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Sample records for a-i apo a-i

  1. ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Mediates ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) and ApoA-I Mimetic Peptide Mobilization of Extracellular Cholesterol Microdomains Deposited by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Sviridov, Denis; Liu, Ying; Vaisman, Boris; Addadi, Lia; Remaley, Alan T; Kruth, Howard S

    2016-12-01

    We examined the function of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in ApoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mobilization of cholesterol microdomains deposited into the extracellular matrix by cholesterol-enriched macrophages. We have also determined whether an ApoA-I mimetic peptide without and with complexing to sphingomyelin can mobilize macrophage-deposited cholesterol microdomains. Extracellular cholesterol microdomains deposited by cholesterol-enriched macrophages were detected with a monoclonal antibody, 58B1. ApoA-I and an ApoA-I mimetic peptide 5A mobilized cholesterol microdomains deposited by ABCA1 +/+ macrophages but not by ABCA1 -/- macrophages. In contrast, ApoA-I mimetic peptide 5A complexed with sphingomyelin could mobilize cholesterol microdomains deposited by ABCA1 -/- macrophages. Our findings show that a unique pool of extracellular cholesterol microdomains deposited by macrophages can be mobilized by both ApoA-I and an ApoA-I mimetic peptide but that mobilization depends on macrophage ABCA1. It is known that ABCA1 complexes ApoA-I and ApoA-I mimetic peptide with phospholipid, a cholesterol-solubilizing agent, explaining the requirement for ABCA1 in extracellular cholesterol microdomain mobilization. Importantly, ApoA-I mimetic peptide already complexed with phospholipid can mobilize macrophage-deposited extracellular cholesterol microdomains even in the absence of ABCA1. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Genome-wide screen for modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) secretion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rebecca R; Perry, William; Haas, Joseph V; Mosior, Marian K; N'Cho, Mathias; Wang, Jian W J; Yu, Peng; Calley, John; Yue, Yong; Carter, Quincy; Han, Bomie; Foxworthy, Patricia; Kowala, Mark C; Ryan, Timothy P; Solenberg, Patricia J; Michael, Laura F

    2013-03-01

    Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue-specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; 40 genes were confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. The genes of interest include known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, G-protein-coupled receptors, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters, and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor manumycin A caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets.

  3. Apo A-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) Vascular Gene Therapy Provides Durable Protection Against Atherosclerosis in Hyperlipidemic Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Bradley K; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Bi, Lianxiang; Stamatikos, Alexis; Dichek, David A

    2018-01-01

    Gene therapy that expresses apo A-I (apolipoprotein A-I) from vascular wall cells has promise for preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. Previously, we reported that transduction of carotid artery endothelial cells with a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing apo A-I reduced early (4 weeks) fatty streak development in fat-fed rabbits. Here, we tested whether the same HDAd could provide long-term protection against development of more complex lesions. Fat-fed rabbits (n=25) underwent bilateral carotid artery gene transfer, with their left and right common carotids randomized to receive either a control vector (HDAdNull) or an apo A-I-expressing vector (HDAdApoAI). Twenty-four additional weeks of high-fat diet yielded complex intimal lesions containing lipid-rich macrophages as well as smooth muscle cells, often in a lesion cap. Twenty-four weeks after gene transfer, high levels of apo A-I mRNA (median ≥250-fold above background) were present in all HDAdApoAI-treated arteries. Compared with paired control HDAdNull-treated arteries in the same rabbit, HDAdApoAI-treated arteries had 30% less median intimal lesion volume ( P =0.03), with concomitant reductions (23%-32%) in intimal lipid, macrophage, and smooth muscle cell content ( P ≤0.05 for all). HDAdApoAI-treated arteries also had decreased intimal inflammatory markers. VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1)-stained area was reduced by 36% ( P =0.03), with trends toward lower expression of ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), and TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-α; 13%-39% less; P =0.06-0.1). In rabbits with severe hyperlipidemia, transduction of vascular endothelial cells with an apo A-I-expressing HDAd yields at least 24 weeks of local apo A-I expression that durably reduces atherosclerotic lesion growth and intimal inflammation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Dietary Strategies and Novel Pharmaceutical Approaches Targeting Serum ApoA-I Metabolism: A Systematic Overview

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Lotte; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of CHD is still increasing, which underscores the need for new preventive and therapeutic approaches to decrease CHD risk. In this respect, increasing apoA-I concentrations may be a promising approach, especially through increasing apoA-I synthesis. This review first provides insight into current knowledge on apoA-I production, clearance, and degradation, followed by a systematic review of dietary and novel pharmacological approaches to target apoA-I metabolism. For this, a systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled intervention studies that examined effects of whole foods and (non)nutrients on apoA-I metabolism. In addition, novel pharmacological approaches were searched for, which were specifically developed to target apoA-I metabolism. We conclude that both dietary components and pharmacological approaches can be used to increase apoA-I concentrations or functionality. For the dietary components in particular, more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is necessary, as increasing apoA-I per se does not necessarily translate into a reduced CHD risk. PMID:28695008

  5. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-11-03

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification.

  6. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  7. PPARγ Represses Apolipoprotein A-I Gene but Impedes TNFα-Mediated ApoA-I Downregulation in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Mogilenko, Denis A; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Efremov, Alexander M; Oleinikova, Galina N; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the main anti-atherogenic component of human high-density lipoproteins (HDL). ApoA-I gene expression is regulated by several nuclear receptors, which are the sensors for metabolic changes during development of cardiovascular diseases. Activation of nuclear receptor PPARγ has been shown to impact lipid metabolism as well as inflammation. Here, we have shown that synthetic PPARγ agonist GW1929 decreases both ApoA-I mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells and the effect of GW1929 on apoA-I gene transcription depends on PPARγ. PPARγ binds to the sites A and C within the hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene and the negative regulation of apoA-I gene transcription by PPARγ appears to be realized via the site C (-134 to -119). Ligand activation of PPARγ leads to an increase of LXRβ and a decrease of PPARα binding to the apoA-I gene hepatic enhancer in HepG2 cells. GW1929 abolishes the TNFα-mediated decrease of ApoA-I mRNA expression in both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells but does not block TNFα-mediated inhibition of ApoA-I protein secretion by HepG2 cells. These data demonstrate that complex of PPARγ with GW1929 is a negative regulator involved in the control of ApoA-I expression and secretion in human hepatocyte- and enterocyte-like cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2010-2022, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Ictalurus punctatus apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1) mRNA, complete cds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The complete coding sequence of channel catfish apolipoprotein A-I is 777 bp in length, encoding 258 amino acids. The publishing of this coding sequence will also allow phylogenetic comparison between catfish ApoAI and ApoAI genes from other species. The availability of this complete coding sequence...

  9. The Interaction of ApoA-I and ABCA1 Triggers Signal Transduction Pathways to Mediate Efflux of Cellular Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guo-Jun; Yin, Kai; Fu, Yu-chang; Tang, Chao-Ke

    2012-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) has been characterized as a crucial step for antiatherosclerosis, which is initiated by ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) to mediate the efflux of cellular phospholipids and cholesterol to lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). However, the mechanisms underlying apoA-I/ABCA1 interaction to lead to the lipidation of apoA-I are poorly understood. There are several models proposed for the interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1 as well as the lipidation of apoA-I mediated by ABCA1. ApoA-I increases the levels of ABCA1 protein markedly. In turn, ABCA1 can stabilize apoA-I. The interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1 could activate signaling molecules that modulate posttranslational ABCA1 activity or lipid transport activity. The key signaling molecules in these processes include protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), Rho GTPases and Ca2+, and many factors also could influence the interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1. This review will summarize these mechanisms for the apoA-I interaction with ABCA1 as well as the signal transduction pathways involved in these processes. PMID:22064972

  10. Role of LCAT and Apo A-I in Newly Diagnosed HIV Patients.

    PubMed

    Mirajkar, Akshata; Nikam, Shashikant; Nikam, Padmaja; Patil, Giridhar

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a growing concern for health workers. The two major components of dyslipidemia in HIV infected patients are hypertriglyceridemia and decreased levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) which contribute to increased atherosclerotic risk. The study included 150 newly diagnosed HIV patients and 150 healthy controls. In all these cases Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activity was assessed by measuring the difference between esterified and free cholesterol by digitonin precipitation method and levels of Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) were measured by immunoturbidimetric method. There was a significantly decreased LCAT activity ( p  < 0.05) as well as reduced levels of apo A-I ( p  < 0.05) in newly diagnosed HIV patients (54.98 ± 3.44 IU/L and 131.85 ± 8.49 mg/dl) when compared with healthy controls (88.17 ± 14.36 IU/L and 187.05 ± 35.25 mg/dL). A significant positive correlation (r = 0.7406) was found between LCAT activity and apo A-I levels. In conclusion decreased LCAT activity and decreased levels of apo A-I reduce the reverse cholesterol transport in newly diagnosed HIV patients which may lead to atherosclerosis in the future.

  11. POPC/apoA-I discs as a potent lipoprotein modulator in Tangier disease.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yoshinari; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Zhang, Bo; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Baba, Yasuhiko; Higuchi, Masa-aki; Yamada, Tatsuo; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Saku, Keijiro

    2008-03-01

    Tangier disease (TD) is a rare familial disorder with mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) gene. It results in extremely low levels of HDL cholesterol. Since TD is a genetic disorder, a therapeutic approach to TD has not been established. We report a typical case of TD with a homozygous novel point mutation in the ABCA1 gene by using genomic DNA sequencing. Primary monocyte-derived macrophages of blood from a patient with TD and normolipidemic subjects were compared for cholesterol efflux. The macrophages from the TD patient showed no apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux. In contrast, POPC/apoA-I discs were able to take up cholesterol from macrophages from both the TD and normolipidemic subject. Capillary isotachophoresis (cITP), which separates lipoprotein into subfractions according to electrophoretic mobility, was used to characterize plasma lipoprotein subfractions. Both slow-migrating HDL (sHDL) and slow-migrating LDL (sLDL; unmodified LDL) subfractions were extremely low in the patient with TD. After incubation of plasma from the TD patient with POPC/apoA-I discs, sHDL and sLDL subfractions rapidly appeared. In conclusion, POPC/apoA-I discs not only have beneficial effects on cholesterol efflux, but also have potential as a lipoprotein modulator in patients with TD.

  12. Effect of Royal Jelly Intake on Serum Glucose, Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I Ratios in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, Basemeh; Djazayeri, Shima; Amiri, Fatemehsadat; Malek, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Agha Fateme; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Shidfar, Farzad

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Evidence supports a role for royal jelly (RJ) in reduction of serum glucose and lipids in animals and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum glucose, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were randomly divided into RJ and placebo groups and were given doses of 1000 mg royal jelly or placebo 3 times a day for 8 weeks, respectively. Weight, height, fasting blood glucose, ApoA-I and ApoB were measured at baseline and endpoint. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and dietary intakes between groups. The mean difference in glucose concentrations decreased in the RJ group (-9.4 mg/dL vs. 4 mg/dL; p=0.011). The mean difference in ApoA-I concentrations increased in the RJ group (34.4 mg/dL vs. -1.08 mg/dL; p=0.013). There was a significant decrease in mean difference of ApoB/ApoA-I in the RJ group compared with the placebo group (0.008 vs. 0.13; p<0.044), respectively. These data suggest that RJ intake may have desirable effects on serum glucose, Apo-A-I concentrations and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dysfunctional HDL containing L159R apoA-I leads to exacerbation of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the effect of the mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) was assessed. apoA-IL159R (FIN) is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Transgenic mice lines were created through strategic mati...

  14. Apo B/Apo A-I Ratio is Statistically A Better Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) than Conventional Lipid Profile: A Study from Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Hem Kumar; Timilsina, Uddhav; Singh, Khelanand Prasad; Shrestha, Sanjit; Raman, Ramendra Kumar; Panta, Pujan; Karna, Preeti; Khadka, Laxmi; Dahal, Chandika

    2014-01-01

    Background: Apo B and Apo A-I, are structural and functional components of lipoprotein particles that serve as transporters of cholesterol. The apo B/apo A-I ratio reflects the cholesterol transport and has been shown to be strongly related to risk of Myocardial infarction, stroke and other Cardiovascular manifestations. Materials and Methods: Forty five participants with Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and forty four healthy participants were included from different locations of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. Fasting blood samples were collected from ante-cubital vein and serum samples were used for lipid parameters, apo B and apo A-I levels measurement. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for apo B/apo A-I ratio, HDL-c and apo B between the groups. The other lipid parameters and lipid ratios such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, TC/HDL-c, TG/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c were not found to be significant. Conclusion: Apo B/apo A-I ratio seems to have better predictive value than that of classical lipid parameters in cardiovascular risk assessment. PMID:24701475

  15. Negative regulation of Apo A-I gene expression by retinoic acid in rat hepatocytes maintained in a coculture system.

    PubMed

    Berthou, L; Langouët, S; Grudé, P; Denèfle, P; Branellec, D; Guillouzo, A

    1998-04-22

    Rat hepatocytes cocultured with rat liver epithelial cells (RLEC) were used to investigate the influence of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) on the regulation of apolipoproteins (Apo) A-I and A-II gene expression, the major protein constituent of high-density lipoproteins. In contrast to rat hepatocytes in conventional primary culture, Apo A-I and Apo A-II gene expression remained high and stable for several days in parenchymal cells in coculture. Treatment of cocultured rat hepatocytes with RA resulted in a specific decrease in Apo A-I mRNA levels whereas no marked difference in Apo A-II mRNA levels was observed. Such a negative effect of RA was already detected as early as 2 days of treatment and was effective for the entire experimental period (6 days). As controls, RARbeta mRNA levels increased whereas those of GAPDH mRNA were not affected by the RA treatment. The decrease in Apo A-I mRNA levels was associated with lower amounts of Apo A-I secreted in the culture medium within day 1 of treatment. This effect required active transcription and protein synthesis. These results show that, contrary to primary pure hepatocyte cultures and hepatoma cell lines, cocultures of rat hepatocytes reproduce the in vivo results suggesting that only well differentiated hepatocytes may correctly respond to RA. Furthermore, they demonstrate that RA can directly act on hepatocytes and differently affect Apo A-I and Apo A-II gene expression. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. A novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy[S

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Gao, Feng; Meriwether, David; Grijalva, Victor; Springstead, James R.; Palgnachari, Mayakonda N.; Namiri-Kalantari, Ryan; Su, Feng; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Wagner, Alan C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants were constructed with an empty vector (EV) or a vector expressing an apoA-I mimetic peptide, 6F. EV or 6F tomatoes were harvested, lyophilized, ground into powder, added to Western diet (WD) at 2.2% by weight, and fed to LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) mice at 45 mg/kg/day 6F. After 13 weeks, the percent of the aorta with lesions was 4.1 ± 4%, 3.3 ± 2.4%, and 1.9 ± 1.4% for WD, WD + EV, and WD + 6F, respectively (WD + 6F vs. WD, P = 0.0134; WD + 6F vs. WD + EV, P = 0.0386; WD + EV vs. WD, not significant). While body weight did not differ, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels were less in WD + 6F mice; P < 0.0295. HDL cholesterol and paroxonase-1 activity (PON) were higher in WD + 6F mice (P = 0.0055 and P = 0.0254, respectively), but not in WD + EV mice. Plasma SAA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LPA, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) levels positively correlated with lesions (P < 0.0001); HDL cholesterol and PON were inversely correlated (P < 0.0001). After feeding WD + 6F: i) intact 6F was detected in small intestine (but not in plasma); ii) small intestine LPA was decreased compared with WD + EV (P < 0.0469); and iii) small intestine LPA 18:2 positively correlated with the percent of the aorta with lesions (P < 0.0179). These data suggest that 6F acts in the small intestine and provides a novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy. PMID:23378594

  17. Mast cell chymase degrades apoE and apoA-II in apoA-I-knockout mouse plasma and reduces its ability to promote cellular cholesterol efflux.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miriam; Calabresi, Laura; Chiesa, Giulia; Franceschini, Guido; Kovanen, Petri T

    2002-09-01

    Mast cell chymase is a chymotryptic heparin proteoglycan-bound neutral protease that exerts its activity in extracellular fluids. We studied the effect of chymase on the apolipoprotein compositions and the abilities of plasmas from apolipoprotein (apo)A-I-knockout (A-I-KO) and wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice to stimulate efflux of cellular cholesterol from mouse macrophage foam cells. The A-I-KO apolipoproteins compared with the wild-type (apoA-I, apoA-II, apoA-IV, and apoE) showed total lack of apoA-I, unaltered apoA-II, an absence of apoA-IV, and an increase of apoE. Despite these major differences, the 2 plasmas induced similar high-affinity efflux of cholesterol from the foam cells. Quantitative analysis of chymase-treated plasmas revealed (1) in A-I-KO plasma, complete loss of apoE and apoA-II, and (2) in wild-type plasma, slight reduction of apoA-I associated with complete depletion of the minor pre-beta-high density lipoprotein fraction, strong reduction of apoA-II, and complete depletion of apoA-IV and apoE. Both proteolyzed plasmas had lost the ability to induce cellular cholesterol efflux with high affinity. Addition of discoidal pre-beta-migrating reconstituted high density lipoprotein particles containing human apoA-I or apoA-II to the chymase-treated A-I-KO plasma fully restored its cholesterol efflux-inducing ability, indicating functional replacement of the proteolyzed apoE and apoA-II. Thus, chymase degraded all the nondeleted apolipoproteins of the A-I-KO plasma involved in the high-affinity efflux of cellular cholesterol. This is the first indication that genetically engineered mice could be used as models for examining the hypothesis that extracellular proteases are involved in the development of atherosclerosis by inhibiting the apolipoprotein-mediated removal of macrophage cholesterol.

  18. Immunogenicity, Inflammation, and Lipid Accumulation in Cynomolgus Monkeys Infused with a Lipidated Tetranectin-ApoA-I Fusion Protein.

    PubMed

    Regenass-Lechner, Franziska; Staack, Roland F; Mary, Jean-Luc; Richter, Wolfgang F; Winter, Michael; Jordan, Gregor; Justies, Nicole; Langenkamp, Anja; Garrido, Rosario; Albassam, Mudher; Singer, Thomas; Atzpodien, Elke-Astrid

    2016-04-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL)-targeted therapies, which promote cholesterol efflux from cells, are currently in development for reducing cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome. Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL protein, was fused to the trimerization domain of tetranectin (TN) and complexed with phospholipids to generate a HDL mimetic (lipidated TN-ApoA-I) with reduced renal clearance and enhanced efficacy. Cynomolgus monkeys received 24-h intravenous infusions of control, 100 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg lipidated TN-ApoA-I every 4 days for 3 weeks, followed by a 6-week recovery period. After multiple infusions of lipidated TN-ApoA-I, clinical condition deteriorated and was accompanied by changes indicative of a progressive inflammatory response; increased levels of cytokines, C-reactive protein and vascular/perivascular infiltrates in multiple tissues. Rapid formation of antidrug antibodies occurred in all animals receiving lipidated TN-ApoA-I. Enhanced drug clearance corresponding to a relative lack of high molecular weight immune complexes in blood, suggestive of preferred removal/clearance, was observed in some animals. Expected dose-dependent increases in serum lipids were accompanied by vacuolated monocytes/macrophages in multiple organs, which in the glomeruli were shown to be CD68-positive, contain lipid and co-localized with granular IgG deposits. Lipid accumulation may have been a direct result of a high drug load, possibly enhanced by immune complex formation, inflammation, and altered lipid metabolism. Noteworthy was the inter- individual inconsistency in the severity of clinical and histopathologic findings, drug clearance and inflammatory markers. In conclusion, multiple infusions of lipidated TN-ApoA-I resulted in high immunogenicity, lipid accumulation and were not well tolerated in nonhuman primates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For

  19. Defective functionality of HDL particles in familial apoA-I deficiency: relevance of alterations in HDL lipidome and proteome.

