distance matrix. Inferential results for these metrics rely on suitable permutation approaches. Results indicate that distance matrix-based approaches are preferable to Procrustes analysis, not because of the metrics per se but rather on account of the ability to customize permutation schemes to handle within-chromosome contiguity. It has recently been emphasized that the use of constrained optimization approaches to 3D architecture reconstruction are prone to being trapped in local minima. Our methods of reproducibility assessment provide a

  13. [The biological aspects of chromatin diminution].

    PubMed

    Akif'ev, A P; Grishanin, A K

    1993-01-01

    The chromatine diminution (CD), first discovered by Boveri (1887) in ascarids, represents programmed elimination of a part of genetic material in the nuclei of the somatic cells in cyclops and ascarids, and in the protist macronuclei. The CD can be considered as a macromutation sharply changing chromosomal structure, though minimally effecting the phenotype. The analysis of CD is of significance for discussing mechanisms of origin of chromosomal organization, transformation of genome molecular structure in eucaryote evolution, role of the extra DNA.

  14. The polymorphisms of the chromatin fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulé, Jean-Baptiste; Mozziconacci, Julien; Lavelle, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the genome is packed into chromosomes, each consisting of large polymeric fibers made of DNA bound with proteins (mainly histones) and RNA molecules. The nature and precise 3D organization of this fiber has been a matter of intense speculations and debates. In the emerging picture, the local chromatin state plays a critical role in all fundamental DNA transactions, such as transcriptional control, DNA replication or repair. However, the molecular and structural mechanisms involved remain elusive. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the tremendous efforts that have been made for almost 40 years to build physiologically relevant models of chromatin structure. The motivation behind building such models was to shift our representation and understanding of DNA transactions from a too simplistic ‘naked DNA’ view to a more realistic ‘coated DNA’ view, as a step towards a better framework in which to interpret mechanistically the control of genetic expression and other DNA metabolic processes. The field has evolved from a speculative point of view towards in vitro biochemistry and in silico modeling, but is still longing for experimental in vivo validations of the proposed structures or even proof of concept experiments demonstrating a clear role of a given structure in a metabolic transaction. The mere existence of a chromatin fiber as a relevant biological entity in vivo has been put into serious questioning. Current research is suggesting a possible reconciliation between theoretical studies and experiments, pointing towards a view where the polymorphic and dynamic nature of the chromatin fiber is essential to support its function in genome metabolism.

  15. Capturing Structural Heterogeneity in Chromatin Fibers.

    PubMed

    Ekundayo, Babatunde; Richmond, Timothy J; Schalch, Thomas

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin fiber organization is implicated in processes such as transcription, DNA repair and chromosome segregation, but how nucleosomes interact to form higher-order structure remains poorly understood. We solved two crystal structures of tetranucleosomes with approximately 11-bp DNA linker length at 5.8 and 6.7 Å resolution. Minimal intramolecular nucleosome-nucleosome interactions result in a fiber model resembling a flat ribbon that is compatible with a two-start helical architecture, and that exposes histone and DNA surfaces to the environment. The differences in the two structures combined with electron microscopy reveal heterogeneous structural states, and we used site-specific chemical crosslinking to assess the diversity of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions through identification of structure-sensitive crosslink sites that provide a means to characterize fibers in solution. The chromatin fiber architectures observed here provide a basis for understanding heterogeneous chromatin higher-order structures as they occur in a genomic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Titration and hysteresis in epigenetic chromatin silencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayarian, Adel; Sengupta, Anirvan M.

    2013-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms of silencing via heritable chromatin modifications play a major role in gene regulation and cell fate specification. We consider a model of epigenetic chromatin silencing in budding yeast and study the bifurcation diagram and characterize the bistable and the monostable regimes. The main focus of this paper is to examine how the perturbations altering the activity of histone modifying enzymes affect the epigenetic states. We analyze the implications of having the total number of silencing proteins, given by the sum of proteins bound to the nucleosomes and the ones available in the ambient, to be constant. This constraint couples different regions of chromatin through the shared reservoir of ambient silencing proteins. We show that the response of the system to perturbations depends dramatically on the titration effect caused by the above constraint. In particular, for a certain range of overall abundance of silencing proteins, the hysteresis loop changes qualitatively with certain jump replaced by continuous merger of different states. In addition, we find a nonmonotonic dependence of gene expression on the rate of histone deacetylation activity of Sir2. We discuss how these qualitative predictions of our model could be compared with experimental studies of the yeast system under anti-silencing drugs.

  17. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  18. Plant chromatin warms up in Madrid: meeting summary of the 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin 2013, Madrid, Spain.

    PubMed

    Jarillo, José A; Gaudin, Valérie; Hennig, Lars; Köhler, Claudia; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    The 3rd European Workshop on Plant Chromatin (EWPC) was held on August 2013 in Madrid, Spain. A number of different topics on plant chromatin were presented during the meeting, including new factors mediating Polycomb Group protein function in plants, chromatin-mediated reprogramming in plant developmental transitions, the role of histone variants, and newly identified chromatin remodeling factors. The function of interactions between chromatin and transcription factors in the modulation of gene expression, the role of chromatin dynamics in the control of nuclear processes and the influence of environmental factors on chromatin organization were also reported. In this report, we highlight some of the new insights emerging in this growing area of research, presented at the 3rd EWPC.

  19. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-01-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant–vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change. PMID:24535890

  20. Speaking rate effects on locus equation slope.

    PubMed

    Berry, Jeff; Weismer, Gary

    2013-11-01

    A locus equation describes a 1st order regression fit to a scatter of vowel steady-state frequency values predicting vowel onset frequency values. Locus equation coefficients are often interpreted as indices of coarticulation. Speaking rate variations with a constant consonant-vowel form are thought to induce changes in the degree of coarticulation. In the current work, the hypothesis that locus slope is a transparent index of coarticulation is examined through the analysis of acoustic samples of large-scale, nearly continuous variations in speaking rate. Following the methodological conventions for locus equation derivation, data pooled across ten vowels yield locus equation slopes that are mostly consistent with the hypothesis that locus equations vary systematically with coarticulation. Comparable analyses between different four-vowel pools reveal variations in the locus slope range and changes in locus slope sensitivity to rate change. Analyses across rate but within vowels are substantially less consistent with the locus hypothesis. Taken together, these findings suggest that the practice of vowel pooling exerts a non-negligible influence on locus outcomes. Results are discussed within the context of articulatory accounts of locus equations and the effects of speaking rate change.

  1. Polymer models of the hierarchical folding of the Hox-B chromosomal locus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annunziatella, Carlo; Chiariello, Andrea M.; Bianco, Simona; Nicodemi, Mario

    2016-10-01

    As revealed by novel technologies, chromosomes in the nucleus of mammalian cells have a complex spatial organization that serves vital functional purposes. Here we use models from polymer physics to identify the mechanisms that control their three-dimensional spatial organization. In particular, we investigate a model of the Hox-B locus, an important genomic region involved in embryo development, to expose the principles regulating chromatin folding and its complex behaviors in mouse embryonic stem cells. We reconstruct with high accuracy the pairwise contact matrix of the Hox-B locus as derived by Hi-C experiments and investigate its hierarchical folding dynamics. We trace back the observed behaviors to general scaling properties of polymer physics.

  2. The hematopoietic regulator TAL1 is required for chromatin looping between the β-globin LCR and human γ-globin genes to activate transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Won Ju; Kim, Yea Woon; Kang, Yujin; Lee, Jungbae; Dean, Ann; Kim, AeRi

    2014-01-01

    TAL1 is a key hematopoietic transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of a large cohort of erythroid genes as part of a complex with GATA-1, LMO2 and Ldb1. The complex mediates long-range interaction between the β-globin locus control region (LCR) and active globin genes, and although TAL1 is one of the two DNA-binding complex members, its role is unclear. To explore the role of TAL1 in transcription activation of the human γ-globin genes, we reduced the expression of TAL1 in erythroid K562 cells using lentiviral short hairpin RNA, compromising its association in the β-globin locus. In the TAL1 knockdown cells, the γ-globin transcription was reduced to 35% and chromatin looping of the Gγ-globin gene with the LCR was disrupted with decreased occupancy of the complex member Ldb1 and LMO2 in the locus. However, GATA-1 binding, DNase I hypersensitive site formation and several histone modifications were largely maintained across the β-globin locus. In addition, overexpression of TAL1 increased the γ-globin transcription and increased interaction frequency between the Gγ-globin gene and LCR. These results indicate that TAL1 plays a critical role in chromatin loop formation between the γ-globin genes and LCR, which is a critical step for the transcription of the γ-globin genes. PMID:24470145

  3. Capture of associated targets on chromatin links long-distance chromatin looping to transcriptional coordination

    PubMed Central

    Bourgo, Ryan J.; Singhal, Hari; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe a sensitive and novel method of identifying endogenous DNA–DNA interactions. Capture of Associated Targets on CHromatin (CATCH) uses efficient capture and enrichment of specific genomic loci of interest through hybridization and subsequent purification via complementary biotinylated oligonucleotide. The CATCH assay requires no enzymatic digestion or ligation, requires little starting material, provides high-quality data, has excellent reproducibility and is completed in less than 24 h. Efficacy is demonstrated through capture of three disparate loci, which demonstrate unique subsets of long-distance chromatin interactions enriched for both enhancer marks and oestrogen receptor-binding sites. In each experiment, CATCH-seq peaks representing long-distance chromatin interactions were centred near the TSS of genes, and, critically, the genes identified as physically interacting are shown to be transcriptionally coexpressed. These interactions could potentially create transcriptional hubs for the regulation of gene expression programmes. PMID:27634217

  4. Chromatin remodelers Isw1 and Chd1 maintain chromatin structure during transcription by preventing histone exchange

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gogol, Madelaine M.; Li, Hua; Zhang, Ying; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Set2-mediated methylation of histone H3 Lys36 (H3K36) is a mark associated with the coding sequences of actively transcribed genes, yet plays a negative role during transcription elongation. It prevents trans-histone exchange over coding regions and signals for histone deacetylation in the wake of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) passage. We have found that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the Isw1b chromatin-remodeling complex is specifically recruited to open reading frames (ORFs) by H3K36 methylation through the PWWP domain of its Ioc4 subunit in vivo and in vitro. Isw1b acts in conjunction with Chd1 to regulate chromatin structure by preventing trans-histone exchange from taking place over coding regions and thus maintains chromatin integrity during transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II. PMID:22922743

  5. Genome-Wide Association between Transcription Factor Expression and Chromatin Accessibility Reveals Regulators of Chromatin Accessibility.

    PubMed

    Lamparter, David; Marbach, Daniel; Rueedi, Rico; Bergmann, Sven; Kutalik, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    To better understand genome regulation, it is important to uncover the role of transcription factors in the process of chromatin structure establishment and maintenance. Here we present a data-driven approach to systematically characterise transcription factors that are relevant for this process. Our method uses a linear mixed modelling approach to combine datasets of transcription factor binding motif enrichments in open chromatin and gene expression across the same set of cell lines. Applying this approach to the ENCODE dataset, we confirm already known and imply numerous novel transcription factors that play a role in the establishment or maintenance of open chromatin. In particular, our approach rediscovers many factors that have been annotated as pioneer factors.

  6. Genome-Wide Association between Transcription Factor Expression and Chromatin Accessibility Reveals Regulators of Chromatin Accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Rueedi, Rico

    2017-01-01

    To better understand genome regulation, it is important to uncover the role of transcription factors in the process of chromatin structure establishment and maintenance. Here we present a data-driven approach to systematically characterise transcription factors that are relevant for this process. Our method uses a linear mixed modelling approach to combine datasets of transcription factor binding motif enrichments in open chromatin and gene expression across the same set of cell lines. Applying this approach to the ENCODE dataset, we confirm already known and imply numerous novel transcription factors that play a role in the establishment or maintenance of open chromatin. In particular, our approach rediscovers many factors that have been annotated as pioneer factors. PMID:28118358

  7. Tissue specific CTCF occupancy and boundary function at the human growth hormone locus.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Cooke, Nancy E; Liebhaber, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    The robust and tissue-specific activation of the human growth hormone (hGH) gene cluster in the pituitary and placenta constitutes an informative model for analysis of gene regulation. The five-gene hGH cluster is regulated by two partially overlapping sets of DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) that constitute the pituitary (HSI, II, III and V) and placental (HSIII, IV, and V) locus control regions (LCRs). The single placenta-specific LCR component, HSIV, is located at -30 kb to the cluster. Here we generate a series of hGH/BAC transgenes specifically modified to identify structural features of the hGH locus required for its appropriate placental expression. We find that placental specificity is dependent on the overall multigene configuration of the cluster whereas the distance between the cluster and its LCR impacts the level of placental expression. We further observe that a major function of the placental hGH LCR is to insulate the transgene locus from site-of-integration effects. This insulation activity is linked to placenta-specific occupancy of the chromatin architectural protein, CTCF, at HSIV. These data reveal a remarkable combination of structural configurations and regulatory determinants that must work in concert to insure robust and tightly controlled expression from a complex multigene locus.

  8. A cluster of noncoding RNAs activates the ESR1 locus during breast cancer adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Saori; Abdalla, Mohamed Osama Ali; Fujiwara, Saori; Matsumori, Haruka; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Saitoh, Noriko; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells. PMID:25923108

  9. A cluster of noncoding RNAs activates the ESR1 locus during breast cancer adaptation.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Saori; Abdalla, Mohamed Osama Ali; Fujiwara, Saori; Matsumori, Haruka; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Iwase, Hirotaka; Saitoh, Noriko; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-04-29

    Estrogen receptor-α (ER)-positive breast cancer cells undergo hormone-independent proliferation after deprivation of oestrogen, leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Up-regulation of the ER gene (ESR1) is critical for this process, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the combination of transcriptome and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that oestrogen deprivation induced a cluster of noncoding RNAs that defined a large chromatin domain containing the ESR1 locus. We termed these RNAs as Eleanors (ESR1 locus enhancing and activating noncoding RNAs). Eleanors were present in ER-positive breast cancer tissues and localized at the transcriptionally active ESR1 locus to form RNA foci. Depletion of one Eleanor, upstream (u)-Eleanor, impaired cell growth and transcription of intragenic Eleanors and ESR1 mRNA, indicating that Eleanors cis-activate the ESR1 gene. Eleanor-mediated gene activation represents a new type of locus control mechanism and plays an essential role in the adaptation of breast cancer cells.

  10. Nucleotide excision repair and photolyase repair of UV photoproducts in nucleosomes: assessing the existence of nucleosome and non-nucleosome rDNA chromatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Maxime; Toussaint, Martin; D'Amours, Annie; Conconi, Antonio

    2009-02-01

    The genome is organized into nuclear domains, which create microenvironments that favor distinct chromatin structures and functions (e.g., highly repetitive sequences, centromeres, telomeres, noncoding sequences, inactive genes, RNA polymerase II and III transcribed genes, and the nucleolus). Correlations have been drawn between gene silencing and proximity to a heterochromatic compartment. At the other end of the scale are ribosomal genes, which are transcribed at a very high rate by RNA polymerase I (~60% of total transcription), have a loose chromatin structure, and are clustered in the nucleolus. The rDNA sequences have 2 distinct structures: active rRNA genes, which have no nucleosomes; and inactive rRNA genes, which have nucleosomes. Like DNA transcription and replication, DNA repair is modulated by the structure of chromatin, and the kinetics of DNA repair vary among the nuclear domains. Although research on DNA repair in all chromosomal contexts is important to understand the mechanisms of genome maintenance, this review focuses on nucleotide excision repair and photolyase repair of UV photoproducts in the first-order packing of DNA in chromatin: the nucleosome. In addition, it summarizes the studies that have demonstrated the existence of the 2 rDNA chromatins, and the way this feature of the rDNA locus allows for direct comparison of DNA repair in 2 very different structures: nucleosome and non-nucleosome DNA.

  11. Roles of chromatin remodellers in DNA double strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Jeggo, Penny A; Downs, Jessica A

    2014-11-15

    Now that we have a good understanding of the DNA double strand break (DSB) repair mechanisms and DSB-induced damage signalling, attention is focusing on the changes to the chromatin environment needed for efficient DSB repair. Mutations in chromatin remodelling complexes have been identified in cancers, making it important to evaluate how they impact upon genomic stability. Our current understanding of the DSB repair pathways suggests that each one has distinct requirements for chromatin remodelling. Moreover, restricting the extent of chromatin modifications could be a significant factor regulating the decision of pathway usage. In this review, we evaluate the distinct DSB repair pathways for their potential need for chromatin remodelling and review the roles of ATP-driven chromatin remodellers in the pathways.

  12. In vitro Chromatin Assembly - Strategies and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Muthurajan, Uma; Mattiroli, Francesca; Bergeron, Serge; Zhou, Keda; Gu, Yajie; Chakravarthy, Srinivas; Dyer, Pamela; Irving, Thomas; Luger, Karolin

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin accessibility is modulated by structural transitions that provide timely access to the genetic and epigenetic information during many essential nuclear processes. These transitions are orchestrated by regulatory proteins that coordinate intricate structural modifications and signalling pathways. In vitro reconstituted chromatin samples from defined components are instrumental in defining the mechanistic details of such processes. The bottleneck to appropriate in vitro analysis is the production of high quality, and quality-controlled, chromatin substrates. In this chapter we describe methods for in vitro chromatin reconstitution and quality control. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches, and emphasize quality control steps that ensure reconstitution of a bona fide homogenous chromatin preparation. This is essential for optimal reproducibility and reliability of ensuing experiments using chromatin substrates. PMID:27372747

  13. An Overview of Chromatin-Regulating Proteins in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pingyu; Torres, Keila; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Pollock, Raphael E.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, gene expressions on chromosome DNA are orchestrated by a dynamic chromosome structure state that is largely controlled by chromatin-regulating proteins, which regulate chromatin structures, release DNA from the nucleosome, and activate or suppress gene expression by modifying nucleosome histones or mobilizing DNA-histone structure. The two classes of chromatin- regulating proteins are 1) enzymes that modify histones through methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, adenosine diphosphate–ribosylation, glycosylation, sumoylation, or ubiquitylation and 2) enzymes that remodel DNA-histone structure with energy from ATP hydrolysis. Chromatin-regulating proteins, which modulate DNA-histone interaction, change chromatin conformation, and increase or decrease the binding of functional DNA-regulating protein complexes, have major functions in nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA replication, repair, and recombination. This review provides a general overview of chromatin-regulating proteins, including their classification, molecular functions, and interactions with the nucleosome in eukaryotic cells. PMID:26796306

  14. Chromatin structure and the state of human organism.

    PubMed

    Shckorbatov, Yuriy G; Zhuravlyova, Lyubov A; Navrotskaya, Valeria V; Miroshnichenko, Elena V; Montvid, Pavel Y; Shakhbazov, Valery G; Sutushev, Takhir A

    2005-01-01

    The state of chromatin in human buccal epithelium cell nuclei upon the influence of sport trainings was investigated. Chromatin state was evaluated in interphase buccal cell nuclei after orcein staining. The heterochromatin granule quantity (HGQ) was estimated in 30 nuclei per sample, and for every donor the mean HGQ value per 30 cells was determined. Donors of masculine sex, aged from 18 to 48 years performed training walks and samples of buccal epithelium were collected. Sportive charges induced the process of chromatin condensation in cell nuclei. After the period of repose (24-48 h) the HGQ decreased to control level therefore the process of chromatin decondensation was observed. The state of chromatin changes in connection with circadian rhythm. Chromatin became more condensed at nighttime and less condensed in the morning. Hormones such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, and hydrocortisone in vitro induced the increase of HGQ.

  15. Drugging Chromatin in Cancer: Recent Advances and Novel Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Sheng F.; Chen, Chun-Wei; Armstrong, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin regulatory mechanisms play a major role in the control of gene expression programs during normal development and are disrupted in specific disease states, particularly in cancer. Important mediators of chromatin regulatory processes can broadly be classified into writers, erasers, and readers of covalent chromatin modifications that modulate eukaryotic gene transcription and maintain the integrity of the genome. The reversibility and disease-specific nature of these chromatin states make these regulators attractive therapeutic targets. As such, there is an ever-increasing number of candidate therapies aimed at targeting cancer-associated chromatin states that are in various stages of preclinical and clinical development. In this review, we discuss recent advances that have been made in the rational therapeutic targeting of chromatin regulatory mechanisms and highlight certain cancers where there is a specific rationale to assess these therapeutic approaches. PMID:26590715

  16. A role for chromatin topology in imprinted domain regulation.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, William A; Sachani, Saqib S; White, Carlee R; Mann, Mellissa R W

    2016-02-01

    Recently, many advancements in genome-wide chromatin topology and nuclear architecture have unveiled the complex and hidden world of the nucleus, where chromatin is organized into discrete neighbourhoods with coordinated gene expression. This includes the active and inactive X chromosomes. Using X chromosome inactivation as a working model, we utilized publicly available datasets together with a literature review to gain insight into topologically associated domains, lamin-associated domains, nucleolar-associating domains, scaffold/matrix attachment regions, and nucleoporin-associated chromatin and their role in regulating monoallelic expression. Furthermore, we comprehensively review for the first time the role of chromatin topology and nuclear architecture in the regulation of genomic imprinting. We propose that chromatin topology and nuclear architecture are important regulatory mechanisms for directing gene expression within imprinted domains. Furthermore, we predict that dynamic changes in chromatin topology and nuclear architecture play roles in tissue-specific imprint domain regulation during early development and differentiation.

  17. Altered chromatin structure associated with methylation-induced gene silencing in cancer cells: correlation of accessibility, methylation, MeCP2 binding and acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Carvell T.; Gonzales, Felicidad A.; Jones, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Silencing of tumor-suppressor genes by hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is well documented in human cancer and may be mediated by methyl-CpG-binding proteins, like MeCP2, that are associated in vivo with chromatin modifiers and transcriptional repressors. However, the exact dynamic between methylation and chromatin structure in the regulation of gene expression is not well understood. In this study, we have analyzed the methylation status and chromatin structure of three CpG islands in the p14(ARF)/p16(INK4A) locus in a series of normal and cancer cell lines using methylation-sensitive digestion, MspI accessibility in intact nuclei and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. We demonstrate the existence of an altered chromatin structure associated with the silencing of tumor-suppressor genes in human cancer cell lines involving CpG island methylation, chromatin condensation, histone deacetylation and MeCP2 binding. The data showed that MeCP2 could bind to methylated CpG islands in both promoters and exons; MeCP2 does not interfere with transcription when bound at an exon, suggesting a more generalized role for the protein beyond transcriptional repression. In the absence of methylation, it is demonstrated that CpG islands located in promoters versus exons display marked differences in the levels of acetylation of associated histone H3, suggesting that chromatin remodeling can be achieved by methylation-independent processes and perhaps explaining why non-promoter CpG islands are more susceptible to de novo methylation than promoter islands. PMID:11713309

  18. Long noncoding RNAs, chromatin, and development.

    PubMed

    Caley, Daniel P; Pink, Ryan C; Trujillano, Daniel; Carter, David R F

    2010-01-08

    The way in which the genome of a multicellular organism can orchestrate the differentiation of trillions of cells and many organs, all from a single fertilized egg, is the subject of intense study. Different cell types can be defined by the networks of genes they express. This differential expression is regulated at the epigenetic level by chromatin modifications, such as DNA and histone methylation, which interact with structural and enzymatic proteins, resulting in the activation or silencing of any given gene. While detailed mechanisms are emerging on the role of different chromatin modifications and how these functions are effected at the molecular level, it is still unclear how their deposition across the epigenomic landscape is regulated in different cells. A raft of recent evidence is accumulating that implicates long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in these processes. Most genomes studied to date undergo widespread transcription, the majority of which is not translated into proteins. In this review, we will describe recent work suggesting that lncRNAs are more than transcriptional "noise", but instead play a functional role by acting as tethers and guides to bind proteins responsible for modifying chromatin and mediating their deposition at specific genomic locations. We suggest that lncRNAs are at the heart of developmental regulation, determining the epigenetic status and transcriptional network in any given cell type, and that they provide a means to integrate external differentiation cues with dynamic nuclear responses through the regulation of a metastable epigenome. Better characterization of the lncRNA-protein "interactome" may eventually lead to a new molecular toolkit, allowing researchers and clinicians to modulate the genome at the epigenetic level to treat conditions such as cancer.

  19. Chromatin, DNA structure and alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Nieto Moreno, Nicolás; Giono, Luciana E; Cambindo Botto, Adrián E; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-11-14

    Coupling of transcription and alternative splicing via regulation of the transcriptional elongation rate is a well-studied phenomenon. Template features that act as roadblocks for the progression of RNA polymerase II comprise histone modifications and variants, DNA-interacting proteins and chromatin compaction. These may affect alternative splicing decisions by inducing pauses or decreasing elongation rate that change the time-window for splicing regulatory sequences to be recognized. Herein we discuss the evidence supporting the influence of template structural modifications on transcription and splicing, and provide insights about possible roles of non-B DNA conformations on the regulation of alternative splicing.

  20. Stem cell factors in plants: chromatin connections.

    PubMed

    Kornet, N; Scheres, B

    2008-01-01

    The progression of pluripotent stem cells to differentiated cell lineages requires major shifts in cell differentiation programs. In both mammals and higher plants, this process appears to be controlled by a dedicated set of transcription factors, many of which are kingdom specific. These divergent transcription factors appear to operate, however, together with a shared suite of factors that affect the chromatin state. It is of major importance to investigate whether such shared global control mechanisms indicate a common mechanistic basis for preservation of the stem cell state, initiation of differentiation programs, and coordination of cell state transitions.

  1. Histone chaperone networks shaping chromatin function.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Colin M; Strømme, Caroline B; Huang, Hongda; Patel, Dinshaw J; Groth, Anja

    2017-03-01

    The association of histones with specific chaperone complexes is important for their folding, oligomerization, post-translational modification, nuclear import, stability, assembly and genomic localization. In this way, the chaperoning of soluble histones is a key determinant of histone availability and fate, which affects all chromosomal processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation and genome replication and repair. Here, we review the distinct structural and functional properties of the expanding network of histone chaperones. We emphasize how chaperones cooperate in the histone chaperone network and via co-chaperone complexes to match histone supply with demand, thereby promoting proper nucleosome assembly and maintaining epigenetic information by recycling modified histones evicted from chromatin.

  2. NET23/STING Promotes Chromatin Compaction from the Nuclear Envelope

    PubMed Central

    de las Heras, Jose I.; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A.; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A.; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture. PMID:25386906

  3. NET23/STING promotes chromatin compaction from the nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Malik, Poonam; Zuleger, Nikolaj; de las Heras, Jose I; Saiz-Ros, Natalia; Makarov, Alexandr A; Lazou, Vassiliki; Meinke, Peter; Waterfall, Martin; Kelly, David A; Schirmer, Eric C

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the peripheral distribution and amount of condensed chromatin are observed in a number of diseases linked to mutations in the lamin A protein of the nuclear envelope. We postulated that lamin A interactions with nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) that affect chromatin structure might be altered in these diseases and so screened thirty-one NETs for those that promote chromatin compaction as determined by an increase in the number of chromatin clusters of high pixel intensity. One of these, NET23 (also called STING, MITA, MPYS, ERIS, Tmem173), strongly promoted chromatin compaction. A correlation between chromatin compaction and endogenous levels of NET23/STING was observed for a number of human cell lines, suggesting that NET23/STING may contribute generally to chromatin condensation. NET23/STING has separately been found to be involved in innate immune response signaling. Upon infection cells make a choice to either apoptose or to alter chromatin architecture to support focused expression of interferon genes and other response factors. We postulate that the chromatin compaction induced by NET23/STING may contribute to this choice because the cells expressing NET23/STING eventually apoptose, but the chromatin compaction effect is separate from this as the condensation was still observed when cells were treated with Z-VAD to block apoptosis. NET23/STING-induced compacted chromatin revealed changes in epigenetic marks including changes in histone methylation and acetylation. This indicates a previously uncharacterized nuclear role for NET23/STING potentially in both innate immune signaling and general chromatin architecture.

