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Sample records for a-i apo a-i

  1. Type 1 Deiodinase Regulates ApoA-I Gene Expression and ApoA-I Synthesis Independent of Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Graham, Mark J.; Galton, Valerie Anne; Ginsberg, Henry N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are reduced in individuals with defective insulin signaling. Initial studies using liver-specific insulin receptor (InsR) knockout mice (LIRKO) identified reduced expression of Type 1 Deiodinase (Dio1) as a potentially novel link between defective hepatic insulin signaling and reduced expression of the ApoA-I gene. Our objective was to examine the regulation of ApoA-I expression by Dio1. Approach and Results Acute inactivation of InsR by adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase to InsR floxed mice reduced HDLC and expression of both ApoA-I and Dio1. Overexpression of Dio1 in LIRKO restored HDLC and ApoA-I levels and increased the expression of ApoA-I. Dio1 knockout (D1KO) mice had very low expression of ApoA-I and reduced serum levels of HDLC and ApoA-I. Treatment of C57BL/6J mice with anti-sense to Dio1 reduced ApoA-I mRNA, HDLC, and serum ApoA-I. Hepatic 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) content was normal or elevated in LIRKO or D1KO mice. Knockdown of either InsR or Dio1 by siRNA in HepG2 cells decreased expression of ApoA-I as well as ApoA-I synthesis and secretion. siRNA knockdown of InsR or Dio1 decreased activity of a region of the ApoA-I promoter lacking thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) (Region B). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that reduced Dio1 expression decreased the binding of nuclear proteins to Region B. Conclusions Reductions in Dio1 expression reduce expression of ApoA-I in a T3/TRE independent manner. PMID:27150392

  2. High serum apolipoprotein E determines hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias, coronary disease and apoA-I dysfunctionality.

    PubMed

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Ornek, Ender; Ayhan, Erkan; Erginel-Ünaltuna, Nihan; Murat, Sani N

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of serum apolipoprotein E (apoE) levels to two hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias has not been clarified. We explored, in a cross-sectional (and short-term prospective) evaluation, the independent relationship of serum apoE to the atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia with elevated apoB (HtgB) and to apoA-I dysfunctionality, previously shown in Turkish adults to be independent of apoE genotype. Serum apoE concentrations were measured by immunonephelometry in 1,127 middle-aged adults. In multivariable regression analysis, apoE concentrations showed log-linear associations with apoB and apoA-I levels, waist circumference, independent of C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index and other confounders. The likelihood of atherogenic dyslipidemia and of HtgB roughly tripled per 1-SD increment in apoE concentrations, additively to apoE genotype, HOMA, apoA-I, CRP concentrations and waist circumference; yet apoA-I, protective against atherogenic dyslipidemia, appeared to promote HtgB, a finding consistent with apoA-I dysfunctionality in this setting. Each 1-SD increment in the apoE level was moreover, associated in both genders with MetS (at OR 1.5), after adjustment for sex, age, apoB, apoA-I and CRP, or for apoE genotypes. Circulating apoE predicted in both genders age-adjusted prevalent and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), independent of apoE genotype and CRP (OR 1.32 [95 % CI 1.11; 1.58]). To conclude, in a general population prone to MetS, elevated apoE concentrations are strongly linked to HtgB and atherogenic dyslipidemia, irrespective of apoE genotype, are associated with MetS and CHD. Excess apoE reflects pro-inflammatory state and likely autoimmune activation.

  3. Genome-wide screen for modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) secretion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rebecca R; Perry, William; Haas, Joseph V; Mosior, Marian K; N'Cho, Mathias; Wang, Jian W J; Yu, Peng; Calley, John; Yue, Yong; Carter, Quincy; Han, Bomie; Foxworthy, Patricia; Kowala, Mark C; Ryan, Timothy P; Solenberg, Patricia J; Michael, Laura F

    2013-03-01

    Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue-specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; 40 genes were confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. The genes of interest include known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, G-protein-coupled receptors, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters, and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor manumycin A caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets.

  4. Type 1 Deiodinase Regulates ApoA-I Gene Expression and ApoA-I Synthesis Independent of Thyroid Hormone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Graham, Mark J; Galton, Valerie Anne; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2016-07-01

    Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are reduced in individuals with defective insulin signaling. Initial studies using liver-specific insulin receptor (InsR) knockout mice identified reduced expression of type 1 deiodinase (Dio1) as a potentially novel link between defective hepatic insulin signaling and reduced expression of the ApoA-I gene. Our objective was to examine the regulation of ApoA-I expression by Dio1. Acute inactivation of InsR by adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase to InsR floxed mice reduced HDL-C and expression of both ApoA-I and Dio1. Overexpression of Dio1 in InsR knockout mice restored HDL-C and ApoA-I levels and increased the expression of ApoA-I. Dio1 knockout mice had low expression of ApoA-I and reduced serum levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Treatment of C57BL/6J mice with antisense to Dio1 reduced ApoA-I mRNA, HDL-C, and serum ApoA-I. Hepatic 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine content was normal or elevated in InsR knockout mice or Dio1 knockout mice. Knockdown of either InsR or Dio1 by siRNA in HepG2 cells decreased the expression of ApoA-I and ApoA-I synthesis and secretion. siRNA knockdown of InsR or Dio1 decreased activity of a region of the ApoA-I promoter lacking thyroid hormone response elements (region B). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that reduced Dio1 expression decreased the binding of nuclear proteins to region B. Reductions in Dio1 expression reduce the expression of ApoA-I in a 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-/thyroid hormone response element-independent manner. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Dietary Strategies and Novel Pharmaceutical Approaches Targeting Serum ApoA-I Metabolism: A Systematic Overview

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Lotte; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of CHD is still increasing, which underscores the need for new preventive and therapeutic approaches to decrease CHD risk. In this respect, increasing apoA-I concentrations may be a promising approach, especially through increasing apoA-I synthesis. This review first provides insight into current knowledge on apoA-I production, clearance, and degradation, followed by a systematic review of dietary and novel pharmacological approaches to target apoA-I metabolism. For this, a systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled intervention studies that examined effects of whole foods and (non)nutrients on apoA-I metabolism. In addition, novel pharmacological approaches were searched for, which were specifically developed to target apoA-I metabolism. We conclude that both dietary components and pharmacological approaches can be used to increase apoA-I concentrations or functionality. For the dietary components in particular, more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is necessary, as increasing apoA-I per se does not necessarily translate into a reduced CHD risk. PMID:28695008

  6. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-11-03

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification.

  7. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  8. ApoA-I/A-II-HDL positively associates with apoB-lipoproteins as a potential atherogenic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kido, Toshimi; Kondo, Kazuo; Kurata, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoko; Urata, Takeyoshi; Itakura, Hiroshige; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2017-11-29

    We recently reported distinct nature of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subgroup particles with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I but not apoA-II (LpAI) and HDL having both (LpAI:AII) based on the data from 314 Japanese. While plasma HDL level almost exclusively depends on concentration of LpAI having 3 to 4 apoA-I molecules, LpAI:AII appeared with almost constant concentration regardless of plasma HDL levels having stable structure with two apoA-I and one disulfide-dimeric apoA-II molecules (Sci. Rep. 6; 31,532, 2016). The aim of this study is further characterization of LpAI:AII with respect to its role in atherogenesis. Association of LpAI, LpAI:AII and other HDL parameters with apoB-lipoprotein parameters was analyzed among the cohort data above. ApoA-I in LpAI negatively correlated with the apoB-lipoprotein parameters such as apoB, triglyceride, nonHDL-cholesterol, and nonHDL-cholesterol + triglyceride, which are apparently reflected in the relations of the total HDL parameters to apoB-lipoproteins. In contrast, apoA-I in LpAI:AII and apoA-II positively correlated to the apoB-lipoprotein parameters even within their small range of variation. These relationships are independent of sex, but may slightly be influenced by the activity-related CETP mutations. The study suggested that LpAI:AII is an atherogenic indicator rather than antiatherogenic. These sub-fractions of HDL are to be evaluated separately for estimating atherogenic risk of the patients.

  9. Iowa Mutant Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-IIowa) Fibrils Target Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mikawa, Shiho; Uchimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Saito, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Naomi

    2016-07-28

    The single amino acid mutation G26R in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-IIowa) is the first mutation that was associated with familial AApoA1 amyloidosis. The N-terminal fragments (amino acid residues 1-83) of apoA-I containing this mutation deposit as amyloid fibrils in patients' tissues and organs, but the mechanisms of cellular degradation and cytotoxicity have not yet been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ApoA-IIowa fibrils induced an increase in lysosomal pH and the cytosolic release of the toxic lysosomal protease cathepsin B. The mitochondrial dysfunction caused by apoA-IIowa fibrils depended on cathepsin B and was ameliorated by increasing the degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils. Thus, although apoA-IIowa fibril transport to lysosomes and fibril degradation in lysosomes may have occurred, the presence of an excess number of apoA-IIowa fibrils, more than the lysosomes could degrade, may be detrimental to cells. Our results thus provide evidence that the target of apoA-IIowa fibrils is lysosomes, and we thereby gained a novel insight into the mechanism of AApoA1 amyloidosis.

  10. Effect of Royal Jelly Intake on Serum Glucose, Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I Ratios in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, Basemeh; Djazayeri, Shima; Amiri, Fatemehsadat; Malek, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Agha Fateme; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Shidfar, Farzad

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Evidence supports a role for royal jelly (RJ) in reduction of serum glucose and lipids in animals and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum glucose, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were randomly divided into RJ and placebo groups and were given doses of 1000 mg royal jelly or placebo 3 times a day for 8 weeks, respectively. Weight, height, fasting blood glucose, ApoA-I and ApoB were measured at baseline and endpoint. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and dietary intakes between groups. The mean difference in glucose concentrations decreased in the RJ group (-9.4 mg/dL vs. 4 mg/dL; p=0.011). The mean difference in ApoA-I concentrations increased in the RJ group (34.4 mg/dL vs. -1.08 mg/dL; p=0.013). There was a significant decrease in mean difference of ApoB/ApoA-I in the RJ group compared with the placebo group (0.008 vs. 0.13; p<0.044), respectively. These data suggest that RJ intake may have desirable effects on serum glucose, Apo-A-I concentrations and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Busseuil, D; Shi, Y; Mecteau, M; Brand, G; Kernaleguen, A-E; Thorin, E; Latour, J-G; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and standard curative therapy remains open heart surgical valve replacement. The aim of our experimental study was to determine if apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide infusions could induce regression of AVS. Experimental approach: Fifteen New Zealand White male rabbits received a cholesterol-enriched diet and vitamin D2 until significant AVS was detected by echocardiography. The enriched diet was then stopped to mimic cholesterol-lowering therapy and animals were allocated randomly to receive saline (control group, n=8) or an ApoA-I mimetic peptide (treated group, n=7), three times per week for 2 weeks. Serial echocardiograms and post mortem valve histology were performed. Key results: Aortic valve area increased significantly by 25% in the treated group after 14 days of treatment (P=0.012). Likewise, aortic valve thickness decreased by 21% in the treated group, whereas it was unchanged in controls (P=0.0006). Histological analysis revealed that the extent of lesions at the base of valve leaflets and sinuses of Valsalva was smaller in the treated group compared with controls (P=0.032). The treatment also reduced calcification, as revealed by the loss of the positive relationship observed in the control group (r=0.87, P=0.004) between calcification area and aortic valve thickness. Conclusions and implications: Infusions of ApoA-I mimetic peptide lead to regression of experimental AVS. These positive results justify the further testing of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-based therapies in patients with valvular aortic stenosis. Regression of aortic stenosis, if achieved safely, could transform the clinical treatment of this disease. PMID:18414386

  12. Effect of apoA-I Mutations in the Capacity of Reconstituted HDL to Promote ABCG1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux.

    PubMed

    Daniil, Georgios; Zannis, Vassilis I; Chroni, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the cholesterol transport from cells to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), but the role of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein constituent of HDL, in this process is not clear. To address this, we measured cholesterol efflux from HEK293 cells or J774 mouse macrophages overexpressing ABCG1 using as acceptors reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing wild-type or various mutant apoA-I forms. It was found that ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux was severely reduced (by 89%) when using rHDL containing the carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant apoA-I[Δ(185-243)]. ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux was not affected or moderately decreased by rHDL containing amino-terminal deletion mutants and several mid-region deletion or point apoA-I mutants, and was restored to 69-99% of control by double deletion mutants apoA-I[Δ(1-41)Δ(185-243)] and apoA-I[Δ(1-59)Δ(185-243)]. These findings suggest that the central helices alone of apoA-I associated to rHDL can promote ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Further analysis showed that rHDL containing the carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant apoA-I[Δ(185-243)] only slightly reduced (by 22%) the ABCG1-mediated efflux of 7-ketocholesterol, indicating that depending on the sterol type, structural changes in rHDL-associated apoA-I affect differently the ABCG1-mediated efflux of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol. Overall, our findings demonstrate that rHDL-associated apoA-I structural changes affect the capacity of rHDL to accept cellular cholesterol by an ABCG1-mediated process. The structure-function relationship seen here between rHDL-associated apoA-I mutants and ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux closely resembles that seen before in lipid-free apoA-I mutants and ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux, suggesting that both processes depend on the same structural determinants of apoA-I.

  13. Dysfunctional HDL containing L159R apoA-I leads to exacerbation of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the effect of the mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) was assessed. apoA-IL159R (FIN) is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Transgenic mice lines were created through strategic mati...

  14. ApoA-I deficiency in mice is associated with redistribution of apoA-II and aggravated AApoAII amyloidosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaoyong; Sawashita, Jinko; Qian, Jinze; Zhang, Beiru; Fu, Xiaoying; Tian, Geng; Chen, Lei; Mori, Masayuki; Higuchi, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) is the second major apolipoprotein following apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in HDL. ApoA-II has multiple physiological functions and can form senile amyloid fibrils (AApoAII) in mice. Most circulating apoA-II is present in lipoprotein A-I/A-II. To study the influence of apoA-I on apoA-II and AApoAII amyloidosis, apoA-I-deficient (C57BL/6J.Apoa1−/−) mice were used. Apoa1−/− mice showed the expected significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) plasma levels. Unexpectedly, we found that apoA-I deficiency led to redistribution of apoA-II in HDL and an age-related increase in apoA-II levels, accompanied by larger HDL particle size and an age-related increase in TC, HDL-C, and TG. Aggravated AApoAII amyloidosis was induced in Apoa1−/− mice systemically, especially in the heart. These results indicate that apoA-I plays key roles in maintaining apoA-II distribution and HDL particle size. Furthermore, apoA-II redistribution may be the main reason for aggravated AApoAII amyloidosis in Apoa1−/− mice. These results may shed new light on the relationship between apoA-I and apoA-II as well as provide new information concerning amyloidosis mechanism and therapy. PMID:21622630

  15. Triglyceride enrichment of HDL enhances in vivo metabolic clearance of HDL apo A-I in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Lamarche, Benoît; Uffelman, Kristine D.; Carpentier, André; Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Steiner, George; Barrett, P. Hugh; Lewis, Gary F.

    1999-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) enrichment of HDL resulting from cholesteryl ester transfer protein–mediated exchange with TG-rich lipoproteins may enhance the lipolytic transformation and subsequent metabolic clearance of HDL particles in hypertriglyceridemic states. The present study investigates the effect of TG enrichment of HDL on the clearance of HDL-associated apo A-I in humans. HDL was isolated from plasma of six normolipidemic men (mean age: 29.7 ± 2.7 years) in the fasting state and after a five-hour intravenous infusion with a synthetic TG emulsion, Intralipid. Intralipid infusion resulted in a 2.1-fold increase in the TG content of HDL. Each tracer was then whole-labeled with 125I or 131I and injected intravenously into the subject. Apo A-I in TG-enriched HDL was cleared 26% more rapidly than apo A-I in fasting HDL. A strong correlation between the Intralipid-induced increase in the TG content of HDL and the increase in HDL apo A-I fractional catabolic rate reinforced the importance of TG enrichment of HDL in enhancing its metabolic clearance. HDL was separated further into lipoproteins containing apo A-II (LpAI:AII) and those without apo A-II (LpAI). Results revealed that the enhanced clearance of apo A-I from TG-enriched HDL could be largely attributed to differences in the clearance of LpAI but not LpAI:AII. This is, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration in humans that TG enrichment of HDL enhances the clearance of HDL apo A-I from the circulation. This phenomenon could provide an important mechanism explaining how HDL apo A-I and HDL cholesterol are lowered in hypertriglyceridemic states. PMID:10207171

  16. A novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy[S

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Gao, Feng; Meriwether, David; Grijalva, Victor; Springstead, James R.; Palgnachari, Mayakonda N.; Namiri-Kalantari, Ryan; Su, Feng; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Wagner, Alan C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants were constructed with an empty vector (EV) or a vector expressing an apoA-I mimetic peptide, 6F. EV or 6F tomatoes were harvested, lyophilized, ground into powder, added to Western diet (WD) at 2.2% by weight, and fed to LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) mice at 45 mg/kg/day 6F. After 13 weeks, the percent of the aorta with lesions was 4.1 ± 4%, 3.3 ± 2.4%, and 1.9 ± 1.4% for WD, WD + EV, and WD + 6F, respectively (WD + 6F vs. WD, P = 0.0134; WD + 6F vs. WD + EV, P = 0.0386; WD + EV vs. WD, not significant). While body weight did not differ, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels were less in WD + 6F mice; P < 0.0295. HDL cholesterol and paroxonase-1 activity (PON) were higher in WD + 6F mice (P = 0.0055 and P = 0.0254, respectively), but not in WD + EV mice. Plasma SAA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LPA, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) levels positively correlated with lesions (P < 0.0001); HDL cholesterol and PON were inversely correlated (P < 0.0001). After feeding WD + 6F: i) intact 6F was detected in small intestine (but not in plasma); ii) small intestine LPA was decreased compared with WD + EV (P < 0.0469); and iii) small intestine LPA 18:2 positively correlated with the percent of the aorta with lesions (P < 0.0179). These data suggest that 6F acts in the small intestine and provides a novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy. PMID:23378594

  17. Molecular dynamics simulations on discoidal HDL particles suggest a mechanism for rotation in the apo A-I belt model.

    PubMed

    Klon, Anthony E; Segrest, Jere P; Harvey, Stephen C

    2002-12-06

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Elevated levels of HDL in the bloodstream have been shown to correlate strongly with a reduced risk factor for atherosclerosis. Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on three separate model discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL) containing two monomers of apo A-I and 160 molecules of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), to a time-scale of 1ns. The starting structures were on the basis of previously published molecular belt models of HDL consisting of the lipid-binding C-terminal domain (residues 44-243) wrapped around the circumference of a discoidal HDL particle. Subtle changes between two of the starting structures resulted in significantly different behavior during the course of the simulation. The results provide support for the hypothesis of Segrest et al. that helical registration in the molecular belt model of apo A-I is modulated by intermolecular salt bridges. In addition, we propose an explanation for the presence of proline punctuation in the molecular belt model, and for the presence of two 11-mer helical repeats interrupting the otherwise regular pattern of 22-mer helical repeats in the lipid-binding domain of apo A-I.

  18. [HDL-C/apoA-I]: A multivessel cardiometabolic risk marker in women with T2DM.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michel P; Valensi, Paul; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2018-01-01

    Although women have higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than have men, their HDL particles are also prone to become small, dense, and dysfunctional in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To assess the vascular risk related to HDLs of different sizes/densities without direct measurement, we adjusted HDL-C to its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) as [HDL-C/apoA-I]. This ratio estimates HDL sizes and provides indices as to their number, cholesterol load, and density. We stratified 280 Caucasian T2DM women according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q) to determine how they are segregated according to cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycaemic control, and vascular complications. Five parameters were derived from combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I: HDL size, HDL number, cholesterol load per particle (pP), apoA-I pP, and HDL density. An adverse cardiometabolic profile characterized QI and QII patients whose HDLs were denser and depleted in apoA-I, whereas QIII patients had HDLs with characteristics closer to those of controls. QIV patients had HDLs of supernormal size/composition and a more favourable phenotype in terms of fat distribution; insulin sensitivity (64% vs 41%), metabolic syndrome, and β-cell function (32% vs 23%); exogenous insulin (44 vs 89 U·d -1 ); and glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin, 56 vs 61 mmol·mol -1 ), associated with lower prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications: all-cause microangiopathy 47% vs 61%; retinopathy 22% vs 34%; all-cause macroangiopathy 19% vs 31%; and coronary artery disease 6% vs 24% (P < .05). [HDL-C/apoA-I] can stratify T2DM women according to metabolic phenotype, macrovascular and coronary damage, β-cell function, microangiopathic risk, and retinopathy. This ratio is a versatile and readily available marker of cardiometabolic status and vascular complications in T2DM women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Natural human apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN alter HDL structure and functionality and promote atherosclerosis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Tiniakou, Ioanna; Kanaki, Zoi; Georgopoulos, Spiros; Chroni, Angeliki; Van Eck, Miranda; Fotakis, Panagiotis; Zannis, Vassilis I; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are associated with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and pathological conditions such as premature atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In this study we functionally characterized two natural human apoA-I mutations, L141RPisa and L159RFIN, in vivo. We generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type (WT) or the two mutant forms of human apoA-I on a mouse apoA-I(-/-) background and analyzed for abnormalities in their lipid and lipoprotein profiles. HDL structure and functionality, as well as atherosclerosis development following a 14-week high-fat diet were assessed in these mice. The expression of either apoA-I mutant was associated with markedly reduced serum apoA-I (<10% of WT apoA-I), total and HDL-cholesterol levels (∼20% and ∼7% of WT apoA-I, respectively) and the formation of few small size HDL particles with preβ2 and α3, α4 electrophoretic mobility. HDL particles containing either of the two apoA-I mutants exhibited attenuated anti-oxidative properties as indicated by their inability to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and by decreased activities of paraoxonase-1 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. However, the apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN-containing HDL particles demonstrated increased capacity to promote ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Expression of apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN mutations in mice was associated with increased diet-induced atherosclerosis compared to either WT apoA-I transgenic or apoA-I(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that natural apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN affect the biogenesis and the functionality of HDL in vivo and predispose to diet-induced atherosclerosis in the absence of any other genetic defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of urea on recombinant Apo A-I stability and its utilization in anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Angarita, Monica; Arosio, Paolo; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Baur, Daniel; Falkenstein, Roberto; Kuhne, Wolfgang; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-08-08

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is an important lipid-binding protein involved in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol. High protein purity, in particular with respect to endotoxins is required for therapeutic applications. The use of urea during the purification process of recombinant Apo A-I produced in Escherichia coli has been suggested so as to provide high endotoxin clearance. In this work, we show that urea can be used as a sole modifier during the ion exchange chromatographic purification of Apo A-I and we investigate the molecular mechanism of elution by correlating the effect of urea on self-association, conformation and adsorption equilibrium properties of a modified model Apo A-I. In the absence of urea the protein was found to be present as a population of oligomers represented mainly by trimers, hexamers and nonamers. The addition of urea induced oligomer dissociation and protein structure unfolding. We correlated the changes in protein association and conformation with variations of the adsorption equilibrium of the protein on a strong anion exchanger. It was confirmed that the adsorption isotherms, described by a Langmuir model, were dependent on both protein and urea concentrations. Monomers, observed at low urea concentration (0.5M), were characterized by larger binding affinity and adsorption capacity compared to both protein oligomers (0M) and unfolded monomers (2-8M). The reduction of both the binding strength and maximum adsorption capacity at urea concentrations larger than 0.5M explains the ability of urea of inducing elution of the protein from the ion exchange resin. The dissociation of the protein complexes occurring during the elution could likely be the origin of the effective clearance of endotoxins originally trapped inside the oligomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic therapy is associated with decreased aortic root and valve remodelling in mice

    PubMed Central

    Trapeaux, J; Busseuil, D; Shi, Y; Nobari, S; Shustik, D; Mecteau, M; El-Hamamsy, I; Lebel, M; Mongrain, R; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J-C

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose We have shown that infusions of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide induced regression of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) in rabbits. This study aimed at determining the effects of ApoA-I mimetic therapy in mice with calcific or fibrotic AVS. Experimental Approach Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice and mice with Werner progeria gene deletion (WrnΔhel/Δhel) received high-fat diets for 20 weeks. After developing AVS, mice were randomized to receive saline (placebo group) or ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions (ApoA-I treated groups, 100 mg·kg−1 for ApoE−/− mice; 50 mg·kg−1 for Wrn mice), three times per week for 4 weeks. We evaluated effects on AVS using serial echocardiograms and valve histology. Key Results Aortic valve area (AVA) increased in both ApoE−/− and Wrn mice treated with the ApoA-I mimetic compared with placebo. Maximal sinus wall thickness was lower in ApoA-I treated ApoE−/− mice. The type I/III collagen ratio was lower in the sinus wall of ApoA-I treated ApoE−/− mice compared with placebo. Total collagen content was reduced in aortic valves of ApoA-I treated Wrn mice. Our 3D computer model and numerical simulations confirmed that the reduction in aortic root wall thickness resulted in improved AVA. Conclusions and Implications ApoA-I mimetic treatment reduced AVS by decreasing remodelling and fibrosis of the aortic root and valve in mice. PMID:23638718

  2. Ecto-F1-ATPase: A moonlighting protein complex and an unexpected apoA-I receptor

    PubMed Central

    Vantourout, Pierre; Radojkovic, Claudia; Lichtenstein, Laeticia; Pons, Véronique; Champagne, Eric; Martinez, Laurent O

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial ATP synthase has been recently detected at the surface of different cell types, where it is a high affinity receptor for apoA-I, the major protein component in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F1-ATPase) expression is related to different biological effects, such as regulation of HDL uptake by hepatocytes, endothelial cell proliferation or antitumor activity of Vγ9/Vδ2 T lymphocytes. This paper reviews the recently discovered functions and regulations of ecto-F1-ATPase. Particularly, the role of the F1-ATPase pathway(s) in HDL-cholesterol uptake and apoA-I-mediated endothelial protection suggests its potential importance in reverse cholesterol transport and its regulation might represent a potential therapeutic target for HDL-related therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, it is timely for us to better understand how this ecto-enzyme and downstream pathways are regulated and to develop pharmacologic interventions. PMID:21157968

  3. Short term resistance training enhanced plasma apoA-I and FABP4 levels in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Safarzade, Alireza; Talebi-Garakani, Elahe

    2014-03-04

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk for early atherosclerotic complications. Altered lipids and lipoprotein metabolism in chronic diabetes mellitus is associated with pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks resistance training on plasma lipid profile, fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4 and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels in type 1 diabetic rats. Thirty two male Wister rats (12-14 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups: non-diabetic control; non-diabetic trained; diabetic control; diabetic trained. The rats in training groups were subjected to a resistance training program (3 days/wk, for 4 wk) consisted of climbing a ladder carrying a load suspended from the tail. Diabetic inducing increased plasma apoA-I and decreased FABP4 levels compared with non-diabetic control group (respectively, P = 0.001 & P = 0.041). After 4 weeks' resistance training, plasma levels of apoA-I and FABP4 in the diabetic trained rats were significantly higher compared with the diabetic control group (respectively, P = 0.003 & P = 0.017). Plasma HDL-C level in diabetic trained group was higher than diabetic control group (P = 0.048). Liver triglycerides concentrations were significantly lower in both trained (non-diabetic and diabetic) groups compared with their control groups (respectively, P = 0.041 and P = 0.002). These data indicated that resistance training may be an efficient intervention strategy to increase plasma apoA-I, HDL-C and FABP4 concentrations, along with decreases liver triglycerides in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Further research is needed to elucidate physiological significance of circulating FABP4 levels.

  4. The Application of Multiple Reaction Monitoring to Assess Apo A-I Methionine Oxidations in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Hussein N.; Jackson, Angela M.; Reaven, Peter D.; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Nelson, Randall W.; Lau, Serrine S.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative modification of apolipoprotein A-I ‘s methionine148(M148) is associated with defective HDL function in vitro. Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is a mass spectrometric technique that can be used to quantitate post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed an MRM assay to monitor the abundance ratio of the peptide containing oxidized M148 to the native peptide in Apo A-I. Measurement of the oxidized-to-unoxidized-M148 ratio was reproducible (CV<5%). The extent of methionine M148 oxidation in the HDL of healthy controls, and type 2 diabetic participants with and without prior cardiovascular events (CVD) were then examined. The results suggest a significant increase in the relative ratio of the peptide containing oxidized M148 to the unmodified peptide in the HDL of participants with diabetes and CVD (p<0.001), compared to participants without CVD. Monitoring the abundance ratio of the peptides containing oxidized and unoxidized M148 by MRM provides a means of examining the relationship between M148 oxidation and vascular complications in CVD. PMID:25705587

  5. Comparative Effects of Diet-Induced Lipid Lowering Versus Lipid Lowering Along With Apo A-I Milano Gene Therapy on Regression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Tian, Fang; Arias, Ana; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G; Shah, Prediman K

    2016-05-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I) Milano, a naturally occurring Arg173to Cys mutant of Apo A-1, has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models and in a small phase 2 human trial. We have shown the superior atheroprotective effects of Apo A-I Milano (Apo A-IM) gene compared to wild-type Apo A-I gene using transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. In this study, we compared the effect of dietary lipid lowering versus lipid lowering plus Apo A-IM gene transfer using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 8 as vectors on atherosclerosis regression in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. All mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet from age of 6 weeks until week 20, and at 20 weeks, 10 mice were euthanized to determine the extent of atherosclerosis. After 20 weeks, an additional 20 mice were placed on either a low-cholesterol diet plus empty rAAV (n = 10) to serve as controls or low-cholesterol diet plus 1 single intravenous injection of 1.2 × 10(12)vector genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) 8 vectors expressing Apo A-IM (n = 10). At the 40 week time point, intravenous AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients showed a significant regression of atherosclerosis in the whole aorta (P< .01), aortic sinuses (P< .05), and brachiocephalic arteries (P< .05) compared to 20-week-old mice, whereas low-cholesterol diet plus empty vector control group showed no significant regression in lesion size. Immunostaining showed that compared to the 20-week-old mice, there was a significantly reduced macrophage content in the brachiocephalic (P< .05) and aortic sinus plaques (P< .05) of AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients. These data show that although dietary-mediated cholesterol lowering halts progression of atherosclerosis, it does not induce regression, whereas combination of low-cholesterol diet and AAV8 mediated Apo A-I Milano gene therapy induces rapid and significant regression of atherosclerosis in mice. These data provide support for the potential feasibility of this

  6. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA[S

    PubMed Central

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Smits, Loek P.; van der Valk, Fleur M.; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H.; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F.; Santos, Raul D.; van Dijk, Theo H.; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Mulder, Willem J. M.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kastelein, John J. P.; Groen, Albert K.; Stroes, Erik S.

    2015-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8–29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9–59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm2 (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. PMID:25561459

  7. Effect of open-label infusion of an apoA-I-containing particle (CER-001) on RCT and artery wall thickness in patients with FHA.

    PubMed

    Kootte, Ruud S; Smits, Loek P; van der Valk, Fleur M; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Keyserling, Constance H; Barbaras, Ronald; Paolini, John F; Santos, Raul D; van Dijk, Theo H; Dallinga-van Thie, Geesje M; Nederveen, Aart J; Mulder, Willem J M; Hovingh, G Kees; Kastelein, John J P; Groen, Albert K; Stroes, Erik S

    2015-03-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) contributes to the anti-atherogenic effects of HDL. Patients with the orphan disease, familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia (FHA), are characterized by decreased tissue cholesterol removal and an increased atherogenic burden. We performed an open-label uncontrolled proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effect of infusions with a human apoA-I-containing HDL-mimetic particle (CER-001) on RCT and the arterial vessel wall in FHA. Subjects received 20 infusions of CER-001 (8 mg/kg) during 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by measuring (apo)lipoproteins, plasma-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux, fecal sterol excretion (FSE), and carotid artery wall dimension by MRI and artery wall inflammation by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. We included seven FHA patients: HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), 13.8 [1.8-29.1] mg/dl; apoA-I, 28.7 [7.9-59.1] mg/dl. Following nine infusions in 1 month, apoA-I and HDL-c increased directly after infusion by 27.0 and 16.1 mg/dl (P = 0.018). CER-001 induced a 44% relative increase (P = 0.018) in in vitro cellular cholesterol efflux with a trend toward increased FSE (P = 0.068). After nine infusions of CER-001, carotid mean vessel wall area decreased compared with baseline from 25.0 to 22.8 mm(2) (P = 0.043) and target-to-background ratio from 2.04 to 1.81 (P = 0.046). In FHA-subjects, CER-001 stimulates cholesterol mobilization and reduces artery wall dimension and inflammation, supporting further evaluation of CER-001 in FHA patients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Differential regulation of ATP binding cassette protein A1 expression and ApoA-I lipidation by Niemann-Pick type C1 in murine hepatocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Dong; Franklin, Vivian; Sundaram, Meenakshi; Kiss, Robert S; Ho, Kenneth; Gallant, Michel; Marcel, Yves L

    2007-08-03

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (Npc1) protein inactivation results in lipid accumulation in late endosomes and lysosomes, leading to a defect of ATP binding cassette protein A1 (Abca1)-mediated lipid efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in macrophages and fibroblasts. However, the role of Npc1 in Abca1-mediated lipid efflux to apoA-I in hepatocytes, the major cells contributing to HDL formation, is still unknown. Here we show that, whereas lipid efflux to apoA-I in Npc1-null macrophages is impaired, the lipidation of endogenously synthesized apoA-I by low density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol or de novo synthesized cholesterol or phospholipids in Npc1-null hepatocytes is significantly increased by about 1-, 3-, and 8-fold, respectively. The increased cholesterol efflux reflects a major increase of Abca1 protein in Npc1-null hepatocytes, which contrasts with the decrease observed in Npc1-null macrophages. The increased Abca1 expression is largely post-transcriptional, because Abca1 mRNA is only slightly increased and Lxr alpha mRNA is not changed, and Lxr alpha target genes are reduced. This differs from the regulation of Abcg1 expression, which is up-regulated at both mRNA and protein levels in Npc1-null cells. Abca1 protein translation rate is higher in Npc1-null hepatocytes, compared with wild type hepatocytes as measured by [(35)S]methionine incorporation, whereas there is no difference for the degradation of newly synthesized Abca1 in these two types of hepatocytes. Cathepsin D, which we recently identified as a positive modulator of Abca1, is markedly increased at both mRNA and protein levels by Npc1 inactivation in hepatocytes but not in macrophages. Consistent with this, inhibition of cathepsin D with pepstatin A reduced the Abca1 protein level in both Npc1-inactivated and WT hepatocytes. Therefore, Abca1 expression is specifically regulated in hepatocytes, where Npc1 activity modulates cathepsin D expression and Abca1 protein translation rate.

  9. A Complete NMR Spectral Assignment of the Lipid-free Mouse Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoAI) C-terminal Truncation Mutant, ApoAI(1-216)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yunhuang; Hoyt, David W.; Wang, Jianjun

    2007-07-28

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) is the major protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that has been a hot subject of interests because of its anti-atherogenic properties. Upon lipid-binding, apoAI undergoes conformational changes from lipid-free to several different HDL-associated states (1). These different conformational states regulate HDL formation, maturation and transportation. Recent crystal structure of lipid-free human apoAI represents a major progress of structural study of lipid-free apoAI (2). However, no structural is available for lipid-free mouse apoAI (240-residues). Since mouse HDL is homogenous with only HDL2-like size, whereas human HDL is heterogeneous, containing HDL2/HDL3 as its main species, a structuralmore » comparison between human and mouse apoAI may allow us to identify structure basis of HDL size distribution difference between human and mouse. We carried out an NMR structure determination of lipid-free mouse apoAI (1-216) and completely assigned backbone atoms (except backbone amide proton and nitrogen atoms for residues D1, N48, W107, K108, K132, E135, F147, R148, M169 and K203). Secondary structure prediction using backbone NMR parameters indicates that lipid-free mouse apoAI consists of a four helical segments in the N-terminal domain, residues 1-180. In addition, two short helices are also observed between residues 190-195 and 210-215. The helix locations are significantly different from those in the crystal structure of human apoAI, suggesting that mouse apoAI may have a different conformational adaptation upon lipid-binding. BMRB deposit with accession number: 15091.« less

  10. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  11. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gary K. L.; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L.; Zhang, Tianqi O.; Zanni, Martin T.; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:25759391

  12. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Havlik, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. Methods A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Results Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. PMID:26433438

  13. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic).

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Jaradeh, Safwan S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of apolipoprotein A-I as a substrate for matrix metalloproteinase-14

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Park, Sung-Min; Park, Ki-Hoon

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} MMP-14 degrades apoA-I more efficiently than other tested MMPs. {yields} Lipid-free apoA-I is more susceptible to MMPs than lipid-bound apoA-I. {yields} MMP-14 cleavage sites on apoA-I have been determined. {yields} Cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-14 impairs its ability to form HDL. -- Abstract: Substrates for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 were previously identified in human plasma using proteomic techniques. One putative MMP-14 substrate was apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In vitro cleavage assays showed that lipid-free apoA-I is a more accessible substrate for MMP-14 compared to lipid-bound apoA-I, and that MMP-14 is more prone tomore » digest apoA-I than MMP-3. The 28-kDa apoA-I was cleaved into smaller fragments of 27, 26, 25, 22, and 14-kDa by MMP-14. ApoA-I sites cleaved by MMP-14 were determined by isotope labeling of C-termini derived from the cleavage and analysis of the labeled peptides by mass spectrometry, along with N-terminal sequencing of the fragments. Cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-14 resulted in a loss of ability to form HDL. Our results suggest that cleavage of lipid-free apoA-I by MMP-14 may contribute to reduced HDL formation, and this may be occurring during the development of various vascular diseases as lipid metabolism is disrupted.« less

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I interactions with insulin secretion and production.

    PubMed

    Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J; Cochran, Blake J

    2016-02-01

    Human population studies have established that an elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is associated with a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In addition to having several potentially cardioprotective functions, HDLs and apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, the main HDL apolipoprotein, also have antidiabetic properties. Interventions that elevate plasma HDL-C and apoA-I levels improve glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus by enhancing pancreatic β-cell function and increasing insulin sensitivity. This review is concerned with recent advances in understanding the mechanisms by which HDLs and apoA-I improve pancreatic β-cell function. HDLs and apoA-I increase insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic β cells. The underlying mechanism of this effect is similar to what has been reported for intestinally derived incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, which both increase β-cell insulin secretion under high glucose conditions. This involves the activation of a heterotrimeric G protein Gαs subunit on the β-cell surface that leads to induction of a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase, increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and Ca levels, and activation of protein kinase A. Protein kinase A increases insulin synthesis by excluding FoxO1 from the β-cell nucleus and derepressing transcription of the insulin gene.

  16. Human Apolipoprotein A-I Natural Variants: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Amyloidogenic Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Ramella, Nahuel A.; Schinella, Guillermo R.; Ferreira, Sergio T.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Vela, María E.; Ríos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-derived amyloidosis can present with either wild-type (Wt) protein deposits in atherosclerotic plaques or as a hereditary form in which apoA-I variants deposit causing multiple organ failure. More than 15 single amino acid replacement amyloidogenic apoA-I variants have been described, but the molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid-associated pathology remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated by fluorescence and biochemical approaches the stabilities and propensities to aggregate of two disease-associated apoA-I variants, apoA-IGly26Arg, associated with polyneuropathy and kidney dysfunction, and apoA-ILys107-0, implicated in amyloidosis in severe atherosclerosis. Results showed that both variants share common structural properties including decreased stability compared to Wt apoA-I and a more flexible structure that gives rise to formation of partially folded states. Interestingly, however, distinct features appear to determine their pathogenic mechanisms. ApoA-ILys107-0 has an increased propensity to aggregate at physiological pH and in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment than Wt apoA-I, whereas apoA-IGly26Arg elicited macrophage activation, thus stimulating local chronic inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that some natural mutations in apoA-I variants elicit protein tendency to aggregate, but in addition the specific interaction of different variants with macrophages may contribute to cellular stress and toxicity in hereditary amyloidosis. PMID:22952757

  17. Acid lipase inhibitor in chicken plasma identified as apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Fujii, M; Higuchi, T; Mukai, S; Yonekura, M; Yano, T; Kawaguchi, H; Nonaka, K; Fukunaga, T; Sugimoto, Y; Yamada, S

    1996-10-01

    We have reported a inhibitor of acid lipases in liver lysosomes and erythrocytes from chickens [M. Fujii et al., Int. J. Biochem., 22, 895-898 (1990)]. In this paper, the properties of the inhibitor were described in comparison with those of apo A-I of chicken. The purified inhibitor migrated with the same mobility on SDS-PAGE as apo A-I, and had a molecular weight of 27,000. The peptide map from the lipase inhibitor was similar to that of apo A-I. Antibodies to the acid lipase inhibitor also reacted with apo A-I. Apo A-I inhibited the acid lipase activities of liver lysosomes and erythrocytes from chickens as strongly as the lipase inhibitor. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of lipase inhibitor was identical to that of apo A-I as far as residue 20. The amino acid sequence of peptides obtained from the inhibitor by cleavage with CNBr corresponded to internal sequence of apo A-I, and so the CNBr-peptides were derived by cleavage after the methionine residues in apo A-I. The findings showed that the inhibitor of the acid lipases in liver lysosomes and erythrocytes from chickens was identical to apo A-I.

  18. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N [Benicia, CA; Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  19. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru; Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg; Mogilenko, Denis A.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters inmore » TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.« less

  20. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; ...

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  1. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I Limits the Negative Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor on Lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bisoendial, Radjesh; Tabet, Fatiha; Tak, Paul P; Petrides, Francine; Cuesta Torres, Luisa F; Hou, Liming; Cook, Adam; Barter, Philip J; Weninger, Wolfgang; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2015-11-01

    Lymphatic endothelial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known for its role in disrupting the function of the lymphatic vasculature. This study investigates the ability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the principal apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins, to preserve the normal function of lymphatic endothelial cells treated with TNF. TNF decreased the ability of lymphatic endothelial cells to form tube-like structures. Preincubation of lymphatic endothelial cells with apoA-I attenuated the TNF-mediated inhibition of tube formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, apoA-I reversed the TNF-mediated suppression of lymphatic endothelial cell migration and lymphatic outgrowth in thoracic duct rings. ApoA-I also abrogated the negative effect of TNF on lymphatic neovascularization in an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, this involved downregulation of TNF receptor-1 and the conservation of prospero-related homeobox gene-1 expression, a master regulator of lymphangiogenesis. ApoA-I also re-established the normal phenotype of the lymphatic network in the diaphragms of human TNF transgenic mice. ApoA-I restores the neovascularization capacity of the lymphatic system during TNF-mediated inflammation. This study provides a proof-of-concept that high-density lipoprotein-based therapeutic strategies may attenuate chronic inflammation via its action on lymphatic vasculature. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Expression and purification of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Zaragoza (L144R) and formation of reconstituted HDL particles.

    PubMed

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Pocoví, Miguel; García-Otín, Angel-Luis

    2011-11-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I Zaragoza (L144R) (apo A-I Z), has been associated with severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia and an enhanced effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) reverse cholesterol transport. In order to perform further studies with this protein we have optimized an expression and purification method of recombinant wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z and produced mimetic HDL particles with each protein. An pET-45 expression system was used to produce N-terminal His-tagged apo A-I, wild-type or mutant, in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which was subsequently purified by affinity chromatography in non-denaturing conditions. HDL particles were generated via a modified sodium cholate method. Expression and purification of both proteins was verified by SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and immunochemical procedures. Yield was 30mg of purified protein (94% purity) per liter of culture. The reconstituted HDL particles checked via non-denaturing PAGE showed high homogeneity in their size when reconstituted both with wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z. An optimized system for the expression and purification of wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z with high yield and purity grade has been achieved, in addition to their use in reconstituted HDL particles, as a basis for further studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of curcumin on amyloid-like aggregates generated from methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I

    DOE PAGES

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Tavoosi, Narjes; Chan, Gary K. L.; ...

    2018-01-10

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. Here, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation. The impact of curcumin on the structure of the aggregating material was revealed by the lower amount of β-structure in ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates formed in the presence of curcumin, comparedmore » to aggregates formed without curcumin. However, the kinetics of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregate formation was not altered by the presence of curcumin. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis detected no discernable differences in amyloid morphology when ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates were formed in the presence or absence of curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin interacts with apoA-I and alters the structure of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates yet does not diminish the propensity of ox-apoA-I to form aggregates.« less

  5. Effect of curcumin on amyloid-like aggregates generated from methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Tavoosi, Narjes; Chan, Gary K. L.

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. Here, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation. The impact of curcumin on the structure of the aggregating material was revealed by the lower amount of β-structure in ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates formed in the presence of curcumin, comparedmore » to aggregates formed without curcumin. However, the kinetics of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregate formation was not altered by the presence of curcumin. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis detected no discernable differences in amyloid morphology when ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates were formed in the presence or absence of curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin interacts with apoA-I and alters the structure of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates yet does not diminish the propensity of ox-apoA-I to form aggregates.« less

  6. In situ AFM imaging of apolipoprotein A-I directly derived from plasma HDL.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chaoye; Wang, Zhexuan; Chen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    The major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins play vital roles in the structural integrity and physiological functions of lipoproteins. More than ten structural models of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), have been developed successively. In these models, apoA-I was supposed to organize in a ring-shaped form. To date, however, there is no direct evidence under physiological condition. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to in situ visualize the organization of apoA-I, which was exposed via depletion of the lipid component of plasma HDL pre-immobilized on functionalized mica sheets. For the first time, the ring-shaped coarse structure and three detailed structures (crescent-shaped, gapped "O"-shaped, and parentheses-shaped structures, respectively) of apoA-I in plasma HDL, which have the ability of binding scavenger receptors, were directly observed and quantitatively measured by AFM. The three detailed structures probably represent the different extents to which the lipid component of HDL was depleted. Data on lipid depletion of HDL may provide clues to understand lipid insertion of HDL. These data provide important information for the understanding of the structure/maturation of plasma HDL. Moreover, they suggest a powerful method for directly visualizing the major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins or the protein component of lipoprotein-like lipid-protein complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sidedness of interfacial arginine residues and anti-atherogenicity of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Gaurav; Mishra, Vinod K.; Handattu, Shaila P.; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N.; Shin, Ronald; McPherson, David T.; Deivanayagam, Champion C. S.; Garber, David W.; Segrest, Jere P.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sidedness of interfacial arginine (Arg) in apoA-I mimetic peptides, similar to that observed in apoA-I (Bashtovyy, D. et al. 2011. Sequence conservation of apolipoprotein A-I affords novel insights into HDL structure-function. J. Lipid Res. 52: 435–450.), may be important for biological activity, we compared properties of 4F and analogs, [K4,15>R]4F and [K9,13>R]4F, with Lys>Arg substitutions on the right and left side, respectively, of the 4F amphipathic helix. Intraperitoneal administration of these peptides into female apoE null mice (n = 13 in each group) reduced en face lesions significantly compared with controls; 4F and [K4,15>R]4F were equally effective whereas [K9,13>R]4F was less effective. Turnover experiments indicated that [K4,15>R]4F reached the highest, whereas [K9,13>R]4F had the lowest, plasma peak levels with a similar half life as the [K4,15>R]4F analog. The half life of 4F was two times longer than the other two peptides. The order in their abilities to associate with HDL in human plasma, generation of apoA-I particles with pre-β mobility from isolated HDL, lipid associating ability, and sensitivity of lipid complexes to trypsin digestion was: 4F>[K4,15,>R]4F>[K9,13>R]4F. These studies support our hypothesis that the sidedness of interfacial Arg residues in the polar face of apoA-I mimetics results in differential biological properties. PMID:22377531

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits chemotaxis, adhesion, activation of THP-1 cells and improves the plasma HDL inflammatory index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei-Zhong; Wu, Man-Ping

    2010-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are well described, however, such effects of Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are less studied. Building on our previous study, we further explored the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of ApoA-I, and focused especially on the interaction between monocyte and endothelial cells and plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits. Our results show that ApoA-I significantly decreased LPS-induced MCP-1 release from THP-1 cells and ox-LDL-induced THP-1 migration ratio (P<0.01, respectively). ApoA-I significantly decreased sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 release (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively) from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, ApoA-I significantly inhibited LPS-induced CD11b and VCAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). ApoA-I diminished LPS-induced mCD14 expression (P<0.01) and NFkappaB nuclear translocation in THP-1 cells. After single dose treatment of ApoA-I, the value of plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits was improved significantly (P<0.05). These results suggest that ApoA-I can inhibit chemotaxis, adhesion and activation of human monocytes and improve plasma HDL inflammatory index with presenting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High-Density Lipoprotein-Targeted Therapy and Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yoshinari; Chiesa, Giulia; Saku, Keijiro

    2015-01-01

    Numerous randomized clinical trials have established statins as the major standard therapy for atherosclerotic diseases because these molecules decrease the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and moderately increase that of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway, mediated by HDL particles, has a relevant antiatherogenic potential. An important approach to HDL-targeted therapy is optimization of the HDL-cholesterol level and enhanced removal of plasma cholesterol, together with the prevention and mitigation of inflammation related to atherosclerosis. Small-molecule inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) increase the HDL-cholesterol level in subjects with normal or low HDL-cholesterol. However, CETP inhibitors do not seem to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. HDL therapies using reconstituted HDL, including apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I Milano, ApoA-I mimetics, or full-length ApoA-I, are dramatically effective in animal models. Of those, the ApoA-I-mimetic peptide called FAMP effectively removes cholesterol via the ABCA1 transporter and acts as an antiatherosclerotic agent by enhancing the biological functions of HDL without elevating the HDL-cholesterol level. Our review of the literature leads us to conclude that HDL-targeted therapies have significant atheroprotective potential and thus may effectively treat patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  10. The “Beta-Clasp” model of apolipoprotein A-I - a lipid-free solution structure determined by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lagerstedt, Jens O.; Budamagunta, Madhu S.; Liu, Grace S.; DeValle, Nicole C.; Voss, John C.; Oda, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL) and plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism. The lipid-free / lipid-poor form of apoA-I is the preferred substrate for the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). The interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1 leads to the formation of cholesterol laden high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles, a key step in reverse cholesterol transport and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. Knowledge of the structure of lipid-free apoA-I is essential to understanding its critical interaction with ABCA1 and the molecular mechanisms underlying HDL biogenesis. We therefore examined the structure of lipid-free apoA-I by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). Through site directed spin label EPR, we mapped the secondary structure of apoA-I and identified sites of spin coupling as residues 26, 44, 64, 167, 217 and 226. We capitalize on the fact that lipid-free apoA-I self-associates in an anti-parallel manner in solution. We employed these sites of spin coupling to define the central plane in the dimeric apoA-I complex. Applying both the constraints of dipolar coupling with the EPR-derived pattern of solvent accessibility, we assembled the secondary structure into a tertiary context, providing a solution structure for lipid-free apoA-I. PMID:22245143

  11. Effect of apolipoprotein A-I deficiency on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activation in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Parks, J S; Li, H; Gebre, A K; Smith, T L; Maeda, N

    1995-02-01

    Plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) synthesis by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is activated by apolipoprotein (apo)A-I. We studied the effect of plasma apoA-I concentration on LCAT activation, using normal, heterozygous or homozygous apoA-I-deficient mice made by gene targeting. Plasma esterified cholesterol concentrations of mice fed chow diets were ordered (mean +/- SEM): 105 +/- 7 (normal) > 70 +/- 5 (heterozygotes) > 26 +/- 2 (homozygotes) mg/dl. Plasma free cholesterol concentrations were similar among the three genotypes. Endogenous LCAT activity, measured as the decrease in plasma free cholesterol after a 1 h incubation at 37 degrees C, was ordered: 44 +/- 3 (normal) > 21 +/- 2 (heterozygotes) > 5 +/- 1 (homozygotes) nmol CE formed/h per ml plasma. Using a recombinant exogenous substrate consisting of egg yolk phospholipid, [14C]cholesterol, and apoA-I, CE formation of normals and heterozygotes was similar (27.4 +/- 0.6 and 28.8 +/- 1.3 nmol/h per ml plasma, respectively), but was significantly less for homozygotes (19.2 +/- 1.7 nmol/h per ml plasma). However, using a small unilamellar vesicle substrate particle containing phospholipid and [14C]cholesterol, CE formation was ordered: 1.6 +/- 0.1 (normal) = 1.6 +/- 0.1 (heterozygotes) > 0.6 +/- 0.1 (homozygotes) nmol/h per ml plasma; addition of apoA-I to the plasma of homozygous animals restored CE formation to normal levels (1.6 +/- 0.1). CE fatty acid analysis demonstrated that plasma from homozygous mice contained significantly more saturated and monounsaturated and fewer polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to normal and heterozygous mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Rosuvastatin does not affect human apolipoprotein A-I expression in genetically modified mice: a clue to the disputed effect of statins on HDL.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Marta; Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Cinquanta, Paola; Camera, Marina; Brambilla, Marta; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2011-11-01

    Besides a significant reduction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, statins moderately increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. In vitro studies have indicated that this effect may be the result of an increased expression of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, the main protein component of HDL. The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the effect of rosuvastatin on apoA-I expression and secretion in a transgenic mouse model for human apoA-I. Human apoA-I transgenic mice were treated for 28 days with 5, 10 or 20 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) of rosuvastatin, the most effective statin in raising HDL levels. Possible changes of apoA-I expression by treatment were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR on RNA extracted from mouse livers. The human apoA-I secretion rate was determined in primary hepatocytes isolated from transgenic mice from each group after treatment. Rosuvastatin treatment with 5 and 10 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) did not affect apoA-I plasma levels, whereas a significant decrease was observed in mice treated with 20 mg·kg(-1) ·day(-1) of rosuvastatin (-16%, P < 0.01). Neither relative hepatic mRNA concentrations of apoA-I nor apoA-I secretion rates from primary hepatocytes were influenced by rosuvastatin treatment at each tested dose. In human apoA-I transgenic mice, rosuvastatin treatment does not increase either apoA-I transcription and hepatic secretion, or apoA-I plasma levels. These results support the hypothesis that other mechanisms may account for the observed HDL increase induced by statin therapy in humans. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. A facile method for isolation of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ikon, Nikita; Shearer, Jennifer; Liu, Jianfang

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets “Good Manufacturing Practice” standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scalemore » are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. In conclusion, purified apoA-I possessed α-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages.« less

  14. The paradox of high apolipoprotein A-I levels independently predicting incident type-2 diabetes among Turks.

    PubMed

    Onat, A; Hergenç, G; Bulur, S; Uğur, M; Küçükdurmaz, Z; Can, G

    2010-06-25

    Predictive value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I for incident hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) needs further exploration. A representative sample of Turkish adults was studied with this purpose prospectively. Sex-specific apoA-I tertiles were examined regarding cardiometabolic risk. A total of 1044 men and 1067 women (aged 49+/-12 years at baseline) were followed up over 7.4 years. High serum apoA-I levels were significantly associated in multivariable analysis with female sex, aging, alcohol intake, (inversely) cigarette smoking and, in women, with systolic blood pressure. Risk of diabetes was predicted in logistic regression in both genders by top versus bottom apoA-I tertile (RR 1.98; [95%CI 1.31; 3.0]), additive to age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-cholesterol and lipid lowering drugs. By adding sex hormone-binding globulin to the model in a subset of the sample, the association between high apoA-I and incident diabetes was attenuated only in women. ApoA-I tertiles tended to be positively associated also with hypertension and CHD only in women but this did not reach significance. High compared with low serum apoA-I levels nearly double the risk for incident diabetes, additively to age, BMI, CRP, HDL-cholesterol among Turks. Systemic inflammation concomitant with prevailing MetS might turn apoA-I into proinflammatory particles. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A facile method for isolation of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I from E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Ikon, Nikita; Shearer, Jennifer; Liu, Jianfang; ...