    PubMed

    Rached, Fabiana; Santos, Raul D; Camont, Laurent; Miname, Marcio H; Lhomme, Marie; Dauteuille, Carolane; Lecocq, Sora; Serrano, Carlos V; Chapman, M John; Kontush, Anatol

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate functional and compositional properties of HDL in subjects from a kindred of genetic apoA-I deficiency, two homozygotes and six heterozygotes, with a nonsense mutation at APOA1 codon -2, Q[-2]X, were recruited together with age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 11). Homozygotes displayed undetectable plasma levels of apoA-I and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoC-III (5.4% and 42.6% of controls, respectively). Heterozygotes displayed low HDL-C (21 ± 9 mg/dl), low apoA-I (79 ± 24 mg/dl), normal LDL-cholesterol (132 ± 25 mg/dl), and elevated TG (130 ± 45 mg/dl) levels. Cholesterol efflux capacity of ultracentrifugally isolated HDL subpopulations was reduced (up to -25%, P < 0.01, on a glycerophospholipid [GP] basis) in heterozygotes versus controls. Small, dense HDL3 and total HDL from heterozygotes exhibited diminished antioxidative activity (up to -48%, P < 0.001 on a total mass basis) versus controls. HDL subpopulations from both homozygotes and heterozygotes displayed altered chemical composition, with depletion in apoA-I, GP, and cholesteryl ester; enrichment in apoA-II, free cholesterol, and TG; and altered phosphosphingolipidome. The defective atheroprotective activities of HDL were correlated with altered lipid and apo composition. These data reveal that atheroprotective activities of HDL particles are impaired in homozygous and heterozygous apoA-I deficiency and are intimately related to marked alterations in protein and lipid composition. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. ApoB/ApoA-I ratio is independently associated with carotid atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus with well-controlled LDL cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Dae Jung; Park, Seok Won; Huh, Byung Wook; Lee, Eun Jig; Jee, Sun-Ha; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Choi, Sung Hee; Huh, Kap Bum

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aims This study aimed to investigate whether the apolipoprotein (Apo) B/ApoA-I ratio is associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels less than 100 mg/dL. Methods This cross-sectional study included 845 subjects aged with T2DM 40 to 75 years who had visited Huh’s Diabetes Center in Seoul, Republic of Korea for CIMT measurement. Traditional fasting lipid profiles, ApoB and ApoA-I levels were examined. CIMT was measured at three points on the far wall of 1 cm long section of the common carotid artery in the proximity of the carotid bulb. The mean value of six measurements from right and left carotid arteries were used as the mean CIMT. In this study, carotid atherosclerosis was defined as having a focal plaque or diffuse thickening of the carotid wall (mean CIMT ≥ 1.0 mm) Results The prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis increased with ApoB/ApoA-I ratio. The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, expressed as both quartiles (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 3.79; p for trend = 0.014) and continuous values (OR, 10.05; 95% CI, 3.26 to 30.97; p < 0.001), was significantly associated with a higher risk for carotid atherosclerosis, regardless of conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors. The optimal ApoB/ApoA-I ratio cutoff value for detecting carotid atherosclerosis was 0.57, based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis with a sensitivity of 58.0% and a specificity of 55.1%. Conclusions A high ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM patients with LDL-C levels less than 100 mg/dL. PMID:29334727

  1. [HDL-C/apoA-I]: A multivessel cardiometabolic risk marker in women with T2DM.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michel P; Valensi, Paul; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2018-01-01

    Although women have higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than have men, their HDL particles are also prone to become small, dense, and dysfunctional in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To assess the vascular risk related to HDLs of different sizes/densities without direct measurement, we adjusted HDL-C to its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) as [HDL-C/apoA-I]. This ratio estimates HDL sizes and provides indices as to their number, cholesterol load, and density. We stratified 280 Caucasian T2DM women according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q) to determine how they are segregated according to cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycaemic control, and vascular complications. Five parameters were derived from combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I: HDL size, HDL number, cholesterol load per particle (pP), apoA-I pP, and HDL density. An adverse cardiometabolic profile characterized QI and QII patients whose HDLs were denser and depleted in apoA-I, whereas QIII patients had HDLs with characteristics closer to those of controls. QIV patients had HDLs of supernormal size/composition and a more favourable phenotype in terms of fat distribution; insulin sensitivity (64% vs 41%), metabolic syndrome, and β-cell function (32% vs 23%); exogenous insulin (44 vs 89 U·d -1 ); and glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin, 56 vs 61 mmol·mol -1 ), associated with lower prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications: all-cause microangiopathy 47% vs 61%; retinopathy 22% vs 34%; all-cause macroangiopathy 19% vs 31%; and coronary artery disease 6% vs 24% (P < .05). [HDL-C/apoA-I] can stratify T2DM women according to metabolic phenotype, macrovascular and coronary damage, β-cell function, microangiopathic risk, and retinopathy. This ratio is a versatile and readily available marker of cardiometabolic status and vascular complications in T2DM women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Natural human apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN alter HDL structure and functionality and promote atherosclerosis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Tiniakou, Ioanna; Kanaki, Zoi; Georgopoulos, Spiros; Chroni, Angeliki; Van Eck, Miranda; Fotakis, Panagiotis; Zannis, Vassilis I; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are associated with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and pathological conditions such as premature atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In this study we functionally characterized two natural human apoA-I mutations, L141RPisa and L159RFIN, in vivo. We generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type (WT) or the two mutant forms of human apoA-I on a mouse apoA-I(-/-) background and analyzed for abnormalities in their lipid and lipoprotein profiles. HDL structure and functionality, as well as atherosclerosis development following a 14-week high-fat diet were assessed in these mice. The expression of either apoA-I mutant was associated with markedly reduced serum apoA-I (<10% of WT apoA-I), total and HDL-cholesterol levels (∼20% and ∼7% of WT apoA-I, respectively) and the formation of few small size HDL particles with preβ2 and α3, α4 electrophoretic mobility. HDL particles containing either of the two apoA-I mutants exhibited attenuated anti-oxidative properties as indicated by their inability to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and by decreased activities of paraoxonase-1 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. However, the apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN-containing HDL particles demonstrated increased capacity to promote ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Expression of apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN mutations in mice was associated with increased diet-induced atherosclerosis compared to either WT apoA-I transgenic or apoA-I(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that natural apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN affect the biogenesis and the functionality of HDL in vivo and predispose to diet-induced atherosclerosis in the absence of any other genetic defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel apolipoprotein A-I binding protein, AI-BP, secreted by cells of the kidney proximal tubules in response to HDL or ApoA-I.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Mirko; Buechler, Christa; Boettcher, Alfred; Barlage, Stefan; Schmitz-Madry, Anna; Orsó, Evelyn; Bared, Salim Maa; Schmiedeknecht, Gerno; Baehr, Carsten H; Fricker, Gert; Schmitz, Gerd

    2002-05-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has an important role in the regulation of the stability, lipid transport, and metabolism of HDL particles. To identify novel proteins that are involved in HDL metabolism, we used mature apoA-I (amino acids 25-267) as a bait for the screening of a human liver two-hybrid cDNA library. Among the identified genes, several encoded known proteins, including serum amyloid A(2a) (SAA(2a)), apoC-I, and phosphodiesterase HCAM1 (PDE1A), found to interact with apoA-I. In addition, we have cloned a novel 29 kDa apoA-I interacting protein, which we named AI-BP (apoA-I binding protein). The AI-BP encoding gene, APOA1BP, which is located on chromosome 1q21, is composed of six exons and five introns and spans 2.5 kb. Northern blot analysis demonstrated ubiquitous expression of the APOA1BP mRNA with the highest expression in kidney, heart, liver, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and testis. AI-BP protein is not detectable in serum of healthy probands, but serum samples of patients with septic syndromes may contain elevated levels of AI-BP. Significant amounts of AI-BP protein are found in cerebrospinal fluid and urine of healthy probands. The stimulation of cells derived from the kidney proximal tubules with apoA-I or HDL induces a concentration-dependent secretion of AI-BP indicating an important role for AI-BP, in the renal tubular degradation or resorption of apoA-I.

  4. Mass spectral analysis of domestic and wild equine apoA-I and A-II: detection of unique dimeric forms of apoA-II.

    PubMed

    Puppione, Donald L; Whitelegge, Julian P; Yam, Lang M; Bassilian, Sara; Schumaker, Verne N; MacDonald, Melinda H

    2005-12-01

    In pigs, humans, chimpanzees and probably other great apes, a cysteine at residue 6 enables apolipoprotein A-II to form a homodimer. However, the apoA-IIs of other primates, lacking a cysteine residue, are monomeric. We have already reported that horse apoA-IIs form homodimers due also to a cysteine at residue 6. In this study, we wanted to determine whether other equine apoA-IIs might be monomeric. The high density lipoproteins were ultracentrifugally isolated from the plasmas of a horse (Equus caballus), a donkey (Equus asinus) and five wild equines: two types of zebras (Equus zebra hartmannae and Equus zebra quagga boehmi), a Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii), a Somali ass (Equus africanus somalicus) and a kiang (Equus kiang holdereri). Using liquid chromatography with electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry, we were able to obtain accurate values for the molecular masses of apoA-I and apoA-II. Homodimeric apoA-IIs were observed in each of the animals studied. The donkey had unique dimers, consisting of the proapolipoprotein A-II linked by a disulfide bond either to a mature apoA-II monomer or another proapoA-II. In addition, our data indicate that small amounts of apoA-I and apoA-II apparently are acylated.

  5. Association of carotid intima media thickness with atherogenic index of plasma, apo B/apo A-I ratio and paraoxonase activity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Fadaei, Reza; Meshkani, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein; Fallah, Soudabeh; Moradi, Nariman; Panahi, Ghodratollah; Merat, Shahin; Golmohammadi, Taghi

    2018-01-23

    NAFLD patients have higher risk of atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). apo B/apoA-I ratio and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) have been suggested as biomarker for ASCVD. apo A-I, apoB, aryl esterase (ARE) and paraoxonase (PON) activities and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were determined in 49 NAFLD patients and 33 controls. Plasma levels of apo A-I, adiponectin, ARE and PON activities decreased in NAFLD patients, while apo B, AIP and apoB/apo A-I ratio level were higher in NAFLD patients compared to controls. Furthermore, cIMT showed a positive association with AIP, apo B/apo A-I ratio and AIP + (apo B/apo A-I) in NAFLD patients. Strikingly, AIP + (apo B/apo A-I) showed a good ability to discriminating increased cIMT in NAFLD patients. The result showed that AIP and apo B/apo A-I associated with cIMT in NAFLD patients; however, more study are needed to prove this concept.

  6. Effect of anti-ApoA-I antibody-coating of stents on neointima formation in a rabbit balloon-injury model.

    PubMed

    Strang, Aart C; Knetsch, Menno L W; Koole, Leo H; de Winter, Robbert J; van der Wal, Allard C; de Vries, Carlie J M; Tak, Paul P; Bisoendial, Radjesh J; Stroes, Erik S G; Rotmans, Joris I

    2015-01-01

    Since high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has pro-endothelial and anti-thrombotic effects, a HDL recruiting stent may prevent restenosis. In the present study we address the functional characteristics of an apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) antibody coating in vitro. Subsequently, we tested its biological performance applied on stents in vivo in rabbits. The impact of anti ApoA-I- versus apoB-antibody coated stainless steel discs were evaluated in vitro for endothelial cell adhesion, thrombin generation and platelet adhesion. In vivo, response to injury in the iliac artery of New Zealand white rabbits was used as read out comparing apoA-I-coated versus bare metal stents. ApoA-I antibody coated metal discs showed increased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation and decreased thrombin generation and platelet adhesion, compared to control discs. In vivo, no difference was observed between ApoA-I and BMS stents in lumen stenosis (23.3±13.8% versus 23.3±11.3%, p=0.77) or intima surface area (0.81±0.62 mm2 vs 0.84±0.55 mm2, p=0.85). Immunohistochemistry also revealed no differences in cell proliferation, fibrin deposition, inflammation and endothelialization. ApoA-I antibody coating has potent pro-endothelial and anti-thrombotic effects in vitro, but failed to enhance stent performance in a balloon injury rabbit model in vivo.

  7. Both STAT3 activation and cholesterol efflux contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of apoA-I/ABCA1 interaction in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chongren; Houston, Barbara A.; Storey, Carl; LeBoeuf, Renee C.

    2016-01-01

    ABCA1 exports excess cholesterol from cells to apoA-I and is essential for HDL synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that ABCA1 protects against cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that the interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1 activates signaling molecule Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), which optimizes the cholesterol efflux activity of ABCA1. ABCA1-mediated activation of JAK2 also activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which significantly attenuates proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. To determine the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of apoA-I/ABCA1 interaction, we identified two special ABCA1 mutants, one with normal STAT3-activating capacity but lacking cholesterol efflux ability and the other with normal cholesterol efflux ability but lacking STAT3-activating capacity. We showed that activation of STAT3 by the interaction of apoA-I/ABCA1 without cholesterol efflux could significantly decrease proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. Mechanistic studies showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of the apoA-I/ABCA1/STAT3 pathway is suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 dependent. Moreover, we showed that apoA-I/ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux without STAT3 activation can also reduce proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. These findings suggest that the interaction of apoA-I/ABCA1 activates cholesterol efflux and STAT3 branch pathways to synergistically suppress inflammation in macrophages. PMID:26989082

  8. Validation of previous computer models and MD simulations of discoidal HDL by a recent crystal structure of apoA-I.

    PubMed

    Segrest, Jere P; Jones, Martin K; Catte, Andrea; Thirumuruganandham, Saravana P

    2012-09-01

    HDL is a population of apoA-I-containing particles inversely correlated with heart disease. Because HDL is a soft form of matter deformable by thermal fluctuations, structure determination has been difficult. Here, we compare the recently published crystal structure of lipid-free (Δ185-243)apoA-I with apoA-I structure from models and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of discoidal HDL. These analyses validate four of our previous structural findings for apoA-I: i) a baseline double belt diameter of 105 Å ii) central α helixes with an 11/3 pitch; iii) a "presentation tunnel" gap between pairwise helix 5 repeats hypothesized to move acyl chains and unesterified cholesterol from the lipid bilayer to the active sites of LCAT; and iv) interchain salt bridges hypothesized to stabilize the LL5/5 chain registry. These analyses are also consistent with our finding that multiple salt bridge-forming residues in the N-terminus of apoA-I render that conserved domain "sticky." Additionally, our crystal MD comparisons led to two new hypotheses: i) the interchain leucine-zippers previously reported between the pair-wise helix 5 repeats drive lipid-free apoA-I registration; ii) lipidation induces rotations of helix 5 to allow formation of interchain salt bridges, creating the LCAT presentation tunnel and "zip-locking" apoA-I into its full LL5/5 registration.

  9. ATP hydrolysis-dependent conformational changes in the extracellular domain of ABCA1 are associated with apoA-I binding[S

    PubMed Central

    Nagao, Kohjiro; Takahashi, Kei; Azuma, Yuya; Takada, Mie; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Matsuo, Michinori; Kioka, Noriyuki; Ueda, Kazumitsu

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) plays a major role in cholesterol homeostasis and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Although it is predicted that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) directly binds to ABCA1, the physiological importance of this interaction is still controversial and the conformation required for apoA-I binding is unclear. In this study, the role of the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD) of ABCA1 in apoA-I binding was determined by inserting a TEV protease recognition sequence in the linker region of ABCA1. Analyses of ATP binding and occlusion to wild-type ABCA1 and various NBD mutants revealed that ATP binds equally to both NBDs and is hydrolyzed at both NBDs. The interaction with apoA-I and the apoA-I-dependent cholesterol efflux required not only ATP binding but also hydrolysis in both NBDs. NBD mutations and cellular ATP depletion decreased the accessibility of antibodies to a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope that was inserted at position 443 in the extracellular domain (ECD), suggesting that the conformation of ECDs is altered by ATP hydrolysis at both NBDs. These results suggest that ATP hydrolysis at both NBDs induces conformational changes in the ECDs, which are associated with apoA-I binding and cholesterol efflux. PMID:22028339

  10. RVX 208: A novel BET protein inhibitor, role as an inducer of apo A-I/HDL and beyond.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Gopal C; Bhadra, Rajarshi; Ghosh, Raktim K; Banerjee, Kinjal; Gupta, Anjan

    2017-08-01

    Low-density cholesterol (LDL) has been the prime target of currently available lipid-lowering therapies although current research is expanding the focus beyond LDL lowering and has included high-density cholesterol (HDL) also as the target. Bromo and extra-terminal (BET) proteins are implicated in the regulation of transcription of several regulatory genes and regulation of proinflammatory pathways. As atherosclerosis is an inflammatory pathway and studies showed that BET inhibition has a role in inhibiting inflammation, the concept of BET inhibition came in the field of atherosclerosis. RVX 208 is a novel, orally active, BET protein inhibitor and the only BET inhibitor currently available in the field of atherosclerosis. RVX 208 acts primarily by increasing apo A-I (apolipoprotein A-I) and HDL levels. RVX 208 has a novel action of increasing larger, more cardio-protective HDL particles. Post hoc analysis of Phase II trials also showed that RVX 208 reduced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in treated patients, over and above that of apo A-I/HDL increasing action. This MACE reducing actions of RVX 208 were largely due to its novel anti-inflammatory actions. Currently, a phase III trial, BETonMACE, is recruiting patients to look for the effects of RVX 208 in patients with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. So BET inhibitors act in multiple ways to inhibit and modulate atherosclerosis and would be an emerging and potential option in the management of multifactorial disease like coronary artery disease by inhibiting a single substrate. But we need long-term phase III trial data's to look for effects on real-world patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. ApoA-I induces S1P release from endothelial cells through ABCA1 and SR-BI in a positive feedback manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Ren, Kun; Suo, Rong; Xiong, Sheng-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Mo, Zhong-Cheng; Tang, Zhen-Li; Jiang, Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shan; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which has emerged as a pivotal signaling mediator that participates in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, is derived from various cells, including vascular endothelial cells. S1P accumulates in lipoproteins, especially HDL, and the majority of free plasma S1P is bound to HDL. We hypothesized that HDL-associated S1P is released through mechanisms associated with the HDL maturation process. ApoA-I, a major HDL apolipoprotein, is a critical factor for nascent HDL formation and lipid trafficking via ABCA1. Moreover, apoA-I is capable of promoting bidirectional lipid movement through SR-BI. In the present study, we confirmed that apoA-I can facilitate the production and release of S1P by HUVECs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ERK1/2 and SphK activation induced by apoA-I is involved in the release of S1P from HUVECs. Inhibitor and siRNA experiments showed that ABCA1 and SR-BI are required for S1P release and ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by apoA-I. However, the effects triggered by apoA-I were not suppressed by inhibiting ABCA1/JAK2 or the SR-BI/Src pathway. S1P released due to apoA-I activation can stimulate the (ERK1/2)/SphK1 pathway through S1PR (S1P receptor) 1/3. These results indicated that apoA-I not only promotes S1P release through ABCA1 and SR-BI but also indirectly activates the (ERK1/2)/SphK1 pathway by releasing S1P to trigger their receptors. In conclusion, we suggest that release of S1P induced by apoA-I from endothelial cells through ABCA1 and SR-BI is a self-positive-feedback process: apoA-I-(ABCA1 and SR-BI)-(S1P release)-S1PR-ERK1/2-SphK1-(S1P production)-(more S1P release induced by apoA-I).

  12. Safety and Tolerability of CSL112, a Reconstituted, Infusible, Plasma-Derived Apolipoprotein A-I, After Acute Myocardial Infarction: The AEGIS-I Trial (ApoA-I Event Reducing in Ischemic Syndromes I).

    PubMed

    Michael Gibson, C; Korjian, Serge; Tricoci, Pierluigi; Daaboul, Yazan; Yee, Megan; Jain, Purva; Alexander, John H; Steg, P Gabriel; Lincoff, A Michael; Kastelein, John J P; Mehran, Roxana; D'Andrea, Denise M; Deckelbaum, Lawrence I; Merkely, Bela; Zarebinski, Maciej; Ophuis, Ton Oude; Harrington, Robert A

    2016-12-13

    Human or recombinant apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to increase high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity and to regress atherosclerotic disease in animal and clinical studies. CSL112 is an infusible, plasma-derived apoA-I that has been studied in normal subjects or those with stable coronary artery disease. This study aimed to characterize the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CSL112 in patients with a recent acute myocardial infarction. The AEGIS-I trial (Apo-I Event Reducing in Ischemic Syndromes I) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase 2b trial. Patients with myocardial infarction were stratified by renal function and randomized 1:1:1 to CSL112 (2 g apoA-I per dose) and high-dose CSL112 (6 g apoA-I per dose), or placebo for 4 consecutive weekly infusions. Coprimary safety end points were occurrence of either a hepatic safety event (an increase in alanine transaminase >3 times the upper limit of normal or an increase in total bilirubin >2 times the upper limit of normal) or a renal safety event (an increase in serum creatinine >1.5 times the baseline value or a new requirement for renal replacement therapy). A total of 1258 patients were randomized, and 91.2% received all 4 infusions. The difference in incidence rates for an increase in alanine transaminase or total bilirubin between both CSL112 arms and placebo was within the protocol-defined noninferiority margin of 4%. Similarly, the difference in incidence rates for an increase in serum creatinine or a new requirement for renal replacement therapy was within the protocol-defined noninferiority margin of 5%. CSL112 was associated with increases in apoA-I and ex vivo cholesterol efflux similar to that achieved in patients with stable coronary artery disease. In regard to the secondary efficacy end point, the risk for the composite of major adverse cardiovascular events among the groups was similar. Among

  13. The Application of Multiple Reaction Monitoring to Assess Apo A-I Methionine Oxidations in Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yassine, Hussein N.; Jackson, Angela M.; Reaven, Peter D.; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Nelson, Randall W.; Lau, Serrine S.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative modification of apolipoprotein A-I ‘s methionine148(M148) is associated with defective HDL function in vitro. Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) is a mass spectrometric technique that can be used to quantitate post-translational modifications. In this study, we developed an MRM assay to monitor the abundance ratio of the peptide containing oxidized M148 to the native peptide in Apo A-I. Measurement of the oxidized-to-unoxidized-M148 ratio was reproducible (CV<5%). The extent of methionine M148 oxidation in the HDL of healthy controls, and type 2 diabetic participants with and without prior cardiovascular events (CVD) were then examined. The results suggest a significant increase in the relative ratio of the peptide containing oxidized M148 to the unmodified peptide in the HDL of participants with diabetes and CVD (p<0.001), compared to participants without CVD. Monitoring the abundance ratio of the peptides containing oxidized and unoxidized M148 by MRM provides a means of examining the relationship between M148 oxidation and vascular complications in CVD. PMID:25705587

  14. Both STAT3 activation and cholesterol efflux contribute to the anti-inflammatory effect of apoA-I/ABCA1 interaction in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chongren; Houston, Barbara A; Storey, Carl; LeBoeuf, Renee C

    2016-05-01

    ABCA1 exports excess cholesterol from cells to apoA-I and is essential for HDL synthesis. Genetic studies have shown that ABCA1 protects against cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown that the interaction of apoA-I with ABCA1 activates signaling molecule Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), which optimizes the cholesterol efflux activity of ABCA1. ABCA1-mediated activation of JAK2 also activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which significantly attenuates proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. To determine the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of apoA-I/ABCA1 interaction, we identified two special ABCA1 mutants, one with normal STAT3-activating capacity but lacking cholesterol efflux ability and the other with normal cholesterol efflux ability but lacking STAT3-activating capacity. We showed that activation of STAT3 by the interaction of apoA-I/ABCA1 without cholesterol efflux could significantly decrease proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. Mechanistic studies showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of the apoA-I/ABCA1/STAT3 pathway is suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 dependent. Moreover, we showed that apoA-I/ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux without STAT3 activation can also reduce proinflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. These findings suggest that the interaction of apoA-I/ABCA1 activates cholesterol efflux and STAT3 branch pathways to synergistically suppress inflammation in macrophages. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Automation of PRM-dependent D3-Leu tracer enrichment in HDL to study the metabolism of apoA-I, LCAT and other apolipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lang Ho; Andraski, Allison B.; Pieper, Brett; Higashi, Hideyuki; Sacks, Frank M.; Aikawa, Masanori; Singh, Sasha A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed an automated quantification workflow for PRM-enabled detection of D3-Leu labeled apoA-I in HDL isolated from humans. Subjects received a bolus injection of D3-Leu and blood was drawn at seven time points over three days. HDL was isolated and separated into six size fractions for subsequent proteolysis and PRM analysis for the detection of D3-Leu signal from ~0.03 to 0.6 % enrichment. We implemented an intensity-based quantification approach that takes advantage of high resolution/accurate mass PRM scans to identify the D3-Leu 2HM3 ion from non-specific peaks. Our workflow includes five modules for extracting the targeted PRM peak intensities (XPIs): Peak centroiding, noise removal, fragment ion matching using Δm/z windows, nine intensity quantification options, and validation and visualization outputs. We optimized the XPI workflow using in vitro synthesized and clinical samples of D0/D3-Leu labeled apoA-I. Three subjects’ apoA-I enrichment curves in six HDL size fractions, and LCAT, apoA-II and apoE from two size fractions were generated within a few hours. Our PRM strategy and automated quantification workflow will expedite the turnaround of HDL apoA-I metabolism data in clinical studies that aim to understand and treat the mechanisms behind dyslipidemia. PMID:27862954

  16. Comparative Effects of Diet-Induced Lipid Lowering Versus Lipid Lowering Along With Apo A-I Milano Gene Therapy on Regression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Tian, Fang; Arias, Ana; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G; Shah, Prediman K

    2016-05-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I) Milano, a naturally occurring Arg173to Cys mutant of Apo A-1, has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models and in a small phase 2 human trial. We have shown the superior atheroprotective effects of Apo A-I Milano (Apo A-IM) gene compared to wild-type Apo A-I gene using transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. In this study, we compared the effect of dietary lipid lowering versus lipid lowering plus Apo A-IM gene transfer using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 8 as vectors on atherosclerosis regression in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. All mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet from age of 6 weeks until week 20, and at 20 weeks, 10 mice were euthanized to determine the extent of atherosclerosis. After 20 weeks, an additional 20 mice were placed on either a low-cholesterol diet plus empty rAAV (n = 10) to serve as controls or low-cholesterol diet plus 1 single intravenous injection of 1.2 × 10(12)vector genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) 8 vectors expressing Apo A-IM (n = 10). At the 40 week time point, intravenous AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients showed a significant regression of atherosclerosis in the whole aorta (P< .01), aortic sinuses (P< .05), and brachiocephalic arteries (P< .05) compared to 20-week-old mice, whereas low-cholesterol diet plus empty vector control group showed no significant regression in lesion size. Immunostaining showed that compared to the 20-week-old mice, there was a significantly reduced macrophage content in the brachiocephalic (P< .05) and aortic sinus plaques (P< .05) of AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients. These data show that although dietary-mediated cholesterol lowering halts progression of atherosclerosis, it does not induce regression, whereas combination of low-cholesterol diet and AAV8 mediated Apo A-I Milano gene therapy induces rapid and significant regression of atherosclerosis in mice. These data provide support for the potential feasibility of this

  17. Selective HDL-Raising Human Apo A-I Gene Therapy Counteracts Cardiac Hypertrophy, Reduces Myocardial Fibrosis, and Improves Cardiac Function in Mice with Chronic Pressure Overload

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Ruhul; Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Aboumsallem, Joseph Pierre; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies support an independent inverse association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and heart failure incidence. The effect of selective HDL-raising adeno-associated viral serotype 8-human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AAV8-A-I) gene transfer on cardiac remodeling induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was evaluated in C57BL/6 low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Septal wall thickness and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were reduced by 16.5% (p < 0.001) and by 13.8% (p < 0.01), respectively, eight weeks after TAC in AAV8-A-I mice (n = 24) compared to control mice (n = 39). Myocardial capillary density was 1.11-fold (p < 0.05) higher and interstitial cardiac fibrosis was 45.3% (p < 0.001) lower in AAV8-A-I TAC mice than in control TAC mice. Lung weight and atrial weight were significantly increased in control TAC mice compared to control sham mice, but were not increased in AAV8-A-I TAC mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric contraction was 1.19-fold (p < 0.01) higher in AAV8-A-I TAC mice (n = 17) than in control TAC mice (n = 29). Diastolic function was also significantly enhanced in AAV8-A-I TAC mice compared to control TAC mice. Nitro-oxidative stress and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the myocardium of AAV8-A-I TAC mice compared to control TAC mice. In conclusion, selective HDL-raising human apo A-I gene transfer potently counteracts the development of pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:28930153

  18. Selective HDL-Raising Human Apo A-I Gene Therapy Counteracts Cardiac Hypertrophy, Reduces Myocardial Fibrosis, and Improves Cardiac Function in Mice with Chronic Pressure Overload.