  4. Aging by epigenetics-A consequence of chromatin damage?

    SciTech Connect

    Sedivy, John M. Banumathy, Gowrishankar; Adams, Peter D.

    2008-06-10

    Chromatin structure is not fixed. Instead, chromatin is dynamic and is subject to extensive developmental and age-associated remodeling. In some cases, this remodeling appears to counter the aging and age-associated diseases, such as cancer, and extend organismal lifespan. However, stochastic non-deterministic changes in chromatin structure might, over time, also contribute to the break down of nuclear, cell and tissue function, and consequently aging and age-associated diseases.

  5. An integrated model for detecting significant chromatin interactions from high-resolution Hi-C data

    PubMed Central

    Carty, Mark; Zamparo, Lee; Sahin, Merve; González, Alvaro; Pelossof, Raphael; Elemento, Olivier; Leslie, Christina S.

    2017-01-01

    Here we present HiC-DC, a principled method to estimate the statistical significance (P values) of chromatin interactions from Hi-C experiments. HiC-DC uses hurdle negative binomial regression account for systematic sources of variation in Hi-C read counts—for example, distance-dependent random polymer ligation and GC content and mappability bias—and model zero inflation and overdispersion. Applied to high-resolution Hi-C data in a lymphoblastoid cell line, HiC-DC detects significant interactions at the sub-topologically associating domain level, identifying potential structural and regulatory interactions supported by CTCF binding sites, DNase accessibility, and/or active histone marks. CTCF-associated interactions are most strongly enriched in the middle genomic distance range (∼700 kb–1.5 Mb), while interactions involving actively marked DNase accessible elements are enriched both at short (<500 kb) and longer (>1.5 Mb) genomic distances. There is a striking enrichment of longer-range interactions connecting replication-dependent histone genes on chromosome 6, potentially representing the chromatin architecture at the histone locus body. PMID:28513628

  6. Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Christophe; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Dejeans, Nicolas; Garbe, James C; Dieu, Marc; Verrax, Julien; Renard, Patricia; Huang, Peng; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H2O2 (Resox), in which catalase was overexpressed. Here we identify a novel promoter region responsible for the regulation of catalase expression at -1518/-1226 locus and the key molecules that interact with this promoter and affect catalase transcription. We show that the AP-1 family member JunB and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) mediate catalase transcriptional activation and repression, respectively, by controlling chromatin remodeling through a histone deacetylases-dependent mechanism. This regulatory mechanism plays an important role in redox adaptation to chronic exposure to H2O2 in breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that cancer adaptation to oxidative stress may be regulated by transcriptional factors through chromatin remodeling, and reveals a potential new mechanism to target cancer cells.

  7. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) Protocol for Low-abundance Embryonic Samples.

    PubMed

    Rehimi, Rizwan; Bartusel, Michaela; Solinas, Francesca; Altmüller, Janine; Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro

    2017-08-29

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a widely-used technique for mapping the localization of post-translationally modified histones, histone variants, transcription factors, or chromatin-modifying enzymes at a given locus or on a genome-wide scale. The combination of ChIP assays with next-generation sequencing (i.e., ChIP-Seq) is a powerful approach to globally uncover gene regulatory networks and to improve the functional annotation of genomes, especially of non-coding regulatory sequences. ChIP protocols normally require large amounts of cellular material, thus precluding the applicability of this method to investigating rare cell types or small tissue biopsies. In order to make the ChIP assay compatible with the amount of biological material that can typically be obtained in vivo during early vertebrate embryogenesis, we describe here a simplified ChIP protocol in which the number of steps required to complete the assay were reduced to minimize sample loss. This ChIP protocol has been successfully used to investigate different histone modifications in various embryonic chicken and adult mouse tissues using low to medium cell numbers (5 x 10(4) - 5 x 10(5) cells). Importantly, this protocol is compatible with ChIP-seq technology using standard library preparation methods, thus providing global epigenomic maps in highly relevant embryonic tissues.

  8. Rosiglitazone promotes cardiac hypertrophy and alters chromatin remodeling in isolated cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pharaon, Lama Fawaz; El-Orabi, Naglaa Fathi; Kunhi, Muhammad; Al Yacoub, Nadya; Awad, Salma Mahmoud; Poizat, Coralie

    2017-10-05

    Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic agent that raised a major controversy over its cardiovascular adverse effects. There is in vivo evidence that Rosiglitazone promotes cardiac hypertrophy by PPAR-γ-independent mechanisms. However, whether Rosiglitazone directly alters hypertrophic growth in cardiac cells is unknown. Chromatin remodeling by histone post-translational modifications has emerged as critical for many cardiomyopathies. Based on these observations, this study was initiated to investigate the cardiac hypertrophic effect of Rosiglitazone in a cellular model of primary neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM). We assessed whether the drug alters cardiac hypertrophy and its relationship with histone H3 phosphorylation. Our study showed that Rosiglitazone is a mild pro-hypertrophic agent. Rosiglitazone caused a significant increase in the release of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) into the cell media and also increased cardiomyocytes surface area and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) protein expression significantly. These changes correlated with increased cardiac phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and enhanced phosphorylation of H3 at serine 10 globally and at one cardiac hypertrophic gene locus. These results demonstrate that Rosiglitazone causes direct cardiac hypertrophy in NRCM and alters H3 phosphorylation status. They suggest a new mechanism of Rosiglitazone cardiotoxicity implicating chromatin remodeling secondary to H3 phosphorylation, which activate the fetal cardiac gene program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. CTCF depletion alters chromatin structure and transcription of myeloid-specific factors.

    PubMed

    Ouboussad, Lylia; Kreuz, Sarah; Lefevre, Pascal F

    2013-10-01

    Differentiation is a multistep process tightly regulated and controlled by complex transcription factor networks. Here, we show that the rate of differentiation of common myeloid precursor cells increases after depletion of CTCF, a protein emerging as a potential key factor regulating higher-order chromatin structure. We identified CTCF binding in the vicinity of important transcription factors regulating myeloid differentiation and showed that CTCF depletion impacts on the expression of these genes in concordance with the observed acceleration of the myeloid commitment. Furthermore, we observed a loss of the histone variant H2A.Z within the selected promoter regions and an increase in non-coding RNA transcription upstream of these genes. Both abnormalities suggest a global chromatin structure destabilization and an associated increase of non-productive transcription in response to CTCF depletion but do not drive the CTCF-mediated transcription alterations of the neighbouring genes. Finally, we detected a transient eviction of CTCF at the Egr1 locus in correlation with Egr1 peak of expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment in macrophages. This eviction is also correlated with the expression of an antisense non-coding RNA transcribing through the CTCF-binding region indicating that non-coding RNA transcription could be the cause and the consequence of CTCF eviction.

  10. Chromatin Architecture and Transcription Factor Binding Regulate Expression of Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Genes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Laurie A.; Maksimova, Yelena; Schulz, Vincent; Wong, Clara; Raha, Debasish; Mahajan, Milind C.; Weissman, Sherman M.; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2009-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane protein genes serve as excellent models of complex gene locus structure and function, but their study has been complicated by both their large size and their complexity. To begin to understand the intricate interplay of transcription, dynamic chromatin architecture, transcription factor binding, and genomic organization in regulation of erythrocyte membrane protein genes, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with microarray analysis and ChIP coupled with massively parallel DNA sequencing in both erythroid and nonerythroid cells. Unexpectedly, most regions of GATA-1 and NF-E2 binding were remote from gene promoters and transcriptional start sites, located primarily in introns. Cooccupancy with FOG-1, SCL, and MTA-2 was found at all regions of GATA-1 binding, with cooccupancy of SCL and MTA-2 also found at regions of NF-E2 binding. Cooccupancy of GATA-1 and NF-E2 was found frequently. A common signature of histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 4, GATA-1, NF-E2, FOG-1, SCL, and MTA-2 binding and consensus GATA-1-E-box binding motifs located 34 to 90 bp away from NF-E2 binding motifs was found frequently in erythroid cell-expressed genes. These results provide insights into our understanding of membrane protein gene regulation in erythropoiesis and the regulation of complex genetic loci in erythroid and nonerythroid cells and identify numerous candidate regions for mutations associated with membrane-linked hemolytic anemia. PMID:19687298

  11. Arabidopsis FORGETTER1 mediates stress-induced chromatin memory through nucleosome remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinka, Krzysztof; Altmann, Simone; Czesnick, Hjördis; Nicolas, Philippe; Gorka, Michal; Benke, Eileen; Kabelitz, Tina; Jähne, Felix; Graf, Alexander; Kappel, Christian; Bäurle, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Plants as sessile organisms can adapt to environmental stress to mitigate its adverse effects. As part of such adaptation they maintain an active memory of heat stress for several days that promotes a more efficient response to recurring stress. We show that this heat stress memory requires the activity of the FORGETTER1 (FGT1) locus, with fgt1 mutants displaying reduced maintenance of heat-induced gene expression. FGT1 encodes the Arabidopsis thaliana orthologue of Strawberry notch (Sno), and the protein globally associates with the promoter regions of actively expressed genes in a heat-dependent fashion. FGT1 interacts with chromatin remodelers of the SWI/SNF and ISWI families, which also display reduced heat stress memory. Genomic targets of the BRM remodeler overlap significantly with FGT1 targets. Accordingly, nucleosome dynamics at loci with altered maintenance of heat-induced expression are affected in fgt1. Together, our results suggest that by modulating nucleosome occupancy, FGT1 mediates stress-induced chromatin memory. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17061.001 PMID:27680998

  12. Myogenic Differential Methylation: Diverse Associations with Chromatin Structure

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Sruti; Baribault, Carl; Lacey, Michelle; Ehrlich, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Employing a new algorithm for identifying differentially methylated regions (DMRs) from reduced representation bisulfite sequencing profiles, we identified 1972 hypermethylated and 3250 hypomethylated myogenic DMRs in a comparison of myoblasts (Mb) and myotubes (Mt) with 16 types of nonmuscle cell cultures. DMRs co-localized with a variety of chromatin structures, as deduced from ENCODE whole-genome profiles. Myogenic hypomethylation was highly associated with both weak and strong enhancer-type chromatin, while hypermethylation was infrequently associated with enhancer-type chromatin. Both myogenic hypermethylation and hypomethylation often overlapped weak transcription-type chromatin and Polycomb-repressed-type chromatin. For representative genes, we illustrate relationships between DNA methylation, the local chromatin state, DNaseI hypersensitivity, and gene expression. For example, MARVELD2 exhibited myogenic hypermethylation in transcription-type chromatin that overlapped a silenced promoter in Mb and Mt while TEAD4 had myogenic hypomethylation in intronic subregions displaying enhancer-type or transcription-type chromatin in these cells. For LSP1, alternative promoter usage and active promoter-type chromatin were linked to highly specific myogenic or lymphogenic hypomethylated DMRs. Lastly, despite its myogenesis-associated expression, TBX15 had multiple hypermethylated myogenic DMRs framing its promoter region. This could help explain why TBX15 was previously reported to be underexpressed and, unexpectedly, its promoter undermethylated in placentas exhibiting vascular intrauterine growth restriction. PMID:24949935

  13. Formaldehyde Crosslinking: A Tool for the Study of Chromatin Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A.; Frey, Brian L.; Smith, Lloyd M.; Auble, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. PMID:26354429

  14. Chromatin organization and dynamics in double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Andrew; Gasser, Susan M

    2016-10-31

    Chromatin is organized and segmented into a landscape of domains that serve multiple purposes. In contrast to transcription, which is controlled by defined sequences at distinct sites, DNA damage can occur anywhere. Repair accordingly must occur everywhere, yet it is inevitably affected by its chromatin environment. In this review, we summarize recent work investigating how changes in chromatin organization facilitate and/or guide DNA double-strand break repair. In addition, we examine new live cell studies on the dynamics of chromatin and the mechanisms that regulate its movement.

  15. Regulation of chromatin structure in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Garrido, Manuel; Karbassi, Elaheh; Monte, Emma; Vondriska, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    It has been appreciated for some time that cardiovascular disease involves large-scale transcriptional changes in various cell types. What has become increasingly clear only in the past few years, however, is the role of chromatin remodeling in cardiovascular phenotypes in normal physiology, as well as in development and disease. This review summarizes the state of the chromatin field in terms of distinct mechanisms to regulate chromatin structure in vivo, identifying when these modes of regulation have been demonstrated in cardiovascular tissues. We describe areas in which a better understanding of chromatin structure is leading to new insights into the fundamental biology of cardiovascular disease. 

  16. Radiation-induced thymine base damage in replicating chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Warters, R.L.; Childers, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    The efficiency of radiation-induced production of 5',6'-dihydroxydihydrothymine (t/sup ..gamma../)-type damage was determined in nascent and mature chromatin DNA for the dose range of 50 to 150 krad. These large doses affected neither the total fraction of nuclear DNA in chromatin subunits nor the nucleosome subunit repeat length. The DNA in nascent chromatin, however, was found to be 3.3 times more sensitive than mature chromatin DNA to ..gamma..-ray (/sup 137/Cs)-induced t/sup ..gamma../-type damage, while thymine damage of this type was uniformly distributed in the nucleosomal DNA of mature chromatin (i.e., in the nucleosome core and spacer DNA). The half-time for the transition of nascent DNA sensitivity to mature chromatin DNA sensitivity levels was the same as the half-time at 37/sup 0/C for the maturation of nascent into mature chromatin structure. The rate at which nascent chromatin matured was unaffected by radiation doses as large as 150 krad. The most logical explanation for the greater sensitivity of nascent DNA to radiation is the decreased concentration of histone chromosomal proteins in nascent chromatin.

  17. Protein-dependent conformational behavior of DNA in chromatin.

    PubMed

    Riehm, M R; Harrington, R E

    1987-05-19

    Information from circular dichroism (CD) and DNA thermal denaturation has been used in concert to study the conformational behavior of DNA in the extended 11-nm fiber of chromatin isolated from HeLa nuclei. The histone-dependent conformational states of the system were investigated by selectively removing the hydrophilic histone domains with trypsin. These were compared to acetylated chromatin from the same source. The integrated intensity of the positive CD band for DNA above 260 nm is found to increase with the content of relatively unstressed B-form DNA. This same increase is observed along the series of whole, H1-stripped, and trypsinized chromatin samples as protein is removed. Hence, the ratio of percent hyperchromicity to integrated CD band intensity of the respective melting transitions provides useful information on the conformational state of DNA in the three principal regions of the chromatin fiber: the central loop and flanking nucleosomal regions and the linker. Results from this study suggest that central loop DNA in both hyperacetylated and control chromatin relaxes as protein is removed. However, hyperacetylated chromatin shows significantly less dependence than control chromatin upon core histone hydrophilic domains in the flanking and linker regions. Thus, histone hyperacetylation evidently relaxes DNA in chromatin with no major overall conformational changes. A possible role of histone hyperacetylation may therefore be to reduce cooperativity in the unfolding transition in chromatin and thus provide for greater localized control of unfolding during transcription.

  18. Formaldehyde crosslinking: a tool for the study of chromatin complexes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A; Frey, Brian L; Smith, Lloyd M; Auble, David T

    2015-10-30

    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    On a multi-mega base pair scale of the DNA, the arrangement of chromatin is non-random. In M10 epithelial cells, both telomere regions tend to be located towards the exterior of the chromosome domain, whereas the rest p-arm of the chromatin region towards the interior. In contrast, most of the q-arm of the chromatin is found in the peripheral of the domain. In lymphocytes, the p-arm chromatin regions towards the interior in close proximity with each other, whereas two q-arm regions are nearness in space. It indicates that G0 lymphocytes may lack secondary 3D chromatin folding. There chromatin folding patterns are consistent with our previous finding of non-random distribution of intra-chromosomal exchanges. In simulated microgravity conditions, the chromosome conformation may be altered and new regions in close proximity, especially to region 2 are suggested.

  20. The poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent chromatin remodeler Alc1 induces local chromatin relaxation upon DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Sellou, Hafida; Lebeaupin, Théo; Chapuis, Catherine; Smith, Rebecca; Hegele, Anna; Singh, Hari R.; Kozlowski, Marek; Bultmann, Sebastian; Ladurner, Andreas G.; Timinszky, Gyula; Huet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin relaxation is one of the earliest cellular responses to DNA damage. However, what determines these structural changes, including their ATP requirement, is not well understood. Using live-cell imaging and laser microirradiation to induce DNA lesions, we show that the local chromatin relaxation at DNA damage sites is regulated by PARP1 enzymatic activity. We also report that H1 is mobilized at DNA damage sites, but, since this mobilization is largely independent of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it cannot solely explain the chromatin relaxation. Finally, we demonstrate the involvement of Alc1, a poly(ADP-ribose)- and ATP-dependent remodeler, in the chromatin-relaxation process. Deletion of Alc1 impairs chromatin relaxation after DNA damage, while its overexpression strongly enhances relaxation. Altogether our results identify Alc1 as an important player in the fast kinetics of the NAD+- and ATP-dependent chromatin relaxation upon DNA damage in vivo. PMID:27733626

  1. The Fun30 chromatin remodeler Fft3 controls nuclear organization and chromatin structure of insulators and subtelomeres in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Steglich, Babett; Strålfors, Annelie; Khorosjutina, Olga; Persson, Jenna; Smialowska, Agata; Javerzat, Jean-Paul; Ekwall, Karl

    2015-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, local chromatin structure and chromatin organization in the nucleus both influence transcriptional regulation. At the local level, the Fun30 chromatin remodeler Fft3 is essential for maintaining proper chromatin structure at centromeres and subtelomeres in fission yeast. Using genome-wide mapping and live cell imaging, we show that this role is linked to controlling nuclear organization of its targets. In fft3∆ cells, subtelomeres lose their association with the LEM domain protein Man1 at the nuclear periphery and move to the interior of the nucleus. Furthermore, genes in these domains are upregulated and active chromatin marks increase. Fft3 is also enriched at retrotransposon-derived long terminal repeat (LTR) elements and at tRNA genes. In cells lacking Fft3, these sites lose their peripheral positioning and show reduced nucleosome occupancy. We propose that Fft3 has a global role in mediating association between specific chromatin domains and the nuclear envelope.

  2. MOZ regulates the Tbx1 locus, and Moz mutation partially phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voss, Anne K; Vanyai, Hannah K; Collin, Caitlin; Dixon, Mathew P; McLennan, Tamara J; Sheikh, Bilal N; Scambler, Peter; Thomas, Tim

    2012-09-11

    DiGeorge syndrome, caused by a 22q11 microdeletion or mutation of the TBX1 gene, varies in severity greatly, even among monozygotic twins. Epigenetic phenomena have been invoked to explain phenotypic differences in individuals of identical genetic composition, although specific chromatin modifications relevant to DiGeorge syndrome are elusive. Here we show that lack of the histone acetyltransferase MOZ (MYST3/KAT6A) phenocopies DiGeorge syndrome, and the MOZ complex occupies the Tbx1 locus, promoting its expression and histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation. Importantly, DiGeorge syndrome-like anomalies are present in mice with homozygous mutation of Moz and in heterozygous Moz mutants when combined with Tbx1 haploinsufficiency or oversupply of retinoic acid. Conversely, a Tbx1 transgene rescues the heart phenotype in Moz mutants. Our data reveal a molecular mechanism for a specific chromatin modification of the Tbx1 locus intersecting with an environmental determinant, modeling variability in DiGeorge syndrome.

  3. Maintenance of genomic imprinting at the Arabidopsis medea locus requires zygotic DDM1 activity.

    PubMed

    Vielle-Calzada, J P; Thomas, J; Spillane, C; Coluccio, A; Hoeppner, M A; Grossniklaus, U

    1999-11-15

    In higher plants, seed development requires maternal gene activity in the haploid (gametophytic) as well as diploid (sporophytic) tissues of the developing ovule. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene MEDEA (MEA) encodes a SET-domain protein of the Polycomb group that regulates cell proliferation by exerting a gametophytic maternal control during seed development. Seeds derived from female gametocytes (embryo sacs) carrying a mutant mea allele abort and exhibit cell proliferation defects in both the embryo and the endosperm. In this study we show that the mea mutation affects an imprinted gene expressed maternally in cells of the female gametophyte and after fertilization only from maternally inherited MEA alleles. Paternally inherited MEA alleles are transcriptionally silent in both the young embryo and endosperm. Mutations at the decrease in DNA methylation1 (ddm1) locus are able to rescue mea seeds by functionally reactivating paternally inherited MEA alleles during seed development. Rescued seeds are larger than the wild type and exhibit some of the abnormalities found in aborting mea seeds. Our results indicate that the maintenance of the genomic imprint at the mea locus requires zygotic DDM1 activity. Because DDM1 encodes a putative chromatin remodeling factor, chromatin structure is likely to be interrelated with genomic imprinting in Arabidopsis.

  4. ARTEMIS nuclease facilitates apoptotic chromatin cleavage.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sébastien; Frit, Philippe; Biard, Denis; Salles, Bernard; Calsou, Patrick

    2009-10-15

    One hallmark of apoptosis is DNA degradation that first appears as high molecular weight fragments followed by extensive internucleosomal fragmentation. During apoptosis, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is activated. DNA-PK is involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and its catalytic subunit is associated with the nuclease ARTEMIS. Here, we report that, on initiation of apoptosis in human cells by agents causing DNA DSB or by staurosporine or other agents, ARTEMIS binds to apoptotic chromatin together with DNA-PK and other DSB repair proteins. ARTEMIS recruitment to chromatin showed a time and dose dependency. It required DNA-PK protein kinase activity and was blocked by antagonizing the onset of apoptosis with a pan-caspase inhibitor or on overexpression of the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein. In the absence of ARTEMIS, no defect in caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, and XRCC4 cleavage or in H2AX phosphorylation was observed and DNA-PK catalytic subunit was still phosphorylated on S2056 in response to staurosporine. However, DNA fragmentation including high molecular weight fragmentation was delayed in ARTEMIS-deficient cells compared with cells expressing ARTEMIS. In addition, ARTEMIS enhanced the kinetics of MLL gene cleavage at a breakage cluster breakpoint that is frequently translocated in acute or therapy-related leukemias. These results show a facilitating role for ARTEMIS at least in early, site-specific chromosome breakage during apoptosis.

  5. The Glucocorticoid Receptor Regulates the ANGPTL4 Gene in a CTCF-Mediated Chromatin Context in Human Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Masafumi; Ishihara, Ko; Watanabe, Takehisa; Hirosue, Akiyuki; Hino, Shinjiro; Shinohara, Masanori; Nakayama, Hideki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid signaling through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) plays essential roles in the response to stress and in energy metabolism. This hormonal action is integrated to the transcriptional control of GR-target genes in a cell type-specific and condition-dependent manner. In the present study, we found that the GR regulates the angiopoietin-like 4 gene (ANGPTL4) in a CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-mediated chromatin context in the human hepatic HepG2 cells. There are at least four CTCF-enriched sites and two GR-binding sites within the ANGPTL4 locus. Among them, the major CTCF-enriched site is positioned near the ANGPTL4 enhancer that binds GR. We showed that CTCF is required for induction and subsequent silencing of ANGPTL4 expression in response to dexamethasone (Dex) and that transcription is diminished after long-term treatment with Dex. Although the ANGPTL4 locus maintains a stable higher-order chromatin conformation in the presence and absence of Dex, the Dex-bound GR activated transcription of ANGPTL4 but not that of the neighboring three genes through interactions among the ANGPTL4 enhancer, promoter, and CTCF sites. These results reveal that liganded GR spatiotemporally controls ANGPTL4 transcription in a chromosomal context. PMID:28056052

  6. The Glucocorticoid Receptor Regulates the ANGPTL4 Gene in a CTCF-Mediated Chromatin Context in Human Hepatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masafumi; Ishihara, Ko; Watanabe, Takehisa; Hirosue, Akiyuki; Hino, Shinjiro; Shinohara, Masanori; Nakayama, Hideki; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glucocorticoid signaling through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) plays essential roles in the response to stress and in energy metabolism. This hormonal action is integrated to the transcriptional control of GR-target genes in a cell type-specific and condition-dependent manner. In the present study, we found that the GR regulates the angiopoietin-like 4 gene (ANGPTL4) in a CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-mediated chromatin context in the human hepatic HepG2 cells. There are at least four CTCF-enriched sites and two GR-binding sites within the ANGPTL4 locus. Among them, the major CTCF-enriched site is positioned near the ANGPTL4 enhancer that binds GR. We showed that CTCF is required for induction and subsequent silencing of ANGPTL4 expression in response to dexamethasone (Dex) and that transcription is diminished after long-term treatment with Dex. Although the ANGPTL4 locus maintains a stable higher-order chromatin conformation in the presence and absence of Dex, the Dex-bound GR activated transcription of ANGPTL4 but not that of the neighboring three genes through interactions among the ANGPTL4 enhancer, promoter, and CTCF sites. These results reveal that liganded GR spatiotemporally controls ANGPTL4 transcription in a chromosomal context.

  7. Allelic exclusion of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus is independent of its nuclear localization in mature B cells

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Sjoerd J. B.; van de Werken, Harmen J. G.; Ribeiro de Almeida, Claudia; Bergen, Ingrid M.; de Bruijn, Marjolein J. W.; Verstegen, Marjon J. A. M.; Simonis, Marieke; Splinter, Erik; Wijchers, Patrick J.; Hendriks, Rudi W.; de Laat, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    In developing B cells, the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus is thought to move from repressive to permissive chromatin compartments to facilitate its scheduled rearrangement. In mature B cells, maintenance of allelic exclusion has been proposed to involve recruitment of the non-productive IgH allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin. Here, we used an allele-specific chromosome conformation capture combined with sequencing (4C-seq) approach to unambigously follow the individual IgH alleles in mature B lymphocytes. Despite their physical and functional difference, productive and non-productive IgH alleles in B cells and unrearranged IgH alleles in T cells share many chromosomal contacts and largely reside in active chromatin. In brain, however, the locus resides in a different repressive environment. We conclude that IgH adopts a lymphoid-specific nuclear location that is, however, unrelated to maintenance of allelic exclusion. We additionally find that in mature B cells—but not in T cells—the distal VH regions of both IgH alleles position themselves away from active chromatin. This, we speculate, may help to restrict enhancer activity to the productively rearranged VH promoter element. PMID:23748562

  8. Role of CTCF Protein in Regulating FMR1 Locus Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Lanni, Stella; Goracci, Martina; Borrelli, Loredana; Mancano, Giorgia; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Moscato, Umberto; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation). An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1), starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM) alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT) alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis. PMID:23874213

  9. Role of CTCF protein in regulating FMR1 locus transcription.

    PubMed

    Lanni, Stella; Goracci, Martina; Borrelli, Loredana; Mancano, Giorgia; Chiurazzi, Pietro; Moscato, Umberto; Ferrè, Fabrizio; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Tabolacci, Elisabetta; Neri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 gene, through expansion and methylation of a CGG triplet repeat (methylated full mutation). An antisense transcript (FMR1-AS1), starting from both promoter and intron 2 of the FMR1 gene, was demonstrated in transcriptionally active alleles, but not in silent FXS alleles. Moreover, a DNA methylation boundary, which is lost in FXS, was recently identified upstream of the FMR1 gene. Several nuclear proteins bind to this region, like the insulator protein CTCF. Here we demonstrate for the first time that rare unmethylated full mutation (UFM) alleles present the same boundary described in wild type (WT) alleles and that CTCF binds to this region, as well as to the FMR1 gene promoter, exon 1 and intron 2 binding sites. Contrariwise, DNA methylation prevents CTCF binding to FXS alleles. Drug-induced CpGs demethylation does not restore this binding. CTCF knock-down experiments clearly established that CTCF does not act as insulator at the active FMR1 locus, despite the presence of a CGG expansion. CTCF depletion induces heterochromatinic histone configuration of the FMR1 locus and results in reduction of FMR1 transcription, which however is not accompanied by spreading of DNA methylation towards the FMR1 promoter. CTCF depletion is also associated with FMR1-AS1 mRNA reduction. Antisense RNA, like sense transcript, is upregulated in UFM and absent in FXS cells and its splicing is correlated to that of the FMR1-mRNA. We conclude that CTCF has a complex role in regulating FMR1 expression, probably through the organization of chromatin loops between sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory regions, as suggested by bioinformatics analysis.