    2017-03-20

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets “Good Manufacturing Practice” standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scalemore » are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. In conclusion, purified apoA-I possessed α-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages.« less

  16. Polyadenylation site prediction using PolyA-iEP method.

    PubMed

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Tzanis, George; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a method called PolyA-iEP that has been developed for the prediction of polyadenylation sites. More precisely, PolyA-iEP is a method that recognizes mRNA 3'ends which contain polyadenylation sites. It is a modular system which consists of two main components. The first exploits the advantages of emerging patterns and the second is a distance-based scoring method. The outputs of the two components are finally combined by a classifier. The final results reach very high scores of sensitivity and specificity.

  17. Genetic deletion of apolipoprotein A-I increases airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and collagen deposition in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiling; Xu, Hao; Shi, Yang; Nandedkar, Sandhya; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Haiqing; Feroah, Thom; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Schulte, Marie L.; Jones, Deron W.; Jarzembowski, Jason; Sorci-Thomas, Mary; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between high-density lipoprotein and pulmonary function is unclear. To determine mechanistic relationships we investigated the effects of genetic deletion of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) on plasma lipids, paraoxonase (PON1), pro-inflammatory HDL (p-HDL), vasodilatation, airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary oxidative stress, and inflammation. ApoA-I null (apoA-I−/−) mice had reduced total and HDL cholesterol but increased pro-inflammatory HDL compared with C57BL/6J mice. Although PON1 protein was increased in apoA-I−/− mice, PON1 activity was decreased. ApoA-I deficiency did not alter vasodilatation of facialis arteries, but it did alter relaxation responses of pulmonary arteries. Central airway resistance was unaltered. However, airway resistance mediated by tissue dampening and elastance were increased in apoA-I−/− mice, a finding also confirmed by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) studies. Inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were increased in apoA-I−/− lungs but not oxidized phospholipids. Colocalization of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1 was increased in apoA-I−/− lungs. Xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were increased in apoA-I−/− lungs. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein-detectable oxidants were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in apoA-I−/− mice. In contrast, BALF nitrite+nitrate levels were decreased in apoA-I−/− mice. These data demonstrate that apoA-I plays important roles in limiting pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, which if not prevented, will decrease pulmonary artery vasodilatation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:20498409

  18. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano rapidly reverses aortic valve stenosis and decreases leaflet inflammation in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Speidl, Walter S; Cimmino, Giovanni; Ibanez, Borja; Elmariah, Sammy; Hutter, Randolph; Garcia, Mario J; Fuster, Valentin; Goldman, Martin E; Badimon, Juan J

    2010-08-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano (rApoA-I(M)) induces atherosclerotic plaque regression. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of rApoA-I(M) on experimental aortic valve degeneration and its mechanisms of action. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 20) were fed an atherogenic diet for 9 months and then randomized to either placebo or rApoA-I(M). Echocardiography was used to assess the effect of the treatments on AS. Porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts (PAVMF) treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein served to define the effects of rApoA-I(M) on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano increased aortic valve area (AVA) by 32% (0.25 +/- 0.05 to 0.34 +/- 0.07 cm(2), P < 0.01); whereas AVA remained unchanged in the placebo group (0.24 +/- 0.05 to 0.26 +/- 0.04 cm(2), P = 0.58). Histopathological examination of aortic valves in the rApoA-I(M) animals showed significantly less leaflet thickening, inflammation, and calcification vs. the placebo group. In vitro, rApoA-I(M) significantly inhibited MCP-1, AP, and NF-kappaB and decreased intracellular cholesterol content in PAVMF. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano treatment reverses AS in this experimental rabbit model. The beneficial effects seem to be mediated by enhanced cholesterol removal and by reduced inflammation and calcification.

  19. Transfer of C-terminal residues of human apolipoprotein A-I to insect apolipophorin III creates a two-domain chimeric protein with enhanced lipid binding activity.

    PubMed

    Horn, James V C; Ellena, Rachel A; Tran, Jesse J; Beck, Wendy H J; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Weers, Paul M M

    2017-08-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an insect apolipoprotein (18kDa) that comprises a single five-helix bundle domain. In contrast, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a 28kDa two-domain protein: an α-helical N-terminal domain (residues 1-189) and a less structured C-terminal domain (residues 190-243). To better understand the apolipoprotein domain organization, a novel chimeric protein was engineered by attaching residues 179 to 243 of apoA-I to the C-terminal end of apoLp-III. The apoLp-III/apoA-I chimera was successfully expressed and purified in E. coli. Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I within the chimera. While parent apoLp-III did not self-associate, the chimera formed oligomers similar to apoA-I. The chimera displayed a lower α-helical content, but the stability remained similar compared to apoLp-III, consistent with the addition of a less structured domain. The chimera was able to solubilize phospholipid vesicles at a significantly higher rate compared to apoLp-III, approaching that of apoA-I. The chimera was more effective in protecting phospholipase C-treated low density lipoprotein from aggregation compared to apoLp-III. In addition, binding interaction of the chimera with phosphatidylglycerol vesicles and lipopolysaccharides was considerably improved compared to apoLp-III. Thus, addition of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I to apoLp-III created a two-domain protein, with self-association, lipid and lipopolysaccharide binding properties similar to apoA-I. The apoA-I like behavior of the chimera indicate that these properties are independent from residues residing in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, and that they can be transferred from apoA-I to apoLp-III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Secretion of apolipoproteins A-I and B by HepG2 cells: regulation by substrates and metabolic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kempen, H J; Imbach, A P; Giller, T; Neumann, W J; Hennes, U; Nakada, N

    1995-08-01

    It was the aim of this study to i) compare the effects of glucose and other hexoses with that of oleate on secretion of apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and B by HepG2 cells, and ii) document the effect of various metabolic inhibitors on the secretion of these apos in the absence or presence of extra glucose/oleate. i) The addition of 10 mM glucose increased secretion of apoA-I and apoB, as measured by enzyme immunoassay, by about 60% when cells were incubated for 48 h in DMEM + 10% fetal calf serum. The addition of extra glucose also increased the mRNA levels for these apos. Increased radioactivity was also found in these apolipoproteins by immunoprecipitation after metabolic labeling with [35S]methionine for 48 h. However, in a pulse-chase experiment (15 min labeling, 2 h chase), glucose was found to increase apoA-I synthesis but not apoB synthesis. More labeled apoB appeared in the medium during the chase because glucose inhibited its intracellular degradation. The effect of glucose on secretion of these apos could be mimicked by fructose and mannose but not by 6-deoxyglucose, showing that the hexoses must enter the cells and be phosphorylated. In contrast, the addition of 0.5 mM oleate had a weak inhibitory effect on secretion of apoA-I whereas it increased the secretion of apoB by more than twofold. The combination of 10 mM glucose and 0.5 mM oleate had no greater effect than glucose alone on apoA-I secretion but increased apoB secretion by fourfold. ii) Inhibiting glycolysis (by glucosamine) lowered secretion of both apoA-I and apoB, while inhibiting lipogenesis (using 8-Br-cyclic AMP or 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA)) did not affect apoA-I secretion but clearly decreased that of apoB. However, the inhibitory effect of TOFA on apoB secretion was much smaller in the presence of 0.5 mM oleate instead of extra glucose. Actinomycin-D and cycloheximide strongly suppressed the stimulatory effect of glucose on secretion of both apolipoproteins

  1. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E are independently distributed among intracellular and newly secreted HDL of human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Lin, Hu-Yu Alice; Massey, John B.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas hepatocytes secrete the major human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL)-protein, apo A-I, as lipid-free and lipidated species, the biogenic itineraries of apo A-II and apo E are unknown. Human plasma and HepG2 cell-derived apo A-II and apo E occur as monomers, homodimers and heterodimers. Dimerization of apo A-II, which is more lipophilic than apo A-I, is catalyzed by lipid surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that lipidation of intracellular and secreted apo A-II exceeds that of apo A-I, and once lipidated, apo A-II dimerizes. Fractionation of HepG2 cell lysate and media by size exclusion chromatography showed that intracellular apo A-II and apo E are fully lipidated and occur on nascent HDL and VLDL respectively, while only 45% of intracellular apo A-I is lipidated. Secreted apo A-II and apo E occur on small HDL and on LDL and large HDL respectively. HDL particles containing both apo A-II and apo A-I form only after secretion from both HepG2 and Huh7 hepatoma cells. Apo A-II dimerizes intracellularly while intracellular apo E is monomeric but after secretion associates with HDL and subsequently dimerizes. Thus, HDL apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E have distinct intracellular and post-secretory pathways of hepatic lipidation and dimerization in the process of HDL formation. These early forms of HDL are expected to follow different apolipoprotein-specific pathways through plasma remodeling and reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:19635584

  2. Lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I and discoidal reconstituted high-density lipoproteins differentially inhibit glucose-induced oxidative stress in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tabet, Fatiha; Lambert, Gilles; Cuesta Torres, Luisa F; Hou, Liming; Sotirchos, Irene; Touyz, Rhian M; Jenkins, Alicia J; Barter, Philip J; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2011-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, in the lipid-free form or as a constituent of discoidal reconstituted high-density lipoproteins ([A-I]rHDL), inhibits high-glucose-induced redox signaling in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). HMDM were incubated under normal (5.8 mmol/L) or high-glucose (25 mmol/L) conditions with native high-density lipoproteins (HDL) lipid-free apoA-I from normal subjects and from subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or (A-I)rHDL. Superoxide (O2-) production was measured using dihydroethidium fluorescence. NADPH oxidase activity was assessed using lucigenin-derived chemiluminescence and a cyotochrome c assay. p47phox translocation to the plasma membrane, Nox2, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), and SOD2 mRNA and protein levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Native HDL induced a time-dependent inhibition of O2- generation in HMDM incubated with 25 mmol/L glucose. Lipid-free apoA-I and (A-I)rHDL increased SOD1 and SOD2 levels and attenuated 25 mmol/L glucose-mediated increases in cellular O2-, NADPH oxidase activity, p47 translocation, and Nox2 expression. Lipid-free apoA-I mediated its effects on Nox2, SOD1, and SOD2 via ABCA1. (A-I)rHDL-mediated effects were via ABCG1 and scavenger receptor BI. Lipid-free apoA-I from subjects with T2D inhibited reactive oxygen species generation less efficiently than normal apoA-I. Native HDL, lipid-free apoA-I and (A-I)rHDL inhibit high-glucose-induced redox signaling in HMDM. The antioxidant properties of apoA-I are attenuated in T2D.

  3. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Montagnani, Marco; Locatelli, Marcello; Diani, Erika; Giavarini, Flavio; Caruso, Donatella; Roda, Enrico; Roda, Aldo; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I(M) (ilano), is a molecular variant of apoA-I(wild-type), associated with dramatically low HDL-cholesterol levels, but no increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In view of the present uncertainties on the role of apoA-I in liver cholesterol removal by way of bile acids and neutral sterols, and of the greater capacity of apoA-I(M) (ilano) to remove arterial cholesterol, biliary sterol metabolism was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing apoA-I(M) (ilano). ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet, and compared with human apoA-I(wild-type) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic bile flow and composition, hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid content, and faecal sterol content were measured. Moreover, the expression of hepatic ABCA1, SR-B1 and that of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in bile acid metabolism were evaluated. The dietary treatment led to a strong elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels in A-I(M) (ilano) mice, associated with an increased expression of hepatic ABCA1. ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice showed lower cholesterol output from the liver compared with apoA-I(wild-type) mice, in the absence of liver sterol accumulation. Faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was similar in the two mouse lines. In spite of a different response to the dietary challenge, with an increased ABCA1 expression and a lower hepatic cholesterol output in apoA-I(M) (ilano) mice, the net sterol excretion is comparable in the two transgenic lines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. 13-hydroxy linoleic acid increases expression of the cholesterol transporters ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI and stimulates apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Synthetic activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) stimulate cholesterol removal from macrophages through PPAR-dependent up-regulation of liver × receptor α (LXRα) and subsequent induction of cholesterol exporters such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-BI). The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that the hydroxylated derivative of linoleic acid (LA), 13-HODE, which is a natural PPAR agonist, has similar effects in RAW264.7 macrophages. Methods RAW264.7 macrophages were treated without (control) or with LA or 13-HODE in the presence and absence of PPARα or PPARγ antagonists and determined protein levels of LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-BI, PPARα and PPARγ and apolipoprotein A-I mediated lipid efflux. Results Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with 13-HODE increased PPAR-transactivation activity and protein concentrations of LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI when compared to control treatment (P < 0.05). In addition, 13-HODE enhanced cholesterol concentration in the medium but decreased cellular cholesterol concentration during incubation of cells with the extracellular lipid acceptor apolipoprotein A-I (P < 0.05). Pre-treatment of cells with a selective PPARα or PPARγ antagonist completely abolished the effects of 13-HODE on cholesterol efflux and protein levels of genes investigated. In contrast to 13-HODE, LA had no effect on either of these parameters compared to control cells. Conclusion 13-HODE induces cholesterol efflux from macrophages via the PPAR-LXRα-ABCA1/SR-BI-pathway. PMID:22129452

  5. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  6. Commutability of control materials for external quality assessment of serum apolipoprotein A-I measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Qi, Tianqi; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Tianjiao; Zhou, Weiyan; Zhao, Haijian; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Jiangtao; Yan, Ying; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Chuanbao; Chen, Wenxiang

    2018-04-25

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the commutability of commercial control materials and human serum pools and to investigate the suitability of the materials for the external quality assessment (EQA) of serum apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) measurement. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP14-A3 protocol was used for the commutability study. Apo A-I concentrations in two levels of commercial control materials used in EQA program, two fresh-frozen human serum pools (FSPs) and two frozen human serum pools prepared from residual clinical specimens (RSPs) were measured along with 50 individual samples using nine commercial assays. Measurement results of the 50 individual samples obtained with different assays were pairwise analyzed by Deming regression, and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) were calculated. The commutability of the processed materials was evaluated by comparing the measurement results of the materials with the limits of the PIs. The FSP-1 was commutable for all the 36 assay pairs, and FSP-2 was commutable for 30 pairs; RSP-1 and RSP-2 showed commutability for 27/36 and 22/36 assay pairs, respectively, whereas the two EQA materials were commutable only for 4/36 and 5/36 assay pairs, respectively. Non-commutability of the tested EQA materials has been observed among current apo A-I assays. EQA programs need either to take into account the commutability-related biases in the interpretation of the EQA results or to use more commutable materials. Frozen human serum pools were commutable for most of the assays.

  7. Tyrosine 192 in apolipoprotein A-I is the major site of nitration and chlorination by myeloperoxidase, but only chlorination markedly impairs ABCA1-dependent cholesterol transport.

    PubMed

    Shao, Baohai; Bergt, Constanze; Fu, Xiaoyun; Green, Pattie; Voss, John C; Oda, Michael N; Oram, John F; Heinecke, Jay W

    2005-02-18

    High density lipoprotein (HDL) isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions and the blood of patients with established coronary artery disease contains elevated levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and 3-chlorotyrosine. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the only known source of 3-chlorotyrosine in humans, indicating that MPO oxidizes HDL in vivo. In the current studies, we used tandem mass spectrometry to identify the major sites of tyrosine oxidation when lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein of HDL, was exposed to MPO or peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Tyrosine 192 was the predominant site of both nitration and chlorination by MPO and was also the major site of nitration by ONOO(-). Electron paramagnetic spin resonance studies of spin-labeled apoA-I revealed that residue 192 was located in an unusually hydrophilic environment. Moreover, the environment of residue 192 became much more hydrophobic when apoA-I was incorporated into discoidal HDL, and Tyr(192) of HDL-associated apoA-I was a poor substrate for nitration by both myeloperoxidase and ONOO(-), suggesting that solvent accessibility accounted in part for the reactivity of Tyr(192). The ability of lipid-free apoA-I to facilitate ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol transport was greatly reduced after chlorination by MPO. Loss of activity occurred in concert with chlorination of Tyr(192). Both ONOO(-) and MPO nitrated Tyr(192) in high yield, but unlike chlorination, nitration minimally affected the ability of apoA-I to promote cholesterol efflux from cells. Our results indicate that Tyr(192) is the predominant site of nitration and chlorination when MPO or ONOO(-) oxidizes lipid-free apoA-I but that only chlorination markedly reduces the cholesterol efflux activity of apoA-I. This impaired biological activity of chlorinated apoA-I suggests that MPO-mediated oxidation of HDL might contribute to the link between inflammation and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Disruption of Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins by Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Requires Labile Apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K.; Courtney, Harry S.; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipids–cholesteryl esters and some triglyceride–surrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins–apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II. HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of ~100,000 HDL particles (D ~ 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D >100 nm) leaving a new HDL-like particle–neo HDL (D ~5.8 nm) while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physico-chemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, HDL containing non-labile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. Based on kinetic cryo electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 μM) to neo HDL via a step-wise mechanism in which intermediate-size particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k = (4.400 ± 0.004) × 10−2 min−1. Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy, entropy and free energy of activation of ΔH‡ = 73.9 kJ/mol, ΔS‡ = −66.87 J/°K, and ΔG‡ = 94.6 kJ/mol respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the rate-limiting step, and nearly all HDL particles contain

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I in Labeo rohita: Cloning and functional characterisation reveal its broad spectrum antimicrobial property, and indicate significant role during ectoparasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Amruta; Karan, Sweta; Kar, Banya; Garg, L C; Dixit, A; Sahoo, P K

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the most abundant and multifunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) having a major role in lipid transport and potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. In this study, a complete CDS of 771 bp of Labeo rohita (rohu) ApoA-I (LrApoA-I) encoding a protein of 256 amino acids was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Tissue specific transcription analysis of LrApoA-I revealed its expression in a wide range of tissues, with a very high level of expression in liver and spleen. Ontogenic study of LrApoA-I expression showed presence of transcripts in milt and 3 h post-fertilization onwards in the larvae. The expression kinetics of LrApoA-I was studied upon infection with three different types of pathogens to elucidate its functional significance. Its expression was found to be up-regulated in the anterior kidney of L. rohita post-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Similarly following poly I:C (poly inosinic:cytidylic) stimulation, the transcript levels increased in both the anterior kidney and liver tissues. Significant up-regulation of LrApoA-I expression was observed in skin, mucous, liver and anterior kidney of the fish challenged with the ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Immunomodulatory effect of recombinant LrApoA-I (rApoA-I) produced in Escherichia coli was demonstrated against A. hydrophila challenge in vivo. L. rohita administered with rApoA-I at a dose of 100 μg exhibited significantly higher protection (∼55%) upon challenge with A. hydrophila 12 h post-administration of the protein, in comparison to that observed in control group, along with higher level of expression of immune-related genes. The heightened expression of ApoA-I observed post-infection reflected its involvement in immune responses against a wide range of infections including bacterial, viral as well as parasitic pathogens. Our results also suggest the possibility of using rApoA-I as an immunostimulant, particularly rendering protection

  10. High yield of recombinant human Apolipoprotein A-I expressed in Pichia pastoris by using mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan Janakiraman, Vignesh; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran; Santarelli, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of the cardioprotective properties exhibited by High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is mediated by its major protein component Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1). In order to develop a simplified bioprocess for producing recombinant human Apolipoprotein A-I (rhApoA1) in its near-native form, rhApoA1was expressed without the use of an affinity tag in view of its potential therapeutic applications. Expressed in Pichia pastoris at expression levels of 58.2 mg ApoA1 per litre of culture in a reproducible manner, the target protein was purified by mixed-mode chromatography using Capto™ MMC ligand with a purity and recovery of 84% and 68%, respectively. ApoA1 purification was scaled up to Mixed-mode Expanded Bed Adsorption chromatography to establish an 'on-line' process for the efficient capture of rhApoA1 directly from the P. pastoris expression broth. A polishing step using anion exchange chromatography enabled the recovery of ApoA1 up to 96% purity. Purified ApoA1 was identified and verified by RPLC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry. This two-step process would reduce processing times and therefore costs in comparison to the twelve-step procedure currently used for recovering rhApoA1 from P. pastoris. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [Screening and identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a potential marker for hepatoblastoma in children].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Jia-Xiang

    2016-12-01

    To screen and identify serum biomarkers for childhood hepatoblastoma (HB). The serum samples from 30 children with hepatoblastoma (HB), 20 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and 20 normal children were treated with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography. The platform of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to eliminate the interference of inflammatory factors and to screen out the differentially expressed proteins in serum between tumor group and normal group. After the purification and separation of target proteins were performed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to determine their amino acid sequences. The SwissProt database was searched for matched proteins. Finally, real-time PCR and ELISA were used to verify and measure the expression of target proteins. After SELDI-TOF-MS was used for screening and elimination of the interference of inflammatory factors, a differentially expression protein with a mass-to-charge ratio of 9 348 Da was found in serum between HB group and normal group, and the HB group had significantly lower expression of this protein than the normal group (p<0.05). This protein was identified as apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I). Real-time PCR and ELISA verified the low mRNA and protein expression of Apo A-I in serum in the HB group and high expression in serum in the normal group. Apo A-I can be used as a non-inflammatory protein marker for HB and has a certain value in the early diagnosis of HB.

  12. Effect of an isoenergetic traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoprotein A-I kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics has not been studied to date. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of the MedDiet in the absence of changes in body weight on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I kinetic in men with metaboli...

  13. Composition, structure and substrate properties of reconstituted discoidal HDL with apolipoprotein A-I and cholesteryl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergunov, Alexander D.; Shabrova, Elena V.; Dobretsov, Gennady E.

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the influence of lipid unsaturation and neutral lipid on the maturation of high density lipoproteins, the discoidal complexes of apoA-I, phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl ester (CE) were prepared. Saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and unsaturated palmitoyllinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (PLPC), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), and fluorescent probe cholesteryl 1-pyrenedecanoate (CPD) that forms in a diffusion- and concentration-dependent manner short-lived dimer of unexcited and excited molecules (excimer) were used. The apoA-I/DPPC/CPD complexes were heterogeneous by size, composition and probe location. CPD molecules incorporated more efficiently into larger complexes and accumulated in a central part of the discs. The apoA-I/POPC(PLPC)/CPD were also heterogeneous, however, probe molecules distributed preferentially into smaller complexes and accumulated at disc periphery. The kinetics of CPD transfer by recombinant cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to human plasma LDL is well described by two-exponential decay, the fast component with a shorter transfer time being more populated in PLPC compared to DPPC complexes. The presence of CE molecules in discoidal HDL results in particle heterogeneity. ApoA-I influences the CETP activity modulating the properties of apolipoprotein-phospholipid interface. This may include CE molecules accumulation in the boundary lipid in unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and cluster formation in the bulk bilayer in saturated phosphatidylcholine.

  14. Endotoxin Contamination of Apolipoprotein A-I: Effect on Macrophage Proliferation – A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation >90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25778625

  15. Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation>90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  17. A case report of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis associated with a novel APOA1 mutation and variable phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Birgitte G; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Krag, Søren Rasmus; Gilbertson, Janet A; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gillmore, Julian D; Birn, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) amyloidosis is a non-AL, non-AA, and non-transthyretin type of amyloidosis associated with mutations in the APOA1 gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a form of systemic amyloidosis, but at presentation, can also mimic localized amyloidosis. The renal presentation generally involves interstitial and medullary deposition of apo A-I amyloid protein. We describe the identification of apo A-I amyloidosis by mass spectrometry in a 52-year old male, with no family history of amyloidosis, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and associated with heterozygosity for a novel APOA1 mutation (c.220 T > A) which encodes the known amyloidogenic Trp50Arg variant. Renal amyloid deposits in this case were confined to the glomeruli alone, and the patient developed progressive renal impairment. One year after diagnosis, the patient had a successful kidney transplant from an unrelated donor. Pathogenic mutations in the APOA1 gene are generally associated with symptoms of amyloidosis. In this family however, genotyping of family members identified several unaffected carriers suggesting a variable disease penetrance, which has not been described before in this form of amyloidosis and has implications when counselling those with APOA1 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of deuterated leucine, valine, and lysine in the measurement of human apolipoprotein A-I and B-100 kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenstein, A.H.; Cohn, J.S.; Hachey, D.L.

    1990-09-01

    The production rates of apolipoprotein (apo)B-100 in very low density lipoprotein and in low density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I in high density lipoprotein were determined using a primed-constant infusion of (5,5,5,-2H3)leucine, (4,4,4,-2H3)valine, and (6,6-2H2,1,2-13C2)lysine. The three stable isotope-labeled amino acids were administered simultaneously to determine whether absolute production rates calculated using a stochastic model were independent of the tracer species utilized. Three normolipidemic adult males were studied in the constantly fed state over a 15-h period. The absolute production rates of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 11.4 +/- 5.8 (leucine), 11.2 +/- 6.8 (valine), and 11.1 +/- 5.4 (lysine)more » mg per kg per day (mean +/- SDM). The absolute production rates for low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were 8.0 +/- 4.7 (leucine), 7.5 +/- 3.8 (valine), and 7.5 +/- 4.2 (lysine) mg per kg per day. The absolute production rates for high density lipoprotein apoA-I were 9.7 +/- 0.2 (leucine), 9.4 +/- 1.7 (valine), and 9.1 +/- 1.3 (lysine) mg per kg per day. There were no statistically significant differences in absolute synthetic rates of the three apolipoproteins when the plateau isotopic enrichment values of very low density lipoprotein apoB-100 were used to define the isotopic enrichment of the intracellular precursor pool. Our data indicate that deuterated leucine, valine, or lysine provided similar results when used for the determination of apoA-I and apoB-100 absolute production rates within plasma lipoproteins as part of a primed-constant infusion protocol.« less

  19. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., whichever applies. (3) The A.I.D. Administrator may extend the initial 30 day period for an additional 30 days if the defendant files with the A.I.D. Administrator a request for an extension within the initial... within 60 days after the date on which the A.I.D. Administrator serves the defendant with a copy of his...

  20. Homocysteine diminishes apolipoprotein A-I function and expression in patients with hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Yao, Zhi; Miao, Li; Liu, Jia; Gao, Xia; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang

    2016-07-26

    Hypothyroidism (HO) can significantly impair lipid metabolism and increase cardiovascular disease risk. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our previous study demonstrated that HHcy significantly induced insulin resistance and impaired coronary artery endothelial function in patients with either hypertension or HO. In the present study, we studied whether plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) were altered in patients with HO, and if so, whether this change was mediated by HHcy. A total of 258 subjects were enrolled and divided into the following three groups: control group (n = 94), HO group (n = 73), and subclinical hypothyroidism (SHO) group (n = 91). Additionally, all groups were subdivided based on the subjects' Hcy levels into HHcy (plasma Hcy level over 15 μmol/l) and normal Hcy subgroups. The plasma levels of lipid indexes were measured. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between groups. The plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher in the HO group than in the SHO or control groups (all p < 0.05). Moreover, levels of Apo A-I and HDL-C were markedly reduced in the HHcy subgroup compared with the normal Hcy subgroup for patients with either HO (Apo A-I: p < 0.05; HDL-C: p < 0.01) or SHO (Apo A-I: p < 0.05; HDL-C: p < 0.01). In addition, the plasma Hcy levels were negatively correlated with levels of Apo A-I in all three groups (HO group: r = - 0.320, SHO group: r = - 0.337 and control group: r = - 0.317; all p < 0.01). Hcy levels were significantly increased in patients with HO or SHO. These increased Hcy levels may impair cardiovascular function via the inhibition of Apo A-1 expression and impairment of its antioxidant capacity. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced metabolic disorders.

  1. A Consensus Model of Human Apolipoprotein A-I in its Monomeric and Lipid-free State

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, John T.; Walker, Ryan G.; Cooke, Allison L.; Morris, Jamie; Castleberry, Mark; Thompson, Thomas B.; Jones, Martin K.; Song, Hyun D.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Oda, Mike N.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Thomas, Michael J.; Heinecke, Jay W.; Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David; Segrest, Jere P.; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C.; Davidson, W. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I is an organizing scaffold protein that is critical to high density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and metabolism, likely mediating many of its cardioprotective properties. However, HDL biogenesis is poorly understood as lipid-free apoA-I has been notoriously resistant to high resolution structural study. Published models from low resolution techniques share certain features but vary considerably in shape and secondary structure. To tackle this central issue in lipoprotein biology, we assembled an unprecedented team of lipoprotein structural biologists and set out to build a consensus model of monomeric lipid-free human apoA-I. Combining novel and published cross-link constraints, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-DX) and crystallography data, we propose a time averaged model consistent with much of the experimental data published over the last 40 years. The model provides a long sought platform for understanding and testing details of HDL biogenesis, structure and function. PMID:29131142

  2. Development of a new bioactivatable fluorescent probe for quantification of apolipoprotein A-I proteolytic degradation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maafi, Foued; Li, Baoqiang; Gebhard, Catherine; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Nachar, Walid; Villeneuve, Louis; Lesage, Frédéric; Rhainds, David; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-01

    The potential benefits of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) against atherosclerosis are attributed to its major protein component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Most of the apoA-I in the vascular wall appears to be in its lipid-poor form. The latter, however, is subjected to degradation by proteases localized in atherosclerotic plaques, which, in turn, has been shown to negatively impact its atheroprotective functions. Here, we report the development and in vivo use of a bioactivatable near-infrared full-length apoA-I-Cy5.5 fluorescent probe for the assessment of apoA-I-degrading proteolytic activities. Fluorescence quenching was obtained by saturation of Cy5.5 fluorophore molecules on apoA-I protein. ApoA-I cleavage led to near-infrared fluorescence enhancement. In vitro proteolysis of the apoA-I probe by a variety of proteases including serine, cysteine, and metalloproteases resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in fluorescence (n = 5, p ≤ 0.05). We detected activation of the probe in atherosclerotic mice aorta sections using in situ zymography and showed that broad-spectrum protease inhibitors protected the probe from degradation, resulting in decreased fluorescence (-54%, n = 6 per group, p ≤ 0.0001). In vivo, the injected probe showed stronger fluorescence emission in the aorta of human apoB transgenic Ldlr - /- atherosclerotic mice (ATX) as compared to wild-type mice. In vivo observations were confirmed by ex vivo aorta imaging quantification where a 10-fold increase in fluorescent signal in ATX mice (p ≤ 0.05 vs. control mice) was observed. The use of this probe in different applications may help to assess new molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and may improve current HDL-based therapies by enhancing apoA-I functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of the human apolipoprotein A-I gene in transgenic mice alters high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size distribution and diminishes selective uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Chajekshaul, T.; Hayek, T.; Walsh, A.

    1991-08-01

    Transgenic mice carrying the human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene (HuAITg mice) were used to examine the effects of overexpression of the human gene on high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size distribution and metabolism. On a chow diet, control mice had HDL cholesterol and apo A-I levels of 49 {plus minus} 2 and 137 {plus minus} 12 mg/dl of plasma, respectively. HuAITg mice had HDL cholesterol, human apo A-I, and mouse apo A-I levels of 88 {plus minus} 2, 255 {plus minus} 19, and 16 {plus minus} 2 mg/dl, respectively. Nondenaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed control mouse plasma HDL to bemore » primarily monodisperse with a particle diameter of 10.2 nm, whereas HuAITg mouse plasma HDL was polydisperse with particles of diameter 11.4, 10.2, and 8.7 nm, which correspond in size to human HDL1, HDL2, and HDL3, respectively. In vivo turnover studies of HDL labeled with (3H)cholesteryl linoleyl ether and 125I-apo A-I were performed. In control animals, the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) for HDL cholesteryl ester was significantly more than the apo A-I FCR. In the HuAITg mice, the HDL cholesteryl ester FCR was the same as the apo A-I FCR. There were no significant differences between control and HuAITg animals in the sites of tissue removal of HDL cholesteryl ester, with the liver extracting most of the injected radioactivity. Control and HuAITg animals had comparable liver and intestinal cholesterol synthesis and LDL FCR. In conclusion, HuAITg mice have principally human and not mouse apo A-I in their plasma. This apparently causes a change in HDL particle size distribution in the transgenic mice to one resembling the human pattern. The replacement of mouse by human apo A-I also apparently causes the loss of the selective uptake pathway of HDL cholesteryl esters present in control mice.« less

  4. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  5. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  6. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  7. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  8. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  9. An Experimentally Robust Model of Monomeric Apolipoprotein A-I Created from a Chimera of Two X-ray Structures and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) retards atherosclerosis by accepting cholesterol from the artery wall. However, the structure of the proposed acceptor, monomeric apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein of HDL, is poorly understood. Two published models for monomeric apoA-I used cross-linking distance constraints to derive best fit conformations. This approach has limitations. (i) Cross-linked peptides provide no information about secondary structure. (ii) A protein chain can be folded in multiple ways to create a best fit. (iii) Ad hoc folding of a secondary structure is unlikely to produce a stable orientation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues. To address these limitations, we used a different approach. We first noted that the dimeric apoA-I crystal structure, (Δ185–243)apoA-I, is topologically identical to a monomer in which helix 5 forms a helical hairpin, a monomer with a hydrophobic cleft running the length of the molecule. We then realized that a second crystal structure, (Δ1–43)apoA-I, contains a C-terminal structure that fits snuggly via aromatic and hydrophobic interactions into the hydrophobic cleft. Consequently, we combined these crystal structures into an initial model that was subjected to molecular dynamics simulations. We tested the initial and simulated models and the two previously published models in three ways: against two published data sets (domains predicted to be helical by H/D exchange and six spin-coupled residues) and against our own experimentally determined cross-linking distance constraints. We note that the best fit simulation model, superior by all tests to previously published models, has dynamic features of a molten globule with interesting implications for the functions of apoA-I. PMID:25423138

  10. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in south-west Chinese women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinxia; Fan, Ping; Liu, Hongwei; Bai, Huai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    What are the relationships between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB concentrations, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and the prevalences of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is a relatively high incidence of dyslipidemia and MS in south-west Chinese women with PCOS, especially in patients without hyperandrogenism. Patients with dyslipidemia are more obese, and have a more adverse glucose and lipid metabolic profile and higher apoB levels and apoB/apoA-I ratio. The increased apoB levels and apoB/A1 ratio and the MS are strongly associated with PCOS, suggesting that there is an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Dyslipidemia and MS have been widely studied in women with PCOS, but to date no data from south-west Chinese subjects have been available. The apoB/apoA-I ratio has been reported to be strongly associated with MS and insulin resistance (IR) and to be a reliable parameter that reflects lipid disturbances and the potential to develop atherosclerosis, but its relationship with PCOS is unclear. DESIGN This case-control study included 406 patients with PCOS and 342 control women between 17 and 40 years of age from a population in south-west China during 2006-2011. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control group, consisting of women with infertility due to a Fallopian obstruction or the husband's infertility, women undergoing a pre-pregnancy check and healthy volunteers, was recruited from the same hospital during the same period. All women were not taking any medication known to affect carbohydrate or lipid or hormone metabolism for at least 3 months prior to the study, and were studied during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. MS was assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria modified for Asian populations. Dyslipidemia was defined by one or more of the

  11. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  12. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  13. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  14. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  15. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  16. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  17. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  18. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  19. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  20. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 214.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... committee to the satisfaction of the A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer, the A.I.D. Administrator, and the OMB Secretariat. (2) Prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and the...

  1. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  2. Simultaneous Quantification of Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein B by Liquid-Chromatography–Multiple-Reaction–Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Sean A.; Marney, Luke C.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND If liquid-chromatography–multiple-reaction–monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM/MS) could be used in the large-scale preclinical verification of putative biomarkers, it would obviate the need for the development of expensive immunoassays. In addition, the translation of novel biomarkers to clinical use would be accelerated if the assays used in preclinical studies were the same as those used in the clinical laboratory. To validate this approach, we developed a multiplexed assay for the quantification of 2 clinically well-known biomarkers in human plasma, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B (apoA-I and apoB). METHODS We used PeptideAtlas to identify candidate peptides. Human samples were denatured with urea or trifluoroethanol, reduced and alkylated, and digested with trypsin. We compared reversed-phase chromatographic separation of peptides with normal flow and microflow, and we normalized endogenous peptide peak areas to internal standard peptides. We evaluated different methods of calibration and compared the final method with a nephelometric immunoassay. RESULTS We developed a final method using trifluoroethanol denaturation, 21-h digestion, normal flow chromatography-electrospray ionization, and calibration with a single normal human plasma sample. For samples injected in duplicate, the method had intraassay CVs <6% and interassay CVs <12% for both proteins, and compared well with immunoassay (n = 47; Deming regression, LC-MRM/MS = 1.17 × immunoassay – 36.6; Sx|y = 10.3 for apoA-I and LC-MRM/MS = 1.21 × immunoassay + 7.0; Sx|y = 7.9 for apoB). CONCLUSIONS Multiplexed quantification of proteins in human plasma/serum by LC-MRM/MS is possible and compares well with clinically useful immunoassays. The potential application of single-point calibration to large clinical studies could simplify efforts to reduce day-to-day digestion variability. PMID:20923952

  3. High-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I inhibit palmitate-induced translocation of toll-like receptor 4 into lipid rafts and inflammatory cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hodaka; Umemoto, Tomio; Kawano, Mikihiko

    Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) activate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction in macrophages and are involved in the chronic inflammation accompanying obesity. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) produce anti-inflammatory effects via reverse cholesterol transport. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammatory responses in adipocytes remain to be determined. Here we examined whether palmitate increases the translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and whether HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammation in adipocytes. Palmitate exposure (250 μM, 24 h) increased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expressions and translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pretreatment withmore » HDL and apoA-I (50 μg/mL, 6 h) suppressed palmitate-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. Moreover, HDL and apoA-I inhibited palmitate-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B. HDL showed an anti-inflammatory effect via ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 1, whereas apoA-I showed an effect via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. These results demonstrated that HDL and apoA-I reduced palmitate-potentiated TLR4 trafficking into lipid rafts and its related inflammation in adipocytes via these specific transporters. - Highlights: • Palmitate induces TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Raft disruption by MβCD inhibits lipid raft formation. • HDL and apoA-I inhibit palmitate-induced translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts. • Anti-inflammatory effects of HDL and apoA-I occur via specific transporters.« less

  4. Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985. Vol. 1 Synthesis Paper. A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carloni, Alice Stewart

    Based on desk reviews and/or field studies of 102 projects related to women, this report synthesizes the results of A.I.D. experience since 1973 in targeting women in development (WID) activities. The major finding is that mainstream projects that ensure women's participation in accordance with their roles within the project's baseline situation…

  5. β3-Adrenoceptor activation upregulates apolipoprotein A-I expression in HepG2 cells, which might further promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia-Qing; Li, Yan-Fang; Jiang, Zhi-Li

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of β 3 -adrenoceptor (β 3 -AR) activation on HepG2 cells and its influence on cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. HepG2 cells were cultured and treated with the β 3 -AR agonist, BRL37344, and antagonist, SR52390A, and the expression of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, ApoA-II, ApoB, and β 3 -AR in the supernatants and cells was determined. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and PPARα in the HepG2 cells was also assessed. Next, using the RAW264.7 macrophage foam cell model, we also assessed the influence of the HepG2 cell supernatants on lipid efflux. The cholesterol content of the foam cells was also measured, and the cholesterol efflux from the macrophages was examined by determining 3 H-labeled cholesterol levels. Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 of the macrophage foam cells was also assessed. β 3 -AR activation increased ApoA-I expression in both the HepG2 cells and the supernatants; PPARγ expression was upregulated, but PPARα expression was not. Treatment with GW9662 abolished the increased expression of ApoA-I induced by the β 3 -AR agonist. The HepG2 cell supernatants decreased the lipid accumulation and increased the cholesterol efflux from the macrophage foam cells. ABCA1 expression, but not ABCG1 expression, increased in the macrophage foam cells treated with BRL37344-treated HepG2 cell supernatants. Activation of β 3 -AR in HepG2 cells upregulates ApoA-I expression, which might further promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. PPARγ might be required for the induction of ApoA-I expression.

  6. Screening and identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a potential hepatoblastoma biomarker in children, excluding inflammatory factors

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, WEI; LI, JUAN; ZHANG, YILIN; GAO, PENGFEI; ZHANG, JUNJIE; GUO, FEI; YU, JIEKAI; ZHENG, SHU; WANG, JIAXIANG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a child hepatoblastoma serum biomarker that is unaffected by inflammatory factors, with the ultimate aim of finding an effective method for the early diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. The magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography technique was used to process serum harvested from 30 children with hepatoblastoma, 20 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 20 healthy children. Proteins differentially expressed in SIRS were excluded from consideration as biomarkers for hepatoblastoma. Proteins differentially expressed in hepatoblastoma and healthy controls were screened using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Target proteins were purified by SDS-PAGE, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF-MS was used to determine their amino acid sequences. Protein matches were searched in the SwissProt database. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and ELISA were employed to confirm the expression of target proteins. Following screening to exclude inflammatory factors, SELDI-TOF-MS revealed a protein with a mass-to-charge ratio of 9,348 Da that was expressed at significantly lower levels in the serum of children with hepatoblastoma compared with healthy controls (P<0.01). Sequence analysis identified this protein as apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I). qPCR and ELISA confirmed that the expression of Apo A-I mRNA and protein were significantly lower in children with hepatoblastoma compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). These results indicate that Apo A-I is a non-inflammatory protein marker for hepatoblastoma with the potential for use in early diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. In addition, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of proteomic screening for the identification of proteins that can serve as markers for a specific tumor. PMID:26171005

  7. Screening and identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a potential hepatoblastoma biomarker in children, excluding inflammatory factors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Juan; Zhang, Yilin; Gao, Pengfei; Zhang, Junjie; Guo, Fei; Yu, Jiekai; Zheng, Shu; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a child hepatoblastoma serum biomarker that is unaffected by inflammatory factors, with the ultimate aim of finding an effective method for the early diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. The magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography technique was used to process serum harvested from 30 children with hepatoblastoma, 20 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 20 healthy children. Proteins differentially expressed in SIRS were excluded from consideration as biomarkers for hepatoblastoma. Proteins differentially expressed in hepatoblastoma and healthy controls were screened using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Target proteins were purified by SDS-PAGE, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF-MS was used to determine their amino acid sequences. Protein matches were searched in the SwissProt database. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and ELISA were employed to confirm the expression of target proteins. Following screening to exclude inflammatory factors, SELDI-TOF-MS revealed a protein with a mass-to-charge ratio of 9,348 Da that was expressed at significantly lower levels in the serum of children with hepatoblastoma compared with healthy controls (P<0.01). Sequence analysis identified this protein as apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I). qPCR and ELISA confirmed that the expression of Apo A-I mRNA and protein were significantly lower in children with hepatoblastoma compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). These results indicate that Apo A-I is a non-inflammatory protein marker for hepatoblastoma with the potential for use in early diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. In addition, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of proteomic screening for the identification of proteins that can serve as markers for a specific tumor.

  8. 10. Photographed 19131914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographed 1913-1914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by Mr. Leisenring 1959 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  9. 11. Photographed 19131914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographed 1913-1914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by Mr. Leisenring 1959 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  10. Lipid profile, apolipoprotein A-I and oxidative stress in professional footballers, sedentary individuals, and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Aline Margioti; Nakazone, Marcelo Arruda; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta Souza; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate whether lipid profile (LP), apolipoprotein A-1 (apo A-I) and malondialdehyde (MDA) have any relationship with physical exercise by comparing the groups of footballers (FG) with sedentary individuals (CG) and their relatives (RFG and RCG). Twenty individuals from FG and CG, 60 from RFG, and 57 from RCG were studied. FG showed lower levels of total cholesterol (119.5 ± 37.9 mg/dL), LDL-cholesterol fraction (53.6 ± 30.3), apo A-I (116.7 ± 11.9), and higher level of HDL-cholesterol fraction (HDLc) (49.7 ± 8.5) compared to RFG (148.3 ± 36.9, P = 0.02; 82.4 ± 37.7, P < 0.01; 124.6 ± 10.2, P = 0.03; and 42.7 ± 7.7, P < 0.01; respectively). Moreover, FG had reduced levels of MDA (101.0 ± 77.0 ng/mL) compared to CG (290.0 ± 341.0, P = 0.03) and RFG (209.9 ± 197.5, P = 0.04). These results suggest an association between physical exercise and lower levels of MDA in FG. Physical activity seems to promote beneficial effects on the LP regardless of the genetic influence considering HDLc levels.

  11. Abnormal histopathology, fat percent and hepatic apolipoprotein A I and apolipoprotein B100 mRNA expression in fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome and their improvement by soybean lecithin.