    PubMed

    Amin, Ruhul; Muthuramu, Ilayaraja; Aboumsallem, Joseph Pierre; Mishra, Mudit; Jacobs, Frank; De Geest, Bart

    2017-09-20

    Epidemiological studies support an independent inverse association between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and heart failure incidence. The effect of selective HDL-raising adeno-associated viral serotype 8-human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (AAV8-A-I) gene transfer on cardiac remodeling induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) was evaluated in C57BL/6 low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice. Septal wall thickness and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were reduced by 16.5% ( p < 0.001) and by 13.8% ( p < 0.01), respectively, eight weeks after TAC in AAV8-A-I mice ( n = 24) compared to control mice ( n = 39). Myocardial capillary density was 1.11-fold ( p < 0.05) higher and interstitial cardiac fibrosis was 45.3% ( p < 0.001) lower in AAV8-A-I TAC mice than in control TAC mice. Lung weight and atrial weight were significantly increased in control TAC mice compared to control sham mice, but were not increased in AAV8-A-I TAC mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric contraction was 1.19-fold ( p < 0.01) higher in AAV8-A-I TAC mice ( n = 17) than in control TAC mice ( n = 29). Diastolic function was also significantly enhanced in AAV8-A-I TAC mice compared to control TAC mice. Nitro-oxidative stress and apoptosis were significantly reduced in the myocardium of AAV8-A-I TAC mice compared to control TAC mice. In conclusion, selective HDL-raising human apo A-I gene transfer potently counteracts the development of pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy.

  19. HDLs in apoA-I transgenic Abca1 knockout mice are remodelednormally in plasma but are hypercatabolized by the kidney.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji-Young; Timmins, Jenelle M.; Mulya, Anny

    2005-07-05

    Patients homozygous for Tangier disease have a near absence of plasma HDL as a result of mutations in ABCA1 and hypercatabolize normal HDL particles. To determine the relationship between ABCA1 expression and HDL catabolism, we investigated intravascular remodeling, plasma clearance, and organ-specific uptake of HDL in mice expressing the human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) transgene in the Abca1 knockout background. Small HDL particles (7.5 nm), radiolabeled with 125I-tyramine cellobiose, were injected into recipient mice to quantify plasma turnover and the organ uptake of tracer. Small HDL tracer was remodeled to 8.2 nm diameter particles within 5 min in human apolipoprotein A-Imore » transgenic (hA-ITg) mice (control) and knockout mice. Decay of tracer from plasma was 1.6-fold more rapid in knockout mice (P<0.05) and kidney uptake was twice that of controls, with no difference in liver uptake. We also observed 2-fold greater hepatic expression of ABCA1 protein in hA-ITg mice compared with nontransgenic mice, suggesting that overexpression of human apoA-I stabilized hepatic ABCA1 protein in vivo.« less

  20. LCAT cholesterol esterification is associated with the increase of ApoE/ApoA-I ratio during atherosclerosis progression in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Alessandro; Cigliano, Luisa; Maresca, Bernardetta; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania; Di Salvo, Giovanni; Calabrò, Raffaele; Abrescia, Paolo

    2012-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein E promote different steps of reverse cholesterol transport, including lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase stimulation. Our aim was to study the changes in the levels of Apolipoprotein A-I, Apolipoprotein E, and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity during atherosclerosis progression in rabbits. Quantitative echocardiographic parameters were analyzed in order to evaluate, for the first time, whether atherosclerosis progression in rabbit is associated to apolipoproteins changes and alteration of indices of cardiac function, such as systolic strain and strain rate of the left ventricle. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rabbits for 8 weeks with 2 % cholesterol diet. The HDL levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were measured by HPLC. The lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity was evaluated both ex vivo, as cholesteryl esters/cholesterol molar ratio, and in vitro. Apolipoproteins levels were analyzed by ELISA. The HDL levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters increased, during treatment, up to 3.7- and 2.5-fold, respectively, compared to control animals. The lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity in vitro was halved after 4 weeks. During cholesterol treatment, Apolipoprotein A-I level significantly decreased, whereas Apolipoprotein E concentration markedly increased. The molar ratio Apolipoprotein E/Apolipoprotein A-I was negatively correlated with the enzyme activity, and positively correlated with both increases in the intima-media thickness of common carotid wall and cardiac dysfunction signs, such as systolic strain and strain rate of the left ventricle.

  1. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-08-16

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated.

  2. Measurement of very low density and low density lipoprotein apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 and high density lipoprotein Apo A-I production in human subjects using deuterated leucine. Effect of fasting and feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, J.S.; Wagner, D.A.; Cohn, S.D.

    1990-03-01

    Six normolipidemic male subjects, after an 8-h overnight fast, were given a bolus injection and then a 15-h constant intravenous infusion of (D3)L-leucine. Subjects were studied in the fasted state and on a second occasion in the fed state (small, physiological meals were given every hour for 15 h). Apolipoproteins were isolated by preparative gradient gel electrophoresis from plasma lipoproteins separated by sequential ultracentrifugation. Incorporation of (D3)L-leucine into apolipoproteins was monitored by negative ionization, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Production rates were determined by multiplying plasma apolipoprotein pool sizes by fractional production rates calculated as the rate of isotopic enrichment (IE) ofmore » each protein as a fraction of IE achieved by VLDL (d less than 1.006 g/ml) apo B-100 at plateau. VLDL apo B-100 production was greater, and LDL (1.019 less than d less than 1.063 g/ml) apo B-100 production was less in the fed compared with the fasted state (9.9 +/- 1.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 1.7 mg/kg per d, P less than 0.01, and 8.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 13.1 +/- 1.2 mg/kg per d, P less than 0.05, respectively). No mean change was observed in high density lipoprotein apo A-I production. We conclude that: (a) this stable isotope, endogenous-labeling technique, for the first time allows for the in vivo measurement of apolipoprotein production in the fasted and fed state; and (b) since LDL apo B-100 production was greater than VLDL apo B-100 production in the fasted state, this study provides in vivo evidence that LDL apo B-100 can be produced independently of VLDL apo B-100 in normolipidemic subjects.« less

  3. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gary K. L.; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L.; Zhang, Tianqi O.; Zanni, Martin T.; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:25759391

  4. Reduced Cerebrospinal Fluid Concentration of Apolipoprotein A-I in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Almqvist, Erik G; Bjerke, Maria; Wallin, Anders; Johansson, Jan-Ove; Andreasson, Ulf; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Svensson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) has been extensively studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but little is known of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Plasma lipids as well as ApoA-I and ApoE in plasma and CSF were determined and related to Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, APOE genotype, and CSF AD biomarkers. Consecutive patients with AD (n = 29), stable mild cognitive impairment (n = 13), other dementias (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 18) were included at a single center. AD patients had higher plasma triglycerides and lower CSF ApoA-I concentration than controls (both p < 0.05). CSF ApoE concentration was reduced in other dementias (p < 0.01). In AD as well as other dementias, the ratios between CSF and plasma concentrations of both ApoA-I and ApoE were lower than those in the controls. ApoA-I and ApoE in plasma and CSF were not influenced by APOEɛ4 allele distribution. In the total study population (n = 74), CSF ApoA-I correlated positively with MMSE score (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) and negatively with CSF P-tau (r = -0.25, p < 0.05). CSF ApoE correlated positively with CSF concentrations of T-tau and P-tau in the total study population and in AD patients. CSF ApoA-I was reduced in AD patients and associated with measures of cognitive function and AD disease status. The mechanisms underlying the decreased CSF:plasma ratios of ApoA-I and ApoE in AD and other dementias need to be explored in further studies.

  5. Methionine oxidized apolipoprotein A-I at the crossroads of HDL biogenesis and amyloid formation.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Andrzej; Chan, Gary K L; Boatz, Jennifer C; Li, Nancy J; Inoue, Ayuka P; Wong, Jaclyn C; van der Wel, Patrick C A; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2018-01-17

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) shares with other exchangeable apolipoproteins a high level of structural plasticity. In the lipid-free state, the apolipoprotein amphipathic α-helices interact intra- and intermolecularly, providing structural stabilization by self-association. We have reported that lipid-free apoA-I becomes amyloidogenic upon physiologically relevant (myeloperoxidase-mediated) Met oxidation. In this study, we established that Met oxidation promotes amyloidogenesis by reducing the stability of apoA-I monomers and irreversibly disrupting self-association. The oxidized apoA-I monomers also exhibited increased cellular cholesterol release capacity and stronger association with macrophages, compared to nonoxidized apoA-I. Of physiologic relevance, preformed oxidized apoA-I amyloid fibrils induced amyloid formation in nonoxidized apoA-I. This process was enhanced when self-association of nonoxidized apoA-I was disrupted by thermal treatment. Solid state NMR analysis revealed that aggregates formed by seeded nonoxidized apoA-I were structurally similar to those formed by the oxidized protein, featuring a β-structure-rich amyloid fold alongside α-helices retained from the native state. In atherosclerotic lesions, the conditions that promote apoA-I amyloid formation are readily available: myeloperoxidase, active oxygen species, low pH, and high concentration of lipid-free apoA-I. Our results suggest that even partial Met oxidation of apoA-I can nucleate amyloidogenesis, thus sequestering and inactivating otherwise antiatherogenic and HDL-forming apoA-I.-Witkowski, A., Chan, G. K. L., Boatz, J. C., Li, N. J., Inoue, A. P., Wong, J. C., van der Wel, P. C. A., Cavigiolio, G. Methionine oxidized apolipoprotein A-I at the crossroads of HDL biogenesis and amyloid formation.

  6. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Jaradeh, Safwan S.; Havlik, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. Methods A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Results Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. Conclusions The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. PMID:26433438

  7. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic).

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Jaradeh, Safwan S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of the amyloidogenic L75P apolipoprotein A-I variant on HDL subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Gomaraschi, Monica; Obici, Laura; Simonelli, Sara; Gregorini, Gina; Negrinelli, Alessandro; Merlini, Giampaolo; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Background Hereditary amyloidosis due to mutations of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a rare disease characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils constituted by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I in several organs. L75P is a variant of apoA-I associated with systemic amyloidosis predominantly involving the liver, kidneys, and testis, identified in a large number of unrelated subjects. Objective of the present paper was to evaluate the impact of the L75P apoA-I variant on HDL subpopulations and cholesterol esterification in carriers. Methods and results Plasma samples were collected from 30 carriers of the amyloidogenic L75P apoA-I (Carriers) and from 15 non affected relatives (Controls). Carriers displayed significantly reduced plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I, and apoA-II compared to Controls. Plasma levels of LpA-I, but not LpA-I:A-II, were significantly reduced in Carriers. HDL subclass distribution was not affected by the presence of the variant. The unesterified to total cholesterol ratio was higher, and cholesterol esterification rate and LCAT activity were lower in Carriers than in Controls. Conclusions The L75P apoA-I variant is associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia, a selective reduction of LpA-I particles, and a partial defect in cholesterol esterification. PMID:21458433

  9. Inhibition of apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by obesity-associated endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Mazza, Angela D; Wong, Norman C W; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is associated with increased serum endocannabinoid (EC) levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc). Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the primary protein component of HDL is expressed primarily in the liver and small intestine. To determine whether ECs regulate apo A-I gene expression directly, the effect of the obesity-associated ECs anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol on apo A-I gene expression was examined in the hepatocyte cell line HepG2 and the intestinal cell line Caco-2. Apo A-I protein secretion was suppressed nearly 50% by anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines. Anandamide treatment suppressed both apo A-I mRNA and apo A-I gene promoter activity in both cell lines. Studies using apo A-I promoter deletion constructs indicated that repression of apo A-I promoter activity by anandamide requires a previously identified nuclear receptor binding site designated as site A. Furthermore, anandamide-treatment inhibited protein-DNA complex formation with the site A probe. Exogenous over expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CBR1) in HepG2 cells suppressed apo A-I promoter activity, while in Caco-2 cells, exogenous expression of both CBR1 and CBR2 could repress apo A-I promoter activity. The suppressive effect of anandamide on apo A-I promoter activity in Hep G2 cells could be inhibited by CBR1 antagonist AM251 but not by AM630, a selective and potent CBR2 inhibitor. These results indicate that ECs directly suppress apo A-I gene expression in both hepatocytes and intestinal cells, contributing to the decrease in serum HDLc in obese individuals.

  10. Apolipoprotein A-I attenuates LL-37-induced endothelial cell cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Daniel; Lagerstedt, Jens O; Nilsson, Bengt-Olof; Del Giudice, Rita

    2017-11-04

    The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has antimicrobial and anti-biofilm functions, but LL-37 may also damage the host by triggering inflammation and exerting a cytotoxic effect, thereby reducing host cell viability. Human plasma mitigates LL-37-induced host cell cytotoxicity but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a plasma protein endowed with atheroprotective effects. Here, we investigate the interaction between ApoA-I and LL-37 by biochemical techniques, and furthermore assess if ApoA-I protects against LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Our results demonstrated that ApoA-I effectively binds LL-37. The binding of ApoA-I to LL-37 resulted in a structural rearrangement of the protein, but this interaction did not cause lower ApoA-I stability. Recombinant ApoA-I protected against LL-37-induced cytotoxicity in HUVEC and endogenous ApoA-I knockdown in HepG2 cells made the cells more sensitive to LL-37-evoked cytotoxicity. We conclude that ApoA-I physically interacts with LL-37 and antagonizes LL-37-induced down-regulation of endothelial cell viability suggesting that this mechanism counteracts endothelial cell dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. LXR Agonism Upregulates the Macrophage ABCA1/Syntrophin Protein Complex That Can Bind ApoA-I and Stabilized ABCA1 Protein, but Complex Loss Does Not Inhibit Lipid Efflux.

    PubMed

    Tamehiro, Norimasa; Park, Min Hi; Hawxhurst, Victoria; Nagpal, Kamalpreet; Adams, Marv E; Zannis, Vassilis I; Golenbock, Douglas T; Fitzgerald, Michael L

    2015-11-24

    Macrophage ABCA1 effluxes lipid and has anti-inflammatory activity. The syntrophins, which are cytoplasmic PDZ protein scaffolding factors, can bind ABCA1 and modulate its activity. However, many of the data assessing the function of the ABCA1-syntrophin interaction are based on overexpression in nonmacrophage cells. To assess endogenous complex function in macrophages, we derived immortalized macrophages from Abca1(+/+) and Abca1(-/-) mice and show their phenotype recapitulates primary macrophages. Abca1(+/+) lines express the CD11B and F4/80 macrophage markers and markedly upregulate cholesterol efflux in response to LXR nuclear hormone agonists. In contrast, immortalized Abca1(-/-) macrophages show no efflux to apoA-I. In response to LPS, Abca1(-/-) macrophages display pro-inflammatory changes, including an increased level of expression of cell surface CD14, and 11-26-fold higher levels of IL-6 and IL-12 mRNA. Given recapitulation of phenotype, we show with these lines that the ABCA1-syntrophin protein complex is upregulated by LXR agonists and can bind apoA-I. Moreover, in immortalized macrophages, combined α1/β2-syntrophin loss modulated ABCA1 cell surface levels and induced pro-inflammatory gene expression. However, loss of all three syntrophin isoforms known to bind ABCA1 did not impair lipid efflux in immortalized or primary macrophages. Thus, the ABCA1-syntrophin protein complex is not essential for ABCA1 macrophage lipid efflux but does directly interact with apoA-I and can modulate the pool of cell surface ABCA1 stabilized by apoA-I.

  12. Genetic control of apoprotein A-I and atheroprotection: some insights from inbred strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2017-10-01

    Previous epidemiological studies and studies in experimental animals have provided strong evidence for the atheroprotective effect of HDL and its major apoprotein, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Identification of genetic loci associating apoA-I/HDL with cardiovascular disease is needed to establish a causal relationship. Pharmacological interventions to increase apoA-I or HDL cholesterol levels in humans are not associated with reduction in atherosclerosis. Genome wide association study (GWAS) studies in humans and hybrid mouse diversity panel (HMDP) studies looking for genetic variants associated with apoA-I or HDL cholesterol levels with cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis have not provided strong evidence for their atheroprotective function. These findings indicate that GWAS and HMDP studies identifying possible genetic determinants of HDL and apoA-I function are needed.

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans.

  14. Correlations Between Serum Apolipoprotein A-I and Formation of Vocal Cord Polyp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Ping; Zhang, Rong

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to investigate the correlations between serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and the formation of vocal cord polyps (VCPs). This study used the nonmatched case-control study method. The serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA-I, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and ApoA-I/ApoB levels of 89 VCP patients and 87 normal volunteers were compared. Additionally, such VCP-related factors as excessive vocal use, vocal abuse, smoking, drinking, and the size of VCPs were analyzed. The two groups did not significantly differ with regard to triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoB, and ApoA-I/ApoB levels (P > 0.05), whereas they did significantly differ with regard to TC, HDL-C, and ApoA-I levels (P < 0.05) according to independent t tests. Logistic regression analysis showed that excessive vocal use and vocal abuse were risk factors for VCPs (P < 0.05), with odds ratio values of 5.675 and 12.781, respectively. The ApoA-I level was negatively associated with VCPs (P < 0.05), with an odds ratio of 0.511; however, TC and HDL-C were not associated with the formation of VCPs (P > 0.05). The size of VCPs in females was negatively correlated with the serum ApoA-I level (r = -0.349, P = 0.032), whereas that in males was not (P > 0.05). As the serum ApoA-I level was negatively correlated with the formation of VCPs, ApoA-I may reduce the risk of VCPs. These findings may facilitate the prevention and treatment of VCPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Inhibition of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by histamine.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Plazarte, Monica; Chamseddin, Ayham; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Wong, Norman C W; Plazarte, Gabriela; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2018-03-15

    In a recent high throughput analysis to identify drugs that alter hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) expression, histamine receptor one (H 1 ) antagonists emerged as potential apo A-1 inducing drugs. Thus the present study was undertaken to identify some of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the effect of antihistaminic drugs on apo AI production. Apo A-I levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay and Western blots. Apo A-I mRNA levels were measured by reverse transcription real-time PCR using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA as the internal control. The effects of histamine and antihistamines on apo A-I gene were determined by transient transfection of plasmids containing the apo A-I gene promoter. Histamine repressed while (H 1 ) receptor antagonist azelastine increased apo A-I protein and mRNA levels within 48 h in a dose-dependent manner. Azelastine and histamine increased and suppressed, respectively, apo A-I gene promoter activity through a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α response element. Treatment of HepG2 cells with other H 1 receptor antagonists including fexofenadine, cetirizine, and diphenhydramine increased apo A-I levels in a dose-dependent manner while treatment with H 2 receptor antagonists including cimetidine, famotidine, and ranitidine had no effect. We conclude that H 1 receptor signaling is a novel pathway of apo A1 gene expression and therefore could be an important therapeutic target for enhancing de-novo apo A-1 synthesis. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N [Benicia, CA; Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  17. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru; Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg; Mogilenko, Denis A.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters inmore » TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.« less

  18. High-Throughput Analysis Identifying Drugs That Regulate Apolipoprotein A-I Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Kurban, William; Shah, Harshit; Plazarte, Monica; Chamseddin, Ayham; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2017-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is the primary antiatherogenic protein in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Despite the controversy as to the clinical effectiveness of raising HDL, the search is ongoing for safe and effective drugs that increase HDL and apo A-I levels. To identify novel compounds that can increase hepatic apo A-I production, two drug libraries were screened. The NIH clinical collection (NCC) and the NIH clinical collection 2 (NCC2) were purchased from Evotec (San Francisco, CA). The NCC library contains 446 compounds and the NCC2 library contains 281 compounds, all dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide at a concentration of 10 mM. Hepatoma-derived cells (HepG2) and primary hepatocytes in culture were treated with various compounds for 24 h and apo A-I in media samples was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Samples with significant changes in apo A-I concentrations were retested in independent experiments by Western blot analysis to confirm the immunoassay findings. Of a total of 727 compounds screened at a concentration of 50 μM, 15 compounds increased hepatic apo A-I production by 35%-54%, and 9 compounds lowered hepatic apo A-I concentrations in the culture media by 25%-52%. Future trials should explore the clinical effectiveness of these agents when standard doses of these drugs are used in humans.