  10. Global chromatin fibre compaction in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Charlotte; Hayward, Richard L.; Gilbert, Nick

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robust KAP1 phosphorylation in response to DNA damage in HCT116 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA repair foci are found in soluble chromatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biophysical analysis reveals global chromatin fibre compaction after DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA damage is accompanied by rapid linker histone dephosphorylation. -- Abstract: DNA is protected by packaging it into higher order chromatin fibres, but this can impede nuclear processes like DNA repair. Despite considerable research into the factors required for signalling and repairing DNA damage, it is unclear if there are concomitant changes in global chromatin fibre structure. In human cells DNA double strand break (DSB) formation triggers a signalling cascade resulting in H2AX phosphorylation ({gamma}H2AX), the rapid recruitment of chromatin associated proteins and the subsequent repair of damaged sites. KAP1 is a transcriptional corepressor and in HCT116 cells we found that after DSB formation by chemicals or ionising radiation there was a wave of, predominantly ATM dependent, KAP1 phosphorylation. Both KAP1 and phosphorylated KAP1 were readily extracted from cells indicating they do not have a structural role and {gamma}H2AX was extracted in soluble chromatin indicating that sites of damage are not attached to an underlying structural matrix. After DSB formation we did not find a concomitant change in the sensitivity of chromatin fibres to micrococcal nuclease digestion. Therefore to directly investigate higher order chromatin fibre structures we used a biophysical sedimentation technique based on sucrose gradient centrifugation to compare the conformation of chromatin fibres isolated from cells before and after DNA DSB formation. After damage we found global chromatin fibre compaction, accompanied by rapid linker histone dephosphorylation, consistent with fibres being more regularly folded or fibre deformation being stabilized by

  11. Human sperm chromatin stabilization: a proposed model including zinc bridges.

    PubMed

    Björndahl, Lars; Kvist, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of this review is to challenge the current concepts on sperm chromatin stability. The observations (i) that zinc depletion at ejaculation allows a rapid and total sperm chromatin decondensation without the addition of exogenous disulfide cleaving agents and (ii) that the human sperm chromatin contains one zinc for every protamine for every turn of the DNA helix suggest an alternative model for sperm chromatin structure may be plausible. An alternative model is therefore proposed, that the human spermatozoon could at ejaculation have a rapidly reversible zinc dependent chromatin stability: Zn(2+) stabilizes the structure and prevents the formation of excess disulfide bridges by a single mechanism, the formation of zinc bridges with protamine thiols of cysteine and potentially imidazole groups of histidine. Extraction of zinc enables two biologically totally different outcomes: immediate decondensation if chromatin fibers are concomitantly induced to repel (e.g. by phosphorylation in the ooplasm); otherwise freed thiols become committed into disulfide bridges creating a superstabilized chromatin. Spermatozoa in the zinc rich prostatic fluid (normally the first expelled ejaculate fraction) represent the physiological situation. Extraction of chromatin zinc can be accomplished by the seminal vesicular fluid. Collection of the ejaculate in one single container causes abnormal contact between spermatozoa and seminal vesicular fluid affecting the sperm chromatin stability. There are men in infertile couples with low content of sperm chromatin zinc due to loss of zinc during ejaculation and liquefaction. Tests for sperm DNA integrity may give false negative results due to decreased access for the assay to the DNA in superstabilized chromatin.

  12. Functional dissection of the mouse tyrosinase locus control region identifies a new putative boundary activity

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Patricia; Martínez, Antonio; Regales, Lucía; Lavado, Alfonso; García-Díaz, Angel; Alonso, Ángel; Busturia, Ana; Montoliu, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are complex high-order chromatin structures harbouring several regulatory elements, including enhancers and boundaries. We have analysed the mouse tyrosinase LCR functions, in vitro, in cell lines and, in vivo, in transgenic mice and flies. The LCR-core (2.1 kb), located at –15 kb and carrying a previously described tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitive site, operates as a transcriptional enhancer that efficiently transactivates heterologous promoters in a cell-specific orientation-independent manner. Furthermore, we have investigated the boundary activity of these sequences in transgenic animals and cells. In mice, the LCR fragment (3.7 kb) rescued a weakly expressed reference construct that displays position effects. In Drosophila, the LCR fragment and its core insulated the expression of a white minigene reporter construct from chromosomal position effects. In cells, sequences located 5′ from the LCR-core displayed putative boundary activities. We have obtained genomic sequences surrounding the LCR fragment and found a LINE1 repeated element at 5′. In B16 melanoma and L929 fibroblast mouse cells, this element was found heavily methylated, supporting the existence of putative boundary elements that could prevent the spreading of condensed chromatin from the LINE1 sequences into the LCR fragment, experimentally shown to be in an open chromatin structure. PMID:14576318

  13. Functional dissection of the mouse tyrosinase locus control region identifies a new putative boundary activity.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Patricia; Martínez, Antonio; Regales, Lucía; Lavado, Alfonso; García-Díaz, Angel; Alonso, Angel; Busturia, Ana; Montoliu, Lluís

    2003-11-01

    Locus control regions (LCRs) are complex high-order chromatin structures harbouring several regulatory elements, including enhancers and boundaries. We have analysed the mouse tyrosinase LCR functions, in vitro, in cell lines and, in vivo, in transgenic mice and flies. The LCR-core (2.1 kb), located at -15 kb and carrying a previously described tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitive site, operates as a transcriptional enhancer that efficiently transactivates heterologous promoters in a cell-specific orientation-independent manner. Furthermore, we have investigated the boundary activity of these sequences in transgenic animals and cells. In mice, the LCR fragment (3.7 kb) rescued a weakly expressed reference construct that displays position effects. In Drosophila, the LCR fragment and its core insulated the expression of a white minigene reporter construct from chromosomal position effects. In cells, sequences located 5' from the LCR-core displayed putative boundary activities. We have obtained genomic sequences surrounding the LCR fragment and found a LINE1 repeated element at 5'. In B16 melanoma and L929 fibroblast mouse cells, this element was found heavily methylated, supporting the existence of putative boundary elements that could prevent the spreading of condensed chromatin from the LINE1 sequences into the LCR fragment, experimentally shown to be in an open chromatin structure.

  14. Antisense COOLAIR mediates the coordinated switching of chromatin states at FLC during vernalization

    PubMed Central

    Csorba, Tibor; Questa, Julia I.; Sun, Qianwen; Dean, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been proposed to play important roles in gene regulation. However, their importance in epigenetic silencing and how specificity is determined remain controversial. We have investigated the cold-induced epigenetic switching mechanism involved in the silencing of Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), which occurs during vernalization. Antisense transcripts, collectively named COOLAIR, are induced by prolonged cold before the major accumulation of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), characteristic of Polycomb silencing. We have found that COOLAIR is physically associated with the FLC locus and accelerates transcriptional shutdown of FLC during cold exposure. Removal of COOLAIR disrupted the synchronized replacement of H3K36 methylation with H3K27me3 at the intragenic FLC nucleation site during the cold. Consistently, genetic analysis showed COOLAIR and Polycomb complexes work independently in the cold-dependent silencing of FLC. Our data reveal a role for lncRNA in the coordinated switching of chromatin states that occurs during epigenetic regulation. PMID:25349421

  15. Open Chromatin Profiling in hiPSC-Derived Neurons Prioritizes Functional Noncoding Psychiatric Risk Variants and Highlights Neurodevelopmental Loci.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Marc P; Zhang, Hanwen; Moy, Winton; McGowan, Heather; Leites, Catherine; Dionisio, Leonardo E; Xu, Zihui; Shi, Jianxin; Sanders, Alan R; Greenleaf, William J; Cowan, Chad A; Pang, Zhiping P; Gejman, Pablo V; Penzes, Peter; Duan, Jubao

    2017-09-07

    Most disease variants lie within noncoding genomic regions, making their functional interpretation challenging. Because chromatin openness strongly influences transcriptional activity, we hypothesized that cell-type-specific open chromatin regions (OCRs) might highlight disease-relevant noncoding sequences. To investigate, we mapped global OCRs in neurons differentiating from hiPSCs, a cellular model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ). We found that the OCRs are highly dynamic and can stratify GWAS-implicated SZ risk variants. Of the more than 3,500 SZ-associated variants analyzed, we prioritized ∼100 putatively functional ones located in neuronal OCRs, including rs1198588, at a leading risk locus flanking MIR137. Excitatory neurons derived from hiPSCs with CRISPR/Cas9-edited rs1198588 or a rare proximally located SZ risk variant showed altered MIR137 expression, dendrite arborization, and synapse maturation. Our study shows that noncoding disease variants in OCRs can affect neurodevelopment, and that analysis of open chromatin regions can help prioritize functionally relevant noncoding variants identified by GWAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Tet2 and Tet3 cooperate with B-lineage transcription factors to regulate DNA modification and chromatin accessibility.

    PubMed

    Lio, Chan-Wang; Zhang, Jiayuan; González-Avalos, Edahí; Hogan, Patrick G; Chang, Xing; Rao, Anjana

    2016-11-21

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine, facilitating DNA demethylation and generating new epigenetic marks. Here we show that concomitant loss of Tet2 and Tet3 in mice at early B cell stage blocked the pro- to pre-B cell transition in the bone marrow, decreased Irf4 expression and impaired the germline transcription and rearrangement of the Igκ locus. Tet2/3-deficient pro-B cells showed increased CpG methylation at the Igκ 3' and distal enhancers that was mimicked by depletion of E2A or PU.1, as well as a global decrease in chromatin accessibility at enhancers. Importantly, re-expression of the Tet2 catalytic domain in Tet2/3-deficient B cells resulted in demethylation of the Igκ enhancers and restored their chromatin accessibility. Our data suggest that TET proteins and lineage-specific transcription factors cooperate to influence chromatin accessibility and Igκ enhancer function by modulating the modification status of DNA.

  17. Distinct roles for SWR1 and INO80 chromatin remodeling complexes at chromosomal double-strand breaks

    PubMed Central

    van Attikum, Haico; Fritsch, Olivier; Gasser, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    INO80 and SWR1 are two closely related ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes that share several subunits. Ino80 was reported to be recruited to the HO endonuclease-induced double-strand break (DSB) at the budding yeast mating-type locus, MAT. We find Swr1 similarly recruited in a manner dependent on the phosphorylation of H2A (γH2AX). This is not unique to cleavage at MAT; both Swr1 and Ino80 bind near an induced DSB on chromosome XV. Whereas Swr1 incorporates the histone variant H2A.Z into chromatin at promoters, H2A.Z levels do not increase at DSBs. Instead, H2A.Z, γH2AX and core histones are coordinately removed near the break in an INO80-dependent, but SWR1-independent, manner. Mutations in INO80-specific subunits Arp8 or Nhp10 impair the binding of Mre11 nuclease, yKu80 and ATR-related Mec1 kinase at the DSB, resulting in defective end-processing and checkpoint activation. In contrast, Mre11 binding, end-resection and checkpoint activation were normal in the swr1 strain, but yKu80 loading and error-free end-joining were impaired. Thus, these two related chromatin remodelers have distinct roles in DSB repair and checkpoint activation. PMID:17762868

  18. p63 regulates Satb1 to control tissue-specific chromatin remodeling during development of the epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Fessing, Michael Y.; Mardaryev, Andrei N.; Gdula, Michal R.; Sharov, Andrey A.; Sharova, Tatyana Y.; Rapisarda, Valentina; Gordon, Konstantin B.; Smorodchenko, Anna D.; Poterlowicz, Krzysztof; Ferone, Giustina; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Missero, Caterina

    2011-01-01

    During development, multipotent progenitor cells establish tissue-specific programs of gene expression. In this paper, we show that p63 transcription factor, a master regulator of epidermal morphogenesis, executes its function in part by directly regulating expression of the genome organizer Satb1 in progenitor cells. p63 binds to a proximal regulatory region of the Satb1 gene, and p63 ablation results in marked reduction in the Satb1 expression levels in the epidermis. Satb1−/− mice show impaired epidermal morphology. In Satb1-null epidermis, chromatin architecture of the epidermal differentiation complex locus containing genes associated with epidermal differentiation is altered primarily at its central domain, where Satb1 binding was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation–on-chip analysis. Furthermore, genes within this domain fail to be properly activated upon terminal differentiation. Satb1 expression in p63+/− skin explants treated with p63 small interfering ribonucleic acid partially restored the epidermal phenotype of p63-deficient mice. These data provide a novel mechanism by which Satb1, a direct downstream target of p63, contributes in epidermal morphogenesis via establishing tissue-specific chromatin organization and gene expression in epidermal progenitor cells. PMID:21930775

  19. Chromatin-Dependent Repression of the Arabidopsis Floral Integrator Genes Involves Plant Specific PHD-Containing Proteins[C][W

    PubMed Central

    López-González, Leticia; Mouriz, Alfonso; Narro-Diego, Laura; Bustos, Regla; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Jarillo, Jose A.; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The interplay among histone modifications modulates the expression of master regulatory genes in development. Chromatin effector proteins bind histone modifications and translate the epigenetic status into gene expression patterns that control development. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific proteins with a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, SHORT LIFE (SHL) and EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), function in the chromatin-mediated repression of floral initiation and play independent roles in the control of genes regulating flowering. Previous results showed that repression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) requires EBS. We establish that SHL is necessary to negatively regulate the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), another floral integrator. SHL and EBS recognize di- and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and bind regulatory regions of SOC1 and FT, respectively. These PHD proteins maintain an inactive chromatin conformation in SOC1 and FT by preventing high levels of H3 acetylation, bind HISTONE DEACETYLASE6, and play a central role in regulating flowering time. SHL and EBS are widely conserved in plants but are absent in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulatory module mediated by these proteins could represent a distinct mechanism for gene expression control in plants. PMID:25281686

  20. Independent Mechanisms Target SMCHD1 to Trimethylated Histone H3 Lysine 9-Modified Chromatin and the Inactive X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Brideau, Nicholas J.; Coker, Heather; Gendrel, Anne-Valerie; Siebert, C. Alistair; Bezstarosti, Karel; Demmers, Jeroen; Poot, Raymond A.; Nesterova, Tatyana B.

    2015-01-01

    The chromosomal protein SMCHD1 plays an important role in epigenetic silencing at diverse loci, including the inactive X chromosome, imprinted genes, and the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy locus. Although homology with canonical SMC family proteins suggests a role in chromosome organization, the mechanisms underlying SMCHD1 function and target site selection remain poorly understood. Here we show that SMCHD1 forms an active GHKL-ATPase homodimer, contrasting with canonical SMC complexes, which exist as tripartite ring structures. Electron microscopy analysis demonstrates that SMCHD1 homodimers structurally resemble prokaryotic condensins. We further show that the principal mechanism for chromatin loading of SMCHD1 involves an LRIF1-mediated interaction with HP1γ at trimethylated histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3)-modified chromatin sites on the chromosome arms. A parallel pathway accounts for chromatin loading at a minority of sites, notably the inactive X chromosome. Together, our results provide key insights into SMCHD1 function and target site selection. PMID:26391951

  1. Chromatin-dependent repression of the Arabidopsis floral integrator genes involves plant specific PHD-containing proteins.

    PubMed

    López-González, Leticia; Mouriz, Alfonso; Narro-Diego, Laura; Bustos, Regla; Martínez-Zapater, José Miguel; Jarillo, Jose A; Piñeiro, Manuel

    2014-10-01

    The interplay among histone modifications modulates the expression of master regulatory genes in development. Chromatin effector proteins bind histone modifications and translate the epigenetic status into gene expression patterns that control development. Here, we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana paralogs encoding plant-specific proteins with a plant homeodomain (PHD) motif, SHORT LIFE (SHL) and EARLY BOLTING IN SHORT DAYS (EBS), function in the chromatin-mediated repression of floral initiation and play independent roles in the control of genes regulating flowering. Previous results showed that repression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) requires EBS. We establish that SHL is necessary to negatively regulate the expression of SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), another floral integrator. SHL and EBS recognize di- and trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 4 and bind regulatory regions of SOC1 and FT, respectively. These PHD proteins maintain an inactive chromatin conformation in SOC1 and FT by preventing high levels of H3 acetylation, bind HISTONE DEACETYLASE6, and play a central role in regulating flowering time. SHL and EBS are widely conserved in plants but are absent in other eukaryotes, suggesting that the regulatory module mediated by these proteins could represent a distinct mechanism for gene expression control in plants.

  2. Tet2 and Tet3 cooperate with B-lineage transcription factors to regulate DNA modification and chromatin accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Lio, Chan-Wang; Zhang, Jiayuan; González-Avalos, Edahí; Hogan, Patrick G; Chang, Xing; Rao, Anjana

    2016-01-01

    Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes oxidize 5-methylcytosine, facilitating DNA demethylation and generating new epigenetic marks. Here we show that concomitant loss of Tet2 and Tet3 in mice at early B cell stage blocked the pro- to pre-B cell transition in the bone marrow, decreased Irf4 expression and impaired the germline transcription and rearrangement of the Igκ locus. Tet2/3-deficient pro-B cells showed increased CpG methylation at the Igκ 3’ and distal enhancers that was mimicked by depletion of E2A or PU.1, as well as a global decrease in chromatin accessibility at enhancers. Importantly, re-expression of the Tet2 catalytic domain in Tet2/3-deficient B cells resulted in demethylation of the Igκ enhancers and restored their chromatin accessibility. Our data suggest that TET proteins and lineage-specific transcription factors cooperate to influence chromatin accessibility and Igκ enhancer function by modulating the modification status of DNA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18290.001 PMID:27869616

  3. Genome scan identifies a locus affecting gamma-globin expression in human beta-cluster YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.D.; Cooper, P.; Fung, J.; Weier, H.U.G.; Rubin, E.M.

    2000-03-01

    Genetic factors affecting post-natal g-globin expression - a major modifier of the severity of both b-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia, have been difficult to study. This is especially so in mice, an organism lacking a globin gene with an expression pattern equivalent to that of human g-globin. To model the human b-cluster in mice, with the goal of screening for loci affecting human g-globin expression in vivo, we introduced a human b-globin cluster YAC transgene into the genome of FVB mice . The b-cluster contained a Greek hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) g allele resulting in postnatal expression of human g-globin in transgenic mice. The level of human g-globin for various F1 hybrids derived from crosses between the FVB transgenics and other inbred mouse strains was assessed. The g-globin level of the C3HeB/FVB transgenic mice was noted to be significantly elevated. To map genes affecting postnatal g-globin expression, a 20 centiMorgan (cM) genome scan of a C3HeB/F VB transgenics [prime] FVB backcross was performed, followed by high-resolution marker analysis of promising loci. From this analysis we mapped a locus within a 2.2 cM interval of mouse chromosome 1 at a LOD score of 4.2 that contributes 10.4% of variation in g-globin expression level. Combining transgenic modeling of the human b-globin gene cluster with quantitative trait analysis, we have identified and mapped a murine locus that impacts on human g-globin expression in vivo.

  4. A Broad Set of Chromatin Factors Influences Splicing

    PubMed Central

    Allemand, Eric; Myers, Michael P.; Garcia-Bernardo, Jose; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Krainer, Adrian R.; Muchardt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Several studies propose an influence of chromatin on pre-mRNA splicing, but it is still unclear how widespread and how direct this phenomenon is. We find here that when assembled in vivo, the U2 snRNP co-purifies with a subset of chromatin-proteins, including histones and remodeling complexes like SWI/SNF. Yet, an unbiased RNAi screen revealed that the outcome of splicing is influenced by a much larger variety of chromatin factors not all associating with the spliceosome. The availability of this broad range of chromatin factors impacting splicing further unveiled their very context specific effect, resulting in either inclusion or skipping, depending on the exon under scrutiny. Finally, a direct assessment of the impact of chromatin on splicing using an in vitro co-transcriptional splicing assay with pre-mRNAs transcribed from a nucleosomal template, demonstrated that chromatin impacts nascent pre-mRNP in their competence for splicing. Altogether, our data show that numerous chromatin factors associated or not with the spliceosome can affect the outcome of splicing, possibly as a function of the local chromatin environment that by default interferes with the efficiency of splicing. PMID:27662573

  5. Chromatin dynamics: interplay between remodeling enzymes and histone modifications.

    PubMed

    Swygert, Sarah G; Peterson, Craig L

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin dynamics play an essential role in regulating the accessibility of genomic DNA for a variety of nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA repair. The posttranslational modification of the core histones and the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes represent two primary mechanisms by which chromatin dynamics are controlled and linked to nuclear events. Although there are examples in which a histone modification or a remodeling enzyme may be sufficient to drive a chromatin transition, these mechanisms typically work in concert to integrate regulatory inputs, leading to a coordinated alteration in chromatin structure and function. Indeed, site-specific histone modifications can facilitate the recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes to particular genomic regions, or they can regulate the efficiency or the outcome of a chromatin remodeling reaction. Conversely, chromatin remodeling enzymes can also influence, and sometimes directly modulate, the modification state of histones. These functional interactions are generally complex, frequently transient, and often require the association of myriad additional factors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of In Vitro Assembled Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Völker-Albert, Moritz Carl; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Fedisch, Andreas; Schilcher, Pierre; Schmidt, Andreas; Imhof, Axel

    2016-03-01

    The structure of chromatin is critical for many aspects of cellular physiology and is considered to be the primary medium to store epigenetic information. It is defined by the histone molecules that constitute the nucleosome, the positioning of the nucleosomes along the DNA and the non-histone proteins that associate with it. These factors help to establish and maintain a largely DNA sequence-independent but surprisingly stable structure. Chromatin is extensively disassembled and reassembled during DNA replication, repair, recombination or transcription in order to allow the necessary factors to gain access to their substrate. Despite such constant interference with chromatin structure, the epigenetic information is generally well maintained. Surprisingly, the mechanisms that coordinate chromatin assembly and ensure proper assembly are not particularly well understood. Here, we use label free quantitative mass spectrometry to describe the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin supported by an embryo extract prepared from preblastoderm Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The use of a data independent acquisition method for proteome wide quantitation allows a time resolved comparison of in vitro chromatin assembly. A comparison of our in vitro data with proteomic studies of replicative chromatin assembly in vivo reveals an extensive overlap showing that the in vitro system can be used for investigating the kinetics of chromatin assembly in a proteome-wide manner. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Genome-wide approaches to studying yeast chromatin modifications.

    PubMed

    Schones, Dustin E; Cui, Kairong; Cuddapah, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    The genomes of eukaryotic organisms are packaged into nuclei by wrapping DNA around proteins in a structure known as chromatin. The most basic unit of chromatin, the nucleosome, consists of approximately 146 bp of DNA wrapped around an octamer of histone proteins. The placement of nucleosomes relative to a gene can influence the regulation of the transcription of this gene. Furthermore, the N-terminal tails of histone proteins are subjected to numerous post-translational modifications that are also known to influence gene regulation. In recent years, a number of genome-scale approaches to identify modifications to chromatin have been developed. Techniques combining chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with microarrays (ChIP-chip) and second-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) have led to great advances in our understanding of how chromatin modifications contribute to gene regulation. Many excellent protocols related to ChIP-chip have been published recently (Lieb, J. D. (2003) Genome-wide mapping of protein-DNA interactions by chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray hybridization. Methods Mol. Biol. 224, 99-109.). For this reason, we will focus our attention here on the application of second-generation sequencing platforms to the study of chromatin modifications in yeast. As these genome-scale experiments require both wet-lab and bioinformatic components to reach their full potential, we will detail both the wet-lab protocols and bioinformatic steps necessary to fully conduct genome-scale studies of chromatin modifications.

  8. Chromatin dynamics: Interplay between remodeling enzymes and histone modifications

    PubMed Central

    Swygert, Sarah G.; Peterson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin dynamics play an essential role in regulating the accessibility of genomic DNA for a variety of nuclear processes, including gene transcription and DNA repair. The posttranslational modification of the core histones and the action of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes represent two primary mechanisms by which chromatin dynamics are controlled and linked to nuclear events. Although there are examples in which a histone modification or a remodeling enzyme may be sufficient to drive a chromatin transition, these mechanisms typically work in concert to integrate regulatory inputs, leading to a coordinated alteration in chromatin structure and function. Indeed, site-specific histone modifications can facilitate the recruitment of chromatin remodeling enzymes to particular genomic regions, or they can regulate the efficiency or the outcome of a chromatin remodeling reaction. Conversely, chromatin remodeling enzymes can also influence, and sometimes directly modulate, the modification state of histones. These functional interactions are generally complex, frequently transient, and often require the association of myriad additional factors. PMID:24583555

  9. A Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of In Vitro Assembled Chromatin*

    PubMed Central

    Völker-Albert, Moritz Carl; Pusch, Miriam Caroline; Fedisch, Andreas; Schilcher, Pierre; Schmidt, Andreas; Imhof, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The structure of chromatin is critical for many aspects of cellular physiology and is considered to be the primary medium to store epigenetic information. It is defined by the histone molecules that constitute the nucleosome, the positioning of the nucleosomes along the DNA and the non-histone proteins that associate with it. These factors help to establish and maintain a largely DNA sequence-independent but surprisingly stable structure. Chromatin is extensively disassembled and reassembled during DNA replication, repair, recombination or transcription in order to allow the necessary factors to gain access to their substrate. Despite such constant interference with chromatin structure, the epigenetic information is generally well maintained. Surprisingly, the mechanisms that coordinate chromatin assembly and ensure proper assembly are not particularly well understood. Here, we use label free quantitative mass spectrometry to describe the kinetics of in vitro assembled chromatin supported by an embryo extract prepared from preblastoderm Drosophila melanogaster embryos. The use of a data independent acquisition method for proteome wide quantitation allows a time resolved comparison of in vitro chromatin assembly. A comparison of our in vitro data with proteomic studies of replicative chromatin assembly in vivo reveals an extensive overlap showing that the in vitro system can be used for investigating the kinetics of chromatin assembly in a proteome-wide manner. PMID:26811354

  10. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS IN A CHROMATIN CONTEXT

    PubMed Central

    KONESKY, KASEY L.; LAYBOURN, PAUL J.