    PubMed

    Song, Yalu; Ruan, Jiming; Luo, Junrong; Wang, Tiancheng; Yang, Fei; Cao, Huabin; Huang, Jianzhen; Hu, Guoliang

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the etiopathogenesis of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) and the protective effects of soybean lecithin against FLHS in laying hens, 135 healthy 300-day-old Hyline laying hens were randomly divided into groups: control (group 1), diseased (group 2), and protected (group 3). Each group contained 45 layers with 3 replicates. The birds in these 3 groups were fed a control diet, a high-energy/low-protein (HELP) diet or the HELP diet supplemented with 3% soybean lecithin instead of maize. The fat percent in the liver was calculated. Histopathological changes in the liver were determined by staining, and the mRNA expression levels of apolipoproteinA I (apoA I) and apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) in the liver were determined by RT-PCR. The results showed that the fat percent in the liver of group 2 was much higher (P < 0.01) than that of group 1 and group 2 on d 30 and 60. The histology of the liver in group 2 on d 30 and 60 displayed various degrees of liver lesions, while the hepatocytes showed a normal structure in group 3 with mild microvesicular steatosis in the liver cell on d 30 and 60. The mRNA expression levels of apoA I and apoB100 in the livers were variable throughout the experiment. The expression level of apoA I in group 2 significantly decreased on d 60 (P < 0.05); the expression level of apoB100 slightly increased on d 30 in group 2, while it sharply decreased on d 60. Compared to group 1, the expression level of apoB100 showed no significant difference in group 3 (P < 0.05). This study indicated that FLHS induced pathological changes and abnormal expression of apoA I and apoB100 in the livers of laying hens and that soybean lecithin alleviated these abnormal changes. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Human serum albumin nanoparticles modified with apolipoprotein A-I cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the rodent brain.

    PubMed

    Zensi, Anja; Begley, David; Pontikis, Charles; Legros, Celine; Mihoreanu, Larisa; Büchel, Claudia; Kreuter, Jörg

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles made of human serum albumin (HSA) and modified with apolipoproteins have previously been shown to transport drugs, which normally do not enter the brain, across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However the precise mechanism by which nanoparticles with different apolipoproteins on their surface can target to the brain, as yet, has not been totally elucidated. In the present study, HSA nanoparticles with covalently bound apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) as a targetor for brain capillary endothelial cells were injected intravenously into SV 129 mice and Wistar rats. The rodents were sacrificed after 15 or 30 min, and their brains were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Apo A-I nanoparticles could be found inside the endothelial cells of brain capillaries as well as within parenchymal brain tissue of both, mice and rats, whereas control particles without Apo A-I on their surface did not cross the BBB during our experiments. The maintenance of tight junction integrity and barrier function during treatment with nanoparticles was demonstrated by perfusion with a fixative containing lanthanum nitrate as an electron dense marker for the permeability of tight junctions.

  13. Breast Milk from Smokers Contains Less Cholesterol and Protein and Smaller Size of Apolipoprotein A-I Resulting in Lower Zebrafish Embryo Survivability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Suk-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    To determine the quality of breast milk (BM), we compared the functions of BM from ex-smokers and nonsmokers. We analyzed the contents of lipids, glucose, and protein in BM from ex-smokers (10 cigarettes/day for 13 ± 3 years) as well as infant formula. Nonsmokers' BM showed 2.4- and 1.4-fold higher cholesterol and protein contents, respectively, than BM from smokers. Infant formula contained almost no cholesterol, but did show remarkably higher glucose and triglyceride levels than BM. Microinjection of BM (50 nL) from nonsmokers and smokers into zebrafish embryos resulted in 59% and 44% survival, respectively, whereas formula injection resulted in 31% survival. The higher cholesterol and protein contents of BM were directly correlated with higher embryo survivability, suggesting that cholesterol content is directly and critically associated with growth of neonate infants. Smokers' BM contained smaller-sized apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) (24.4 ± 0.2 kDa) than BM from nonsmokers (26.7 ± 0.4 kDa), suggesting that putative modification and cleavage occurred in apoA-I. BM containing higher molecular weight apoA-I resulted in higher embryo survivability. Smoking before pregnancy can affect the composition and quality of BM, resulting in almost complete loss of cholesterol and protein, especially lactoferrin, lactalbumin, and apoA-I, accompanied by proteolytic degradation. These impairment effects of BM are associated with elevation of oxidative stress and lower embryo survivability.

  14. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each... with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and the General Counsel for decisions by the... Advisory Committee Management Officer. (5) Assuring that open meetings are accessible to the public; (6) As...

  15. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... the advisory committee reports: prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and...

  16. Transcriptome-wide identification of A > I RNA editing sites by inosine specific cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Taft, Ryan J.; Westhof, Eric; Mattick, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition. PMID:23264566

  17. Novel Small Molecule Therapeutics for Sickle Cell Disease: Nitric Oxide, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrite, and Apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    A hemolysis-linked subphenotype of sickle cell disease (SCD), characterized by pulmonary hypertension, stroke, priapism and leg ulcers, is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability and vasculopathy. Vasculopathy appears to have a multifactorial etiology, including mechanisms primarily that involve deficient nitric oxide (NO) signaling, but also involving altered function of NO synthase related to substrate availability and cooperating factors such as apolipoproteins. Improved understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of SCD has led to new vascular targets for translational research in SCD. This growing vascular therapeutics field in SCD is complementary to the ongoing efforts to reduce the morbidity of vaso-occlusive pain crisis. This presentation will review the current biology and translational clinical development of novel small molecules targeting sickle cell vasculopathy. Strategies targeting the heme-oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway, the arginine-NO synthase-cGMP-phosphodiesterase 5 pathway, the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, and the apolipoprotein A-I pathways will be reviewed. In this context, current clinical trials of inhaled NO, CO, nitrite, sildenafil and apoA-I mimetics will be discussed. PMID:19074079

  18. Assessment of A. I. D. environmental programs: Energy conservation in Pakistan. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, P.; Kumar, K.; Sowers, F.

    1993-09-01

    This report highlights a model of environmental management that appears to work in the current political and economic context of Pakistan. The model focuses on energy conservation. This evaluation examines how the U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) has assisted Pakistan in using market forces to promote the adoption of energy conservation practices and technologies. The central operating hypothesis of the evaluation is that the adoption of energy conservation practices and technologies responds to market incentives. The field study concludes that the Pakistani program of energy conservation activities, set in motion with A.I.D. support, cannot easily be reversed. With changesmore » in political and economic policies toward the environment in Pakistan, greater and more sustainable impact is possible. The experience of Pakistan energy conservation program raises three issues that merit careful examination both in the contexts of Pakistan's future program implementation and in other countries: The role of program subsidies; The role of nonproject assistance; and The involvement of nongovernmental organizations.« less

  19. Terpecurcumins A-I from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa: absolute configuration and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghao; Ji, Shuai; Li, Rui; Dong, Yinhui; Qiao, Xue; Hu, Hongbo; Yang, Wenzhi; Guo, Dean; Tu, Pengfei; Ye, Min

    2012-12-28

    Terpecurcumins A-I (1-9), together with three known analogues (10-12), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric). They were derived from the hybridization of curcuminoids and bisabolanes. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR and electronic circular dichroism spectra. The configuration of 10 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. A plausible biogenetic relationship for 1-12 is proposed. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 showed higher cytotoxic activities (IC(50), 10.3-19.4 μM) than curcumin (IC(50), 31.3-49.2 μM) against human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231).

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I/C-III gene cluster polymorphism in Saudi Arabians, Filipinos and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Johansen, K; Skotnicki, A; Tan, J C; Kwaasi, A A; Skotnicki, M

    1990-03-01

    We studied the polymorphic locus in the A-I/C-III gene cluster on the long arm of chromosome 11 in 147 Saudi Arabian, in 84 Filipino and in 69 Caucasian blood donors. Digestion of DNA yielded two fragments 4.2 kb and 3.2 kb long. The genotype distribution was the same in Arabs and Filipinos, but both were significantly different from Caucasians (p = 0.005 and 0.0005). The 3.2-kb allele occurred in 18% of the Saudi Arabians, in 23% of the Filipinos and in 4% of Caucasians. The frequency of the 3.2-kb allele was significantly higher in Arabs and Filipinos compared to Caucasians (p = 0.0005).

  1. Contributions of the N- and C-terminal helical segments to the lipid-free structure and lipid interaction of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masafumi; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Nguyen, David; Ohta, Shinya; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2006-08-29

    The tertiary structure of lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in the monomeric state comprises two domains: a N-terminal alpha-helix bundle and a less organized C-terminal domain. This study examined how the N- and C-terminal segments of apoA-I (residues 1-43 and 223-243), which contain the most hydrophobic regions in the molecule and are located in opposite structural domains, contribute to the lipid-free conformation and lipid interaction. Measurements of circular dichroism in conjunction with tryptophan and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence data demonstrated that single (L230P) or triple (L230P/L233P/Y236P) proline insertions into the C-terminal alpha helix disrupted the organization of the C-terminal domain without affecting the stability of the N-terminal helix bundle. In contrast, proline insertion into the N terminus (Y18P) disrupted the bundle structure in the N-terminal domain, indicating that the alpha-helical segment in this region is part of the helix bundle. Calorimetric and gel-filtration measurements showed that disruption of the C-terminal alpha helix significantly reduced the enthalpy and free energy of binding of apoA-I to lipids, whereas disruption of the N-terminal alpha helix had only a small effect on lipid binding. Significantly, the presence of the Y18P mutation offset the negative effects of disruption/removal of the C-terminal helical domain on lipid binding, suggesting that the alpha helix around Y18 concealed a potential lipid-binding region in the N-terminal domain, which was exposed by the disruption of the helix-bundle structure. When these results are taken together, they indicate that the alpha-helical segment in the N terminus of apoA-I modulates the lipid-free structure and lipid interaction in concert with the C-terminal domain.

  2. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  4. Formation of HDL-like complexes from apolipoprotein A-I(M) and DMPC.

    PubMed

    Suurkuusk, M; Singh, S K

    2000-01-20

    Conditions for the preparation of reconstituted high density lipoproteins (HDLs) by incubation of the synthetic lipid dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(M) have been investigated as a function of ratio of incubation lipid to protein, incubation temperature and the lipid form (multilamellar (MLV) or small unilamellar (SUV) vesicles). The size distributions of the resultant lipid-protein complex particles from various incubations have been evaluated by native gel electrophoresis. Structural changes of the protein after incorporation into these complex particles have been estimated by CD. Thermal characteristics of the particles has been examined by DSC and correlated with CD results. Titration calorimetry has been used to obtain interaction parameters based on a simplified binding model. It is hypothesized that the major enthalpic step in the production of rHDLs is the primary association step between protein and lipid vesicles. It has been shown that by raising the temperature and incubation ratio, the formation of rHDL particles can be directed towards smaller size and a narrower size distribution. The results have been described on the basis of a model where formation of discoidal particles requires prior saturation of vesicle surface area by adsorbed protein, thus explaining differences between particles formed from MLVs and SUVs.

  5. Association of High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Versus Apolipoprotein A-I With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk Prospective Population Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bochem, Andrea E; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Mora, Samia; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Ballantyne, Christie M; Ridker, Paul M; Sun, Wensheng; Barter, Philip J; Tall, Alan R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hovingh, G Kees

    2017-08-03

    The contribution of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk stratification over and above high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is unclear. We studied the associations between plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I, either alone or combined, with risk of CHD events and cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy men and women. HDL-C and apoA-I levels were measured among 17 661 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hazard ratios for CHD events and distributions of risk factors were calculated by quartiles of HDL-C and apoA-I. Results were validated using data from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) and WHS (Women's Health Study) cohorts, comprising 15 494 and 27 552 individuals, respectively. In EPIC-Norfolk, both HDL-C and apoA-I quartiles were strongly and inversely associated with CHD risk. Within HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were not associated with lower CHD risk; in fact, CHD risk was higher within some HDL-C quartiles. ApoA-I levels were associated with higher levels of CHD risk factors: higher body mass index, HbA1c, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein, within fixed HDL-C quartiles. In contrast, HDL-C levels were consistently inversely associated with overall CHD risk and CHD risk factors within apoA-I quartiles ( P <0.001). These findings were validated in the ARIC and WHS cohorts. Our findings demonstrate that apoA-I levels do not offer predictive information over and above HDL-C. In fact, within some HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were associated with higher risk of CHD events, possibly because of the unexpected higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in association with higher apoA-I levels. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000479. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  6. Proceedings of the XXII A.I.VE.LA. National Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    A.I.VE.LA. - the Italian Association of Laser Velocimetry and non-invasive diagnostics - is a non-profit cultural association whose objective is to promote and support research in the field of non-contact or minimally invasive measurement techniques, particularly electromagnetic-based techniques and optical techniques. Through its Annual Meeting, AIVELA aims to create an active and stimulating forum where current research results and technical advances can be exchanged and the development of new systems for laboratory use, field testing and industrial application can be promoted. The techniques covered include Laser Doppler Anemometry - LDA, Phase Doppler Anemometry - PDA, Image Velocimetry - PIV, Flow visualization techniques, Spectroscopic measurement techniques (LIF, Raman, etc.), Laser Doppler Vibrometry - LDV, Speckle Pattern Interferometry - ESPI, Holographic techniques, Shearography, Digital Image Correlation - DIC, Moiré techniques, Structured light techniques, Infrared imaging, Photoelasticity, Image based measurement techniques, Ultrasonic sensing, Acoustic and Aeroacoustic measurements, etc. The first Annual Meeting was held back in October 1992 and since then there has been a large consensus among the research and scientific communities that the papers presented at the event are of a high scientific interest. The XXII AIVELA Annual Meeting was held at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Rome Tor Vergata on 15-16 December 2014 and was organised in collaboration with the International Master Courses in "Protection Against CBRNe Events". This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the event. The detailed Programme of the Meeting can be found at: http://www.aivela.org/XXII_Convegno/index.html Trusting our Association and its initiatives will meet your interest, I wish to thank you in advance for your kind attention and hope to meet you soon at one of our events.

  7. 78 FR 64430 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction... amendments to proposed regulations relating to guidance for taxpayers electing to establish a mixed straddle... to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. DATES: Comments must be...

  8. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  9. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  10. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  11. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  12. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  13. A systematic review on the association between the Helicobacter pylori vacA i genotype and gastric disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xian; He, Bangshun; Cho, William C; Pan, Yuqin; Chen, Jie; Ying, Houqun; Wang, Feng; Lin, Kang; Peng, Hongxin; Wang, Shukui

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been recognized as a cause of gastrointestinal diseases and progress of the pathology of gastrointestinal diseases is related to the genotype of H. pylori. Published studies have indicated that the H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin gene A (vacA) i1/i2 genotype is associated with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastric cancer (GC), but their conclusions are inconsistent. This study aimed to further assess the risk of vacA i gene for PUD and/or GC. A systematic search was conducted across three main electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and CNKI). A meta-analysis was then performed on the pooled data of the published articles to estimate the overall influence of vacA i polymorphisms on PUD and/or GC by crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The reliability of the results were confirmed by publication bias and sensitivity analysis of included studies. A total of 14 studies were selected according to the specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled results revealed that patients with GC were more vulnerable to infection by H. pylori i1 genotype (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 2.66-9.85; P < 0.001) than those with chronic gastritis or nonulcer disease. Moreover, the results of subgroup analysis indicated that the i1 genotype of H. pylori was associated with an increased GC risk (OR = 10.89; 95% CI: 4.11-20.88; P < 0.001) in the Middle Asian population. The H. pylori vacA i1 genotype is associated with an increased GC risk, especially in the Middle Asian population.

  14. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Depletion in LpA-I:A-II particles enhances HDL-mediated endothelial protection in familial LCAT deficiency[S

    PubMed Central

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Ossoli, Alice; Castelnuovo, Samuela; Simonelli, Sara; Pavanello, Chiara; Balzarotti, Gloria; Arca, Marcello; Di Costanzo, Alessia; Sampietro, Tiziana; Vaudo, Gaetano; Baldassarre, Damiano; Veglia, Fabrizio; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the vasoprotective effects of HDL isolated from carriers of LCAT deficiency, which are characterized by a selective depletion of LpA-I:A-II particles and predominance of preβ migrating HDL. HDLs were isolated from LCAT-deficient carriers and tested in vitro for their capacity to promote NO production and to inhibit vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in cultured endothelial cells. HDLs from carriers were more effective than control HDLs in promoting eNOS activation with a gene-dose-dependent effect (PTrend = 0.048). As a consequence, NO production induced by HDL from carriers was significantly higher than that promoted by control HDL (1.63 ± 0.24-fold vs. 1.34 ± 0.07-fold, P = 0.031). HDLs from carriers were also more effective than control HDLs in inhibiting the expression of VCAM-1 (homozygotes, 65.0 ± 8.6%; heterozygotes, 53.1 ± 7.2%; controls, 44.4 ± 4.1%; PTrend = 0.0003). The increased efficiency of carrier HDL was likely due to the depletion in LpA-I:A-II particles. The in vitro findings might explain why carriers of LCAT deficiency showed flow-mediated vasodilation and plasma-soluble cell adhesion molecule concentrations comparable to controls, despite low HDL-cholesterol levels. These results indicate that selective depletion of apoA-II-containing HDL, as observed in carriers of LCAT deficiency, leads to an increased capacity of HDL to stimulate endothelial NO production, suggesting that changes in HDL apolipoprotein composition may be the target of therapeutic interventions designed to improve HDL functionality. PMID:28351888

  16. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ....,Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding... Inc., Jonesboro, Arkansas. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal... workers leased from Staff Mart and A.I.D. were employed on-site at the Jonesboro, Arkansas location of...

  17. The effect of an apolipoprotein A-I-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle (CER-001) on carotid artery wall thickness in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: The Modifying Orphan Disease Evaluation (MODE) study.

    PubMed

    Hovingh, G Kees; Smits, Loek P; Stefanutti, Claudia; Soran, Handrean; Kwok, See; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Gaudet, Daniel; Keyserling, Constance H; Klepp, Heather; Frick, Jennifer; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Kastelein, John J P; Stroes, Erik S

    2015-05-01

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) are at extremely elevated risk for early cardiovascular disease because of exposure to elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma levels from birth. Lowering LDL-C by statin therapy is the cornerstone for cardiovascular disease prevention, but the residual risk in HoFH remains high, emphasizing the need for additional therapies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of serial infusions with CER-001, a recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle, on carotid artery wall dimensions in patients with HoFH. Twenty-three patients (mean age 39.4 ± 13.5 years, mean LDL-C 214.2 ± 81.5 mg/dL) with genetically confirmed homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, or LDLRAP1 mutations received 12 biweekly infusions with CER-001 (8 mg/kg). Before and 1 hour after the first infusion, lipid values were measured. Magnetic resonance imaging (3-T magnetic resonance imaging) scans of the carotid arteries were acquired at baseline and after 24 weeks to assess changes in artery wall dimensions. After CER-001 infusion, apoA-I increased from 114.8 ± 20.7 mg/dL to 129.3 ± 23.0 mg/dL. After 24 weeks, mean vessel wall area (primary end point) decreased from 17.23 to 16.75 mm(2) (P = .008). A trend toward reduction of mean vessel wall thickness was observed (0.75 mm at baseline and 0.74 mm at follow-up, P = .0835). In HoFH, 12 biweekly infusions with an apoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle resulted in a significant reduction in carotid mean vessel wall area, implying that CER-001 may reverse atherogenic changes in the arterial wall on top of maximal low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapy. This finding supports further clinical evaluation of apoA-I-containing particles in patients with HoFH. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  3. The forgotten dispute: A.I. Oparin and H.J. Muller on the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael; Lazcano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The debate between A.I. Oparin's heterotrophic proposal of the origin of life and H.J. Muller's suggestion that what may be considered a posteriori the beginning of life, was an autocatalytic, replicative gene, is analyzed. Although both recognized that what was needed was an interacting system contiguous in space and time, it is now rarely mentioned that this scientific confrontation went on for several decades against the background of intense ideological issues, political tensions, and scientific developments that include the rise and demise of Lysenkoism, on the one hand, and, on the other, the establishment of neoDarwinism and the birth of molecular biology. Whereas for Oparin life was the outcome of the step-wise slow process of precellular evolution in which membrane-bounded polymolecular systems played a key role, Muller argued that life started with the appearance of the first nucleic-acid (DNA) molecule in the primitive oceans. Oparin and Muller came from different scientific backgrounds and almost opposite intellectual traditions, so their common interest in the origin of life did nothing to assuage their opposing views, which as argued soon became part of the debates that took place within the framework of intense ideological confrontations.

  4. The neoplastic potential of rat tracheal epithelial cell lines induced by dibenzo(a, i)pyrene and 1-nitropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, M.; Ong, T.; Nath, J.

    1997-10-01

    The rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cell transformation system is an important short-term assay for respiratory carcinogenesis. In our laboratories, studies have been performed using this assay system to determine the carcinogenic potential of dibenzo(a,i)pyrene (DBP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), two compounds commonly contaminating occupational and environmental settings. RTE cells were exposed in vivo to DBP or 1-NP by intertracheal instillation. RTE cells were then isolated and plated on a medium for determination of cloning and transformation frequencies. Cell lines established from transformed cells induced by DBP and 1-NP were analyzed for their neoplastic potential with the soft agar cloning and themore » athymic nude mouse tumorigenicity assays. Results showed that: (1) incidence of transformed foci in cultures treated with DBP or 1-NP in vivo was significantly higher than that in the control cultures; (2) 8 and 25 cell lines were established from 28 and 48 transformed foci induced by DBP and 1-NP, respectively; (3) 3 of 5 cell lines from DBP and 5 anchorage independent growth in soft agar; (4) some of the cell lines from DBP and 1-NP induced transformed foci formed tumors after cells were injected in athymic nude mice. These results indicate that in vivo exposure to DBP and 1-NP can induce RTE cell transformation and that transformed cells induced by DBP and 1-NP may have neoplastic potential.« less

  5. High hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic increases the HDL cholesterol level via up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. Results In the HEG group, the plasma triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased in comparison with the CON group (P < 0.05). Dietary HEG also lowered the hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to the CON group. While the plasma HDL-C level and mRNA level of hepatic apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle, were significantly increased in the HEG group compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. Conclusions These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet. PMID:22713542

  6. High hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic increases the HDL cholesterol level via up-regulation of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seohyun; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Kim, Yangha

    2012-06-19

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of mortality worldwide and a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is an important marker of CVD risk. Garlic (Allium sativum) has been widely used in the clinic for treatment of CVD and regulation of lipid metabolism. This study investigated the effects of a high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) on HDL-C level and regulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) gene expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups and maintained on a high-fat control diet (CON) or high-fat control diet supplemented with high hydrostatic pressure extract of garlic (HEG) for 5 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes related to HDL-C metabolism were analyzed in liver, together with biometric and blood parameters. In the HEG group, the plasma triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased in comparison with the CON group (P < 0.05). Dietary HEG also lowered the hepatic TG and total cholesterol (TC) levels compared to the CON group. While the plasma HDL-C level and mRNA level of hepatic apoA-I, which is one of primarily proteins of HDL-C particle, were significantly increased in the HEG group compared to the CON group (P < 0.05). The gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), importantly involved in the biogenesis in HDL, were also up-regulated by dietary HEG. These results suggest that HEG ameliorates plasma lipid profiles and attenuates hepatic lipid accumulation in the high-fat fed rats. Our findings provides that the effects of HEG on the increase of the plasma HDL-C level was at least partially mediated by up-regulation of hepatic genes expression such as apoA-I, ABCA1, and LCAT in rats fed a high-fat diet.

  7. [A.I. in pigs: influence of boar seminal plasma on breeding efficiency of diluted boar semen (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Meding, J H

    1976-01-01

    Ejaculates from six boars of Danish Landrace were divided into four parts, I, II, III and IV which were treated in the following way: I was diluted 1:4-1:6 with EDTA-diluter, and filled into glass vials (single doses). II was centrifugated at 1800-2000 r.p.m. in 12-15 min.; the centifugate was resuspended in the supernatant and diluted as indicated under I. III and IV were centrifugated at 1800-2000 r.p.m. in 12-15 min. The supernatant was removed by aspiration and the centrifugate diluted with as much EDTA-diluter necessary to produce the same no, of doses of 10 ml as was produced from I and II respectively. The diluted semen was stored at 18-20 degrees C and used on the day of collection. Just before insemination the semen from I, II and III was diluted with IVT-diluter to a final volume of 75 ml. Semen from IV was diluted to the same volume with IVT-diluter with the addition of 50% boar seminal plasma, procured by centrifugation of ejaculates from other boars of the A.I. Centre, and stored at divided by 20 degrees C until use. The results have been set out in Table I. Inseminations with semen from I and II resulted in pregnancy rates of 84,6% and 86,3% and average litter sizes of 10,3 and 10,1 for sows and 9,1 and 9,6 for gilts; inseminations with semen from III and IV resulted in pregnancy rates of 78,9 and 78,2% and average litter sizes of 10,5 and 10,7 for sows and 10,0 and 8,7 for gilts. None of the differences in pregnancy rates between groups were significant. The findings were: 1. By insemination with initially diluted semen without seminal plasma a tendency to a decline in pregnancy rates could be demonstrated. 2. The decline persisted after the addition of 50% boar seminal plasma to the diluter used for the final dilution just before insemination.

  8. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A.I.K.E.F. hybrid-code results compared to MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, W.; Heyner, D.; Liuzzo, L.; Motschmann, U.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Shibayama, T.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury is the closest orbiting planet around the sun and is therefore embedded in an intensive and highly varying solar wind. In-situ data from the MESSENGER spacecraft of the plasma environment near Mercury indicates that a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed the planet on 23 November 2011 over the span of the 12 h MESSENGER orbit. Slavin et al. (2014) derived the upstream parameters of the solar wind at the time of that orbit, and were able to explain the observed MESSENGER data in the cusp and magnetopause segments of MESSENGER's trajectory. These upstream parameters will be used for our first simulation run. We use the hybrid code A.I.K.E.F. which treats ions as individual particles and electrons as a mass-less fluid, to conduct hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetospheric response to the impact of the CME on ion gyro time scales. Results from the simulation are in agreement with magnetic field measurements from the inner day-side magnetosphere and the bow-shock region. However, at the planet's nightside, Mercury's plasma environment seemed to be governed by different solar wind conditions, in conclusion, Mercury's interaction with the CME is not sufficiently describable by only one set of upstream parameters. Therefore, to simulate the magnetospheric response while MESSENGER was located in the tail region, we use parameters obtained from the MHD solar wind simulation code SUSANOO (Shiota et al. (2014)) for our second simulation run. The parameters of the SUSANOO model achieve a good agreement of the data concerning the plasma tail crossing and the night-side approach to Mercury. However, the polar and closest approach are hardly described by both upstream parameters, namely, neither upstream dataset is able to reproduce the MESSENGER crossing of Mercury's magnetospheric cusp. We conclude that the respective CME was too variable on the timescale of the MESSENGER orbit to be described by only two sets of upstream conditions. Our results suggest locally strong

  9. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  10. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0... methane reaches 1.0 percent at a main exhaust fan, electrical power underground shall be deenergized..., and all persons shall be withdrawn from the mine. (c) If methane reaches 1.0 percent at a work place...

  11. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  12. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  13. Markedly accelerated catabolism of apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) and high density lipoproteins containing ApoA-II in classic lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and fish-eye disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rader, D J; Ikewaki, K; Duverger, N; Schmidt, H; Pritchard, H; Frohlich, J; Clerc, M; Dumon, M F; Fairwell, T; Zech, L

    1994-01-01

    Classic (complete) lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency and Fish-eye disease (partial LCAT deficiency) are genetic syndromes associated with markedly decreased plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol but not with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We investigated the metabolism of the HDL apolipoproteins (apo) apoA-I and apoA-II in a total of five patients with LCAT deficiency, one with classic LCAT deficiency and four with Fish-eye disease. Plasma levels of apoA-II were decreased to a proportionately greater extent (23% of normal) than apoA-I (30% of normal). In addition, plasma concentrations of HDL particles containing both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II) were much lower (18% of normal) than those of particles containing only apoA-I (LpA-I) (51% of normal). The metabolic basis for the low levels of apoA-II and LpA-I:A-II was investigated in all five patients using both exogenous radiotracer and endogenous stable isotope labeling techniques. The mean plasma residence time of apoA-I was decreased at 2.08 +/- 0.27 d (controls 4.74 +/- 0.65 days); however, the residence time of apoA-II was even shorter at 1.66 +/- 0.24 d (controls 5.25 +/- 0.61 d). In addition, the catabolism of apoA-I in LpA-I:A-II was substantially faster than that of apoA-I in LpA-I. In summary, genetic syndromes of either complete or partial LCAT deficiency result in low levels of HDL through preferential hypercatabolism of apoA-II and HDL particles containing apoA-II. Because LpA-I has been proposed to be more protective than LpA-I:A-II against atherosclerosis, this selective effect on the metabolism of LpA-I:A-II may provide a potential explanation why patients with classic LCAT deficiency and Fish-eye disease are not at increased risk for premature atherosclerosis despite markedly decreased levels of HDL cholesterol and apoA-I. PMID:8282802

  14. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30 CFR...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30 CFR...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). Electric lamps used for personal illumination shall be approved by MSHA under the requirements of 30 CFR...

  17. Blood plasma apolipoproteins A-I and B in different types of hyperlipoproteinaemia: comparative analysis of population groups in Moscow and Prague.

    PubMed

    Metel'skaya, V A; Ceska, R; Perova, N V; Sobra, J

    1988-01-01

    The level of blood plasma apolipoproteins A-I and B was studied in Moscow and Prague residents with different types of hyperlipoproteinaemia (HLP). The analysis proceeded in two directions. On the one hand, lipoprotein (LP) spectra in residents of both cities with the same type of LP disturbance (HLP type IIa, IIb or IV) were compared; in Prague lipid and apolipoprotein content was compared in inhabitants with a normal lipid level and those with HLP types I, III and V. The analysis showed that inhabitants of Prague with types II and IV HLP have a higher concentrations of high density LP cholesterol. At the same time, it was found that the apolipoprotein profile of blood plasma LP in HLP patients was similar to that in patients living elsewhere. The authors regard comparative study of LP system disturbances in residents of different cities and countries differing in their geographical, ethnic and ecological conditions as a promising approach to understanding the mechanisms responsible for the development of HLP.

  18. Gravity-dependent differentiation and root coils in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and phospholipase-A-I knockdown mutant grown on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Scherer, G F E; Pietrzyk, P

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis roots on 45° tilted agar in 1-g grow in wave-like figures. In addition to waves, formation of root coils is observed in several mutants compromised in gravitropism and/or auxin transport. The knockdown mutant ppla-I-1 of patatin-related phospholipase-A-I is delayed in root gravitropism and forms increased numbers of root coils. Three known factors contribute to waving: circumnutation, gravisensing and negative thigmotropism. In microgravity, deprivation of wild type (WT) and mutant roots of gravisensing and thigmotropism and circumnutation (known to slow down in microgravity, and could potentially lead to fewer waves or increased coiling in both WT and mutant). To resolve this, mutant ppla-I-1 and WT were grown in the BIOLAB facility in the International Space Station. In 1-g, roots of both types only showed waving. In the first experiment in microgravity, the mutant after 9 days formed far more coils than in 1-g but the WT also formed several coils. After 24 days in microgravity, in both types the coils were numerous with slightly more in the mutant. In the second experiment, after 9 days in microgravity only the mutant formed coils and the WT grew arcuated roots. Cell file rotation (CFR) on the mutant root surface in microgravity decreased in comparison to WT, and thus was not important for coiling. Several additional developmental responses (hypocotyl elongation, lateral root formation, cotyledon expansion) were found to be gravity-influenced. We tentatively discuss these in the context of disturbances in auxin transport, which are known to decrease through lack of gravity. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Using the Principles of F.A.I.R Data to Improve the Measure of Value of Big Data and Big Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, C. J.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Wang, J.; Druken, K. A.; Smillie, J.; Pringle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In a data-intensive world, finding the right data can be time-consuming and, when found, may involve compromises on quality and often considerable extra effort to wrangle it into shape. This is particularly true as users are exploring new and innovative ways of working with data from different sources and scientific domains. It is recognised that the effort and specialist knowledge required to transform datasets to meet these requirements goes beyond the reasonable remit of a single research project or research community. Instead, Government investments in national collaborations like the Australian National University's National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), provide a sustainable way to bring together and transform disparate data collections from a range of disciplines in ways which enable new and innovative analysis and use. With these goals in mind, the NCI established a Data Quality Strategy (DQS) for managing 10PB of reference data collections with a particular focus on improving data use and reuse across scientific domains, making the data suitable for use in a high-end computational and data-intensive environment, and supporting programmatic access for a range of applications. Evaluating how effectively we're achivieving these goals and maintaining ongoing funding requires demonstration of the value and impact of these data collections. Standard approaches to measuring data value involve basic measures of `data usage' or make an attempt to track data to `research outcomes'. While useful, these measures fail to capture the value of the level of curation or quality assurance in making the data available. To fill this gap, NCI has developed a 3-tiered approach to measuring the return on investment which broadens the concept of value to include improvements in access to and use of the data. Key to this approach was integrating the guiding principles of the Force 11 community's F.A.I.R data into the DQS because it provides a community-driven standards

  20. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD Book Project: Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Dixon, John C.; Zwolinski, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    The currently prepared SEDIBUD Book on "Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Undisturbed Cold Environments" (edited by Achim A. Beylich, John C. Dixon and Zbigniew Zwolinski and published by Cambridge University Press) is summarizing and synthesizing the achievements of the International Association of Geomorphologists` (I.A.G./A.I.G.) Working Group SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments), which has been active since 2005 (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wgsb.html). Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of largely undisturbed polar and high-altitude cold climate environments have been highlighted as key global environmental issues. The effects of projected climate change will change surface environments in cold regions and will alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment in these largely undisturbed environments is acute. Our book addresses this existing key knowledge gap. The applied approach of integrating comparable and longer-term field datasets on contemporary solute and sedimentary fluxes from a number of different defined cold climate catchment geosystems for better understanding (i) the environmental drivers and rates of contemporary denudational surface processes and (ii) possible effects of projected climate change in cold regions is unique in the field of geomorphology. Largely undisturbed cold climate environments can provide baseline data for modeling the effects of environmental change. The book synthesizes work carried out by numerous SEDIBUD Members over the last decade in numerous cold climate catchment geosystems worldwide. For reaching a global cover of different cold climate environments the book is - after providing an introduction part and a basic part on climate change in cold environments and general implications for solute and sedimentary fluxes - dealing in different

  1. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  6. The I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017): Key activities and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-04-01

    Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of high-latitude and high-altitude cold climate environments has been highlighted as a key global environmental issue. Projected climate change in largely undisturbed cold regions is expected to alter melt-season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active-layer depths. These combined effects will undoubtedly change Earth surface environments in cold regions and will alter the fluxes of sediments, solutes and nutrients. However, the absence of quantitative data and coordinated analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment are acute in cold regions. Contemporary cold climate environments generally provide the opportunity to identify solute and sedimentary systems where anthropogenic impacts are still less important than the effects of climate change. Accordingly, it is still possible to develop a library of baseline fluvial yields and sedimentary budgets before the natural environment is completely transformed. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program, building on the European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments, since 2004) was formed in 2005 as a new Program (Working Group) of the International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) to address this still existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD (2005-2017) has currently about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international program is composed of eleven scientists from ten different countries. The central research question of this global program is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried

  7. Reduction in lipoprotein-associated apoC-III levels following volanesorsen therapy: phase 2 randomized trial results.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohong; Lee, Sang-Rok; Choi, Yun-Seok; Alexander, Veronica J; Digenio, Andres; Yang, Qingqing; Miller, Yury I; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-04-01

    Elevated apoC-III levels predict increased cardiovascular risk when present on LDL and HDL particles. We developed novel high-throughput chemiluminescent ELISAs that capture apoB, lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)], and apoA-I in plasma and then detect apoC-III on these individual lipoproteins as apoCIII-apoB, apoCIII-Lp(a), and apoCIII-apoAI complexes, respectively. We assessed the effects on these complexes of placebo or 100-300 mg volanesorsen, a generation 2.0+ antisense drug that targets apoC3 mRNA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, including familial chylomicronemia syndrome (n = 3), volanesorsen monotherapy (n = 51), and as add-on to fibrate (n = 26), treated for 85 days and followed for 176 days. Compared with placebo, volanesorsen was associated with an 82.3 ± 11.7%, 81.3 ± 15.7%, and 80.8 ± 13.6% reduction in apoCIII-apoB, apoCIII-Lp(a), and apoCIII-apoA-I, respectively (300 mg dose;P< 0.001 for all), at day 92. Strong correlations in all assay measures were noted with total plasma apoC-III, chylomicron-apoC-III, and VLDL-apoC-III. In conclusion, novel high-throughput ELISAs were developed to detect lipoprotein-associated apoC-III, including for the first time on Lp(a). Volanesorsen uniformly lowers apoC-III on apoB-100, Lp(a), and apoA-I lipoproteins, and may be a potent agent to reduce triglycerides and cardiovascular risk mediated by apoC-III. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. A compilation of life cycle studies for six household detergent product categories in Europe: the basis for product-specific A.I.S.E. Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; Menkveld, Rimousky; King, Henry; Schneider, Christine; Schowanek, Diederik; Nissen, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    A.I.S.E., the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, launched the 'A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning' in Europe in 2005 to promote sustainability in the cleaning and maintenance products industry. This Charter is a proactive programme for translating the concept of sustainable innovation into reality and actions. Per product category, life cycle assessments (LCA) are used to set sustainability criteria that are ambitious, but also achievable by all market players. This paper presents and discusses LCAs of six household detergent product categories conducted for the Charter, i.e.: manual dishwashing detergents, powder and tablet laundry detergents, window glass trigger spray cleaners, bathroom trigger spray cleaners, acid toilet cleaners, and bleach toilet cleaners. Relevant impact categories are identified, as well as the life cycle stages with the largest contribution to the environmental impact. It was concluded that the variables that mainly drive the results (i.e. the environmental hotspots) for manual dishwashing detergents and laundry detergents were the water temperature, water consumption (for manual dishwashing detergents), product dosage (for laundry detergents), and the choice and amount of surfactant. By contrast, for bathroom trigger sprays, acid and bleach toilet cleaners, the driving factors were plastic packaging, transportation to retailer, and specific ingredients. Additionally, the type of surfactant was important for bleach toilet cleaners. For window glass trigger sprays, the driving factors were the plastic packaging and the type of surfactant, and the other ingredients were of less importance. A.I.S.E. used the results of the studies to establish sustainability criteria, the so-called 'Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles', which led to improvements in the marketplace.

  9. Microtropins A-I: 6'-O-(2″S,3″R)-2″-ethyl-2″,3″-dihydroxybutyrates of aliphatic alcohol β-D-glucopyranosides from the branches of Microtropis japonica.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Yuka; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2013-03-01

    From the branches of Microtropis japonica (Celastraceae), nine aliphatic glucosides, named microtropins A-I, were isolated. The 6-position of glucose was esterified with (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid. Microtropins A-D contained a rare natured product nitrile functional group in their aglycones. The absolute structures of the (2S,3R)-2-ethyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid moiety and aglycone of microtropin A were determined by an X-ray crystallographic method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Learning from Synthetic Models of Extracellular Matrix; Differential Binding of Wild Type and Amyloidogenic Human Apolipoprotein A-I to Hydrogels Formed from Molecules Having Charges Similar to Those Found in Natural GAGs.

    PubMed

    Rosú, Silvana A; Toledo, Leandro; Urbano, Bruno F; Sanchez, Susana A; Calabrese, Graciela C; Tricerri, M Alejandra

    2017-08-01

    Among other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been strongly associated to the retention or misfolding of different proteins inducing the formation of deposits in amyloid diseases. The composition of these molecules is highly diverse and a key issue seems to be the equilibrium between physiological and pathological events. In order to have a model in which the composition of the matrix could be finely controlled, we designed and synthesized crosslinked hydrophilic polymers, the so-called hydrogels varying the amounts of negative charges and hydroxyl groups that are prevalent in GAGs. We checked and compared by fluorescence techniques the binding of human apolipoprotein A-I and a natural mutant involved in amyloidosis to the hydrogel scaffolds. Our results indicate that both proteins are highly retained as long as the negative charge increases, and in addition it was shown that the mutant is more retained than the Wt, indicating that the retention of specific proteins in the ECM could be part of the pathogenicity. These results show the importance of the use of these polymers as a model to get deep insight into the studies of proteins within macromolecules.

  11. An experimental study on amelioration of dyslipidemia-induced atherosclesis by Clematichinenoside through regulating Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α mediated apolipoprotein A-I, A-II and C-III.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Guo, Qianqian; Lu, Mengchen; Li, Yunman

    2015-08-15

    Prevention or amelioration the prevalence of atherosclerosis has been an effective strategy in the management of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to scrutinize the effect of Clematichinenoside (AR) on dyslipidemia-induced atherosclerosis and explore its capability on expression of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-alpha), apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and A-II (APOA2), and suppression of apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3) genes and proteins. In the present study, we investigated atherosclerosis effect of AR using a combination of high-fat diet and balloon injury model in rabbits. The levels of biochemical indicators were evaluated in plasma, liver and HepG2 cells using immunoassay technology. In order to expose the underlying mechanism, we evaluated the regulation of PPAR-alpha, APOA1, APOA2 and APOC3 expressions by AR, and we further evaluated the interactions between them after transfection with shRNA (shPPAR-alpha) and, the action of PPAR-alpha in HepG2 cells. We could find that AR markedly promoted the PPAR-alpha transfer from cytoplasm to nucleus which resulted in the alteration of APOA1, APOA2 and APOC3 expressions in HepG2 cells. Moreover, AR significantly reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, and elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level, which play an important role in dyslipidemia-induced atherosclerosis. In conclusion, AR ameliorated atherosclerosis via the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, and AR also contributed to the activation of PPAR-alpha, APOA1, APOA2 and APOC3. Therefore, AR could be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction alters the plasma levels of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor from young and old individuals.

    PubMed

    Heng, Eng Chee; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abdul Rahman, Mariati; Abdul Hamid, Noor Aini; Hamid, Zalina; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2013-10-01

    Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups. Subjects were divided into two age groups-32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78% tocotrienol and 22% tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasma were obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified by MS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting. Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression. TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

  13. Rosuvastatin enhances the catabolism of LDL apoB-100 in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia in a dose dependent manner

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dose-associated effects of rosuvastatin on the metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in triacylglycerol rich lipoprotein (TRL, d < 1.019 g/ml) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and of apoA-I in high density lipoprotein (HDL) were assessed in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia. Our primary hypo...

  14. A risk-based, product-level approach for assuring aquatic environmental safety of cleaning products in the context of sustainability: The Environmental Safety Check (ESC) scheme of the A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Pickup, John Alexander; Dewaele, Joost; Furmanski, Nicola L; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Luijkx, Gerard Ca; Mathieu, Sophie; Stelter, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning products have long been a focus of efforts to improve sustainability and assure safety for the aquatic environment when disposed of after use. The latter is addressed at ingredient level through environmental risk assessment, including in formal frameworks such as REACH. Nevertheless, in the context of programs to improve overall sustainability, stakeholders demand both environmental safety assurance and progress at product level. Current product-level approaches for aquatic toxicity (e.g., USEtox™, Critical Dilution Volume) can be seen as predominantly hazard-based. The more logical approach would be risk-based, because ecotoxicity is generally threshold-dependent and hazard-based assessment produces conflicts with risk-based learnings. The development of a risk-based approach to assess formulated products is described: the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (A.I.S.E.) Charter Environmental Safety Check (ESC), which is consistent with the scientific principles underlying REACH. This is implemented through a simple spreadsheet tool and internal database of ingredient parameters including predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and removal rate. A novel feature is applying market volume information for both product types and ingredients to permit a risk-based calculation. To pass the ESC check, the projected environmental safety ratio (PESR) for each ingredient as formulated and dosed (unless cleared by a published risk assessment or exempted as inherently low risk) must be less than 1. The advantages of a risk-based approach are discussed. The strengths and limitations of various possible approaches to standard-setting, product-ranking and driving continuous improvement in respect of potential ecotoxic impacts on the aquatic environment are considered. It is proposed that as ecotoxicity is generally accepted to be threshold-dependent, with no effect below the threshold, the most constructive approach to continuous

  15. Effects of apoA-V on HDL and VLDL metabolism in APOC3 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shen; Perdomo, German; Su, Dongming; D'Souza, Fiona M; Shachter, Neil S; Dong, H Henry

    2007-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) and apoC-III are exchangeable constituents of VLDL and HDL. ApoA-V counteracts the effect of apoC-III on triglyceride (TG) metabolism with poorly defined mechanisms. To better understand the effects of apoA-V on TG and cholesterol metabolism, we delivered apoA-V cDNA into livers of hypertriglyceridemic APOC3 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In response to hepatic apoA-V production, plasma TG levels were reduced significantly as a result of enhanced VLDL catabolism without alternations in VLDL production. This effect was associated with reduced apoC-III content in VLDL. Increased apoA-V production also resulted in decreased apoC-III and increased apoA-I content in HDL. Furthermore, apoA-V-enriched HDL was associated with enhanced LCAT activity and increased cholesterol efflux. This effect, along with apoE enrichment in HDL, contributed to HDL core expansion and alpha-HDL formation, accounting for significant increases in both the number and size of HDL particles. As a result, apoA-V-treated APOC3 transgenic mice exhibited decreased VLDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. ApoA-V-mediated reduction of apoC-III content in VLDL represents an important mechanism by which apoA-V acts to ameliorate hypertriglyceridemia in adult APOC3 transgenic mice. In addition, increased apoA-V levels accounted for cholesterol redistribution from VLDL to larger HDL particles. These data suggest that in addition to its TG-lowering effect, apoA-V plays a significant role in modulating HDL maturation and cholesterol metabolism.

  16. Effects of apoA-V on HDL and VLDL metabolism in APOC3 transgenic mice1

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Shen; Perdomo, German; Su, Dongming; D’Souza, Fiona M.; Shachter, Neil S.; Dong, H. Henry

    2009-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V) and apoC-III are exchangeable constituents of VLDL and HDL. ApoA-V counteracts the effect of apoC-III on triglyceride (TG) metabolism with poorly defined mechanisms. To better understand the effects of apoA-V on TG and cholesterol metabolism, we delivered apoA-V cDNA into livers of hypertriglyceridemic APOC3 transgenic mice by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. In response to hepatic apoA-V production, plasma TG levels were reduced significantly as a result of enhanced VLDL catabolism without alternations in VLDL production. This effect was associated with reduced apoC-III content in VLDL. Increased apoA-V production also resulted in decreased apoC-III and increased apoA-I content in HDL. Furthermore, apoA-V-enriched HDL was associated with enhanced LCAT activity and increased cholesterol efflux. This effect, along with apoE enrichment in HDL, contributed to HDL core expansion and α-HDL formation, accounting for significant increases in both the number and size of HDL particles. As a result, apoA-V-treated APOC3 transgenic mice exhibited decreased VLDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. ApoA-V-mediated reduction of apoC-III content in VLDL represents an important mechanism by which apoA-V acts to ameliorate hypertriglyceridemia in adult APOC3 transgenic mice. In addition, increased apoA-V levels accounted for cholesterol redistribution from VLDL to larger HDL particles. These data suggest that in addition to its TG-lowering effect, apoA-V plays a significant role in modulating HDL maturation and cholesterol metabolism PMID:17438339

  17. FIRST Quantum-(1980)-Computing DISCOVERY in Siegel-Rosen-Feynman-...A.-I. Neural-Networks: Artificial(ANN)/Biological(BNN) and Siegel FIRST Semantic-Web and Siegel FIRST ``Page''-``Brin'' ``PageRank'' PRE-Google Search-Engines!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Charles; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Feynman, Richard; Wunderman, Irwin; Smith, Adolph; Marinov, Vesco; Goldman, Jacob; Brine, Sergey; Poge, Larry; Schmidt, Erich; Young, Frederic; Goates-Bulmer, William-Steven; Lewis-Tsurakov-Altshuler, Thomas-Valerie-Genot; Ibm/Exxon Collaboration; Google/Uw Collaboration; Microsoft/Amazon Collaboration; Oracle/Sun Collaboration; Ostp/Dod/Dia/Nsa/W.-F./Boa/Ubs/Ub Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Belew[Finding Out About, Cambridge(2000)] and separately full-decade pre-Page/Brin/Google FIRST Siegel-Rosen(Machine-Intelligence/Atherton)-Feynman-Smith-Marinov(Guzik Enterprises/Exxon-Enterprises/A.-I./Santa Clara)-Wunderman(H.-P.) [IBM Conf. on Computers and Mathematics, Stanford(1986); APS Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/Santa Clara/San Francisco/...(1980s) MRS Spring-Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/San Jose/San Francisco/...(1980-1992) FIRST quantum-computing via Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) in artificial-intelligence(A-I) artificial neural-networks(A-N-N) and biological neural-networks(B-N-N) and Siegel[J. Noncrystalline-Solids 40, 453(1980); Symp. on Fractals..., MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers; Symp. on Scaling..., (1990); Symp. on Transport in Geometric-Constraint (1990)

  18. Usefulness of the LDL-C/apoB ratio in the overall evaluation of atherogenicity of lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Kaneva, Anastasiya M; Potolitsyna, Natalya N; Bojko, Evgeny R

    2017-02-01

    The ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to apolipoprotein-B (LDL-C/apoB) conventionally represents an alternative index of LDL particle size. This study was undertaken to determine the importance of LDL-C/apoB ratio in the overall evaluation of atherogenicity of lipid profile. The plasma levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apoB and apoE were measured in 186 apparently healthy men using enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. The subjects with low values of the LDL-C/apoB ratio, indicating a predominance of small dense LDL (sd-LDL) particles in plasma, were characterized by higher TG levels and lower apoE levels. Low levels of apoE are most likely a cause of reduced clearance of TG-rich lipoproteins, which promotes the formation of sd-LDL. Determination of the LDL-C/apoB ratio can be used for monitoring qualitative changes in lipid profile, in addition to traditional lipid variables indicating quantitative changes.

  19. V.A. I Animal Science Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains two units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in an animal science course in vocational agriculture. Unit A on breeds and selection of livestock and poultry includes 13 topics covering beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, horses, goats, sheep, and poultry. Unit B on…

  20. Review of LOGEX. Main Report and Appendixes A-I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-23

    been developed on an RCA Spectra 70 machine located at the Army Logistics Management Center, Fort Lee, Virginia. This was undoubtedly an outstanding...Control Number ADP - Automatic Data Processing ACT - Active Duty for Training ALMC - US Army Logistics Management Center AMO - Ammunition AR - Amy...Directorate CPT McClellan, LOGEX Directorate CPT Weaver, LOGEX Directorate United States Army Logistics Management Center Mr. Loper Mr. Ross United States

  1. A.I. DuPont Institute PSD Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Danish A.I. field data with sexed semen.