  19. Serum apolipoprotein A-I is a novel prognostic indicator for non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao-Lin; Zhong, Guang-Zheng; Hu, Li-Yang; Chen, Jie; Liang, Ying; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Liu, Qing; Rao, Hui-Lan; Chen, Kai-Lin; Cai, Qing-Qing

    2015-12-22

    We investigated the value of pretreatment serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in complementing TNM staging in the prognosis of non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We retrospectively reviewed 1196 newly diagnosed patients with non-metastatic NPC. Disease-specific survival (DSS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rates were compared according to serum ApoA-I level. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess the prognostic value of serum ApoA-I. The 5-year DSS, DMFS, and LRFS rates for patients with elevated or decreased serum ApoA-I were 81.3% versus 69.3% (P < 0.001), 83.4% versus 67.4% (P < 0.001), and 80.9% versus 67.3% (P < 0.001), respectively. ApoA-I ≥ 1.025 g/L was an independent prognostic factor for superior DSS, DMFS, and LRFS in multivariate analysis. After stratification by clinical stage, serum ApoA-I remained a clinically and statistically significant predictor of prognosis. Our data suggest that the level of ApoA-I at diagnosis is a novel independent prognostic marker that could complement clinical staging for risk definition in non-metastatic NPC.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I stimulates human placental lactogen release by activation of MAP kinase.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Y; Richards, R G; Handwerger, S

    1998-08-25

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) stimulates human placental lactogen (hPL) release via protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathways. Since PKC has been shown to activate the MAP kinase cascade in other cell types, we examined the effect of two inhibitors of the MAP kinase cascade on apo A-I-induced hPL secretion and the effect of apo A-I on MAP kinase activity in human trophoblast cells. Apigenin (10 microM) and PD98059 (100 microM) inhibited apo A-I-induced hPL release by 94 and 73%, respectively. Moreover, apo A-I activated MAP kinase in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Activation of PKC by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated MAP kinase activity, and down-regulation of PKC completely prevented apo A-I-stimulation of MAP kinase activity. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that activation of MAP kinase is involved in the intracellular mechanism of apo A-I-induced hPL release.

  1. Anti-apolipoprotein A-I antibodies and paraoxonase 1 activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mohammed Mahmoud; Elserougy, Eman Mahmoud; Al-Gazzar, Iman Ibrahim; Fikry, Iman Mohamed; Habib, Dawoud Fakhry; Younes, Khaled Mohamed; Salem, Neveen Abd El-hameed

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Identification of at-risk patients and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in SLE remain elusive. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and anti-apolipoprotein A-I antibody (anti-Apo A-I) appear to have a potential role in premature atherosclerosis in SLE. The aim of this work was to study PON1 activity and anti-Apo A-I antibody in SLE female patients and to demonstrate their relations to disease activity as well as disease related damage. Forty SLE female patients and 40 apparently healthy volunteers were included. Anti-Apo A-I antibodies levels and PON1 activity levels were assessed. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics (SLICC)/American College of Rheumatology (ACR) damage index were preformed in all patients. Compared with controls, SLE patients showed significantly lower PON1 activity and significantly higher titers of anti-Apo A-I. Anti-Apo A-I antibody titers correlated inversely with PON1 activity. Elevated titers of anti-Apo A-I antibody and reduced PON activity were related to increased SLEDAI and (SLICC/ACR) damage index scores. We concluded that there is decreased PON1 activity and formation of anti-Apo A-I antibodies in female patients with SLE. SLE-disease activity assessed by SLEDAI and SLE disease related organ damage assessed by SLICC/ACR damage index are negatively correlated with PON1 activity and positively correlated with anti-Apo A-I antibodies. PON1 activity and anti-Apo A-I antibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in SLE patients. PMID:26622215

  2. Overexpression of apolipoprotein A-I alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Zhang, Can; Wang, Yutong

    2017-06-02

    Abnormal lipid metabolism may contribute to an increase in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, resulting in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) accepts cellular free cholesterol and phospholipids transported by ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 to generate nascent high density lipoprotein particles. Previous studies have revealed that the overexpression of apoA-I alleviated hepatic lipid levels by modifying lipid transport. Here, we examined the effects of apoA-I overexpression on ER stress and genes involved in lipogenesis in both HepG2 cells and mouse hepatocytes. Human apoA-I was overexpressed in HepG2 hepatocytes, which were then treated with 2 μg/mL tunicamycin or 500 μM palmitic acid. Eight-week-old male apoA-I transgenic or C57BL/6 wild-type mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 mg/kg body weight tunicamycin or with saline. At 48 h after injecting, blood and liver samples were collected. The overexpression of apoA-I in the models above resulted in decreased protein levels of ER stress makers and lipogenic gene products, including sterol regulatory element binding protein 1, fatty acid synthase, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1. In addition, the cellular levels of triglycerides and free cholesterol also decreased. Some of gene products which are related to ER stress-associated apoptosis were also affected by apoA-I overexpression. These results suggested that apoA-I overexpression could reduce steatosis by decreasing lipid levels and by suppressing ER stress and lipogenesis in hepatocytes. ApoA-I expression could significantly reduce hepatic ER stress and lipogenesis in hepatocytes.

  3. Predictive value of apolipoprotein B and A-I ratio in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Huh, Ji Hye; Jung, Saehyun; Cho, Seung Kook; Lee, Kyong Joo; Kim, Jae Woo

    2018-02-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has considerable mortality and morbidity rates. Although many indices have been developed to classify the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP), an optimal method for predicting SAP has not been identified. The ratio of apolipoprotein B to A-I (apoB/A-I) is associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammatory status. This study investigated the association between severity of AP and serum apoB/A-I ratio. Patients with AP were prospectively enrolled at Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine from March 2015 to August 2016. The severity of AP was assessed according to the revised Atlanta classification criteria (Atlanta 2012). Of 191 patients with AP, 134 (70.2%) had mild AP, 42 (22%) had moderately severe AP, and 15 (7.9%) had SAP; apoB/A-I ratio was highest in patients with SAP (P = 0.001). The apoB/A-I ratio was positively correlated with Atlanta classification, computed tomography severity index, and Bedside index for severity of AP. The apoB/A-I ratio showed the highest predictive value for SAP in patients with AP compared with apolipoprotein B or apolipoprotein A-I alone. Serum apoB/A-I ratio appears to have value for predicting SAP in patients with AP. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I Milano exhibits potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bielicki, John K.; Oda, Michael N.

    2001-09-21

    Apolipoprotein(apo)A-IMilano and apoA-IParis are rare cysteine variants of apoA-I that produce a HDL deficiency in the absence of cardiovascular disease in humans. This paradox provides the basis for the hypothesis that the cysteine variants posses a beneficial activity not associated with wild-type apoA-I (apoA-IWT). In this study, a unique antioxidant activity of apoA-IMilano and apoA-IParis is described. Antioxidant activity was observed using the monomeric form of the variants and was equally effective before and after initiation of oxidative events. ApoA-IMilano was twice as effective as apoA-IParis in preventing lipoxygenase-mediated oxidation of phospholipids; whereas, apoA-IWT was poorly active. ApoA-IMilano protected phospholipidmore » from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated via xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/Xo) but failed to inhibit X/Xo induced reduction of cytochrome C. These results indicate that (1) the antioxidant activity of apoA-IMilano was dependent on phospholipid and (2) the cysteine variant was unable to directly quench ROS in the aqueous phase. There were no differences between lipid-free apoA-IMilano, apoA-IParis, and apoA-IWT in mediating the efflux of cholesterol from macrophages indicating the cysteine variants interacted normally with the ABCA1 efflux pathway. The results indicate that incorporation of a free thiol within an amphipathic alpha helix of apoA-I confers an antioxidant activity distinct from that of apoA-IWT. These studies are the first to relate addition-of-function to rare cysteine mutations in apoA-I primary sequence.« less

  5. Effects of native and myeloperoxidase-modified apolipoprotein a-I on reverse cholesterol transport and atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hewing, Bernd; Parathath, Saj; Barrett, Tessa; Chung, Wing Ki Kellie; Astudillo, Yaritzy M; Hamada, Tadateru; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Tallant, Thomas C; Yusufishaq, Mohamed Shaif S; Didonato, Joseph A; Huang, Ying; Buffa, Jennifer; Berisha, Stela Z; Smith, Jonathan D; Hazen, Stanley L; Fisher, Edward A

    2014-04-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown beneficial effects of infusions of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) on atherosclerosis. ApoA-I is also a target for myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation, leading in vitro to a loss of its ability to promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent macrophage cholesterol efflux. Therefore, we hypothesized that myeloperoxidase-mediated ApoA-I oxidation would impair its promotion of reverse cholesterol transport in vivo and the beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques. ApoA-I(-/-) or apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were subcutaneously injected with native human ApoA-I, oxidized human ApoA-I (myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/chloride treated), or carrier. Although early postinjection (8 hours) levels of total ApoA-I in plasma were similar for native versus oxidized human ApoA-I, native ApoA-I primarily resided within the high-density lipoprotein fraction, whereas the majority of oxidized human ApoA-I was highly cross-linked and not high-density lipoprotein particle associated, consistent with impaired ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 interaction. In ApoA-I(-/-) mice, ApoA-I oxidation significantly impaired reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. In advanced aortic root atherosclerotic plaques of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, native ApoA-I injections led to significant decreases in lipid content, macrophage number, and an increase in collagen content; in contrast, oxidized human ApoA-I failed to mediate these changes. The decrease in plaque macrophages with native ApoA-I was accompanied by significant induction of their chemokine receptor CCR7. Furthermore, only native ApoA-I injections led to a significant reduction of inflammatory M1 and increase in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage markers in the plaques. Myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation renders ApoA-I dysfunctional and unable to (1) promote reverse cholesterol transport, (2) mediate beneficial changes in the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, and (3) pacify

  6. Expression of the C-terminal domain of human apolipoprotein A-I using a chimeric apolipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Sallee, Daniel E; Horn, James V C; Fuentes, Lukas A; Weers, Paul M M

    2017-09-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the most abundant protein in high-density lipoprotein, an anti-atherogenic lipid-protein complex responsible for reverse cholesterol transport. The protein is composed of an N-terminal helix bundle domain, and a small C-terminal (CT) domain. To facilitate study of CT-apoA-I, a novel strategy was employed to produce this small domain in a bacterial expression system. A protein construct was designed of insect apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) and residues 179-243 of apoA-I, with a unique methionine residue positioned between the two proteins and an N-terminal His-tag to facilitate purification. The chimera was expressed in E. coli, purified by Ni-affinity chromatography, and cleaved by cyanogen bromide. SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of three proteins with masses of 7 kDa (CT-apoA-I), 18 kDa (apoLp-III), and a minor 26 kDa band of uncleaved chimera. The digest was reloaded on the Ni-affinity column to bind apoLp-III and uncleaved chimera, while CT-apoA-I was washed from the column and collected. Alternatively, CT-apoA-I was isolated from the digest by reversed-phase HPLC. CT-apoA-I was α-helical, highly effective in solubilizing phospholipid vesicles and disaggregating LPS micelles. However, CT-apoA-I was less active compared to full-length apoA-I in protecting lipolyzed low density lipoproteins from aggregating, and disrupting phosphatidylglycerol bilayer vesicles. Thus the novel expression system produced mg quantities of functional CT-apoA-I, facilitating structural and functional studies of this critical domain of apoA-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I and B and Subjective Global Assessment relationship can reflect lipid defects in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Yashodhara; Saxena, Sandeep; Mishra, Arvind; Saxena, Anita; Natu, Shankar Madhav

    2017-01-01

    Elevated lipid levels increase complications of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Uncontrolled diabetes increases these complications and causes unintentional weight loss, indicating an apparently normal body mass index (BMI). Thus, it is easy to assume that patients with DR and a normal BMI have optimal lipid status. Apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I and Apo B levels differentially indicate serum lipid status in DR. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) scores are associated with DR status. If SGA scores and serum Apo A-I and B levels are found to be interrelated, their relationship can reflect lipid defects in patients with DR despite apparently normal BMI. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Apo A-I and B levels and SGA scores of patients with DR. This was a case-control study conducted from November 2011 to April 2014. Serum Apo A-I and B levels and SGA scores were calculated for 40 healthy controls, 48 individuals without DR, 49 nonproliferative DR cases, and 48 proliferative DR cases. Pearson's correlation analysis was applied between Apo A-I, Apo B, Apo B/Apo A-I ratio, and SGA scores. Negative correlation was observed between serum Apo A-I level (r = -0.567, P < 0.001) and positive correlation between serum Apo B level (r = 0.451, P < 0.001) and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio (r = 0.597, P < 0.001) with escalating SGA scores. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a novel correlation between serum Apo A-I, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A-I ratio and SGA scores. SGA scores can help predict lipid abnormalities in patients with DR even when they have an apparently normal BMI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Model of Lipid-Free Apolipoprotein A-I Revealed by Iterative Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; Rames, Matthew; Zhang, Shengli

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore, by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipid-free apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation. PMID:25793886

  9. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; ...

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  10. Apolipoprotein A-I Modulates Atherosclerosis Through Lymphatic Vessel-Dependent Mechanisms in Mice.

    PubMed

    Milasan, Andreea; Jean, Gabriel; Dallaire, François; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Merhi, Yahye; Sorci-Thomas, Mary; Martel, Catherine

    2017-09-22

    Subcutaneously injected lipid-free apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) reduces accumulation of lipid and immune cells within the aortic root of hypercholesterolemic mice without increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Lymphatic vessels are now recognized as prerequisite players in the modulation of cholesterol removal from the artery wall in experimental conditions of plaque regression, and particular attention has been brought to the role of the collecting lymphatic vessels in early atherosclerosis-related lymphatic dysfunction. In the present study, we address whether and how preservation of collecting lymphatic function contributes to the protective effect of apoA-I. Atherosclerotic Ldlr -/- mice treated with low-dose lipid-free apoA-I showed enhanced lymphatic transport and abrogated collecting lymphatic vessel permeability in atherosclerotic Ldlr -/- mice when compared with albumin-control mice. Treatment of human lymphatic endothelial cells with apoA-I increased the adhesion of human platelets on lymphatic endothelial cells, in a bridge-like manner, a mechanism that could strengthen endothelial cell-cell junctions and limit atherosclerosis-associated collecting lymphatic vessel dysfunction. Experiments performed with blood platelets isolated from apoA-I-treated Ldlr -/- mice revealed that apoA-I decreased ex vivo platelet aggregation. This suggests that in vivo apoA-I treatment limits platelet thrombotic potential in blood while maintaining the platelet activity needed to sustain adequate lymphatic function. Altogether, we bring forward a new pleiotropic role for apoA-I in lymphatic function and unveil new potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Intracellular lipidation of newly synthesized apolipoprotein A-I in primary murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Maric, Jovana; Kiss, Robert S; Franklin, Vivian; Marcel, Yves L

    2005-12-02

    Hepatocytes, which are the main site of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, are also the main source of circulating high density lipoprotein. Here we have characterized the intracellular lipidation of newly synthesized apoA-I, in primary hepatocytes cultured with [3H]choline to label choline-phospholipids, low density lipoprotein-[3H]cholesterol to label the cell surface, or [3H]mevalonate to label de novo synthesized cholesterol. Phospholipidation of apoA-I is significant and most evident in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and medial Golgi, both in the lumen and on the membrane fractions of the ER and medial Golgi. In the presence of cycloheximide, endogenous apoA-I is substantially phospholipidated intracellularly but acquires some additional lipid after export out of the cell. In cells labeled with low density lipoprotein-[3H]cholesterol, intracellular cholesterol lipidation of apoA-I is entirely absent, but the secreted apoA-I rapidly accumulates cholesterol after secretion from the cell in the media. On the other hand, de novo synthesized cholesterol can lipidate apoA-I intracellularly. We also showed the interaction between apoA-I and ABCA1 in ER and Golgi fractions. In hepatocytes lacking ABCA1, lipidation by low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was significantly reduced at the plasma membrane, phospholipidation and lipidation by de novo synthesized sterols were both reduced in Golgi compartments, whereas ER lipidation remained mostly unchanged. Therefore, the early lipidation in ER is ABCA1 independent, but in contrast, the lipidation of apoA-I in Golgi and at the plasma membrane requires ABCA1. Thus, we demonstrated that apoA-I phospholipidation starts early in the ER and is partially dependent on ABCA1, with the bulk of lipidation by phospholipids and cholesterol occurring in the Golgi and at the plasma membrane, respectively. Finally, we showed that the previously reported association of newly synthesized apoA-I

  12. Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Group A.I, United States

    PubMed Central

    Birdsell, Dawn N.; Johansson, Anders; Öhrman, Caroline; Kaufman, Emily; Molins, Claudia; Pearson, Talima; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Naumann, Amber; Vogler, Amy J.; Myrtennäs, Kerstin; Larsson, Pär; Forsman, Mats; Sjödin, Andreas; Gillece, John D.; Schupp, James; Petersen, Jeannine M.; Keim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We used whole-genome analysis and subsequent characterization of geographically diverse strains using new genetic signatures to identify distinct subgroups within Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis group A.I: A.I.3, A.I.8, and A.I.12. These subgroups exhibit complex phylogeographic patterns within North America. The widest distribution was observed for A.I.12, which suggests an adaptive advantage. PMID:24755401

  13. Emerging Roles of Apolipoprotein E and Apolipoprotein A-I in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xianglan; Gordon, Elizabeth M; Figueroa, Debbie M; Barochia, Amisha V; Levine, Stewart J

    2016-08-01

    Emerging roles are being recognized increasingly for apolipoproteins in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases on the basis of their ability to suppress inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue remodeling, and to promote adaptive immunity and host defense. Apolipoproteins, such as apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are important components of lipoprotein particles that facilitate the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma and cells. ApoE-containing lipoprotein particles are internalized into cells by low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs), whereas apoA-I can interact with the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) transporter to efflux cholesterol and phospholipids out of cells. ApoE and apoA-I also mediate receptor-independent effects, such as binding to and neutralizing LPS. Both apoE and apoA-I are expressed by lung cells, which allows apoE/LDLR- and apoA-I/ABCA1-dependent pathways to modulate normal lung health and the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, including asthma, acute lung injury, cancer, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension. Data from human studies and research using experimental murine model systems have shown that both apoE and apoA-I pathways play primarily protective roles in lung biology and respiratory disease. Furthermore, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides, corresponding to the LDLR-binding domain of apoE or the class A amphipathic α-helical structure of apoA-I, have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects that attenuate the severity of lung disease in murine models. Thus, the development of inhaled apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as a novel treatment paradigm could represent a significant advance for patients with respiratory disease who do not respond to current therapies.

  14. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  15. A role for Apolipoprotein A-I in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meyers, Lindsay; Groover, Chassidy J; Douglas, Joshua; Lee, Sangmin; Brand, David; Levin, Michael C; Gardner, Lidia A

    2014-12-15

    Apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A-I), the most abundant component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), is an anti-inflammatory molecule, yet its potential role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been fully investigated. In this study, Western blot analyses of human plasma showed differential Apo A-I expression in healthy controls compared to MS patients. Further, primary progressive MS patients had less plasma Apo A-I than other forms of MS. Using experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model for MS, Apo A-I deficient mice exhibited worse clinical disease and more neurodegeneration concurrent with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to wild-type animals. These data suggest that Apo A-I plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAE, a model for MS, creating the possibility for agents that increase Apo A-I levels as potential therapies for MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Apolipoprotein A-I Limits the Negative Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor on Lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bisoendial, Radjesh; Tabet, Fatiha; Tak, Paul P; Petrides, Francine; Cuesta Torres, Luisa F; Hou, Liming; Cook, Adam; Barter, Philip J; Weninger, Wolfgang; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2015-11-01

    Lymphatic endothelial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known for its role in disrupting the function of the lymphatic vasculature. This study investigates the ability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the principal apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins, to preserve the normal function of lymphatic endothelial cells treated with TNF. TNF decreased the ability of lymphatic endothelial cells to form tube-like structures. Preincubation of lymphatic endothelial cells with apoA-I attenuated the TNF-mediated inhibition of tube formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, apoA-I reversed the TNF-mediated suppression of lymphatic endothelial cell migration and lymphatic outgrowth in thoracic duct rings. ApoA-I also abrogated the negative effect of TNF on lymphatic neovascularization in an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, this involved downregulation of TNF receptor-1 and the conservation of prospero-related homeobox gene-1 expression, a master regulator of lymphangiogenesis. ApoA-I also re-established the normal phenotype of the lymphatic network in the diaphragms of human TNF transgenic mice. ApoA-I restores the neovascularization capacity of the lymphatic system during TNF-mediated inflammation. This study provides a proof-of-concept that high-density lipoprotein-based therapeutic strategies may attenuate chronic inflammation via its action on lymphatic vasculature. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-I: A favorable prognostic marker in infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xue-Biao; Chen, Xiao-Jin; Li, Yuan-Ling; Huang, Jie-Leng; Chen, Xiao-Lan; Yu, Dan-Qing; Tan, Ning; Liu, Yuan-Hui; Chen, Ji-Yan; He, Peng-Cheng

    Decreased apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are common in inflammation and sepsis. No study with a large sample size has been performed to investigate the prognostic value of apoA-I or HDL-C in infective endocarditis (IE). The present study aimed to explore the prognostic value of apoA-I and HDL-C for adverse outcomes in IE patients. Patients with a definite diagnosis of IE between January 2009 and July 2015 were enrolled and divided into 3 groups according to their apoA-I tertiles at admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship of apoA-I and HDL-C with clinical outcomes. Of the 593 included patients, 40 (6.7%) died in hospital. Patients with lower apoA-I experienced markedly higher rates of in-hospital mortality (10.7%, 7.0%, and 2.5% in tertiles 1-3, respectively; P = .006) and major adverse clinical events (32.5%, 24.1%, and 8.6% in tertiles 1-3, respectively; P < .001). ApoA-I (area under the curve, 0.671; P < .001) and HDL-C (area under the curve, 0.672; P < .001) had predictive values for in-hospital death. Multivariate logistic regression showed that apoA-I <0.90 g/L and HDL-C <0.78 mmol/L were independent risk predictors for in-hospital death. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that apoA-I (increments of 1 g/L; hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.87; P = .023) and HDL-C (increments of 1 mmol/L; hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.83; P = .015) were independently associated with long-term mortality. ApoA-I and HDL-C were inversely associated with adverse IE prognosis. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Definition of human apolipoprotein A-I epitopes recognized by autoantibodies present in patients with cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Priscila Camillo; Ducret, Axel; Ferber, Philippe; Gaertner, Hubert; Hartley, Oliver; Pagano, Sabrina; Butterfield, Michelle; Langen, Hanno; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Cutler, Paul