    2007-01-01

    We have optimized a recombinant chromatin assembly system that properly incorporates core histones and histone H1 into a chromatin template containing a natural promoter sequence. This article provides a step-by-step procedure for expression and purification of the proteins required for assembling well-defined chromatin templates. We describe how the degree of chromatin assembly in the absence and presence of histone H1 is measured using topological analysis and the use of micrococcal nuclease digestion performed to confirm H1 incorporation and determine the quality of in vitro chromatin templates. Further we describe the use sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation to verify that no unincorporated H1 remains as a second means for deciding on the proper H1 to core histone ratio during assembly. Additionally, we discuss the use of both yeast and Drosophila NAP-1 (yNAP-1 and dNAP-1, respectively) in the assembly of H1-containing chromatin. Finally, we provide detailed description of functional assays for investigating the mechanism of transcriptional regulation in a chromatin context (transcription, histone acetyltransferase activity, and protein association with promoter-bound complexes using immobilized chromatin templates). PMID:17309835

  11. Multiple modes of chromatin remodeling by Forkhead box proteins.

    PubMed

    Lalmansingh, Avin S; Karmakar, Sudipan; Jin, Yetao; Nagaich, Akhilesh K

    2012-07-01

    Forkhead box (FOX) proteins represent a large family of transcriptional regulators unified by their DNA binding domain (DBD) known as a 'forkhead' or 'winged helix' domain. Over 40 FOX genes have been identified in the mammalian genome. FOX proteins share significant sequence similarities in the DBD which allow them to bind to a consensus DNA response element. However, their modes of action are quite diverse as they regulate gene expression by acting as pioneer factors, transcription factors, or both. This review focuses on the mechanisms of chromatin remodeling with an emphasis on three sub-classes-FOXA, FOXO, and FOXP members. FOXA proteins serve as pioneer factors to open up local chromatin structure and thereby increase accessibility of chromatin to factors regulating transcription. FOXP proteins, in contrast, function as classic transcription factors to recruit a variety of chromatin modifying enzymes to regulate gene expression. FOXO proteins represent a hybrid subclass having dual roles as pioneering factors and transcription factors. A subset of FOX proteins interacts with condensed mitotic chromatin and may function as 'bookmarking' agents to maintain transcriptional competence at specific genomic sites. The overall diversity in chromatin remodeling function by FOX proteins is related to unique structural motifs present within the DBD flanking regions that govern selective interactions with core histones and/or chromatin coregulatory proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Chromatin in time and space.

  12. The nucleosome: orchestrating DNA damage signaling and repair within chromatin.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Poonam; Miller, Kyle M

    2016-10-01

    DNA damage occurs within the chromatin environment, which ultimately participates in regulating DNA damage response (DDR) pathways and repair of the lesion. DNA damage activates a cascade of signaling events that extensively modulates chromatin structure and organization to coordinate DDR factor recruitment to the break and repair, whilst also promoting the maintenance of normal chromatin functions within the damaged region. For example, DDR pathways must avoid conflicts between other DNA-based processes that function within the context of chromatin, including transcription and replication. The molecular mechanisms governing the recognition, target specificity, and recruitment of DDR factors and enzymes to the fundamental repeating unit of chromatin, i.e., the nucleosome, are poorly understood. Here we present our current view of how chromatin recognition by DDR factors is achieved at the level of the nucleosome. Emerging evidence suggests that the nucleosome surface, including the nucleosome acidic patch, promotes the binding and activity of several DNA damage factors on chromatin. Thus, in addition to interactions with damaged DNA and histone modifications, nucleosome recognition by DDR factors plays a key role in orchestrating the requisite chromatin response to maintain both genome and epigenome integrity.

  13. Distinct Cellular Assembly Stoichiometry of Polycomb Complexes on Chromatin Revealed by Single-molecule Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tatavosian, Roubina; Zhen, Chao Yu; Duc, Huy Nguyen; Balas, Maggie M; Johnson, Aaron M; Ren, Xiaojun

    2015-11-20

    Epigenetic complexes play an essential role in regulating chromatin structure, but information about their assembly stoichiometry on chromatin within cells is poorly understood. The cellular assembly stoichiometry is critical for appreciating the initiation, propagation, and maintenance of epigenetic inheritance during normal development and in cancer. By combining genetic engineering, chromatin biochemistry, and single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we developed a novel and sensitive approach termed single-molecule chromatin immunoprecipitation imaging (Sm-ChIPi) to enable investigation of the cellular assembly stoichiometry of epigenetic complexes on chromatin. Sm-ChIPi was validated by using chromatin complexes with known stoichiometry. The stoichiometry of subunits within a polycomb complex and the assembly stoichiometry of polycomb complexes on chromatin have been extensively studied but reached divergent views. Moreover, the cellular assembly stoichiometry of polycomb complexes on chromatin remains unexplored. Using Sm-ChIPi, we demonstrated that within mouse embryonic stem cells, one polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 associates with multiple nucleosomes, whereas two PRC2s can bind to a single nucleosome. Furthermore, we obtained direct physical evidence that the nucleoplasmic PRC1 is monomeric, whereas PRC2 can dimerize in the nucleoplasm. We showed that ES cell differentiation induces selective alteration of the assembly stoichiometry of Cbx2 on chromatin but not other PRC1 components. We additionally showed that the PRC2-mediated trimethylation of H3K27 is not required for the assembly stoichiometry of PRC1 on chromatin. Thus, these findings uncover that PRC1 and PRC2 employ distinct mechanisms to assemble on chromatin, and the novel Sm-ChIPi technique could provide single-molecule insight into other epigenetic complexes.

  14. Distinct Cellular Assembly Stoichiometry of Polycomb Complexes on Chromatin Revealed by Single-molecule Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Imaging*♦

    PubMed Central

    Tatavosian, Roubina; Zhen, Chao Yu; Duc, Huy Nguyen; Balas, Maggie M.; Johnson, Aaron M.; Ren, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic complexes play an essential role in regulating chromatin structure, but information about their assembly stoichiometry on chromatin within cells is poorly understood. The cellular assembly stoichiometry is critical for appreciating the initiation, propagation, and maintenance of epigenetic inheritance during normal development and in cancer. By combining genetic engineering, chromatin biochemistry, and single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we developed a novel and sensitive approach termed single-molecule chromatin immunoprecipitation imaging (Sm-ChIPi) to enable investigation of the cellular assembly stoichiometry of epigenetic complexes on chromatin. Sm-ChIPi was validated by using chromatin complexes with known stoichiometry. The stoichiometry of subunits within a polycomb complex and the assembly stoichiometry of polycomb complexes on chromatin have been extensively studied but reached divergent views. Moreover, the cellular assembly stoichiometry of polycomb complexes on chromatin remains unexplored. Using Sm-ChIPi, we demonstrated that within mouse embryonic stem cells, one polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 associates with multiple nucleosomes, whereas two PRC2s can bind to a single nucleosome. Furthermore, we obtained direct physical evidence that the nucleoplasmic PRC1 is monomeric, whereas PRC2 can dimerize in the nucleoplasm. We showed that ES cell differentiation induces selective alteration of the assembly stoichiometry of Cbx2 on chromatin but not other PRC1 components. We additionally showed that the PRC2-mediated trimethylation of H3K27 is not required for the assembly stoichiometry of PRC1 on chromatin. Thus, these findings uncover that PRC1 and PRC2 employ distinct mechanisms to assemble on chromatin, and the novel Sm-ChIPi technique could provide single-molecule insight into other epigenetic complexes. PMID:26381410

  15. Factors Determining Adolescent Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopera-Frye, Karen F.; And Others

    Previous research has demonstrated an association between locus of control in adolescence and a successful transition to adulthood. Having an external locus of control has been implicated as an important factor in adolescent behaviors such as teenage pregnancy and delinquency, and has been found to be negatively related to school achievement. This…

  16. Diverse lamin-dependent mechanisms interact to control chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Camozzi, Daria; Capanni, Cristina; Cenni, Vittoria; Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Squarzoni, Stefano; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Interconnected functional strategies govern chromatin dynamics in eukaryotic cells. In this context, A and B type lamins, the nuclear intermediate filaments, act on diverse platforms involved in tissue homeostasis. On the nuclear side, lamins elicit large scale or fine chromatin conformational changes, affect DNA damage response factors and transcription factor shuttling. On the cytoplasmic side, bridging-molecules, the LINC complex, associate with lamins to coordinate chromatin dynamics with cytoskeleton and extra-cellular signals.   Consistent with such a fine tuning, lamin mutations and/or defects in their expression or post-translational processing, as well as mutations in lamin partner genes, cause a heterogeneous group of diseases known as laminopathies. They include muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathy, lipodystrophies, neuropathies, and progeroid syndromes. The study of chromatin dynamics under pathological conditions, which is summarized in this review, is shedding light on the complex and fascinating role of the nuclear lamina in chromatin regulation. PMID:25482195

  17. Chromatin remodeling by the small RNA machinery in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin states, quite different from changes in DNA sequence, can impact fundamental cellular processes such as determination of cell identity and development of disease. However, how chromatin states are established and regulated remain to be fully elucidated. In several lower eukaryotes, the small RNA machinery comprised of small RNA and its partners, the Argonaute proteins, is known to play important roles in the establishment of heterochromatin and silencing of repetitive sequences. In mammalian cells, however, the nuclear function of the small RNA machinery is largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that components of the small RNA pathway interact with chromatin to regulate nuclear events, including gene transcription and alternative splicing. In addition, these endogenous mechanisms are being exploited to target specific genomic loci for manipulation of gene expression and splicing events. In this review, I summarize current understanding of chromatin remodeling by small RNAs in mammalian cells and highlight recent efforts to map genome-wide interactions between RNAi-related factors and chromatin.

  18. Rules and regulation in the primary structure of chromatin.

    PubMed

    Rando, Oliver J; Ahmad, Kami

    2007-06-01

    Wrapping DNA into a nucleosome influences factor binding to cognate sites, and thus the positions of nucleosomes in eukaryotic genomes contribute to gene regulation. Nucleosome positioning is influenced by DNA sequence, chromatin remodelers and non-histone chromatin factors, and genomic maps of nucleosomes are now being constructed. However, interpretation of these maps requires consideration of chromatin dynamics, as even some positioned nucleosomes appear subject to rapid unwinding and eviction. The dynamic properties of nucleosomes contribute to several processes, including gene regulation, mechanisms of transcription and the inheritance of chromatin states. Understanding the positions and dynamic behavior of nucleosomes promises to shed light on why transcription factors bind so many fewer sites than predicted, how histone variants may be targeted, and how chromatin states are delineated.

  19. ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes in embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2010-03-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent cells that can self renew or be induced to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, and thus have the potential to be utilized in regenerative medicine. Key pluripotency specific factors (Oct 4/Sox2/Nanog/Klf4) maintain the pluripotent state by activating expression of pluripotency specific genes and by inhibiting the expression of developmental regulators. Pluripotent ES cells are distinguished from differentiated cells by a specialized chromatin state that is required to epigenetically regulate the ES cell phenotype. Recent studies show that in addition to pluripotency specific factors, chromatin remodeling enzymes play an important role in regulating ES cell chromatin and the capacity to self-renew and to differentiate. Here we review recent studies that delineate the role of ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes in regulating ES cell chromatin structure.

  20. The chromatin regulatory code: Beyond a histone code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesne, A.

    2006-03-01

    In this commentary on the contribution by Arndt Benecke in this issue, I discuss why the notion of “chromatin code” introduced and elaborated in this paper is to be preferred to that of “histone code”. Speaking of a code as regards nucleosome conformation and histone tail post-translational modifications only makes sense within the chromatin fiber, where their physico-chemical features can be translated into regulatory programs at the genome level, by means of a complex, multi-level interplay with the fiber architecture and dynamics settled in the course of Evolution. In particular, this chromatin code presumably exploits allosteric transitions of the chromatin fiber. The chromatin structure dependence of its translation suggests two alternative modes of transcription initiation regulation, also proposed in the paper by A. Benecke in this issue for interpreting strikingly bimodal micro-array data.

  1. HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Düringer, Caroline; Hamiche, Ali; Gustafsson, Lotta; Kimura, Hiroshi; Svanborg, Catharina

    2003-10-24

    HAMLET is a folding variant of human alpha-lactalbumin in an active complex with oleic acid. HAMLET selectively enters tumor cells, accumulates in their nuclei and induces apoptosis-like cell death. This study examined the interactions of HAMLET with nuclear constituents and identified histones as targets. HAMLET was found to bind histone H3 strongly and to lesser extent histones H4 and H2B. The specificity of these interactions was confirmed using BIAcore technology and chromatin assembly assays. In vivo in tumor cells, HAMLET co-localized with histones and perturbed the chromatin structure; HAMLET was found associated with chromatin in an insoluble nuclear fraction resistant to salt extraction. In vitro, HAMLET bound strongly to histones and impaired their deposition on DNA. We conclude that HAMLET interacts with histones and chromatin in tumor cell nuclei and propose that this interaction locks the cells into the death pathway by irreversibly disrupting chromatin organization.

  2. Transcription upregulation via force-induced direct stretching of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajik, Arash; Zhang, Yuejin; Wei, Fuxiang; Sun, Jian; Jia, Qiong; Zhou, Wenwen; Singh, Rishi; Khanna, Nimish; Belmont, Andrew S.; Wang, Ning

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical forces play critical roles in the function of living cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of how forces influence nuclear events remain elusive. Here, we show that chromatin deformation as well as force-induced transcription of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged bacterial-chromosome dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) transgene can be visualized in a living cell by using three-dimensional magnetic twisting cytometry to apply local stresses on the cell surface via an Arg-Gly-Asp-coated magnetic bead. Chromatin stretching depended on loading direction. DHFR transcription upregulation was sensitive to load direction and proportional to the magnitude of chromatin stretching. Disrupting filamentous actin or inhibiting actomyosin contraction abrogated or attenuated force-induced DHFR transcription, whereas activating endogenous contraction upregulated force-induced DHFR transcription. Our findings suggest that local stresses applied to integrins propagate from the tensed actin cytoskeleton to the LINC complex and then through lamina-chromatin interactions to directly stretch chromatin and upregulate transcription.

  3. Higher order chromatin structure: bridging physics and biology

    PubMed Central

    Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Mirny, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microscopy and genomic techniques have provided new insight into spatial chromatin organization inside of the nucleus. In particular, chromosome conformation capture data has highlighted the relevance of polymer physics for high-order chromatin organization. In this context, we review basic polymer states, discuss how an appropriate polymer model can be determined from experimental data, and examine the success and limitations of various polymer models of high-order interphase chromatin organization. By taking into account topological constraints acting on the chromatin fiber, recently-developed polymer models of interphase chromatin can reproduce the observed scaling of distances between genomic loci, chromosomal territories, and probabilities of contacts between loci measured by chromosome conformation capture methods. Polymer models provide a framework for the interpretation of experimental data as ensembles of conformations rather than collections of loops, and will be crucial for untangling functional implications of chromosomal organization. PMID:22360992

  4. DNA Damage Repair in the Context of Plant Chromatin1

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of DNA molecules is constantly challenged. All organisms have developed mechanisms to detect and repair multiple types of DNA lesions. The basic principles of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes are similar, but the association of DNA with nucleosomes in eukaryotic chromatin requires mechanisms that allow access of repair enzymes to the lesions. This is achieved by chromatin-remodeling factors, and their necessity for efficient DDR has recently been demonstrated for several organisms and repair pathways. Plants share many features of chromatin organization and DNA repair with fungi and animals, but they differ in other, important details, which are both interesting and relevant for our understanding of genome stability and genetic diversity. In this Update, we compare the knowledge of the role of chromatin and chromatin-modifying factors during DDR in plants with equivalent systems in yeast and humans. We emphasize plant-specific elements and discuss possible implications. PMID:26089404

  5. On the mechanochemical machinery underlying chromatin remodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.

    This dissertation discuss two recent efforts, via a unique combination of structural bioinformatics and density functional theory, to unravel some of the details concerning how molecular machinery within the eukaryotic cell nucleus controls chromatin architecture. The first, a study of the 5-methylation of cytosine in 5'-CG-3' : 5'-CG-3' base-pair steps, reveals that the methyl groups roughen the local elastic energy landscape of the DNA. This enhances the probability of the canonical B-DNA structure transitioning into the undertwisted A-like and overtwisted C-like forms seen in nucleosomes, or looped segments of DNA bound to histones. The second part focuses on the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. The arginine residues are ob- served to apply a tunable mechanical load to the backbone, enabling precision-controlled activation of DNA deformations.

  6. Chromatin insulators: lessons from the fly

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatta, B. V.

    2009-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are DNA–protein complexes with broad functions in nuclear biology. Drosophila has at least five different types of insulators; recent results suggest that these different insulators share some components that may allow them to function through common mechanisms. Data from genome-wide localization studies of insulator proteins indicate a possible functional specialization, with different insulators playing distinct roles in nuclear biology. Cells have developed mechanisms to control insulator activity by recruiting specialized proteins or by covalent modification of core components. Current results suggest that insulators set up cell-specific blueprints of nuclear organization that may contribute to the establishment of different patterns of gene expression during cell differentiation and development. PMID:19752045

  7. Chromatin dynamics in kidney development and function.

    PubMed

    Bechtel-Walz, Wibke; Huber, Tobias B

    2014-06-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are fundamental key features of developing cells connecting developmental regulatory factors to chromatin modification. Changes in the environment during renal development can have long-lasting effects on the permanent tissue structure and the level of expression of important functional genes. These changes are believed to contribute to kidney disease occurrence and progression. Although the mechanisms of early patterning and cell fate have been well described for renal development, little is known about associated epigenetic modifications and their impact on how genes interact to specify the renal epithelial cells of nephrons and how this specification is relevant to maintaining normal renal function. A better understanding of the renal cell-specific epigenetic modifications and the interaction of different cell types to form this highly complex organ will not only help to better understand developmental defects and early loss of kidney function in children, but also help to understand and improve chronic disease progression, cell regeneration and renal aging.

  8. Chromatin remodeling: from transcription to cancer.

    PubMed

    Yaniv, Moshe

    2014-09-01

    In this short review article, I have tried to trace the path that led my laboratory from the early studies of the structure of papova minichromosomes and transcription control to the investigation of chromatin remodeling complexes of the SWI/SNF family. I discuss briefly the genetic and biochemical studies that lead to the discovery of the SWI/SNF complex in yeast and drosophila and summarize some of the studies on the developmental role of the murine complex. The discovery of the tumor suppressor function of the SNF5/INI1/SMARCB1 gene in humans and the identification of frequent mutations in other subunits of this complex in different human tumors opened a fascinating field of research on this epigenetic regulator. The hope is to better understand tumor development and to develop novel treatments.

  9. Accessing DNA damage in chromatin: Preparing the chromatin landscape for base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Yesenia; Hinz, John M; Smerdon, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    DNA damage in chromatin comes in many forms, including single base lesions that induce base excision repair (BER). We and others have shown that the structural location of DNA lesions within nucleosomes greatly influences their accessibility to repair enzymes. Indeed, a difference in the location of uracil as small as one-half turn of the DNA backbone on the histone surface can result in a 10-fold difference in the time course of its removal in vitro. In addition, the cell has evolved several interdependent processes capable of enhancing the accessibility of excision repair enzymes to DNA lesions in nucleosomes, including post-translational modification of histones, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling and interchange of histone variants in nucleosomes. In this review, we focus on different factors that affect accessibility of BER enzymes to nucleosomal DNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The TNFα locus is Altered in Monocytes from Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Suriano, April; Dietzmann, Kelly; Lin, Janice; Goldman, Daniel; Petri, Michelle A.

    2007-01-01

    In systemic lupus erythematosus, TNFα is elevated in the serum and correlates with disease activity and triglyceride levels. The stimuli that drive TNFα in this setting are incompletely understood. This study was designed to evaluate monocyte chromatin at the TNFα locus to identify semi-permanent changes that might play a role in altered expression of TNFα. SLE patients with relatively quiescent disease (mean Physician Global Assessment=0.6) and healthy controls were recruited for this study. TNFα expression was measured by intracellular cytokine staining of different monocyte subsets in patients (n=24) and controls (n=12). Histone acetylation at the TNFα locus was measured by chromatin immunoprecipitation using a normalized quantitative PCR in patients (n=46) and controls (n=24). There were no differences in the overall fractions of cells expressing CD14 in SLE patients compared to controls, however, the fraction of DR+/CD16+ cells expressing CD14 was slightly higher as was true in the monocyte subset defined by DR+/CD11b+. Within the monocyte population defined by physical characteristics and DR+/CD14+, TNFα expressing cells were more frequent in SLE patients compared to controls. Both the fraction of positive cells and the mean fluorescence intensity were higher in patients than controls. Consistent with this was the finding that monocytes from patients had increased TNFα transcripts and more highly acetylated histones at the TNFα locus compared to controls. Furthermore, patients with the highest levels of TNFα histone acetylation were more likely to have had consistently elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and to have required cytotoxic use. Histone acetylation, associated with increased transcriptional competence of TNFα, may play a role in certain inflammatory aspects of the disease. PMID:17276734

  11. Baseline Chromatin Modification Levels May Predict ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Traditional toxicological paradigms have relied on factors such as age, genotype, and disease status to explain variability in responsiveness to toxicant exposure; however, these are neither sufficient to faithfully identify differentially responsive individuals nor are they modifiable factors that can be leveraged to mitigate the exposure effects. Unlike these factors, the epigenome is dynamic and shaped by an individual's environment. We sought to determine whether baseline levels of specific chromatin modifications correlated with the interindividual variability in their ozone (03)-mediated induction in an air-liquid interface model using primary human bronchial epithelial cells from a panel of 11 donors. We characterized the relationship between the baseline abundance of 6 epigenetic markers with established roles as key regulators of gene expression-histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), H3K27 acetylation (H3K27ac), pan­acetyl H4 (H4ac), histone H3K27 di/trimethylation (H3K27me2/3), unmodified H3, and5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC)-and the variability in the 03-induced expression of IL-8, IL-6, COX2, and HMOX1. Baseline levels of H3K4me3, H3K27me2/3, and 5-hmC, but not H3K27ac, H4ac, and total H3, correlated with the interindividual variability in 03-mediated induction of HMOX1 and COX2. In contrast, none of the chromatin modifications that we examined correlated with the induction of IL-8 and IL-6. From these findings, we propose an "epigenetic see

  12. Chromatin changes predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hveem, Tarjei S; Kleppe, Andreas; Vlatkovic, Ljiljana; Ersvær, Elin; Wæhre, Håkon; Nielsen, Birgitte; Kjær, Marte Avranden; Pradhan, Manohar; Syvertsen, Rolf Anders; Nesheim, John Arne; Liestøl, Knut; Albregtsen, Fritz; Danielsen, Håvard E

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pathological evaluations give the best prognostic markers for prostate cancer patients after radical prostatectomy, but the observer variance is substantial. These risk assessments should be supported and supplemented by objective methods for identifying patients at increased risk of recurrence. Markers of epigenetic aberrations have shown promising results in several cancer types and can be assessed by automatic analysis of chromatin organisation in tumour cell nuclei. Methods: A consecutive series of 317 prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy at a national hospital between 1987 and 2005 were followed for a median of 10 years (interquartile range, 7–14). On average three tumour block samples from each patient were included to account for tumour heterogeneity. We developed a novel marker, termed Nucleotyping, based on automatic assessment of disordered chromatin organisation, and validated its ability to predict recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Results: Nucleotyping predicted recurrence with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.1–5.1). With adjustment for clinical and pathological characteristics, the HR was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.5–4.1). An updated stratification into three risk groups significantly improved the concordance with patient outcome compared with a state-of-the-art risk-stratification tool (P<0.001). The prognostic impact was most evident for the patients who were high-risk by clinical and pathological characteristics and for patients with Gleason score 7. Conclusion: A novel assessment of epigenetic aberrations was capable of improving risk stratification after radical prostatectomy. PMID:27124335

  13. Epigenetic modification of centromeric chromatin: hypomethylation of DNA sequences in the CENH3-associated chromatin in Arabidopsis thaliana and maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenli; Lee, Hye-Ran; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Jiang, Jiming

    2008-01-01

    The centromere in eukaryotes is defined by the presence of a special histone H3 variant, CENH3. Centromeric chromatin consists of blocks of CENH3-containing nucleosomes interspersed with blocks of canonical H3-containing nucleosomes. However, it is not known how CENH3 is precisely deposited in the centromeres. It has been suggested that epigenetic modifications of the centromeric chromatin may play a role in centromere identity. The centromeres of Arabidopsis thaliana are composed of megabase-sized arrays of a 178-bp satellite repeat. Here, we report that the 178-bp repeats associated with the CENH3-containing chromatin (CEN chromatin) are hypomethylated compared with the same repeats located in the flanking pericentromeric regions. A similar hypomethylation of DNA in CEN chromatin was also revealed in maize (Zea mays). Hypomethylation of the DNA in CEN chromatin is correlated with a significantly reduced level of H3K9me2 in Arabidopsis. We demonstrate that the 178-bp repeats from CEN chromatin display a distinct distribution pattern of the CG and CNG sites, which may provide a foundation for the differential methylation of these repeats. Our results suggest that DNA methylation plays an important role in epigenetic demarcation of the CEN chromatin.

  14. PcG Proteins, DNA Methylation, and Gene Repression by Chromatin Looping

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Vijay K; McGarvey, Kelly M; Licchesi, Julien D.F; Ohm, Joyce E; Herman, James G; Schübeler, Dirk; Baylin, Stephen B

    2008-01-01

    Many DNA hypermethylated and epigenetically silenced genes in adult cancers are Polycomb group (PcG) marked in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We show that a large region upstream (∼30 kb) of and extending ∼60 kb around one such gene, GATA-4, is organized—in Tera-2 undifferentiated embryonic carcinoma (EC) cells—in a topologically complex multi-loop conformation that is formed by multiple internal long-range contact regions near areas enriched for EZH2, other PcG proteins, and the signature PcG histone mark, H3K27me3. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated depletion of EZH2 in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells leads to a significant reduction in the frequency of long-range associations at the GATA-4 locus, seemingly dependent on affecting the H3K27me3 enrichments around those chromatin regions, accompanied by a modest increase in GATA-4 transcription. The chromatin loops completely dissolve, accompanied by loss of PcG proteins and H3K27me3 marks, when Tera-2 cells receive differentiation signals which induce a ∼60-fold increase in GATA-4 expression. In colon cancer cells, however, the frequency of the long-range interactions are increased in a setting where GATA-4 has no basal transcription and the loops encompass multiple, abnormally DNA hypermethylated CpG islands, and the methyl-cytosine binding protein MBD2 is localized to these CpG islands, including ones near the gene promoter. Removing DNA methylation through genetic disruption of DNA methyltransferases (DKO cells) leads to loss of MBD2 occupancy and to a decrease in the frequency of long-range contacts, such that these now more resemble those in undifferentiated Tera-2 cells. Our findings reveal unexpected similarities in higher order chromatin conformation between stem/precursor cells and adult cancers. We also provide novel insight that PcG-occupied and H3K27me3-enriched regions can form chromatin loops and physically interact in cis around a single gene in mammalian cells. The loops associate with a

  15. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kerstin B.; O’Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Carlebur, Saskia; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Prathalingham, Radhika; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; de Santiago, Ines; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van ’t Veer, Laura J.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Lux, Michael P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias, Jose I.; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dur, Christina C.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Ditsch, Nina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dörk, Thilo; Helbig, Sonja; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Yip, Cheng-Har; Phuah, Sze-Yee; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hartef; Eriksson, Kimael; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Lim, Wei-Yen; Buhari, Shaik A.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Fostira, Florentia; Pilarski, Robert; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ERα to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease. PMID:24290378

  16. Defining the multivalent functions of CTCF from chromatin state and three-dimensional chromatin interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yiming; Shan, Guangyu; Xue, Jiguo; Chen, Changsheng; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-07-27

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a multi-functional protein that is assigned various, even contradictory roles in the genome. High-throughput sequencing-based technologies such as ChIP-seq and Hi-C provided us the opportunity to assess the multivalent functions of CTCF in the human genome. The location of CTCF-binding sites with respect to genomic features provides insights into the possible roles of this protein. Here we present the first genome-wide survey and characterization of three important functions of CTCF: enhancer insulator, chromatin barrier and enhancer linker. We developed a novel computational framework to discover the multivalent functions of CTCF based on chromatin state and three-dimensional chromatin architecture. We applied our method to five human cell lines and identified ∼46 000 non-redundant CTCF sites related to the three functions. Disparate effects of these functions on gene expression were found and distinct genomic features of these CTCF sites were characterized in GM12878 cells. Finally, we investigated the cell-type specificities of CTCF sites related to these functions across five cell types. Our study provides new insights into the multivalent functions of CTCF in the human genome.