    PubMed

    Borchersen, S; Peacock, M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conception rates, non-return rates and sex ratios of sexed and conventional semen from the same sires in commercial dairy herds in Denmark. The semen was produced from three bulls from each of the three major dairy breeds in Denmark: Holstein, Jersey and Danish Red Dairy Breed (nine bulls total), in order to answer questions on breeds differences in field results. AI was performed by trained technicians using a minimum of 150 doses of sorted sperm and 50 control doses from each bull. During the trial, a total of 2087 doses were used in 63 herds. The trial showed that the conception rate using sorted semen was 5% points lower than with conventional doses for Danish Reds, 7% points for Jerseys, and 12% points for Holsteins. Translating this into non-return rate revealed differences of 10-20% points among bulls. These differences are thought to be a good indicator of what to expect from commercial use of sexed semen. The sex ratios varied from 89% to 93% female calves among breeds, which on average is consistent with the theoretical average sex ratio of 93% females considering the low number of inseminations.

  3. Importance of Apolipoprotein A-I in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Lidia A; Levin, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Jean-Martin Charcot has first described multiple sclerosis (MS) as a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) over a century ago. MS remains incurable today, and treatment options are limited to disease modifying drugs. Over the years, significant advances in understanding disease pathology have been made in autoimmune and neurodegenerative components. Despite the fact that brain is the most lipid rich organ in human body, the importance of lipid metabolism has not been extensively studied in this disorder. In MS, the CNS is under attack by a person's own immune system. Autoantigens and autoantibodies are known to cause devastation of myelin through up regulation of T-cells and cytokines, which penetrate through the blood-brain barrier to cause inflammation and myelin destruction. The anti-inflammatory role of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) has been implicated in a plethora of biological processes: vasodilation, immunity to infection, oxidation, inflammation, and apoptosis. However, it is not known what role HDL plays in neurological function and myelin repair in MS. Understanding of lipid metabolism in the CNS and in the periphery might unveil new therapeutic targets and explain the partial success of some existing MS therapies.

  4. [A.I. Nesterow (1895-1979) and Russian rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Keitel, W

    2009-07-01

    Alongside several important Russian scientists of the 18th century (G.I. Sokolski, S.P. Botkin), W.T. Talalajew - with his work on cardiac rheumatoid nodules - and W.M. Bechterew, the namesake of ankylosing spondylitis, made significant contributions to international rheumatology. While the Dutchman Jan van Breemen (1874-1961) was busy founding international rheumatology, Russian rheumatology played an at least equally important role in Europe, attracting much attention with the brilliant organisation of the 4th Congress of the International League Against Rheumatism (ILAR) in Moscow in 1934. The later institutionalised and perfectly organised rheumatological care in the giant empire is inextricably linked with the name of Anatoli Innokentjewitsch Nesterow. He founded a large institute in Moscow and, together with his many students, laid the foundations for a network of rheumatological dispensaries in Russia and the former Soviet Republic. Moreover, as the leading centre for the Working Group of Rheumatologists in socialist countries, he and his colleagues also gave specialist work in the GDR the impetus it needed. His life and work, as well as that of his congenial successor, W. A. Nassonova, are described, partially on the basis of personal encounters.

  5. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  6. A Model Structure for the Heterodimer apoA-IMilano–apoA-II Supports Its Peculiar Susceptibility to Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Alessandro Guerini; Mollica, Luca; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Calabresi, Laura; Franceschini, Guido; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Eberini, Ivano

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we propose a structure for the heterodimer between apolipoprotein A-IMilano and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-IM–apoA-II) in a synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing L-α-palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine. We applied bioinformatics/computational tools and procedures, such as molecular docking, molecular and essential dynamics, starting from published crystal structures for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II. Structural and energetic analyses onto the simulated system showed that the molecular dynamics produced a stabilized synthetic HDL. The essential dynamic analysis showed a deviation from the starting belt structure. Our structural results were validated by limited proteolysis experiments on HDL from apoA-IM carriers in comparison with control HDL. The high sensitivity of apoA-IM–apoA-II to proteases was in agreement with the high root mean-square fluctuation values and the reduction in secondary structure content from molecular dynamics data. Circular dichroism on synthetic HDL containing apoA-IM–apoA-II was consistent with the α-helix content computed on the proposed model. PMID:16891368

  7. AIBP reduces atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport and ameliorating inflammation in apoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Zhao, Guo-Jun; Yao, Feng; Xia, Xiao-Dan; Gong, Duo; Zhao, Zhen-Wang; Chen, Ling-Yan; Zheng, Xi-Long; Tang, Xiao-Er; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2018-06-01

    ApoA-1 binding protein (AIBP) is a secreted protein that interacts with apoA-I and accelerates cholesterol efflux from cells. We have recently reported that AIBP promotes apoA-1 binding to ABCA1 in the macrophage cell membrane, partially through 115-123 amino acids. However, the effects of AIBP on the development of atherosclerosis in vivo remain unknown. ApoE -/- mice with established atherosclerotic plaques were infected with rAAV-AIBP or rAAV-AIBP(Δ115-123), respectively. AIBP-treated mice showed reduction of atherosclerotic lesion formation, increase in circulating HDL levels and enhancement of reverse cholesterol transport to the plasma, liver, and feces. AIBP increased ABCA1 protein levels in aorta and peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, AIBP could diminish atherosclerotic plaque macrophage content and the expression of chemotaxis-related factors. In addition, AIBP prevented macrophage inflammation by inactivating NF-κB and promoted the expression of M2 markers like Mrc-1 and Arg-1. However, lack of 115-123 amino acids of AIBP(Δ115-123) had no such preventive effects on the progression of atherosclerosis. Our observations demonstrate that AIBP inhibits atherosclerosis progression and suggest that it may be an effective target for prevention of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of aspirin in combination with EPA and DHA on HDL-C cholesterol and ApoA1 exchange in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert C; Holub, Ashley; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin M; Mousa, Shaker A; Oda, Michael N

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose aspirin is an effective drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but individuals with diabetes mellitus can be subject to 'aspirin resistance'. Thus, aspirin's effect in these individuals is controversial. Higher blood levels of seafood-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also have beneficial effects in reducing risk of CVD events but few studies have examined the interaction of plasma EPA and DHA with aspirin ingestion. Our study examined the combinatory effects of EPA, DHA, and aspirin ingestion on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I exchange (shown to be associated with CVD event risk). 30 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81mg/day) for 7 consecutive days, EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for 7 days. Plasma was collected at baseline and at 5 subsequent visits including 4h after each aspirin ingestion. Mixed model methods were used to determine HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange compared to the baseline visit values. LOWESS curves were used for non-linear analyses of outcomes to help discern change patterns, which was followed by piecewise linear functions for formal testing of curvilinear relationships. Significant changes (p < 0.05) compared to baseline in both HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange were present at different times. After 7 days of aspirin-only ingestion, apoA-I exchange was significantly modified by increasing levels of DHA concentration, with increased apoA-I exchange observed up until log(DHA) of 4.6 and decreased exchange thereafter (p = 0.03). These LOWESS curve effects were not observed for EPA or HDL-C (p > 0.05). Aspirin's effects on apoA-I exchange were the greatest when EPA or DHA concentrations were moderate compared to high or low. Comparison of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA LOWESS curves, demonstrated that the majority of the effect is due to DHA. Our results strongly suggest that plasma concentrations

  9. Common variants APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 are associated with variation in plasma lipoprotein traits in Greenlanders.

    PubMed

    Lahiry, Piya; Ban, Matthew R; Pollex, Rebecca L; Feldman, Ross D; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Huff, Murray W; Young, T Kue; Bjerregaard, Peter; Hegele, Robert A

    2007-12-01

    We undertook studies of the association between common genomic variations in APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 genes and variation in biochemical phenotypes in a sample of Greenlanders. Genetic association study of quantitative lipoprotein traits. In a sample of 1,310 adult Greenlanders, fasting plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein (apo) concentrations were assessed for association with known functional genomic variants of APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1. For significantly associated polymorphisms, between-genotype differences were examined in closer detail. We found that (1) the APOE restriction isotype was associated with variation in plasma total and LDL cholesterol and apo B (all p < .0001); (2) the APOC3 promoter genotype was associated with variation in plasma triglycerides, HDL cholesterol and apo A-I (all p < .002); (3) the APOA5 codon 19 genotype was associated with variation in plasma triglycerides (p = .027); and (4) the PON1 codon 192 genotype was associated with variation in total and LDL cholesterol and apo B (all p < .05). Taken together, our results suggest that common genetic variations in APOC3, APOA5, APOE and PON1 are associated with significant variation in intermediate traits in plasma lipoprotein metabolism in Greenlanders; the associations are similar to those observed for these variants in other populations.

  10. Low-cholesterol and high-fat diets reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Calleja, L; París, M A; Paul, A; Vilella, E; Joven, J; Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Uceda, M; Maeda, N; Osada, J

    1999-10-01

    We have investigated the effect of most common oils used in human nutrition on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-knockout mice. Seven groups of animals, separated according to sex, were fed for 10 weeks either chow diet or the chow diet 10% (wt/wt) enriched with different oils (palm, coconut, 2 types of olive oil, and 2 types of sunflower oil) without addition of cholesterol. At the end of this period, plasma lipid parameters were measured and vascular lesions scored. None of the diets induced changes in plasma cholesterol concentrations, whereas plasma triglycerides were uniformly reduced in all diet groups. Some diets caused significant reductions in the size of atherosclerotic lesions in males and others in females; males responded most to sunflower oils and females to palm oil and one olive oil (II). The lesion reduction in males consuming sunflower oils was associated with the decrease of triglycerides in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, whereas the decrease in females consuming olive oil II or palm oil was accompanied by an increase in plasma apoA-I. The increase in plasma apoA-I in the latter condition, is mainly due to overexpression of hepatic message elicited by a mechanism independent of apoE ligand. The data suggest that the different diets modulate lesion development in a gender specific manner and by different mechanisms and that the development of atherosclerosis, due to genetic deficiencies, may be modulated by nutritional maneuvers that may be implemented in human nutrition.

  11. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  12. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  13. ApoE polymorphisms in narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gencik, Martin; Dahmen, Norbert; Wieczorek, Stefan; Kasten, Meike; Gencikova, Alexandra; Epplen, Jorg T

    2001-01-01

    Background Narcolepsy is a common neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by increased daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and hypnagogic hallucinations. Deficiency of the hypocretin neurotransmitter system was shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy in animals and men. There are several hints that neurodegeneration of hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus is the pathological correlate of narcolepsy. The ApoE4 allele is a major contributing factor to early-onset neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer disease and other neurodegenerative diseases as well. Methods To clarify whether the ApoE4 phenotype predisposes to narcolepsy or associates with an earlier disease onset, we have genotyped the ApoE gene in 103 patients with narcolepsy and 101 healthy controls. Results The frequency of the E4 allele of the ApoE gene was 11% in the patient and 15% in the control groups. Furthermore, the mean age of onset did not differ between the ApoE4+ and ApoE4- patient groups. Conclusion Our results exclude the ApoE4 allele as a major risk factor for narcolepsy. PMID:11560764

  14. HDL and CER-001 Inverse-Dose Dependent Inhibition of Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in apoE-/- Mice: Evidence of ABCA1 Down-Regulation.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Cholez, Guy; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and charged phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-ß HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the dose-dependent regulation of ABCA1 expression in vitro and in vivo in the presence of CER-001 and native HDL (HDL3). CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner similar to natural HDL. A strong down-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter mRNA (- 50%) as well as the ABCA1 membrane protein expression (- 50%) was observed at higher doses of CER-001 and HDL3 compared to non-lipidated apoA-I. In vivo, in an apoE-/- mouse "flow cessation model," in which the left carotid artery was ligatured to induce local inflammation, the inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque burden progression in response to a dose-range of every-other-day CER-001 or HDL in the presence of a high-fat diet for two weeks was assessed. We observed a U-shaped dose-response curve: inhibition of the plaque total cholesterol content increased with increasing doses of CER-001 or HDL3 up to a maximum inhibition (- 51%) at 5 mg/kg; however, as the dose was increased above this threshold, a progressively less pronounced inhibition of progression was observed, reaching a complete absence of inhibition of progression at doses of 20 mg/kg and over. ABCA1 protein expression in the same atherosclerotic plaque was decreased by-45% and-68% at 50 mg/kg for CER-001 and HDL respectively. Conversely, a-12% and 0% decrease in ABCA1 protein expression was observed at the 5 mg/kg dose for CER-001 and HDL respectively. These data demonstrate that high doses of HDL and CER-001 are less effective at slowing progression of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE-/- mice compared to lower doses, following a U-shaped dose-response curve. A potential mechanism for this phenomenon is supported by the observation that high doses of HDL and CER-001 induce a rapid and

  15. ApoA-II directs morphogenetic movements of zebrafish embryo by preventing chromosome fusion during nuclear division in yolk syncytial layer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Yao, Shaohua; Wang, Ping; Yin, Chaoran; Xiao, Chun; Qian, Meilin; Liu, Donghui; Zheng, Lemin; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Jin; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

    2011-03-18

    The high density lipoprotein (HDL) represents a class of lipid- and protein-containing particles and consists of two major apolipoproteins apoA-I and apoA-II. ApoA-II has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, adiposity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. In embryo, apoa2 mRNAs are abundant in the liver, brain, lung, placenta, and in fish yolk syncytial layer (YSL), suggesting that apoa2 may perform a function during embryonic development. Here we find out that apoa2 modulates zebrafish embryonic development by regulating the organization of YSL. Disruption of apoa2 function in zebrafish caused chromosome fusing, which strongly blocked YSL nuclear division, inducing disorders in YSL organization and finally disturbing the embryonic epiboly. Purified native human apoA-II was able specifically to rescue the defects and induced nuclear division in zebrafish embryos and in human HeLa cells. The C terminus of apoA-II was required for the proper chromosome separation during nuclear division of YSL in zebrafish embryos and in human HeLa cells. Our data indicate that organization of YSL is required for blastoderm patterning and morphogenesis and suggest that apolipoprotein apoA-II is a novel factor of nuclear division in YSL involved in the regulation of early zebrafish embryonic morphogenesis and in mammalian cells for proliferation.

  16. ApoA-II Directs Morphogenetic Movements of Zebrafish Embryo by Preventing Chromosome Fusion during Nuclear Division in Yolk Syncytial Layer*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Yao, Shaohua; Wang, Ping; Yin, Chaoran; Xiao, Chun; Qian, Meilin; Liu, Donghui; Zheng, Lemin; Meng, Wentong; Zhu, Hongyan; Liu, Jin; Xu, Hong; Mo, Xianming

    2011-01-01

    The high density lipoprotein (HDL) represents a class of lipid- and protein-containing particles and consists of two major apolipoproteins apoA-I and apoA-II. ApoA-II has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, adiposity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. In embryo, apoa2 mRNAs are abundant in the liver, brain, lung, placenta, and in fish yolk syncytial layer (YSL), suggesting that apoa2 may perform a function during embryonic development. Here we find out that apoa2 modulates zebrafish embryonic development by regulating the organization of YSL. Disruption of apoa2 function in zebrafish caused chromosome fusing, which strongly blocked YSL nuclear division, inducing disorders in YSL organization and finally disturbing the embryonic epiboly. Purified native human apoA-II was able specifically to rescue the defects and induced nuclear division in zebrafish embryos and in human HeLa cells. The C terminus of apoA-II was required for the proper chromosome separation during nuclear division of YSL in zebrafish embryos and in human HeLa cells. Our data indicate that organization of YSL is required for blastoderm patterning and morphogenesis and suggest that apolipoprotein apoA-II is a novel factor of nuclear division in YSL involved in the regulation of early zebrafish embryonic morphogenesis and in mammalian cells for proliferation. PMID:21212265

  17. Role of superoxide radical anion in the mechanism of apoB100 degradation induced by DHA in hepatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Andreo, Ursula; Elkind, Josh; Blachford, Courtney; Cederbaum, Arthur I.; Fisher, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    VLDL is produced by the liver. Its major protein is apoB100. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), reduces VLDL levels and is used therapeutically for hypertriglyceridemia. In model systems, DHA lowers VLDL secretion by inducing presecretory apoB100 degradation, a process dependent on PUFA-derived lipid peroxides. We hypothesized that superoxide (SO) was a major participant in DHA-induced apoB100 degradation, given its promotion of lipid peroxidation. SO levels in a model of VLDL metabolism, rat hepatoma McArdle cells, were either decreased by a mimetic of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) or by overexpressing SOD1 or increased by SOD1 siRNA. ApoB100 recovery was assessed by immunoprecipitation, SO by 2-hydroxyethidine, and lipid peroxides by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The SOD1 mimetic or SOD1 overexpression reduced SO and inhibited apoB100 degradation in DHA-treated cells by up to 100%. Surprisingly, silencing SOD1 did not increase DHA-induced degradation, although levels of SO were higher (+44%); those of lipid peroxides were similar, and their reduction by α-tocopherol decreased degradation by 50%. SO is required for lipid peroxidation in DHA-induced apoB100 degradation, but it is the peroxide level that has a tighter relationship to the level of degradation and the regulation of VLDL production.—Andreo, U., Elkind, J., Blachford, C., Cederbaum, A. I., Fisher, E. A. Role of superoxide radical anion in the mechanism of apoB100 degradation induced by DHA in hepatic cells. PMID:21757500

  18. The Institutional Development Agreement. A New Operational Framework for A.I.D. and the Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This is the report of a joint committee of the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges (NASULGC) and the Agency for International Development (AID). The committee was asked to consider and recommend measures to improve operating arrangements between AID and the universities, including possible arrangements for…

  19. The National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): I. Background and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, E. Jane; Koretz, Doreen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This paper presents an overview of the background and measures used in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Methods The NCS-A is a national psychiatric epidemiological survey of adolescents ages 13–17. Results The NCS-A was designed to provide the first nationally representative estimates of the prevalence, correlates and patterns of service use for DSM-V mental disorders among US adolescents and to lay the groundwork for follow-up studies of risk-protective factors, consequences, and early expressions of adult mental disorders. The core NCS-A diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), is a fully-structured research diagnostic interview designed for use by trained lay interviewers. A multi-construct, multi-method, multi-informant battery was also included to assess risk and protective factors and barriers to service use. Design limitations due to the NCS-A evolving as a supplement to an ongoing survey of mental disorders of US adults include restricted age range of youth, cross-sectional assessment, and lack of full parental/surrogate informant reports on youth mental disorders and correlates. Conclusions Despite these limitations, the NCS-A contains unparalleled information that can be used to generate national estimates of prevalence and correlates of adolescent mental disorders, risk and protective factors, patterns of service use, and barriers to receiving treatment for these disorders. The retrospective NCS-A data on the development of psychopathology can additionally complement data from longitudinal studies based on more geographically restricted samples and serve as a useful baseline for future prospective studies of the onset and progression of mental disorders in adulthood. PMID:19242382

  20. Core III Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units A-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This first volume of a two-volume curriculum guide contains 11 problem areas selected for study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in a metropolitan agricultural program. The 11 problem areas are divided into eight units: Orientation to Agricultural Occupations (Gaining Employment), Supervised…

  1. DCAA Contract Audit Manual. Volume 2, Chapters 12 - 15, Appendixes A - I. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    facilities for cafe - curred by the contractor. terias, dining rooms, canteens, lunch (FACs 84-15, 7 Apr 86) wagons, vending machines, living accom...Voluntary Accounting WGI 5990.23 CCH Change CAS-WG 79-24-Allocation of Business Unit G&A Expenses WGI 5990.24 CCH CAS-WG 81-25-State Income/ Franchise ...Recommendation (FPRR) CAM 9-1202. 2 FRAME Describing the Sampling Frame CAM B- 209 FRANCHISE CAS-WG 81-25-State Income/ Franchise Tax WGI 5990.25 CCH

  2. A.I.D.P. Part Time Jobs 1988-89. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Dolores M.; And Others

    The Part-Time Jobs portion of the Attendance Improvement Dropout Prevention (AIDP) Program in New York City provided job-readiness training and job placements in an effort to motivate students to improve academic achievement and school attendance. Programs were implemented at schools with a student attendance rate at or below the citywide median…

  3. The Challenge of Connecting the Dots in the B.R.A.I.N

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Anna; Bandettini, Peter A.; Boas, David A.; Bower, James M.; Buxton, Richard B.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Dale, Anders M.; Einevoll, Gaute T.; Fox, Peter T.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Friston, Karl J.; Fujimoto, James G.; Geyer, Marc A.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Halgren, Eric; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jasanoff, Alan; Jernigan, Terry L.; Judd, Lewis L.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Kleinfeld, David; Kopell, Nancy J.; Kutas, Marta; Kwong, Kenneth K.; Larkum, Matthew E.; Lo, Eng H.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Masliah, Eliezer; Mitra, Partha P.; Mobley, William C.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Reynolds, John H.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Salzberg, Brian M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Silva, Gabriel A.; So, Peter T. C.; Spitzer, Nicholas C.; Tootell, Roger B.; Van Essen, David C.; Vanduffel, Wim; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Wald, Larry L.; Wang, Lihong V.; Weber, Bruno; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2013-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative has focused scientific attention on the necessary tools to understand the human brain and mind. Here, we outline our collective vision for what we can achieve within a decade with properly targeted efforts, and discuss likely technological deliverables and neuroscience progress. PMID:24139032

  4. What Makes a Team? The Composition of Small Groups for C.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellows, B. P.

    This study examined the task performance and social interaction of young children who used a computer to learn map skills. Specifically, ability and sex were examined in relation to students' achievement on a social studies task and in relation to student interaction in small groups. Subjects were 66 second grade students in 3 different…

  5. Pu'a i ka 'Olelo, Ola ka 'Ohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.; Housman, Alohalani Kaluhiokalani; Alencastre, Makalapua

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Hawaiian language had reached its low point with fewer than 50 native speakers of Hawaiian under the age of 18. Outside of the Ni'ihau community, a small group of families in Honolulu and Hilo were raising their children through Hawaiian. This article shares the perspectives of three pioneering families of the Hawaiian…

  6. Try P.R.A.I.S.E. - Positive Reinforcement And Individualized Systematic Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollam, Scott

    Described is a multi-faceted money system which utilizes positive and negative reinforcement while at the same time incorporating peer pressure and reinforcement for behavior modification. The system uses such items as money, checks, deposit slips, and bank books. Children have jobs such as pencil sellers, banker, or door monitor, and receive pay…

  7. Agricultural Mechanics. V-A-1 to V-E-1. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains five units of informational materials and transparency masters with accompanying scripts, skill sheets, and safety tests for teacher and student use in an agricultural mechanics course in vocational agriculture. The first unit introduces the agricultural mechanics shop, covering the following topics: importance of agricultural…

  8. Fe isotopes and the contrasting petrogenesis of A-, I- and S-type granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foden, John; Sossi, Paolo A.; Wawryk, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    We present new Fe isotope data of 42 S-, I- and A-type (ferroan) granites from the Cambrian Delamerian orogen in South Australia, the Palaeozoic Lachlan Fold Belt and Western USA. Interpretation of these data, together with modelling suggests that magmatic processes do result in quite complex Fe-isotopic differentiation trends and can lead to granites with isotopically heavy iron with δ57Fe > 0.35‰. By comparison Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORBs) have δ57Fe = 0.15‰ (Teng et al., 2013). These variations are similar to those previously reported (Poitrasson and Freydier, 2005; Heimann et al., 2008; Telus et al., 2012), but, contrary to some interpretations (Beard and Johnson, 2006; Heimann et al., 2008), heavy values are not necessarily the product of late-stage hydrothermal fluid loss, though this process is undoubtedly also an important factor in some circumstances. A-type (ferroan) granites reach very heavy δ57Fe values (0.4-0.5‰) whereas I-types are systematically lighter (δ57Fe = 0.2‰). S-type granites show a range of intermediate values, but also tend to be isotopically heavy (δ57Fe ≈ 0.2-0.4‰). Our results show that the iron isotopic values and trends are signatures that reflect granite generation processes. A modelling using the Rhyolite-MELTS software suggests that contrasting trajectories and end-points in Fe isotope evolution towards granite depend on: oxidation state of the evolving magma and, whether or not the system is oxygen-buffered. Iron isotopic evolution supports an origin of ferroan A-type granite from protracted, closed magma chamber fractionation of moderately reduced mafic magmas. In these systems magnetite saturation is delayed and the ferric iron budget is finite. I-type systems originate with the supply of relatively oxidised, hydrous, subduction-related magmas from the mantle wedge to the upper plate crust. These then experience oxygen-buffered open-system AFC processes in lower crustal hot-zones. S-type magmas are crustal melts that crystallise under reduced conditions initially imposed at source by sulphidic or graphitic sedimentary protoliths. The composition of the resulting melts reflects the domination of partial melting where conditions are hence buffered (open system) followed by subsequent late-stage, closed system fractionation of these extracted, reduced magmas.

  9. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... agency file of approved charters and formal determinations; (5) Publishes approved charters in the Agency... determinations in the Federal Register; and (8) Transmits approved advisory committee charters to the House...

  10. A.I.-based real-time support for high performance aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) based software and hardware concepts are applied to the handling system malfunctions during flight tests. A representation of malfunction procedure logic using Boolean normal forms are presented. The representation facilitates the automation of malfunction procedures and provides easy testing for the embedded rules. It also forms a potential basis for a parallel implementation in logic hardware. The extraction of logic control rules, from dynamic simulation and their adaptive revision after partial failure are examined. It uses a simplified 2-dimensional aircraft model with a controller that adaptively extracts control rules for directional thrust that satisfies a navigational goal without exceeding pre-established position and velocity limits. Failure recovery (rule adjusting) is examined after partial actuator failure. While this experiment was performed with primitive aircraft and mission models, it illustrates an important paradigm and provided complexity extrapolations for the proposed extraction of expertise from simulation, as discussed. The use of relaxation and inexact reasoning in expert systems was also investigated.

  11. A I-V analysis of irradiated Gallium Arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heulenberg, A.; Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program was used to analyze the illuminated I-V characteristics of four sets of gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and 10-MeV protons. It was concluded that junction regions (J sub r) dominate nearly all GaAs cells tested, except for irradiated Mitsubishi cells, which appear to have a different doping profile. Irradiation maintains or increases the dominance by J sub r. Proton irradiation increases J sub r more than does electron irradiation. The U.S. cells were optimized for beginning of life (BOL) and the Japanese for end of life (EOL). I-V analysis indicates ways of improving both the BOL and EOL performance of GaAs solar cells.

  12. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  13. A.I.D. Participant Training Program; The Transfer and Use of Development Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    Using interviews and questionnaire, this survey investigated aspects of the Agency for International Development (AID) training programs, participants' reactions, and subsequent uses made of training. Data were obtained on personal background and occupation, pretraining activities, actual program sojourns, and the aftermath. These were among the…

  14. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with thosemore » of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.« less

  15. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  16. The A.I.D.A. Plan and the Writing of Sales Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jong, Rowena

    A study based on textual analysis of sales letters is reported that evaluates the Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action (AIDA) approach to teaching the writing of sales letters. Thirty business letters written by undergraduate business students and executives were analyzed. The forms of cohesion, voice pattern, and information focus of the…

  17. Zebrafish as a model for apolipoprotein biology: comprehensive expression analysis and a role for ApoA-IV in regulating food intake.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Zeituni, Erin M; Thierer, James H; Anderson, Jennifer L; Brown, Alexandria C; Boehm, Erica D; Cerchione, Derek M; Ceasrine, Alexis M; Avraham-Davidi, Inbal; Tempelhof, Hanoch; Yaniv, Karina; Farber, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Improved understanding of lipoproteins, particles that transport lipids throughout the circulation, is vital to developing new treatments for the dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome. Apolipoproteins are a key component of lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are proteins that structure lipoproteins and regulate lipid metabolism through control of cellular lipid exchange. Constraints of cell culture and mouse models mean that there is a need for a complementary model that can replicate the complex in vivo milieu that regulates apolipoprotein and lipoprotein biology. Here, we further establish the utility of the genetically tractable and optically clear larval zebrafish as a model of apolipoprotein biology. Gene ancestry analyses were implemented to determine the closest human orthologs of the zebrafish apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoB, apoE and apoA-IV genes and therefore ensure that they have been correctly named. Their expression patterns throughout development were also analyzed, by whole-mount mRNA in situ hybridization (ISH). The ISH results emphasized the importance of apolipoproteins in transporting yolk and dietary lipids: mRNA expression of all apolipoproteins was observed in the yolk syncytial layer, and intestinal and liver expression was observed from 4-6 days post-fertilization (dpf). Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed that transcription of three of the four zebrafish apoA-IV genes was increased 4 hours after the onset of a 1-hour high-fat feed. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that zebrafish ApoA-IV performs a conserved role to that in rat in the regulation of food intake by transiently overexpressing ApoA-IVb.1 in transgenic larvae and quantifying ingestion of co-fed fluorescently labeled fatty acid during a high-fat meal as an indicator of food intake. Indeed, ApoA-IVb.1 overexpression decreased food intake by approximately one-third. This study comprehensively describes the expression and function of eleven zebrafish apolipoproteins and

  18. Lipid and apolipoproteins (ApoAI, ApoB, Apo CIII, ApoE) disturbance in hemodialysis (HD) and renal transplant (Tx) patients.

    PubMed

    Janicki, Krzysztof; Solski, Janusz; Janicka, Lucyna; Kimak, Elzbieta; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Stettner, Seweryn; Molas, Grzegorz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the serum lipid and apolipoprotein profiles among patients after renal transplantation (Tx) and to compare them with the profiles obtained for permanently hemodialysed patients (HD). The investigations were performed at 15 Tx, 40 HD patients and the control group of 40 healthy subjects. There were significantly increased TG, ApoAIII, ApoE, TC/ HDL-C, ApoCIII non B, ApoCIII:B and decreased HDL-C, ApoAI, HDL-C/ApoAI, ApoAI/ApoCIII, ApoB/ApoCIII ratios comparing HD patients to the control group. There were increased TG, ApoCIII, ApoCIII non B, ApoB/ApoCIII ratios and decreased ApoAI/ApoCIII ratios in Tx patients as compared to the control subjects. Moreover, there were significantly higher HDL, ApoAI, HDL/ApoAI, ApoCIII non B and lower ApoE, ApoE/ApoB, ApoCIII:B ratios in Tx patients as compared to these of HD patients. Significant inverse correlation of the time which passed from executed Tx and ApoCIII:B ratio (r = -0.67; p < 0.01) at renal transplant patients were observed, which means the diminished risk of development of atherosclerosis.

  19. HDL and CER-001 Inverse-Dose Dependent Inhibition of Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in apoE-/- Mice: Evidence of ABCA1 Down-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Cholez, Guy; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F.; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Objective CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and charged phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-ß HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the dose-dependent regulation of ABCA1 expression in vitro and in vivo in the presence of CER-001 and native HDL (HDL3). Methods and Results CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner similar to natural HDL. A strong down-regulation of the ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter mRNA (- 50%) as well as the ABCA1 membrane protein expression (- 50%) was observed at higher doses of CER-001 and HDL3 compared to non-lipidated apoA-I. In vivo, in an apoE-/- mouse “flow cessation model,” in which the left carotid artery was ligatured to induce local inflammation, the inhibition of atherosclerotic plaque burden progression in response to a dose-range of every-other-day CER-001 or HDL in the presence of a high-fat diet for two weeks was assessed. We observed a U-shaped dose-response curve: inhibition of the plaque total cholesterol content increased with increasing doses of CER-001 or HDL3 up to a maximum inhibition (- 51%) at 5 mg/kg; however, as the dose was increased above this threshold, a progressively less pronounced inhibition of progression was observed, reaching a complete absence of inhibition of progression at doses of 20 mg/kg and over. ABCA1 protein expression in the same atherosclerotic plaque was decreased by-45% and-68% at 50 mg/kg for CER-001 and HDL respectively. Conversely, a-12% and 0% decrease in ABCA1 protein expression was observed at the 5 mg/kg dose for CER-001 and HDL respectively. Conclusions These data demonstrate that high doses of HDL and CER-001 are less effective at slowing progression of atherosclerotic plaque in apoE-/- mice compared to lower doses, following a U-shaped dose-response curve. A potential mechanism for this phenomenon is supported by the observation that

  20. Parents&apos; Views of Schools&apos; Involvement Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raymond J.; Blatz, Erin T.; Elbaum, Batya

    2014-01-01

    Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 96 parents of students with disabilities in 18 schools to explore parents&apos; views of schools&apos; efforts to engage them in their child&apos;s education. A mixed-methods approach was used to identify and evaluate the relative importance of eight themes related to schools&apos; efforts…

  1. Genetic Restoration of Plasma ApoE Improves Cognition and Partially Restores Synaptic Defects in ApoE-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Wen Mai; Durakoglugil, Murat S.; Wasser, Catherine R.; Jiang, Shan; Xian, Xunde

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in individuals over the age of 65 years. The most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD is the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4), and novel AD treatments that target ApoE are being considered. One unresolved question in ApoE biology is whether ApoE is necessary for healthy brain function. ApoE knock-out (KO) mice have synaptic loss and cognitive dysfunction; however, these findings are complicated by the fact that ApoE knock-out mice have highly elevated plasma lipid levels, which may independently affect brain function. To bypass the effect of ApoE loss on plasma lipids, we generated a novel mouse model that expresses ApoE normally in peripheral tissues, but has severely reduced ApoE in the brain, allowing us to study brain ApoE loss in the context of a normal plasma lipid profile. We found that these brain ApoE knock-out (bEKO) mice had synaptic loss and dysfunction similar to that of ApoE KO mice; however, the bEKO mice did not have the learning and memory impairment observed in ApoE KO mice. Moreover, we found that the memory deficit in the ApoE KO mice was specific to female mice and was fully rescued in female bEKO mice. Furthermore, while the AMPA/NMDA ratio was reduced in ApoE KO mice, it was unchanged in bEKO mice compared with controls. These findings suggest that plasma lipid levels can influence cognition and synaptic function independent of ApoE expression in the brain. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT One proposed treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the reduction of ApoE, whose ε4 isoform is the most common genetic risk factor for the disease. A major concern of this strategy is that an animal model of ApoE deficiency, the ApoE knock-out (KO) mouse, has reduced synapses and cognitive impairment; however, these mice also develop dyslipidemia and severe atherosclerosis. Here, we have shown that genetic restoration of plasma ApoE to wild-type levels normalizes plasma lipids in ApoE KO

  2. Cognitive frailty: rational and definition from an (I.A.N.A./I.A.G.G.) international consensus group.

    PubMed

    Kelaiditi, E; Cesari, M; Canevelli, M; van Kan, G Abellan; Ousset, P-J; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Ritz, P; Duveau, F; Soto, M E; Provencher, V; Nourhashemi, F; Salvà, A; Robert, P; Andrieu, S; Rolland, Y; Touchon, J; Fitten, J L; Vellas, B

    2013-09-01

    The frailty syndrome has recently attracted attention of the scientific community and public health organizations as precursor and contributor of age-related conditions (particularly disability) in older persons. In parallel, dementia and cognitive disorders also represent major healthcare and social priorities. Although physical frailty and cognitive impairment have shown to be related in epidemiological studies, their pathophysiological mechanisms have been usually studied separately. An International Consensus Group on "Cognitive Frailty" was organized by the International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (I.A.N.A) and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (I.A.G.G) on April 16th, 2013 in Toulouse (France). The present report describes the results of the Consensus Group and provides the first definition of a "Cognitive Frailty" condition in older adults. Specific aim of this approach was to facilitate the design of future personalized preventive interventions in older persons. Finally, the Group discussed the use of multidomain interventions focused on the physical, nutritional, cognitive and psychological domains for improving the well-being and quality of life in the elderly. The consensus panel proposed the identification of the so-called "cognitive frailty" as an heterogeneous clinical manifestation characterized by the simultaneous presence of both physical frailty and cognitive impairment. In particular, the key factors defining such a condition include: 1) presence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment (CDR=0.5); and 2) exclusion of concurrent AD dementia or other dementias. Under different circumstances, cognitive frailty may represent a precursor of neurodegenerative processes. A potential for reversibility may also characterize this entity. A psychological component of the condition is evident and concurs at increasing the vulnerability of the individual to stressors.

  3. AID and Education: A Sector Report on Lessons Learned. A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marion Kohashi

    Twelve United States Agency for International Development (AID) education projects were evaluated between 1980 and 1981. Four were in Asia (Philippines, Nepal, Thailand, Korea), two in Africa (Kenya, Nigeria), four in Latin America (Colombia, Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador), and two in the Near East (Jordan, Afghanistan). The evaluations measured the…

  4. Interfacial Properties of High-Density Lipoprotein-like Lipid Droplets with Different Lipid and Apolipoprotein A-I Compositions

    PubMed Central

    Koivuniemi, Artturi; Sysi-Aho, Marko; Orešič, Matej; Ollila, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    The surface properties of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are important because different enzymes bind and carry out their functions at the surface of HDL particles during metabolic processes. However, the surface properties of HDL and other lipoproteins are poorly known because they cannot be directly measured for nanoscale particles with contemporary experimental methods. In this work, we carried out coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to study the concentration of core lipids in the surface monolayer and the interfacial tension of droplets resembling HDL particles. We simulated lipid droplets composed of different amounts of phospholipids, cholesterol esters (CEs), triglycerides (TGs), and apolipoprotein A-Is. Our results reveal that the amount of TGs in the vicinity of water molecules in the phospholipid monolayer is 25–50% higher compared to the amount of CEs in a lipid droplet with a mixed core of an equal amount of TG and CE. In addition, the correlation time for the exchange of molecules between the core and the monolayer is significantly longer for TGs compared to CEs. This suggests that the chemical potential of TG is lower in the vicinity of aqueous phase but the free-energy barrier for the translocation between the monolayer and the core is higher compared to CEs. From the point of view of enzymatic modification, this indicates that TG molecules are more accessible from the aqueous phase. Further, our results point out that CE molecules decrease the interfacial tension of HDL-like lipid droplets whereas TG keeps it constant while the amount of phospholipids varies. PMID:23708359

  5. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  6. 78 FR 46854 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...In the Rules and Regulations section of this issue of the Federal Register the Treasury Department and the IRS are issuing temporary regulations that explain how to account for unrealized gain or loss on a position held by a taxpayer prior to the time the taxpayer establishes a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. The text of the temporary regulations also serves as the text of these proposed regulations. This document also provides notice of a public hearing on these proposed regulations.

  7. 78 FR 46807 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...This document contains guidance for those taxpayers electing to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. These temporary regulations explain how to account for unrealized gain or loss on a position held by a taxpayer prior to the time the taxpayer establishes a mixed straddle using straddle-by- straddle identification. The text of these temporary regulations also serves as the text of the proposed regulations (REG-112815-12) set forth in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  8. 78 FR 64396 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [TD 9627] RIN 1545-BL04 Mixed... to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. These amendments include a... affect taxpayers who elect to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. DATES...

  9. The late behavior of supernova 1987A. I - The light curve. II - Gamma-ray transparency of the ejecta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. David; Fu, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the late (t = 20-1500 days) bolometric light curve and the gamma-lines and X-rays from supernova 1987A are compared to theoretical models. It is found that 0.073 + or - 0.015 solar masses of freshly synthesized Ni-56 must be present to fit the bolometric light curve. The results place limits on the luminosity and presumed period of the newly formed pulsar/neutron star. In the second half of the paper, the problem of computing the luminosities in gamma-ray lines and in X-rays from supernova 1987A is addressed. High-energy observations suggest the development of large-scale clumping and bubbling of radioactive material in the ejecta. A model is proposed with a hydrogen envelope mass of about 7 solar masses, homologous scale expansion velocities of about 3000 km/s, and an approximately uniform mass distribution.

  10. Broadband Radio Polarimetry of Fornax A. I. Depolarized Patches Generated by Advected Thermal Material from NGC 1316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Heald, G. H.; O’Sullivan, S. P.; Kaczmarek, J. F.; Feain, I. J.

    2018-03-01

    We present observations and analysis of the polarized radio emission from the nearby radio galaxy Fornax A over 1.28–3.1 GHz, using data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. In this, the first of two associated papers, we use modern broadband polarimetric techniques to examine the nature and origin of conspicuous low-polarization (low-p) patches in the lobes. We resolve the (low-p) patches and find that their low fractional polarization is associated with complicated frequency-dependent interference in the polarized signal generated by Faraday effects along the line of sight (LOS). The low-p patches are spatially correlated with interfaces in the magnetic structure of the lobe, across which the LOS-projected magnetic field changes direction. Spatial correlations with the sky-projected magnetic field orientation and structure in total intensity are also identified and discussed. We argue that the (low-p) patches, along with associated reversals in the LOS magnetic field and other related phenomena, are best explained by the presence of { \\mathcal O }({10}9) {M}ȯ of magnetized thermal plasma in the lobes, structured in shells or filaments, and likely advected from the interstellar medium of NCG 1316 or its surrounding intracluster medium. Our study underscores the power and utility of spatially resolved, broadband, full-polarization radio observations to reveal new facets of flow behaviors and magneto-ionic structure in radio lobes and their interplay with the surrounding environment.

  11. Application of Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis to the Army Movement Control Domain (Appendices A-I)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Cohen, James A. Hess, William E. Novak, & A. Spen- cer Peterson. Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis ( FODA ) Feasibility Study (CMU/SEI-90- TR-21...Oriented Domain Analysis to the Army Movement Control Domain (Appendices A -1) Sholom G. Cohen Jay L. Stanley, Jr. A. Spencer Peterson Robert W...Appendices) June 1992 Application of Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis to the Army Movement Control Domain (Appendices A -1) Sholom G. Cohen Jay L

  12. Pandemics: waves of disease, waves of hate from the Plague of Athens to A.I.D.S.*

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly surveys the history of pandemics in the West, contesting long-held assumptions that epidemics sparked hatred and blame of the ‘Other’, and that it was worse when diseases were mysterious as to their causes and cures. The article finds that blame and hate were rarely connected with pandemics in history. In antiquity, epidemics more often brought societies together rather than dividing them as continued to happen with some diseases such as influenza in modernity. On the other hand, some diseases such as cholera were more regularly blamed than others and triggered violence even after their agents and mechanisms of transmission had become well known. PMID:25960572

  13. Monitoring of water storage in karstic area (Larzac, France) with a iGrav continuous superconducting gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Moigne, N.; Champollion, C.; chery, J.; Deville, S.; Doerflinger, E.; Collard, P.; Flores, B.

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative knowledge of groundwater storage and transfer in karstic area is crucial for water resources management and protection. As the karst hydro-geological properties are highly heterogeneous and scale dependent, geophysical observations such as gravity are necessary to fill the gap between local (based on boreholes, moisture sensors, ...) and global (based on chemistry, river flow, ...) studies. Since almost 2 years, the iGrav #002 superconducting gravimeter is continuously operating in the French GEK (Géodésie des Eaux Karstiques) observatory in the Larzac karstic plateau (south of France). First the evaluation of the iGrav data (calibration, steps and drift) will be presented. Then a careful analyze of the topographic and building effects will be done. Finally the first interpretation of the hydrogeological signal and the integration an extensive observation dataset (borehole water level, evapotranspiration and electrical resistivity) are studied.

  14. Apolipoprotein E3 (ApoE3) but Not ApoE4 Protects against Synaptic Loss through Increased Expression of Protein Kinase Cϵ

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhik; Alkon, Daniel L.; Nelson, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic loss is the earliest pathological change in Alzheimer disease (AD) and is the pathological change most directly correlated with the degree of dementia. ApoE4 is the major genetic risk factor for the age-dependent form of AD, which accounts for 95% of cases. Here we show that in synaptic networks formed from primary hippocampal neurons in culture, apoE3, but not apoE4, prevents the loss of synaptic networks produced by amyloid β oligomers (amylospheroids). Specific activators of PKCϵ, such as 8-(2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl)-octanoic acid methyl ester and bryostatin 1, protected against synaptic loss by amylospheroids, whereas PKCϵ inhibitors blocked this synaptic protection and also blocked the protection by apoE3. Blocking LRP1, an apoE receptor on the neuronal membrane, also blocked the protection by apoE. ApoE3, but not apoE4, induced the synthesis of PKCϵ mRNA and expression of the PKCϵ protein. Amyloid β specifically blocked the expression of PKCϵ but had no effect on other isoforms. These results suggest that protection against synaptic loss by apoE is mediated by a novel intracellular PKCϵ pathway. This apoE pathway may account for much of the protective effect of apoE and reduced risk for the age-dependent form of AD. This finding supports the potential efficacy of newly developed therapeutics for AD. PMID:22427674

  15. Plasmalogen modulation attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rasmiena, Aliki A; Barlow, Christopher K; Stefanovic, Nada; Huynh, Kevin; Tan, Ricardo; Sharma, Arpeeta; Tull, Dedreia; de Haan, Judy B; Meikle, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported a negative association of circulating plasmalogens (phospholipids with proposed atheroprotective properties) with coronary artery disease. Plasmalogen modulation was previously demonstrated in animals but its effect on atherosclerosis was unknown. We assessed the effect of plasmalogen enrichment on atherosclerosis of murine models with differing levels of oxidative stress. Six-week old ApoE- and ApoE/glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1)-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet with/without 2% batyl alcohol (precursor to plasmalogen synthesis) for 12 weeks. Mass spectrometry analysis of lipids showed that batyl alcohol supplementation to ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice increased the total plasmalogen levels in both plasma and heart. Oxidation of plasmalogen in the treated mice was evident from increased level of plasmalogen oxidative by-product, sn-2 lysophospholipids. Atherosclerotic plaque in the aorta was reduced by 70% (P = 5.69E-07) and 69% (P = 2.00E-04) in treated ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice, respectively. A 40% reduction in plaque (P = 7.74E-03) was also seen in the aortic sinus of only the treated ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice. Only the treated ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice showed a decrease in VCAM-1 staining (-28%, P = 2.43E-02) in the aortic sinus and nitrotyrosine staining (-78%, P = 5.11E-06) in the aorta. Plasmalogen enrichment via batyl alcohol supplementation attenuated atherosclerosis in ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice, with a greater effect in the latter group. Plasmalogen enrichment may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to prevent atherosclerosis and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, particularly under conditions of elevated oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease with L-4F, an apo-A1 mimetic, did not improve select biomarkers of HDL function[S

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Catherine E.; Weissbach, Nicole; Kjems, Lise; Ayalasomayajula, Surya; Zhang, Yiming; Chang, Ih; Navab, Mohamad; Hama, Susan; Hough, Greg; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Soffer, Daniel; Rader, Daniel J.; Fogelman, Alan M.; Schecter, Alison

    2011-01-01

    L-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide (also known as APL180), was administered daily by either intravenous (IV) infusion for 7 days or by subcutaneous (SC) injection for 28 days in patients with coronary heart disease in two distinct clinical studies. L-4F was well tolerated at all doses tested. Despite achieving plasma levels (mean maximal plasma concentration of 2,907 ng/ml and 395 ng/ml, following IV infusion and SC injection, respectively), that were effective in previously published animal models, treatment with L-4F, as assessed by biomarkers of HDL function such as HDL-inflammatory index (HII), and paraoxonase activity, did not improve. Paradoxically, there was a 49% increase in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels after seven IV infusions of 30 mg L-4F (P < 0.05; compared with placebo) and a trend for hs-CRP increase in subjects receiving 30 mg SC injection for 28 days. In a subsequent, ex vivo study, addition of L-4F at concentrations of 150, 375, or 1,000 ng/ml to plasma from subjects prior to L-4F treatment resulted in significant dose-dependent HII improvement. In conclusion, in vivo L-4F treatment, delivered by either SC injection or IV infusion, did not improve HDL functional biomarkers despite achieving plasma levels that improved identical biomarkers ex vivo and in animal models. PMID:21068008

  17. ApoE4 induces Aβ42, tau, and neuronal pathology in the hippocampus of young targeted replacement apoE4 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent findings suggest that the pathological effects of apoE4, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), start many years before the onset of the disease and are already detectable at a young age. In the present study we investigated the extent to which such pathological and cognitive impairments also occur in young apoE4 mice. Results This study revealed that the levels of the presynaptic glutamatergic vesicular transporter, VGlut, in the CA3, CA1, and DG hippocampal subfields were lower in hippocampal neurons of young (4-month-old) apoE4-targeted replacement mice than in those of the apoE3 mice. In contrast, the corresponding inhibitory GABAergic nerve terminals and perikarya were not affected by apoE4. This synaptic effect was associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau in these neurons. In addition, apoE4 increased the accumulation of neuronal Aβ42 and induced mitochondrial changes, both of which were specifically pronounced in CA3 neurons. Spatial navigation behavioral studies revealed that these hippocampal pathological effects of apoE4 are associated with corresponding behavioral impairments. Time-course studies revealed that the effects of apoE4 on tau hyperphosphorylation and the mitochondria were already apparent at the age of 1 month and that the apoE4-driven accumulation of neuronal Aβ and reduced VGlut levels evolve later and are apparent at the age of 2–4 months. Furthermore, the levels of tau phosphorylation decrease in apoE3 mice and increase in apoE4 mice between 1 and 4 months, whereas the levels of Aβ42 decrease in apoE3 mice and are not affected in apoE4 mice over the same time period. Conclusions These findings show that apoE4 stimulates the accumulation of Aβ42 and hyperphosphorylated tau and reduces the levels of VGlut in hippocampal neurons of young apoE4-targeted replacement mice and that these neurochemical effects are associated with cognitive impairments. This model is not associated with

  18. ApoE4 induces Aβ42, tau, and neuronal pathology in the hippocampus of young targeted replacement apoE4 mice.

    PubMed

    Liraz, Ori; Boehm-Cagan, Anat; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2013-05-17

    Recent findings suggest that the pathological effects of apoE4, the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), start many years before the onset of the disease and are already detectable at a young age. In the present study we investigated the extent to which such pathological and cognitive impairments also occur in young apoE4 mice. This study revealed that the levels of the presynaptic glutamatergic vesicular transporter, VGlut, in the CA3, CA1, and DG hippocampal subfields were lower in hippocampal neurons of young (4-month-old) apoE4-targeted replacement mice than in those of the apoE3 mice. In contrast, the corresponding inhibitory GABAergic nerve terminals and perikarya were not affected by apoE4.This synaptic effect was associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau in these neurons. In addition, apoE4 increased the accumulation of neuronal Aβ42 and induced mitochondrial changes, both of which were specifically pronounced in CA3 neurons. Spatial navigation behavioral studies revealed that these hippocampal pathological effects of apoE4 are associated with corresponding behavioral impairments. Time-course studies revealed that the effects of apoE4 on tau hyperphosphorylation and the mitochondria were already apparent at the age of 1 month and that the apoE4-driven accumulation of neuronal Aβ and reduced VGlut levels evolve later and are apparent at the age of 2-4 months. Furthermore, the levels of tau phosphorylation decrease in apoE3 mice and increase in apoE4 mice between 1 and 4 months, whereas the levels of Aβ42 decrease in apoE3 mice and are not affected in apoE4 mice over the same time period. These findings show that apoE4 stimulates the accumulation of Aβ42 and hyperphosphorylated tau and reduces the levels of VGlut in hippocampal neurons of young apoE4-targeted replacement mice and that these neurochemical effects are associated with cognitive impairments. This model is not associated with hypothesis-driven mechanistic

  19. Human ApoE Isoforms Differentially Modulate Glucose and Amyloid Metabolic Pathways in Female Brain: Evidence of the Mechanism of Neuroprotection by ApoE2 and Implications for Alzheimer's Disease Prevention and Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    Keeney, Jeriel Thomas-Richard; Ibrahimi, Shaher; Zhao, Liqin

    2015-01-01

    Three major genetic isoforms of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, exist in humans and lead to differences in susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated the impact of human ApoE isoforms on brain metabolic pathways involved in glucose utilization and amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation, two major areas that are significantly perturbed in preclinical AD. Hippocampal RNA samples from middle-aged female mice with targeted human ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 gene replacement were comparatively analyzed with a qRT-PCR custom array for the expression of 85 genes involved in insulin/insulin-like growth factor (Igf) signaling. Consistent with its protective role against AD, ApoE2 brain exhibited the most metabolically robust profile among the three ApoE genotypes. When compared to ApoE2 brain, both ApoE3 and ApoE4 brains exhibited markedly reduced levels of Igf1, insulin receptor substrates (Irs), and facilitated glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), indicating reduced glucose uptake. Additionally, ApoE4 brain exhibited significantly decreased Pparg and insulin-degrading enzyme (Ide), indicating further compromised glucose metabolism and Aβ dysregulation associated with ApoE4. Protein analysis showed significantly decreased Igf1, Irs, and Glut4 in ApoE3 brain, and Igf1, Irs, Glut4, Pparg, and Ide in ApoE4 brain compared to ApoE2 brain. These data provide the first documented evidence that human ApoE isoforms differentially affect brain insulin/Igf signaling and downstream glucose and amyloid metabolic pathways, illustrating a potential mechanism for their differential risk in AD. A therapeutic strategy that enhances brain insulin/Igf1 signaling activity to a more robust ApoE2-like phenotype favoring both energy production and amyloid homeostasis holds promise for AD prevention and early intervention.