    2014-10-10

    Autoantibodies to apolipoprotein A-I (anti-apoA-I IgG) have been shown to be both markers and mediators of cardiovascular disease, promoting atherogenesis and unstable atherosclerotic plaque. Previous studies have shown that high levels of anti-apoA-I IgGs are independently associated with major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with myocardial infarction. Autoantibody responses to apoA-I can be polyclonal and it is likely that more than one epitope may exist. To identify the specific immunoreactive peptides in apoA-I, we have developed a set of methodologies and procedures to isolate, purify, and identify novel apoA-I endogenous epitopes. First, we generated high purity apoA-I from human plasma, using thiophilic interaction chromatography followed by enzymatic digestion specifically at lysine or arginine residues. Immunoreactivity to the different peptides generated was tested by ELISA using serum obtained from patients with acute myocardial infarction and high titers of autoantibodies to native apoA-I. The immunoreactive peptides were further sequenced by mass spectrometry. Our approach successfully identified two novel immunoreactive peptides, recognized by autoantibodies from patients suffering from myocardial infarction, who contain a high titer of anti-apoA-I IgG. The discovery of these epitopes may open innovative prognostic and therapeutic opportunities potentially suitable to improve current cardiovascular risk stratification. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of spontaneous exchange between high-density lipoprotein-bound and lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Handa, Daisuke; Kimura, Hitoshi; Oka, Tatsuya; Takechi, Yuki; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Phillips, Michael C; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-03

    It is thought that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) spontaneously exchanges between high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound and lipid-free states, which is relevant to the occurrence of preβ-HDL particles in plasma. To improve our understanding of the mechanistic basis for this phenomenon, we performed kinetic and thermodynamic analyses for apoA-I exchange between discoidal HDL-bound and lipid-free forms using fluorescence-labeled apoA-I variants. Gel filtration experiments demonstrated that addition of excess lipid-free apoA-I to discoidal HDL particles promotes exchange of apoA-I between HDL-associated and lipid-free pools without alteration of the steady-state HDL particle size. Kinetic analysis of time-dependent changes in NBD fluorescence upon the transition of NBD-labeled apoA-I from HDL-bound to lipid-free state indicates that the exchange kinetics are independent of the collision frequency between HDL-bound and lipid-free apoA-I, in which the lipid binding ability of apoA-I affects the rate of association of lipid-free apoA-I with the HDL particles and not the rate of dissociation of HDL-bound apoA-I. Thus, C-terminal truncations or mutations that reduce the lipid binding affinity of apoA-I strongly impair the transition of lipid-free apoA-I to the HDL-bound state. Thermodynamic analysis of the exchange kinetics demonstrated that the apoA-I exchange process is enthalpically unfavorable but entropically favorable. These results explain the thermodynamic basis of the spontaneous exchange reaction of apoA-I associated with HDL particles. The altered exchangeability of dysfunctional apoA-I would affect HDL particle rearrangement, leading to perturbed HDL metabolism.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I Helsinki promotes intracellular acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Juan D; Garda, Horacio A; Cabaleiro, Laura V; Cuellar, Angela; Pellon-Maison, Magali; Gonzalez-Baro, Maria R; Gonzalez, Marina C

    2013-05-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport is a process of high antiatherogenic relevance in which apolipoprotein AI (apoA-I) plays an important role. The interaction of apoA-I with peripheral cells produces through mechanisms that are still poorly understood the mobilization of intracellular cholesterol depots toward plasma membrane. In macrophages, these mechanisms seem to be related to the modulation of the activity of acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), the enzyme responsible for the intracellular cholesterol ester biosynthesis that is stored in lipid droplets. The activation of ACAT and the accumulation of lipid droplets play a key role in the transformation of macrophages into foam cells, leading to the formation of atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque. ApoA-I Helsinki (or ∆K107) is a natural apoA-I variant with a lysine deletion in the central protein region, carriers of which have increased atherosclerosis risk. We herein show that treatment of cultured RAW macrophages or CHOK1 cells with ∆K107, but not with wild-type apoA-I or a variant containing a similar deletion at the C-terminal region (∆K226), lead to a marked increase (more than 10 times) in the intracellular ACAT1 protein level as detected by western blot analysis. However, we could only detect a slight increase in cholesteryl ester produced by ∆K107 mainly when Chol loading was supplied by low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Although a similar choline-phospholipid efflux is evoked by these apoA-I variants, the change in phosphatidylcholine/sphyngomyelin distribution produced by wild-type apoA-I is not observed with either ∆K107 or ∆K226.

  1. Effect of curcumin on amyloid-like aggregates generated from methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Tavoosi, Narjes; Chan, Gary K L; Liu, Jianfang; Ren, Gang; Cavigiolio, Giorgio; Ryan, Robert O

    2018-02-01

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation. The impact of curcumin on the structure of the aggregating material was revealed by the lower amount of β-structure in ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates formed in the presence of curcumin, compared to aggregates formed without curcumin. However, the kinetics of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregate formation was not altered by the presence of curcumin. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis detected no discernable differences in amyloid morphology when ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates were formed in the presence or absence of curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin interacts with apoA-I and alters the structure of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates yet does not diminish the propensity of ox-apoA-I to form aggregates.

  2. Effect of curcumin on amyloid-like aggregates generated from methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Tavoosi, Narjes; Chan, Gary K. L.

    2018-01-10

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. Here, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation. The impact of curcumin on the structure of the aggregating material was revealed by the lower amount of β-structure in ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates formed in the presence of curcumin, comparedmore » to aggregates formed without curcumin. However, the kinetics of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregate formation was not altered by the presence of curcumin. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis detected no discernable differences in amyloid morphology when ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates were formed in the presence or absence of curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin interacts with apoA-I and alters the structure of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates yet does not diminish the propensity of ox-apoA-I to form aggregates.« less

  3. Speciation of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL): HDL stability and apolipoprotein A-I partitioning.

    PubMed

    Pownall, Henry J; Hosken, Brian D; Gillard, Baiba K; Higgins, Catherine L; Lin, Hu Yu; Massey, John B

    2007-06-26

    The distribution of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I between human high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and water is an important component of reverse cholesterol transport and the atheroprotective effects of HDL. Chaotropic perturbation (CP) with guanidinium chloride (Gdm-Cl) reveals HDL instability by inducing the unfolding and transfer of apo A-I but not apo A-II into the aqueous phase while forming larger apo A-I deficient HDL-like particles and small amounts of cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsions (CERMs). Our kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of the CP of HDL species separated according to size and density show that (1) CP mediated an increase in HDL size, which involves quasi-fusion of surface and core lipids, and release of lipid-free apo A-I (these processes correlate linearly), (2) >94% of the HDL lipids remain with an apo A-I deficient particle, (3) apo A-II remains associated with a very stable HDL-like particle even at high levels of Gdm-Cl, and (4) apo A-I unfolding and transfer from HDL to water vary among HDL subfractions with the larger and more buoyant species exhibiting greater stability. Our data indicate that apo A-I's on small HDL (HDL-S) are highly dynamic and, relative to apo A-I on the larger more mature HDL, partition more readily into the aqueous phase, where they initiate the formation of new HDL species. Our data suggest that the greater instability of HDL-S generates free apo A-I and an apo A-I deficient HDL-S that readily fuses with the more stable HDL-L. Thus, the presence of HDL-L drives the CP remodeling of HDL to an equilibrium with even larger HDL-L and more lipid-free apo A-I than with either HDL-L or HDL-S alone. Moreover, according to dilution studies of HDL in 3 M Gdm-Cl, CP of HDL fits a model of apo A-I partitioning between HDL phospholipids and water that is controlled by the principal of opposing forces. These findings suggest that the size and relative amount of HDL lipid determine the HDL stability and the fraction of apo A-I that

  4. Charged Residues in the C-Terminal Domain of Apolipoprotein A-I Modulate Oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lukas A; Beck, Wendy H J; Tsujita, Maki; Weers, Paul M M

    2018-04-03

    Charged residues of the C-terminal domain of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) were targeted by site-directed mutagenesis. A series of mutant proteins was engineered in which lysine residues (Lys 195, 206, 208, 226, 238, and 239) or glutamate residues (Glu 234 and 235) were replaced by glutamine. The amino acid substitutions did not result in changes in secondary structure content or protein stability. Cross-linking and size-exclusion chromatography showed that the mutations resulted in reduced self-association, generating a predominantly monomeric apoA-I when five or six lysine residues were substituted. The rate of phosphatidylcholine vesicle solubilization was enhanced for all variants, with approximately a threefold rate enhancement for apoA-I lacking Lys 206, 208, 238, and 239, or Glu 234 and 235. Single or double mutations did not change the ability to protect lipolyzed low density lipoprotein from aggregation, but variants lacking >4 lysine residues were less effective in preventing lipoprotein aggregation. ApoA-I mediated cellular lipid efflux from wild-type mice macrophage foam cells was decreased for the variant with five lysine mutations. However, this protein was more effective in releasing cellular phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin from Abca1-null mice macrophage foam cells. This suggests that the mutations caused changes in the interaction with ABCA1 transporters and that membrane microsolubilization was primarily responsible for lipid efflux in cells lacking ABCA1. Taken together, this study indicates that ionic interactions in the C-terminal domain of apoA-I favor self-association and that monomeric apoA-I is more active in solubilizing phospholipid bilayers.

  5. [Apolipoprotein A-I stimulates secretion of insulin and matrix metalloproteinases by islets of Langerhans].

    PubMed

    Usynin, I F; Poteryaeva, O N; Russkikh, G S; Zubova, A V; Boiko, K Yu; Polyakov, L M

    2018-03-01

    The development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) is accompanied by disturbances in lipid metabolism. These include the increase in serum levels of atherogenic fractions of very low-density (VLDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides and apo B. In contrast, the level of antiatherogenic high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the content of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) decreased. To study the effect of the observed metabolic changes on insulin secretion in vitro, we used the islets of Langerhans isolated from the rat pancreas. It has been found that incubation of the islets in the presence of serum of the obese patients and patients with decompensated DM2 leads to a decrease in insulin secretion by 2.4 and 5.0 times, respectively. On the contrary, the addition of HDL to the incubation medium increased the insulin secretion by 3.4 times. A similar effect was observed in the presence of apoA-I, the main protein component of HDL. In the presence of apoA-I, the extracellular activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) demonstrated a 10-fold increase. The addition of LDL and VLDL to the islets did not change the secretion of insulin and activity of MMP. Our results testify to the important role of HDL and apoA-I in regulation of the insulin secretion by b-cells and the activity of MMPs in the islets of Langerhans.

  6. Crystal structure of Δ(185-243)ApoA-I suggests a mechanistic framework for the protein adaptation to the changing lipid load in good cholesterol: from flatland to sphereland via double belt, belt buckle, double hairpin and trefoil/tetrafoil.

    PubMed

    Gursky, Olga

    2013-01-09

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids that remove cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. HDL heterogeneity, large size (7.7-12 nm), and ability to exchange proteins have prevented high-resolution structural analysis. Low-resolution studies showed that two apoA-I molecules form an antiparallel α-helical "double belt" around an HDL particle. The atomic-resolution structure of the C-terminal truncated lipid-free Δ(185-243)apoA-I, determined recently by Mei and Atkinson, provides unprecedented new insights into HDL structure-function. It allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for the adaptation of the full-length protein to increasing lipid load during cholesterol transport. ApoA-I conformations on small, midsize, and large HDLs are proposed based on the tandem α-helical repeats and the crystal structure of Δ(185-243)apoA-I and are validated by comparison with extensive biophysical data reported by many groups. In our models, the central half of the double belt ("constant" segment 66-184) is structurally conserved while the N- and C-terminal half ("variable" segments 1-65 and 185-243) rearranges upon HDL growth. This includes incremental unhinging of the N-terminal bundle around two flexible regions containing G39 and G65 to elongate the belt, along with concerted swing motion of the double belt around G65-P66 and G185-G186 hinges that are aligned on various-size particles, to confer two-dimensional surface curvature to spherical HDLs. The proposed conformational ensemble integrates and improves several existing HDL models. It helps provide a structural framework necessary to understand functional interactions with over 60 other HDL-associated proteins and, ultimately, improve the cardioprotective function of HDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased apolipoprotein A-I level indicates poor prognosis in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.

    PubMed

    Quan, Qi; Chen, Qi; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Li; Li, Tingwei; Qiu, Huijuan; Zhang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) is an invasive lymphoid malignancy with unfavorable survival, for which a prognostic model has not yet been validated. We hypothesized that serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) may serve as a novel prognostic marker for ENKTL. A total of 236 newly diagnosed cases of ENKTL were analyzed retrospectively. The optimal cutoff value for the serum ApoA-I level was determined to be 0.95 g/L. A total of 154 and 82 cases were assigned to the high and low ApoA-I groups, respectively. Patients in the low ApoA-I group tended to present with poorer clinical features, a lower complete remission rate (P=0.001), and poor median progression-free survival (P<0.001) and overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis using Cox model showed that the serum ApoA-I level was an independent prognostic marker of overall survival (P<0.001) and progression-free survival (P<0.001) for ENKTL patients. For cases in the low-risk group, as assessed by International Prognostic Index, Prognosis Index for peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, and Korean Prognostic Index, the serum ApoA-I level was able to differentiate cases with poor outcomes from cases with good outcomes. Our results showed that the baseline serum ApoA-I level was helpful for predicting ENKTL prognosis.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide helix number and helix linker influence potentially anti-atherogenic properties

    PubMed Central

    Wool, Geoffrey D.; Reardon, Catherine A.; Getz, Godfrey S.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesize that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides better mimicking the punctuated α-helical repeats of full-length apoA-I are more anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic. This study compares a monomeric apoA-I mimetic helix to three different tandem helix peptides in vitro: 4F (18 mer), 4F-proline-4F (37 mer, Pro), 4F-alanine-4F (37 mer, Ala), and 4F-KVEPLRA-4F [the human apoA-I 4/5 interhelical sequence (IHS), 43 mer]. All peptides cleared turbid lipid suspensions, with 4F being most effective. In contrast to lipid clearance, tandem peptides were more effective at remodeling mouse HDL. All four peptides displaced apoA-I and apoE from the HDL, leaving a larger particle containing apoA-II and peptide. Peptide-remodeled HDL particles show no deficit in ABCG1 cholesterol efflux despite the loss of the majority of apoA-I. Tandem peptides show greater ability to efflux cholesterol from lipid-loaded murine macrophages, compared with 4F. Although 4F inhibited oxidation of purified mouse LDL, the Ala tandem peptide increased oxidation. We compared several tandem 4F-based peptides with monomeric 4F in assays that correlated with suggested anti-inflammatory/anti-atherogenic pathways. Tandem 4F-based peptides, which better mimic full-length apoA-I, exceed monomeric 4F in HDL remodeling and cholesterol efflux but not LDL oxidation protection. In addition, apoA-I mimetic peptides may increase reverse cholesterol transport through both ABCA1 as well as ABCG1 pathways. PMID:18323574

  9. Radioimmunoassay of apolipoprotein A-I. Application of non-ionic detergent (Tween-20) and solid-phase staphylococcus

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejko, J.J.; Mao, S.J.T.

    1982-01-01

    We describe two techniques for radioimmunoassay of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)in human plasma, each involving use of a non-ionic detergent, Tween-20, to expose antigenic sites, and one involving ''IgG SORB'' (a suspension of killed staphylococci) as a solid-phase separator. Tween-20 (3.75 g/L) decreased nonspecific binding and unmasked the antigenic sites on the apoA-I molecule in plasma to the same extent as did a tedious delipidation procedure, without altering the binding affinity between apoA-I and apoA-I antibodies as determined by Scatchard analysis (K/sub a/ approx. = 2.83 x 10/sup 8/ L/mol). The widely accepted double-antibody immunoprecipitation technique for separating bound and unboundmore » /sup 125/I-labeled apoA-I is time-consuming, owing to extended periods of incubation and centrifugation. IgG SORB effectively separates bound from unbound /sup 125/I-labeled apoA-I and the reaction is complete within 10 min. On comparing concentrations of apoA-I in human plasma by the conventional second-antibody (y) and solid-phase IgG SORB methods (x), we found results by the two techniques to be reasonably identical (r=0.98, y=1.2x - 0.17). The mean concentrations of apoA-I in plasma from 65 normal andfive hyperlipidemic patients were 1.33 (SD 0.32) and 0.78 (SD 0.35) g/L, respectively, and apoA-I and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly correlated (r = 0.72, p <0.001).« less

  10. Radioimmunoassay of apolipoprotein A-i. application of a non-ionic detergent (Tween-20) and solid-phase staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Maciejko, J J; Mao, S J

    1982-01-01

    We describe two techniques for radioimmunoassay of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma, each involving use of a non-ionic detergent, Tween-20, to expose antigenic sites, and one involving "IgG SORB" (a suspension of killed staphylococci) as a solid-phase separator. Tween-20 (3.75 g/L) decreased nonspecific binding and unmasked the antigenic sites on the apoA-I molecule in plasma to the same extent as did a tedious delipidation procedure, without altering the binding affinity between apoA-I and apoA-I antibodies as determined by Scatchard analysis (Ka congruent to 2.83 X 10(8) L/mol). The widely accepted double-antibody immunoprecipitation technique for separating bound and unbound 125I-labeled apoA-I is time-consuming, owing to extended periods of incubation and centrifugation IgG SORB effectively separates bound from unbound 125I-labeled apoA-I and the reaction is complete within 10 min. On comparing concentrations of apoA-I in human plasma by the conventional second-antibody (y) and solid-phase IgG SORB methods (x), we found results by the two techniques to be reasonably identical (r = 0.98, y = 1.2x -- 0.17). The mean concentrations of apoA-I in plasma from 65 normal and five hyperlipidemic patients were 1.33 (SD 0.32) and 0.78 (SD 0.35) g/L, respectively, and apoA-I and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly correlated (r = 0.72, p less than 0.001).

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I and adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 expression alleviates lipid accumulation in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Qin, Ling; Yu, Hao; Lv, Fangqiao; Wang, Yutong

    2014-03-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) mediates the transport of cholesterol and phospholipids from cells to high density lipoprotein apolipoproteins. The lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) by ABCA1 is the rate-limiting step in reverse cholesterol transport and the generation of plasma high density lipoprotein. Here, we examined the effect of apoA-I or ABCA1 overexpression on hepatic lipid levels in BEL-7402 cells. Human ABCA1 or apoA-I was overexpressed in BEL-7402 hepatocytes by transfection and human apoA-I was overexpressed via adenoviral vector in C57BL/6J mice with MCD diet. Overexpression of either apoA-I or ABCA1 resulted in an increase in cholesterol efflux and a decrease in cellular fatty acids and triglycerides. However, after repression of ABCA1 by its siRNA, overexpression of apoA-I failed to decrease both cellular fatty acids and triglycerides. ApoA-I or ABCA1 overexpression also resulted in a decrease in the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins GRP78 and SREBP-1. Overexpression of apoA-I in mice also reduced hepatic lipid levels. Expression of apoA-I or ABCA1 can reduce steatosis by decreasing lipid storage in hepatocytes through lipid transport and may also reduce endoplasmic reticulum stress, further lessening hepatic steatosis. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. In situ AFM imaging of apolipoprotein A-I directly derived from plasma HDL.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chaoye; Wang, Zhexuan; Chen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    The major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins play vital roles in the structural integrity and physiological functions of lipoproteins. More than ten structural models of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), have been developed successively. In these models, apoA-I was supposed to organize in a ring-shaped form. To date, however, there is no direct evidence under physiological condition. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to in situ visualize the organization of apoA-I, which was exposed via depletion of the lipid component of plasma HDL pre-immobilized on functionalized mica sheets. For the first time, the ring-shaped coarse structure and three detailed structures (crescent-shaped, gapped "O"-shaped, and parentheses-shaped structures, respectively) of apoA-I in plasma HDL, which have the ability of binding scavenger receptors, were directly observed and quantitatively measured by AFM. The three detailed structures probably represent the different extents to which the lipid component of HDL was depleted. Data on lipid depletion of HDL may provide clues to understand lipid insertion of HDL. These data provide important information for the understanding of the structure/maturation of plasma HDL. Moreover, they suggest a powerful method for directly visualizing the major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins or the protein component of lipoprotein-like lipid-protein complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The HDL cholesterol/apolipoprotein A-I ratio: an indicator of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Byrne, Christopher D; Sung, Ki-Chul

    2017-04-01

    In multiple studies, the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration has been shown to be inversely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk. Based on this observation, increasing the plasma HDL-C concentration is thought to be a desirable strategy, in the 21st century, for decreasing the burden of CVD. Recent studies have shown that powerful HDL-C concentration-increasing drugs are ineffective for decreasing CVD. Increasing evidence now shows that HDL is an unstable and heterogeneous particle, and that 'HDL particle functionality' is far more important in atheroprotection than is the HDL-C level, alone. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL, and increasing evidence suggests that the ratio of HDL-C to apoA-I may give additional insight as a risk marker not just for CVD but also for all-cause and cancer mortality. In this review, we discuss the importance of HDL composition, apoA-I levels, and the HDL-C/apoA-I ratio for predicting CVD and mortality outcomes.

  14. 12 CFR Appendixes A-I to Part 171 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-I to Part 171 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-I to Part 171 [Reserved] ...

  15. 12 CFR Appendixes A-I to Part 171 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-I to Part 171 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-I to Part 171 [Reserved] ...

  16. 12 CFR Appendixes A-I to Part 171 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false [Reserved] A Appendixes A-I to Part 171 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Appendixes A-I to Part 171 [Reserved] ...

  17. Brosimacutins A-I, nine new flavonoids from Brosimum acutifolium.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Junko; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2002-12-01

    Nine new flavonoids, brosimacutins A-I (1-9), and four known flavonoids were isolated from the bark of Brosimum acutifolium, a Brazilian folk medicine ("Mururé"). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR. Brosimacutins A-I possess differentially functionalized isoprene units at C-8.

  18. Effect of Native and Modified Apolipoprotein A-I on DNA Synthesis in Cultures of Different Cells.

    PubMed

    Usynin, I F; Dudarev, A N; Miroshnichenko, S M; Tkachenko, T A; Gorodetskaya, A Yu

    2017-12-01

    Culturing of bone marrow cells in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium for 24 h was accompanied by a decrease in the rate of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA. Addition of native apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) or plasma LDL and HDL to the culture medium increased this parameter. In contrast to native apoA-I, its modified form decelerated DNA synthesis in bone marrow cells. A similar inhibitory effect of modified protein was observed in cultures of human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) and in rapidly proliferating mouse macrophage cell line ANA-1. The only exclusion was human myeloid cell line U937: neither native nor modified apoA-I affected DNA synthesis in these cells. Thus, the regulatory effects of apoA-I are tissue-specific; this protein can produce either stimulatory or inhibitory effect on DNA biosynthesis in cells depending on its conformation.