  17. High-density nucleosome occupancy map of human chromosome 9p21-22 reveals chromatin organization of the type I interferon gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Freaney, Jonathan E; Zhang, Quanwei; Yigit, Erbay; Kim, Rebecca; Widom, Jonathan; Wang, Ji-Ping; Horvath, Curt M

    2014-09-01

    Genome-wide investigations have dramatically increased our understanding of nucleosome positioning and the role of chromatin in gene regulation, yet some genomic regions have been poorly represented in human nucleosome maps. One such region is represented by human chromosome 9p21-22, which contains the type I interferon gene cluster that includes 16 interferon alpha genes and the single interferon beta, interferon epsilon, and interferon omega genes. A high-density nucleosome mapping strategy was used to generate locus-wide maps of the nucleosome organization of this biomedically important locus at a steady state and during a time course of infection with Sendai virus, an inducer of interferon gene expression. Detailed statistical and computational analysis illustrates that nucleosomes in this locus exhibit preferences for particular dinucleotide and oligomer DNA sequence motifs in vivo, which are similar to those reported for lower eukaryotic nucleosome-DNA interactions. These data were used to visualize the region's chromatin architecture and reveal features that are common to the organization of all the type I interferon genes, indicating a common nucleosome-mediated gene regulatory paradigm. Additionally, this study clarifies aspects of the dynamic changes that occur with the nucleosome occupying the transcriptional start site of the interferon beta gene after virus infection.

  18. The induction of H3K9 methylation by PIWIL4 at the p16{sup Ink4a} locus

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Keiki; Kage, Hidenori; Aki, Naomi; Sano, Atsushi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Nagase, Takahide; Yatomi, Yutaka; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya . E-mail: dtakai-ind@umin.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    The field of epigenetics has made progress by the identification of the small RNA-mediated epigenetic modification. However, little is known about the key proteins. Here, we report that the human PIWI-like family is a candidate protein that is involved in the pathway responsible for chromatin remodeling. The PIWI-like family proteins, expressed as the Flag-fusion proteins, formed a bulky body and localized to the nuclear periphery. Transient transfection of PIWI-like 4 (PIWIL4), only member of the PIWI-like family that was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, induced histone H3 lysine 9 methylation at the p16{sup Ink4a} (CDKN2A) locus. The elevated level of histone methylation resulted in the downregulation of the p16{sup Ink4a} gene. These results suggest PIWIL4 plays important roles in the chromatin-modifying pathway in human somatic cells.

  19. Dynamic activation and repression of the plasmodium falciparum rif gene family and their relation to chromatin modification.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Fernanda J; Fotoran, Wesley L; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of variant gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum is still only partially understood. Regulation of var genes, the most studied gene family involved in antigenic variation, is orchestrated by a dynamic pattern of inherited chromatin states. Although recent evidence pointed to epigenetic regulation of transcribed and repressed rif loci, little is known about specific on/off associated histone modifications of individual rif genes. To investigate the chromatin marks for transcribed and repressed rif loci, we cultivated parasites and evaluated the transcriptional status of chosen rif targets by qRT-PCR and performed ChIP assays using H3K9ac and H3K9me3 antibodies. We then monitored changes in the epigenetic patterns in parasites after several reinvasions and also evaluated the "poised" mark in trophozoites and schizonts of the same erythrocytic cycle by ChIP using H3K4me2 specific antibodies. Our results show that H3K9 is acetylated in transcribed rif loci and trimethylated or even unmodified in repressed rif loci. These transcriptional and epigenetic states are inherited after several reinvasions. The poised modification H3K4me2 showed a tendency to be more present in loci in trophozoites that upon progression to schizonts strongly transcribe the respective locus. However, this effect was not consistently observed for all monitored loci. While our data show important similarities to var transcription-associated chromatin modifications, the observed swiftly occurring modifications at rif loci and the absence of H3K9 modification point to a different dynamic of recruitment of chromatin modifying enzymes.

  20. Chromatin Insulator Factors Involved in Long-Range DNA Interactions and Their Role in the Folding of the Drosophila Genome

    PubMed Central

    Dejardin, Stephanie; Allemand, Frederic; Gamot, Adrien; Labesse, Gilles; Cuvier, Olivier; Nègre, Nicolas; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Margeat, Emmanuel; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin insulators are genetic elements implicated in the organization of chromatin and the regulation of transcription. In Drosophila, different insulator types were characterized by their locus-specific composition of insulator proteins and co-factors. Insulators mediate specific long-range DNA contacts required for the three dimensional organization of the interphase nucleus and for transcription regulation, but the mechanisms underlying the formation of these contacts is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular associations between different components of insulator complexes (BEAF32, CP190 and Chromator) by biochemical and biophysical means, and develop a novel single-molecule assay to determine what factors are necessary and essential for the formation of long-range DNA interactions. We show that BEAF32 is able to bind DNA specifically and with high affinity, but not to bridge long-range interactions (LRI). In contrast, we show that CP190 and Chromator are able to mediate LRI between specifically-bound BEAF32 nucleoprotein complexes in vitro. This ability of CP190 and Chromator to establish LRI requires specific contacts between BEAF32 and their C-terminal domains, and dimerization through their N-terminal domains. In particular, the BTB/POZ domains of CP190 form a strict homodimer, and its C-terminal domain interacts with several insulator binding proteins. We propose a general model for insulator function in which BEAF32/dCTCF/Su(HW) provide DNA specificity (first layer proteins) whereas CP190/Chromator are responsible for the physical interactions required for long-range contacts (second layer). This network of organized, multi-layer interactions could explain the different activities of insulators as chromatin barriers, enhancer blockers, and transcriptional regulators, and suggest a general mechanism for how insulators may shape the organization of higher-order chromatin during cell division. PMID:25165871

  1. Chromatin insulator factors involved in long-range DNA interactions and their role in the folding of the Drosophila genome.

    PubMed

    Vogelmann, Jutta; Le Gall, Antoine; Dejardin, Stephanie; Allemand, Frederic; Gamot, Adrien; Labesse, Gilles; Cuvier, Olivier; Nègre, Nicolas; Cohen-Gonsaud, Martin; Margeat, Emmanuel; Nöllmann, Marcelo

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin insulators are genetic elements implicated in the organization of chromatin and the regulation of transcription. In Drosophila, different insulator types were characterized by their locus-specific composition of insulator proteins and co-factors. Insulators mediate specific long-range DNA contacts required for the three dimensional organization of the interphase nucleus and for transcription regulation, but the mechanisms underlying the formation of these contacts is currently unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular associations between different components of insulator complexes (BEAF32, CP190 and Chromator) by biochemical and biophysical means, and develop a novel single-molecule assay to determine what factors are necessary and essential for the formation of long-range DNA interactions. We show that BEAF32 is able to bind DNA specifically and with high affinity, but not to bridge long-range interactions (LRI). In contrast, we show that CP190 and Chromator are able to mediate LRI between specifically-bound BEAF32 nucleoprotein complexes in vitro. This ability of CP190 and Chromator to establish LRI requires specific contacts between BEAF32 and their C-terminal domains, and dimerization through their N-terminal domains. In particular, the BTB/POZ domains of CP190 form a strict homodimer, and its C-terminal domain interacts with several insulator binding proteins. We propose a general model for insulator function in which BEAF32/dCTCF/Su(HW) provide DNA specificity (first layer proteins) whereas CP190/Chromator are responsible for the physical interactions required for long-range contacts (second layer). This network of organized, multi-layer interactions could explain the different activities of insulators as chromatin barriers, enhancer blockers, and transcriptional regulators, and suggest a general mechanism for how insulators may shape the organization of higher-order chromatin during cell division.

  2. The zebrafish IgH locus contains multiple transcriptional regulatory regions

    PubMed Central

    Danilova, N.; Saunders, H. L.; Ellestad, K. K.; Magor, B. G.

    2010-01-01

    Many fish have, in addition to IgM and IgD, a third isotype called IgZ or IgT. The ζ-chain locus is embedded among the Ig heavy chain V-, D- and J-elements in a manner reminiscent of the TcR δ/α locus. Isotype selection thus occurs during VDJ recombination, a process that is facilitated by intralocus transcription. Using in silico analyses and enhancer reporter vectors we identified 3 new regions within the zebrafish IgH locus through which transcription can be activated in catfish B-cell lines. Two of these, termed Eζi (Jζ to Cζ1 intronic) and Eζ3′ regions flank the ζ-chain constant domain exons. A third region, Eδ3′, resides downstream of the δ-chain exons. All regions contain predicted binding sites for transcription factors that contribute to B-cell specific transcription in fish and mammals. Each region also has proximal matrix attachment regions, which may further contribute to transcriptional activation and chromatin remodeling. We discuss possible roles for these regions during VDJ recombination. PMID:21055416

  3. SIRT1 regulates the ribosomal DNA locus: epigenetic candles twinkle longevity in the Christmas tree.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Antero; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2009-01-02

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes arrange themselves in a tandem pattern in nucleolus and during the transcription of rRNA genes, the elongating nascent rRNA transcripts create a structure called Christmas tree. rRNA genes in the rDNA locus can be either active or silent depending on the epigenetic regulation of the chromatin structure. Yeast Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) protein containing complexes can repress the recombination in the rDNA locus and subsequently extend the replicative lifespan of the budding yeast. The mammalian rDNA locus is also under the epigenetic regulation by protein complexes, such as NoRC (nucleolar remodeling complex) and eNoSC (energy-dependent nucleolar silencing complex), involving histone deacetylases and methyltransferases. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, is the key component in the eNoSC complex and hence energetic changes can regulate the activation of eNoSC complex and in this way mediate the epigenetic silencing of rRNA gene expression. The eNoSC complex links SIRT1-induced longevity regulation to the metabolic rate theory of aging.

  4. Persistent Chromatin Modifications Induced by High Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Leung, Amy; Trac, Candi; Du, Juan; Natarajan, Rama; Schones, Dustin E

    2016-05-13

    Obesity is a highly heritable complex disease that results from the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Formerly obese individuals are susceptible to metabolic disorders later in life, even after lifestyle changes are made to mitigate the obese state. This is reminiscent of the metabolic memory phenomenon originally observed for persistent complications in diabetic patients, despite subsequent glycemic control. Epigenetic modifications represent a potential mediator of this observed memory. We previously demonstrated that a high fat diet leads to changes in chromatin accessibility in the mouse liver. The regions of greatest chromatin changes in accessibility are largely strain-dependent, indicating a genetic component in diet-induced chromatin alterations. We have now examined the persistence of diet-induced chromatin accessibility changes upon diet reversal in two strains of mice. We find that a substantial fraction of loci that undergo chromatin accessibility changes with a high fat diet remains in the remodeled state after diet reversal in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, the vast majority of diet-induced chromatin accessibility changes in A/J mice are transient. Our data also indicate that the persistent chromatin accessibility changes observed in C57BL/6J mice are associated with specific transcription factors and histone post-translational modifications. The persistent loci identified here are likely to be contributing to the overall phenotype and are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

  5. A synergistic DNA logic predicts genome-wide chromatin accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Tatsunori; Sherwood, Richard I.; Kang, Daniel D.; Rajagopal, Nisha; Barkal, Amira A.; Zeng, Haoyang; Emons, Bart J.M.; Srinivasan, Sharanya; Jaakkola, Tommi; Gifford, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers and promoters commonly occur in accessible chromatin characterized by depleted nucleosome contact; however, it is unclear how chromatin accessibility is governed. We show that log-additive cis-acting DNA sequence features can predict chromatin accessibility at high spatial resolution. We develop a new type of high-dimensional machine learning model, the Synergistic Chromatin Model (SCM), which when trained with DNase-seq data for a cell type is capable of predicting expected read counts of genome-wide chromatin accessibility at every base from DNA sequence alone, with the highest accuracy at hypersensitive sites shared across cell types. We confirm that a SCM accurately predicts chromatin accessibility for thousands of synthetic DNA sequences using a novel CRISPR-based method of highly efficient site-specific DNA library integration. SCMs are directly interpretable and reveal that a logic based on local, nonspecific synergistic effects, largely among pioneer TFs, is sufficient to predict a large fraction of cellular chromatin accessibility in a wide variety of cell types. PMID:27456004

  6. Chromatinization of the KSHV Genome During the KSHV Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Timsy; Jha, Hem C.; Verma, Subhash C.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) belongs to the gamma herpesvirus family and is the causative agent of various lymphoproliferative diseases in humans. KSHV, like other herpesviruses, establishes life-long latent infection with the expression of a limited number of viral genes. Expression of these genes is tightly regulated by both the viral and cellular factors. Recent advancements in identifying the expression profiles of viral transcripts, using tilling arrays and next generation sequencing have identified additional coding and non-coding transcripts in the KSHV genome. Determining the functions of these transcripts will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms utilized by KSHV in altering cellular pathways involved in promoting cell growth and tumorigenesis. Replication of the viral genome is critical in maintaining the existing copies of the viral episomes during both latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle. The replication of the viral episome is facilitated by viral components responsible for recruiting chromatin modifying enzymes and replication factors for altering the chromatin complexity and replication initiation functions, respectively. Importantly, chromatin modification of the viral genome plays a crucial role in determining whether the viral genome will persist as latent episome or undergo lytic reactivation. Additionally, chromatinization of the incoming virion DNA, which lacks chromatin structure, in the target cells during primary infection, helps in establishing latent infection. Here, we discuss the recent advancements on our understating of KSHV genome chromatinization and the consequences of chromatin modifications on viral life cycle. PMID:25594667

  7. Chromatinization of the KSHV Genome During the KSHV Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Timsy; Jha, Hem C; Verma, Subhash C; Robertson, Erle S

    2015-01-14

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) belongs to the gamma herpesvirus family and is the causative agent of various lymphoproliferative diseases in humans. KSHV, like other herpesviruses, establishes life-long latent infection with the expression of a limited number of viral genes. Expression of these genes is tightly regulated by both the viral and cellular factors. Recent advancements in identifying the expression profiles of viral transcripts, using tilling arrays and next generation sequencing have identified additional coding and non-coding transcripts in the KSHV genome. Determining the functions of these transcripts will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms utilized by KSHV in altering cellular pathways involved in promoting cell growth and tumorigenesis. Replication of the viral genome is critical in maintaining the existing copies of the viral episomes during both latent and lytic phases of the viral life cycle. The replication of the viral episome is facilitated by viral components responsible for recruiting chromatin modifying enzymes and replication factors for altering the chromatin complexity and replication initiation functions, respectively. Importantly, chromatin modification of the viral genome plays a crucial role in determining whether the viral genome will persist as latent episome or undergo lytic reactivation. Additionally, chromatinization of the incoming virion DNA, which lacks chromatin structure, in the target cells during primary infection, helps in establishing latent infection. Here, we discuss the recent advancements on our understating of KSHV genome chromatinization and the consequences of chromatin modifications on viral life cycle.

  8. Defining the chromatin signature of inducible genes in T cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Specific chromatin characteristics, especially the modification status of the core histone proteins, are associated with active and inactive genes. There is growing evidence that genes that respond to environmental or developmental signals may possess distinct chromatin marks. Using a T cell model and both genome-wide and gene-focused approaches, we examined the chromatin characteristics of genes that respond to T cell activation. Results To facilitate comparison of genes with similar basal expression levels, we used expression-profiling data to bin genes according to their basal expression levels. We found that inducible genes in the lower basal expression bins, especially rapidly induced primary response genes, were more likely than their non-responsive counterparts to display the histone modifications of active genes, have RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at their promoters and show evidence of ongoing basal elongation. There was little or no evidence for the presence of active chromatin marks in the absence of promoter Pol II on these inducible genes. In addition, we identified a subgroup of genes with active promoter chromatin marks and promoter Pol II but no evidence of elongation. Following T cell activation, we find little evidence for a major shift in the active chromatin signature around inducible gene promoters but many genes recruit more Pol II and show increased evidence of elongation. Conclusions These results suggest that the majority of inducible genes are primed for activation by having an active chromatin signature and promoter Pol II with or without ongoing elongation. PMID:19807913

  9. Fractal Characterization of Chromatin Decompaction in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji; Stypula-Cyrus, Yolanda; Blaha, Catherine S.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin organization has a fundamental impact on the whole spectrum of genomic functions. Quantitative characterization of the chromatin structure, particularly at submicron length scales where chromatin fractal globules are formed, is critical to understanding this structure-function relationship. Such analysis is currently challenging due to the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional light microscopy. We herein present an optical approach termed inverse spectroscopic optical coherence tomography to characterize the mass density fractality of chromatin, and we apply the technique to observe chromatin decompaction in live cells. The technique makes it possible for the first time, to our knowledge, to sense intracellular morphology with length-scale sensitivity from ∼30 to 450 nm, thus primarily probing the higher-order chromatin structure, without resolving the actual structures. We used chromatin decompaction due to inhibition of histone deacytelases and measured the subsequent changes in the fractal dimension of the intracellular structure. The results were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:26636933

  10. Determinants of Sir2-Mediated, Silent Chromatin Cohesion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2016-08-01

    Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin.

  11. Chromatin Ionic Atmosphere Analyzed by a Mesoscale Electrostatic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Hin Hark; Schlick, Tamar

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the ionic distribution around chromatin is important for understanding the electrostatic forces governing chromatin structure and function. Here we develop an electrostatic model to handle multivalent ions and compute the ionic distribution around a mesoscale chromatin model as a function of conformation, number of nucleosome cores, and ionic strength and species using Poisson-Boltzmann theory. This approach enables us to visualize and measure the complex patterns of counterion condensation around chromatin by examining ionic densities, free energies, shielding charges, and correlations of shielding charges around the nucleosome core and various oligonucleosome conformations. We show that: counterions, especially divalent cations, predominantly condense around the nucleosomal and linker DNA, unburied regions of histone tails, and exposed chromatin surfaces; ionic screening is sensitively influenced by local and global conformations, with a wide ranging net nucleosome core screening charge (56–100e); and screening charge correlations reveal conformational flexibility and interactions among chromatin subunits, especially between the histone tails and parental nucleosome cores. These results provide complementary and detailed views of ionic effects on chromatin structure for modest computational resources. The electrostatic model developed here is applicable to other coarse-grained macromolecular complexes. PMID:20959100

  12. Early chromatin unfolding by RUNX1: a molecular explanation for differential requirements during specification versus maintenance of the hematopoietic gene expression program

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Lichtinger, Monika; Krysinska, Hanna; Lancrin, Christophe; Clarke, Deborah; Williamson, Andrew; Mazzarella, Luca; Ingram, Richard; Jorgensen, Helle; Fisher, Amanda; Tenen, Daniel G.; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2009-01-01

    At the cellular level, development progresses through successive regulatory states, each characterized by their specific gene expression profile. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating first the priming and then maintenance of gene expression within one developmental pathway are essentially unknown. The hematopoietic system represents a powerful experimental model to address these questions and here we have focused on a regulatory circuit playing a central role in myelopoiesis: the transcription factor PU.1, its target gene colony-stimulating-factor 1 receptor (Csf1r), and key upstream regulators such as RUNX1. We find that during ontogeny, chromatin unfolding precedes the establishment of active histone marks and the formation of stable transcription factor complexes at the Pu.1 locus and we show that chromatin remodeling is mediated by the transient binding of RUNX1 to Pu.1 cis-elements. By contrast, chromatin reorganization of Csf1r requires prior expression of PU.1 together with RUNX1 binding. Once the full hematopoietic program is established, stable transcription factor complexes and active chromatin can be maintained without RUNX1. Our experiments therefore demonstrate how individual transcription factors function in a differentiation stage–specific manner to differentially affect the initiation versus maintenance of a developmental program. PMID:19339695

  13. Nucleosome positioning and composition modulate in silico chromatin flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauvelin, N.; Lo, P.; Kulaeva, O. I.; Nizovtseva, E. V.; Diaz-Montes, J.; Zola, J.; Parashar, M.; Studitsky, V. M.; Olson, W. K.

    2015-02-01

    The dynamic organization of chromatin plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression and in other fundamental cellular processes. The underlying physical basis of these activities lies in the sequential positioning, chemical composition, and intermolecular interactions of the nucleosomes—the familiar assemblies of ˜150 DNA base pairs and eight histone proteins—found on chromatin fibers. Here we introduce a mesoscale model of short nucleosomal arrays and a computational framework that make it possible to incorporate detailed structural features of DNA and histones in simulations of short chromatin constructs. We explore the effects of nucleosome positioning and the presence or absence of cationic N-terminal histone tails on the ‘local’ inter-nucleosomal interactions and the global deformations of the simulated chains. The correspondence between the predicted and observed effects of nucleosome composition and numbers on the long-range communication between the ends of designed nucleosome arrays lends credence to the model and to the molecular insights gleaned from the simulated structures. We also extract effective nucleosome-nucleosome potentials from the simulations and implement the potentials in a larger-scale computational treatment of regularly repeating chromatin fibers. Our results reveal a remarkable effect of nucleosome spacing on chromatin flexibility, with small changes in DNA linker length significantly altering the interactions of nucleosomes and the dimensions of the fiber as a whole. In addition, we find that these changes in nucleosome positioning influence the statistical properties of long chromatin constructs. That is, simulated chromatin fibers with the same number of nucleosomes exhibit polymeric behaviors ranging from Gaussian to worm-like, depending upon nucleosome spacing. These findings suggest that the physical and mechanical properties of chromatin can span a wide range of behaviors, depending on nucleosome

  14. Nucleosome positioning and composition modulate in silico chromatin flexibility.

    PubMed

    Clauvelin, N; Lo, P; Kulaeva, O I; Nizovtseva, E V; Diaz-Montes, J; Zola, J; Parashar, M; Studitsky, V M; Olson, W K

    2015-02-18

    The dynamic organization of chromatin plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression and in other fundamental cellular processes. The underlying physical basis of these activities lies in the sequential positioning, chemical composition, and intermolecular interactions of the nucleosomes-the familiar assemblies of ∼150 DNA base pairs and eight histone proteins-found on chromatin fibers. Here we introduce a mesoscale model of short nucleosomal arrays and a computational framework that make it possible to incorporate detailed structural features of DNA and histones in simulations of short chromatin constructs. We explore the effects of nucleosome positioning and the presence or absence of cationic N-terminal histone tails on the 'local' inter-nucleosomal interactions and the global deformations of the simulated chains. The correspondence between the predicted and observed effects of nucleosome composition and numbers on the long-range communication between the ends of designed nucleosome arrays lends credence to the model and to the molecular insights gleaned from the simulated structures. We also extract effective nucleosome-nucleosome potentials from the simulations and implement the potentials in a larger-scale computational treatment of regularly repeating chromatin fibers. Our results reveal a remarkable effect of nucleosome spacing on chromatin flexibility, with small changes in DNA linker length significantly altering the interactions of nucleosomes and the dimensions of the fiber as a whole. In addition, we find that these changes in nucleosome positioning influence the statistical properties of long chromatin constructs. That is, simulated chromatin fibers with the same number of nucleosomes exhibit polymeric behaviors ranging from Gaussian to worm-like, depending upon nucleosome spacing. These findings suggest that the physical and mechanical properties of chromatin can span a wide range of behaviors, depending on nucleosome positioning, and

  15. Histone Post-Translation Modifications Influence Chromatin Mechanical Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Histone proteins organize the human genome into chromatin fibers while their post-translation modification (PTM) regulates genome replication, expression and repair. The mechanistic connections between histone PTMs and biological functions remain enigmatic. We find with a combination of magnetic tweezers mechanical measurements and biochemical studies that a number of histone PTMs influence the DNA mismatch repair process by mechanically destabilizing chromatin. The location of the PTM within the chromatin structure appears to determine the mechanism by which it alters the mechanical stability. These findings have direct implications for understanding the repair of the human genome.

  16. Chromatin regulation at the frontier of synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Keung, Albert J.; Joung, J. Keith; Khalil, Ahmad S.; Collins, James J.

    2016-01-01

    As synthetic biology approaches are extended to diverse applications throughout medicine, biotechnology and basic biological research, there is an increasing need to engineer yeast, plant and mammalian cells. Eukaryotic genomes are regulated by the diverse biochemical and biophysical states of chromatin, which brings distinct challenges, as well as opportunities, over applications in bacteria. Recent synthetic approaches, including `epigenome editing', have allowed the direct and functional dissection of many aspects of physiological chromatin regulation. These studies lay the foundation for biomedical and biotechnological engineering applications that could take advantage of the unique combinatorial and spatiotemporal layers of chromatin regulation to create synthetic systems of unprecedented sophistication. PMID:25668787

  17. Stress-induced structural changes in plant chromatin.

    PubMed

    Probst, Aline V; Mittelsten Scheid, Ortrun

    2015-10-01

    Stress defense in plants is elaborated at the level of protection and adaptation. Dynamic changes in sophisticated chromatin substructures and concomitant transcriptional changes play an important role in response to stress, as illustrated by the transient rearrangement of compact heterochromatin structures or the modulation of chromatin composition and modification upon stress exposure. To connect cytological, developmental, and molecular data around stress and chromatin is currently an interesting, multifaceted, and sometimes controversial field of research. This review highlights some of the most recent findings on nuclear reorganization, histone variants, histone chaperones, DNA- and histone modifications, and somatic and meiotic heritability in connection with stress.

  18. DNA packing in chromatine, a manifestation of the Bonnet transformation.

    PubMed

    Blum, Z; Lidin, S

    1988-08-01

    The packing of DNA is described using the formalism of differential geometry. Winding of the DNA double helix around the histone 2-5 octamer forming a nucleosome and the condensation of the so-formed bead-on-a-string chromatine aided by histone 1 is interpreted as two consecutive isometric, i.e. Bonnet, transformations. The DNA double helix can be approximated to a helicoid which can be transformed isometrically to a catenoid, an approximation of the nucleosome. Owing to the organization of the histone octamer the extended chromatine takes a helicoidal shape allowing a second Bonnet transformation to consummate the condensation into a chromatine fibre.