  20. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ApoE isoform-dependent deficits in extinction of contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Olsen, R H J; Agam, M; Davis, M J; Raber, J

    2012-10-01

    The three major human apoE isoforms (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) are encoded by distinct alleles (ϵ2, ϵ3 and ϵ4). Compared with ϵ3, ϵ4 is associated with increased risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), and other conditions. In contrast, a recent study indicated an increased susceptibility to the recurring and re-experiencing symptom cluster of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), as well as related memory impairments, in patients carrying at least one ϵ2 allele. Contextual fear conditioning and extinction are used in human and animal models to study this symptom cluster. In this study, acquisition (day 1, training), consolidation (day 2, first day of re-exposure) and extinction (days 2-5) of conditioned contextual fear in human apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4 targeted replacement and C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice was investigated. Male and female apoE2 showed acquisition and retrieval of conditioned fear, but failed to exhibit extinction. In contrast, WT, apoE3 and apoE4 mice showed extinction. While apoE2 mice exhibited lower freezing in response to the context on day 2 than apoE3 and apoE4 mice, this cannot explain their extinction deficit as WT mice exhibited similar freezing levels as apoE2 mice on day 2 but still exhibited extinction. Elevating freezing through extended training preserved extinction in controls, but failed to ameliorate extinction deficits in apoE2 animals. These data along with clinical data showing an association of apoE2 with susceptibility to specific symptom clusters in PTSD supports an important role for apoE isoform in the extinction of conditioned fear. © 2012 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  2. Binding of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Apo-Bacterioferritin Associated Ferredoxin to Bacterioferritin B Promotes Heme Mediation of Electron Delivery and Mobilization of Core Mineral Iron†

    PubMed Central

    Weeratunga, Saroja K.; Gee, Casey E.; Lovell, Scott; Zeng, Yuhong; Woodin, Carrie L.; Rivera, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The bfrB gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The resultant protein (BfrB), which assembles into a 445.3 kDa complex0020from 24 identical subunits, binds 12 molecules of heme axially coordinated by two Met residues. BfrB, isolated with 5–10 iron atoms per protein molecule, was reconstituted with ferrous ions to prepare samples with a core mineral containing 600 ± 40 ferric ions per BfrB molecule and approximately one phosphate molecule per iron atom. In the presence of sodium dithionite or in the presence of P. aeruginosa ferredoxin NADP reductase (FPR) and NADPH the heme in BfrB remains oxidized and the core iron mineral is mobilized sluggishly. In stark contrast, addition of NADPH to a solution containing BfrB, FPR and the apo-form of P. aeruginosa bacterioferritin associated ferredoxin (apo-Bfd) results in rapid reduction of the heme in BfrB and in the efficient mobilization of the core iron mineral. Results from additional experimentation indicate that Bfd must bind to BfrB to promote heme mediation of electrons from the surface to the core to support the efficient mobilization of ferrous ions from BfrB. In this context, the thus far mysterious role of heme in bacterioferritins has been brought to the front by reconstituting BfrB with its physiological partner, apo-Bfd. These findings are discussed in the context of a model for the utilization of stored iron in which the significant upregulation of the bfd gene under low-iron conditions [Ochsner, U.A., Wilderman, P.J., Vasil, A.I., and Vasil, M.L. (2002) Mol. Microbiol. 45, 1277–1287] ensures sufficient concentrations of apo-Bfd to bind BfrB and unlock the iron stored in its core. Although these findings are in contrast to previous speculations suggesting redox mediation of electron transfer by holo-Bfd, the ability of apo-Bfd to promote iron mobilization is an economical strategy used by the cell because it obviates the need to further deplete cellular iron levels to

  3. ApoE and the role of very low density lipoproteins in adipose tissue inflammation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our goal was too identify the role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apoE, a major apolipoprotein in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, in adipose tissue inflammation with high-fat diet induced obesity. Male apoE-/- and C57BL/6J wild-type mice fed high fat diets for 12 weeks were assessed for metab...

  4. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers&apos; Ability and Effort Explanations for Students&apos; Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students&apos; performance in math. Whereas boys&apos; successes in math are attributed to ability, girls&apos; successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys&apos; failures in math are attributed to a…

  5. Jack Michael&apos;s Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael&apos;s contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner&apos;s (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael&apos;s term helped us change our focus on…

  6. Interaction of ApoE3 and ApoE4 isoforms with an ITM2b/BRI2 mutation linked to the Alzheimer disease-like Danish dementia: Effects on learning and memory

    PubMed Central

    Biundo, Fabrizio; Ishiwari, Keita; Del Prete, Dolores; D’Adamio, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in Amyloid β Precursor Protein (APP) and in genes that regulate APP processing – such as PSEN1/2 and ITM2b/BRI2 – cause familial dementia, such Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), Familial Danish (FDD) and British (FBD) dementias. The ApoE gene is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Three major variants of ApoE exist in humans (ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4), with the ApoE4 allele being strongly associated with AD. ITM2b/BRI2 is also a candidate regulatory node genes predicted to mediate the common patterns of gene expression shared by healthy ApoE4 carriers and late-onset AD patients not carrying ApoE4. This evidence provides a direct link between ITM2b/BRI2 and ApoE4. To test whether ApoE4 and pathogenic ITM2b/BRI2 interact to modulate learning and memory, we crossed a mouse carrying the ITM2b/BRI2 mutations that causes FDD knocked-in the endogenous mouse Itm2b/Bri2 gene (FDDKI mice) with human ApoE3 and ApoE4 targeted replacement mice. The resultant ApoE3, FDDKI/ApoE3, ApoE4, FDDKI/ApoE4 male mice were assessed longitudinally for learning and memory at 4, 6, 12, and 16– 17 months of age. The results showed that ApoE4-carrying mice displayed spatial working/short-term memory deficits relative to ApoE3-carrying mice starting in early middle age, while long-term spatial memory of ApoE4 mice was not adversely affected even at 16–17 months, and that the FDD mutation impaired working/short-term spatial memory in ApoE3-carrying mice and produced impaired long-term spatial memory in ApoE4-carrying mice in middle age. The present results suggest that the FDD mutation may differentially affect learning and memory in ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers. PMID:26528887

  7. Interaction of ApoE3 and ApoE4 isoforms with an ITM2b/BRI2 mutation linked to the Alzheimer disease-like Danish dementia: Effects on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Fabrizio; Ishiwari, Keita; Del Prete, Dolores; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in Amyloid β Precursor Protein (APP) and in genes that regulate APP processing--such as PSEN1/2 and ITM2b/BRI2--cause familial dementia, such Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), Familial Danish (FDD) and British (FBD) dementias. The ApoE gene is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Three major variants of ApoE exist in humans (ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4), with the ApoE4 allele being strongly associated with AD. ITM2b/BRI2 is also a candidate regulatory node genes predicted to mediate the common patterns of gene expression shared by healthy ApoE4 carriers and late-onset AD patients not carrying ApoE4. This evidence provides a direct link between ITM2b/BRI2 and ApoE4. To test whether ApoE4 and pathogenic ITM2b/BRI2 interact to modulate learning and memory, we crossed a mouse carrying the ITM2b/BRI2 mutations that causes FDD knocked-in the endogenous mouse Itm2b/Bri2 gene (FDDKI mice) with human ApoE3 and ApoE4 targeted replacement mice. The resultant ApoE3, FDDKI/ApoE3, ApoE4, FDDKI/ApoE4 male mice were assessed longitudinally for learning and memory at 4, 6, 12, and 16-17 months of age. The results showed that ApoE4-carrying mice displayed spatial working/short-term memory deficits relative to ApoE3-carrying mice starting in early middle age, while long-term spatial memory of ApoE4 mice was not adversely affected even at 16-17 months, and that the FDD mutation impaired working/short-term spatial memory in ApoE3-carrying mice and produced impaired long-term spatial memory in ApoE4-carrying mice in middle age. The present results suggest that the FDD mutation may differentially affect learning and memory in ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RNA-Seq Mouse Brain Regions Expression Data Analysis: Focus on ApoE Functional Network

    PubMed

    Babenko, Vladimir N; Smagin, Dmitry A; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N

    2017-09-13

    ApoE expression status was proved to be a highly specific marker of energy metabolism rate in the brain. Along with its neighbor, Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 kDa (TOMM40) which is involved in mitochondrial metabolism, the corresponding genomic region constitutes the neuroenergetic hotspot. Using RNA-Seq data from a murine model of chronic stress a significant positive expression coordination of seven neighboring genes in ApoE locus in five brain regions was observed. ApoE maintains one of the highest absolute expression values genome-wide, implying that ApoE can be the driver of the neighboring gene expression alteration observed under stressful loads. Notably, we revealed the highly statistically significant increase of ApoE expression in the hypothalamus of chronically aggressive (FDR < 0.007) and defeated (FDR < 0.001) mice compared to the control. Correlation analysis revealed a close association of ApoE and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression profiles implying the putative neuroendocrine stress response background of ApoE expression elevation therein.

  9. Presenilin 1 mutations influence processing and trafficking of the ApoE receptor apoER2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea M; Slaton, Arthur; Barger, Steven W

    2017-01-01

    Presenilin (PS)-1 is an intramembrane protease serving as the catalytic component of γ-secretase. Mutations in the PS1 gene are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). The low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-receptor family member apoER2 is a γ-secretase substrate that has been associated with AD in several ways, including acting as a receptor for apolipoprotein E (ApoE). ApoER2 is processed by γ-secretase into a C-terminal fragment (γ-CTF) that appears to regulate gene expression. FAD PS1 mutations were tested for effects on apoER2. PS1 mutation R278I showed impaired γ-secretase activity for apoER2 in the basal state or after exposure to Reelin. PS1 M146V mutation permitted accumulation of apoER2 CTFs after Reelin treatment, whereas no difference was seen between wild-type (WT) and M146V in the basal state. PS1 L282V mutation, combined with the γ-secretase inhibitor N-(N-[3,5-Difluorophenacetyl]-L-alanyl)-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, greatly reduced the cell-surface levels of apoER2 without affecting total apoER2 levels, suggesting a defect in receptor trafficking. These findings indicate that impaired processing or localization of apoER2 may contribute to the pathogenic effects of FAD mutations in PS1. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. ApoE4 markedly exacerbates tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yang; Yamada, Kaoru; Liddelow, Shane Antony; Smith, Scott T; Zhao, Lingzhi; Luo, Wenjie; Tsai, Richard M; Spina, Salvatore; Grinberg, Lea T; Rojas, Julio C; Gallardo, Gilbert; Wang, Kairuo; Roh, Joseph; Robinson, Grace; Finn, Mary Beth; Jiang, Hong; Sullivan, Patrick M; Baufeld, Caroline; Wood, Michael W; Sutphen, Courtney; McCue, Lena; Xiong, Chengjie; Del-Aguila, Jorge L; Morris, John C; Cruchaga, Carlos; Fagan, Anne M; Miller, Bruce L; Boxer, Adam L; Seeley, William W; Butovsky, Oleg; Barres, Ben A; Paul, Steven M; Holtzman, David M

    2017-09-28

    APOE4 is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease. ApoE4 increases brain amyloid-β pathology relative to other ApoE isoforms. However, whether APOE independently influences tau pathology, the other major proteinopathy of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, or tau-mediated neurodegeneration, is not clear. By generating P301S tau transgenic mice on either a human ApoE knock-in (KI) or ApoE knockout (KO) background, here we show that P301S/E4 mice have significantly higher tau levels in the brain and a greater extent of somatodendritic tau redistribution by three months of age compared with P301S/E2, P301S/E3, and P301S/EKO mice. By nine months of age, P301S mice with different ApoE genotypes display distinct phosphorylated tau protein (p-tau) staining patterns. P301S/E4 mice develop markedly more brain atrophy and neuroinflammation than P301S/E2 and P301S/E3 mice, whereas P301S/EKO mice are largely protected from these changes. In vitro, E4-expressing microglia exhibit higher innate immune reactivity after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Co-culturing P301S tau-expressing neurons with E4-expressing mixed glia results in a significantly higher level of tumour-necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion and markedly reduced neuronal viability compared with neuron/E2 and neuron/E3 co-cultures. Neurons co-cultured with EKO glia showed the greatest viability with the lowest level of secreted TNF-α. Treatment of P301S neurons with recombinant ApoE (E2, E3, E4) also leads to some neuronal damage and death compared with the absence of ApoE, with ApoE4 exacerbating the effect. In individuals with a sporadic primary tauopathy, the presence of an ε4 allele is associated with more severe regional neurodegeneration. In individuals who are positive for amyloid-β pathology with symptomatic Alzheimer disease who usually have tau pathology, ε4-carriers demonstrate greater rates of disease progression. Our results demonstrate that ApoE affects tau

  11. The APO*E3-Leiden mouse as an animal model for basal laminar deposit

    PubMed Central

    Kliffen, M.; Lutgens, E.; Daemen, M.; de Muinck, E. D; Mooy, C.; de Jong, P. T V M

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the APO*E3-Leiden mouse as an animal model for age related maculopathy (ARM) related extracellular deposits.
METHODS—Eyes were obtained from APO*E3-Leiden transgenic mice on a high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet (n=12) or on a normal mouse chow (n=6), for 9 months. As controls, eyes were collected from APO-E knockout mice on the same diets. From each mouse one eye was processed for microscopic evaluation and immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody directed against human apo-E. Electron microscopy was also performed.
RESULTS—All 12 eyes of the APO*E3-Leiden mice on an HFC diet contained basal laminar deposit (BLD; class 1 to class 3), whereas two of six APO*E3-Leiden mice on normal chow showed BLD class 1. The ultrastructural aspects of this BLD were comparable with those seen in early BLD in humans, and BLD showed immunoreaction with anti-human-apo-E antibodies. No BLD was found in any of the control mice. Drusen were not detected in any of the mice.
CONCLUSION—These results indicate that APO*E3-Leiden mice can be used as animal model for the pathogenesis of BLD, and that a HFC diet enhances the accumulation of this deposit. Furthermore, this study supports the previously suggested involvement of dysfunctional apo-E in the accumulation of extracellular deposits in ARM.

 PMID:11090485

  12. Measuring Beliefs in Centimeters: Private Knowledge Biases Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Representation of Others&apos; Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children&apos;s ("N" = 63), 5-year-old children&apos;s ("N" = 60), and adults&apos; ("N" = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a…

  13. Map3k8 Modulates Monocyte State and Atherogenesis in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Garcia, Carlos; Sánchez, Ángela; Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; Cales, Carmela; Barranquero, Cristina; Muñoz, Marta; Merino, Ramón; Escudero, Paula; Sanz, Maria-Jesús; Osada, Jesús; Aranda, Ana; Alemany, Susana

    2017-02-01

    Map3k8 (Cot/Tpl2) activates the MKK1/2-ERK1/2, MAPK pathway downstream from interleukin-1R, tumor necrosis factor-αR, NOD-2R (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like 2R), adiponectinR, and Toll-like receptors. Map3k8 plays a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and influences inflammatory processes by modulating the functions of different cell types. However, its role in atherogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the role of this kinase in this pathology. We show here that Map3k8 deficiency results in smaller numbers of Ly6C high CD11c low and Ly6C low CD11c high monocytes in ApoE - /- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- monocytes displayed high rates of apoptosis and reduced amounts of Nr4a1, a transcription factor known to modulate apoptosis in Ly6C low CD11c high monocytes. Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- splenocytes and macrophages showed irregular patterns of cytokine and chemokine expression. Map3k8 deficiency altered cell adhesion and migration in vivo and decreased CCR2 expression, a determinant chemokine receptor for monocyte mobilization, on circulating Ly6C high CD11c low monocytes. Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- mice fed an HFD showed decreased cellular infiltration in the atherosclerotic plaque, with low lipid content. Lesions had similar size after Map3k8 +/+ ApoE -/- bone marrow transplant into Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- and Map3k8 +/+ ApoE -/- mice fed an HFD, whereas smaller plaques were observed after the transplantation of bone marrow lacking both ApoE and Map3k8. Map3k8 decreases apoptosis of monocytes and enhances CCR2 expression on Ly6C high CD11c low monocytes of ApoE -/- mice fed an HFD. These findings explain the smaller aortic lesions in ApoE -/- mice with Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- bone marrow cells fed an HFD, supporting further studies of Map3k8 as an antiatherosclerotic target. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Why Was Kelvin&apos;s Estimate of the Earth&apos;s Age Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry&apos;s work, of a graph of ln "y" versus "t" when "y" is an exponential function of "t". This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin&apos;s (William Thomson&apos;s) estimate of the Earth&apos;s age was…

  15. Post Hoc Analyses of ApoE Genotype-Defined Subgroups in Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Richard E; Cutter, Gary R; Wang, Guoqiao; Schneider, Lon S

    2016-01-01

    Many post hoc analyses of clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are in small Phase 2 trials. Subject heterogeneity may lead to statistically significant post hoc results that cannot be replicated in larger follow-up studies. We investigated the extent of this problem using simulation studies mimicking current trial methods with post hoc analyses based on ApoE4 carrier status. We used a meta-database of 24 studies, including 3,574 subjects with mild AD and 1,171 subjects with MCI/prodromal AD, to simulate clinical trial scenarios. Post hoc analyses examined if rates of progression on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog) differed between ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers. Across studies, ApoE4 carriers were younger and had lower baseline scores, greater rates of progression, and greater variability on the ADAS-cog. Up to 18% of post hoc analyses for 18-month trials in AD showed greater rates of progression for ApoE4 non-carriers that were statistically significant but unlikely to be confirmed in follow-up studies. The frequency of erroneous conclusions dropped below 3% with trials of 100 subjects per arm. In MCI, rates of statistically significant differences with greater progression in ApoE4 non-carriers remained below 3% unless sample sizes were below 25 subjects per arm. Statistically significant differences for ApoE4 in post hoc analyses often reflect heterogeneity among small samples rather than true differential effect among ApoE4 subtypes. Such analyses must be viewed cautiously. ApoE genotype should be incorporated into the design stage to minimize erroneous conclusions.

  16. Developing Preschool Teachers&apos; Knowledge of Students&apos; Number Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study that investigates preschool teachers&apos; knowledge of their young students&apos; number conceptions and the teachers&apos; related self-efficacy beliefs. It also presents and illustrates elements of a professional development program designed explicitly to promote this knowledge among preschool teachers. Results…

  17. SIRT1 reduces endothelial activation without affecting vascular function in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sokrates; Schäfer, Nicola; Breitenstein, Alexander; Besler, Christian; Winnik, Stephan; Lohmann, Christine; Heinrich, Kathrin; Brokopp, Chad E.; Handschin, Christoph; Landmesser, Ulf; Tanner, Felix C.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Matter, Christian M.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to progression of atherosclerosis, at least in part by causing endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory activation. The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 has been implicated in extension of lifespan. In the vasculature,SIRT1 gain-of-function using SIRT1 overexpression or activation has been shown to improve endothelial function in mice and rats via stimulation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS). However, the effects of SIRT1 loss-of-function on the endothelium in atherosclerosis remain to be characterized. Thus, we have investigated the endothelial effects of decreased endogenous SIRT1 in hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- mice. We observed no difference in endothelial relaxation and eNOS (Ser1177) phosphorylation between 20-week old male atherosclerotic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- and ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. However, SIRT1 prevented endothelial superoxide production, inhibited NF-κB signaling, and diminished expression of adhesion molecules. Treatment of young hypercholesterolemic ApoE-/- SIRT1+/- mice with lipopolysaccharide to boost NF-κB signaling led to a more pronounced endothelial expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 as compared to ApoE-/- SIRT1+/+ mice. In conclusion, endogenous SIRT1 diminishes endothelial activation in ApoE-/- mice, but does not affect endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. PMID:20606253

  18. Critical Pedagogy&apos;s Problem with Changing Teachers&apos; Dispositions towards Critical Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Jacob W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing teachers&apos; dispositions towards critical teaching is a fundamental goal for critical pedagogy. Because critical educational change cannot occur without teachers&apos; "buy-in," developing teachers&apos; inclination to implement critical teaching into their classrooms is a prerequisite for any successful critical pedagogy…

  19. James Baldwin&apos;s "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel": Educating Our Responses to Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish--and explore--James Baldwin&apos;s significance for educational theory. Through a close reading of "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel", I show that Baldwin&apos;s thinking is an important (if unrecognized) precursor to the work of Stanley Cavell and Cora Diamond, and is relevant to a number of…

  20. Individual Differences in Children&apos;s and Parents&apos; Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("&apos;Dogs&apos; bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children&apos;s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  1. On the Relations between Parents&apos; Ideals and Children&apos;s Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents&apos; ideals can enhance children&apos;s autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children&apos;s autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  2. Calculus Students&apos; and Instructors&apos; Conceptualizations of Slope: A Comparison across Academic Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine; Martin, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    This study considers tertiary calculus students&apos; and instructors&apos; conceptualizations of slope. Qualitative techniques were employed to classify responses to 5 items using conceptualizations of slope identified across various research settings. Students&apos; responses suggest that they rely on procedurally based conceptualizations of…

  3. Teaching Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" in "Ways of Reading"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes a method of teaching a very challenging anthology piece: Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" (chapter 1 of her 2003 "Against Love: A Polemic"). The method, although designed for a critical thinking course, should also provide resources for those who teach Kipnis&apos;s work in writing courses. Using…

  4. B.A.I.L.A. - A Latin dance randomized controlled trial for older Spanish-speaking Latinos: Rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, David X.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Hughes, Susan; Berbaum, Michael L.; Wilson, Robert; Buchner, David M.; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has documented health benefits, but older Latinos are less likely to engage in leisure time PA than older non-Latino whites. Dance holds promise as a culturally appropriate form of PA that challenges individuals physically and cognitively. This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will test the efficacy of BAILAMOS©, a 4-month Latin dance program followed by a 4-month maintenance program, for improving lifestyle PA and health outcomes. Older adults (n = 332), aged 55+, Latino/Hispanic, Spanish speaking, with low PA levels, and at risk for disability will be randomized to one of two programs, a dance program or health education control group. BAILAMOS© is a 4-month program that meets two times per week for one hour per session. Dance sessions focus on instruction, including four styles of dance, and couples dancing. Bi-monthly “Fiestas de Baile” (dance parties) are also included, in which participants dance and practice what they have learned.. Monthly 1-hour discussion sessions utilize a Social Cognitive framework and focus on knowledge, social support, and self-efficacy to increase lifestyle PA. The health education control group will meet one time per week for two hours per session. Primary outcomes including PA changes and secondary outcomes including self-efficacy, physical function, cognitive function, and disability will be assessed at baseline, 4, and 8 months. It is hypothesized that PA, self-efficacy, physical function, cognitive function, and functional limitations and disability scores will be significantly better in the BAILAMOS© group at 4 and 8 months compared to the control group. PMID:24969395

  5. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22202... shall be equipped with methane monitors to give an alarm when methane in the return air reaches 0.5...

  6. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... (CONTINUED) Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-3T Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... are part of a mixed straddle for which the taxpayer has made an election under paragraph (d) of this...

  7. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... (CONTINUED) Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-3T Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... are part of a mixed straddle for which the taxpayer has made an election under paragraph (d) of this...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... (CONTINUED) Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-3T Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... are part of a mixed straddle for which the taxpayer has made an election under paragraph (d) of this...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... (CONTINUED) Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-3T Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... are part of a mixed straddle for which the taxpayer has made an election under paragraph (d) of this...

  10. Comment on "Anisotropic s-wave superconductivity: Comparison with experiments on MgB2" by A. I. Posazhennikova et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishonov, T. M.; Penev, E. S.; Indekeu, J. O.

    2003-02-01

    An analytical result for the renormalization of the jump of the heat capacity ΔC/CN by the anisotropy of the order parameter is derived within the framework of the very recent model proposed by Posazhennikova, Dahm and Maki (Europhys. Lett., 60 (2002) 134), for both oblate and prolate anisotropy. The graph of ΔC/CN vs. the ratio of the gaps on the equator and the pole of the Fermi surface, Δe/Δp, allows a direct determination of the gap anisotropy parameter Δe/Δp by fitting data from specific-heat measurements ΔC/CN. Using the experimental value ΔC/CN = 0.82 ± 10% by Wang, Plackowski, and Junod (Physica C 355 (2001) 179) we find Δe/Δp approx 4.0.

  11. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle... Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(b)-3T Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under... mixed straddle for which the taxpayer has made an election under paragraph (d) of this section...

  12. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  13. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Data File Documentation. Appendix A-I. NCES 2014-182_1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Bryan, Michael; Siegel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) helps fulfill the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) mandate to collect, analyze, and publish statistics related to education. The purpose of NPSAS is to compile a comprehensive research dataset, based on student-level records, on financial aid…

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Tribeca. Outback. Suzuki XL-7. Toyota Camry.1 Lexus ES. Lexus GS. Lexus LS. Lexus SC. Volkswagen Audi 5000S. Audi A3. Audi A4. Audi Allroad. Audi A6. Audi Q5. New Beetle. Golf/Rabbit/GTI/R32. Jetta. Passat...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... X3. X4.1 X5. Z4. 1 Car Line. 3 Car Line. 4 Car Line. 5 Car Line. 6 Car Line. 7 Car Line. CHRYSLER....1 Civic. Acura TL. HYUNDAI Azera. Genesis. Equus (originally codenamed VI). JAGUAR F-Type. XJ. XK... Quattroporte. MAZDA 2. 3. 5. 6. CX-5. CX-7. CX-9. MX-5 Miata. Tribute. MERCEDES-BENZ smart USA fortwo. SL-Line...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... X3. X5. Z4. 1 Car Line. 3 Car Line. 4 Car Line.1 5 Car Line. 6 Car Line. 7 Car Line. CHRYSLER 300C... Malibu. Chevrolet Sonic. GMC Terrain. Pontiac G6. Saturn Aura. HONDA Acura TL. Civic.1 HYUNDAI Azera... MY 2013. Manufacturer Subject lines 3. 5. 6. CX-5. CX-7. CX-9. MX-5 Miata. Tribute. MERCEDES-BENZ...

  17. Acoustic emission monitoring of the trunnion shafts on Oregon DOT Bridge #1377A, I-5 (Interstate) Columbia River Bridge east lift span, Portland, Oregon

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-11-30

    A multi-year study was recently completed that examined several major highway crash types. The examined crash types included rear-end, roadway departure, backing, lane change, opposite-direction, and various intersection-related crashes, Each analysi...

  18. Pearson Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study from the Marrow Failure Study Group of A.I.E.O.P. (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Pinto, Rita M; Palmisani, Elena; Macaluso, Alessandra; Valvo, Laura Lo; Cantarini, Maria E; Tornesello, Assunta; Corti, Paola; Fioredda, Francesca; Varotto, Stefania; Martire, Baldo; Moroni, Isabella; Puccio, Giuseppe; Russo, Giovanna; Dufour, Carlo; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a very rare and often fatal multisystemic mitochondrial disorder involving the liver, kidney, pancreas, and hematopoietic and central nervous system. It is characterized principally by a transfusion-dependent anemia that usually improves over time, a tendency to develop severe infections, and a high mortality rate. We describe a group of 11 PS patients diagnosed in Italy in the period 1993-2014. The analysis of this reasonably sized cohort of patients contributes to the clinical profile of the disease and highlights a rough incidence of 1 case/million newborns. Furthermore, it seems that some biochemical parameters like increased serum alanine and urinary fumaric acid can help to address an early diagnosis.

  19. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device... possible explosive forces; (2) Equipped with explosion-doors, a weak-wall, or other equivalent devices... or weak-wall shall be at least equivalent to the average cross-sectional area of the airway. (c) (1...

  3. The Brookline LOGO Project. Final Report. Part III: Profiles of Individual Students' Work. A.I. Memo No. 546. LOGO Memo No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Daniel

    During the school year 1977/78 four computers equipped with LOGO and Turtle Graphics were installed in an elementary school in Brookline, Massachusetts. All sixth grade students in the school had between 20 and 40 hours of hands-on experience with the computers, and the work of 16 students ranging from intellectually gifted and average to learning…

  4. The Brookline LOGO Project. Final Report. Part II: Project Summary and Data Analysis. A.I. Memo No. 545. LOGO Memo No. 53.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papert, Seymour; And Others

    During the school year 1977/78 four computers equipped with LOGO and Turtle Graphics were installed in an elementary school in Brookline, Massachusetts. All sixth grade students in the school had between 20 and 40 hours of hands-on experience with the computers, and the work of 16 students ranging from intellectually gifted and average to learning…

  5. First report of a <i>Staphylococcus caprae isolated from middle ear fluid of an infant with recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Elżbieta; Żychowski, Piotr; Juda, Marek; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielska, Grażyna; Malm, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2017-09-21

    Staphylococcus caprae was originally isolated from goat milk. This uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococcus, usually associated with animals, has only infrequently been detected in human clinical specimens. Its association with acute otitis media has not been demonstrated so far. The study reports the first isolation of S. caprae from the middle ear fluid of a 12-month-old infant with recurrent, bilateral acute otitis media. Biochemical traits and susceptibility pattern of the isolated strain are also presented.

  6. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the beginning of a shift following an idle shift, a competent person shall test the mine atmosphere... immediately follows another, a competent person shall test the mine atmosphere at each active working face for methane before work is started on that shift. (d) A competent person shall test the mine atmosphere at...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the beginning of a shift following an idle shift, a competent person shall test the mine atmosphere... immediately follows another, a competent person shall test the mine atmosphere at each active working face for methane before work is started on that shift. (d) A competent person shall test the mine atmosphere at...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the beginning of a shift following an idle shift, a competent person shall test the mine atmosphere... immediately follows another, a competent person shall test the mine atmosphere at each active working face for methane before work is started on that shift. (d) A competent person shall test the mine atmosphere at...

  9. The scavenger receptor SR-A I/II (CD204) signals via the receptor tyrosine kinase Mertk during apoptotic cell uptake by murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Todt, Jill C.; Hu, Bin; Curtis, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    Apoptotic cells (AC) must be cleared by macrophages (Mø) to resolve inflammation effectively. Mertk and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) are two of many receptors involved in AC clearance. As SR-A lacks enzymatic activity or evident intracellular signaling motifs, yet seems to signal in some cell types, we hypothesized that SR-A signals via Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mertk), which contains a multisubstrate docking site. We induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes by dexamethasone and used Western blotting and immunoprecipitation to analyze the interaction of Mertk and SR-A in the J774A.1 (J774) murine Mø cell line and in peritoneal Mø of wild-type mice and SR-A−/− mice. Phagocytosis (but not adhesion) of AC by J774 was inhibited by anti-SR-A or function-blocking SR-A ligands. In resting J774, SR-A was associated minimally with unphosphorylated (monomeric) Mertk; exposure to AC induced a time-dependent increase in association of SR-A with Mertk in a direct or indirect manner. Anti-SR-A inhibited AC-induced phosphorylation of Mertk and of phospholipase Cγ2, essential steps in AC ingestion. Relative to tissue Mø of wild-type mice, AC-induced Mertk phosphorylation was reduced and delayed in tissue Mø of SR-A−/− mice, as was in vitro AC ingestion at early time-points. Thus, during AC uptake by murine Mø, SR-A is essential for optimal phosphorylation of Mertk and subsequent signaling required for AC ingestion. These data support the Mertk/SR-A complex as a potential target to manipulate AC clearance and hence, resolution of inflammation and infections. PMID:18511575

  10. Size is a major determinant of dissociation and denaturation behaviour of reconstituted high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gianazza, Elisabetta; Eberini, Ivano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and A-I(Milano) (A-I(M)) were compared for their denaturation behaviour by running across transverse gradients of a chaotrope, urea, and of a ionic detergent, SDS. For both apo A-I and monomeric apoA-I(M) in the presence of increasing concentrations of urea the transition from high to low mobility had a sigmoidal course, whereas for dimeric A-I(M)/A-I(M) a non-sigmoidal shape was observed. The co-operativity of the unfolding process was lower for dimeric A-I(M)/A-I(M) than for apoA-I or for monomeric apoA-I(M). A slightly higher susceptibility to denaturation was observed for dimeric A-I(M)/A-I(M) than for monomeric apoA-I(M). A similar behaviour of A-I(M)/A-IM versus apoA-I(M) was observed in CD experiments. Large- (12.7/12.5 nm) and small- (7.8 nm) sized reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) containing either apoA-I or A-I(M)/A-I(M) were compared with respect to their protein-lipid dissociation behaviour by subjecting them to electrophoresis in the presence of urea, of SDS and of a non-ionic detergent, Nonidet P40. A higher susceptibility to dissociation of small-sized versus large-sized rHDL, regardless of the apolipoprotein component, was observed in all three instances. Our data demonstrate that the differential plasticity of the various classes of rHDL is a function of their size; the higher stability of 12.5/12.7 nm rHDL is likely connected to the higher number of protein-lipid and lipid-lipid interactions in larger as compared with smaller rHDL. PMID:11996671

  11. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends&apos; and Nonfriends&apos; Behaviors with Children&apos;s Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends&apos; and nonfriends&apos; reticent and dominant behaviors on children&apos;s observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends&apos; and…

  12. The Influence of Teachers&apos; Conceptions on Their Students&apos; Learning: Children&apos;s Understanding of Sheet Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers&apos; and students&apos; conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers&apos; conceptions on their students&apos; learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  13. Influence of metformin on mitochondrial subproteome in the brain of apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Suski, Maciej; Olszanecki, Rafał; Chmura, Łukasz; Stachowicz, Aneta; Madej, Józef; Okoń, Krzysztof; Adamek, Dariusz; Korbut, Ryszard

    2016-02-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are the set of progressive, age-related brain disorders, characterized by an excessive accumulation of mutant proteins in the certain regions of the brain. Such changes, collectively identified as causal factors of neurodegeneration, all impact mitochondria, imminently leading to their dysfunction. These observations predestine mitochondria as an attractive drug target for counteracting degenerative brain damage. The aim of this study was to use a differential proteomic approach to comprehensively assess the changes in mitochondrial protein expression in the brain of apoE-knockout mice (apoE(-/-)) and to investigate the influence of prolonged treatment with metformin - an indirect activator of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) on the brain mitoproteome in apoE(-/-) mice. The quantitative assessment of the brain mitoproteome in apoE(-/-) revealed the changes in 10 proteins expression as compared to healthy C57BL/6J mice and 25 proteins expression in metformin-treated apoE(-/-) mice. Identified proteins mainly included apoptosis regulators, metabolic enzymes and structural proteins. In summary, our study provided proteomic characteristics suggesting the decrease of antioxidant defense and structural disturbances in the brain mitochondria of apoE(-/-) mice as compared to healthy controls. In this setting, the use of metformin changed the expression of several proteins primarily involved in metabolic processes, the regulation of apoptosis and the structural maintenance of mitochondria, what could potentially restore their native functionalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Teaching the Writer&apos;s Craft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny

    2014-01-01

    "Writing is a core skill for living, not just for school," writes high school English teacher Penny Kittle. Although it&apos;s important to teach students the conventions of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, teachers don&apos;t need to approach this task "like scolds, red pens in hand, stamping out sin, and punishing…

  15. Testing Bernoulli&apos;s Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan; Petrova, Hristina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present three different methods for testing Bernoulli&apos;s law that are different from the standard "tube with varying cross-section." They are all applicable to high-school level physics education, with varying levels of theoretical and experimental complexity, depending on students&apos; skills, and may even be…

  16. Science Teachers&apos; Analogical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-01-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students&apos; learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students&apos; prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to…

  17. Glymphatic distribution of CSF-derived apoE into brain is isoform specific and suppressed during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Achariyar, Thiyagaragan M; Li, Baoman; Peng, Weiguo; Verghese, Philip B; Shi, Yang; McConnell, Evan; Benraiss, Abdellatif; Kasper, Tristan; Song, Wei; Takano, Takahiro; Holtzman, David M; Nedergaard, Maiken; Deane, Rashid

    2016-12-08

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a major carrier of cholesterol and essential for synaptic plasticity. In brain, it's expressed by many cells but highly expressed by the choroid plexus and the predominant apolipoprotein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The role of apoE in the CSF is unclear. Recently, the glymphatic system was described as a clearance system whereby CSF and ISF (interstitial fluid) is exchanged via the peri-arterial space and convective flow of ISF clearance is mediated by aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water channel. We reasoned that this system also serves to distribute essential molecules in CSF into brain. The aim was to establish whether apoE in CSF, secreted by the choroid plexus, is distributed into brain, and whether this distribution pattern was altered by sleep deprivation. We used fluorescently labeled lipidated apoE isoforms, lenti-apoE3 delivered to the choroid plexus, immunohistochemistry to map apoE brain distribution, immunolabeled cells and proteins in brain, Western blot analysis and ELISA to determine apoE levels and radiolabeled molecules to quantify CSF inflow into brain and brain clearance in mice. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA or Student's t- test. We show that the glymphatic fluid transporting system contributes to the delivery of choroid plexus/CSF-derived human apoE to neurons. CSF-delivered human apoE entered brain via the perivascular space of penetrating arteries and flows radially around arteries, but not veins, in an isoform specific manner (apoE2 > apoE3 > apoE4). Flow of apoE around arteries was facilitated by AQP4, a characteristic feature of the glymphatic system. ApoE3, delivered by lentivirus to the choroid plexus and ependymal layer but not to the parenchymal cells, was present in the CSF, penetrating arteries and neurons. The inflow of CSF, which contains apoE, into brain and its clearance from the interstitium were severely suppressed by sleep deprivation compared to the sleep state. Thus, choroid plexus

  18. Gene-environment interaction of ApoE genotype and combat exposure on PTSD.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael J; Genderson, Margo; Grant, Michael D; Logue, Mark; Zink, Tyler; McKenzie, Ruth; Franz, Carol E; Panizzon, Matthew; Lohr, James B; Jerskey, Beth; Kremen, William S

    2013-10-01

    Factors determining who develops PTSD following trauma are not well understood. The €4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene is associated with dementia and unfavorable outcome following brain insult. PTSD is also associated with dementia. Given evidence that psychological trauma adversely affects the brain, we hypothesized that the apoE genotype moderates effects of psychological trauma on PTSD pathogenesis. To investigate the moderation of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and combat exposure, we used 172 participants with combat trauma sustained during the Vietnam War. PTSD symptoms were the dependent variable and number of combat experiences, apoE genotype, and the combat experiences × apoE genotype interaction were predictors. We also examined the outcome of a diagnosis of PTSD (n = 39) versus no PTSD diagnosis (n = 131). The combat × apoE genotype interaction was significant for both PTSD symptoms (P = .014) and PTSD diagnosis (P = .009). ApoE genotype moderates the relationship between combat exposure and PTSD symptoms. Although the pathophysiology of PTSD is not well understood, the €4 allele is related to reduced resilience of the brain to insult. Our results are consistent with the €4 allele influencing the effects of psychological trauma on the brain, thereby affecting the risk of PTSD. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Antisense inhibition of apoB synthesis with mipomersen reduces plasma apoC-III and apoC-III-containing lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Jeremy D; Wedel, Mark K; Sacks, Frank M

    2012-04-01

    Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide that reduces hepatic production of apoB, has been shown in phase 2 studies to decrease plasma apoB, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides. ApoC-III inhibits VLDL and LDL clearance, and it stimulates inflammatory responses in vascular cells. Concentrations of VLDL or LDL with apoC-III independently predict cardiovascular disease. We performed an exploratory posthoc analysis on a subset of hypercholesterolemic subjects obtained from a randomized controlled dose-ranging phase 2 study of mipomersen receiving 100, 200, or 300 mg/wk, or placebo for 13 wk (n = 8 each). ApoC-III-containing lipoproteins were isolated by immuno-affinity chromatography and ultracentrifugation. Mipomersen 200 and 300 mg/wk reduced total apoC-III from baseline by 6 mg/dl (38-42%) compared with placebo group (P < 0.01), and it reduced apoC-III in both apoB lipoproteins and HDL. Mipomersen 100, 200, and 300 mg doses reduced apoB concentration of LDL with apoC-III (27%, 38%, and 46%; P < 0.05). Mipomersen reduced apoC-III concentration in HDL. The drug had no effect on apoE concentration in total plasma and in apoB lipoproteins. In summary, antisense inhibition of apoB synthesis reduced plasma concentrations of apoC-III and apoC-III-containing lipoproteins. Lower concentrations of apoC-III and LDL with apoC-III are associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in epidemiologic studies independent of traditional risk factors.

  20. Antisense inhibition of apoB synthesis with mipomersen reduces plasma apoC-III and apoC-III-containing lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Jeremy D.; Wedel, Mark K.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2012-01-01

    Mipomersen, an antisense oligonucleotide that reduces hepatic production of apoB, has been shown in phase 2 studies to decrease plasma apoB, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides. ApoC-III inhibits VLDL and LDL clearance, and it stimulates inflammatory responses in vascular cells. Concentrations of VLDL or LDL with apoC-III independently predict cardiovascular disease. We performed an exploratory posthoc analysis on a subset of hypercholesterolemic subjects obtained from a randomized controlled dose-ranging phase 2 study of mipomersen receiving 100, 200, or 300 mg/wk, or placebo for 13 wk (n = 8 each). ApoC-III–containing lipoproteins were isolated by immuno-affinity chromatography and ultracentrifugation. Mipomersen 200 and 300 mg/wk reduced total apoC-III from baseline by 6 mg/dl (38–42%) compared with placebo group (P < 0.01), and it reduced apoC-III in both apoB lipoproteins and HDL. Mipomersen 100, 200, and 300 mg doses reduced apoB concentration of LDL with apoC-III (27%, 38%, and 46%; P < 0.05). Mipomersen reduced apoC-III concentration in HDL. The drug had no effect on apoE concentration in total plasma and in apoB lipoproteins. In summary, antisense inhibition of apoB synthesis reduced plasma concentrations of apoC-III and apoC-III–containing lipoproteins. Lower concentrations of apoC-III and LDL with apoC-III are associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in epidemiologic studies independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:22301884

  1. Apo A1 Mimetic Rescues the Diabetic Phenotype of HO-2 Knockout Mice via an Increase in HO-1 Adiponectin and LKBI Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Puri, Nitin; Sodhi, Komal; Bellner, Lars; Abraham, Nader G.; Kappas, Attallah

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance, with adipose tissue dysfunction, is one of the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. We have reported a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype in heme oxygenase (HO)-2 knockout mice, which presented with concurrent HO-1 deficiency and were amenable to rescue by an EET analog. Apo A-I mimetic peptides, such as L-4F, have been shown to induce HO-1 expression and decrease oxidative stress and adiposity. In this study we aimed to characterize alleviatory effects of HO-1 induction (if any) on metabolic imbalance observed in HO-2 KO mice. In this regard, HO-2(−/−) mice were injected with 2 mg/kg/day L-4F, or vehicle, i.p., for 6 weeks. As before, compared to WT animals, the HO-2 null mice were obese, displayed insulin resistance, and had elevated blood pressure. These changes were accompanied by enhanced tissue (hepatic) oxidative stress along with attenuation of HO-1 expression and activity and reduced adiponectin, pAMPK, and LKB1 expression. Treatment with L-4F restored HO-1 expression and activity and increased adiponectin, LKB1, and pAMPK in the HO-2(−/−) mice. These alterations resulted in a decrease in blood pressure, insulin resistance, blood glucose, and adiposity. Taken together, our results show that a deficient HO-1 response, in a state with reduced HO-2 basal levels, is accompanied by disruption of metabolic homeostasis which is successfully restored by an HO-1 inducer. PMID:22577519

  2. Middle-aged human apoE4 targeted-replacement mice show retention deficits on a wide range of spatial memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Bour, Alexandra; Grootendorst, Jeannette; Vogel, Elise; Kelche, Christian; Dodart, Jean-Cosme; Bales, Kelly; Moreau, Pierre-Henri; Sullivan, Patrick M; Mathis, Chantal

    2008-11-21

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E4, one of three human apoE (h-apoE) isoforms, has been identified as a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and for cognitive deficits associated with aging. However, the biological mechanisms involving apoE in learning and memory processes are unclear. A potential isoform-dependent role of apoE in cognitive processes was studied in human apoE targeted-replacement (TR) mice. These mice express either the human apoE3 or apoE4 gene under the control of endogenous murine apoE regulatory sequences, resulting in physiological expression of h-apoE in both a temporal and spatial pattern similar to humans. Male and female apoE3-TR, apoE4-TR, apoE-knockout and C57BL/6J mice (15-18 months) were tested with spatial memory and avoidance conditioning tasks. Compared to apoE3-TR mice, spatial memory in female apoE4-TR mice was impaired based on their poor performances in; (i) the probe test of the water-maze reference memory task, (ii) the water-maze working memory task and (iii) an active avoidance Y-maze task. Retention performance on a passive avoidance task was also impaired in apoE4-TR mice, but not in other genotypes. These deficits in both spatial and avoidance memory tasks may be related to the anatomical and functional abnormalities previously reported in the hippocampus and the amygdala of apoE4-TR mice. We conclude that the apoE4-TR mice provide an excellent model for understanding the mechanisms underlying apoE4-dependent susceptibility to cognitive decline.

  3. Infants&apos; Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There&apos;s extensive research on infant&apos;s discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant&apos;s discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants&apos; perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  4. The Problem of Character Education and Kohlberg&apos;s Moral Education: Critique from Dewey&apos;s Moral Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Dewey&apos;s moral deliberation. Liu argues that Dewey&apos;s work will enrich both character education and Kohlberg&apos;s moral education. Liu focuses on character education and on Kohlberg&apos;s moral education because these are the two dominant approaches. Character education seeks to cultivate good…

  5. Applications of Dweck&apos;s Model of Implicit Theories to Teachers&apos; Self-Efficacy and Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alexis Ymon

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored Dweck&apos;s (1999; Dweck & Leggett, 1988) model of implicit theories in the context of teaching in order to establish its usefulness for describing teachers&apos; beliefs about students&apos; ability and social behavior. Further it sought to explain the connections between teachers&apos; implicit beliefs and their…

  6. Cholesterol, APOE genotype, and Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Hall, K.; Murrell, J.; Ogunniyi, A.; Deeg, M.; Baiyewu, O.; Gao, S.; Gureje, O.; Dickens, J.; Evans, R.; Smith-Gamble, V.; Unverzagt, F.W.; Shen, J.; Hendrie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between cholesterol and other lipids, APOE genotype, and risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in a population-based study of elderly Yoruba living in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods Blood samples and clinical data were collected from Yoruba study participants aged 70 years and older (N = 1,075) as part of the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project, a longitudinal epidemiologic study of AD. Cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride levels were measured in fasting blood samples. DNA was extracted and APOE was genotyped. Diagnoses of AD were made by consensus using National Institute of Neurologic Disorders/Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria. Results Logistic regression models showed interaction after adjusting for age and gender between APOE-ε4 genotype and biomarkers in the risk of AD cholesterol*genotype (p = 0.022), LDL*genotype (p = 0.018), and triglyceride*genotype (p = 0.036). Increasing levels of cholesterol and LDL were associated with increased risk of AD in individuals without the APOE-ε4 allele, but not in those with APOE-ε4. There was no significant association between levels of triglycerides and AD risk in those without APOE-ε4. Conclusions There was a significant interaction between cholesterol, APOE-ε4, and the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) in the Yoruba, a population that has lower cholesterol levels and lower incidence rates of AD compared to African Americans. APOE status needs to be considered when assessing the relationship between lipid levels and AD risk in population studies. PMID:16434658

  7. Smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis originate from the local vessel wall and not circulating progenitor cells in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Bentzon, Jacob F; Weile, Charlotte; Sondergaard, Claus S; Hindkjaer, Johnny; Kassem, Moustapha; Falk, Erling

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies of bone marrow (BM)-transplanted apoE knockout (apoE-/-) mice have concluded that a substantial fraction of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis arise from circulating progenitor cells of hematopoietic origin. This pathway, however, remains controversial. In the present study, we reexamined the origin of plaque SMCs in apoE-/- mice by a series of BM transplantations and in a novel model of atherosclerosis induced in surgically transferred arterial segments. We analyzed plaques in lethally irradiated apoE-/- mice reconstituted with sex-mismatched BM cells from eGFP+ apoE-/- mice, which ubiquitously express enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), but did not find a single SMC of donor BM origin among approximately 10,000 SMC profiles analyzed. We then transplanted arterial segments between eGFP+ apoE-/- and apoE-/- mice (isotransplantation except for the eGFP transgene) and induced atherosclerosis focally within the graft by a recently invented collar technique. No eGFP+ SMCs were found in plaques that developed in apoE-/- artery segments grafted into eGFP+ apoE-/- mice. Concordantly, 96% of SMCs were eGFP+ in plaques induced in eGFP+ apoE-/- artery segments grafted into apoE-/- mice. These experiments show that SMCs in atherosclerotic plaques are exclusively derived from the local vessel wall in apoE-/- mice.