  19. Crystal Structure of Δ(185–243)apoA-I Suggests a Mechanistic Framework for the Protein Adaptation to the Changing Lipid Load in Good Cholesterol: From Flatland to Sphereland via Double Belt, Belt-Buckle, Double Hairpin and Trefoil/Tetrafoil

    PubMed Central

    Gursky, Olga

    2012-01-01

    ApoA-I is the major protein of plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL), macromolecular assemblies of proteins and lipids that remove cell cholesterol and protect against atherosclerosis. HDL heterogeneity, large size (7.7–12 nm) and ability to exchange proteins have prevented high-resolution structural analysis. Low-resolution studies showed that two apoA-I molecules form an antiparallel α-helical “double belt” around an HDL particle. Atomic-resolution structure of the C-terminal truncated lipid-free Δ(185–243)apoA-I, determined recently by Mei and Atkinson, provides unprecedented new insights into HDL structure-function. It allows us to propose a molecular mechanism for the adaptation of the full-length protein to increasing lipid load during cholesterol transport. ApoA-I conformations on the small, mid-size and large HDL are proposed based on the tandem α-helical repeats and the crystal structure of Δ(185–243)apoA-I, and are validated by comparison with extensive biophysical data reported by many groups. In our models, the central half of the double belt (“constant” segment 66–184) is structurally conserved while the N- and C-terminal half (“variable” segments 1–65 and 185–243) re-arranges upon HDL growth. This includes incremental unhinging of the N-terminal bundle around two flexible regions containing G39 and G65 to elongate the belt, along with concerted swing motion of the double belt around G65-P66 and G185–G186 hinges that are aligned on various-size particles, to confer 2D surface curvature to spherical HDL. The proposed conformational ensemble integrates and improves several existing HDL models. It helps provide a structural framework necessary to understand functional interactions with over 60 other HDL-associated proteins and, ultimately, improve cardioprotective function of HDL. PMID:23041415

  20. Plasma activated coating immobilizes apolipoprotein A-I to stainless steel surfaces in its bioactive form and enhances biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Vanags, Laura Z; Tan, Joanne T M; Santos, Miguel; Michael, Praveesuda S; Ali, Ziad; Bilek, Marcela M M; Wise, Steven G; Bursill, Christina A

    2017-10-01

    We utilized a plasma activated coating (PAC) to covalently bind the active component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, to stainless steel (SS) surfaces. ApoA-I suppresses restenosis and thrombosis and may therefore improve SS stent biocompatibility. PAC-coated SS significantly increased the covalent attachment of apoA-I, compared to SS alone. In static and dynamic flow thrombosis assays, PAC+apoA-I inhibited thrombosis and reduced platelet activation marker p-selectin. PAC+apoA-I reduced smooth muscle cell attachment and proliferation, and augmented EC attachment to PAC. We then coated PAC onto murine SS stents and found it did not peel or delaminate following crimping/expansion. ApoA-I was immobilized onto PAC-SS stents and was retained as a monolayer when exposed to pulsatile flow in vivo in a murine stent model. In conclusion, ApoA-I immobilized on PAC withstands pulsatile flow in vivo and retains its bioactivity, exhibiting anti-thrombotic and anti-restenotic properties, demonstrating the potential to improve stent biocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sidedness of interfacial arginine residues and anti-atherogenicity of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Gaurav; Mishra, Vinod K.; Handattu, Shaila P.; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N.; Shin, Ronald; McPherson, David T.; Deivanayagam, Champion C. S.; Garber, David W.; Segrest, Jere P.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sidedness of interfacial arginine (Arg) in apoA-I mimetic peptides, similar to that observed in apoA-I (Bashtovyy, D. et al. 2011. Sequence conservation of apolipoprotein A-I affords novel insights into HDL structure-function. J. Lipid Res. 52: 435–450.), may be important for biological activity, we compared properties of 4F and analogs, [K4,15>R]4F and [K9,13>R]4F, with Lys>Arg substitutions on the right and left side, respectively, of the 4F amphipathic helix. Intraperitoneal administration of these peptides into female apoE null mice (n = 13 in each group) reduced en face lesions significantly compared with controls; 4F and [K4,15>R]4F were equally effective whereas [K9,13>R]4F was less effective. Turnover experiments indicated that [K4,15>R]4F reached the highest, whereas [K9,13>R]4F had the lowest, plasma peak levels with a similar half life as the [K4,15>R]4F analog. The half life of 4F was two times longer than the other two peptides. The order in their abilities to associate with HDL in human plasma, generation of apoA-I particles with pre-β mobility from isolated HDL, lipid associating ability, and sensitivity of lipid complexes to trypsin digestion was: 4F>[K4,15,>R]4F>[K9,13>R]4F. These studies support our hypothesis that the sidedness of interfacial Arg residues in the polar face of apoA-I mimetics results in differential biological properties. PMID:22377531

  2. Apolipoprotein A-II-mediated Conformational Changes of Apolipoprotein A-I in Discoidal High Density Lipoproteins*

    PubMed Central

    Gauthamadasa, Kekulawalage; Vaitinadin, Nataraja Sarma; Dressman, James L.; Macha, Stephen; Homan, Reyn; Greis, Kenneth D.; Silva, R. A. Gangani D.

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that HDL has the ability to reduce risks for several chronic diseases. To gain insights into the functional properties of HDL, it is critical to understand the HDL structure in detail. To understand interactions between the two major apolipoproteins (apos), apoA-I and apoA-II in HDL, we generated highly defined benchmark discoidal HDL particles. These particles were reconstituted using a physiologically relevant phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) incorporating two molecules of apoA-I and one homodimer of apoA-II per particle. We utilized two independent mass spectrometry techniques to study these particles. The techniques are both sensitive to protein conformation and interactions and are namely: 1) hydrogen deuterium exchange combined with mass spectrometry and 2) partial acetylation of lysine residues combined with MS. Comparison of mixed particles with apoA-I only particles of similar diameter revealed that the changes in apoA-I conformation in the presence of apoA-II are confined to apoA-I helices 3–4 and 7–9. We discuss these findings with respect to the relative reactivity of these two particle types toward a major plasma enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase responsible for the HDL maturation process. PMID:22235130

  3. Amyloidogenic Mutation Promotes Fibril Formation of the N-terminal Apolipoprotein A-I on Lipid Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Ogata, Fuka; Mikawa, Shiho; Tsuji, Kohei; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The N-terminal amino acid 1–83 fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has a strong propensity to form amyloid fibrils at physiological neutral pH. Because apoA-I has an ability to bind to lipid membranes, we examined the effects of the lipid environment on fibril-forming properties of the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants. Thioflavin T fluorescence assay as well as fluorescence and transmission microscopies revealed that upon lipid binding, fibril formation by apoA-I 1–83 is strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R mutant still retains the ability to form fibrils. Such distinct effects of lipid binding on fibril formation were also observed for the amyloidogenic prone region-containing peptides, apoA-I 8–33 and 8–33/G26R. This amyloidogenic region shifts from random coil to α-helical structure upon lipid binding. The G26R mutation appears to prevent this helix transition because lower helical propensity and more solvent-exposed conformation of the G26R variant upon lipid binding were observed in the apoA-I 1–83 fragment and 8–33 peptide. With a partially α-helical conformation induced by the presence of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, fibril formation by apoA-I 1–83 was strongly inhibited, whereas the G26R variant can form amyloid fibrils. These findings suggest a new possible pathway for amyloid fibril formation by the N-terminal fragment of apoA-I variants: the amyloidogenic mutations partially destabilize the α-helical structure formed upon association with lipid membranes, resulting in physiologically relevant conformations that allow fibril formation. PMID:26175149

  4. Carboxyl-Terminal Cleavage of Apolipoprotein A-I by Human Mast Cell Chymase Impairs Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Maaninka, Katariina; Lappalainen, Jani; Nurmi, Katariina; Metso, Jari; Öörni, Katariina; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Kovanen, Petri T

    2016-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to possess several atheroprotective functions, including inhibition of inflammation. Protease-secreting activated mast cells reside in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigated the effects of the neutral proteases released by activated mast cells on the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I. Activation of human mast cells triggered the release of granule-associated proteases chymase, tryptase, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A, and granzyme B. Among them, chymase cleaved apoA-I with the greatest efficiency and generated C-terminally truncated apoA-I, which failed to bind with high affinity to human coronary artery endothelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor-α-activated human coronary artery endothelial cells, the chymase-cleaved apoA-I was unable to suppress nuclear factor-κB-dependent upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and to block THP-1 cells from adhering to and transmigrating across the human coronary artery endothelial cells. Chymase-cleaved apoA-I also had an impaired ability to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide-activated GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)- and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-differentiated human macrophage foam cells and to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-activated human neutrophils. Importantly, chymase-cleaved apoA-I showed reduced ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo in mice. Treatment with chymase blocked the ability of the apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F, but not of the protease-resistant D-4F, to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in activated human coronary artery endothelial cells and macrophage foam cells and to prevent reactive oxygen species formation in activated neutrophils. The findings identify C-terminal cleavage of apoA-I by human mast

  5. Carboxyl-Terminal Cleavage of Apolipoprotein A-I by Human Mast Cell Chymase Impairs Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Maaninka, Katariina; Lappalainen, Jani; Nurmi, Katariina; Metso, Jari; Öörni, Katariina; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to possess several atheroprotective functions, including inhibition of inflammation. Protease-secreting activated mast cells reside in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigated the effects of the neutral proteases released by activated mast cells on the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I. Approach and Results— Activation of human mast cells triggered the release of granule-associated proteases chymase, tryptase, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A, and granzyme B. Among them, chymase cleaved apoA-I with the greatest efficiency and generated C-terminally truncated apoA-I, which failed to bind with high affinity to human coronary artery endothelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor-α–activated human coronary artery endothelial cells, the chymase-cleaved apoA-I was unable to suppress nuclear factor-κB–dependent upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and to block THP-1 cells from adhering to and transmigrating across the human coronary artery endothelial cells. Chymase-cleaved apoA-I also had an impaired ability to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide-activated GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)– and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor)–differentiated human macrophage foam cells and to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)–activated human neutrophils. Importantly, chymase-cleaved apoA-I showed reduced ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo in mice. Treatment with chymase blocked the ability of the apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F, but not of the protease-resistant D-4F, to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in activated human coronary artery endothelial cells and macrophage foam cells and to prevent reactive oxygen species formation in activated neutrophils. Conclusions— The

  6. Local Vascular Gene Therapy with Apolipoprotein A-I to Promote Regression of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Bradley K.; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Zhang, Jingwan; Dichek, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gene therapy, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall, could potentially prevent atherosclerotic lesion growth and promote atherosclerosis regression. Previously, we reported that a helper-dependent adenoviral vector (HDAd) expressing apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in carotid endothelium of fat-fed rabbits reduced early (4 weeks) atherosclerotic lesion growth. Here we tested whether the same HDAd—delivered to existing carotid atherosclerotic lesions—could promote regression. Approach and Results Rabbits (n=26) were fed a high-fat diet for 7 months, then treated with bilateral carotid gene transfer. One carotid was infused with an HDAd expressing apo A-I (HDAdApoAI), the other with a control non-expressing HDAd (HDAdNull). The side with HDAdApoAI was randomized. Rabbits were then switched to regular chow, lowering their plasma cholesterols by over 70%. ApoA-I mRNA and protein were detected in HDAdApoAI-transduced arteries. After 7 weeks of gene therapy, compared to HDAdNull-treated arteries in the same rabbits, HDAdApoAI-treated arteries had significantly less VCAM-1 expression (28%; P=0.04) along with modest but statistically insignificant trends towards decreased intimal lesion volume, lipid and macrophage content, and ICAM-1 expression (9%–21%; P=0.1–0.4). Post-hoc subgroup analysis of rabbits with small-to-moderate-sized lesions (n=20) showed that HDAdApoAI caused large reductions in lesion volume, lipid content, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression (30%–50%; P≤0.04 for all). Macrophage content was reduced by 30% (P=0.06). There was a significant interaction (P=0.02) between lesion size and treatment efficacy. Conclusion Even when administered on a background of aggressive lowering of plasma cholesterol, local HDAdApoAI vascular gene therapy may promote rapid regression of small-to-moderate-sized atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:27932352

  7. Heparin promotes fibril formation by the N-terminal fragment of amyloidogenic apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Mikawa, Shiho; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Sakashita, Naomi; Otaka, Akira; Akaji, Kenichi; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Glycosaminoglycans are known to be associated with extracellular amyloid deposits of various amyloidogenic proteins. In this study, we found that the glycosaminoglycan heparin greatly accelerates the elongation step in fibril formation by the N-terminal 1-83 fragment of human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), especially in the amyloidogenic W50R variant. Using fragment peptides, we demonstrate that heparin significantly promotes β-transition and fibril formation of the highly amyloidogenic region spanning residues 44-65 and colocalizes with fibrils formed by the W50R variant. These results suggest the possible role of glycosaminoglycans in fibril formation by amyloidogenic apoA-I variants. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  8. Inducing apolipoprotein A-I synthesis to reduce cardiovascular risk: from ASSERT to SUSTAIN and beyond.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Belinda A; Scherer, Daniel J; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    Increasing attention has focused on efforts to promote the biological activities of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) in order to reduce cardiovascular risk. Targeting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein carried on HDL particles, represents an attractive approach to promoting HDL by virtue of its ability to increase endogenous synthesis of functional HDL particles. A number of pharmacological strategies that target apoA-I, including upregulation of its production with the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein inhibitor RVX-208, development of short peptide sequences that mimic its action, and administration as a component of reconstituted HDL particles, have undergone clinical development. The impact of these approaches on cardiovascular biomarkers will be reviewed.

  9. Human macrophage cathepsin B-mediated C-terminal cleavage of apolipoprotein A-I at Ser228 severely impairs antiatherogenic capacity.

    PubMed

    Dinnes, Donna Lee M; White, Melanie Y; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Hou, Liming; Jessup, Wendy; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Cordwell, Stuart J; Kritharides, Leonard

    2016-12-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major component of HDL and central to the ability of HDL to stimulate ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent, antiatherogenic export of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells, a key player in the pathology of atherosclerosis. Cell-mediated modifications of apoA-I, such as chlorination, nitration, oxidation, and proteolysis, can impair its antiatherogenic function, although it is unknown whether macrophages themselves contribute to such modifications. To investigate this, human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were incubated with human apoA-I under conditions used to induce cholesterol export. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis identified that apoA-I is cleaved (∼20-80%) by HMDMs in a time-dependent manner, generating apoA-I of lower MW and isoelectric point. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a novel C-terminal cleavage site of apoA-I between Ser 228 -Phe 229 Recombinant apoA-I truncated at Ser 228 demonstrated profound loss of capacity to solubilize lipid and to promote ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Protease inhibitors, small interfering RNA knockdown in HMDMs, mass spectrometry analysis, and cathepsin B activity assays identified secreted cathepsin B as responsible for apoA-I cleavage at Ser 228 Importantly, C-terminal cleavage of apoA-I was also detected in human carotid plaque. Cleavage at Ser 228 is a novel, functionally important post-translational modification of apoA-I mediated by HMDMs that limits the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I.-Dinnes, D. L. M., White, M. Y., Kockx, M., Traini, M., Hsieh, V., Kim, M.-J., Hou, L., Jessup, W., Rye, K.-A., Thaysen-Andersen, M., Cordwell, S. J., Kritharides, L. Human macrophage cathepsin B-mediated C-terminal cleavage of apolipoprotein A-I at Ser 228 severely impairs antiatherogenic capacity. © FASEB.

  10. Corneal vesicles accumulate collagen VI associated with tissue remodeling in apolipoprotein a-I deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Namba, Hiroyuki; Narumi, Mari; Susa, Shinji; Ohe, Rintaro; Kato, Takeo; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-08

    Apo A-I deficiency clinically shows low serum levels of HDL cholesterol and corneal opacity at a young age. Histopathological evaluations of affected corneas are not enough, and the mechanism of corneal opacity is still unclear. A 61-year-old woman suffered from blurred vision with a corneal opacity. She had significantly reduced serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Apo A-I, stenosis of the coronary arteries, and ischemic heart failure. On genetic examination, a homozygous mutation of Apo A-I Tsukuba was identified. Histopathological examination of the corneal button after PKP showed numerous vesicles in the corneal stroma, which were more prominent in the deep stroma than in the shallow stroma. Collagen VI was observed in some of those vesicles. We experienced a rare case of corneal opacity due to Apo A-I deficiency. Our histopathological findings indicated that structural changes in corneal collagen fibrils contribute to the formation of stromal vesicles.

  11. Structures of apolipoprotein A-I in high density lipoprotein generated by electron microscopy and biased simulations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lin; Petrlova, Jitka; Gysbers, Peter; Hebert, Hans; Wallin, Stefan; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Lagerstedt, Jens O

    2017-11-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a key protein for the transport of cholesterol from the vascular wall to the liver. The formation and structure of nascent HDL, composed of apoA-I and phospholipids, is critical to this process. The HDL was assembled in vitro from apoA-I, cholesterol and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at a 1:4:50 molar ratio. The structure of HDL was investigated in vitreous samples, frozen at cryogenic temperatures, as well as in negatively stained samples by transmission electron microscopy. Low resolution electron density maps were next used as restraints in biased Monte Carlo simulations of apolipoprotein A-I dimers, with an initial structure derived from atomic resolution X-ray structures. Two final apoA-I structure models for the full-length structure of apoA-I dimer in the lipid bound conformation were generated, showing a nearly circular, flat particle with an uneven particle thickness. The generated structures provide evidence for the discoidal, antiparallel arrangement of apoA-I in nascent HDL, and propose two preferred conformations of the flexible N-termini. The novel full-length structures of apoA-I dimers deepens the understanding to the structure-function relationship of nascent HDL with significance for the prevention of lipoprotein-related disease. The biased simulation method used in this study provides a powerful and convenient modelling tool with applicability for structural studies and modelling of other proteins and protein complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A facile method for isolation of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I from E. coli.

    PubMed

    Ikon, Nikita; Shearer, Jennifer; Liu, Jianfang; Tran, Jesse J; Feng, ShiBo; Kamei, Ayako; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kiss, Robert S; Weers, Paul M; Ren, Gang; Ryan, Robert O

    2017-06-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets "Good Manufacturing Practice" standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scale are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. Purified apoA-I possessed α-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A facile method for isolation of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I from E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Ikon, Nikita; Shearer, Jennifer; Liu, Jianfang; ...

    2017-03-20

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets “Good Manufacturing Practice” standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scalemore » are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. In conclusion, purified apoA-I possessed α-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages.« less

  14. Molecular characterization and developmental expression patterns of apolipoprotein A-I in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup).

    PubMed

    Román-Padilla, J; Rodríguez-Rúa, A; Manchado, M; Hachero-Cruzado, I

    2016-05-01

    The apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is an essential component of the high density lipoproteins (HDL). In this study, the cDNA and genomic sequences of this apolipoprotein were characterized for first time in Solea senegalensis. The predicted polypeptide revealed conserved structural features including ten repeats in the lipid-binding domain and some residues involved in cholesterol interaction and binding. The gene structure analysis identified four exons and three introns. Moreover, the synteny analysis revealed that apoA-I did not localize with other apolipoproteins indicating a divergent evolution with respect to the apoA-IV and apoE cluster. The phylogenetic analyses identified two distinct apoA-I paralogs in Ostariophysi (referred to as Ia and Ib) and only one (Ib) in Acanthopterygii. Whole-mount in situ hybridization located the apoA-I signal mainly in the yolk syncytial layer in lecitotrophic larval stages. Later at mouth opening, the mRNA signals were detected mainly in liver and intestine compatible with its role in the HDL formation. Moreover, a clear signal was detected in some regions of the brain, retina and neural cord suggesting a role in local regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. After metamorphosis, apoA-I was also detected in other tissues such as gills, head kidney and spleen suggesting a putative role in immunity. Expression analyses in larvae fed two diets with different triacylglycerol levels indicated that apoA-I mRNA levels were more associated to larval size and development than dietary lipid levels. Finally, qPCR analyses of immature and mature transcripts revealed distinct expression profiles suggesting a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia Decreases Circulating High-Density Lipoprotein by Inhibiting Apolipoprotein A-I Protein Synthesis and Enhancing HDL Cholesterol Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dan; Tan, Hongmei; Hui, Rutai; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Xiaohua; Gaubatz, John; Yang, Fan; Durante, William; Chan, Lawrence; Schafer, Andrew I.; Pownall, Henry J.; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), is associated with increased atherosclerosis and decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in cystathionine β-synthase–/apolipoprotein E–deficient (CBS−/−/apoE−/−) mice. We observed that plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations are negatively correlated with HDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 (apoA-I) in patients with CAD. We found the loss of large HDL particles, increased HDL-free cholesterol, and decreased HDL protein in CBS−/−/apoE−/− mice, and attenuated cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded macrophages to plasma in CBS−/−/apoE−/− mice. ApoA-I protein was reduced in the plasma and liver, but hepatic apoA-I mRNA was unchanged in CBS−/−/apoE−/− mice. Moreover, Hcy (0.5 to 2 mmol/L) reduced the levels of apoA-I protein but not mRNA and inhibited apoA-1 protein synthesis in mouse primary hepatocytes. Further, plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) substrate reactivity was decreased, LCAT specific activity increased, and plasma LCAT protein levels unchanged in apoE−/−/CBS−/− mice. Finally, the clearance of plasma HDL cholesteryl ester, but not HDL protein, was faster in CBS−/−/apoE−/− mice, correlated with increased scavenger receptor B1, and unchanged ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 protein expression in the liver. These findings indicate that HHcy inhibits reverse cholesterol transport by reducing circulating HDL via inhibiting apoA-I protein synthesis and enhancing HDL-C clearance. PMID:16931800

  16. Transfer of C-terminal residues of human apolipoprotein A-I to insect apolipophorin III creates a two-domain chimeric protein with enhanced lipid binding activity.