  19. Fifty hertz magnetic fields individually affect chromatin conformation in human lymphocytes: dependence on amplitude, temperature, and initial chromatin state.

    PubMed

    Sarimov, Ruslan; Alipov, Eugene D; Belyaev, Igor Y

    2011-10-01

    Effects of magnetic field (MF) at 50 Hz on chromatin conformation were studied by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependence (AVTD) in human lymphocytes from two healthy donors. MF within the peak amplitude range of 5-20 µT affected chromatin conformation. These MF effects differed significantly between studied donors, and depended on magnetic flux density and initial condensation of chromatin. While the initial state of chromatin was rather stable in one donor during one calendar year of measurements, the initial condensation varied significantly in cells from another donor. Both this variation and the MF effect depended on temperature during exposure. Despite these variations, the general rule was that MF condensed the relaxed chromatin and relaxed the condensed chromatin. Thus, in this study we show that individual effects of 50 Hz MF exposure at peak amplitudes within the range of 5-20 µT may be observed in human lymphocytes in dependence on the initial state of chromatin and temperature. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Internal locus of control and vocational rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Selander, John; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno; Asell, Malin; Selander, Ulrika; Millet, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In previous studies, internal locus of control (ILC) has been pointed out as a key factor for return to work after vocational rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to gain a deeper understanding of the concept of ILC in a Swedish vocational rehabilitation context. The study was based on data from 347 long-term sick-listed clients collected at the onset of vocational rehabilitation. A first bi-variate analysis showed that ILC was positively associated with physical functioning and general health, and negatively associated with bodily pain. The analysis also showed that women, more than men, reported high internal locus of control. After a second multivariate analysis, only bodily pain remained associated. It is concluded that there exist a strong and negative association between bodily pain and internal locus of control. Clients with severe pain often also suffer from low internal locus of control. This should be kept in mind when providing vocational rehabilitation.

  1. Chromatin texture from hematoxylin stained thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Roca, O; Pérez Gómez, J A; Estévez, M

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of cytology and histology should be considered in diagnostic standardisation processes. The present paper summarises the cytological differences detected in 75 thyroid lesions using a computerized textural analysis. Cells stained with progressive hematoxylin and taken from paraffin blocks were overlaid with the extracted texture. This technique was based on the lineal detection of a grey level gradient of the common logarithm of the integrated optical density (IOD) of each nucleus. Diffuse and nodular goiters (36 cases) were demonstrated to be composed of small cells containing high density texture that, on microscopical visual inspection, gave a "salt and pepper" appearance. The adenomatous goiters (2 cases) and adenomas (26 cases) were composed of low texture cells with a visual "blurry or smudgy" chromatin, while the atypical adenomas with capsular invasion (4 cases) were characterised by a "woodworm" nuclear appearance that produced the highest texture of the series. Finally, encapsulated folliculo-papillary carcinomas (3 cases) were composed of large clear nuclei with high IOD, low texture, and scattered lines that resulted in an "empty grape skin" aspect. Our findings seam to confirm the suitability of computerized textural techniques that aid in recognizing cell microscopic features objectively. The one used in the present work, based on a mathematical function of the DNA content of each individual nucleus (IOD), fulfills all microscopy detection criteria.

  2. Chromatin Texture from Hematoxylin Stained Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer-Roca, Olga; Pérez Gómez, José A.; Estévez, Maritza

    1998-01-01

    Quantitative aspects of cytology and histology should be considered in diagnostic standardisation processes. The present paper summarises the cytological differences detected in 75 thyroid lesions using a computerized textural analysis. Cells stained with progressive hematoxylin and taken from paraffin blocks were overlaid with the extracted texture. This technique was based on the lineal detection of a grey level gradient of the common logarithm of the integrated optical density (IOD) of each nucleus. Diffuse and nodular goiters (36 cases) were demonstrated to be composed of small cells containing high density texture that, on microscopical visual inspection, gave a “salt and pepper” appearance. The adenomatous goiters (2 cases) and adenomas (26 cases) were composed of low texture cells with a visual “blurry or smudgy” chromatin, while the atypical adenomas with capsular invasion (4 cases) were characterised by a “woodworm” nuclear appearance that produced the highest texture of the series. Finally, encapsulated folliculo-papillary carcinomas (3 cases) were composed of large clear nuclei with high IOD, low texture, and scattered lines that resulted in an “empty grape skin” aspect. Our findings seam to confirm the suitability of computerized textural techniques that aid in recognizing cell microscopic features objectively. The one used in the present work, based on a mathematical function of the DNA content of each individual nucleus (IOD), fulfills all microscopy detection criteria. PMID:10391373

  3. The quantitative architecture of centromeric chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bodor, Dani L; Mata, João F; Sergeev, Mikhail; David, Ana Filipa; Salimian, Kevan J; Panchenko, Tanya; Cleveland, Don W; Black, Ben E; Shah, Jagesh V; Jansen, Lars ET

    2014-01-01

    The centromere, responsible for chromosome segregation during mitosis, is epigenetically defined by CENP-A containing chromatin. The amount of centromeric CENP-A has direct implications for both the architecture and epigenetic inheritance of centromeres. Using complementary strategies, we determined that typical human centromeres contain ∼400 molecules of CENP-A, which is controlled by a mass-action mechanism. This number, despite representing only ∼4% of all centromeric nucleosomes, forms a ∼50-fold enrichment to the overall genome. In addition, although pre-assembled CENP-A is randomly segregated during cell division, this amount of CENP-A is sufficient to prevent stochastic loss of centromere function and identity. Finally, we produced a statistical map of CENP-A occupancy at a human neocentromere and identified nucleosome positions that feature CENP-A in a majority of cells. In summary, we present a quantitative view of the centromere that provides a mechanistic framework for both robust epigenetic inheritance of centromeres and the paucity of neocentromere formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02137.001 PMID:25027692

  4. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation for Human Monocyte Derived Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wooden, Jessica; Ciborowski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The importance of Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology has grown exponentially along with an increased interest in epigenetic regulation. The correlation of transcription factors with histone marks is now well established as the center of epigenetic studies; therefore, precise knowledge about histone marks is critical to unravel their molecular function and to understand their role in biological systems. This knowledge constantly accumulates and is provided openly in the expanding hubs of information such as the USCS Genome Browser. Nevertheless, as we gain more knowledge, we realize that the DNA-protein interactions are not driven by a “one size fits all” rule. Also, the diversity of interactions between DNA, histones, and transcriptional regulators is much bigger than previously considered. Besides a detailed protocol of sample preparation for the ChIP assay from primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM)a, we show that differences between various types of cells exist. Furthermore, we can postulate that such variations exist between transformed macrophage-like cell lines and primary macrophages obtained from healthy volunteers. We found that the most efficient fixation time for MDM is 10 minutes. Finally, to perform multiple analytical assays, we showed that even with thorough methodology, the yield of material obtained from primary cells is the major challenge. PMID:25220915

  5. Androgen receptor overexpression alters binding dynamics of the receptor to chromatin and chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Urbanucci, Alfonso; Marttila, Saara; Jänne, Olli A; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2012-08-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs) overexpress often androgen receptor (AR). Here, we investigated the effect of AR overexpression on the dynamics of AR loading and RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) recruitment to chromatin. Acetylation of histone 3 (AcH3) on lysines 9 and 14 (K9 and K14) was also studied. We used an LNCaP-based AR overexpression cell line model that includes a control line and two sublines, LNCaP-ARmo and LNCaP-ARhi, which overexpress AR twofold to threefold and fourfold to fivefold, respectively. Cells were exposed to 1 or 100 nM of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) on the promoters and enhancers of prostate specific antigen (PSA) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) genes was performed. qRT-PCR was used to measure the levels of PSA and TMPRSS2 transcripts. Upon stimulation with 1 nM DHT, AR and RNA Pol II were recruited onto PSA and TMPRSS2 enhancer regions to a greater extent (P < 0.05) in AR-overexpressing cells compared to control cells. The difference in AR loading between the control and AR-overexpressing cells was abolished by a higher DHT concentration. The ratio of AcH3/H3 was increased in AR-overexpressing cells. The induction of transcription of PSA and TMPRSS2 occurred earlier in the AR-overexpressing cells. Our findings suggest that the levels of AR potentiate the recruitment of the AR, as well as components of the basic transcription machinery, to chromatin and affect the acetylation of histones in the presence of low levels of androgens. These changes result in enhanced gene transcription of AR target genes. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0445 TITLE: Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Mia M. MacCollin, M.D...NUMBER Molecular Identification of the Schwannomatosis Locus 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0445 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...can be found on next page. 15. SUBJECT TERMS schwannomatosis, tumor suppressor gene, NF2, molecular genetics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  7. Ancestral Chromatin Configuration Constrains Chromatin Evolution on Differentiating Sex Chromosomes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-06-01

    Sex chromosomes evolve distinctive types of chromatin from a pair of ancestral autosomes that are usually euchromatic. In Drosophila, the dosage-compensated X becomes enriched for hyperactive chromatin in males (mediated by H4K16ac), while the Y chromosome acquires silencing heterochromatin (enriched for H3K9me2/3). Drosophila autosomes are typically mostly euchromatic but the small dot chromosome has evolved a heterochromatin-like milieu (enriched for H3K9me2/3) that permits the normal expression of dot-linked genes, but which is different from typical pericentric heterochromatin. In Drosophila busckii, the dot chromosomes have fused to the ancestral sex chromosomes, creating a pair of 'neo-sex' chromosomes. Here we collect genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from D. busckii, to investigate the evolutionary trajectory of sex chromosomes from a largely heterochromatic ancestor. We show that the neo-sex chromosomes formed <1 million years ago, but nearly 60% of neo-Y linked genes have already become non-functional. Expression levels are generally lower for the neo-Y alleles relative to their neo-X homologs, and the silencing heterochromatin mark H3K9me2, but not H3K9me3, is significantly enriched on silenced neo-Y genes. Despite rampant neo-Y degeneration, we find that the neo-X is deficient for the canonical histone modification mark of dosage compensation (H4K16ac), relative to autosomes or the compensated ancestral X chromosome, possibly reflecting constraints imposed on evolving hyperactive chromatin in an originally heterochromatic environment. Yet, neo-X genes are transcriptionally more active in males, relative to females, suggesting the evolution of incipient dosage compensation on the neo-X. Our data show that Y degeneration proceeds quickly after sex chromosomes become established through genomic and epigenetic changes, and are consistent with the idea that the evolution of sex-linked chromatin is influenced by its ancestral configuration.

  8. Ancestral Chromatin Configuration Constrains Chromatin Evolution on Differentiating Sex Chromosomes in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qi; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes evolve distinctive types of chromatin from a pair of ancestral autosomes that are usually euchromatic. In Drosophila, the dosage-compensated X becomes enriched for hyperactive chromatin in males (mediated by H4K16ac), while the Y chromosome acquires silencing heterochromatin (enriched for H3K9me2/3). Drosophila autosomes are typically mostly euchromatic but the small dot chromosome has evolved a heterochromatin-like milieu (enriched for H3K9me2/3) that permits the normal expression of dot-linked genes, but which is different from typical pericentric heterochromatin. In Drosophila busckii, the dot chromosomes have fused to the ancestral sex chromosomes, creating a pair of ‘neo-sex’ chromosomes. Here we collect genomic, transcriptomic and epigenomic data from D. busckii, to investigate the evolutionary trajectory of sex chromosomes from a largely heterochromatic ancestor. We show that the neo-sex chromosomes formed <1 million years ago, but nearly 60% of neo-Y linked genes have already become non-functional. Expression levels are generally lower for the neo-Y alleles relative to their neo-X homologs, and the silencing heterochromatin mark H3K9me2, but not H3K9me3, is significantly enriched on silenced neo-Y genes. Despite rampant neo-Y degeneration, we find that the neo-X is deficient for the canonical histone modification mark of dosage compensation (H4K16ac), relative to autosomes or the compensated ancestral X chromosome, possibly reflecting constraints imposed on evolving hyperactive chromatin in an originally heterochromatic environment. Yet, neo-X genes are transcriptionally more active in males, relative to females, suggesting the evolution of incipient dosage compensation on the neo-X. Our data show that Y degeneration proceeds quickly after sex chromosomes become established through genomic and epigenetic changes, and are consistent with the idea that the evolution of sex-linked chromatin is influenced by its ancestral configuration. PMID

  9. Multiple Hepatic Regulatory Variants at the GALNT2 GWAS Locus Associated with High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Roman, Tamara S; Marvelle, Amanda F; Fogarty, Marie P; Vadlamudi, Swarooparani; Gonzalez, Arlene J; Buchkovich, Martin L; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Fuchsberger, Christian; Jackson, Anne U; Wu, Ying; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons J; Gaulton, Kyle J; Sethupathy, Praveen; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kuusisto, Johanna; Collins, Francis S; Laakso, Markku; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2015-12-03

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified more than 150 loci associated with blood lipid and cholesterol levels; however, the functional and molecular mechanisms for many associations are unknown. We examined the functional regulatory effects of candidate variants at the GALNT2 locus associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Fine-mapping and conditional analyses in the METSIM study identified a single locus harboring 25 noncoding variants (r(2) > 0.7 with the lead GWAS variants) strongly associated with total cholesterol in medium-sized HDL (e.g., rs17315646, p = 3.5 × 10(-12)). We used luciferase reporter assays in HepG2 cells to test all 25 variants for allelic differences in regulatory enhancer activity. rs2281721 showed allelic differences in transcriptional activity (75-fold [T] versus 27-fold [C] more than the empty-vector control), as did a separate 780-bp segment containing rs4846913, rs2144300, and rs6143660 (49-fold [AT(-) haplotype] versus 16-fold [CC(+) haplotype] more). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we observed differential CEBPB binding to rs4846913, and we confirmed this binding in a native chromatin context by performing chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines of differing genotypes. Additionally, sequence reads in HepG2 DNase-I-hypersensitivity and CEBPB ChIP-seq signals spanning rs4846913 showed significant allelic imbalance. Allelic-expression-imbalance assays performed with RNA from primary human hepatocyte samples and expression-quantitative-trait-locus (eQTL) data in human subcutaneous adipose tissue samples confirmed that alleles associated with increased HDL-C are associated with a modest increase in GALNT2 expression. Together, these data suggest that at least rs4846913 and rs2281721 play key roles in influencing GALNT2 expression at this HDL-C locus.

  10. Regulation of meiotic chromatin loop size by chromosomal position.

    PubMed Central

    Heng, H H; Chamberlain, J W; Shi, X M; Spyropoulos, B; Tsui, L C; Moens, P B

    1996-01-01

    At meiotic prophase, chromatin loops around a proteinaceous core, with the sizes of these loops varying between species. Comparison of the morphology of sequence-related inserts at different sites in transgenic mice demonstrates that loop size also varies with chromosomal geography. Similarly, chromatin loop lengths differ dramatically for interstitially and terminally located hamster telomeric sequences. Sequences, telomeric or otherwise, located at chromosome termini, closely associate with the meiotic proteinaceous core, forming shorter loops than identical interstitial sequences. Thus, we present evidence that different chromatin packaging mechanisms exist for interstitial versus terminal chromosomal regions, which act separately from those operating at the level of the DNA sequence. Chromosomal position plays the dominant role in chromatin packaging. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8610120

  11. A benchmark for chromatin binding measurements in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Davide; Abernathy, Alice; Golob, Nicole; Morisaki, Tatsuya; McNally, James G.

    2012-01-01

    Live-cell measurement of protein binding to chromatin allows probing cellular biochemistry in physiological conditions, which are difficult to mimic in vitro. However, different studies have yielded widely discrepant predictions, and so it remains uncertain how to make the measurements accurately. To establish a benchmark we measured binding of the transcription factor p53 to chromatin by three approaches: fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and single-molecule tracking (SMT). Using new procedures to analyze the SMT data and to guide the FRAP and FCS analysis, we show how all three approaches yield similar estimates for both the fraction of p53 molecules bound to chromatin (only about 20%) and the residence time of these bound molecules (∼1.8 s). We also apply these procedures to mutants in p53 chromatin binding. Our results support the model that p53 locates specific sites by first binding at sequence-independent sites. PMID:22844090

  12. Neutron scattering studies on chromatin higher-order structure

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, V.; Gerchman, S.E.; Schneider, D.K.; Ramakrishnan, V.

    1994-12-31

    We have been engaged in studies of the structure and condensation of chromatin into the 30nm filament using small-angle neutron scattering. We have also used deuterated histone H1 to determine its location in the chromatin 30nm filament. Our studies indicate that chromatin condenses with increasing ionic strength to a limiting structure that has a mass per unit length of 6-7 nucleosomes/11 nm. They also show that the linker histone H1/H5 is located in the interior of the chromatin filament, in a position compatible with its binding to the inner face of the nucleosome. Analysis of the mass per unit length as a function of H5 stoichiometry suggests that 5-7 contiguous nucleosomes need to have H5 bound before a stable higher order structure can exist.

  13. Control of chromatin structure by long noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Böhmdorfer, Gudrun; Wierzbicki, Andrzej T.

    2015-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is a pivotal factor regulating various aspects of genome activity. Genome regulation via DNA methylation and posttranslational histone modifications is a well-documented function of lncRNA in plants, fungi, and animals. Here, we summarize evidence showing that lncRNA also controls chromatin structure including nucleosome positioning and chromosome looping. We focus on data from plant experimental systems, discussed in the context of other eukaryotes. We explain the mechanisms of lncRNA-controlled chromatin remodeling and the implications of the functional interplay between noncoding transcription and several different chromatin remodelers. We propose that the unique properties of RNA make it suitable for controlling chromatin modifications and structure. PMID:26410408

  14. Roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Soon-Ki; Wu, Miin-Feng; Cui, Sujuan; Wagner, Doris

    2015-07-01

    Chromatin remodeling ATPases and their associated complexes can alter the accessibility of the genome in the context of chromatin by using energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP to change the positioning, occupancy and composition of nucleosomes. In animals and plants, these remodelers have been implicated in diverse processes ranging from stem cell maintenance and differentiation to developmental phase transitions and stress responses. Detailed investigation of their roles in individual processes has suggested a higher level of selectivity of chromatin remodeling ATPase activity than previously anticipated, and diverse mechanisms have been uncovered that can contribute to the selectivity. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the roles and activities of chromatin remodeling ATPases in plants.

  15. A multiplexed system for quantitative comparisons of chromatin landscapes

    PubMed Central

    van Galen, Peter; Viny, Aaron D.; Ram, Oren; Ryan, Russell J.H.; Cotton, Matthew J.; Donohue, Laura; Sievers, Cem; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Carroll, Kaitlin M.; Cross, Michael B.; Levine, Ross L.; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications can provide systematic insight into the regulatory elements and programs engaged in a given cell type. However, conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) does not capture quantitative information on histone modification levels, requires large amounts of starting material, and involves tedious processing of each individual sample. Here we address these limitations with a technology that leverages DNA barcoding to profile chromatin quantitatively and in multiplexed format. We concurrently map relative levels of multiple histone modifications across multiple samples, each comprising as few as a thousand cells. We demonstrate the technology by monitoring dynamic changes following inhibition of P300, EZH2 or KDM5, by linking altered epigenetic landscapes to chromatin regulator mutations, and by mapping active and repressive marks in purified human hematopoietic stem cells. Hence, this technology enables quantitative studies of chromatin state dynamics across rare cell types, genotypes, environmental conditions and drug treatments. PMID:26687680

  16. Cohesin organizes chromatin loops at DNA replication factories

    PubMed Central

    Guillou, Emmanuelle; Ibarra, Arkaitz; Coulon, Vincent; Casado-Vela, Juan; Rico, Daniel; Casal, Ignacio; Schwob, Etienne; Losada, Ana; Méndez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Genomic DNA is packed in chromatin fibers organized in higher-order structures within the interphase nucleus. One level of organization involves the formation of chromatin loops that may provide a favorable environment to processes such as DNA replication, transcription, and repair. However, little is known about the mechanistic basis of this structuration. Here we demonstrate that cohesin participates in the spatial organization of DNA replication factories in human cells. Cohesin is enriched at replication origins and interacts with prereplication complex proteins. Down-regulation of cohesin slows down S-phase progression by limiting the number of active origins and increasing the length of chromatin loops that correspond with replicon units. These results give a new dimension to the role of cohesin in the architectural organization of interphase chromatin, by showing its participation in DNA replication. PMID:21159821

  17. Of giraffes' necks and the inheritance of chromatin states.

    PubMed

    Pirrotta, Vincenzo

    2017-05-26

    New work reports that both derepressed and hyper-repressed chromatin states in animals can be transmitted to progeny for many generations. Transmission depends on genomic architecture and histone modifications.

  18. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype.

  19. Chromatin remodeling in DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yunhe; Shen, Xuetong

    2007-04-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes use ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes and have well-established functions in transcription. However, emerging lines of evidence suggest that chromatin remodeling complexes are important players in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair as well. The INO80 and SWI2 subfamilies of chromatin remodeling complexes have been found to be recruited to the double-strand lesions and to function directly in both homologous recombination and non-homologous end-joining, the two major conserved DSB repair pathways. Improperly repaired DSBs are implicated in cancer development in higher organisms. Understanding how chromatin remodeling complexes contribute to DSB repair should provide new insights into the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and might suggest new targets for cancer treatment.

  20. ISWI chromatin remodeling complexes in the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Özge Z; Vermeulen, Wim; Lans, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of chromatin structure is an essential component of the DNA damage response (DDR), which effectively preserves the integrity of DNA by a network of multiple DNA repair and associated signaling pathways. Within the DDR, chromatin is modified and remodeled to facilitate efficient DNA access, to control the activity of repair proteins and to mediate signaling. The mammalian ISWI family has recently emerged as one of the major ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex families that function in the DDR, as it is implicated in at least 3 major DNA repair pathways: homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining and nucleotide excision repair. In this review, we discuss the various manners through which different ISWI complexes regulate DNA repair and how they are targeted to chromatin containing damaged DNA.

  1. A Multiplexed System for Quantitative Comparisons of Chromatin Landscapes.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Peter; Viny, Aaron D; Ram, Oren; Ryan, Russell J H; Cotton, Matthew J; Donohue, Laura; Sievers, Cem; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Cross, Michael B; Levine, Ross L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-07

    Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications can provide systematic insight into the regulatory elements and programs engaged in a given cell type. However, conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) does not capture quantitative information on histone modification levels, requires large amounts of starting material, and involves tedious processing of each individual sample. Here, we address these limitations with a technology that leverages DNA barcoding to profile chromatin quantitatively and in multiplexed format. We concurrently map relative levels of multiple histone modifications across multiple samples, each comprising as few as a thousand cells. We demonstrate the technology by monitoring dynamic changes following inhibition of p300, EZH2, or KDM5, by linking altered epigenetic landscapes to chromatin regulator mutations, and by mapping active and repressive marks in purified human hematopoietic stem cells. Hence, this technology enables quantitative studies of chromatin state dynamics across rare cell types, genotypes, environmental conditions, and drug treatments.

  2. Histone variants and chromatin assembly in plant abiotic stress responses.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Genome organization into nucleosomes and higher-order chromatin structures has profound implications for the regulation of gene expression, DNA replication and repair. The structure of chromatin can be remodeled by several mechanisms; among others, nucleosome assembly/disassembly and replacement of canonical histones with histone variants constitute important ones. In this review, we provide a brief description on the current knowledge about histone chaperones involved in nucleosome assembly/disassembly and histone variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss recent advances in revealing crucial functions of histone chaperones, nucleosome assembly/disassembly and histone variants in plant response to abiotic stresses. It appears that chromatin structure remodeling may provide a flexible, global and stable means for the regulation of gene transcription to help plants more effectively cope with environmental stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Histone chaperones and chromatin assembly.

  3. HACking the centromere chromatin code: insights from human artificial chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jan H; Martins, Nuno M C; Larionov, Vladimir; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Earnshaw, William C

    2012-07-01

    The centromere is a specialized chromosomal region that serves as the assembly site of the kinetochore. At the centromere, CENP-A nucleosomes form part of a chromatin landscape termed centrochromatin. This chromatin environment conveys epigenetic marks regulating kinetochore formation. Recent work sheds light on the intricate relationship between centrochromatin state, the CENP-A assembly pathway and the maintenance of centromere function. Here, we review the emerging picture of how chromatin affects mammalian kinetochore formation. We place particular emphasis on data obtained from Human Artificial Chromosome (HAC) biology and the targeted engineering of centrochromatin using synthetic HACs. We discuss implications of these findings, which indicate that a delicate balance of histone modifications and chromatin state dictates both de novo centromere formation and the maintenance of centromere identity in dividing cell populations.

  4. Nuclear morphometry and chromatin textural characteristics of basal cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Mendaçolli, Paola Jung; Brianezi, Gabrielli; Schmitt, Juliano Vilaverde; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2015-01-01

    Histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma have biological, evolutionary and distinct prognostic behavior. The analysis of characteristics of the nucleus can provide data on their cellular physiology and behavior. The authors of this study evaluated nuclear morphological parameters and textural patterns of chromatin from different subtypes of basal cell carcinoma: nodular (n=37), superficial (n=28) and sclerodermiform (n=28). The parameters were compared between neoplasms' subtypes and with unaffected adjacent basal epithelium. Nuclear area and diameter of sclerodermiform neoplasms were superior to the other subtypes. Chromatin's color intensity and fractal dimension were less intense in superficial subtypes. Nuclear roundness and chromatin's entropy presented lower values in tumors than in normal epithelium. There was significant correlation between morphological and textural variables of normal skin and tumors. Morphometric elements and textural chromatin's homogeneity of basal cell carcinomas may be related to evolutionary, biological and behavior particularities related to each histotype. PMID:26734870

  5. ChIP-less analysis of chromatin states.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhangli; Boersma, Melissa D; Lee, Jin-Hee; Oliver, Samuel S; Liu, Shichong; Garcia, Benjamin A; Denu, John M

    2014-01-01

    Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key epigenetic regulators in chromatin-based processes. Increasing evidence suggests that vast combinations of PTMs exist within chromatin histones. These complex patterns, rather than individual PTMs, are thought to define functional chromatin states. However, the ability to interrogate combinatorial histone PTM patterns at the nucleosome level has been limited by the lack of direct molecular tools. Here we demonstrate an efficient, quantitative, antibody-free, chromatin immunoprecipitation-less (ChIP-less) method for interrogating diverse epigenetic states. At the heart of the workflow are recombinant chromatin reader domains, which target distinct chromatin states with combinatorial PTM patterns. Utilizing a newly designed combinatorial histone peptide microarray, we showed that three reader domains (ATRX-ADD, ING2-PHD and AIRE-PHD) displayed greater specificity towards combinatorial PTM patterns than corresponding commercial histone antibodies. Such specific recognitions were employed to develop a chromatin reader-based affinity enrichment platform (matrix-assisted reader chromatin capture, or MARCC). We successfully applied the reader-based platform to capture unique chromatin states, which were quantitatively profiled by mass spectrometry to reveal interconnections between nucleosomal histone PTMs. Specifically, a highly enriched signature that harbored H3K4me0, H3K9me2/3, H3K79me0 and H4K20me2/3 within the same nucleosome was identified from chromatin enriched by ATRX-ADD. This newly reported PTM combination was enriched in heterochromatin, as revealed by the associated DNA. Our results suggest the broad utility of recombinant reader domains as an enrichment tool specific to combinatorial PTM patterns, which are difficult to probe directly by antibody-based approaches. The reader affinity platform is compatible with several downstream analyses to investigate the physical coexistence of nucleosomal PTM

  6. Chromatin Insulators: Linking genome organization to cellular function

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Cremins, Jennifer E.; Corces, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that insulators have a primary role in orchestrating the topological arrangement of higher-order chromatin architecture. Insulator-mediated long-range interactions can influence the epigenetic status of the genome and, in certain contexts, may have important effects on gene expression. Here we discuss higher-order chromatin organization as a unifying mechanism for diverse insulator actions across the genome. PMID:23706817

  7. HMG Nuclear Proteins: Linking Chromatin Structure to Cellular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    I. Summary Although the three families of mammalian HMG proteins (HMGA, HMGB and HMGN) participate in many of the same nuclear processes, each family plays its own unique role in modulating chromatin structure and regulating genomic function. This review focuses on the similarities and differences in the mechanisms by which the different HMG families impact chromatin structure and influence cellular phenotype. The biological implications of having three architectural transcription factor families with complementary, but partially overlapping, nuclear functions are discussed. PMID:19748605

  8. Genome-wide nucleosome mapping of Plasmodium falciparum reveals histone-rich coding and histone-poor intergenic regions and chromatin remodeling of core and subtelomeric genes.