  8. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Haast, Roy; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M.; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10–12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, 16–18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging. PMID:27034849

  9. ApoE Genotype and Alzheimer's Disease in Adults with Down Syndrome: Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prashner, V. P.; Chowdhury, T. A.; Rowe, B. R.; Bain, S. C.

    1997-01-01

    ApoE gene polymorphism was examined in 100 adults with Down syndrome with and without dementia (Alzheimer's disease) and 346 control subjects. Additionally, a meta analysis of studies (total N=480 subjects) was performed. Results indicated a similar incidence of the gene across groups but subjects with the allele tended to an earlier onset of…

  10. [Effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on Monocyte Development in apoE Gene Knockout Mice].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Kong, Ya-xian; Ll, Yu-mei; Xue, Xin; Zhang, Jian-ping; Zeng, Hui; Hu, Jing- qing; Ma, Ya-luan

    2016-01-01

    To observe monocyte (Mo) development in wild type C57BL/6 mice and apoE gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, and to evaluate the immuno-regulatory effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on peripheral Mo development in apoE(-/-) mice. Four, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old female C57BL/6 mice were set up as control groups of different ages, while 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old female apoE(-/-) mice were set up as hyperlipidemia groups of different ages. Four-week old female C57BL/6 mice were recruited as a blank group. Four-week old female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into the control group, the Western medicine group, and the Chinese medicine group by paired comparison, 5 in each group. Equivalent clinical dose was administered to mice according to body weight. Mice in the Western medicine group were administered with Atrovastatin at the daily dose of 10 mg/kg by gastrogavage, while those in the Chinese medicine group were administered with HJD at the daily dose of 5 g/kg by gastrogavage. Body weight was detected each week. After 4 weeks blood lipids levels (such as TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C), and the proportions of Mo and Ly6c(hi) were detected. Compared with 4-week-old homogenic mice, the proportion of Mo decreased in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Levels of TC and TG, and the proportion of Ly6c(hi) subtype increased, but the proportion of Mo de- creased in 8-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P <0. 05). Levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C increased in 12-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). Levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C increased in 16-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with 8-week-old homogenic mice, the proportion of Mo decreased in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05); levels of TC and LDL-C increased in 12-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05); levels of TC and HDL-C increased in 16-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with C57BL/6 mice of the same age, TC and TG increased, HDL-C decreased (P < 0.01) in 4-and 8-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P

  11. Let&apos;s Burn Them All: A Librarian&apos;s View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Roye

    2014-01-01

    In this rejoinder to "Let&apos;s Burn Them All," a librarian supports the author&apos;s case for eliminating textbooks in the teaching of management and organizational behavior. A move away from textbooks would free libraries from worrying about whether and to what extent to provide expensive textbook access to students, a long-standing…

  12. Mapping of ApoE4 related white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Hwang, Darryl H.; Kriger, Stephen; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Weiner, Michael; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    ApoliopoproteinE Ɛ4 (ApoE-Ɛ4) polymorphism is the most well known genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimers Disease. The exact mechanism through which ApoE 4 increases AD risk is not fully known, but may be related to decreased clearance and increased oligomerization of Aβ. By making measurements of white matter integrity via diffusion MR and correlating the metrics in a voxel-based statistical analysis with ApoE-Ɛ4 genotype (whilst controlling for vascular risk factor, gender, cognitive status and age) we are able to identify changes in white matter associated with carrying an ApoE Ɛ4 allele. We found potentially significant regions (Puncorrected < 0:05) near the hippocampus and the posterior cingulum that were independent of voxels that correlated with age or clinical dementia rating (CDR) status suggesting that ApoE may affect cognitive decline via a pathway in dependent of normal aging and acute insults that can be measured by CDR and Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS).

  13. Extension&apos;s Role in Developing a Farmers&apos; Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers&apos; markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers&apos; markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  14. The cathelicidin protein CRAMP is a potential atherosclerosis self-antigen in ApoE(-/-) mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Peter M.; Lio, Wai Man; Yano, Juliana; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhou, Jianchang; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Shah, Prediman K.; Cercek, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Auto-immunity is believed to contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a fragment of the cathelicidin protein precursor hCAP18, was previously identified as an autoantigen in psoriasis. Given the reported link between psoriasis and coronary artery disease, the biological relevance of the autoantigen to atherosclerosis was tested in vitro using a truncated (t) form of the mouse homolog of hCAP18, CRAMP, on splenocytes from athero-prone ApoE(-/-) mice. Stimulation with tCRAMP resulted in increased CD8+ T cells with Central Memory and Effector Memory phenotypes in ApoE(-/-) mice, differentially activated by feeding with normal chow or high fat diet. Immunization of ApoE(-/-) with different doses of the shortened peptide (Cramp) resulted in differential outcomes with a lower dose reducing atherosclerosis whereas a higher dose exacerbating the disease with increased neutrophil infiltration of the atherosclerotic plaques. Low dose Cramp immunization also resulted in increased splenic CD8+ T cell degranulation and reduced CD11b+CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), whereas high dose increased CD11b+CD11c+ cDCs. Our results identified CRAMP, the mouse homolog of hCAP-18, as a potential self-antigen involved in the immune response to atherosclerosis in the ApoE(-/-) mouse model. PMID:29091929

  15. Parallels in Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Judgments about Ownership Rights and Bodily Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ownership rights is necessary for socially appropriate behavior. We provide evidence that preschoolers&apos; and adults&apos; judgments of ownership rights are related to their judgments of bodily rights. Four-year-olds (n = 70) and adults (n = 89) evaluated the acceptability of harmless actions targeting owned property and body…

  16. Longitudinal Links between Fathers&apos; and Mothers&apos; Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents&apos; Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents&apos; conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers&apos; and fathers&apos;…

  17. Effects of different isoforms of apoE on aggregation of the α-synuclein protein implicated in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Emamzadeh, Fatemeh Nouri; Aojula, Harmesh; McHugh, Patrick C; Allsop, David

    2016-04-08

    Parkinson's disease is a progressive brain disorder due to the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The accumulation of aggregated forms of α-synuclein protein into Lewy bodies is one of the characteristic features of this disease although the pathological role of any such protein deposits in causing neurodegeneration remains elusive. Here, the effects of different apolipoprotein E isoforms (apoE2, apoE3, apoE4) on the aggregation of α-synuclein in vitro were examined using thioflavin T assays and also an immunoassay to detect the formation of multimeric forms. Our results revealed that the aggregation of α-synuclein is influenced by apoE concentration. At low concentrations of apoE (<15nM), all of the isoforms were able to increase the aggregation of α-synuclein (50μM), with apoE4 showing the greatest stimulatory effect. This is in contrast to a higher concentration (>15nM) of these isoforms, where a decrease in the aggregation of α-synuclein was noted. The data show that exceptionally low levels of apoE may seed α-syn aggregation, which could potentially lead to the pathogenesis of α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration. On the other hand, higher levels of apoE could potentially lower the degree of α-synuclein aggregation and confer protection. The differential effects noted with apoE4 could explain why this particular isoform results in an earlier age of onset for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Increased hippocampal activation in ApoE-4 carriers and non-carriers with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tammy T; Speck, Caroline L; Pisupati, Aparna; Gallagher, Michela; Bakker, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    Increased fMRI activation in the hippocampus is recognized as a signature characteristic of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous work has localized this increased activation to the dentate gyrus/CA3 subregion of the hippocampus and showed a correlation with memory impairments in those patients. Increased hippocampal activation has also been reported in carriers of the ApoE-4 allelic variation independently of mild cognitive impairment although these findings were not localized to a hippocampal subregion. To assess the ApoE-4 contribution to increased hippocampal fMRI activation, patients with aMCI genotyped for ApoE-4 status and healthy age-matched control participants completed a high-resolution fMRI scan while performing a memory task designed to tax hippocampal subregion specific functions. Consistent with previous reports, patients with aMCI showed increased hippocampal activation in the left dentate gyrus/CA3 region of the hippocampus as well as memory task errors attributable to this subregion. However, this increased fMRI activation in the hippocampus did not differ between ApoE-4 carriers and ApoE-4 non-carriers and the proportion of memory errors attributable to dentate gyrus/CA3 function did not differ between ApoE-4 carriers and ApoE-4 non-carriers. These results indicate that increased fMRI activation of the hippocampus observed in patients with aMCI is independent of ApoE-4 status and that ApoE-4 does not contribute to the dysfunctional hippocampal activation or the memory errors attributable to this subregion in these patients.

  19. Divergent systemic and local inflammatory response to hind limb demand ischemia in wild-type and ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Robert S; Albadawi, Hassan; Robaldo, Alessandro; Peck, Michael A; Abularrage, Christopher J; Yoo, Hyung-Jin; Lamuraglia, Glenn M; Watkins, Michael T

    2013-08-01

    We designed studies to determine whether the ApoE-/- phenotype modulates the local skeletal muscle and systemic inflammatory (plasma) responses to lower extremity demand ischemia. The ApoE-/- phenotype is an experimental model for atherosclerosis in humans. Aged female ApoE-/- and C57BL6 mice underwent femoral artery ligation, then were divided into sedentary and demand ischemia (exercise) groups on day 14. We assessed baseline and postexercise limb perfusion and hind limb function. On day 14, animals in the demand ischemia group underwent daily treadmill exercise through day 28. Sedentary mice were not exercised. On day 28, we harvested plasma and skeletal muscle from ischemic limbs from sedentary and exercised mice. We assayed muscle for angiogenic and proinflammatory proteins, markers of skeletal muscle regeneration, and evidence of skeletal muscle fiber maturation. Hind limb ischemia was similar in ApoE-/- and C57 mice before the onset of exercise. Under sedentary conditions, plasma vascular endothelial cell growth factor and interleukin-6, but not keratinocyte chemoattractant factor (KC) or macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2), were higher in ApoE (P < 0.0001). After exercise, plasma levels of vascular endothelial cell growth factor, KC, and MIP-2, but not IL-6, were lower in ApoE (P < 0.004). The cytokines KC and MIP-2 in muscle were greater in exercised ApoE-/- mice compared with C57BL6 mice (P = 0.01). Increased poly-ADP-ribose activity and mature muscle regeneration were associated with demand ischemia in the C57BL6 mice, compared with the ApoE-/- mice (P = 0.01). Demand limb ischemia in the ApoE-/- phenotype exacerbated the expression of select systemic cytokines in plasma and blunted indices of muscle regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Differential Binding of Human ApoE Isoforms to Insulin Receptor is Associated with Aberrant Insulin Signaling in AD Brain Samples.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elizabeth S; Chen, Christopher; Soong, Tuck Wah; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2018-03-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), where inheritance of this isoform predisposes development of AD in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although the mode of action of ApoE4 on AD onset and progression remains unknown, we have previously shown that ApoE4, and not ApoE3 expression, resulted in insulin signaling deficits in the presence of amyloid beta (Aβ). However, these reports were not conducted with clinical samples that more accurately reflect human disease. In this study, we investigated the effect of ApoE genotype on the insulin signaling pathway in control and AD human brain samples. We found that targets of the insulin signaling pathway were attenuated in AD cases, regardless of ApoE isoform. We also found a decrease in GluR1 subunit expression, and an increase NR2B subunit expression in AD cases, regardless of ApoE isoform. Lastly, we observed that more insulin receptor (IR) was immunoprecipitated in control cases, and more Aβ was immunoprecipitated with AD cases. But, when comparing among AD cases, we found that more IR was immunoprecipitated with ApoE3 than ApoE4, and more Aβ was immunoprecipitated with ApoE4 than ApoE3. Our results suggest that the difference in IR binding and effect on protein expression downstream of the IR may affect onset and progression of AD.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: familial HDL deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... phospholipids from cells by moving them across the cell membrane. The movement of these substances across the membrane is enhanced by another protein called apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which is ...

  2. ApoE4 expression accelerates hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits by enhancing Aβ impairment of insulin signaling in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Elizabeth S.; Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Chen, Christopher; Soong, Tuck Wah; Wong, Boon-Seng

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The AD brain was shown to be insulin resistant at end stage, but the interplay between insulin signaling, ApoE4 and Aβ across time, and their involvement in memory decline is unclear. To investigate insulin response in the ageing mouse hippocampus, we crossed the human ApoE-targeted replacement mice with the mutant human amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice (ApoExAPP). While hippocampal Aβ levels were comparable between ApoE3xAPP and ApoE4xAPP mice at 26 weeks, insulin response was impaired in the ApoE4xAPP hippocampus. Insulin treatment was only able to stimulate insulin signaling and increased AMPA-GluR1 phosphorylation in forskolin pre-treated hippocampal slices from ApoE3xAPP mice. In ApoE4xAPP mice, insulin dysfunction was also associated with poorer spatial memory performance. Using dissociated hippocampal neuron in vitro, we showed that insulin response in ApoE3 and ApoE4 neurons increased AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) amplitudes and GluR1-subunit insertion. Pre-treatment of ApoE3 neurons with Aβ42 did not affect insulin-mediated GluR1 subunit insertion. However, impaired insulin sensitivity observed only in the presence of ApoE4 and Aβ42, attenuated GluR1-subunit insertion. Taken together, our results suggest that ApoE4 enhances Aβ inhibition of insulin-stimulated AMPA receptor function, which accelerates memory impairment in ApoE4xAPP mice. PMID:27189808

  3. ApoE4 effects on automated diagnostic classifiers for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Hwang, Kristy S.; Kohannim, Omid; Avila, David; Elashoff, David; Jack, Clifford R.; Shaw, Leslie; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are the only feasible way to detect and monitor presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD). No single biomarker can predict future cognitive decline with an acceptable level of accuracy. In addition to designing powerful multimodal diagnostic platforms, a careful investigation of the major sources of disease heterogeneity and their influence on biomarker changes is needed. Here we investigated the accuracy of a novel multimodal biomarker classifier for differentiating cognitively normal (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD subjects with and without stratification by ApoE4 genotype. 111 NC, 182 MCI and 95 AD ADNI participants provided both structural MRI and CSF data at baseline. We used an automated machine-learning classifier to test the ability of hippocampal volume and CSF Aβ, t-tau and p-tau levels, both separately and in combination, to differentiate NC, MCI and AD subjects, and predict conversion. We hypothesized that the combined hippocampal/CSF biomarker classifier model would achieve the highest accuracy in differentiating between the three diagnostic groups and that ApoE4 genotype will affect both diagnostic accuracy and biomarker selection. The combined hippocampal/CSF classifier performed better than hippocampus-only classifier in differentiating NC from MCI and NC from AD. It also outperformed the CSF-only classifier in differentiating NC vs. AD. Our amyloid marker played a role in discriminating NC from MCI or AD but not for MCI vs. AD. Neurodegenerative markers contributed to accurate discrimination of AD from NC and MCI but not NC from MCI. Classifiers predicting MCI conversion performed well only after ApoE4 stratification. Hippocampal volume and sex achieved AUC = 0.68 for predicting conversion in the ApoE4-positive MCI, while CSF p-tau, education and sex achieved AUC = 0.89 for predicting conversion in ApoE4-negative MCI. These observations support the proposed biomarker trajectory in AD, which postulates that amyloid markers

  4. Effect of feeding diets of varying fatty acid composition on apolipoprotein expression in newborn swine.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Hunter, F; Black, D D

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chronic (1 wk) feeding of dietary triacylglycerol (TG) of varying fatty acid composition on small intestinal and hepatic apolipoprotein expression, as well as serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations, in newborn swine. Two-day-old female swine were fed one of three diets by gavage with the following lipid composition: medium-chain TG (MCT; MCT oil), intermediate-chain saturated TG (ICST; coconut oil), and long-chain polyunsaturated TG (LCPUT; safflower oil) at 753 kJ . kg-1 . day-1 with 51% of energy from fat. After 1 wk, serum lipids and apolipoprotein concentrations were measured, and jejunal apolipoprotein B (apo B) and apo A-I mass and apo B, apo A-I, apo A-IV, and apo C-III synthesis were measured. Liver was processed for determination of apo B and apo A-I mass and apo B, apo A-I, apo C-III, and beta-actin mRNA abundance by slot blot hybridization. Compared with the MCT and LCPUT groups, the ICST group had higher total serum cholesterol, TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and apo A-I concentrations. There were no differences among the three groups for intestinal apolipoprotein mass or synthesis. In liver, apo A-I mass was highest in the ICST group. Liver apo A-I and apo C-III mRNA abundance was highest in the ICST group. Among all three groups, hepatic apo A-I mass correlated significantly with plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations, and serum TG concentrations correlated with hepatic apo C-III mRNA abundance. In conclusion, we found that in the newborn piglet, chronic feeding of ICST increases serum total cholesterol, TG, HDL-cholesterol, and apo A-I concentrations and hepatic expression of apo A-I and apo C-III mRNA, compared with feeding of MCT or LCPUT. We speculate that increased hepatic apo A-I expression may contribute to the higher serum HDL and apo A-I concentrations in the ICST animals. Increased hepatic expression of apo C-III with ICST feeding may contribute to the higher

  5. "It&apos;s All Shiny and There&apos;s No Pollution": "Barbapapa&apos;s Ark," Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The environmental picture book "Barbapapa&apos;s Ark" was published in 1974. I was keeping a parent-observer record of my two children at the time. The book had a strong influence on them from ages three to six, moving them to query pollution and hunting, in book and environment, and as adults, becoming committed activists for the…

  6. Towards a Sociocultural Understanding of Children&apos;s Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybin, Janet

    2013-01-01

    While "voice" is frequently invoked in discussions of pupils&apos; agency and empowerment, less attention has been paid to the dialogic dynamics of children&apos;s voices and the sociocultural features shaping their emergence. Drawing on linguistic ethnographic research involving recent recordings of 10- and 11-year-old children&apos;s…

  7. Using Computational Simulations to Confront Students&apos; Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, R.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show an example of how to use a computational simulation to obtain visual feedback for students&apos; mental models, and compare their predictions with the simulated system&apos;s behaviour. Additionally, we use the computational simulation to incrementally modify the students&apos; mental models in order to accommodate new data,…

  8. Asperger&apos;s in the Holmes Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes&apos; brother) is a formally described case of Asperger&apos;s syndrome a half century before Asperger&apos;s description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock.

  9. Interrogating Meanings of Work in Children&apos;s Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.; Bauer, Janell C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Wieland and Bauer discuss a teaching activity that helps students understand how meanings of work (MOW) are socially constructed through commonplace texts: children&apos;s books. The activity helps students consider how children&apos;s books shape future workers&apos; understandings of what work is, what kinds of work are most…

  10. Mencius&apos; Educational Philosophy and Its Contemporary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chun-chieh

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that Mencius&apos; education is "holistic education" that aims at igniting the "silent revolution" from within one&apos;s inner mind-heart to be unfolded in society, state, and the world. Mencius&apos; educational philosophy is based on his theory of human nature and his theory of self-cultivation. Mencius…

  11. The Not-so-Random Drunkard&apos;s Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, George

    2013-01-01

    This dataset contains the results of a quasi-experiment, testing Karl Pearson&apos;s "drunkard&apos;s walk" analogy for an abstract random walk. Inspired by the alternate hypothesis that drunkards stumble to the side of their dominant hand, it includes data on intoxicated test subjects walking a 10&apos; line. Variables include: the…

  12. The ApoE receptors Vldlr and Apoer2 in central nervous system function and disease.

    PubMed

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    The LDL receptor (LDLR) family has long been studied for its role in cholesterol transport and metabolism; however, the identification of ApoE4, an LDLR ligand, as a genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease has focused attention on the role this receptor family plays in the CNS. Surprisingly, it was discovered that two LDLR family members, ApoE receptor 2 (Apoer2) and VLDL receptor (Vldlr), play key roles in brain development and adult synaptic plasticity, primarily by mediating Reelin signaling. This review focuses on Apoer2 and Vldlr signaling in the CNS and its role in human disease. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Students&apos; Images of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee; Gourley-Delaney, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Students&apos; judgments about "what counts" as mathematics in and out of school have important consequences for problem solving and transfer, yet our understanding of the source and nature of these judgments remains incomplete. Thirty-five sixth grade students participated in a study focused on what activities students judge as…

  14. Quirks of Stirling&apos;s Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Roderick M.; Allgeier, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Stirling&apos;s approximation to ln "n"! is typically introduced to physical chemistry students as a step in the derivation of the statistical expression for the entropy. However, naive application of this approximation leads to incorrect conclusions. In this article, the problem is first illustrated using a familiar "toy…

  15. MFA Writers&apos; Relationships with Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olthouse, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, I explored how eight talented masters in fine arts (MFA) writers related to their craft. The phenomenon "relationship with writing" includes writers&apos; goals, values, identity, and emotions as these relate to writing. I found that that these MFA writers experience compatibilities and conflicts…

  16. "Math for America" Isn&apos;t

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of the Math for America organization&apos;s actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…

  17. Inquiry on Teachers&apos; Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, like other caring professions, is emotional. These emotions tend to emerge as teachers&apos; goals, standards, and beliefs transact with other classroom stakeholders during everyday school activities. As such, for teachers, the classroom context involves both the extreme happiness and joy from a lesson that goes as planned to the intense…

  18. What&apos;s in a Symbol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" explores the new adaptation of Newton&apos;s Second Law of Motion, "F = ma." In older physics and applied mathematics textbooks this expression appears as "P = mf." The author examines why "f" is now favored over "a" and why practitioners write "P = mf" rather than…

  19. America&apos;s Descent into Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes America&apos;s descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…

  20. My Brother&apos;s Keeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obama, Barack

    2014-01-01

    In a White House address, the president announced an initiative to reclaim young boys and men of color. The "My Brother&apos;s Keeper" initiative partners with businesses, foundations, and nonprofits to address disparities in education, justice, and employment. President Obama was introduced by Christian, one of a group of students from…

  1. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers&apos; Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers&apos; thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  2. Dewey or Don&apos;t We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergrass, Devona J.

    2013-01-01

    "Dewey or don&apos;t we?" is the question that hundreds, if not thousands, of school librarians across the country are currently asking themselves. Do they throw out what is old but trusted for new organizational systems, or do they continue using the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system and make changes and adjustments to the…

  3. Students&apos; Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students&apos; estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  4. Students&apos; Ratings of Teacher Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, T.; Harris, G.; Liu, X.; Aguirre-Munoz, Z.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we explore a novel approach for assessing the impact of a professional development programme on classroom practice of in-service middle school mathematics teachers. The particular focus of this study is the assessment of the impact on teachers&apos; employment of strategies used in the classroom to foster the mathematical habits of…

  5. Gutenberg&apos;s Effects on Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the effects on universities of Gutenberg&apos;s invention of printing. It considers four major effects: the gradual displacement of Latin as the language of scholarship with vernacular languages, the expansion and eventual opening of libraries, major changes to curriculum, and major changes to pedagogy including lectures.…

  6. Leucine supplementation via drinking water reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE null mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yang; Dai, Xiao-yan; Zhou, Zhou; Zhao, Ge-xin; Wang, Xian; Xu, Ming-jiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Recent evidence suggests that the essential amino acid leucine may be involved in systemic cholesterol metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of leucine supplementation on the development of atherosclerosis in apoE null mice. Methods: ApoE null mice were fed with chow supplemented with leucine (1.5% w/v) in drinking water for 8 week. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were examined using Oil Red O staining. Plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were measured with fast protein liquid chromatography. Hepatic gene expression was detected using real-time PCR and Western blot analyses. Results: Leucine supplementation resulted in 57.6% reduction of aortic atherosclerotic lesion area in apoE null mice, accompanied by 41.2% decrease of serum LDL-C levels and 40.2% increase of serum HDL-C levels. The body weight, food intake and blood glucose level were not affected by leucine supplementation. Furthermore, leucine supplementation increased the expression of Abcg5 and Abcg8 (that were involved in hepatic cholesterol efflux) by 1.28- and 0.86-fold, respectively, and significantly increased their protein levels. Leucine supplementation also increased the expression of Srebf1, Scd1 and Pgc1b (that were involved in hepatic triglyceride metabolism) by 3.73-, 1.35- and 1.71-fold, respectively. Consequently, leucine supplementation resulted in 51.77% reduction of liver cholesterol content and 2.2-fold increase of liver triglyceride content. Additionally, leucine supplementation did not affect the serum levels of IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12, but markedly decreased the serum level of MCP-1. Conclusion: Leucine supplementation effectively attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE null mice by improving the plasma lipid profile and reducing systemic inflammation. PMID:26687933

  7. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration.

  8. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration. PMID:26828652

  9. Using Video Analysis to Support Prospective K-8 Teachers&apos; Noticing of Students&apos; Multiple Mathematical Knowledge Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children&apos;s competencies related to children&apos;s mathematical thinking, and children&apos;s community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…

  10. Parents&apos; Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviours, and Skills Predict Children&apos;s Recognition of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others&apos; emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children&apos;s abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents&apos; own emotion-related beliefs,…

  11. Teacher Supervision and Evaluation: A Case Study of Administrators&apos; and Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Mini Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    This case study will investigate teachers&apos; and administrators&apos; perceptions of the relationship between mini observations and teacher performance to understand what effect, if any, a system of mini observations has on teacher performance, and if mini observations influences a teacher&apos;s pedagogical practice differently than a…

  12. Is ApoE ε4 Associated with Cognitive Functioning in African Americans Diagnosed with Alzheimer Disease? An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Mount, David L.; Ashley, Angela V.; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Goldstein, Felicia C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of the apolipoprotein ε4 allele (ApoE ε4) on cognitive performance in patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied in primarily Caucasian samples. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether the presence of ApoE ε4 is associated with cognitive performance in African American AD patients. Methods A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used to address the study objective. Data were extracted from the records of 65 African American patients who participated in the National Institutes of Health-National Institute on Aging (NIH-NIA) Emory University Alzheimer Disease Center Registry. Inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of probable AD, cognitive testing using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery, and ApoE genotyping. Results Seventy percent of the patients were ApoE ε4 positive. Multiple regression analyses indicated that ApoE ε4 was significantly associated with poorer design copying (CERAD Constructional Praxis subtest), but other significant relationships were not observed between positive ε4 status and cognitive performance. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that the ApoE ε4 allele is not strongly associated with a particular pattern of cognitive functioning in African Americans once they are diagnosed with AD. However, these findings require replication in a large prospectively recruited and population-based sample of African American AD patients before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:19668025

  13. The Impact of Teachers&apos; Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students&apos; Algebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Liza M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of teachers&apos; characteristics and self-reported practices on students&apos; Algebra achievement while controlling for students&apos; characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…

  14. "Yes, Master&apos;s": A Graduate Degree&apos;s Moment in the Age of Higher Education Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, enrollment in professional master&apos;s degree programs has grown substantially, and this category has outpaced the overall recent flattening of college enrollment. Today, 5 million more U.S. adults hold a master&apos;s degree compared with a decade ago, and in some circles the master&apos;s is being referred to as "the…

  15. Paradoxical effects of 137Cs irradiation on pharmacological stimulation of reactive oxygen species in hippocampal slices from apoE2 and apoE4 mice.

    PubMed

    Villasana, Laura E; Akinyeke, Tunde; Weber, Sydney; Raber, Jacob

    2017-09-29

    In humans, apoE, which plays a role in repair, is expressed in three isoforms: E2, E3, and E4. E4 is a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline (ACD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in women. In contrast, E2 is a protective factor for ACD and AD. E2 and E4 might also differ in their response to cranial 137 Cs irradiation, a form of radiation typically used in a clinical setting for the treatment of cancer. This might be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in an-apoE isoform-dependent fashion. E2 and E4 female mice received sham-irradiation or cranial irradiation at 8 weeks of age and a standard mouse chow or a diet supplemented with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) starting at 6 weeks of age. Behavioral and cognitive performance of the mice were assessed 12 weeks later. Subsequently, the generation of ROS in hippocampal slices was analyzed. Compared to sham-irradiated E4 mice, irradiated E4 mice showed enhanced spatial memory in the water maze. This was associated with increased hippocampal PMA-induction of ROS. Similar effects were not seen in E2 mice. Irradiation increased endogenous hippocampal ROS levels in E2 mice while decreasing those in E4 mice. NADPH activity and MnSOD levels were higher in sham-irradiated E2 than E4 mice. Irradiation increased NADPH activity and MnSOD levels in hemi brains of E4 mice but not in those of E2 mice. ALA did not affect behavioral and cognitive performance or hippocampal formation of ROS in either genotype. Thus, apoE isoforms modulate the radiation response.

  16. Hexim1 heterozygosity stabilizes atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis in ApoE null mice fed atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Dhar-Mascareno, Manya; Rozenberg, Inna; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Beckles, Daniel; Mascareno, Eduardo

    2017-02-01

    Hexim-1 is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase II transcription elongation. Decreased Hexim-1 expression in animal models of chronic diseases such as left ventricular hypertrophy, obesity and cancer triggered significant changes in adaptation and remodeling. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Hexim1 in lipid metabolism focused in the progression of atherosclerosis and steatosis. We used the C57BL6 apolipoprotein E (ApoE null) crossed bred to C57BL6Hexim1 heterozygous mice to obtain ApoE null - Hexim1 heterozygous mice (ApoE-HT). Both ApoE null backgrounds were fed high fat diet for twelve weeks. Then, we evaluated lipid metabolism, atherosclerotic plaque formation and liver steatosis. In order to understand changes in the transcriptome of both backgrounds during the progression of steatosis, we performed Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 microarray. After 12 weeks of HFD, ApoE null and ApoE-HT showed similar increase of cholesterol and triglycerides in plasma. Plaque composition was altered in ApoE-HT. Additionally, liver triglycerides and steatosis were decreased in ApoE-HT mice. Affymetrix analysis revealed that decreased steatosis might be due to impaired inducible SOCS3 expression in ApoE-HT mice. In conclusion, decreased Hexim-1 expression does not alter cholesterol metabolism in ApoE null background after HFD. However, it promotes stable atherosclerotic plaque and decreased steatosis by promoting the anti-inflammatory TGFβ pathway and blocking the expression of the inducible and pro-inflammatory expression of SOCS3 respectively. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves with Strong Sudden Cooling Weather on ApoE Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyu; Kuang, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Xiakun

    2015-05-26

    This study analyzes the mechanism of influence of heat waves with strong sudden cooling on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in ApoE-/- mice. The process of heat waves with strong sudden cooling was simulated with a TEM1880 meteorological-environment simulation chamber according to the data obtained at 5 a.m. of 19 June 2006 to 11 p.m. of 22 June 2006. Forty-eight ApoE-/- mice were divided into six blocks based on their weight. Two mice from each block were randomly assigned to control, heat wave, temperature drop, and rewarming temperature groups. The experimental groups were transferred into the climate simulator chamber for exposure to the simulated heat wave process with strong sudden temperature drop. After 55, 59, and 75 h of exposure, the experimental groups were successively removed from the chamber to monitor physiological indicators. Blood samples were collected by decollation, and the hearts were harvested in all groups. The levels of heat stress factors (HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, HIF-1α), cold stress factors (NE, EPI), vasoconstrictor factors (ANGII, ET-1, NO), and four items of blood lipid (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were measured in each ApoE-/- mouse. Results showed that the heat waves increased the levels of heat stress factors except SOD decreased, and decreased the levels of vasoconstrictor factors and blood lipid factors except TC increased. The strong sudden temperature drop in the heat wave process increased the levels of cold stress factors, vasoconstrictor factors and four blood lipid items (except the level of HDL-C which decreased) and decreased the levels of heat stress factors (except the level of SOD which increased). The analysis showed that heat waves could enhance atherosclerosis of ApoE-/- mice. The strong sudden temperature drop during the heat wave process increased the plasma concentrations of NE and ANGII, which indicates SNS activation, and resulted in increased blood pressure. NE and ANGII are vasoconstrictors involved in systemic

  18. A Nontoxic Barlow&apos;s Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daffron, John A.; Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Barlow&apos;s wheel has been a favorite demonstration since its invention by Peter Barlow (1776-1862) in 1822. In the form shown in Fig. 1, it represents the first electric motor. The interaction between the electric current passing from the axle of the wheel to the rim and the magnetic field produced by the U-magnet produces a torque that turns…

  19. Mothers&apos; Early Depressive Symptoms Predict Children&apos;s Low Social Competence in First Grade: Mediation by Children&apos;s Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yiji; Dix, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined whether social-cognitive processes in children mediate relations between mothers&apos; depressive symptoms across the first 3 years and children&apos;s first-grade social competence. Three maladaptive cognitions were examined: self-perceived social inadequacy, hostile attribution, and aggressive response generation.…

  20. How the Group Investigation Model and the Six-Mirror Model Changed Teachers&apos; Roles and Teachers&apos; and Students&apos; Attitudes towards Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damini, Marialuisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on research that demonstrates the positive effects of the cooperative learning model Group Investigation (GI) and the Six-Mirror model on teacher effectiveness in organizing and scaffolding CL activities, and changing students&apos; and teachers&apos; views of diversity. We explain how the connection between the two models…

  1. The Complexity of Thomas Jefferson. A Response to "&apos;The Diffusion of Light&apos;: Jefferson&apos;s Philosophy of Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, James

    2014-01-01

    This response argues that Jefferson&apos;s educational philosophy must be considered in a proper historical context. Holowchak accurately demonstrates both Jefferson&apos;s obsession with education and the political philosophy on which his educational beliefs are built. However, the effort to apply modern democratic and meritocratic attributes to…

  2. ApoE and Sex Bias in Cerebrovascular Aging of Men and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Caleb E.; Shams, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) research has mainly focused on neurodegenerative processes associated with the classic neuropathologic markers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Additionally, cerebrovascular contributions to dementia are increasingly recognized, particularly from cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Remarkably, in AD brains, the ApoE ε4 allele shows male excess for cerebral microbleeds (CMB), a marker of SVD, which is opposite to the female excess of plaques and tangles. Mouse transgenic models add further complexities to sex-ApoE ε4 allele interactions, with female excess of CMBs and brain amyloid. We conclude that brain aging and AD pathogenesis cannot be understood in humans without addressing major gaps in the extent of sex differences in cerebrovascular pathology. PMID:27546867

  3. Analysis of palmitoyl apo-astaxanthinals, apo-astaxanthinones, and their epoxides by UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Weesepoel, Yannick; Gruppen, Harry; de Bruijn, Wouter; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2014-10-22

    Food products enriched with fatty acid-esterified xanthophylls may result in deviating dietary apo-carotenoids. Therefore, free astaxanthin and its mono- and dipalmitate esters were subjected to two degradation processes in a methanolic model system: light-accelerated autoxidation and hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite (HOCl/OCl(-)) bleaching. Reversed phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography photodiode array with in-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) was used for assessment of degradation products. Apo-astaxanthinals and -astaxanthinones containing 3 (apo-9) to 10 (apo-8') conjugated double bonds were found upon autoxidation for all three types of astaxanthin (except free apo-8'-astaxanthinal). Fragmentation of [M + H](+) and [M + Na](+) parent masses of apo-astaxanthins from dipalmitate astaxanthin indicated palmitate esterification. Astaxanthin monopalmitate degradation resulted in a mixture of free and palmitate apo-astaxanthins. HOCl/OCl(-) rapidly converted the astaxanthins into a mixture of epoxy-apo-9- and epoxy-apo-13-astaxanthinones. The palmitate ester bond was hardly affected by autoxidation, whereas for HOCl/OCl(-) the ester bond of the apo-astaxanthin palmitoyl esters was degraded.

  4. Rate of atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice long after discontinuation of cola beverage drinking.

    PubMed

    Otero-Losada, Matilde; Cao, Gabriel; Mc Loughlin, Santiago; Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón; Ottaviano, Graciela; Milei, José

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of cola beverages drinking on atherosclerosisand test the hypothesis whether cola beverages consumption at early life stages might affect the development and progression of atherosclerosis later in life. ApoE-/- C57BL/6J mice (8 week-old) were randomized in 3 groups (n = 20 each) according to free accessto water (W), sucrose sweetened carbonated cola drink(C) or aspartame-acesulfame K sweetened carbonated 'light' cola drink (L)for the next 8 weeks. Drinking treatment was ended by switching C and L groups to drinking water. Four mice per group and time were sequentially euthanized: before treatment (8 weeks-old), at the end of treatment (16 weeks-old) and after treatment discontinuation (20 weeks-old, 24 weeks-old, 30 week-old mice). Aortic roots and livers were harvested, processed for histology and serial cross-sections were stained. Aortic plaque area was analyzed and plaque/media-ratio was calculated. Early consumption of cola drinks accelerated atherosclerotic plaque progression favoring the interaction between macrophages and myofibroblasts, without the participation of either T lymphocytes or proliferative activity. Plaque/media-ratio varied according to drink treatment (F2,54 = 3.433, p<0.04) and mice age (F4,54 = 5.009, p<0.03) and was higher in C and L groups compared with age-matched W group (p<0.05 at 16 weeks and 20 weeks, p<0.01 at 24 weeks and 30 weeks). Natural evolution of atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice (W group) evidenced atherosclerosis acceleration in parallel with a rapid increase in liver inflammation around the 20 weeks of age. Cola drinking within the 8-16 weeks of age accelerated atherosclerosis progression in ApoE-/- mice favoring aortic plaque enlargement (inward remodeling) over media thinning all over the study time. Data suggest that cola drinking at early life stages may predispose to atherosclerosis progression later in life in ApoE-/- mice.

  5. ApoE gene and exceptional longevity: Insights from three independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Emanuele, Enzo; Calero, Miguel; Fuku, Noriyuki; Arai, Yasumichi; Abe, Yukiko; Murakami, Haruka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Yvert, Thomas; Verde, Zoraida; Zea, Ma Ascensión; Venturini, Letizia; Santiago, Catalina; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Rábano, Alberto; Lucia, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    The ApoE gene is associated with the risk of Alzheimer or cardiovascular disease but its influence on exceptional longevity (EL) is uncertain. Our primary purpose was to determine, using a case-control design, if the ApoE gene is associated with EL. We compared ApoE allele/genotype frequencies among the following cohorts: cases (centenarians, most with 1+ major disease condition; n=163, 100-111years) and healthy controls (n=1039, 20-85years) from Spain; disease-free cases (centenarians; n=79, 100-104years) and healthy controls (n=597, age 27-81years) from Italy; and cases (centenarians and semi-supercentenarians, most with 1+ major disease condition; n=729, 100-116years) and healthy controls (n=498, 23-59years) from Japan. Our main findings were twofold. First, the ε4-allele was negatively associated with EL in the three cohorts, with the following odds ratio (OR) values (adjusted by sex) having been found: 0.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.94), P=0.030 (Spain); 0.41 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.99), P=0.05 (Italy); and 0.35 (95%CI: 0.26, 0.57), P<0.001 (Japan). Second, although no association was found in the Spanish cohort (OR=1.42 (95%CI: 0.89, 2.26), P=0.145), the ε2-allele was positively associated with EL in the Italian (OR=2.14 (95%CI: 1.18, 3.45), P=0.01) and Japanese subjects (OR=1.81 (95%CI: 1.25, 2.63), P=0.002). Notwithstanding the limitations of case-control designs, our data suggest that the ApoE might be a candidate to influence EL. The ε4-allele appears to decrease the likelihood of reaching EL among individuals of different ethnic/geographic origins. An additional, novel finding of our study was that the ε2-allele might favor EL, at least in the Italian and Japanese cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. EphA2 knockdown attenuates atherosclerotic lesion development in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong; Li, Xinyun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Liu, Yan; Huang, Shanying; Wang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells plays important roles in the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. EphA2 receptor activation promotes the endothelial cell inflammatory response, and its expression is increased in the endothelial cell layer of atherosclerotic plaques. However, the association between EphA2 and atherosclerosis has not been determined. Eight-week-old male ApoE(-/-) mice were systemically infected with adenoassociated virus serotype 9 carrying a small hairpin RNA specifically targeting the EphA2 gene to knock down EphA2 expression in aortic endothelial cells. These mice were then fed a high-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. Blood was collected for the measurement of plasma lipids. The aortas were harvested to evaluate the atherosclerotic lesion size, macrophage components, and expression of proinflammatory genes using Oil Red O staining, immunofluorescence staining, and molecular biology analysis. The lesions formed in the entire aorta and aortic sinus of the ApoE(-/-) mice with EphA2 knockdown were significantly smaller than those in the control mice (10.7%±3.1% versus 25.1%±4.2%; 0.51±0.02mm(2) versus 0.85±0.03mm(2); n=10; P<.05). Furthermore, the lesions in the ApoE(-/-) mice with EphA2 knockdown displayed reduced inflammation compared with the control mice, as reflected by the decreased macrophage infiltration (8.2%±2.9% versus 22.7%±4%; n=10; P<.05); decreased nuclear factor-κβ activation; and diminished expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (all P<.05). Our data demonstrate that the EphA2 receptor silencing attenuates the extent and inflammation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, EphA2 knockdown in endothelial cells represents a novel therapeutic strategy for patients with atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The isoform-specific pathological effects of apoE4 in vivo are prevented by a fish oil (DHA) diet and are modified by cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kariv-Inbal, Zehavit; Yacobson, Shiri; Berkecz, Robert; Peter, Maria; Janaky, Tamas; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M; Hartmann, Tobias; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies revealed that consumption of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA: 22 : 6 (ω3)), a major brain polyunsaturated fatty acid, is protective for AD and that elevated cholesterol levels are an AD risk factor. We presently investigated the extent to which the pathological effects of apoE4 in vivo can be prevented by consuming fish oil (DHA) or can be modified by cholesterol. Accordingly, apoE3- and apoE4-targeted replacement mice were subjected, following weaning, to a fish oil diet enriched in DHA and to a cholesterol-containing diet under regular and enriched environments. Cholesterol metabolism in the hippocampus and the corresponding phospholipid and fatty acid levels were affected by fish oil (DHA) and cholesterol diets and by environmental stimulation. Importantly, cholesterol metabolism and the fatty acid levels were not affected by apoE4. The phospholipid levels were, however, affected by apoE4. This effect was most pronounced in the cholesterol-fed mice and was abolished by the fish oil (DHA) diet. ApoE4 elevated hippocampal intraneuronal amyloid-β levels under regular conditions and lowered them following environmental stimulation, relative to those of the apoE3 mice. ApoE4 also elevated the levels of the presynaptic transporters Vglut and Vgat, and decreased behavioral performance in an object recognition test. Importantly, all of these apoE4 phenotypes were abolished by the fish oil (DHA) diet, whereas the cholesterol diet modified them. These findings suggest that a fish oil (DHA) diet could be used to attenuate the effects of apoE4 in AD.

  8. Apolipoprotein E genotyping in the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups in Malaysia-a study on the distribution of the different apoE alleles and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Seet, Wan Tai; Mary Anne, Tan Jin Ai; Yen, Tan Si

    2004-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is encoded by a polymorphic gene located on chromosome 19. The three common apoE alleles are epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4. We studied the frequencies of the apoE alleles and genotypes in the three ethnic groups-Malay, Chinese and Indian-in Malaysia using DNA amplification followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. EDTA blood was collected and DNA was extracted using proteinase K-SDS digestion and purified by phenol-chloroform extraction. The apoE gene sequence was amplified using the PCR and apoE genotyping was performed by restriction enzyme digestion with HhaI. Genotyping of the apoE gene produces six genotypes-E2/E2, E2/E3, E3/E3, E2/E4, E3/E4 and E4/E4. The most common apoE genotype in the Malays, Chinese and Indians studied was E3/E3, thus the most common apoE allele was epsilon3. The three common apoE genotypes were E3/E3 followed by E3/E4 and E2/E3, except in the Indians where E2/E3 was not detected. The three apoE alleles were confirmed in the Malays, Chinese and Indians except for the epsilon2 allele which was absent in the Indians. The combined frequency of the apoE alleles in the Malays, Chinese and Indians was 0.058, 0.829 and 0.114 for epsilon2, epsilon3 and epsilon4, respectively.

  9. Teachers&apos; Spatial Anxiety Relates to 1st-and 2nd-Graders&apos; Spatial Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A.; Ramirez, Gerardo; Beilock, Sian L.; Levine, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers&apos; anxiety about an academic domain, such as math, can impact students&apos; learning in that domain. We asked whether this relation held in the domain of spatial skill, given the importance of spatial skill for success in math and science and its malleability at a young age. We measured 1st-and 2nd-grade teachers&apos; spatial anxiety…

  10. Ovariectomy modify local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system gene expressions in the heart of ApoE (-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Borges, Celina Carvalho; Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Medeiros Junior, Jorge L; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2017-12-15

    The evaluation of the local Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS) gene expressions in the heart of ovariectomized (OVX) apolipoprotein E deficient mice (ApoE). Four-months old C57BL/6 female mice (wild-type, wt, n=20), and ApoE female mice (n=20), were submitted to OVX or a surgical procedure without ovary removal (SHAM) and formed four groups (n=10/group): SHAM/wt, SHAM/ApoE, OVX/wt, and OVX/ApoE. OVX led to greater body mass, plasma triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol, and resulted in insulin resistance and altered RAAS gene expressions in the heart tissue. The gene expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 was lower in OVX/wt than in SHAM/wt (P=0.0004), Mas receptor (MASr) was lower in OVX/wt compared to SHAM/wt (P<0.0001). Also, angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1r) was higher in OVX/wt than in SHAM/wt (P=0.0229), and AT2r was lower in OVX/wt than in SHAM/wt (P=0.0121). OVX and ApoE deficiency showed interaction potentializing the insulin resistance, increasing TG levels and altering ACE and MASr gene expressions. ACE gene expression was higher in OVX/ApoE than in OVX/wt (P<0.0001), and MASr gene expression was lower in OVX/ApoE than in OVX/wt (P<0.0001). The impact of OVX on local RAAS cascade in the heart of ApoE deficient animals, besides the metabolic changes culminating with insulin resistance, involves an upregulation of renin, ACE, and AT1r gene expressions. The findings may contribute to clarify the mechanisms of development of postmenopausal hypertension and the link between RAAS and apolipoprotein E. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. But I&apos;m Married: Understanding Relationship Status and College Students&apos; Sexual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Wyatt, Tammy J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health programs on college campuses are often directed toward single individuals with a focus on sexual risk. Using a sample of college students, this study examines how relationship status relates to sexual behaviors and may be a factor for sexual risk. Based on the study&apos;s results, expansion of sexual health programming on college…

  12. Understanding Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Student Support Systems in Relation to Teachers&apos; Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Annahita; Anderson-Butcher, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Expanded school mental health (ESMH) programs are critical for addressing children&apos;s social and emotional development in schools. As broad, multisystem approaches, ESMH programs rely on teachers for effective and sustainable primary, secondary, and tertiary school mental health service delivery. In light of the increasing mental health needs…

  13. Students&apos; Perceptions of Teachers: Implications for Classroom Practices for Supporting Students&apos; Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guess, Pamela; Bowling, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Positive psychology represents a conceptual framework that emphasizes the need to capitalize on individuals&apos; strengths in order to facilitate optimal functioning. As applied to the educational setting, these concepts have primarily been investigated via teaching life skills to students that encourage overall wellness. School-based strategies…

  14. Researching Teachers&apos; and Parents&apos; Perceptions of Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tveit, Anne Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    While there has been a great deal of research done on parent involvement and the challenges of conducting effective dialogue in parent-teacher meetings, less attention has been paid to how teachers and parents themselves perceive dialogue. The purpose of the present article is to study whether deliberative principles are vital to teachers&apos;…

  15. ApoE polymorphisms and diarrheal outcomes in Brazilian shanty town children

    PubMed Central

    Oriá, R.B.; Patrick, P.D.; Oriá, M.O.B.; Lorntz, B.; Thompson, M.R.; Azevedo, O.G.R.; Lobo, R.N.B.; Pinkerton, R.F.; Guerrant, R.L.; Lima, A.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that the heavy burdens of diarrheal diseases in the first 2 formative years of life in children living in urban shanty towns have negative effects on physical and cognitive development lasting into later childhood. We have shown that APOE4 is relatively common in shanty town children living in Brazil (13.4%) and suggest that APOE4 has a protective role in cognitive development as well as weight-for-height in children with heavy burdens of diarrhea in early childhood (64/123; 52%), despite being a marker for cognitive decline with Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular diseases later in life. APOE2 frequency was higher among children with heaviest diarrhea burdens during the first 2 years of life, as detected by PCR using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method, raising the possibility that ApoE-cholesterol balance might be critical for growth and cognitive development under the stress of heavy diarrhea burdens and when an enriched fat diet is insufficient. These findings provide a potential explanation for the survival advantage in evolution of genes, which might raise cholesterol levels during heavy stress of diarrhea burdens and malnutrition early in life. PMID:20401432

  16. Investigating Elementary Teachers&apos; Thinking about and Learning to Notice Students&apos; Science Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Melissa Jo

    2013-01-01

    Children naturally use observations and everyday thinking to construct explanations as to why phenomena happen in the world. Science instruction can benefit by starting with these ideas to help children build coherent scientific understandings of how the physical world works. To do so, science teaching must involve attending to students&apos;…

  17. A Journey to Find What&apos;s Working in America&apos;s Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a description of the birth of The Odyssey Initiative. As teachers, this group of three, all educators, knew that there was outrage about the state of education in America. Griping about our nation&apos;s schools has almost become a pastime, and with very good reason. However, they found the solutions being offered to save our…

  18. Participants&apos; Experiences in Hellinger&apos;s Family Constellation Work: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadou, Sofia

    2012-01-01

    As a recently introduced to the U.S. model of intergenerational systemic therapy from Germany, Bert Hellinger&apos;s Family Constellation Work (FCW) has very limited research support. Hellinger himself has authored a number of publications referencing hundreds of cases, where he implemented his method to approach a broad array of physical,…

  19. Characterization and expression of amphioxus ApoD gene encoding an archetype of vertebrate ApoD proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Yongjun; Jiang, Shengjuan

    2007-01-01

    Here we report a homologue of the apolipoprotein D gene (AmphiApoD) in amphioxus, Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense, the first such finding in a basal chordate cephalochordate. The main features of the protein predicted from AmphiApoD are characteristic of the apolipoprotein D. Phylogenetic analysis places AmphiApoD at the base of the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that AmphiApoD is the archetype of the vertebrate ApoD genes. Both whole mount in situ hybridization and Northern blotting and RT-PCR as well as in situ hybridization histochemistry reveal that AmphiApoD is expressed in tissues derived from mesoderm and endoderm including notochord and hind-gut, which contrasts with the strong expression patterns of ApoD genes in the ectodermal derivatives in mammals and birds. The expression profiles of the ApoD gene may have been changed to be expressed in the endo-mesodermal derivatives in amphioxus after the vertebrate and cephalochordate lineages diverged; alternatively, the ApoD gene may first have been expressed in the endo-mesoderm during embryogenesis in the last common ancestor of all chordates, and subsequently came to be expressed in the ectodermal derivatives of vertebrates including mammals and birds.