    PubMed

    Horn, James V C; Ellena, Rachel A; Tran, Jesse J; Beck, Wendy H J; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy; Weers, Paul M M

    2017-08-01

    Apolipophorin III (apoLp-III) is an insect apolipoprotein (18kDa) that comprises a single five-helix bundle domain. In contrast, human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a 28kDa two-domain protein: an α-helical N-terminal domain (residues 1-189) and a less structured C-terminal domain (residues 190-243). To better understand the apolipoprotein domain organization, a novel chimeric protein was engineered by attaching residues 179 to 243 of apoA-I to the C-terminal end of apoLp-III. The apoLp-III/apoA-I chimera was successfully expressed and purified in E. coli. Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I within the chimera. While parent apoLp-III did not self-associate, the chimera formed oligomers similar to apoA-I. The chimera displayed a lower α-helical content, but the stability remained similar compared to apoLp-III, consistent with the addition of a less structured domain. The chimera was able to solubilize phospholipid vesicles at a significantly higher rate compared to apoLp-III, approaching that of apoA-I. The chimera was more effective in protecting phospholipase C-treated low density lipoprotein from aggregation compared to apoLp-III. In addition, binding interaction of the chimera with phosphatidylglycerol vesicles and lipopolysaccharides was considerably improved compared to apoLp-III. Thus, addition of the C-terminal domain of apoA-I to apoLp-III created a two-domain protein, with self-association, lipid and lipopolysaccharide binding properties similar to apoA-I. The apoA-I like behavior of the chimera indicate that these properties are independent from residues residing in the N-terminal domain of apoA-I, and that they can be transferred from apoA-I to apoLp-III. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Inflammatory markers modify the risk of recurrent coronary events associated with apolipoprotein A-I in postinfarction patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Corsetti, James; McNitt, Scott; Rich, David Q; Sparks, Charles E; Moss, Arthur J; Zareba, Wojciech

    Laboratory findings have suggested that systemic and vascular inflammation can impair the antiatherogenic function of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). However, evidence from population studies is sparse. The objective of the study was to assess if blood inflammatory markers modify the risk of recurrent coronary events associated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) among postinfarction patients. ApoA-I, HDL-C, and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein [CRP], serum amyloid A (SAA), fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor [vWF], and D-dimer) were measured from blood samples of 1028 patients drawn 2 months after an index myocardial infarction (MI). Patients were followed up for the composite coronary endpoint (nonfatal MI, coronary death, or unstable angina) for an average of 26 months. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess effect modifications for the association of apoA-I and HDL-C with coronary risk by each inflammatory marker. CRP significantly modified the risk of recurrent coronary events associated with apoA-I. Among the entire population, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios associated with each standard deviation increase in apoA-I for those with low and high CRP levels were 0.89 and 1.35, respectively (P value for interaction = .008). vWF was a significant effect modifier of the apoA-I/coronary risk association only among diabetic patients (hazard ratios were 0.56 and 1.43, for diabetic patients with low and high vWF levels, respectively; P value for interaction = .002). No effect modification was observed for the HDL-C/coronary risk association. Among stable post-MI patients, CRP modified the risk of recurrent coronary events associated with apoA-I. VWF modified this association only among the diabetic subgroup. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FOXO1 and LXRα downregulate the apolipoprotein A-I gene expression during hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Oleinikova, Galina N; Lapikov, Ivan A; Tanyanskiy, Dmitry A; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species damage various cell components including DNA, proteins, and lipids, and these impairments could be a reason for severe human diseases including atherosclerosis. Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1), an important metabolic transcription factor, upregulates antioxidant and proapoptotic genes during oxidative stress. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) forms high density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are responsible for cholesterol transfer from peripheral tissues to liver for removal in bile in vertebrates. The main sources for plasma ApoA-I in mammals are liver and jejunum. Hepatic apoA-I transcription depends on a multitude of metabolic transcription factors. We demonstrate that ApoA-I synthesis and secretion are decreased during H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Here, we first show that FOXO1 binds to site B of apoA-I hepatic enhancer and downregulates apoA-I gene activity in HepG2 cells. Moreover, FOXO1 and LXRα transcription factors participate in H 2 O 2 -triggered downregulation of apoA-I gene together with Src, JNK, p38, and AMPK kinase cascades. Mutations of sites B or C as well as the administration of siRNAs against FOXO1 or LXRα to HepG2 cells abolished the hydrogen peroxide-mediated suppression of apoA-I gene.

  19. Myeloperoxidase-derived oxidants modify apolipoprotein A-I and generate dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins: comparison of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN) with hypochlorous acid (HOCl).

    PubMed

    Hadfield, Katrina A; Pattison, David I; Brown, Bronwyn E; Hou, Liming; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Davies, Michael J; Hawkins, Clare L

    2013-01-15

    Oxidative modification of HDLs (high-density lipoproteins) by MPO (myeloperoxidase) compromises its anti-atherogenic properties, which may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Although it has been established that HOCl (hypochlorous acid) produced by MPO targets apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I), the major apolipoprotein of HDLs, the role of the other major oxidant generated by MPO, HOSCN (hypothiocyanous acid), in the generation of dysfunctional HDLs has not been examined. In the present study, we characterize the structural and functional modifications of lipid-free apoA-I and rHDL (reconstituted discoidal HDL) containing apoA-I complexed with phospholipid, induced by HOSCN and its decomposition product, OCN- (cyanate). Treatment of apoA-I with HOSCN resulted in the oxidation of tryptophan residues, whereas OCN- induced carbamylation of lysine residues to yield homocitrulline. Tryptophan residues were more readily oxidized on apoA-I contained in rHDLs. Exposure of lipid-free apoA-I to HOSCN and OCN- significantly reduced the extent of cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded macrophages when compared with unmodified apoA-I. In contrast, HOSCN did not affect the anti-inflammatory properties of rHDL. The ability of HOSCN to impair apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis, particularly in smokers who have high plasma levels of SCN- (thiocyanate).

  20. Molecules that Mimic Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential Agents for Treating Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Luke J.; Maryanoff, Bruce E.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2013-01-01

    Certain amphipathic α-helical peptides can functionally mimic many of the properties of full-length apolipoproteins, thereby offering an approach to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for combating atherosclerosis. In this Perspective, we summarize the key findings and advances over the past 25 years in the development of peptides that mimic apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). This assemblage of information provides a reasonably clear picture of the state of the art in the apolipoprotein mimetic field, an appreciation of the potential for such agents in pharmacotherapy, and a sense of the opportunities for optimizing the functional properties of HDL. PMID:24168751

  1. Effects of cross-link breakers, glycation inhibitors and insulin sensitisers on HDL function and the non-enzymatic glycation of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Nobécourt, E; Zeng, J; Davies, M J; Brown, B E; Yadav, S; Barter, P J; Rye, K-A

    2008-06-01

    Hyperglycaemia, a key feature of diabetes, is associated with non-enzymatic glycation of plasma proteins. We have shown previously that the reactive alpha-oxoaldehyde, methylglyoxal, non-enzymatically glycates apolipoprotein (Apo)A-I, the main apolipoprotein of HDL, and prevents it from activating lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), the enzyme that generates almost all of the cholesteryl esters in plasma. This study investigates whether the glycation inhibitors aminoguanidine and pyridoxamine, the insulin sensitiser metformin and the cross-link breaker alagebrium can inhibit and/or reverse the methylglyoxal-mediated glycation of ApoA-I and whether these changes can preserve or restore the ability of ApoA-I to activate LCAT. Inhibition of ApoA-I glycation was assessed by incubating aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, metformin and alagebrium with mixtures of methylglyoxal and discoidal reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing phosphatidylcholine and ApoA-I, ([A-I]rHDL). Glycation was assessed as the modification of ApoA-I arginine, lysine and tryptophan residues, and by the extent of ApoA-I cross-linking. The reversal of ApoA-I glycation was investigated by pre-incubating discoidal (A-I)rHDL with methylglyoxal, then incubating the modified rHDL with aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine or alagebrium. Aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, metformin and alagebrium all decreased the methylglyoxal-mediated glycation of the ApoA-I in discoidal rHDL and conserved the ability of the particles to act as substrates for LCAT. However, neither aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine nor alagebrium could reverse the glycation of ApoA-I or restore its ability to activate LCAT. Glycation inhibitors, insulin sensitisers and cross-link breakers are important for preserving normal HDL function in diabetes.

  2. Associations of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio with pre-diabetes and diabetes risks: a cross-sectional study in Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuang; Han, Tingting; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huan; Ren, Xingxing; Wu, Peihong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Yihong; Chen, Yawen; Qiu, Huiying; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yaomin

    2017-01-20

    Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) ratio is a useful predictor of cardiovascular risk. However, the association between the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still obscure. To investigate the associations between the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of T2DM and pre-diabetes in a Chinese population, and to assess the role of gender in these associations. A stratified random sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which included 264 men and 465 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes or T2DM. Serum ApoB, ApoA-I and other lipid and glycaemic traits were measured. Pearson's partial correlation and multivariable logistic analysis were used to evaluate the associations between ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of T2DM and pre-diabetes. The ApoB/ApoA-I ratios were significantly increased across the spectrum of NGT, pre-diabetes and T2DM. Women showed higher levels of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and ApoB than men in the pre-diabetic and T2DM groups, but not in the NGT group. The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was closely related with triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other glycaemic traits. Moreover, in women, the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the top and middle tertiles of the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio were 3.65-fold (95% CI 1.69 to 6.10) and 2.19-fold (95% CI 1.38 to 2.84) higher than in the bottom tertile, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. However, the associations disappeared in men after adjusting for other factors. The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio showed positive associations with the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in Chinese women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Associations of apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio with pre-diabetes and diabetes risks: a cross-sectional study in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuang; Han, Tingting; Xu, Hua; Zhou, Huan; Ren, Xingxing; Wu, Peihong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Ming; Jiang, Yihong; Chen, Yawen; Qiu, Huiying; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yaomin

    2017-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) ratio is a useful predictor of cardiovascular risk. However, the association between the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is still obscure. Aims To investigate the associations between the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of T2DM and pre-diabetes in a Chinese population, and to assess the role of gender in these associations. Methods A stratified random sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which included 264 men and 465 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), pre-diabetes or T2DM. Serum ApoB, ApoA-I and other lipid and glycaemic traits were measured. Pearson's partial correlation and multivariable logistic analysis were used to evaluate the associations between ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and the risk of T2DM and pre-diabetes. Results The ApoB/ApoA-I ratios were significantly increased across the spectrum of NGT, pre-diabetes and T2DM. Women showed higher levels of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio and ApoB than men in the pre-diabetic and T2DM groups, but not in the NGT group. The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was closely related with triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and other glycaemic traits. Moreover, in women, the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in the top and middle tertiles of the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio were 3.65-fold (95% CI 1.69 to 6.10) and 2.19-fold (95% CI 1.38 to 2.84) higher than in the bottom tertile, respectively, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. However, the associations disappeared in men after adjusting for other factors. Conclusions The ApoB/ApoA-I ratio showed positive associations with the risk of diabetes and pre-diabetes in Chinese women. PMID:28110289

  4. Local Vascular Gene Therapy With Apolipoprotein A-I to Promote Regression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wacker, Bradley K; Dronadula, Nagadhara; Zhang, Jingwan; Dichek, David A

    2017-02-01

    Gene therapy, delivered directly to the blood vessel wall, could potentially prevent atherosclerotic lesion growth and promote atherosclerosis regression. Previously, we reported that a helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vector expressing apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in carotid endothelium of fat-fed rabbits reduced early (4 weeks) atherosclerotic lesion growth. Here, we tested whether the same HDAd-delivered to the existing carotid atherosclerotic lesions-could promote regression. Rabbits (n=26) were fed a high-fat diet for 7 months, then treated with bilateral carotid gene transfer. One carotid was infused with an HDAd expressing apoA-I (HDAdApoAI) and the other with a control nonexpressing HDAd (HDAdNull). The side with HDAdApoAI was randomized. Rabbits were then switched to regular chow, lowering their plasma cholesterols by over 70%. ApoA-I mRNA and protein were detected in HDAdApoAI-transduced arteries. After 7 weeks of gene therapy, compared with HDAdNull-treated arteries in the same rabbits, HDAdApoAI-treated arteries had significantly less vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression (28%; P=0.04) along with modest but statistically insignificant trends toward decreased intimal lesion volume, lipid and macrophage content, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression (9%-21%; P=0.1-0.4). Post hoc subgroup analysis of rabbits with small-to-moderate-sized lesions (n=20) showed that HDAdApoAI caused large reductions in lesion volume, lipid content, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression (30%-50%; P≤0.04 for all). Macrophage content was reduced by 30% (P=0.06). There was a significant interaction (P=0.02) between lesion size and treatment efficacy. Even when administered on a background of aggressive lowering of plasma cholesterol, local HDAdApoAI vascular gene therapy may promote rapid regression of small-to-moderate-sized atherosclerotic lesions. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. High-density Lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential New Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elizabeth M; Figueroa, Debbie M; Barochia, Amisha V; Yao, Xianglan; Levine, Stewart J

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of ALI, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach.

  6. Molecular crowding impacts the structure of apolipoprotein A-I with potential implications on in vivo metabolism and function.

    PubMed

    Petrlova, Jitka; Hilt, Silvia; Budamagunta, Madhu; Domingo-Espín, Joan; Voss, John C; Lagerstedt, Jens O

    2016-10-01

    The effect molecular crowding, defined as the volume exclusion exerted by one soluble inert molecule upon another soluble molecule, has on the structure and self-interaction of lipid-free apoA-I were explored. The influence of molecular crowding on lipid-free apoA-I oligomerization and internal dynamics has been analyzed using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements of nitroxide spin label at selected positions throughout the protein sequence and at varying concentrations of the crowding agent Ficoll-70. The targeted positions include sites previously shown to be sensitive for detecting intermolecular interaction via spin-spin coupling. Circular dichroism was used to study secondary structural changes in lipid-free apoA-I imposed by increasing concentrations of the crowding agent. Crosslinking and SDS-PAGE gel analysis was employed to further characterize the role molecular crowding plays in inducing apoA-I oligomerization. It was concluded that the dynamic apoA-I structure and oligomeric state was altered in the presence of the crowding agent. It was also found that the C-terminal was slightly more sensitive to molecular crowding. Finally, the data described the region around residue 217 in the C-terminal domain of apoA-I as the most sensitive reporter of the crowding-induced self-association of apoA-I. The implications of this behavior to in vivo functionality are discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 683-692, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On the mechanism of cholesterol interaction with apolipoproteins A-I and E.

    PubMed

    Klimov, A N; Kozhevnikova, K A; Klueva, N N; Belova, E V

    1992-10-01

    It is shown that cholesterol may interact with some substances containing the guanidine group (guanidine itself, arginine, metformin and dodecylguanidine bromide) and with arginine-rich proteins--apoproteins A-I and E. In the latter case the interaction produces the formation of cholesterol-apoprotein complexes. Analysis of such complexes has shown that one apo A-I molecule binds 17-22 and one apo E molecule binds 30-35 sterol molecules, which approximately corresponds to the amount of arginine residues in these proteins. Formation of cholesterol-apoprotein complexes has been suggested to occur due to: (1) formation of hydrogen bond and/or ion-dipole interaction between cholesterol hydroxyl and guanidine groups of the apoprotein arginine residues and (2) hydrophobic interaction of the cholesterol aliphatic chain with nonpolar side chains of the amino acids occupying the third position from arginine in the protein molecule.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I glycation by Glucose and Reactive Aldehydes Alters Phospholipid Affinity but Not Cholesterol Export from Lipid-Laden Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bronwyn E.; Nobecourt, Estelle; Zeng, Jingmin; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Davies, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Increased protein glycation in people with diabetes may promote atherosclerosis. This study examined the effects of non-enzymatic glycation on the association of lipid-free apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) with phospholipid, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-loaded macrophages to lipid-free and lipid-associated apoA-I. Glycation of lipid-free apoA-I by methylglyoxal and glycolaldehyde resulted in Arg, Lys and Trp loss, advanced glycation end-product formation and protein cross-linking. The association of apoA-I glycated by glucose, methylglyoxal or glycolaldehyde with phospholipid multilamellar vesicles was impaired in a glycating agent dose-dependent manner, with exposure of apoA-I to both 30 mM glucose (42% decrease in kslow) and 3 mM glycolaldehyde (50% decrease in kfast, 60% decrease in kslow) resulting is significantly reduced affinity. Cholesterol efflux to control or glycated lipid-free apoA-I, or discoidal reconstituted HDL containing glycated apoA-I (drHDL), was examined using cholesterol-loaded murine (J774A.1) macrophages treated to increase expression of ATP binding cassette transporters A1 (ABCA1) or G1 (ABCG1). Cholesterol efflux from J774A.1 macrophages to glycated lipid-free apoA-I via ABCA1 or glycated drHDL via an ABCG1-dependent mechanism was unaltered, as was efflux to minimally modified apoA-I from people with Type 1 diabetes, or controls. Changes to protein structure and function were prevented by the reactive carbonyl scavenger aminoguanidine. Overall these studies demonstrate that glycation of lipid-free apoA-I, particularly late glycation, modifies its structure, its capacity to bind phospholipids and but not ABCA1- or ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophages. PMID:23741493

  9. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  10. Effect of urotensin II on apolipoprotein B100 and apolipoprotein A-I expression in HepG2 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Abbas; Najar, Ahmad Gholamhoseinian; Khoshi, Amirhosein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increased apolipoprotein B100 (apo B) and decreased apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) production are important risk factors in atherosclerosis. Urotensin II (UII), as the most potent vasoconstrictor in human, is related with hypertension and probably atherosclerosis. Because of the relationship between the hypertension and lipoprotein metabolism in atherosclerosis, the aim of this study was to test the effect of urotensin II on apo B and apo A-I expression in hepatic (HepG2) cell line. Materials and Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with 10, 50, 100, and 200 nmol/L of urotensin II (n = 6). Relative apo B and apo A-I messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in conditioned media, normalized to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, were measured with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. In addition, apo B and apo A-I levels were also estimated and compared with the controls using the western blotting method. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and non-parametric tests. Results: The apo B mRNA levels were not increased significantly following the treatment with UII. However, apo B protein levels were increased significantly after the treatment with urotensin II, especially at 100 and 200 nmol/L. The apo A-I mRNA and protein levels in conditioned media also were not significantly changed. However, there was a significant decrease in apo A-I mRNA and protein levels at 200 nM UII. Conclusions: UII might increase apo B at protein level probably through participating factors in its synthesis and/ or stability/degradation. In addition, UII may have decreasing effect at more than 200 nM concentrations on apo A-I. PMID:24600602

  11. Tethering Interleukin-22 to Apolipoprotein A-I Ameliorates Mice from Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xuyao; Fan, Jiajun; Zai, Wenjing; Luan, Jingyun; Li, Yubin; Wang, Shaofei; Chen, Qicheng; Wang, Yichen; Liang, Yanxu; Ju, Dianwen

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that interleukin-22 (IL-22) holds tremendous potential as a protective agent in preventing liver injury, but its pleiotropic effects and pathogenic role in carcinogenesis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis restrict its systemic application. Here, we first developed a nanoparticle (liposIA) as a liver-targeted agent through IL-22 tethered to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in a gene therapy vector. LiposIA was prepared using thin film dispersion method and the complexes exhibited desirable nanoparticle size, fine polydisperse index, highly efficient transfection, and excellent serum and storage stability. Biodistribution and hepatic STAT3 phosphorylation studies revealed that IL-22 tethered to ApoA-I led to highly efficient liver targeting. More importantly, our studies showed that a single-dose of liposIA was able to protect mice against acetaminophen-induced liver injury and did not initiate inflammatory response or systemic toxicity in vivo . During this process, activated STAT3/Erk and Akt/mTOR signaling transductions were observed, as well as inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which prevented mitochondrial dysfunction. These studies demonstrated that IL-22 tethered to apolipoprotein A-I could target and ameliorate acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, which highlighted that a targeted strategy for IL-22 delivery might have broad utility for the protection of hepatocellular damage.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor α stimulates endogenous apolipoprotein A-I expression and secretion by human monocytes and macrophages: role of MAP-kinases, NF-κB, and nuclear receptors PPARα and LXRs.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Mogilenko, Denis A; Nekrasova, Ekaterina V; Trulioff, Andrey S; Kudriavtsev, Igor V; Larionova, Ekaterina E; Babina, Anna V; Dizhe, Ella B; Missyul, Boris V; Orlov, Sergey V

    2018-02-13

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the main structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoprotein. ApoA-I has been shown to regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation in macrophages. Recently, we found the moderate expression of endogenous apoA-I in human monocytes and macrophages and showed that pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) increases apoA-I mRNA and stimulates ApoA-I protein secretion by human monocytes and macrophages. Here, we present data about molecular mechanisms responsible for the TNFα-mediated activation of apoA-I gene in human monocytes and macrophages. This activation depends on JNK and MEK1/2 signaling pathways in human monocytes, whereas inhibition of NFκB, JNK, or p38 blocks an increase of apoA-I gene expression in the macrophages treated with TNFα. Nuclear receptor PPARα is a ligand-dependent regulator of apoA-I gene, whereas LXRs stimulate apoA-I mRNA transcription and ApoA-I protein synthesis and secretion by macrophages. Treatment of human macrophages with PPARα or LXR synthetic ligands as well as knock-down of LXRα, and LXRβ by siRNAs interfered with the TNFα-mediated activation of apoA-I gene in human monocytes and macrophages. At the same time, TNFα differently regulated the levels of PPARα, LXRα, and LXRβ binding to the apoA-I gene promoter in THP-1 cells. Obtained results suggest a novel tissue-specific mechanism of the TNFα-mediated regulation of apoA-I gene in monocytes and macrophages and show that endogenous ApoA-I might be positively regulated in macrophage during inflammation.

  13. Predictive value of serum apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in metabolic syndrome risk: a Chinese cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yu-Ching; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Yang, Tsan; Chou, Wan-Yun; Hsieh, Po-Chien; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Sun, Chien-An

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) ratio is a promising risk predictor of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and to determine the optimal cut-off value of this ratio in detecting subjects with MetS in a Chinese population. A prospective study was conducted using a representative sample of non-institutionized people in Taiwan. A total of 3,343 participants with mean age (±SD) of 39.86 (±15.61) years old were followed up from 2002 to 2007. The primary outcome was the incidence of MetS. The MetS was defined according to a unified criterion established by several major organizations. There were 462 cases of incident MetS during a mean follow-up period of 5.26 years. A significantly stepwise increase in the incidence of MetS across quartiles of the apoB/apoA-I ratio was noted in both sexes after adjustment for potential confounders (p for trend <0.001). Compared with the lowest quartile of apoB/apoA-I ratio, participants in the highest quartile had a significantly higher risk of MetS in both men [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 6.29, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.79-9.13] and women (adjusted HR = 3.82, 95 % CI = 1.06-6.63). Comparisons of receiver operating characteristics curves indicated that the predictive ability of apoB/apoA-I ratio to detect MetS was better than conventional lipid ratio measurements. Furthermore, the optimal cut-off value of apoB/apoA-I ratio for MetS diagnosis was 0.71 in men and 0.56 in women. These results suggest that an elevated apoB/apoA-I ratio might constitute a potentially crucial measure linked to the risk of developing MetS.