    PubMed

    Westenberger, Scott J; Cui, Long; Dharia, Neekesh; Winzeler, Elizabeth; Cui, Liwang

    2009-12-16

    Epigenetic modifications of histones and regulation of chromatin structure have been implicated in regulation of virulence gene families in P. falciparum. To better understand chromatin-mediated gene regulation, we used a high-density oligonucleotide microarray to map the position and enrichment of nucleosomes across the entire genome of P. falciparum at three time points of the intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) in vitro. We used an unmodified histone H4 antibody for chromatin immunoprecipitation of nucleosome-bound DNA. We observed generally low nucleosomal occupancy of intergenic regions and higher occupancy of protein coding regions. In contract to the overall small fluctuation of nucleosomal occupancy in most coding regions throughout the IDC, subtelomeric genes encoding surface proteins such as var and rif, as well as some core chromosomal genes such as transcription factors, showed large changes in chromatin structure. Telomeres harbored a region with the highest nucleosomal occupancy of the genome and also exhibited large changes with higher nucleosomal occupancy at schizont stages. While many of these subtelomeric genes were previously shown to be modified by H3K9 trimethylation, we also identified some housekeeping genes in core chromosome regions that showed extensive changes in chromatin structure but do not contain this modification. tRNA and basal transcription factor genes showed low nucleosomal occupancy at all times, suggesting of an open chromatin structure that might be permissive for constitutively high levels of expression. Generally, nucleosomal occupancy was not correlated with the steady-state mRNA levels. Several var genes were exceptions: the var gene with the highest expression level showed the lowest nucleosomal occupancy, and selection of parasites for var2CSA expression resulted in lower nucleosomal occupancy at the var2CSA locus. We identified nucleosome-free regions in intergenic regions that may serve as transcription

  9. Higher chromatin mobility supports totipotency and precedes pluripotency in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bošković, Ana; Eid, André; Pontabry, Julien; Ishiuchi, Takashi; Spiegelhalter, Coralie; Raghu Ram, Edupuganti V S; Meshorer, Eran; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2014-05-15

    The fusion of the gametes upon fertilization results in the formation of a totipotent cell. Embryonic chromatin is expected to be able to support a large degree of plasticity. However, whether this plasticity relies on a particular conformation of the embryonic chromatin is unknown. Moreover, whether chromatin plasticity is functionally linked to cellular potency has not been addressed. Here, we adapted fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in the developing mouse embryo and show that mobility of the core histones H2A, H3.1, and H3.2 is unusually high in two-cell stage embryos and decreases as development proceeds. The transition toward pluripotency is accompanied by a decrease in histone mobility, and, upon lineage allocation, pluripotent cells retain higher mobility than the differentiated trophectoderm. Importantly, totipotent two-cell-like embryonic stem cells also display high core histone mobility, implying that reprogramming toward totipotency entails changes in chromatin mobility. Our data suggest that changes in chromatin dynamics underlie the transitions in cellular plasticity and that higher chromatin mobility is at the nuclear foundations of totipotency.

  10. A WD-Repeat Protein Stabilizes ORC Binding to Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhen; Sathyan, Kizhakke M.; Geng, Yijie; Zheng, Ruiping; Chakraborty, Arindam; Freeman, Brian; Wang, Fei; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Prasanth, Supriya G.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Origin recognition complex (ORC) plays critical roles in the initiation of DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. In metazoans, ORC associates with origin DNA during G1 and with heterochromatin in postreplicated cells. However, what regulates the binding of ORC to chromatin is not understood. We have identified a highly conserved, leucine-rich repeats and WD40 repeat domain-containing protein 1 (LRWD1) or ORC-associated (ORCA) in human cells that interacts with ORC and modulates chromatin association of ORC. ORCA colocalizes with ORC and shows similar cell-cycle dynamics. We demonstrate that ORCA efficiently recruits ORC to chromatin. Depletion of ORCA in human primary cells and embryonic stem cells results in loss of ORC association to chromatin, concomitant reduction of MCM binding, and a subsequent accumulation in G1 phase. Our results suggest ORCA-mediated association of ORC to chromatin is critical to initiate preRC assembly in G1 and chromatin organization in post-G1 cells. PMID:20932478

  11. On the physical and chemical dynamics of chromatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apratim, Manjul

    The research performed leading to this dissertation is an endeavor to explore two broad classes of developmental phenomena in the chromatin complex in eukaryotic cells---physical, for instance, long range interactions between enhancers and promoters, and chemical, such as epigenetic chromatin silencing. I begin by introducing the reader to both types of phenomena, and then set the stage for our strategy in the exploration of the physical side of these processes by creating a new machinery from existing pieces of polymer physics. I then make a brief foray into theoretical realms in an attempt to answer the question of what kinds of conformations of polymers dominate in what regimes. Subsequently, I proceed to consider the problem of analyzing and interpreting data from a major technique of probing the behavior of the chromatin complex in vivo --- Chromosome Conformation Capture --- towards which end we have developed and implemented a new and robust algorithm called 'G.R.O.M.A.T.I.N.'. Subsequently, I explore how similar ideas may be invoked in the analysis of direct microscopic observations of native chromatin structure via Fluorescence in situ Hybridization. Following this, I look at the problems of epigenetic chromatin silencing domain formation and stability in the presence of titration feedback and of stochastic noise, and demonstrate how the widely accepted polymerization model of silencing is consistent with Chromatin Immunoprecipitation data from silencing domains in budding yeast. I finally conclude with musings on recent evidence pinpointing the need to unify the physical and chemical pictures into one grand formulation.

  12. FACT facilitates chromatin transcription by RNA polymerases I and III

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Joanna L; Tan, Bertrand C-M; Panov, Kostya I; Panova, Tatiana B; Andersen, Jens S; Owen-Hughes, Tom A; Russell, Jackie; Lee, Sheng-Chung; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2009-01-01

    Efficient transcription elongation from a chromatin template requires RNA polymerases (Pols) to negotiate nucleosomes. Our biochemical analyses demonstrate that RNA Pol I can transcribe through nucleosome templates and that this requires structural rearrangement of the nucleosomal core particle. The subunits of the histone chaperone FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), SSRP1 and Spt16, co-purify and co-immunoprecipitate with mammalian Pol I complexes. In cells, SSRP1 is detectable at the rRNA gene repeats. Crucially, siRNA-mediated repression of FACT subunit expression in cells results in a significant reduction in 47S pre-rRNA levels, whereas synthesis of the first 40 nt of the rRNA is not affected, implying that FACT is important for Pol I transcription elongation through chromatin. FACT also associates with RNA Pol III complexes, is present at the chromatin of genes transcribed by Pol III and facilitates their transcription in cells. Our findings indicate that, beyond the established role in Pol II transcription, FACT has physiological functions in chromatin transcription by all three nuclear RNA Pols. Our data also imply that local chromatin dynamics influence transcription of the active rRNA genes by Pol I and of Pol III-transcribed genes. PMID:19214185

  13. Cytoplasmic chromatin triggers inflammation in senescence and cancer.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhixun; Ghosh, Kanad; Vizioli, Maria Grazia; Zhu, Jiajun; Sen, Payel; Wangensteen, Kirk J; Simithy, Johayra; Lan, Yemin; Lin, Yanping; Zhou, Zhuo; Capell, Brian C; Xu, Caiyue; Xu, Mingang; Kieckhaefer, Julia E; Jiang, Tianying; Shoshkes-Carmel, Michal; Tanim, K M Ahasan Al; Barber, Glen N; Seykora, John T; Millar, Sarah E; Kaestner, Klaus H; Garcia, Benjamin A; Adams, Peter D; Berger, Shelley L

    2017-10-04

    Chromatin is traditionally viewed as a nuclear entity that regulates gene expression and silencing. However, we recently discovered the presence of cytoplasmic chromatin fragments that pinch off from intact nuclei of primary cells during senescence, a form of terminal cell-cycle arrest associated with pro-inflammatory responses. The functional significance of chromatin in the cytoplasm is unclear. Here we show that cytoplasmic chromatin activates the innate immunity cytosolic DNA-sensing cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase linked to stimulator of interferon genes) pathway, leading both to short-term inflammation to restrain activated oncogenes and to chronic inflammation that associates with tissue destruction and cancer. The cytoplasmic chromatin-cGAS-STING pathway promotes the senescence-associated secretory phenotype in primary human cells and in mice. Mice deficient in STING show impaired immuno-surveillance of oncogenic RAS and reduced tissue inflammation upon ionizing radiation. Furthermore, this pathway is activated in cancer cells, and correlates with pro-inflammatory gene expression in human cancers. Overall, our findings indicate that genomic DNA serves as a reservoir to initiate a pro-inflammatory pathway in the cytoplasm in senescence and cancer. Targeting the cytoplasmic chromatin-mediated pathway may hold promise in treating inflammation-related disorders.

  14. Isolation and Proteomics Analysis of Barley Centromeric Chromatin Using PICh.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zixian; Jiang, Jiming

    2016-06-03

    Identification of proteins that are directly or indirectly associated with a specific DNA sequence is often an important goal in molecular biology research. Proteomics of isolated chromatin fragments (PICh) is a technique used to isolate chromatin that contains homologous DNA sequence to a specific nucleic acid probe. All proteins directly and indirectly associated with the DNA sequences that hybridize to the probe are then identified by proteomics.1 We used the PICh technique to isolate chromatin associated with the centromeres of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by using a 2'-deoxy-2'fluoro-ribonucleotides (2'-F RNA) probe that is homologous to the AGGGAG satellite DNA specific to barley centromeres. Proteins associated with the barley centromeric chromatin were then isolated and identified by mass spectrometry. Both alpha-cenH3 and beta-cenH3, the two centromeric histone H3 variants associated with barley centromeres, were positively identified. Interestingly, several different H2A and H2B variants were recovered in the PIChed chromatin. The limitations and future potential of PICh in plant chromatin research are discussed.

  15. The role of chromatin dynamics in immune cell development.

    PubMed

    Winter, Deborah R; Amit, Ido

    2014-09-01

    In immune cells, as in all mammalian cells, nuclear DNA is wrapped around histones to form nucleosomes. The positioning and modifications of nucleosomes throughout the genome defines the chromatin state of the cell and has a large impact on gene regulation. Chromatin state is dynamic throughout immune cell development and activation. High-throughput open chromatin assays, such as DNase-seq, can be used to find regulatory element across the genome and, when combined with histone modifications, can specify their function. During hematopoiesis, distal regulatory elements, known as enhancers, are established by pioneer factors that alter chromatin state. Some of these enhancers are lost, some are gained, and some are maintained as a memory of the cell's developmental origin. The enhancer landscape is unique to the cell lineage-with different enhancers regulating the same promoter-and determines the mechanism of cell type-specific activation after exposure to stimuli. Histone modification and promoter architecture govern the diverse responses to stimulation. Furthermore, chromatin dynamics may explain the high plasticity of certain tissue-resident immune cell types. Future epigenomic research will depend on the development of more efficient experiments and better methods to associate enhancers with genes. The ultimate goal of mapping genome-wide chromatin state throughout the hematopoietic tree will help illuminate the mechanisms behind immune cell development and function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Alteration of Large-Scale Chromatin Structure by Estrogen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nye, Anne C.; Rajendran, Ramji R.; Stenoien, David L.; Mancini, Michael A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.; Belmont, Andrew S.

    2002-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily important in human physiology and disease, recruits coactivators which modify local chromatin structure. Here we describe effects of ER on large-scale chromatin structure as visualized in live cells. We targeted ER to gene-amplified chromosome arms containing large numbers of lac operator sites either directly, through a lac repressor-ER fusion protein (lac rep-ER), or indirectly, by fusing lac repressor with the ER interaction domain of the coactivator steroid receptor coactivator 1. Significant decondensation of large-scale chromatin structure, comparable to that produced by the ∼150-fold-stronger viral protein 16 (VP16) transcriptional activator, was produced by ER in the absence of estradiol using both approaches. Addition of estradiol induced a partial reversal of this unfolding by green fluorescent protein-lac rep-ER but not by wild-type ER recruited by a lac repressor-SRC570-780 fusion protein. The chromatin decondensation activity did not require transcriptional activation by ER nor did it require ligand-induced coactivator interactions, and unfolding did not correlate with histone hyperacetylation. Ligand-induced coactivator interactions with helix 12 of ER were necessary for the partial refolding of chromatin in response to estradiol using the lac rep-ER tethering system. This work demonstrates that when tethered or recruited to DNA, ER possesses a novel large-scale chromatin unfolding activity. PMID:11971975

  17. Brain neuronal chromatin responses in acute soman intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J; Doebler, J A; Wall, T J; Shih, T M; Anthony, A

    1986-08-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 g) were injected subcutaneously with soman, a potent neuronal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, at doses of 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 LD50 (1 LD50 = 135 micrograms/kg) before decapitation at 1 and 24 h post-exposure. Correlative data were obtained on the severity of brain AChE inactivation and physicochemical changes in nuclear chromatin of cerebrocortical (layer V) and striatal neurons using Feulgen-DNA (F-DNA) cytophotometry and ocular filar micrometry. Decreased lability of neurons to F-DNA acid hydrolysis (reduced F-DNA yield), nuclear shrinkage and chromatin aggregation (decreased chromophore area) were used as indices of suppression of genomic template activity; conversely, increases in F-DNA yield and chromophore area signify enhanced neuroexcitation. At 1 hr post-soman there was a dose-dependent inactivation of AChE with a moderate increase in chromatin activation, i.e., nuclear hypertrophy and chromatin dispersion. At 24 hr post-soman there was a partial restoration of AChE activity, notably in striatal neurons, with a suppression in chromatin template activity. These data indicate that actions of soman on neuronal functioning are time-dependent. The absence of any dose-related neuronal chromatin changes may signify existence of non-cholinergic mediated events.

  18. A WD-repeat protein stabilizes ORC binding to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhen; Sathyan, Kizhakke M; Geng, Yijie; Zheng, Ruiping; Chakraborty, Arindam; Freeman, Brian; Wang, Fei; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2010-10-08

    Origin recognition complex (ORC) plays critical roles in the initiation of DNA replication and cell-cycle progression. In metazoans, ORC associates with origin DNA during G1 and with heterochromatin in postreplicated cells. However, what regulates the binding of ORC to chromatin is not understood. We have identified a highly conserved, leucine-rich repeats and WD40 repeat domain-containing protein 1 (LRWD1) or ORC-associated (ORCA) in human cells that interacts with ORC and modulates chromatin association of ORC. ORCA colocalizes with ORC and shows similar cell-cycle dynamics. We demonstrate that ORCA efficiently recruits ORC to chromatin. Depletion of ORCA in human primary cells and embryonic stem cells results in loss of ORC association to chromatin, concomitant reduction of MCM binding, and a subsequent accumulation in G1 phase. Our results suggest ORCA-mediated association of ORC to chromatin is critical to initiate preRC assembly in G1 and chromatin organization in post-G1 cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chromatin Changes Associated with Neuronal Maintenance and Their Pharmacological Application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang Ho; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Sunhong; Cho, Kyoung Sang; Lee, Sung Bae

    2017-06-01

    The transcriptional control of neuronal specification and early development has been intensively studied over the past few decades. However, relatively little is known about transcriptional programs associated with the maintenance of terminally differentiated neuronal cells with respect to their functions, structures, and cell type-specific identity features. Notably, largely because of the recent advances in related techniques such as next generation sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, the physiological implications of system-wide regulation of gene expression through changes in chromatin states have begun to be extensively studied in various contexts and systems, including the nervous system. Here, we attempt to review our current understanding of the link between chromatin changes and neuronal maintenance in the period of life after the completion of neuronal development. Perturbations involving chromatin changes in the system-wide transcriptional control are believed to be closely associated with diverse aspects of neuronal aging and neurodegenerative conditions. In this review, we focused on examples of epigenetic dysregulations in neurodegenerative conditions as well as neuronal aging, the most important risk factor leading to neuronal degeneration, in order to highlight the close association between chromatin changes and neuronal maintenance. Lastly, we reviewed the currently available and potential future applications of pharmacological control of the chromatin states associated with neuronal maintenance. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Fragmentation of chromatin with 125I radioactive disintegrations.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G N; Nobis, P; Dewey, W C

    1976-01-01

    The DNA in Chinese hamster cells was labeled first for 3 h with [3H]TdR and then for 3 h with [125I]UdR. Chromatin was extracted, frozen, and stored at -30 degrees C until 1.0 X 10(17) and 1.25 X 10(17) disintegrations/g of labeled DNA occurred for 125I and 3H respectively. Velocity sedimentation of chromatin (DNA with associated chromosomal proteins) in neutral sucrose gradients indicated that the localized energy from the 125I disintegrations, which gave about 1 double-strand break/disintegration plus an additional 1.3 single strand breaks, selectively fragmented the [125I] chromatin into pieces smaller than the [3H] chromatin. In other words, 125I disintegrations caused much more localized damage in the chromatin labeled with 125I than in the chromatin labeled with 3H, and fragments induced in DNA by 125I disintegrations were not held together by the associated chromosomal proteins. Use of this 125I technique for studying chromosomal proteins associated with different regions in the cellular DNA is discussed. For these studies, the number of disintegrations required for fragmenting DNA molecules of different sizes is illustrated. PMID:963201

  1. Accumulation of RNA on chromatin disrupts heterochromatic silencing.

    PubMed

    Brönner, Cornelia; Salvi, Luca; Zocco, Manuel; Ugolini, Ilaria; Halic, Mario

    2017-04-12

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a conserved role in regulating gene expression, chromatin dynamics and cell differentiation. They serve as a platform for RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated heterochromatin formation or DNA methylation in many eukaryotic organisms. We found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, that heterochromatin is lost at transcribed regions in absence of RNA degradation. We show that heterochromatic RNAs are retained on chromatin, form DNA:RNA hybrids and need to be degraded by the Ccr4-Not complex or RNAi to maintain heterochromatic silencing. The Ccr4-Not complex is localized to chromatin independently of H3K9me and degrades chromatin associated transcripts, which is required for transcriptional silencing. Overexpression of heterochromatic RNA, but not euchromatic RNA, leads to its chromatin localization and loss of silencing of a distant ade6 reporter in wild type cells. Our results demonstrate that chromatin bound RNAs disrupt heterochromatin organization and need to be degraded in a process of heterochromatin formation.

  2. Chromatin topology is coupled to Polycomb group protein subnuclear organization

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Ajazul H.; Boettiger, Alistair N.; Schorderet, Patrick; Ergun, Ayla; Münger, Christine; Sadreyev, Ruslan I.; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Kingston, Robert E.; Francis, Nicole J.

    2016-01-01

    The genomes of metazoa are organized at multiple scales. Many proteins that regulate genome architecture, including Polycomb group (PcG) proteins, form subnuclear structures. Deciphering mechanistic links between protein organization and chromatin architecture requires precise description and mechanistic perturbations of both. Using super-resolution microscopy, here we show that PcG proteins are organized into hundreds of nanoscale protein clusters. We manipulated PcG clusters by disrupting the polymerization activity of the sterile alpha motif (SAM) of the PcG protein Polyhomeotic (Ph) or by increasing Ph levels. Ph with mutant SAM disrupts clustering of endogenous PcG complexes and chromatin interactions while elevating Ph level increases cluster number and chromatin interactions. These effects can be captured by molecular simulations based on a previously described chromatin polymer model. Both perturbations also alter gene expression. Organization of PcG proteins into small, abundant clusters on chromatin through Ph SAM polymerization activity may shape genome architecture through chromatin interactions. PMID:26759081

  3. Ectopically tethered CP190 induces large-scale chromatin decondensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahanger, Sajad H.; Günther, Katharina; Weth, Oliver; Bartkuhn, Marek; Bhonde, Ramesh R.; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Renkawitz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Insulator mediated alteration in higher-order chromatin and/or nucleosome organization is an important aspect of epigenetic gene regulation. Recent studies have suggested a key role for CP190 in such processes. In this study, we analysed the effects of ectopically tethered insulator factors on chromatin structure and found that CP190 induces large-scale decondensation when targeted to a condensed lacO array in mammalian and Drosophila cells. In contrast, dCTCF alone, is unable to cause such a decondensation, however, when CP190 is present, dCTCF recruits it to the lacO array and mediates chromatin unfolding. The CP190 induced opening of chromatin may not be correlated with transcriptional activation, as binding of CP190 does not enhance luciferase activity in reporter assays. We propose that CP190 may mediate histone modification and chromatin remodelling activity to induce an open chromatin state by its direct recruitment or targeting by a DNA binding factor such as dCTCF.

  4. Chd5 orchestrates chromatin remodeling during sperm development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wangzhi; Wu, Jie; Kim, Sang-Yong; Zhao, Ming; Hearn, Stephen A.; Zhang, Michael Q.; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most remarkable chromatin remodeling processes occurs during spermiogenesis, the post-meiotic phase of sperm development during which histones are replaced with sperm-specific protamines to repackage the genome into the highly compact chromatin structure of mature sperm. Here we identify Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 5 (Chd5) as a master regulator of the histone-to-protamine chromatin remodeling process. Chd5 deficiency leads to defective sperm chromatin compaction and male infertility in mice, mirroring the observation of low CHD5 expression in testes of infertile men. Chd5 orchestrates a cascade of molecular events required for histone removal and replacement, including histone 4 (H4) hyperacetylation, histone variant expression, nucleosome eviction, and DNA damage repair. Chd5 deficiency also perturbs expression of transition proteins (Tnp1/Tnp2) and protamines (Prm1/2). These findings define Chd5 as a multi-faceted mediator of histone-to-protamine replacement and depict the cascade of molecular events underlying chromatin remodeling during this process of extensive chromatin remodeling. PMID:24818823

  5. Clinical utility and functional analysis of variants in atrial fibrillation-associated locus 4q25.

    PubMed

    Ebana, Yusuke; Ozaki, Kouichi; Liu, Lian; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Hirao, Kenzo; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Furukawa, Tetsushi

    2017-10-01

    Chromosome 4q25 has been repeatedly identified as atrial fibrillation (AF)-sensitive locus in multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and is considered to hold some clues to AF pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate the clinical utilities in Japanese and to unveil the function of the 4q25 locus in affecting transcription of adjacent genes. We conducted AF GWAS in Japanese population (1382 AF cases and 1478 controls) and the replication panel (1666 AF cases and 1229 controls) with detailed clinical information which showed the acceleration of AF onset. Stepwise investigations with linkage disequilibrium analysis, histone code patterns, and reporter assay in the 4q25 locus were performed. The AF GWAS confirmed a significant association of rs4611994 and rs1906617 in chromosome 4q25 with AF. In the clinical analysis, AF onset of the individuals with risk allele accelerated 2.5 years compared with those with protective allele (p=0.00012). Next, in the functional analysis, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the variant group selected by linkage disequilibrium analysis were identified as candidates for the cis-regulatory element toward adjacent genes in chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Among them, rs4611994 and rs72900144 regions showed higher effects on the transcriptional activity of luciferase gene in the risk alleles than those in the protective alleles (p<0.0001, p<0.005, respectively). AF GWAS in Japanese confirmed the association with 4q25 locus and indicated that its SNP affected the acceleration of AF onset. The candidate regions of the causative SNPs, rs4611994 and rs72900144, could alter the adjacent gene expression level. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 Encodes a SMARCA3-Like Chromatin Remodeling Factor Regulating Elongation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Kailiang; Behera, Tusar K.; Pandey, Sudhakar; Wen, Changlong; Wang, Yuhui; Simon, Philipp W.; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the UVR8-mediated signaling pathway is employed to attain UVB protection and acclimation to deal with low-dosage UVB (LDUVB)-induced stresses. Here, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), which regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation by modulating the UVR8 signaling pathway. We showed that hypocotyl elongation in cucumbers carrying the recessive sh1 allele was LDUVB insensitive and that Sh1 encoded a human SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor. The allele frequency and distribution pattern at this locus among natural populations supported the wild cucumber origin of sh1 for local adaptation, which was under selection during domestication. The cultivated cucumber carries predominantly the Sh1 allele; the sh1 allele is nearly fixed in the semiwild Xishuangbanna cucumber, and the wild cucumber population is largely at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two alleles. The SH1 protein sequence was highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms, but its regulation of hypocotyl elongation in cucumber seems to be a novel function. While Sh1 expression was inhibited by LDUVB, its transcript abundance was highly correlated with hypocotyl elongation rate and the expression level of cell-elongation-related genes. Expression profiling of key regulators in the UVR8 signaling pathway revealed significant differential expression of CsHY5 between two near isogenic lines of Sh1. Sh1 and CsHY5 acted antagonistically at transcriptional level. A working model was proposed in which Sh1 regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation in cucumber through changing the chromatin states and thus the accessibility of CsHY5 in the UVR8 signaling pathway to promoters of LDUVB-responsive genes for hypocotyl elongation. PMID:27559036

  7. SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 Encodes a SMARCA3-Like Chromatin Remodeling Factor Regulating Elongation.

    PubMed

    Bo, Kailiang; Wang, Hui; Pan, Yupeng; Behera, Tusar K; Pandey, Sudhakar; Wen, Changlong; Wang, Yuhui; Simon, Philipp W; Li, Yuhong; Chen, Jinfeng; Weng, Yiqun

    2016-10-01

    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the UVR8-mediated signaling pathway is employed to attain UVB protection and acclimation to deal with low-dosage UVB (LDUVB)-induced stresses. Here, we identified SHORT HYPOCOTYL1 (SH1) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), which regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation by modulating the UVR8 signaling pathway. We showed that hypocotyl elongation in cucumbers carrying the recessive sh1 allele was LDUVB insensitive and that Sh1 encoded a human SMARCA3-like chromatin remodeling factor. The allele frequency and distribution pattern at this locus among natural populations supported the wild cucumber origin of sh1 for local adaptation, which was under selection during domestication. The cultivated cucumber carries predominantly the Sh1 allele; the sh1 allele is nearly fixed in the semiwild Xishuangbanna cucumber, and the wild cucumber population is largely at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the two alleles. The SH1 protein sequence was highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms, but its regulation of hypocotyl elongation in cucumber seems to be a novel function. While Sh1 expression was inhibited by LDUVB, its transcript abundance was highly correlated with hypocotyl elongation rate and the expression level of cell-elongation-related genes. Expression profiling of key regulators in the UVR8 signaling pathway revealed significant differential expression of CsHY5 between two near isogenic lines of Sh1 Sh1 and CsHY5 acted antagonistically at transcriptional level. A working model was proposed in which Sh1 regulates LDUVB-dependent hypocotyl elongation in cucumber through changing the chromatin states and thus the accessibility of CsHY5 in the UVR8 signaling pathway to promoters of LDUVB-responsive genes for hypocotyl elongation.