  20. An Analysis of Information Technology Managers&apos; and Executives&apos; Security Concerns on Willingness to Adopt Cloud Computing Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanque, Marcus M.

    2012-01-01

    The research conducted in this study inquires about Information Technology (IT) managers&apos; and executives&apos; attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge on Cloud Computing (CC) security. The study evaluated how these factors affect IT managers&apos; and executives&apos; willingness to adopt CC solutions in their organizations. Confidentiality,…

  1. Student Socioeconomic Status and Gender: Impacts on School Counselors&apos; Ratings of Student Personal Characteristics and School Counselors&apos; Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glance, Dorea E.

    2012-01-01

    This research focused on how students&apos; socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors&apos; ratings of student personal characteristics and school counselor self-efficacy. While previous literature focuses on how students&apos; socioeconomic status and gender impact school counselors&apos; ratings of academic characteristics such as…

  2. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D.; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A.; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R.; Lahiri, Debomoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long

  3. Daidzein Augments Cholesterol Homeostasis via ApoE to Promote Functional Recovery in Chronic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Woo, Moon-Sook; Qin, Luye; Ma, Thong; Beltran, Cesar D; Bao, Yi; Bailey, Jason A; Corbett, Dale; Ratan, Rajiv R; Lahiri, Debomoy K; Cho, Sunghee

    2015-11-11

    Stroke is the world's leading cause of physiological disability, but there are currently no available agents that can be delivered early after stroke to enhance recovery. Daidzein, a soy isoflavone, is a clinically approved agent that has a neuroprotective effect in vitro, and it promotes axon growth in an animal model of optic nerve crush. The current study investigates the efficacy of daidzein on neuroprotection and functional recovery in a clinically relevant mouse model of stroke recovery. In light of the fact that cholesterols are essential lipid substrates in injury-induced synaptic remodeling, we found that daidzein enhanced the cholesterol homeostasis genetic program, including Lxr and downstream transporters, Apoe, Abca1, and Abcg1 genes in vitro. Daidzein also elevated the cholesterol homeostasis genes in the poststroke brain with Apoe, the highest expressing transporter, but did not affect infarct volume or hemispheric swelling. Despite the absence of neuroprotection, daidzein improved motor/gait function in chronic stroke and elevated synaptophysin expression. However, the daidzein-enhanced functional benefits and synaptophysin expression were abolished in Apoe-knock-out mice, suggesting the importance of daidzein-induced ApoE upregulation in fostering stroke recovery. Dissociation between daidzein-induced functional benefits and the absence of neuroprotection further suggest the presence of nonoverlapping mechanisms underlying recovery processes versus acute pathology. With its known safety in humans, early and chronic use of daidzein aimed at augmenting ApoE may serve as a novel, translatable strategy to promote functional recovery in stroke patients without adverse acute effect. There have been recurring translational failures in treatment strategies for stroke. One underlying issue is the disparity in outcome analysis between animal and clinical studies. The former mainly depends on acute infarct size, whereas long-term functional recovery is an

  4. Effect of exercise and menstrual cycle status on plasma lipids, low density lipoprotein particle size, and apolipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Lamon-Fava, S; Fisher, E C; Nelson, M E; Evans, W J; Millar, J S; Ordovas, J M; Schaefer, E J

    1989-01-01

    Habitual physical exercise has been reported to have beneficial effects on plasma lipoproteins. To examine this question in women, plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and B levels, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size were determined in 25 women runners (9 of whom had exercise-related secondary amenorrhea) and 36 age-matched nonexercising women (controls). The eumenorrheic runners had significantly lower apo B levels and significantly greater mean apo A-I/apo B ratios and LDL particle sizes than did the control women (P less than 0.05). Lower apo B levels were correlated with decreased body mass index, a known exercise effect (P less than 0.0001). In addition, normally menstruating runners had cholesterol and triglyceride levels that were 7.6% and 25.4% lower, respectively, and apo A-I levels that were 6.4% higher than control women (P = NS). In amenorrheic runners all parameters were similar to values in control women, except that apo B levels were 20% lower (P less than 0.05). Amenorrheic runners had lower plasma apo A-I levels (13%) and significantly lower apo A-I/apo B ratios and estradiol levels than eumenorrheic runners, and serum estradiol values in the runners were correlated with apo A-I levels (P less than 0.01). These data indicate that the beneficial effects of strenuous exercise on plasma apo A-I levels and apo A-I/apo B ratios in women runners can be reversed by exercise-induced amenorrhea and decreased serum estradiol levels, and that women runners have lower apo B levels than nonexercising women, regardless of menstrual status.

  5. PCSK9 inhibition fails to alter hepatic LDLR, circulating cholesterol, and atherosclerosis in the absence of ApoE.

    PubMed

    Ason, Brandon; van der Hoorn, José W A; Chan, Joyce; Lee, Edward; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Nguyen, Kathy Khanh; Di, Mei; Shetterly, Susan; Tang, Jie; Yeh, Wen-Chen; Schwarz, Margrit; Jukema, J Wouter; Scott, Rob; Wasserman, Scott M; Princen, Hans M G; Jackson, Simon

    2014-11-01

    LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) contributes to coronary heart disease. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) increases LDL-C by inhibiting LDL-C clearance. The therapeutic potential for PCSK9 inhibitors is highlighted by the fact that PCSK9 loss-of-function carriers exhibit 15-30% lower circulating LDL-C and a disproportionately lower risk (47-88%) of experiencing a cardiovascular event. Here, we utilized pcsk9(-/-) mice and an anti-PCSK9 antibody to study the role of the LDL receptor (LDLR) and ApoE in PCSK9-mediated regulation of plasma cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesion development. We found that circulating cholesterol and atherosclerotic lesions were minimally modified in pcsk9(-/-) mice on either an LDLR- or ApoE-deficient background. Acute administration of an anti-PCSK9 antibody did not reduce circulating cholesterol in an ApoE-deficient background, but did reduce circulating cholesterol (-45%) and TGs (-36%) in APOE*3Leiden.cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mice, which contain mouse ApoE, human mutant APOE3*Leiden, and a functional LDLR. Chronic anti-PCSK9 antibody treatment in APOE*3Leiden.CETP mice resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion area (-91%) and reduced lesion complexity. Taken together, these results indicate that both LDLR and ApoE are required for PCSK9 inhibitor-mediated reductions in atherosclerosis, as both are needed to increase hepatic LDLR expression. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Students&apos; Conceptions as Dynamically Emergent Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David E.

    2014-01-01

    There is wide consensus that learning in science must be considered a process of conceptual change rather than simply information accrual. There are three perspectives on students&apos; conceptions and conceptual change in science that have significant presence in the science education literature: students&apos; ideas as misconceptions, as…

  7. Student Disengagement: It&apos;s Deeper than You Think

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washor, Elliot; Mojkowski, Charles

    2014-01-01

    American schools are failing to meet the expectations of a wide swath of students, many of them in low-income and rural communities. What&apos;s needed is a new pact putting their expectations at its center. The article is based on the authors&apos; book: "Leaving to Learn: How Out-of-School Learning Increases Student Engagement and Reduces…

  8. Responding to Students&apos; Learning Preferences in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a teacher&apos;s and his students&apos; responsiveness to a new tetrahedral-oriented (Mahaffy in "J Chem Educ" 83(1):49-55, 2006) curriculum requiring more discursive classroom practices in the teaching of chemistry. In this instrumental case study, we identify the intentions of this learner-centered curriculum and…

  9. School Life and Adolescents&apos; Self-Esteem Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maïano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Janosz, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates heterogeneity in adolescents&apos; trajectories of global self-esteem (GSE) and the relations between these trajectories and facets of the interpersonal, organizational, and instructional components of students&apos; school life. Methodologically, this study illustrates the use of growth mixture analyses, and how to obtain…

  10. Educators&apos; Social and Emotional Skills Vital to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Bouffard, Suzanne M.; Weissbourd, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Teachers&apos; social and emotional competencies are very important to their overall effectiveness, but such skills are frequently overlooked. Social and emotional competencies like managing emotions and stress are needed more today than ever before. More practices and policies to support and foster educators&apos; social and emotional…

  11. NOAA&apos;s Education Program: Review and Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrington, John W., Ed.; Feder, Michael A., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    There is a national need to educate the public about the ocean, coastal resources, atmosphere and climate. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the agency responsible for understanding and predicting changes in the Earth&apos;s environment and conserving and managing coastal and marine resources to meet the nation&apos;s…

  12. Professional Learning Communities: Teachers&apos; Perceptions and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Professional Learning Communities (PLC&apos;s) are designed to help schools improve student achievement; all decisions are based on the needs of students. PLC&apos;s are an effective way to receive professional development (PD), allow for collaboration with fellow teachers, and offer timely intervention to all students. In a district known for PLC…

  13. Trends in Exiting Physics Master&apos;s. Focus On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Patrick J.; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    A physics master&apos;s degree provides the recipient with a variety of career options. Some master&apos;s recipients will continue their education at the graduate level in physics or another field, where others enter the workforce pursuing a wide range of employment opportunities. This "Focus On" provides an in-depth analysis of physics…

  14. Small Talk: Children&apos;s Everyday "Molecule" Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakab, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on 6-11-year-old children&apos;s "sayings and doings" (Harré 2002) as they explore molecule artefacts in dialectical-interactive teaching interviews (Fleer, "Cultural Studies of Science Education" 3:781-786, 2008; Hedegaard et al. 2008). This sociocultural study was designed to explore children&apos;s…

  15. Guattari&apos;s Ecosophy and Implications for Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Guattari&apos;s ecosophy has implications for many types of pedagogy practiced in the school. While Guattari never explicitly advocated the educational use of ecosophy, I explore in this article how it can be used as a lens to "read" pedagogy in nuanced ways, highlighting oppressive premises and practices. I first discuss Guattari&apos;s…

  16. Modality and Children&apos;s Scope Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chin-Ting Jimbo; Lee, Hsiu-Fen Hélène

    2014-01-01

    This study intends to shed light on the inconclusive argument pertaining to children&apos;s acquisition of logical form (LF) operation. Specifically, we examined children&apos;s interpretations of sentences with the ambiguous modal verb "yinggai" "should," like "Xiaohua yinggai shangchuang shuijiao le", whose meanings…

  17. Climate Change in the Preservice Teacher&apos;s Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Julie L.; Bleicher, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Given the recent media attention on the public&apos;s shift in opinion toward being more skeptical about climate change, 154 preservice teachers&apos; participated in an intervention in an elementary science methods course. Findings indicated that students developed a deeper level of concern about climate change. Their perceptions on the evidence…

  18. Meet AAPT&apos;s New President, Steve Iona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    I first met Steve Iona 40 years ago at a Denver Area Physics Teachers meeting. Steve had recently completed bachelor&apos;s and master&apos;s degrees in mathematics from the University of Chicago. Being a Colorado native, he was interested in returning to Colorado to teach. Steve had some rather high-powered recommendations, including one from a…

  19. Children&apos;s Eye Movements in Reading: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayner, Keith; Ardoin, Scott P.; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    are discussed. Specifically, the following topics are addressed: (1) basic methodological issues, (2) prior research findings on children&apos;s reading, (3) research that is missing in the literature regarding children&apos;s eye movements during reading, (4) applied…

  20. Modern Analogue of Ohm&apos;s Historical Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, V. V.; Varaksina, E. I.

    2014-01-01

    Students receive a more complete conception of scientific cognition methods if they reproduce fundamentally important historical investigations on their own. Ohm&apos;s investigation realized in 1826 is one of these. This paper presents a simple and accessible experimental unit, in which Ohm&apos;s ideas are implemented with the help of modern…

  1. School Leaders&apos; Guide to Elementary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis-Bey, Linda

    2013-01-01

    High achievement in mathematics is a critical part of the portfolios of students seeking admission to the best high schools and colleges; it is essential to a school&apos;s success at district, state, and national levels and to America&apos;s future as a global competitor. Elementary school leaders need to provide their students with a balanced,…

  2. Understanding Gauss&apos;s Law Using Spreadsheets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, William H.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the results from the electrostatics portion of introductory physics are particularly difficult for students to understand and/or believe. For students who have yet to take vector calculus, Gauss&apos;s law is far from obvious and may seem more difficult than Coulomb&apos;s. When these same students are told that the minimum potential…

  3. Supervisor&apos;s Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John; McCaw, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The Supervisor&apos;s Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships (SIMOR) integrates two models addressed in the leadership literature and then highlights the importance of relationships. The Supervisor&apos;s Interactive Model of Organizational Relationships combines the modified Hersey and Blanchard model of situational leadership, the…

  4. Infants&apos; Preferential Attention to Sung and Spoken Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Ilari, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Caregivers and early childhood teachers all over the world use singing and speech to elicit and maintain infants&apos; attention. Research comparing infants&apos; preferential attention to music and speech is inconclusive regarding their responses to these two types of auditory stimuli, with one study showing a music bias and another one…

  5. Building Motherhood in the Young Mothers&apos; Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonic, Barbara; Poljanec, Andreja

    2014-01-01

    The primary relationship undermines how a newborn will develop. The first three years of a child&apos;s life in particular are fundamental for the development of the child&apos;s brain. This is when the "social brain" develops and grows in response to the spontaneous relationships experienced within the environment and when an…

  6. Main Factors of Teachers&apos; Professional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to reveal the main factors of teachers&apos; professional well being. Theoretically constructed model was tested on large scale data belong to 72.190 teachers working at lower secondary level. Theoretical model included teachers&apos; individual, professional and organizational characteristics. Professional well-being…

  7. Educators&apos; Perception of Administrative Leadership throughout School Restructuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, LeJuan

    2012-01-01

    Leaders in schools today have a crucial responsibility to employ school reform and restructure initiatives for the betterment of the student. This study sought educators&apos; perceptions of administrative leadership throughout school restructuring. The survey design assisted in connecting educators, levels of administrator&apos;s leadership, and…

  8. Negative Integer Understanding: Characterizing First Graders&apos; Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofferding, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article presents results of a research study. Sixty-one first graders&apos; responses to interview questions about negative integer values and order and directed magnitudes were examined to characterize the students&apos; mental models. The models reveal that initially, students overrelied on various combinations of whole-number principles as…

  9. CTE&apos;s Role in Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha; Imperatore, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Education in the United States is facing a crisis of completion and performance, both at the secondary and postsecondary levels, with high dropout rates and a significant number of students ill-prepared for further education and careers. These problems are even more acute in America&apos;s urban schools. Today&apos;s CTE is on the cutting edge of…

  10. Students&apos; Opinions on Facebook Supported Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdem, Mukaddes; Kibar, Pinar Nuhoglu

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine students&apos; opinions on blended learning and its implementation. The other purpose was to explore the students&apos; opinions on Facebook integration into blended learning environment. The participants of this study were 40 undergraduate students in their fourth semester of the program.…

  11. Investigating Young Children&apos;s Learning of Mass Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea; Ferguson, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports results of a design experiment regarding young children&apos;s concepts of mass measurement. The research built on an earlier study in which a framework of "growth points" in early mathematics learning and a related, task-based, one-to-one interview to assess children&apos;s understanding of the measurement of mass…

  12. Adopting Frank Warren&apos;s PostSecret Art Project to Illustrate the Role of Secrets in Interpersonal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxman, Christina G.

    2013-01-01

    The exploration of secrets summons the adage that &apos;&apos;what someone doesn&apos;t know won&apos;t hurt them.&apos;&apos; While this phrase implies that keeping secrets can be advantageous, it also foreshadows another consideration: secrets have the propensity to hurt others (Caughlin, Scott, Miller, & Hefner, 2009). Despite this, the act…

  13. Tofacitinib ameliorates atherosclerosis and reduces foam cell formation in apoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zaicun; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zunzhe; Yun, Tiantian; Wang, Chenchen; Wang, Huating

    2017-08-19

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory cardiovascular disease with high mortality worldwide. Tofacitinib (CP-690,550), an oral small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis. However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Tofacitinib on atherogenic diet (ATD)-induced atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis-prone apoE-/- mice were fed with ATD and treated with or without Tofacitinib through intragastrical administration (10 mg kg -1 day -1 ) for 8 weeks. Our results showed that Tofacitinib did not change plasma lipids, while significantly reduced the levels of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. It also significantly attenuated atherosclerotic plaque lesion in the aortic root and macrophages contained in plaque as shown with Mac2 immuno-staining. Peritoneal macrophages (PMC) were separated from apoE-/- mice fed with 8-week ATD, and then subjected to inflammation tests. Flow cytometry analysis of F4/80 and CD206 and mRNA levels of M1 and M2 macrophages markers showed that M1 macrophages decreased while M2 macrophages increased in Tofacitinib treated group. Expressions of other inflammatory genes also indicated an anti-inflammatory status in mice treated with Tofacitinib. Ox-LDL was used to induce foam cell formation from PMC in wild type mice, and the results displayed a reduced formation of foam cells and decreased inflammation in mice with Tofacitinib administration (1 μM). The mRNA and protein levels of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), a key gene involved in cholesterol efflux, remarkably increased, while it was absence of alterations in scavenger receptors expression. Therefore, we demonstrated that Tofacitinib could attenuate atherosclerosis and foam cells formation by

  14. Attending to Others&apos; Posts in Asynchronous Discussions: Learners&apos; Online "Listening" and Its Relationship to Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Alyssa Friend; Hausknecht, Simone Nicole; Zhao, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical models of collaborative learning through online discussions presuppose that students generally attend to others&apos; posts. However, a succession of studies over the last decade has shown this assumption to be unwarranted. Instead, research indicates that learners attend to others&apos; posts in diverse and particular ways--an…

  15. Alzheimer risk genes modulate the relationship between plasma apoE and cortical PiB binding

    DOE PAGES

    Lazaris, Andreas; Hwang, Kristy S.; Goukasian, Naira; ...

    2015-10-15

    Objective: We investigated the association between apoE protein plasma levels and brain amyloidosis and the effect of the top 10 Alzheimer disease (AD) risk genes on this association. Methods: Our dataset consisted of 18 AD, 52 mild cognitive impairment, and 3 cognitively normal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 (ADNI1) participants with available [ 11C]-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and peripheral blood protein data. We used cortical pattern matching to study associations between plasma apoE and cortical PiB binding and the effect of carrier status for the top 10 AD risk genes. Results: Low plasma apoE was significantly associated with high PiBmore » SUVR, except in the sensorimotor and entorhinal cortex. For BIN1 rs744373, the association was observed only in minor allele carriers. For CD2AP rs9349407 and CR1 rs3818361, the association was preserved only in minor allele noncarriers. We did not find evidence for modulation by CLU, PICALM, ABCA7, BIN1, and MS4A6A. Conclusions: Our data show that BIN1 rs744373, CD2AP rs9349407, and CR1 rs3818361 genotypes modulate the association between apoE protein plasma levels and brain amyloidosis, implying a potential epigenetic/downstream interaction.« less

  16. Let&apos;s Peel the Onion Together: An Application of Schein&apos;s Model of Organizational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Gamze

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges for undergraduate students is to comprehend abstract and theoretical concepts in communication classes. Given today&apos;s college students&apos; expectations for in-class interaction (Rocca, 2010), it is important that instructors integrate hands-on activities in their lesson plans while teaching theoretical concepts.…

  17. Beyond Judgment Bias: How Students&apos; Ethnicity and Academic Profile Consistency Influence Teachers&apos; Tracking Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glock, Sabine; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Klapproth, Florian; Böhmer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Research on school tracking has provided evidence that students with immigrant backgrounds are overrepresented in the lower school tracks. As teachers are the main decision makers when it comes to tracking, we investigated whether teachers&apos; tracking judgments are biased by the immigrant backgrounds of the students and how teachers&apos;…

  18. [Effect of Jinlida on DGAT1 in Skeletal Muscle in Fat-Induced Insulin Resistance ApoE -/- Mice].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xin; Zhang, Hui-xin; Cui, Wen-wen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effect of Jinlida on DGAT1 in skeletal muscle in fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE-/- mice. Eight male C57BL/6J mice were used as normal group. 40 male ApoE -/- mice were fed high-fat diet for 16 weeks and divided into five groups: control group, rosiglitazone group, and Jinlida low, middle and high dose groups. Then corresponding drugs were administrated intragastrically for eight weeks. TG content in skeletal muscle was measured by enzymic enzymatic, Glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to evaluate the degree of insulin resistance in mice. The mRNA and protein expression of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) in skeletal muscle were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR)and Western blot. Jinlida particles reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA)and fasting insulin (FIns) levels, raised insulin sensitive index (ISI), improved glucose tolerance, and reduced skeletal muscle lipid deposition in ApoE -/- mice significantly. Jinlida particles increased the expression of IRS-1 mRNA and protein, and reduced DGAT1. Jinlida can alleviate the expression of DGAT in skeletal muscle in fat-induced insulin resistance ApoE-/- mice.

  19. How Much Are Harry Potter&apos;s Glasses Worth? Children&apos;s Monetary Evaluation of Authentic Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Frazier, Brandy N.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Adults attach special value to objects that link to notable people or events--authentic objects. We examined children&apos;s monetary evaluation of authentic objects, focusing on four kinds: celebrity possessions (e.g., Harry Potter&apos;s glasses), original creations (e.g., the very first teddy bear), personal possessions (e.g., your…

  20. Using Productive Disposition to Differentiate between Students&apos; Level of Precision When Critiquing a Peer&apos;s Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the productive disposition of pre-algebra students who demonstrated similar knowledge of the focal content but varied in other academic behaviors expected in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM). Specifically, the study considered students&apos; attention to precision when critiquing a peer&apos;s work. The…

  1. Campus Leadership&apos;s Influence in Implementing a Community College&apos;s Sustainability Goals: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    The case study documented one large, multicampus community college&apos;s progress in implementing sustainability goals outlined in the American College and University Presidents&apos; Climate Commitment (ACUPCC). The case study examined the role of branch-campus presidents and the college president in institutionalizing sustainability. Responses…

  2. Teachers&apos; and Students&apos; Perceptions Regarding Technology-Assisted Instruction in 10th-Grade Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Martha Jean Ware

    2012-01-01

    Tenth grade students in a high school in the southern United States were not meeting minimum mathematics competencies. Educators, families, and students needed more information on ways to enhance mathematics understanding and performance. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine students&apos; and teachers&apos; perceptions…

  3. Children&apos;s Understandings of Characters&apos; Beliefs in Persuasive Arguments: Links with Gender and Theory of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodziejczyk, Anna M.; Bosacki, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of gender plays in the relation between children&apos;s theory of mind (ToM) and persuasion. We explored children&apos;s use of the belief information of the characters involved within a persuasive situation. In two studies, children (four- to eight-year-olds) performed a comic strip task that described a…

  4. Feedback Consistencies and Inconsistencies: Eight Mentors&apos; Observations on One Preservice Teacher&apos;s Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mentors play a key role in developing preservice teachers for their chosen careers, and providing feedback appears as a significant relational interaction between the mentor and mentee that assists in guiding the mentee&apos;s practices. But what are mentors&apos; perspectives on providing feedback to their mentees? In this case study, eight…

  5. Meek and Mild: American Children&apos;s Bibles&apos; Stories of Jesus as a Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Russell W.

    2014-01-01

    The four canonical gospels provide readers with few details of the life of Jesus as a boy. Many authors of children&apos;s bibles in America, however, have been happy to fill in some of the details. This article suggests that these retellings regularly create or adapt stories of Jesus&apos; childhood to teach children virtues that serve to affirm…

  6. Effortful Control Moderates Bidirectional Effects between Children&apos;s Externalizing Behavior and Their Mothers&apos; Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Daniel E.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers&apos; depressive symptoms and children&apos;s externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via…

  7. Productive Resources in Students&apos; Ideas about Energy: An Alternative Analysis of Watts&apos; Original Interview Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students&apos; ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper "Some alternative views of energy" ["Phys. Educ." 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts&apos; "alternative frameworks"…

  8. Family Background, Students&apos; Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students&apos; Career and Life Success Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students&apos; academic self-efficacy and the impact of students&apos; self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  9. Investigating Elementary Principals&apos; Science Beliefs and Knowledge and Its Relationship to Students&apos; Science Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Uzma Zafar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this quantitative study was to investigate elementary principals&apos; beliefs about reformed science teaching and learning, science subject matter knowledge, and how these factors relate to fourth grade students&apos; superior science outcomes. Online survey methodology was used for data collection and included a demographic…

  10. Can&apos;t Get No (Dis)satisfaction: The "Statecraft" Simulation&apos;s Effect on Student Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Simulations are often employed as content-teaching tools in political science, but their effect on students&apos; reasoning skills is rarely assessed. This article explores what effect the "Statecraft" simulation might have on undergraduate students&apos; perceptions of their decision making. Decisions are often evaluated on the basis of…

  11. Do Students&apos; Topic Interest and Tutors&apos; Instructional Style Matter in Problem-Based Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijnia, Lisette; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Derous, Eva; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies investigated the importance of initial topic interest (i.e., expectation of interest) and tutors&apos; autonomy-supportive or controlling instructional styles for students&apos; motivation and performance in problem-based learning (PBL). In Study 1 (N = 93, a lab experiment), each student participated in a simulated group discussion in…

  12. Teachers&apos; Implementation of the Coaching Role: Do Teachers&apos; Ownership, Sensemaking, and Agency Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketelaar, Evelien; Beijaard, Douwe; Brok, Perry J.; Boshuizen, Henny P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether teachers&apos; positioning towards an innovation is related to their implementation of it. Positioning was reflected in terms of teachers&apos; ownership, sensemaking, and agency. The innovation that was of central focus in this study pertained to the changing role of teachers towards a more coaching…

  13. ApoE3 mediated polymeric nanoparticles containing curcumin: apoptosis induced in vitro anticancer activity against neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mulik, Rohit S; Mönkkönen, Jukka; Juvonen, Risto O; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2012-11-01

    Curcumin, a natural phytoconstituent, is known to be therapeutically effective in the treatment of various cancers such as, breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, brain cancer, etc. However, low bioavailability and photodegradation of curcumin hampers its overall therapeutic efficacy. Anionic polymerization method was employed for the preparation of apolipoprotein-E3 mediated curcumin loaded poly(butyl)cyanoacrylate nanoparticles (ApoE3-C-PBCA) and characterized for size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, photostability, morphology, and in vitro release study. ApoE3-C-PBCA were found to be effective against SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells compared to curcumin solution (CSSS) and curcumin loaded PBCA nanoparticles (C-PBCA) from in vitro cell culture investigations. Flow cytometry techniques employed for the detection of anticancer activity revealed enhanced activity of curcumin against SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with ApoE3-C-PBCA compared to CSSS and C-PBCA, and apoptosis being the underlying mechanism. Present study revealed that ApoE3-C-PBCA has tremendous potential to develop into an effective therapeutic treatment modality against brain cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Asperger&apos;s Syndrome, Schlossberg&apos;s Transition Theory and Federally Mandated Transition Planning: Seeking Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tracy Lynne Wright Lyons

    2013-01-01

    Federally mandated transition planning has done little to improve the postsecondary outcomes of people with Asperger&apos;s syndrome. Current high school transition planning for students with Asperger&apos;s attempts to address some of these areas through family involvement, community inclusion, and the active participation of the student in…

  15. Beijing ambient particle exposure accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tian; Jia, Guang; Wei, Yongjie; Li, Jiucun

    2013-11-25

    Air pollution is associated with significant adverse health effects including increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However research on the cardiovascular effect of "real-world" exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) in susceptible animal model is very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between Beijing ambient particle exposure and the atherosclerosis development in the apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(-/-) mice). Two parallel exposure chambers were used for whole body exposure among ApoE knockout mice. One of the chambers was supplied with untreated ambient air (PM group) and the other chamber was treated with ambient air filtered by high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter (FA group). Twenty mice were divided into two groups and exposed to ambient PM (n=10 for PM group) or filtered air (n=10 for FA group) for two months from January 18th to March 18th, 2010. During the exposure, the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the two chambers were continuously monitored. Additionally, a receptor source apportionment model of chemical mass balance using 19 organic tracers was applied to determine the contributions of sources on the PM2.5 in terms of natural gas, diesel vehicle, gasoline vehicle, coal burning, vegetable debris, biomass burning and cooking. At the end of the two-month exposure, biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation and lipid metabolism in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and blood samples were determined and the plaque area on the aortic endothelium was quantified. In the experiment, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in PM chamber were 99.45μg/m(3) and 61.0μg/m(3) respectively, while PM2.5 in FA chamber was 17.6μg/m(3). Source apportionment analysis by organic tracers showed that gasoline vehicle (39.9%) and coal burning (24.3%) emission were the two major sources contributing to the mass concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing. Among the ApoE knockout mice, the PM group were significantly

  16. ApoE and SNAP-25 Polymorphisms Predict the Outcome of Multidimensional Stimulation Therapy Rehabilitation in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Franca Rosa; Farina, Elisabetta; Costa, Andrea Saul; Baglio, Francesca; Saibene, Francesca Lea; Margaritella, Nicolò; Calabrese, Elena; Zanzottera, Milena; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Rate of decline and functional restoration in AD greatly depend on the capacity for neural plasticity within residual neural tissues; this is at least partially influenced by polymorphisms in genes that determine neural plasticity, including Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) and synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25). We investigated whether correlations could be detected between polymorphisms of ApoE4 and SNAP-25 and the outcome of a multidimensional rehabilitative approach, based on cognitive stimulation, behavioral, and functional therapy (multidimensional stimulation therapy [MST]). Fifty-eight individuals with mild-to-moderate AD underwent MST for 10 weeks. Neuro-psychological functional and behavioral evaluations were performed blindly by a neuropsychologist at baseline and after 10 weeks of therapy using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Functional Living Skill Assessment (FLSA), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scales. Molecular genotyping of ApoE4 and SNAP-25 rs363050, rs363039, rs363043 was performed. Results were correlated with ΔMMSE, ΔNPI and ΔFLSA scores by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Polymorphisms in both genes correlated with the outcome of MST for MMSE and NPI scores. Thus, higher overall MMSE scores after rehabilitation were detected in ApoE4 negative compared to ApoE4 positive patients, whereas the SNAP-25 rs363050(G) and rs363039(A) alleles correlated with significant improvements in behavioural parameters. Polymorphisms in genes known to modulate neural plasticity might predict the outcome of a multistructured rehabilitation protocol in patients with AD. These data, although needing confirmation on larger case studies, could help optimizing the clinical management of individuals with AD, for example defining a more intensive treatment in those subjects with a lower likelihood of success. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Severity-Related Increase and Cognitive Correlates of Serum VEGF Levels in Alzheimer's Disease ApoE4 Carriers.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, X Anton; Alvarez, Irene; Aleixandre, Manuel; Linares, Carlos; Muresanu, Dafin; Winter, Stefan; Moessler, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angioneurin involved in the regulation of vascular and neural functions relevant for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the influence of AD severity and ApoE4 status on circulating VEGF and its relationship with cognition has not been investigated. We assessed serum VEGF levels and cognitive performance in AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and control subjects. VEGF levels were higher in AD patients than in MCI cases and controls (p < 0.05) and showed a progressive increase with clinical severity in the whole study population (p < 0.01). Among AD patients, severity-related VEGF elevations were significant in ApoE4 carriers (p < 0.05), but not in non-carriers. Increased VEGF levels were associated with disease severity and showed mild correlations with cognitive impairment that were only consistent for the ADAS-cog+ items remembering test instructions (memory) and maze task (executive functions) in the group of AD patients (p < 0.05). On the other hand, higher VEGF values were related to better memory and language performance in ApoE4 carriers with moderately-severe AD. According to these results showing severity- and ApoE4-related differences in serum VEGF and its cognitive correlates, it is suggested that increases in VEGF levels might represent an endogenous response driven by pathological factors and could entail cognitive benefits in AD patients, particularly in ApoE4 carriers. Our findings support the notion that VEGF constitutes a relevant molecular target to be further explored in AD pathology and therapy.

  18. Radial pressure waves mediate apoptosis and functional angiogenesis during wound repair in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Contaldo, Claudio; Högger, Dominik C; Khorrami Borozadi, Meisam; Stotz, Michael; Platz, Uwe; Forster, Natasha; Lindenblatt, Nicole; Giovanoli, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to quantify by intravital microscopy and histological wound scoring the effect of radial pressure wave treatment (RPWT) on murine incisional wound healing. The dorsal skinfold chamber in mice was used for intravital microscopy, whereby an incisional wound was created within the chamber. RPWT to the wound was carried out using a ballistic pressure wave source (EMS Swiss DolorClast). Animals received a dose of 500 pulses at an energy flux rate of 0.1mJ/mm(2) and a frequency of 3Hz at day 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 post wounding. RPW treated and untreated ApoE depleted mice (ApoE(-/-)) were compared to normal healing wild type animals (WT). The microcirculation of the wound was analyzed quantitatively in vivo using epi-illumination intravital fluorescence microscopy. Tissue samples were examined ex vivo for wound scoring and immunohistochemistry. Upon RPWT total wound score in ApoE(-/-) mice was increased by 13% (not significant) on day 3, by 37% on day 7 (P<0.05), and by 39% on day 13 (P<0.05) when compared to untreated ApoE(-/-) mice. Improved wound healing was associated with an increase of functional angiogenetic density by 23% (not significant) on day 5, by 36% on day 7 (P<0.05), and by 41% on day 9 (P<0.05). Following RPWT, on day three we observed enhanced expression of capase-3 (2-fold), proliferating cell nuclear antibody (PCNA, 1,6-fold), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, 2.6-fold), all P<0.05. In conclusion repetitive RPWT accelerated wound healing in ApoE(-/-) mice by increasing functional neovascular density. In addition our findings strongly suggest that RPW may facilitate the linear progression of wound healing phases by fostering apoptosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Agonistic antibody to angiotensin II type 1 receptor accelerates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weijuan; Chen, Yaoqi; Li, Songhai; Guo, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Wenping; Zeng, Qiutang; Liao, Yuhua; Wei, Yumiao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of agonistic antibody to angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) on atherosclerosis in male ApoE-/- mice which were employed to establish the animal models of AT1-AA in two ways. In the first group, mice were injected subcutaneously with conjugated AT1 peptide at multiple sites; in the second group, mice were infused with AT1-AA prepared from rabbits that were treated with AT1 peptide intraperitoneally. Mice in each group were further randomly divided into five subgroups and treated with AT1 peptide/AT1-AA, AT1 peptide/AT1-AA plus valsartan, AT1 peptide/AT1-AA plus fenofibrate, AT1 peptide/ AT1-AA plus pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) and control vehicle, respectively. Antibodies were detected in mice (except for mice in control group). Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed by oil red O staining, while plasma CRP, TNF-α, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and H2O2 were determined by ELISA. CCR2 (the receptor of MCP-1), macrophages, and smooth muscle cells were detected by immunohistochemistry. P47phox, MCP-1 and eNOS were detected by RT-PCR, while P47phox, NF-κB and MCP-1 were detected by Western blot assay. The aortic atherosclerotic lesions were significantly increased in AT1 peptide/AT1-AA treated mice, along with simultaneous increases in inflammatory parameters. However, mice treated with valsartan, fenofibrate or PDTC showed alleviated progression of atherosclerosis and reductions in inflammatory parameters. Thus, AT1-AA may accelerate aortic atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, which is mediated, at least in part, by the inflammatory reaction involving nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, reactive oxygen species, and NF-κB. In addition, valsartan, fenofibrate and PDTC may inhibit the AT1-AA induced atherosclerosis. PMID:25628779

  20. Early changes in vascular reactivity in response to 56Fe irradiation in ApoE-/- mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. Roger; Yu, Tao; Gupta, Kiran; Babitz, Stephen K.; Black, Leland L.; Kabarowski, Janusz H.; Kucik, Dennis F.

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have established that radiation from a number of terrestrial sources increases the risk of atherosclerosis. The accelerated heavy ions in the galacto-cosmic radiation (GCR) that astronauts will encounter on in space, however, interact very differently with tissues than most types of terrestrial radiation, so the health consequences of exposure on deep-space missions are not clear. We demonstrated earlier that 56Fe, an important component of cosmic radiation, accelerates atherosclerotic plaque development. In the present study, we examined an earlier, pro-atherogenic event that might be predictive of later atherosclerotic disease. Decreased endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a prominent manifestation of vascular dysfunction that is thought to predispose humans to the development of structural vascular changes that precede the development of atherosclerotic plaques. To test the effect of heavy-ion radiation on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we used the same ApoE-/- mouse model in which we previously demonstrated the pro-atherogenic effect of 56Fe on plaque development. Ten week old male ApoE mice (an age at which there is little atherosclerotic plaque in the descending aorta) were exposed to 2.6 Gy 56Fe. The mice were then fed a normal diet and housed under standard conditions. At 4-5 weeks post-irradiation, aortic rings were isolated and endothelial-dependent relaxation was measured. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine was significantly impaired in irradiated mice compared to age-matched, un-irradiated mice. This decrease in vascular reactivity following 56Fe irradiation occurred eight weeks prior to the development of statistically significant exacerbation of aortic plaque formation and may contribute to the formation of later atherosclerotic lesions.

  1. Loss of TIMP3 exacerbates atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice.

    PubMed

    Stöhr, Robert; Cavalera, Michele; Menini, Stefano; Mavilio, Maria; Casagrande, Viviana; Rossi, Claudia; Urbani, Andrea; Cardellini, Marina; Pugliese, Giuseppe; Menghini, Rossella; Federici, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) is a stromal protein that inhibits the activity of various proteases and receptors. We have previously shown TIMP3 to be downregulated in metabolic and inflammatory disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. We have now generated an ApoE(-/-)Timp3(-/-) mouse model in which, through the use of genetics, metabolomics and in-vivo phenotypical analysis we investigated the role of TIMP3 in the development of atherosclerosis. En face aorta analysis and aortic root examination showed that ApoE(-/-)Timp3(-/-) mice show increased atherosclerosis with increased infiltration of macrophages into the plaque. Serum concentration of MCP-1 were elevated in the serum of ApoE(-/-)Timp3(-/-) mice coupled with an expansion of the inflammatory (M1) Gr1+ macrophages, both in the circulation and within the aortic tissue. Targeted analysis of metabolites revealed a trend to reduced short chain acylcarnitines. Our study shows that lack of TIMP3 increases inflammation and polarizes macrophages towards a more inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves with Strong Sudden Cooling Weather on ApoE Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Kuang, Zhengzhong; Zhang, Xiakun

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the mechanism of influence of heat waves with strong sudden cooling on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in ApoE−/− mice. The process of heat waves with strong sudden cooling was simulated with a TEM1880 meteorological-environment simulation chamber according to the data obtained at 5 a.m. of 19 June 2006 to 11 p.m. of 22 June 2006. Forty-eight ApoE−/− mice were divided into six blocks based on their weight. Two mice from each block were randomly assigned to control, heat wave, temperature drop, and rewarming temperature groups. The experimental groups were transferred into the climate simulator chamber for exposure to the simulated heat wave process with strong sudden temperature drop. After 55, 59, and 75 h of exposure, the experimental groups were successively removed from the chamber to monitor physiological indicators. Blood samples were collected by decollation, and the hearts were harvested in all groups. The levels of heat stress factors (HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, HIF-1α), cold stress factors (NE, EPI), vasoconstrictor factors (ANGII, ET-1, NO), and four items of blood lipid (TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C) were measured in each ApoE−/− mouse. Results showed that the heat waves increased the levels of heat stress factors except SOD decreased, and decreased the levels of vasoconstrictor factors and blood lipid factors except TC increased. The strong sudden temperature drop in the heat wave process increased the levels of cold stress factors, vasoconstrictor factors and four blood lipid items (except the level of HDL-C which decreased) and decreased the levels of heat stress factors (except the level of SOD which increased). The analysis showed that heat waves could enhance atherosclerosis of ApoE−/− mice. The strong sudden temperature drop during the heat wave process increased the plasma concentrations of NE and ANGII, which indicates SNS activation, and resulted in increased blood pressure. NE and ANGII are vasoconstrictors

  3. Chronic administration of methamphetamine promotes atherosclerosis formation in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed normal diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Li, Lun; Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Mingjing; Hou, Lingbo; Sun, Yufei; Liu, Xiaoyan; Peng, Xiaohong; Gu, Ye

    2015-11-01

    Chronic methamphetamine (METH) abuse could induce neurotoxicity due to reactive oxygen species generation and sympathetic activation. Both factors are associated with atherosclerosis, so we tested the hypothesis that chronic METH administration might also promote atherosclerosis formation in Apo E-/- knockout mice fed normal diet. Male ApoE-/- mice (6 weeks-old) were treated with saline (NS) or METH [4 mg/kg/day (M4) or 8 mg/kg/day (M8) through intraperitoneal injection] for 24 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion area on oil red O stained en face aorta was dose-dependently increased in M4 and M8 groups compared to NS group. Percentage of atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly higher in M8 group compared to NS and M4 groups. Plasma CRP was increased and inflammatory cytokine (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNF-α, and INF-γ) expression on aortic root was upregulated in METH groups compared to NS group. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) protein and mRNA expressions in aortic root and myocardial tissue were determined by Western blot and real time PCR, which were significantly upregulated in M4 and M8 groups. Moreover, mRNA expressions of NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R in aortic and myocardial tissue were also significantly upregulated in M4 and M8 groups. Raw264.7 cells were treated with NPY, NPY receptor antagonists, METH (10 μM or 100 μM) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the expressions of TNF-α, CRP, MCP-1 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were significantly increased in METH and LPS + METH groups compared to control and LPS groups. Co-treatment with NPY1R antagonist decreased the expressions of TNF-α, CRP and MCP-1 in NPY and METH treated cells. Chronic METH administration can promote inflammation and atherosclerotic plague formation in ApoE-/- mice fed normal chow. NPY might be involved in the pathogenesis of METH-induced atherogenic effects through NPY Y1 receptor pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Jack Mezirow&apos;s Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calleja, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow&apos;s transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun&apos;s philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire&apos;s conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas&apos; domains of learning and the discussion of…

  5. Acai juice attenuates atherosclerosis in apoe deficient mice through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective - Acai fruit pulp has received much attention because of its high antioxidant capacity and potential anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, athero-protective effects of açaí juice were investigated in apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE -/-) mice. Methods and Results - ApoE-/- mice were f...

  6. Blueberries reduce lipid peroxidation and boost antioxidant enzymes in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed AIN-93G diet (CD) formulated to contain 1 % freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1 percent BB) were found to have significantly less atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. Biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, including F2-isoprostanes, hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) ...

  7. Both odor identification and ApoE-ε4 contribute to normative cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A; Larsson, Maria; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that apoliprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and possibly in the cognitive decline associated with normative aging. More recently, researchers have shown that ApoE is expressed in olfactory brain structures, and a relationship among ApoE, AD, and olfactory function has been proposed. In the current analyses, we investigated the contribution of ApoE and odor identification in decline trajectories associated with normative cognitive aging in various domains, using longitudinal data on cognitive performance available from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. Data on both ApoE status and olfactory functioning were available from 455 individuals ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the first measurement occasion. Odor identification was measured via a mailed survey. Cognitive performance was assessed in up to 5 waves of in-person testing covering a period of 16 years. Latent growth curve analyses incorporating odor identification and ApoE status indicated a main effect of odor identification on the performance level in three cognitive domains: verbal, memory, and speed. A main effect of ApoE on rates of decline after age 65 was found for verbal, spatial, and speed factors. The consistency of results across cognitive domains provides support for theories that posit central nervous system-wide origins of the olfaction-cognition-ApoE relationship; however, olfactory errors and APOE ε4 show unique and differential effects on cognitive trajectory features.

  8. Let&apos;s Connect: Using Adobe Connect to Foster Group Collaboration in the Online Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, Renee; Frisby, Brandi N.

    2013-01-01

    The need for students to become connected in the classroom parallels the need for students to become socially integrated into the college community. Because technological tools are always changing, the opportunity for all students on- and off-campus to &apos;'meet'&apos; face-to-face and build relationships within the classroom are…

  9. Latina Daughters&apos; Childbearing Attitudes: The Role of Maternal Expectations and Education Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls&apos; and their mothers&apos; expectations for their daughters&apos; college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters&apos; early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we…

  10. Effects of blueberries in prevention of atherosclerosis in apoe knockout mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ApoE knockout (ApoE-/-) mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% freeze-dried whole wild blueberries (CD1% BB). Mice were sacrificed after 20 weeks on the specified diet. Atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinus were determined by staining cryosections (10 µm) with Oil Red O. Th...

  11. Teachers&apos; Organizational Commitment: Examining the Mediating Effects of Distributed Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devos, Geert; Tuytens, Melissa; Hulpia, Hester

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relation between principals&apos; leadership and teachers&apos; organizational commitment, mediated by distributed leadership. Data were collected from 1,495 teachers in 46 secondary schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that the effect of principals&apos; leadership on teachers&apos; organizational commitment is…

  12. Thirty Points about Motivation from Skinner&apos;s Book "Verbal Behavior"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Skinner discussed the topic of motivation in every chapter of the book "Verbal Behavior" (1957), usually with his preferred terminology of &apos;&apos;deprivation, satiation, and aversive stimulation.&apos;&apos; In the current paper, direct quotations are used to systematically take the reader through 30 separate points made by Skinner…

  13. Measuring Preschool Teachers&apos; Perceived Competency and Knowledge of Oral Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dian Teer

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the impact of early oral language development on a child&apos;s later reading comprehension. Additionally, research has suggested that teachers&apos; knowledge of effective practices in literacy plays an important role in students&apos; ability to learn to read. The problem is that preschool teachers&apos; knowledge of…

  14. A Laboratory Exercise to Illustrate Protein-Membrane Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weers, Paul M. M.; Prenner, Elmar J.; Curic, Spomenka; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M.

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory protocol presented here takes about 3 hours to perform and investigates protein and lipid interactions. Students first purify His6-tagged human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) with Ni-NTA affinity resin in a simple batch protocol and prepare multilamellar vesicles (MLV) from pre-dried phospholipid films. When apoA-I is added to the MLV,…

  15. Imbalanced gp130 signalling in ApoE-deficient mice protects against atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth W; McLeod, Louise; Kennedy, Catherine L; Bozinovski, Steven; Najdovska, Meri; Jenkins, Brendan J

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin (IL)-6 is a key modulator of the acute phase response (APR), and while both are implicated in atherosclerosis, the pathological role of specific IL-6 signalling cascades is ill-defined. Since IL-6 employs the cytokine receptor gp130 to primarily activate the STAT3 pathway, here we evaluate whether gp130-dependent STAT3 activation modulates atherosclerosis. High-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis was established in ApoE(-/-) mice crossed with gp130(F/F) knock-in mice displaying elevated gp130-dependent STAT3 activation and production of the APR protein, serum amyloid A (SAA). Also generated were gp130(F/F):Stat3(-/+):ApoE(-/-) mice displaying genetically-normalised STAT3 activation and SAA levels, and bone marrow chimeras involving ApoE(-/-) and gp130(F/F):ApoE(-/-) mice. At 10 weeks post high-fat diet, aortic atherosclerotic lesions, including the presence of CD68(+) macrophages, and plasma lipid and SAA profiles, were assessed. Aortic plaque development and plasma triglyceride levels in gp130(F/F):ApoE(-/-) mice were significantly reduced (3-fold, P < 0.001) compared to ApoE(-/-) littermates. By contrast, in gp130(F/F):ApoE(-/-) mice, atherosclerotic plaques contained augmented CD68(+) macrophage infiltrates, and plasma SAA levels were elevated, compared to ApoE(-/-) mice. Atherosclerotic lesion development and plasma triglyceride levels in gp130(F/F):ApoE(-/-) and gp130(F/F):Stat3(-/+):ApoE(-/-) mice were comparable, despite a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in macrophage numbers in lesions, and also plasma SAA levels, in gp130(F/F):Stat3(-/+):ApoE(-/-) mice. Aortic plaque development and plasma triglyceride levels were comparable in ApoE(-/-) mice reconstituted with gp130(F/F):ApoE(-/-) (ApoE(F/F:ApoE)) or ApoE(-/-) (ApoE(ApoE)) bone marrow cells. Deregulation of gp130/STAT3 signalling augments the APR and macrophage infiltration during atherosclerosis without impacting on the development of aortic plaques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  16. Energy Fluctuation of Ideal Fermi Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential U=\\sum_{i=1}^{d} c_i\\vert x_{i}/a_{i}\\vert^{n_{i} } in d Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mehedi Faruk; Muktadir Rahman, Md.; Dwaipayan, Debnath; Sakhawat Hossain Himel, Md.

    2016-04-01

    Energy fluctuation of ideal Fermi gas trapped under generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1d ci \\vertxi/ai \\vert n_i has been calculated in arbitrary dimensions. Energy fluctuation is scrutinized further in the degenerate limit μ ≫ KBT with the help of Sommerfeld expansion. The dependence of energy fluctuation on dimensionality and power law potential is studied in detail. Most importantly our general result can not only exactly reproduce the recently published result regarding free and harmonically trapped ideal Fermi gas in d = 3 but also can describe the outcome for any power law potential in arbitrary dimension.

  17. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used in Subcategory I-C mines. (c)(1) If electrically powered, remote sensing devices are used.... (2) If air samples are delivered to remote analytical devices through sampling tubes, such tubes...

  18. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THREE RAPID PCR TECHNOLOGIES FOR IDAHO TECHNOLOGY R.A.I.D.® SYSTEM, APPLIED BIOSYSTEMS TAQMAN® E. COLI 0157:H7 DETECTION SYSTEM, AND INVITROGEN CORPORATION PATHALERTTM DETECTION KITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program, beginning as an initiative of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1995, verifies the performance of commercially available, innovative technologies that can be used to measure environmental quality. The ETV p...