  8. Altered Chromatin Occupancy of Master Regulators Underlies Evolutionary Divergence in the Transcriptional Landscape of Erythroid Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Ulirsch, Jacob C.; Lacy, Jessica N.; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Sankaran, Vijay G.

    2014-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is one of the best understood examples of cellular differentiation. Morphologically, erythroid differentiation proceeds in a nearly identical fashion between humans and mice, but recent evidence has shown that networks of gene expression governing this process are divergent between species. We undertook a systematic comparative analysis of six histone modifications and four transcriptional master regulators in primary proerythroblasts and erythroid cell lines to better understand the underlying basis of these transcriptional differences. Our analyses suggest that while chromatin structure across orthologous promoters is strongly conserved, subtle differences are associated with transcriptional divergence between species. Many transcription factor (TF) occupancy sites were poorly conserved across species (∼25% for GATA1, TAL1, and NFE2) but were more conserved between proerythroblasts and cell lines derived from the same species. We found that certain cis-regulatory modules co-occupied by GATA1, TAL1, and KLF1 are under strict evolutionary constraint and localize to genes necessary for erythroid cell identity. More generally, we show that conserved TF occupancy sites are indicative of active regulatory regions and strong gene expression that is sustained during maturation. Our results suggest that evolutionary turnover of TF binding sites associates with changes in the underlying chromatin structure, driving transcriptional divergence. We provide examples of how this framework can be applied to understand epigenomic variation in specific regulatory regions, such as the β-globin gene locus. Our findings have important implications for understanding epigenomic changes that mediate variation in cellular differentiation across species, while also providing a valuable resource for studies of hematopoiesis. PMID:25521328

  9. Structural differences in the chromatin from compartmentalized cells of the sea urchin embryo: differential nuclease accessibility of micromere chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Cognetti, G; Shaw, B R

    1981-01-01

    The chromatin structure of three cell types isolated from the 16-cell stage sea urchin embryo has been probed with micrococcal nuclease. In micromeres, the four small cells at the vegetal pole, the chromatin is found to be considerably more resistant to degradation by micrococcal nuclease than chromatin in the larger mesomere and macromere cells which undergo more cellular divisions and are committed to different developmental fates. The micromeres show an order of magnitude decrease in the initial digestion rate and a limit digest value which is one third that of the larger blastomeres; both observations are suggestive of the formation of a more condensed chromatin structure during the process of commitment, or as the rate of cell division decreases. The decreased sensitivity to nuclease for micromeres is similar to results reported for sperm and larval stages of development. Images PMID:7312627

  10. Atomic Force Microscope Imaging of Chromatin Assembled in Xenopus laevis Egg Extract

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hongxia; Freedman, Benjamin S.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Heald, Rebecca; Yan, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Gaps persist in our understanding of chromatin lower-order and higher-order structures. Xenopus egg extracts provide a way to study essential chromatin components which are difficult to manipulate in living cells, but nanoscale imaging of chromatin assembled in extracts poses a challenge. We describe a method for preparing chromatins assembled in extracts for atomic force microscopy (AFM) utilizing restriction enzyme digestion followed by transferring to a mica surface. Using this method, we find that buffer dilution of the chromatin assembly extract or incubation of chromatin in solutions of low ionic strength results in loosely-compacted chromatin fibers that are prone to unraveling into naked DNA. We also describe a method for direct AFM imaging of chromatin which does not utilize restriction enzymes and reveals higher-order fibers of varying widths. Due to the capability of controlling chromatin assembly conditions, we believe these methods have broad potential for studying physiologically relevant chromatin structures. PMID:21369955

  11. Interphase Chromosome Conformation and Chromatin-Chromatin Interactions in Human Epithelial Cells Cultured Under Different Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Hada, Megumi; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity has been shown to alter global gene expression patterns and protein levels both in cultured cells and animal models. It has been suggested that the packaging of chromatin fibers in the interphase nucleus is closely related to genome function, and the changes in transcriptional activity are tightly correlated with changes in chromatin folding. This study explores the changes of chromatin conformation and chromatin-chromatin interactions in the simulated microgravity environment, and investigates their correlation to the expression of genes located at different regions of the chromosome. To investigate the folding of chromatin in interphase under various culture conditions, human epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes were fixed in the G1 phase. Interphase chromosomes were hybridized with a multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) probe for chromosome 3 which distinguishes six regions of the chromosome as separate colors. After images were captured with a laser scanning confocal microscope, the 3-dimensional structure of interphase chromosome 3 was reconstructed at multi-mega base pair scale. In order to determine the effects of microgravity on chromosome conformation and orientation, measures such as distance between homologous pairs, relative orientation of chromosome arms about a shared midpoint, and orientation of arms within individual chromosomes were all considered as potentially impacted by simulated microgravity conditions. The studies revealed non-random folding of chromatin in interphase, and suggested an association of interphase chromatin folding with radiation-induced chromosome aberration hotspots. Interestingly, the distributions of genes with expression changes over chromosome 3 in cells cultured under microgravity environment are apparently clustered on specific loci and chromosomes. This data provides important insights into how mammalian cells respond to microgravity at molecular level.

  12. A chromatin insulator driving three-dimensional Polycomb response element (PRE) contacts and Polycomb association with the chromatin fiber

    PubMed Central

    Comet, Itys; Schuettengruber, Bernd; Sexton, Tom; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression involves long-distance communication between regulatory elements and target promoters, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Insulator elements have been proposed to modulate the communication between regulatory elements and promoters due to their ability to insulate genes from regulatory elements or to take part in long-distance interactions. Using a high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (H3C) method, we show that the Drosophila gypsy insulator behaves as a conformational chromatin border that is able to prohibit contacts between a Polycomb response element (PRE) and a distal promoter. On the other hand, two spaced gypsy elements form a chromatin loop that is able to bring an upstream PRE in contact with a downstream gene to mediate its repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) profiles of the Polycomb protein and its associated H3K27me3 histone mark reflect this insulator-dependent chromatin conformation, suggesting that Polycomb action at a distance can be organized by local chromatin topology. PMID:21262819

  13. The poly(ADP-ribose)-dependent chromatin remodeler Alc1 induces local chromatin relaxation upon DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Sellou, Hafida; Lebeaupin, Théo; Chapuis, Catherine; Smith, Rebecca; Hegele, Anna; Singh, Hari R; Kozlowski, Marek; Bultmann, Sebastian; Ladurner, Andreas G; Timinszky, Gyula; Huet, Sébastien

    2016-12-01

    Chromatin relaxation is one of the earliest cellular responses to DNA damage. However, what determines these structural changes, including their ATP requirement, is not well understood. Using live-cell imaging and laser microirradiation to induce DNA lesions, we show that the local chromatin relaxation at DNA damage sites is regulated by PARP1 enzymatic activity. We also report that H1 is mobilized at DNA damage sites, but, since this mobilization is largely independent of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, it cannot solely explain the chromatin relaxation. Finally, we demonstrate the involvement of Alc1, a poly(ADP-ribose)- and ATP-dependent remodeler, in the chromatin-relaxation process. Deletion of Alc1 impairs chromatin relaxation after DNA damage, while its overexpression strongly enhances relaxation. Altogether our results identify Alc1 as an important player in the fast kinetics of the NAD(+)- and ATP-dependent chromatin relaxation upon DNA damage in vivo. © 2016 Sellou, Lebeaupin, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. PICKLE is a CHD3 chromatin-remodeling factor that regulates the transition from embryonic to vegetative development in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ogas, Joe; Kaufmann, Scott; Henderson, Jim; Somerville, Chris

    1999-01-01

    The life cycle of angiosperms is punctuated by a dormant phase that separates embryonic and postembryonic development of the sporophyte. In the pickle (pkl) mutant of Arabidopsis, embryonic traits are expressed after germination. The penetrance of the pkl phenotype is strongly enhanced by inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis. Map-based cloning of the PKL locus revealed that it encodes a CHD3 protein. CHD3 proteins have been implicated as chromatin-remodeling factors involved in repression of transcription. PKL is necessary for repression of LEC1, a gene implicated as a critical activator of embryo development. We propose that PKL is a component of a gibberellin-modulated developmental switch that functions during germination to prevent reexpression of the embryonic developmental state. PMID:10570159

  15. Micronucleus formation during chromatin condensation and under apoptotic conditions.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Gabor; Simonyi, Athene S; Turani, Melinda; Juhasz, Istvan; Nagy, Gabor; Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2017-02-01

    In early S phase the newly replicated DNA is folded back to increasingly compact structures. The process of chromatin condensation inside the nucleus starts with the formation of a micronucleus observed in five established cell lines (K562, CHO, Indian muntjac, murine preB and SCC). Supercoiling of chromatin generates a polarized end-plate region extruded from the nucleus. The extruded chromatin is turned around itself forming the head portion (micronucleus) visible by fluorescence microscopy until the middle of S phase when chromatin structures are succeeded by distinguishable early forms of chromosomes. The generation of micronuclei upon apoptotic treatment was achieved by the methotrexate (MTX) treatment of cells. A close correlation was found between the frequency of micronucleus and MTX concentration, with low frequency at low (0.1 µM) and increasingly higher frequency between 1 and 100 µM concentrations. Characteristic deformation and shrinkage of nuclei indicated apoptosis. High MTX concentration (100 µM) caused the enlargement and necrotic disruption of nuclei. Inhibition of DNA synthesis during replicative DNA synthesis by biotinylated nucleotide prevented the formation of metaphase chromosomes and elevated the frequency of early intermediates of chromosome condensation including micronucleus formation. Based on these observations the micronucleus is regarded as: (a) a regularly occuring element of early chromatin condensation and (b) a typical sign of nuclear membrane damage under toxic conditions. Explanation is given why the micronucleus is hidden in nuclei under normal chromatin condensation and why chromatin motifs including micronuclei become visible upon cellular damage.

  16. Chromatin perturbations during the DNA damage response in higher eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Bakkenist, Christopher J; Kastan, Michael B

    2015-12-01

    The DNA damage response is a widely used term that encompasses all signaling initiated at DNA lesions and damaged replication forks as it extends to orchestrate DNA repair, cell cycle checkpoints, cell death and senescence. ATM, an apical DNA damage signaling kinase, is virtually instantaneously activated following the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, which has a catalytic role in DNA repair, and the KAT5 (Tip60) acetyltransferase are required for maximal ATM kinase activation in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. The sensing of DNA lesions occurs within a highly complex and heterogeneous chromatin environment. Chromatin decondensation and histone eviction at DSBs may be permissive for KAT5 binding to H3K9me3 and H3K36me3, ATM kinase acetylation and activation. Furthermore, chromatin perturbation may be a prerequisite for most DNA repair. Nucleosome disassembly during DNA repair was first reported in the 1970s by Smerdon and colleagues when nucleosome rearrangement was noted during the process of nucleotide excision repair of UV-induced DNA damage in human cells. Recently, the multi-functional protein nucleolin was identified as the relevant histone chaperone required for partial nucleosome disruption at DBSs, the recruitment of repair enzymes and for DNA repair. Notably, ATM kinase is activated by chromatin perturbations induced by a variety of treatments that do not directly cause DSBs, including treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Central to the mechanisms that activate ATR, the second apical DNA damage signaling kinase, outside of a stalled and collapsed replication fork in S-phase, is chromatin decondensation and histone eviction associated with DNA end resection at DSBs. Thus, a stress that is common to both ATM and ATR kinase activation is chromatin perturbations, and we argue that chromatin perturbations are both sufficient and required for induction of the DNA damage response.

  17. GIGANTEA directly activates Flowering Locus T in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Sawa, Mariko; Kay, Steve A.

    2011-01-01

    Plants perceive environmental signals such as day length and temperature to determine optimal timing for the transition from vegetative to floral stages. Arabidopsis flowers under long-day conditions through the CONSTANS (CO)–FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulatory module. It is thought that the environmental cues for photoperiodic control of flowering are initially perceived in the leaves. We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) regulates the timing of CO expression, together with FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX protein 1. Normally, CO and FT are expressed exclusively in vascular bundles, whereas GI is expressed in various tissues. To better elucidate the role of tissue-specific expression of GI in the flowering pathway, we established transgenic lines in which GI is expressed exclusively in mesophyll, vascular bundles, epidermis, shoot apical meristem, or root. We found that GI expressed in either mesophyll or vascular bundles rescues the late-flowering phenotype of the gi-2 loss-of-function mutant under both short-day and long-day conditions. Interestingly, GI expressed in mesophyll or vascular tissues increases FT expression without up-regulating CO expression under short-day conditions. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between GI and FT repressors in mesophyll. We found that GI can bind to three FT repressors: SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TEMPRANILLO (TEM)1, and TEM2. Finally, our chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that GI binds to FT promoter regions that are near the SVP binding sites. Taken together, our data further elucidate the multiple roles of GI in the regulation of flowering time. PMID:21709243

  18. Distinct functions of dispersed GATA factor complexes at an endogenous gene locus.

    PubMed

    Grass, Jeffrey A; Jing, Huie; Kim, Shin-Il; Martowicz, Melissa L; Pal, Saumen; Blobel, Gerd A; Bresnick, Emery H

    2006-10-01

    The reciprocal expression of GATA-1 and GATA-2 during hematopoiesis is an important determinant of red blood cell development. Whereas Gata2 is preferentially transcribed early in hematopoiesis, elevated GATA-1 levels result in GATA-1 occupancy at sites upstream of the Gata2 locus and transcriptional repression. GATA-2 occupies these sites in the transcriptionally active locus, suggesting that a "GATA switch" abrogates GATA-2-mediated positive autoregulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) coupled with genomic microarray analysis and quantitative ChIP analysis with GATA-1-null cells expressing an estrogen receptor ligand binding domain fusion to GATA-1 revealed additional GATA switches 77 kb upstream of Gata2 and within intron 4 at +9.5 kb. Despite indistinguishable GATA-1 occupancy at -77 kb and +9.5 kb versus other GATA switch sites, GATA-1 functioned uniquely at the different regions. GATA-1 induced histone deacetylation at and near Gata2 but not at the -77 kb region. The -77 kb region, which was DNase I hypersensitive in both active and inactive states, conferred equivalent enhancer activities in GATA-1- and GATA-2-expressing cells. By contrast, the +9.5 kb region exhibited considerably stronger enhancer activity in GATA-2- than in GATA-1-expressing cells, and other GATA switch sites were active only in GATA-1- or GATA-2-expressing cells. Chromosome conformation capture analysis demonstrated higher-order interactions between the -77 kb region and Gata2 in the active and repressed states. These results indicate that dispersed GATA factor complexes function via long-range chromatin interactions and qualitatively distinct activities to regulate Gata2 transcription.

  19. Molecular characteristics and chromatin texture features in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a cytogenetically well defined entity. Nevertheless, some features observed at diagnosis are related to a worse outcome of the patients. Methods In a prospective study, we analyzed peripheral (PB) leukocyte count, immunophenotype, methylation status of CDKN2B, CDKN2A and TP73; FLT3 and NPM1 mutations besides nuclear chromatin texture characteristics of the leukemic cells. We also examined the relation of these features with patient’s outcome. Results Among 19 cases, 4 had a microgranular morphology, 7 presented PB leukocytes >10x109/l, 2 had FLT3-ITD and 3 had FLT3-TKD (all three presenting a methylated CDKN2B). NPM1 mutation was not observed. PB leukocyte count showed an inverse relation with standard deviation of gray levels, contrast, cluster prominence, and chromatin fractal dimension (FD). Cases with FLT3-ITD presented a microgranular morphology, PB leukocytosis and expression of HLA-DR, CD34 and CD11b. Concerning nuclear chromatin texture variables, these cases had a lower entropy, contrast, cluster prominence and FD, but higher local homogeneity, and R245, in keeping with more homogeneously distributed chromatin. In the univariate Cox analysis, a higher leukocyte count, FLT3-ITD mutation, microgranular morphology, methylation of CDKN2B, besides a higher local homogeneity of nuclear chromatin, a lower chromatin entropy and FD were associated to a worse outcome. All these features lost significance when the cases were stratified for FLT3-ITD mutation. Methylation status of CDNK2A and TP73 showed no relation to patient’s survival. Conclusion in APL, patients with FLT3-ITD mutation show different clinical characteristics and have blasts with a more homogeneous chromatin texture. Texture analysis demonstrated that FLTD-ITD was accompanied not only by different cytoplasmic features, but also by a change in chromatin structure in routine cytologic preparations. Yet we were not able to detect chromatin changes by

  20. RUNX1-dependent RAG1 deposition instigates human TCR-δ locus rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Cieslak, Agata; Le Noir, Sandrine; Trinquand, Amélie; Lhermitte, Ludovic; Franchini, Don-Marc; Villarese, Patrick; Gon, Stéphanie; Bond, Jonathan; Simonin, Mathieu; Vanhille, Laurent; Reimann, Christian; Verhoeyen, Els; Larghero, Jerome; Six, Emmanuelle; Spicuglia, Salvatore; André-Schmutz, Isabelle; Langerak, Anton; Nadel, Bertrand; Macintyre, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    V(D)J recombination of TCR loci is regulated by chromatin accessibility to RAG1/2 proteins, rendering RAG1/2 targeting a potentially important regulator of lymphoid differentiation. We show that within the human TCR-α/δ locus, Dδ2-Dδ3 rearrangements occur at a very immature thymic, CD34+/CD1a−/CD7+dim stage, before Dδ2(Dδ3)-Jδ1 rearrangements. These strictly ordered rearrangements are regulated by mechanisms acting beyond chromatin accessibility. Importantly, direct Dδ2-Jδ1 rearrangements are prohibited by a B12/23 restriction and ordered human TCR-δ gene assembly requires RUNX1 protein, which binds to the Dδ2-23RSS, interacts with RAG1, and enhances RAG1 deposition at this site. This RUNX1-mediated V(D)J recombinase targeting imposes the use of two Dδ gene segments in human TCR-δ chains. Absence of this RUNX1 binding site in the homologous mouse Dδ1-23RSS provides a molecular explanation for the lack of ordered TCR-δ gene assembly in mice and may underlie differences in early lymphoid differentiation between these species. PMID:25135298

  1. Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus.

    PubMed

    Bultman, S J; Michaud, E J; Woychik, R P

    1992-12-24

    The agouti (a) locus acts within the microenvironment of the hair follicle to regulate coat color pigmentation in the mouse. We have characterized a gene encoding a novel 131 amino acid protein that we propose is the one gene associated with the agouti locus. This gene is normally expressed in a manner consistent with a locus function, and, more importantly, its structure and expression are affected by a number of representative alleles in the agouti dominance hierarchy. In addition, we found that the pleiotropic effects associated with the lethal yellow (Ay) mutation, which include pronounced obesity, diabetes, and the development of neoplasms, are accompanied by deregulated overexpression of the agouti gene in numerous tissues of the adult animal.

  2. CDC28 phosphorylates Cac1p and regulates the association of chromatin assembly factor I with chromatin.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Daniel C B; Kakusho, Naoko; You, Zhiying; Gharib, Marlene; Wyse, Brandon; Drury, Erin; Weinreich, Michael; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28, phosphorylates Cac1p on serines 94 and 515 in early S phase and regulates its association with chromatin, but not its association with PCNA. Mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites of CDC28 but not of CDC7 substantially reduce the in vivo phosphorylation of Cac1p. However, mutations in the putative CDC7 target sites on Cac1p reduce its stability. The association of CAF-I with chromatin is impaired in a cdc28-1 mutant and to a lesser extent in a cdc7-1 mutant. In addition, mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites by both CDC28 and CDC7 reduce gene silencing at the telomeres. We propose that this phosphorylation represents a regulatory step in the recruitment of CAF-I to chromatin in early S phase that is distinct from the association of CAF-I with PCNA. Hence, we implicate CDC28 in the regulation of chromatin reassembly during DNA replication. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights on the links between cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and chromatin reassembly.

  3. CDC28 phosphorylates Cac1p and regulates the association of chromatin assembly factor i with chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, Daniel CB; Kakusho, Naoko; You, Zhiying; Gharib, Marlene; Wyse, Brandon; Drury, Erin; Weinreich, Michael; Thibault, Pierre; Verreault, Alain; Masai, Hisao; Yankulov, Krassimir

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin Assembly Factor I (CAF-I) plays a key role in the replication-coupled assembly of nucleosomes. It is expected that its function is linked to the regulation of the cell cycle, but little detail is available. Current models suggest that CAF-I is recruited to replication forks and to chromatin via an interaction between its Cac1p subunit and the replication sliding clamp, PCNA, and that this interaction is stimulated by the kinase CDC7. Here we show that another kinase, CDC28, phosphorylates Cac1p on serines 94 and 515 in early S phase and regulates its association with chromatin, but not its association with PCNA. Mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites of CDC28 but not of CDC7 substantially reduce the in vivo phosphorylation of Cac1p. However, mutations in the putative CDC7 target sites on Cac1p reduce its stability. The association of CAF-I with chromatin is impaired in a cdc28–1 mutant and to a lesser extent in a cdc7–1 mutant. In addition, mutations in the Cac1p-phosphorylation sites by both CDC28 and CDC7 reduce gene silencing at the telomeres. We propose that this phosphorylation represents a regulatory step in the recruitment of CAF-I to chromatin in early S phase that is distinct from the association of CAF-I with PCNA. Hence, we implicate CDC28 in the regulation of chromatin reassembly during DNA replication. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights on the links between cell-cycle regulation, DNA replication and chromatin reassembly. PMID:25602519

  4. The Circadian NAD+ Metabolism: Impact on Chromatin Remodeling and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bessho, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression is known to be a stochastic phenomenon. The stochastic gene expression rate is thought to be altered by topological change of chromosome and/or by chromatin modifications such as acetylation and methylation. Changes in mechanical properties of chromosome/chromatin by soluble factors, mechanical stresses from the environment, or metabolites determine cell fate, regulate cellular functions, or maintain cellular homeostasis. Circadian clock, which drives the expression of thousands of genes with 24-hour rhythmicity, has been known to be indispensable for maintaining cellular functions/homeostasis. During the last decade, it has been demonstrated that chromatin also undergoes modifications with 24-hour rhythmicity and facilitates the fine-tuning of circadian gene expression patterns. In this review, we cover data which suggests that chromatin structure changes in a circadian manner and that NAD+ is the key metabolite for circadian chromatin remodeling. Furthermore, we discuss the relationship among circadian clock, NAD+ metabolism, and aging/age-related diseases. In addition, the interventions of NAD+ metabolism for the prevention and treatment of aging and age-related diseases are also discussed. PMID:28050554

  5. Chromatin is an ancient innovation conserved between Archaea and Eukarya

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Ron; Torti, Dax; Tsui, Kyle; Gebbia, Marinella; Durbic, Tanja; Bader, Gary D; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2012-01-01

    The eukaryotic nucleosome is the fundamental unit of chromatin, comprising a protein octamer that wraps ∼147 bp of DNA and has essential roles in DNA compaction, replication and gene expression. Nucleosomes and chromatin have historically been considered to be unique to eukaryotes, yet studies of select archaea have identified homologs of histone proteins that assemble into tetrameric nucleosomes. Here we report the first archaeal genome-wide nucleosome occupancy map, as observed in the halophile Haloferax volcanii. Nucleosome occupancy was compared with gene expression by compiling a comprehensive transcriptome of Hfx. volcanii. We found that archaeal transcripts possess hallmarks of eukaryotic chromatin structure: nucleosome-depleted regions at transcriptional start sites and conserved −1 and +1 promoter nucleosomes. Our observations demonstrate that histones and chromatin architecture evolved before the divergence of Archaea and Eukarya, suggesting that the fundamental role of chromatin in the regulation of gene expression is ancient. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00078.001 PMID:23240084

  6. Extended chromatin fibers: evidence from scanning force microscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuba, Sanford S.; Yang, Guoliang; Robert, Charles; van Holde, Kensal; Zlatanova, Jordanka; Bustamante, Carlos J.

    1995-03-01

    Unfixed chicken erythrocyte fibers in very low salt have been imaged using the scanning force microscope (SFM) operating in the tapping mode in air at ambient humidity. These images reveal a 3D organization of the fibers. The planar 'zig-zag' conformation is rare, and extended 'beads- on-a-string' fibers are seen only in chromatin depleted of H1 and H5. Glutaraldehyde fixation reveals very similar structures. Fibers fixed in 10 mM salt appear somewhat more compacted. These results, when compared with modeling studies indicate that chromatin fibers may exist as irregular 3D arrays of nucleosomes even at low ionic strength. The basic subunit of chromatin, the nucleosome, is composed of a core particle of 146 bp of DNA wrapping 1.75 left-handed superhelical turns around an octamer of core histones and of DNA connecting consecutive core particles. The linker of lysine-rich histones (H1 family) bind the DNA entering and exiting the nucleosome core particle. We suggest that by binding the entry/exit DNA, histone H1 may fix the entry/exit DNA angle. The fixed entry/exit angle, the rigidity of the linker DNA at low ionic strength, and the natural variability of the linker DNA length determine an irregular 3D fiber of chromatin. Our results emphasize the role of H1 in determining the entry/exit DNA angle, which further helps determine the mutual disposition of adjacent nucleosomes an the packing of the chromatin fiber.

  7. Forced unraveling of chromatin fibers with nonuniform linker DNA lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Gungor; Collepardo-Guevara, Rosana; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-02-01

    The chromatin fiber undergoes significant structural changes during the cell's life cycle to modulate DNA accessibility. Detailed mechanisms of such structural transformations of chromatin fibers as affected by various internal and external conditions such as the ionic conditions of the medium, the linker DNA length, and the presence of linker histones, constitute an open challenge. Here we utilize Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of a coarse grained model of chromatin with nonuniform linker DNA lengths as found in vivo to help explain some aspects of this challenge. We investigate the unfolding mechanisms of chromatin fibers with alternating linker lengths of 26-62 bp and 44-79 bp using a series of end-to-end stretching trajectories with and without linker histones and compare results to uniform-linker-length fibers. We find that linker histones increase overall resistance of nonuniform fibers and lead to fiber unfolding with superbeads-on-a-string cluster transitions. Chromatin fibers with nonuniform linker DNA lengths display a more complex, multi-step yet smoother process of unfolding compared to their uniform counterparts, likely due to the existence of a more continuous range of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions. This finding echoes the theme that some heterogeneity in fiber component is biologically advantageous.

  8. The role of noncoding RNAs in chromatin regulation during differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nahkuri, Satu; Paro, Renato

    2012-01-01

    A myriad of nuclear noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been discovered since the paradigm of RNAs as plain conveyors of protein translation was discarded. There is increasing evidence that at vital intersections of developmental pathways, ncRNAs target the chromatin modulating machinery to its site of action. However, the mechanistic