  19. Evaluation of Type-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays Using the LightCycler and J.B.A.I.D.S. for Detection of Adenoviruses in Species HAdV-C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-27

    ATCC 97), Mycoplasma pneumonia, and Legionella Pneumophila (ATCC 33152) were acquired from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC; Manassas, VA...Mycoplasma pneumoniae Legionella Pneumophila a – Low levels of HAdV-C1 was detected with the HAdV-C2 primers and probes after 35 cycles. b – Low

  20. Final Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment for the Ravines and Beach Area Study of the Surplus Operable Unit, Fort Sheridan, Illinois. Volume 1: RI Text and RI Appendices A-I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-13

    f73o* ^V^^- l^-J&4-g>- «Ajjv»^*^Y gvrg-ft^i Q^r-^vj-eJl -^TVYN ffa 3c 4*> lඑ^=> -£=r~. cgyjv-p f...fvvo H’fefat. l°3> A 13,o — £.3’ fW=> {vfi- ffa ^ os-iC 6 lza/1 *2- r^5^ to/»e(%L C83’ ISTR/METHOD: 8 jPS-g- |17^ I a«, IT N^T K... BBP -Beplieatt MST-bsmmeat

  1. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Methane monitoring devices and portable, battery-powered, self-contained devices used for measuring methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable... shall not be used to test for methane except as supplementary devices. (2) Flame safety lamps shall not...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Methane monitoring devices and portable, battery-powered, self-contained devices used for measuring methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable... shall not be used to test for methane except as supplementary devices. (2) Flame safety lamps shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Methane monitoring devices and portable, battery-powered, self-contained devices used for measuring methane, other gases, and contaminants in mine air shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable... shall not be used to test for methane except as supplementary devices. (2) Flame safety lamps shall not...

  4. Effects of long- and short-term darbepoetin-α treatment on oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial injury in ApoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Evrim Dursun; Hanikoglu, Aysegul; Cort, Aysegul; Ozben, Beste; Suleymanlar, Gultekin; Ozben, Tomris

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis-related complications are the main cause of death in the world. Vascular injury in response to inflammation and enhanced oxidant stress promotes endothelial dysfunction and leads to atherosclerotic lesions. Low-dose treatment with darbepoetin-α may be a potential therapeutic tool for endothelial injury and atherosclerosis. In order to study the effect of darbepoetin-α on endothelial injury and atherosclerosis, we used ApoE-/- mice as the atherosclerotic mice model. We monitored atherosclerosis and plaque formation histochemically in ApoE knockout mice at early and late stages of atherosclerosis. Darbepoetin-α was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.1 μg/kg to ApoE-/- mice. The results of 2 ApoE-/- mice groups injected with darbepoetin-α (early and late stages of atherosclerosis) were compared to the results of the corresponding saline injected ApoE-/- mice groups and the control (C57BL/6) mice. Lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride), inflammation (CRP, IL-6, histamine), endothelial injury (ICAM-1, selectin) and oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) were significantly increased in 4 atherosclerotic groups compared to the control group. Short-term darbepoetin-α had no marked effects on indicators of inflammation and endothelial injury in the ApoE knockout mice groups compared to the ApoE knockout mice not treated with darbepoetin-α, however, darbepoetin-α significantly decreased 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content. Long term darbepoetin-α treatment reduced oxidative stress in ApoE-/- mice. This study contributes to understanding and elucidating the biochemical changes occurring during early and late stages of atherosclerosis development regarding lipid profile, inflammation, endothelial injury and oxidative stress markers.

  5. Longitudinal Relations among Parents&apos; Reactions to Children&apos;s Negative Emotions, Effortful Control, and Math Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H.; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents&apos; reactions to children&apos;s displays of negative emotions, children&apos;s effortful control (EC), and children&apos;s math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = 0.39 year) across kindergarten through…

  6. Serum Levels of ApoA1 and ApoA2 Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Men.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), serum biomarkers peroxidase (POD) (P = 0.026) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P = 0.001), serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001), apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) (P = 0.001), and ApoC2 (P = 0.005) showed significant differences. Compared to group 3, ApoA1 in group 1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01-1.67) and group 2 (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.11-1.94) were higher, while ApoA2 were lower (group 1: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.18-1.02; group 2: OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08-0.54) after adjusting for control variables. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia.

  7. Family Context, Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers&apos; Parenting Knowledge, and Children&apos;s Subsequent Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahromi, Laudan B.; Guimond, Amy B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Toomey, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parenting knowledge among Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 191; M[subscript age] = 16.26 years), family contextual factors associated with adolescents&apos; parenting knowledge, and toddlers&apos; (M[subscript age] = 2.01 years) subsequent developmental outcomes. Data came from home interviews and direct child…

  8. Serum Levels of ApoA1 and ApoA2 Are Associated with Cognitive Status in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cheng; Li, Jin; Bao, Zhijun; Ruan, Qingwei; Yu, Zhuowei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Advancing age, chronic inflammation, oxidative damage, and disorders of lipid metabolism are positively linked to the late-life cognitive impairment. Serum biomarkers may be associated with the cognitive status in older men. Methods. 440 old male subjects with different cognitive functions were recruited to investigate probable serum markers. Pearson Chi-Squared test, univariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate biomarkers which may be associated with cognitive status. Results. Levels of fundus atherosclerosis (AS) (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), serum biomarkers peroxidase (POD) (P = 0.026) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P = 0.001), serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001), apolipoprotein A2 (ApoA2) (P = 0.001), and ApoC2 (P = 0.005) showed significant differences. Compared to group 3, ApoA1 in group 1 (OR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.01–1.67) and group 2 (OR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.11–1.94) were higher, while ApoA2 were lower (group 1: OR = 0.43, 95% CI 0.18–1.02; group 2: OR = 0.21, 95% CI 0.08–0.54) after adjusting for control variables. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that age, AS levels, POD, IL-6, HDL-C, ApoA2, and ApoC2 were significantly related to cognitive status. Moreover, ApoA1 and ApoA2 were independently associated with cognitive impairment and late-life dementia. PMID:26682220

  9. Longxuetongluo capsule inhibits atherosclerosis progression in high-fat diet-induced ApoE-/- mice by improving endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiao; Liu, Binglin; Lun, Qixing; Gu, Xiaopan; Pan, Bo; Zhao, Yunfang; Xiao, Wei; Li, Jun; Tu, Pengfei

    2016-12-01

    Chinese dragon's blood has been used to treat blood stasis for thousands of years. Its total phenolic extract (Longxuetongluo capsule, LTC) is used for the treatment of ischemic stroke; however, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. This paper aims to investigate the antiatherosclerotic effect of LTC and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ApoE -/- mice. The levels of plasma lipid and areas of atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus in ApoE -/- mice were evaluated. The effect of LTC on the nitric oxide (NO) production in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined. The adhesion of monocytes to ox-LDL-stimulated HUVECs was further studied. LTC at low, medium, and high doses markedly decreased the atherosclerotic lesion areas of the aortic sinus in HFD-induced ApoE -/- mice by 26.4% (p < 0.05), 30.1% (p < 0.05), and 46.5% (p < 0.01), respectively, although it did not improve the dyslipidemia. Furthermore, LTC restored the diminished NO production of ox-LDL-stimulated HUVECs (p < 0.001) and inhibited the adhesion between monocytes and endothelial cells (p < 0.01). LTC appeared to alleviate ox-LDL-stimulated dysfunction of HUVECs, and inhibit the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs via the MAPK/IKK/IκB/NF-κB signaling pathway, thus decrease atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic sinus in HFD-induced ApoE -/- mice. These findings suggest the potential of LTC for use as an effective agent against atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The anti-inflammatory vasostatin-2 attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice and inhibits monocyte/macrophage recruitment.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weixin; Wang, Xiaoqun; Dai, Daopeng; Zhang, Bao; Lu, Lin; Tao, Rong

    2017-01-26

    We showed previously that reduced level of vasostatin-2 (VS-2) correlates to the presence and severity of coronary artery disease. In this study, we aimed to figure out the role of chromogranin A (CGA) derived VS-2 in the development of atherosclerosis and monocyte/macrophage recruitment. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited attenuated lesion size by 65 % and 41 % in En face and aortic root Oil red O staining, MOMA-2 positive area by 64 %, respectively, in VS-2 treatment group compared with PBS group. Proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were all remarkably reduced in aortic tissues after VS-2 treatment. Mechanistically, in adhesion assay using intravital microscopy in vivo, VS-2 suppressed the number of leukocytes adhering to the wall of apoE -/- mice mesenteric arteries. In chemotactic assay, flow cytometry analysis of peritoneal lavage exudate from C57BL/6 mice showed VS-2 significantly decreased the recruiment number of inflammatory monocytes/macrophages in a thioglycollate-induced peritonitis model. Furthermore, fewer fluorescent latex beads labelled Ly-6C hi monocytes accumulated in aortic sinus lesions of apoE -/- mice after VS-2 treatment. In addition, according to the microarray of human monocyte/macrophage, we found VS-2 stimulation caused a dose-dependent decrease of Rac1 expression and inactivation of Pak1 in mice primary monocytes as well as THP-1 cells and inhibited MCP-1/CCL-5 induced transmigration in vitro. In conclusion, the Chromogranin A-derived VS-2 attenuates atherosclerosis in apoE -/- mice and, in addition to its anti-inflammatory property, also acts as an inhibitor in monocyte/macrophage recruitment.

  11. The effect of acetyl-L-carnitine and R-alpha-lipoic acid treatment in ApoE4 mouse as a model of human Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Justin C; Liu, Jiankang; Fischbach, Kathryn; Xu, Kui; Puchowicz, Michel; Obrenovich, Mark E; Gasimov, Eldar; Alvarez, Ludis Morales; Ames, Bruce N; Lamanna, Joseph C; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2009-08-15

    We measured age-dependent effects of human ApoE4 on cerebral blood flow (CBF) using ApoE4 transgenic mice compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice by use of [(14)C] iodoantipyrene autoradiography. ApoE4 associated factors reduce CBF gradually to create brain hypoperfusion when compared to WT, and the differences in CBF are greatest as animals age from 6-weeks to 12-months. Transmission electron microscopy with colloidal gold immunocytochemistry showed structural damage in young and aged microvessel endothelium of ApoE4 animals extended to the cytoplasm of perivascular cells, perivascular nerve terminals and hippocampal neurons and glial cells. These abnormalities coexist with mitochondrial structural alteration and mitochondrial DNA overproliferation and/or deletion in all brain cellular compartments. Spatial memory and temporal memory tests showed a trend in improving cognitive function in ApoE4 mice fed selective mitochondrial antioxidants acetyl-l-carnitine and R-alpha-lipoic acid. Our findings indicate that ApoE4 genotype-induced mitochondrial changes and associated structural damage may explain age-dependent pathology seen in AD, indicating potential for novel treatment strategies in the near future.

  12. When Stories Don&apos;t Make Sense: Alternative Ways to Assess Young Children&apos;s Narratives in Social Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, MinJeong; Covino, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Assessing children&apos;s narratives through the lens of intertexual process makes visible children&apos;s funds of knowledge. The authors describe two interrelated alternative assessments that teachers can use to make sense of young children&apos;s narratives in classroom settings. Implications for promoting an intertextually-rich environment…

  13. The Influence of Teacher Preparation Programs&apos; Field Experiences on Pre-Service Teacher Candidates&apos; Sense of Teaching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Alison Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this descriptive, mixed methods study, the researcher investigated the influence of teacher preparation programs&apos; field experiences on teacher candidates&apos; sense of teaching efficacy. Tschannen-Morgan & Woolfolk-Hoy&apos;s (2001) Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale questionnaire was sent to 221 teacher candidates enrolled in one of…

  14. Mapping Low-Income African American Parents&apos; Roles in Their Children&apos;s Education in a Changing Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Background: Much discussion and debate has surrounded the role that low-income minority parents can play in their children&apos;s education. Research focusing on parents&apos; roles has stressed parents&apos; sense of self-efficacy, cultural background, socio-economic factors, and the context of school to explain not only what motivates parents to…

  15. A Womb with a Political View: Barbara Park&apos;s "MA! There&apos;s Nothing to Do Here!" Prenatal Parenting, and the Battle over Personhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2013-01-01

    This essay makes the case that Barbara Park&apos;s picture book "MA! There&apos;s Nothing to Do Here!: A Word from Your Baby-in-Waiting" (2008) adds another equal-parts absurdist and alarming item to the ever-growing responsibilities of expecting mothers: ensuring that their fetus is entertained. The messages that Park&apos;s narrative…

  16. What&apos;s with the K? Exploring the Implications of Christopher Small&apos;s "Musicking" for General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odendaal, Albi; Kankkunen, Olli-Taavetti; Nikkanen, Hanna M.; Vakeva, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss Christoper Small&apos;s concept of musicking in order to explicate his understanding of music as a practice and the implications of such an understanding for today&apos;s general music education. Our main argument is that, armed with Small&apos;s concept of musicking, we can deal with music in its full social-cultural…

  17. Origin and heterogeneity of HDL subspecies

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A.V.; Gong, E.L.; Blanche, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    A major determinant of mature HDL particle size and apolar core content, in the absence of remodeling factors, is most likely the size and apolipoprotein content of the precursor particle. Depending on the number of apoA-I molecules per analog particle, the LCAT-induced transformation follows either a fusion pathway (for precursors with 2 apoA-I per particle) or a pathway (for precursors with more than 2 apoA-I per particle) that conserves the apolipoprotein number. According to our analog results, small nascent HDL probably serve as precursors to the major (apoA-I without apoA-II)-subpopulation in the size interval. Our studies with the large discoidalmore » analog suggest that HDL/sub 2/ (apoA-I without apoA-II)-subpopulations probably originate from the large discoidal nascent HDL that contain a higher number of apolipoprotein molecules per particle than the small nascent HDL. Intermediate transformation products of the large discoidal analog, described in the present study, resemble deformable species found in human lymph and are characterized by a relatively high surface-to-core lipid ratio. Whether large discoidal precursors containing apoE transform in comparable manner but with eventual interchange of apoA-I for apoE (10,15) is under investigation in our laboratory. Likewise, detailed delineation of pathways whereby the (apoA-I with apoA-II)-HDL subpopulations are formed is yet to be accomplished. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. ApoE influences regional white-matter axonal density loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Catherine F; Zhang, Jiaying; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Carton, Amelia; Macpherson, Kirsty; Mancini, Laura; Thomas, David L; Modat, Marc; Toussaint, Nicolas; Cash, David M; Thornton, John S; Henley, Susie M D; Crutch, Sebastian J; Alexander, Daniel C; Ourselin, Sebastien; Fox, Nick C; Zhang, Hui; Schott, Jonathan M

    2017-09-01

    Mechanisms underlying phenotypic heterogeneity in young onset Alzheimer disease (YOAD) are poorly understood. We used diffusion tensor imaging and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) with tract-based spatial statistics to investigate apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 modulation of white-matter damage in 37 patients with YOAD (22, 59% APOE ε4 positive) and 23 age-matched controls. Correlation between neurite density index (NDI) and neuropsychological performance was assessed in 4 white-matter regions of interest. White-matter disruption was more widespread in ε4+ individuals but more focal (posterior predominant) in the absence of an ε4 allele. NODDI metrics indicate fractional anisotropy changes are underpinned by combinations of axonal loss and morphological change. Regional NDI in parieto-occipital white matter correlated with visual object and spatial perception battery performance (right and left, both p = 0.02), and performance (nonverbal) intelligence (WASI matrices, right, p = 0.04). NODDI provides tissue-specific microstructural metrics of white-matter tract damage in YOAD, including NDI which correlates with focal cognitive deficits, and APOEε4 status is associated with different patterns of white-matter neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Food supplementation with rice bran enzymatic extract prevents vascular apoptosis and atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Perez-Ternero, C; Herrera, M D; Laufs, U; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Werner, C

    2017-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is associated with reduced mononuclear cell (MNC) telomere length, and senescent cells have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. Rice bran is a source of γ-oryzanol, phytosterols and tocols with potential lipid-lowering, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE) impacts on apoptosis, telomere length and atherogenesis in mice. Seven-week-old male ApoE-/- mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) or isocaloric HFD supplemented with 5 % (w/w) RBEE for 23 weeks. Wild-type mice of the same age were kept under standard diet as controls. RBEE treatment reduced total cholesterol (19.24 ± 1.63 vs 24.49 ± 1.71 mmol/L) and triglycerides (1.13 ± 0.18 vs 1.75 ± 0.22 mmol/L) and augmented HDL-cholesterol (1.86 ± 0.20 vs 1.07 ± 0.20 mmol/L). RBEE attenuated macrophage infiltration by 56.69 ± 4.65 % and plaque development (7737 ± 836 vs 12,040 ± 1001 μm 2 ) in the aortic sinus. In the aorta, RBEE treatment reduced expression of the apoptosis pathway components p16, p53 and bax/bcl-2 ratio. RBEE prevented apoptosis of aortic endothelial cells (2.81 ± 0.71-1.14 ± 0.35 apoptotic nuclei/ring for ApoE-/- HFD and ApoE-/- HFD 5 % RBEE, respectively). In contrast, MNC of RBEE-fed mice exhibited enhanced apoptosis marker expression with increased p53 and bax/bcl-2 protein levels. Compared to WT, ApoE-/- mice on HFD were characterized by significant telomere shortening in aorta (11 ± 2 %) and MNC (73 ± 7 %), which was reduced by supplementation with RBEE (aorta: 40 ± 7 %; MNC: 105 ± 10 %). Expression of telomere repeat-binding factor 2 was increased in RBEE-fed mice. Long-term food supplementation with RBEE lowers cholesterol and prevents atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice. Differential regulation of vascular and MNC apoptosis and senescence were identified as potential mechanisms.

  20. Rhinal hypometabolism on FDG PET in healthy APO-E4 carriers: impact on memory function and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Didic, Mira; Felician, Olivier; Gour, Natalina; Bernard, Rafaelle; Pécheux, Christophe; Mundler, Olivier; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Guedj, Eric

    2015-09-01

    The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein E (APO-E4) gene, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), also modulates brain metabolism and function in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore cerebral metabolism using FDG PET in healthy APO-E4 carriers by comparing cognitively normal APO-E4 carriers to noncarriers and to assess if patterns of metabolism are correlated with performance on cognitive tasks. Moreover, metabolic connectivity patterns were established in order to assess if the organization of neural networks is influenced by genetic factors. Whole-brain PET statistical analysis was performed at voxel-level using SPM8 with a threshold of p < 0.005, corrected for volume, with age, gender and level of education as nuisance variables. Significant hypometabolism between APO-E4 carriers (n = 11) and noncarriers (n = 30) was first determined. Mean metabolic values with clinical/neuropsychological data were extracted at the individual level, and correlations were searched using Spearman's rank test in the whole group. To evaluate metabolic connectivity from metabolic cluster(s) previously identified in the intergroup comparison, voxel-wise interregional correlation analysis (IRCA) was performed between groups of subjects. APO-E4 carriers had reduced metabolism within the left anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), where neuropathological changes first appear in AD, including the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices. A correlation between metabolism in this area and performance on the DMS48 (delayed matching to sample-48 items) was found, in line with converging evidence involving the perirhinal cortex in object-based memory. Finally, a voxel-wise IRCA revealed stronger metabolic connectivity of the MTL cluster with neocortical frontoparietal regions in carriers than in noncarriers, suggesting compensatory metabolic networks. Exploring cerebral metabolism using FDG PET can contribute to a better understanding of the influence of

  1. Ke Ha&apos;a La Puna i Ka Makani: Pele and Hi&apos;iaka Mo&apos;olelo and the Possibilities for Hawaiian Literary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ho'omanawanui, ku'ualoha

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Hawai&apos;i sponsored a symposium titled "Indigenizing the University." This symposium featured indigenous scholars such as Linda Tuhiwai Smith, Graham Smith, and Taiaiake Alfred, who addressed how indigenous political theory and methods of research were necessary to support indigenous research and how changes…

  2. Detection of atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice using (99m)Tc-duramycin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhonglin; Larsen, Brandon T; Lerman, Lilach O; Gray, Brian D; Barber, Christy; Hedayat, Ahmad F; Zhao, Ming; Furenlid, Lars R; Pak, Koon Y; Woolfenden, James M

    2016-08-01

    Apoptosis of macrophages and smooth muscle cells is linked to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization. The apoptotic cascade leads to exposure of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on the outer leaflet of the cell membrane, thereby making apoptosis detectable using probes targeting PE. The objective of this study was to exploit capabilities of a PE-specific imaging probe, (99m)Tc-duramycin, in localizing atherosclerotic plaque and assessing plaque evolution in apolipoprotein-E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice. Atherosclerosis was induced in ApoE(-/-) mice by feeding an atherogenic diet. (99m)Tc-duramycin images were acquired using a small-animal SPECT imager. Six ApoE(-/-) mice at 20weeks of age (Group I) were imaged and then sacrificed for ex vivo analyses. Six additional ApoE(-/-) mice (Group II) were imaged at 20 and 40weeks of age before sacrifice. Six ApoE wild-type (ApoE(+/+)) mice (Group III) were imaged at 40weeks as controls. Five additional ApoE(-/-) mice (40weeks of age) (Group IV) were imaged with a (99m)Tc-labeled inactive peptide, (99m)Tc-LinDUR, to assess (99m)Tc-duramycin targeting specificity. Focal (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the ascending aorta and aortic arch was detected at 20 and 40weeks in the ApoE(-/-) mice but not in ApoE(+/+) mice. (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the aortic lesions increased 2.2-fold on quantitative imaging in the ApoE(-/-) mice between 20 and 40weeks. Autoradiographic and histological data indicated significantly increased (99m)Tc-duramycin uptake in the ascending aorta and aortic arch associated with advanced plaques. Quantitative autoradiography showed that the ratio of activity in the aortic arch to descending thoracic aorta, which had no plaques or radioactive uptake, was 2.1 times higher at 40weeks than at 20weeks (6.62±0.89 vs. 3.18±0.29, P<0.01). There was barely detectable focal uptake of (99m)Tc-duramycin in the aortic arch of ApoE(+/+) mice. No detectable (99m)Tc-LinDUR uptake was observed in the aortas of ApoE(-/-) mice. PE

  3. Aβ amyloid, cognition, and APOE genotype in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yen Ying; Ellis, Kathryn A; Ames, David; Darby, David; Harrington, Karra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Rowe, Christopher; Savage, Greg; Szoeke, Cassandra; Villemagne, Victor L; Maruff, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Only one study has investigated the relationship between cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ), apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 genotype, and cognition. Although significant relationships between cerebral Aβ and cognition were observed in ε4 carriers but not noncarriers, the magnitude of this relationship was not reported. Further, when demographic variables were controlled, the influence of APOE ε4 on the relationship between cerebral Aβ and cognition dissipated. In 144 healthy older adults who had undergone amyloid scanning and APOE ε4 genotyping in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers, and Lifestyle (AIBL) Flagship Study of Ageing, correlations were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationship between cerebral Aβ and cognition in ε4 carriers and noncarriers. Fisher's Z was used to compare these correlations and Cohen's q determined the magnitude of difference between correlations. Cerebral Aβ was significantly associated with tasks of visual and verbal episodic memory in APOE ε4 carriers. This association was not observed in ε4 noncarriers. The relationship between cerebral Aβ and episodic memory in ε4 carriers was significantly different from that in ε4 noncarriers, and the magnitude of this difference was small to moderate. In APOE ε 4 carriers, there is a moderate negative relationship between cerebral Aβ and episodic memory. This suggests that increased cerebral Aβ may signify the onset of preclinical AD, especially in healthy older adults who are genetically at risk for AD. Copyright © 2013 The Alzheimer's Association. All rights reserved.

  4. APOE and mild cognitive impairment: the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

    2015-01-01

    Background: the risk apolipoprotein E-4 (APOE4) poses for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may vary based on the neuropsychological definition of MCI. Setting: a community-based cohort study. Methods: using two psychometric neuropsychological impairment definitions, we examined APOE4 and prevalent MCI among older adults or pre-MCI among middle-aged adults. Neuropsychological, clinical and genetic data were collected on 2,239 Framingham Offspring Cohort participants free from clinical stroke or dementia (62 ± 9 years; 54% women). Prevalent amnestic MCI was defined from neuropsychological performances ≥1.5 SD below the mean based on (i) age and education or (ii) age and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 Reading (WRAT-3 Reading) performance adjustment. Results: in the entire sample, multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions found that APOE4 was associated with amnestic MCI when using the age and WRAT Reading definition (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, P = 0.002) but not the age and education definition (OR = 1.0, P = 0.90). Results were modified by age, such that APOE4 was associated with amnestic MCI in participants ≥65 years using both the age and WRAT Reading definition (OR = 2.4, P < 0.001) and the age and education definition (OR = 1.7, P = 0.04). Conclusion: APOE4 risk for prevalent amnestic MCI varies depending on the definition of objective neuropsychological impairment for MCI. Our findings support existing literature emphasising the need to refine MCI neuropsychological profiling methods. PMID:25497326

  5. Effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy on hippocampus and cognition of postmenopausal women of different apoE genotypes.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yun; Hu, Ling; Tian, Qin-jie; Jiang, Jing-mei; Dong, Yi-long; Jin, Zheng-yu; Cheng, Yu-hang; Hong, Xia; Ge, Qin-sheng; Zuo, Ping-ping

    2007-08-01

    To study the effects of long-term, low-dose sex hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the volume and biochemical changes of the hippocampus in postmenopausal women carrying apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene epsilon3 or epsilon4. Eighty-three postmenopausal women who had used a low dose of HRT for over 4 years were selected as the HRT group, and 99 postmenopausal women with matched age and education were enrolled as the control group. ApoE alleles were analyzed by PCR. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to determine the volume of the brain hippocampus. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to detect the biochemical changes in the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in apoE epsilon4 and epsilon3 carriers. Six common cognitive tests were used to make an overall evaluation of cognitive function. Analysis with the apoE epsilon4 carriers showed that the volume of the hippocampus of the control group were significantly lower than those of the HRT group. The biochemical analysis showed that there was an increase of N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/total creatine (tCr) and a decrease of myoinositol (mI)/tCr in the hippocampus of apoE epsilon4 carriers in the HRT group, compared with the control group. For the apoE epsilon3 carriers, the least squares means (LSMEAN) of the HRT group was higher than that of the control group. This study showed that long-term, low dose HRT might be beneficial for reducing the risk of AD development in vulnerable postmenopausal women. Meanwhile, HRT could increase the LSMEAN of apoE epsilon3 carriers.

  6. Adulthood dietary exposure to a common pesticide leads to an obese-like phenotype and a diabetic profile in apoE3 mice.

    PubMed

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Cabré, Maria; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Domingo, José L; Teresa Colomina, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Increasing evidence links the widespread exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides to the global epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Our recent data highlighted gene×environment interactions: mice expressing the human apolipoprotein E3 (apoE3) isoform were more prone to develop obesity than those expressing apoE2 or apoE4 upon dietary challenge with chlorpyrifos (CPF), the most used OP worldwide. Thus, we aimed to further explore the contribution of the APOE3 genotype on the emergence of obesity and related metabolic dysfunctions upon subchronic exposure to CPF. Seven-month-old targeted replacement apoE3 and C57BL/6N male mice were orally exposed to CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 8 consecutive weeks. We examined body weight status, food and water intake, lipid and glucose homeostasis, metabolic biomarkers concentrations, insulin levels and insulin resistance, and leptin and ghrelin profiles. CPF exposure generally increased food ingestion, glucose and total cholesterol concentrations, and tended to elevate acyl ghrelin levels. Nonetheless, excess weight gain and increased leptin levels were inherent to apoE3 mice. Moreover, the propensity towards a diabetic profile was markedly higher in these animals than in C57BL/6N, as they showed a higher homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance index and higher insulin levels. Although both genotypes were metabolically affected by CPF, the results of the present investigation revealed that apoE3 mice were the most vulnerable to developing obesity and related disturbances following CPF administration through the diet. Since the APOE3 genotype is the most prevalent worldwide, current findings have particular implications for human health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Key differences between apoC-III regulation and expression in intestine and liver.

    PubMed

    West, Gabrielle; Rodia, Cayla; Li, Diana; Johnson, Zania; Dong, Hongli; Kohan, Alison B

    2017-09-23

    ApoC-III is a critical cardiovascular risk factor, and humans expressing null mutations in apoC-III are robustly protected from cardiovascular disease. Because of its critical role in elevating plasma lipids and CVD risk, hepatic apoC-III regulation has been studied at length. Considerably less is known about the factors that regulate intestinal apoC-III. In this work, we use primary murine enteroids, Caco-2 cells, and dietary studies in wild-type mice to show that intestinal apoC-III expression does not change in response to fatty acids, glucose, or insulin administration, in contrast to hepatic apoC-III. Intestinal apoC-III is not sensitive to changes in FoxO1 expression (which is itself very low in the intestine, as is FoxO1 target IGFBP-1), nor is intestinal apoC-III responsive to western diet, a significant contrast to hepatic apoC-III stimulation during western diet. These data strongly suggest that intestinal apoC-III is not a FoxO1 target and support the idea that apoC-III is not regulated coordinately with hepatic apoC-III, and establishes another key aspect of apoC-III that is unique in the intestine from the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic disturbances and worsening of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice after cola beverages drinking.

    PubMed

    Otero-Losada, Matilde E; Mc Loughlin, Santiago; Rodríguez-Granillo, Gastón; Müller, Angélica; Ottaviano, Graciela; Moriondo, Marisa; Cutrin, Juan C; Milei, José

    2013-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major health burden. Metabolic disorders had been associated with large consumption of soft drinks. The rising incidence of atherosclerosis and metabolic alterations warrants the study of long-term soft drink consumption' effects on metabolism and atherosclerosis in genetic deficiency of apolipoprotein E which typically develops spontaneous atherosclerosis and metabolic alterations. ApoE-/- mice were randomized in 3 groups accordingly with free access to: water (W), regular cola (C) or light cola (L). After 8 weeks, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized ( W8, C8, L8). The remaining mice (all groups) drank water for 8 weeks and were euthanized (Washout: W16, C16, L16). Body weight and food and drink consumption were periodically measured. Blood was collected (biochemistry). At autopsy, transverse aortic sinus sections were serially cut and stained (histomorphometry); livers and kidneys were processed (microscopy). MANOVA (identification of variance factors) was followed by ANOVA and LSD tests (within-factor differences between levels). Conventionally a p< 0.05 was considered significant. TREATMENT increased drinking volumes (vs W8: 4 fold C8, p<0.0001; +47% L8, p<0.02). Only C reduced eating amounts (-54%, p<0.05 vs W8). I). Compared with W8: C8 developed hyperglycemia (+43%, p<0.03) and increased non-HDL cholesterol (+54%, p<0.05); L8 showed decreased glycemia (-15%, p<0.05 vs W8) and increased creatinine (2.5 fold, p<0.04), urea (+74, p<0.03) and aspartate-aminotransferase (2.8 fold, p<0.05). Hypercreatininemia was observed in L16 (2.7 fold vs W16, p<0.05). Hypertriglyceridemia (+91%, p<0.008) and hyperuremia (+68%, p<0.03) developed over time of study (age). II). TREATMENT caused plaque area increase (vs W8: 28% C8, p<0.02 and 50% L8, p<0.01; vs W16: 43% C16, p<0.05 and 68% L16, p<0.02) and stenosis (vs W8: 38% C8, p<0.04 and 57% L8, p<0.01; vs W16: 71% C16, p<0.01 and 46% L16, p<0.04). Age also caused plaque area increase

  9. Elevated levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol promote atherogenesis in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Jehle, Julian; Schöne, Benedikt; Bagheri, Sayeh; Avraamidou, Elina; Danisch, Melina; Frank, Imke; Pfeifer, Philipp; Bindila, Laura; Lutz, Beat; Lütjohann, Dieter; Zimmer, Andreas; Nickenig, Georg

    2018-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is a known modulator of inflammation and ligand to both, pro-inflammatory cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and anti-inflammatory CB2. While the role of both receptors in atherogenesis has been studied extensively, the significance of 2-AG for atherogenesis is less well characterized. The impact of 2-AG on atherogenesis was studied in two treatment groups of ApoE-/- mice. One group received the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)-inhibitor JZL184 [5 mg/kg i.p.], which impairs 2-AG degradation and thus causes elevated 2-AG levels, the other group received vehicle for four weeks. Simultaneously, both groups were fed a high-cholesterol diet. The atherosclerotic plaque burden was assessed in frozen sections through the aortic sinus following oil red O staining and infiltrating macrophages were detected by immunofluorescence targeting CD68. In vitro, the effect of 2-AG on B6MCL macrophage migration was assessed by Boyden chamber experiments. Transcription of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors in macrophages was assessed by qPCR. As expected, application of the MAGL-inhibitor JZL184 resulted in a significant increase in 2-AG levels in vascular tissue (98.2 ± 16.1 nmol/g vs. 27.3 ± 4.5 nmol/g; n = 14-16; p < 0.001). ApoE-/- mice with elevated 2-AG levels displayed a significantly increased plaque burden compared to vehicle treated controls (0.44 ± 0.03 vs. 0.31 ± 0.04; n = 14; p = 0.0117). This was accompanied by a significant increase in infiltrating macrophages within the atherosclerotic vessel wall (0.33 ± 0.02 vs. 0.27 ± 0.01; n = 13-14; p = 0.0076). While there was no alteration to the white blood counts of JZL184-treated animals, 2-AG enhanced macrophage migration in vitro by 1.8 ± 0.2 -fold (n = 4-6; p = 0.0393) compared to vehicle, which was completely abolished by co-administration of either CB1- or CB2-receptor-antagonists. qPCR analyses of 2-AG-stimulated macrophages showed an enhanced transcription

  10. Metabolic disturbances and worsening of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice after cola beverages drinking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is a major health burden. Metabolic disorders had been associated with large consumption of soft drinks. The rising incidence of atherosclerosis and metabolic alterations warrants the study of long-term soft drink consumption’ effects on metabolism and atherosclerosis in genetic deficiency of apolipoprotein E which typically develops spontaneous atherosclerosis and metabolic alterations. Methods ApoE-/- mice were randomized in 3 groups accordingly with free access to: water (W), regular cola (C) or light cola (L). After 8 weeks, 50% of the animals in each group were euthanized (Treatment: W8, C8, L8). The remaining mice (all groups) drank water for 8 weeks and were euthanized (Washout: W16, C16, L16). Body weight and food and drink consumption were periodically measured. Blood was collected (biochemistry). At autopsy, transverse aortic sinus sections were serially cut and stained (histomorphometry); livers and kidneys were processed (microscopy). MANOVA (identification of variance factors) was followed by ANOVA and LSD tests (within-factor differences between levels). Conventionally a p< 0.05 was considered significant. Results Treatment increased drinking volumes (vs W8: 4 fold C8, p<0.0001; +47% L8, p<0.02). Only C reduced eating amounts (–54%, p<0.05 vs W8). I). Compared with W8: C8 developed hyperglycemia (+43%, p<0.03) and increased non-HDL cholesterol (+54%, p<0.05); L8 showed decreased glycemia (–15%, p<0.05 vs W8) and increased creatinine (2.5 fold, p<0.04), urea (+74, p<0.03) and aspartate-aminotransferase (2.8 fold, p<0.05). Hypercreatininemia was observed in L16 (2.7 fold vs W16, p<0.05). Hypertriglyceridemia (+91%, p<0.008) and hyperuremia (+68%, p<0.03) developed over time of study (age). II). Treatment caused plaque area increase (vs W8: 28% C8, p<0.02 and 50% L8, p<0.01; vs W16: 43% C16, p<0.05 and 68% L16, p<0.02) and stenosis (vs W8: 38% C8, p<0.04 and 57% L8, p<0.01; vs W16: 71% C16, p<0.01 and 46% L16, p<0

  11. ApoE gene deficiency enhances the reduction of bone formation induced by a high-fat diet through the stimulation of p53-mediated apoptosis in osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Shinya; Sakai, Akinori; Tsutsui, Masato; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Miyata, Hironori; Moriwaki, Sawako; Niida, Shumpei; Ito, Masako; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2007-07-01

    Osteoblast apoptosis increased in the tibias of apoE(-/-) mice fed with a high-fat diet, decreasing bone formation. The expression of p53 mRNA in marrow adherent cells increased. LDL or oxidized LDL increased apoptosis in the calvarial cells of apoE(-/-) mice. The increase in p53-mediated apoptosis is apparently related to a high-fat diet-induced osteopenia in apoE(-/-) mice. The effects of high-fat loading and the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene on bones have not been elucidated. We hypothesized that apoE gene deficiency (apoE(-/-)) modulates the effects of high-fat loading on bones. We assessed this hypothesis using wildtype (WT) and apoE(-/-) mice fed a standard (WTS and ApoES groups) or a high-fat diet (WTHf and ApoEHf groups). The concentration of serum lipid levels and bone chemical markers were measured. Histomorphometry of the femurs was performed using microCT and a microscope. Bone marrow adherent cells from the femurs were used for colony-forming unit (CFU)-fibroblastic (CFU-f) assay and mRNA expressions analysis. The apoptotic cells in the tibias were counted. TUNEL fluorescein assay and Western analysis were performed in cultures of calvarial cells by the addition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or oxidized LDL. In the ApoEHf group, the values of cortical bone volume and trabecular and endocortical bone formation of the femurs decreased, and urinary deoxypyridinoline increased. Subsequent analysis revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the tibias of the ApoES group increased, and more so in the ApoEHf group. The ratio of alkaline phosphatase-positive CFU-f to total CFU-f was decreased in the ApoEHf group. p53 mRNA expression in adherent cells of the apoE(-/-) mice increased and had a significantly strong positive correlation with serum LDL. TUNEL fluorescein assay of osteoblastic cells revealed an increase of apoptotic cells in the apoE(-/-) mice. The number of apoptotic cells in the apoE(-/-) mice increased with the addition of 100 microg/ml LDL

  12. Fresh gasoline emissions, not paved road dust, alter cardiac repolarization in ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Campen, Matthew J; McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Seagrave, Jeanclare

    2006-01-01

    Fresh vehicular emissions potentially represent a ubiquitous environmental concern for cardiovascular health. We compared electrocardiographic effects of fresh gasoline engine emissions with resuspended paved road dust in a mouse model of coronary insufficiency. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice on a high fat diet were exposed by whole-body inhalation to either gasoline emissions at 60 microg/m3 particulate matter (PM), an equivalent atmosphere with particles filtered out of the whole exhaust, or paved road dust at 0.5 and 3.5 mg /m3 for 6 h/d for 3 d. Radiotelemetry recordings of electrocardiogram (ECG) were analyzed for changes in T-wave morphology (QT interval, T-wave amplitude, and T-wave Area). Following exposures, lung lavage and blood samples were obtained to assay for markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammation. No exposure induced significant changes in heart rate and only the high concentration of road dust induced signs of pulmonary inflammation. T-wave area exhibited significant deviation from baseline values during exposure to gasoline exhaust particulates, but not to either concentration of road dust or gasoline emissions sans particulates. Gasoline-exposed mice demonstrated elevated plasma endothelin-1, but did not cause systemic inflammation. These data support the hypothesis that freshly-generated engine emissions, as opposed to resuspended paved road dust, may drive cardiac effects that have been observed at road-sides in the environment. The absence of ECG effects for both very high concentrations of road dust PM and equivalent concentrations of the vapor/gas phase of gasoline engine exhaust further indicate the specific risk conferred by fresh vehicular PM.

  13. Arsenic exacerbates atherosclerotic lesion formation and inflammation in ApoE-/- mice

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Sanjay, E-mail: sanjay@louisville.ed; Center for Environmental Genomics and Integrative Biology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202; Vladykovskaya, Elena N.

    2009-11-15

    Exposure to arsenic-contaminated water has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular disease, especially atherosclerosis. We examined the effect of arsenic exposure on atherosclerotic lesion formation, lesion composition and nature in ApoE-/- mice. Early post-natal exposure (3-week-old mice exposed to 49 ppm arsenic as NaAsO{sub 2} in drinking water for 7 weeks) increased the atherosclerotic lesion formation by 3- to 5-fold in the aortic valve and the aortic arch, without affecting plasma cholesterol. Exposure to arsenic for 13 weeks (3-week-old mice exposed to 1, 4.9 and 49 ppm arsenic as NaAsO{sub 2} in drinking water) increased the lesion formation andmore » macrophage accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Temporal studies showed that continuous arsenic exposure significantly exacerbated the lesion formation throughout the aortic tree at 16 and 36 weeks of age. Withdrawal of arsenic for 12 weeks after an initial exposure for 21 weeks (to 3-week-old mice) significantly decreased lesion formation as compared with mice continuously exposed to arsenic. Similarly, adult exposure to 49 ppm arsenic for 24 weeks, starting at 12 weeks of age increased lesion formation by 2- to 3.6-fold in the aortic valve, the aortic arch and the abdominal aorta. Lesions of arsenic-exposed mice displayed a 1.8-fold increase in macrophage accumulation whereas smooth muscle cell and T-lymphocyte contents were not changed. Expression of pro-inflammatory chemokine MCP-1 and cytokine IL-6 and markers of oxidative stress, protein-HNE and protein-MDA adducts were markedly increased in lesions of arsenic-exposed mice. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1, IL-6 and MDA were also significantly elevated in arsenic-exposed mice. These data suggest that arsenic exposure increases oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion formation.« less

  14. Structure of the Apo Form of Bacillus stearothermophilus Phosphofructokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, Rockann; Reddy, Manchi C.M.; Bruning, John B.

    2012-02-08

    The crystal structure of the unliganded form of Bacillus stearothermophilus phosphofructokinase (BsPFK) was determined using molecular replacement to 2.8 {angstrom} resolution (Protein Data Bank entry 3U39). The apo BsPFK structure serves as the basis for the interpretation of any structural changes seen in the binary or ternary complexes. When the apo BsPFK structure is compared with the previously published liganded structures of BsPFK, the structural impact that the binding of the ligands produces is revealed. This comparison shows that the apo form of BsPFK resembles the substrate-bound form of BsPFK, a finding that differs from previous predictions.

  15. AMPK activation enhances the anti-atherogenic effects of high density lipoproteins in apoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ang; Wang, Jing; Yang, Liu; An, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Haibo

    2017-08-01

    HDL plays crucial roles at multiple stages of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of AMPK activation on HDL functionality has not been established in vivo. We assessed the effects of pharmacological AMPK activation using A-769662, AICAR, metformin, and IMM-H007 on the atheroprotective functions of HDL in apoE-deficient (apoE -/- ) mice fed with a high-fat diet. After administration, there were no changes in serum lipid levels among the groups. However, mice treated with AMPK activators showed significantly enhanced reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and in vitro. AMPK activation also increased the expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages and scavenger receptor class B type I and LCAT in the liver. HDL from AMPK activation mice exhibited lower HDL inflammatory index and myeloperoxidase activity and higher paraoxonase 1 activity than HDL from untreated mice, implying superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. Pharmacological AMPK activation also induced polarization of macrophages to the M2 state and reduced plasma lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokine production, and atherosclerotic plaque formation in apoE -/- mice. These observations suggest that pharmacological AMPK activation enhances the anti-atherogenic properties of HDL in vivo. This likely represents a key mechanism by which AMPK activation attenuates atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Sex and ApoE Genotype Differences in Treatment Response to Two Doses of Intranasal Insulin in Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Amy; Baker, Laura D.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Trittschuh, Emily H.; Chapmana, Darla; Watson, G. Stennis; Cholerton, Brenna; Plymate, Stephen R.; Arbuckle, Matthew; Craft, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A previous clinical trial demonstrated that four months of treatment with intranasal insulin improves cognition and function for patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but prior studies suggest that response to insulin treatment may differ by sex and ApoE ε4 carriage. Thus, responder analyses using repeated measures analysis of covariance were completed on the trial’s 104 participants with MCI or AD who received either placebo or 20 or 40 IU of insulin for 4 months, administered by a nasal delivery device. Results indicate that men and women with memory impairment responded differently to intranasal insulin treatment. On delayed story memory, men and women showed cognitive improvement when taking 20 IU of intranasal insulin, but only men showed cognitive improvement for the 40 IU dose. The sex difference was most apparent for ApoE ε4 negative individuals. For the 40 IU dose, ApoE ε4 negative men improved while ApoE ε4 negative women worsened. Their ApoE ε4 positive counterparts remained cognitively stable. This sex effect was not detected in functional measures. However, functional abilities were relatively preserved for women on either dose of intranasal insulin compared with men. Unlike previous studies with young adults, neither men nor women taking intranasal insulin exhibited a significant change in weight over 4 months of treatment. PMID:23507773

  17. Oral chromium picolinate impedes hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis and inhibits proatherogenic protein TSP-1 expression in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Rituparna; Sahu, Soumyadip; Ohanyan, Vahagn; Haney, Rebecca; Chavez, Ronaldo J; Shah, Shivani; Yalamanchili, Siri; Raman, Priya

    2017-03-27

    Increasing evidence suggests thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent proatherogenic matricellular protein, as a putative link between hyperglycemia and atherosclerotic complications in diabetes. We previously reported that the micronutrient chromium picolinate (CrP), with long-standing cardiovascular benefits, inhibits TSP-1 expression in glucose-stimulated human aortic smooth muscle cells in vitro. Here, we investigated the atheroprotective action of orally administered CrP in type 1 diabetic apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE -/- ) mice and elucidated the role of TSP-1 in this process. CrP decreased lipid burden and neointimal thickness in aortic root lesions of hyperglycemic ApoE -/- mice; also, smooth muscle cell (SMC), macrophage and leukocyte abundance was prevented coupled with reduced cell proliferation. Attenuated lesion progression was accompanied with inhibition of hyperglycemia-induced TSP-1 expression and reduced protein O-glycosylation following CrP treatment; also, PCNA and vimentin (SMC synthetic marker) expression were reduced while SM-MHC (SMC contractile marker) levels were increased. To confirm a direct role of TSP-1 in diabetic atherosclerosis, hyperglycemic TSP-1 -/- /ApoE -/- double knockout mice were compared with age-matched hyperglycemic ApoE -/- littermates. Lack of TSP-1 prevented lesion formation in hyperglycemic ApoE -/- mice, mimicking the atheroprotective phenotype of CrP-treated mice. These results suggest that therapeutic TSP-1 inhibition may have important atheroprotective potential in diabetic vascular disease.

  18. Molecular imaging of inflammation in the ApoE -/- mouse model of atherosclerosis with IodoDPA

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, Catherine A., E-mail: cfoss1@jhmi.edu; Bedja, Djahida; Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney

    Background: Atherosclerosis is a common and serious vascular disease predisposing individuals to myocardial infarction and stroke. Intravascular plaques, the pathologic lesions of atherosclerosis, are largely composed of cholesterol-laden luminal macrophage-rich infiltrates within a fibrous cap. The ability to detect those macrophages non-invasively within the aorta, carotid artery and other vessels would allow physicians to determine plaque burden, aiding management of patients with atherosclerosis. Methods and results: We previously developed a low-molecular-weight imaging agent, [{sup 125}I]iodo-DPA-713 (iodoDPA), which selectively targets macrophages. Here we use it to detect both intravascular macrophages and macrophage infiltrates within the myocardium in the ApoE -/- mousemore » model of atherosclerosis using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). SPECT data were confirmed by echocardiography, near-infrared fluorescence imaging and histology. SPECT images showed focal uptake of radiotracer at the aortic root in all ApoE -/- mice, while the age-matched controls were nearly devoid of radiotracer uptake. Focal radiotracer uptake along the descending aorta and within the myocardium was also observed in affected animals. Conclusions: IodoDPA is a promising new imaging agent for atherosclerosis, with specificity for the macrophage component of the lesions involved. - Highlights: • [{sup 125}I]iodoDPA SPECT detects atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE -/- mice with high contrast. • Plaques are detected in ApoE -/- mice regardless of diet with iodoDPA. • iodoDPA has very low uptake in healthy tissue including healthy TSPO + tissues at 24 h.« less

  19. Moderate alcohol use and apolipoprotein E-4 (ApoE-4): Independent effects on cognitive outcomes in later life.

    PubMed

    Herring, Danielle; Paulson, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Substantive past research suggests that moderate alcohol use confers beneficial health outcomes. The study of moderate alcohol use and cognition has produced variable findings. The primary goal was to examine the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive aging over time (Experiment 1), in a demographically representative, longitudinal survey of older adults. Experiment 2 examined the hypothesis that apolipoprotein E-4 (ApoE-4) would moderate the relationship between moderate drinking and performance on cognitive domains. The sample was drawn from the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS) supplement of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and included 856 participants over age 65 in 2001. Follow-up data were from 2002, 2006, and 2008. Alcohol use was measured via self-report. Control variables included gender, age, race, number of years of education, medical burden (total number of medical diseases), and marital status. Results of Experiment 1 indicated that moderate alcohol use was significantly associated with better baseline functioning across cognitive measures (p ≤ .05), but had no significant effect on rate of change over time across cognitive domains. Results of Experiment 2 indicated that while ApoE-4 carriage did not moderate the relationship between alcohol use and cognitive performance, generally, both ApoE-4 and moderate alcohol use were significant predictors of cognitive performance. Overall, findings from this study support past findings that moderate alcohol use is associated with better cognitive functioning among community-dwelling older adults, and these relative benefits appear to persist throughout later life. However, the role of individual differences on manifestation of benefit remain very poorly understood. Future research should further examine the respective roles of demographic differences associated with cognitive aging, genetic moderators, and the influence of social interaction.

  20. Involvement of histone methylation in macrophage apoptosis and unstable plaque formation in methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemic ApoE-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Guangzhi; Yan, Ru; Huang, Hui; Wang, Kai; Yan, Ning; Jin, Ping; Zhang, Na; Hou, Jianjun; Chen, Dapeng; Jia, Shaobin

    2017-03-15

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an independent risk factor of atherosclerosis and promotes unstable plaque formation. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis induced by Hhcy. However, the exact mechanism is still undefined. Lesional apoptotic cells and necrotic core formation contribute greatly to the progression of plaque. The present study sought to determine whether modification of histone methylation is involved in macrophage apoptosis and unstable plaque formation in the condition of Hhcy. The unstable plaque formation, lesional apoptotic cells and status of histone methylation were monitored in the aortas of Hhcy ApoE -/- mice induced by a high-methionine (HM) diet for 20weeks. Involvement of histone methylation in macrophage apoptosis and foam cell formation were assessed in macrophage Raw 264.7 cells after being challenged with homocysteine alone or in combination with the histone methylation inhibitor BIX 01294. The unstable plaque formation and lesion apoptotic cells are increased in ApoE -/ - mice supplemented with high-methionine (HM), accompanied with a decreased expression of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation. Hhcy increases the apoptosis of macrophages and inhibits the histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation, as well as the expression of histone methyltransferase G9a in vitro. Inhibition of histone methylation by BIX01294 enhances macrophage apoptosis and foam cell formation in vitro. Our data suggest that Hhcy promotes the progression of atherosclerosis via macrophage apoptosis. Histone methylation might be involved in macrophage apoptosis and unstable plaque formation in methionine induced hyperhomocysteinemic ApoE -/- mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.