  14. Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS strain) surface lipoprotein pMGA interacts with host apolipoprotein A-I during infection in chicken.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuli; Zhao, Chengcheng; Bi, Dingren; Tian, Wei; Chen, Jiao; Sun, Jianjun; Peng, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    The adhesin protein from Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HS strain), namely pMGA1.2, is required for M. gallisepticum (MG) infection in chicken. However, the host factor(s) that interact with pMGA1.2 is not known. In this study, we prepared the membrane fraction of trachea epithelial cells from chicken embryos. Using an improved virus overlay protein blot assay (VOPBA) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay, we found that pMGA1.2 specifically bound to a ∼30 kDa host protein. This host protein was further identified by mass spectrometry as chicken apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). We expressed and purified the recombinant ApoA-I protein in Escherichia coli and confirmed that it bound to the purified pMGA1.2 protein in vitro. Transiently expressed pMGA1.2 and ApoA-I were colocalized in HeLa cells. Finally, we designed small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules to knock down the expression of either ApoA-I or pMGA1.2, which inhibited the MG-induced cell cycle disruption in cells of chicken embryo fibroblast cell line (DF-1). Similarly, knockdown of ApoA-I inhibited the cilia loss and damage in chicken trachea cells in MG infection. In summary, ApoA-I may be an essential host factor in MG infection through interacting with pMGA1.2.

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides: Discordance Between In Vitro and In Vivo Properties-Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Ditiatkovski, Michael; Palsson, Jonatan; Chin-Dusting, Jaye; Remaley, Alan T; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2017-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides have antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoprotein in vitro and have been shown to inhibit atherosclerosis in vivo. It is unclear, however, if each in vitro antiatherogenic property of these peptides translates to a corresponding activity in vivo, and if so, which of these contributes most to reduce atherosclerosis. The effect of 7 apoA-I mimetic peptides, which were developed to selectively reproduce a specific component of the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I, on the development of atherosclerosis was investigated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The peptides include those that selectively upregulate cholesterol efflux, or are anti-inflammatory, or have antioxidation properties. All the peptides studied effectively inhibited the in vivo development of atherosclerosis in this model to the same extent. However, none of the peptides had the same selective effect in vivo as they had exhibited in vitro. None of the tested peptides affected plasma lipoprotein profile; capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux was increased modestly and similarly for all peptides. There is a discordance between the selective in vitro and in vivo functional properties of apoA-I mimetic peptides, and the in vivo antiatherosclerotic effect of apoA-I-mimetic peptides is independent of their in vitro functional profile. Comparing the properties of apoA-I mimetic peptides in plasma rather than in the lipid-free state is better for predicting their in vivo effects on atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We tested whether common genetic variation in the apolipoprotein A1 gene (APOA1) contributes to apoA-I and HDL cholesterol levels and risk of IHD in the general population. We resequenced the regulatory and coding regions of APOA1 in 190 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with the lowest 1% (n=95) and highest 1% (n=95) apoA-I levels. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were subsequently genotyped in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (n=10,273) and in 2361 cases with IHD (the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study). In total, 13 genetic variants were identified. Three SNPs, g.-560A→C, g.-151C→T, and *181A→G, determined a haplotype that differed between high and low apoA-I groups (6 vs. 1%, P=0.002). Genotype combinations of two SNPs, the g.-560A→C (tagging the g.-560A→C/g.-151C→T/*181A→G haplotype) and g.-310G→A (situated near a potential functional promoter site), were associated with increases in apoA-I and HDL cholesterol levels of up to 6.6 and 8.5%, respectively, resulting in theoretically predicted reductions in risk of 9 and 8% for IHD and 14 and 12% for myocardial infarction (MI). Despite this, these same genotype combinations were not associated with decreased risk of IHD or MI. Common genetic variation in APOA1 associated with increased apoA-I and HDL cholesterol levels did not associate with decreased risk of IHD or MI.

  17. In vivo PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG to explain improved glucose uptake in an apolipoprotein A-I treated mouse model of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Blake J; Ryder, William J; Parmar, Arvind; Tang, Shudi; Reilhac, Anthonin; Arthur, Andrew; Charil, Arnaud; Hamze, Hasar; Barter, Philip J; Kritharides, Leonard; Meikle, Steven R; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2016-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterised by decreased HDL levels, as well as the level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main apolipoprotein of HDLs. Pharmacological elevation of HDL and apoA-I levels is associated with improved glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. This is partly due to improved glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. This study used kinetic modelling to investigate the impact of increasing plasma apoA-I levels on the metabolism of glucose in the db/db mouse model. Treatment of db/db mice with apoA-I for 2 h significantly improved both glucose tolerance (AUC 2574 ± 70 mmol/l × min vs 2927 ± 137 mmol/l × min, for apoA-I and PBS, respectively; p < 0.05) and insulin sensitivity (AUC 388.8 ± 23.8 mmol/l × min vs 194.1 ± 19.6 mmol/l × min, for apoA-I and PBS, respectively; p < 0.001). ApoA-I treatment also increased glucose uptake by skeletal muscle in both an insulin-dependent and insulin-independent manner as evidenced by increased uptake of fludeoxyglucose ([(18)F]FDG) from plasma into gastrocnemius muscle in apoA-I treated mice, both in the absence and presence of insulin. Kinetic modelling revealed an enhanced rate of insulin-mediated glucose phosphorylation (k 3) in apoA-I treated mice (3.5 ± 1.1 × 10(-2) min(-1) vs 2.3 ± 0.7 × 10(-2) min(-1), for apoA-I and PBS, respectively; p < 0.05) and an increased influx constant (3.7 ± 0.6 × 10(-3) ml min(-1) g(-1) vs 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10(-3) ml min(-1) g(-1), for apoA-I and PBS, respectively; p < 0.05). Treatment of L6 rat skeletal muscle cells with apoA-I for 2 h indicated that increased hexokinase activity mediated the increased rate of glucose phosphorylation. These findings indicate that apoA-I improves glucose disposal in db/db mice by improving insulin sensitivity and enhancing glucose phosphorylation.

  18. Commutability of control materials for external quality assessment of serum apolipoprotein A-I measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Qi, Tianqi; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Tianjiao; Zhou, Weiyan; Zhao, Haijian; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Jiangtao; Yan, Ying; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Chuanbao; Chen, Wenxiang

    2018-04-25

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the commutability of commercial control materials and human serum pools and to investigate the suitability of the materials for the external quality assessment (EQA) of serum apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) measurement. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP14-A3 protocol was used for the commutability study. Apo A-I concentrations in two levels of commercial control materials used in EQA program, two fresh-frozen human serum pools (FSPs) and two frozen human serum pools prepared from residual clinical specimens (RSPs) were measured along with 50 individual samples using nine commercial assays. Measurement results of the 50 individual samples obtained with different assays were pairwise analyzed by Deming regression, and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) were calculated. The commutability of the processed materials was evaluated by comparing the measurement results of the materials with the limits of the PIs. The FSP-1 was commutable for all the 36 assay pairs, and FSP-2 was commutable for 30 pairs; RSP-1 and RSP-2 showed commutability for 27/36 and 22/36 assay pairs, respectively, whereas the two EQA materials were commutable only for 4/36 and 5/36 assay pairs, respectively. Non-commutability of the tested EQA materials has been observed among current apo A-I assays. EQA programs need either to take into account the commutability-related biases in the interpretation of the EQA results or to use more commutable materials. Frozen human serum pools were commutable for most of the assays.

  19. Contribution of apolipoprotein A-I to the reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels by different statins: comparative study of pitavastatin and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Takahashi, Atsuhiko; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-11-01

    Recently, investigation may have focused on modification of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) associated with anti-inflammatory effect for the potential prevention of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin and pitavastatin on serum apoA-I levels and to investigate the role of apoA-I in the anti-inflammatory effect of statin. We conducted a 6-month, prospective, randomized, open-label study in which we assigned hypercholesterolemic patients to a pitavastatin group (n = 52; 2 mg/day) or an atorvastatin group (n = 52; 10 mg/day) to investigate the effects of these two statins on the serum apoA-I levels and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the changes in the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or hs-CRP levels, but the change in apoA-I in the pitavastatin group was significantly greater than in the atorvastatin group (5.3 vs. 1.4 %; p = 0.0001). A stepwise regression analysis revealed that the percent change in (Δ) serum apoA-I level was an independent predictor of the Δ serum hs-CRP (standard correlation coefficient = -0.198; p = 0.047). However, there was a significant negative correlation between the Δ apoA-I levels and Δ hs-CRP levels in the pitavastatin group (r = -0.283, p = 0.042), but not the atorvastatin group (r = -0.133, p = 0.356). The results suggest that the contribution of apoA-I to the reduction in serum hs-CRP levels by these two statins may be different. A decrease in hs-CRP level accompanied by an increase in apoA-I level may be involved in the pleiotropic effects of pitavastatin.

  20. Arrangement of apolipoprotein A-I in reconstituted high-density lipoprotein disks: an alternative model based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments.

    PubMed

    Tricerri, M A; Behling Agree, A K; Sanchez, S A; Bronski, J; Jonas, A

    2001-04-24

    The folding and organization of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in discoidal, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) complexes with phospholipids are not yet completely resolved. For about 20 years, it was generally accepted that the amphipathic helices of apoA-I lie parallel to the acyl chains of the phospholipids ("picket fence" model). However, based on the X-ray crystal structure of a large, lipid-free fragment of apoA-I, a "belt model" was recently proposed. In this model, the helices of two antiparallel apoA-I molecules are extended in a circular arrangement and lie perpendicular to the phospholipid acyl chains. To obtain conclusive information on the spatial organization of apoA-I in discoidal HDL, we engineered three separate cysteine mutants of apoA-I (D9C, A124C, A232C) for specific labeling with the fluorescence probes ALEXA-488 or ALEXA-546 (fluorescein and rhodamine derivatives). The labeled apoA-I was reconstituted into well-defined HDL complexes containing two molecules of protein and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and the complexes were used in three quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments to determine the distances between two specific sites in an HDL particle. Comparison of the distances measured by FRET (4.7-7.8 nm) with those predicted from the existing models indicated that neither the picket fence nor the belt model can account for the experimental results; rather, a hairpin folding of each apoA-I monomer with most helices perpendicular to the phospholipid acyl chains and a random head-to-tail and head-to-head arrangement of the two apoA-I molecules in the HDL particles are strongly suggested by the distance and lifetime data.

  1. High level of serum apolipoprotein A-I is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Ping; Li, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Lin; Lin, Jian-Hua; Huang, Hao; Kang, Ting; Mao, Min-Jie; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Xin

    2016-07-21

    Noninvasive prognostic tools for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are urgently needed. Serum lipids and lipoproteins are used for the prognosis of certain diseases; however, the prognostic value of serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in ESCC has not been described. Pre-treatment serum lipids and lipoprotein concentrations (including ApoA-I, Apo-B, HDL-C, LDL-C, TC and TG) were analyzed retrospectively and compared between 210 patients with ESCC and 219 healthy controls. The prognostic significance of serum lipids and lipoproteins was determined by univariate and multivariate Cox hazard models in ESCC. Clinical characteristics (age, sex, pT status, pN status, pM status, pTNM status, histological differentiation or alcohol index) had no influence on baseline ApoA-I level. Serum ApoA-I, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC levels were significantly lower and Apo-B was significantly higher in ESCC patients than in normal controls. On univariate analysis, ApoA-I, alcohol index, pT status, pN status and pTNM status were associated with significantly poor survival, and ApoA-I (p = 0.039), alcohol index (p = 0.037) and pTNM status (p = 0.000) were identified as prognostic factors associated with shorter survival in the multivariate analysis. Overall survival was shorter in ESCC patients with decreased pre-treatment ApoA-I levels. Our findings suggest that serum ApoA-I level should be evaluated as a predictor of survival in patients with ESCC.

  2. Increased Binding of Apolipoproteins A-I and E4 to Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins is linked to Induction of Hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Gorshkova, Irina N; Atkinson, David

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is an independent factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and a hallmark of many metabolic disorders. However, the molecular etiology of HTG is still largely unknown. In mice, severe HTG may be induced by expression of specific mutants of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I or wild type (WT) apoE4. Expression of a certain apoE4 mutant results in mild HTG, while expression of another apoE4 mutant or WT apoA-I results in normal plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. Biophysical studies of the apoA-I and apoE4 forms associated with HTG help better understand the molecular mechanisms of induction of HTG by these proteins. The studies show that the apoA-I and apoE4 forms that induce HTG have a destabilized and more loosely folded conformation in solution than their counterparts not associated with HTG. Disruption of the protein salt bridge networks by the mutations is likely responsible for the observed structural changes. Each apoA-I and apoE4 form that induced HTG show enhanced binding to model TG-rich particles. HTG appeared to positively correlate with the apolipoprotein ability to bind to TG-rich particles. This implies that in vivo , the conformational changes in the apolipoproteins that induce HTG facilitate their binding to plasma TG-rich lipoproteins. We discuss metabolic pathways leading to the development of HTG that may result from enhanced binding of the apolipoproteins to TG-rich lipoproteins in circulation. While various factors may be involved in the development of HTG in humans, it is possible that structural alterations that increase affinity of apolipoproteins to TG-rich lipoproteins may contribute to some cases of this disorder.

  3. Low apolipoprotein A-I levels in Friedreich's ataxia and in frataxin-deficient cells: Implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, QingQing; Guo, Lili; Strawser, Cassandra J; Hauser, Lauren A; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Lynch, David R; Mesaros, Clementina; Blair, Ian A

    2018-01-01

    Friedreich's ataxia (FA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which results primarily from reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. FA has an estimated prevalence of one in 50,000 in the population, making it the most common hereditary ataxia. Paradoxically, mortality arises most frequently from cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure rather than from neurological effects. Decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-l) levels in the general population are associated with an increased risk of mortality from cardiomyopathy and heart failure. However, the pathophysiology of heart disease in FA is non-vascular and there are conflicting data on HDL-cholesterol in FA. Two studies have shown a decrease in HDL-cholesterol compared with controls and two have shown there was no difference between FA and controls. One also showed that there was no difference in serum Apo-A-I levels in FA when compared with controls. Using a highly specific stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry-based assay, we demonstrated a 21.6% decrease in serum ApoA-I in FA patients (134.8 mg/dL, n = 95) compared with non-affected controls (172.1 mg/dL, n = 95). This is similar to the difference in serum ApoA-I levels between non-smokers and tobacco smokers. Knockdown of frataxin by > 70% in human hepatoma HepG2 cells caused a 20% reduction in secreted ApoA-I. Simvastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor caused a 200% increase in HMG-CoA in the control HepG2 cells with a similar increase in the frataxin knockdown HepG2 cells, back to levels found in the control cells. There was a concomitant 20% increase in secreted ApoA-I to levels found in the control cells that were treated with simvastatin. This study provides compelling evidence that ApoA-I levels are reduced in FA patients compared with controls and suggest that statin treatment would normalize the ApoA-I levels.

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I in Labeo rohita: Cloning and functional characterisation reveal its broad spectrum antimicrobial property, and indicate significant role during ectoparasitic infection.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Amruta; Karan, Sweta; Kar, Banya; Garg, L C; Dixit, A; Sahoo, P K

    2016-08-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the most abundant and multifunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) having a major role in lipid transport and potent antimicrobial activity against a wide range of microbes. In this study, a complete CDS of 771 bp of Labeo rohita (rohu) ApoA-I (LrApoA-I) encoding a protein of 256 amino acids was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Tissue specific transcription analysis of LrApoA-I revealed its expression in a wide range of tissues, with a very high level of expression in liver and spleen. Ontogenic study of LrApoA-I expression showed presence of transcripts in milt and 3 h post-fertilization onwards in the larvae. The expression kinetics of LrApoA-I was studied upon infection with three different types of pathogens to elucidate its functional significance. Its expression was found to be up-regulated in the anterior kidney of L. rohita post-infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Similarly following poly I:C (poly inosinic:cytidylic) stimulation, the transcript levels increased in both the anterior kidney and liver tissues. Significant up-regulation of LrApoA-I expression was observed in skin, mucous, liver and anterior kidney of the fish challenged with the ectoparasite Argulus siamensis. Immunomodulatory effect of recombinant LrApoA-I (rApoA-I) produced in Escherichia coli was demonstrated against A. hydrophila challenge in vivo. L. rohita administered with rApoA-I at a dose of 100 μg exhibited significantly higher protection (∼55%) upon challenge with A. hydrophila 12 h post-administration of the protein, in comparison to that observed in control group, along with higher level of expression of immune-related genes. The heightened expression of ApoA-I observed post-infection reflected its involvement in immune responses against a wide range of infections including bacterial, viral as well as parasitic pathogens. Our results also suggest the possibility of using rApoA-I as an immunostimulant, particularly rendering protection

  5. High yield of recombinant human Apolipoprotein A-I expressed in Pichia pastoris by using mixed-mode chromatography.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan Janakiraman, Vignesh; Noubhani, Abdelmajid; Venkataraman, Krishnan; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran; Santarelli, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    A vast majority of the cardioprotective properties exhibited by High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is mediated by its major protein component Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA1). In order to develop a simplified bioprocess for producing recombinant human Apolipoprotein A-I (rhApoA1) in its near-native form, rhApoA1was expressed without the use of an affinity tag in view of its potential therapeutic applications. Expressed in Pichia pastoris at expression levels of 58.2 mg ApoA1 per litre of culture in a reproducible manner, the target protein was purified by mixed-mode chromatography using Capto™ MMC ligand with a purity and recovery of 84% and 68%, respectively. ApoA1 purification was scaled up to Mixed-mode Expanded Bed Adsorption chromatography to establish an 'on-line' process for the efficient capture of rhApoA1 directly from the P. pastoris expression broth. A polishing step using anion exchange chromatography enabled the recovery of ApoA1 up to 96% purity. Purified ApoA1 was identified and verified by RPLC-ESI-Q-TOF mass spectrometry. This two-step process would reduce processing times and therefore costs in comparison to the twelve-step procedure currently used for recovering rhApoA1 from P. pastoris. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Link Between ER-Stress, PPAR-Alpha Activation, and BET Inhibition in Relation to Apolipoprotein A-I Transcription in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    van der Krieken, Sophie E; Popeijus, Herman E; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-08-01

    Activating transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) may increase apoA-I transcription. Furthermore, Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal domain (BET) protein inhibitors increase, whereas Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress decreases apoA-I transcription. We examined possible links between these processes as related to apoA-I transcription in HepG2 cells. JQ1(+), thapsigargin, and GW7647 were used to induce, respectively BET inhibition, ER-stress, and PPARα activation. Expression of ER-stress markers (CHOP, XBP1s) was analyzed by western blotting. PPARα, KEAP1 (marker for BET inhibition), and apoA-I mRNAs were measured using qPCR. ER-stress and BET inhibition both decreased PPARα mRNA expression and activity, but did not interfere with each other, as ER-stress did not change KEAP1 and JQ1(+) did not influence ER-stress marker production. Interestingly, PPARα activation and BET-inhibition diminished ER-stress marker production and rescued apoA-I transcription during existing ER-stress. We conclude that the ER-stress mediated reduction in apoA-I transcription could be partly mediated via the inhibition of PPARα mRNA expression and activity. In addition, BET inhibition increased apoA-I transcription, even if PPARα production and activity were decreased. Finally, both BET inhibition and PPARα activation ameliorate the apoA-I lowering effect of ER-stress and are therefore interesting targets to elevate apoA-I transcription. J. Cell. Biochem. 118:2161-2167, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I ablates the pharmacological effects of metformin on plasma glucose homeostasis and hepatic lipid deposition.

    PubMed

    Karavia, Eleni A; Hatziri, Aikaterini; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Papachristou, Nikolaos I; Xepapadaki, Eva; Constantinou, Caterina; Natsos, Anastasios; Petropoulou, Peristera-Ioanna; Sasson, Shlomo; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2015-11-05

    Recently, we showed that deficiency in apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) sensitizes mice to diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and NAFLD. Here we investigated the potential involvement of ApoA-I in the pharmacological effects of metformin on glucose intolerance and NAFLD development. Groups of apoa1-deficient (apoa1(-/-)) and C57BL/6 mice fed western-type diet were either treated with a daily dose of 300 mg/kg metformin for 18 weeks or left untreated for the same period. Then, histological and biochemical analyses were performed. Metformin treatment led to a comparable reduction in plasma insulin levels in both C57BL/6 and apoa1(-/-) mice following intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. However, only metformin-treated C57BL/6 mice maintained sufficient peripheral insulin sensitivity to effectively clear glucose following the challenge, as indicated by a [(3)H]-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake assay in isolated soleus muscle. Similarly, deficiency in ApoA-I ablated the effect of metformin on hepatic lipid deposition and NAFLD development. Gene expression analysis indicated that the effects of ApoA-I on metformin treatment may be independent of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and de novo lipogenesis. Interestingly, metformin treatment reduced mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation function only in apoa1(-/-) mice. Our data show that the role of ApoA-I in diabetes extends to the modulation of the pharmacological actions of metformin, a common drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Screening and identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a potential marker for hepatoblastoma in children].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Jia-Xiang

    2016-12-01

    To screen and identify serum biomarkers for childhood hepatoblastoma (HB). The serum samples from 30 children with hepatoblastoma (HB), 20 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and 20 normal children were treated with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography. The platform of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to eliminate the interference of inflammatory factors and to screen out the differentially expressed proteins in serum between tumor group and normal group. After the purification and separation of target proteins were performed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to determine their amino acid sequences. The SwissProt database was searched for matched proteins. Finally, real-time PCR and ELISA were used to verify and measure the expression of target proteins. After SELDI-TOF-MS was used for screening and elimination of the interference of inflammatory factors, a differentially expression protein with a mass-to-charge ratio of 9 348 Da was found in serum between HB group and normal group, and the HB group had significantly lower expression of this protein than the normal group (p<0.05). This protein was identified as apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I). Real-time PCR and ELISA verified the low mRNA and protein expression of Apo A-I in serum in the HB group and high expression in serum in the normal group. Apo A-I can be used as a non-inflammatory protein marker for HB and has a certain value in the early diagnosis of HB.

  9. High throughput quantification of apolipoproteins A-I and B-100 by isotope dilution MS targeting fast trypsin releasable peptides without reduction and alkylation.

    PubMed

    Parks, Bryan A; Schieltz, David M; Andrews, Michael L; Gardner, Michael S; Rees, Jon C; Toth, Christopher A; Jones, Jeffrey I; McWilliams, Lisa G; Kuklenyik, Zsuzsanna; Pirkle, James L; Barr, John R

    2017-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) are amphipathic proteins that are strong predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. The traceable calibration of apolipoprotein assays is a persistent challenge, especially for ApoB-100, which cannot be solubilized in purified form. A simultaneous quantitation method for ApoA-I and ApoB-100 was developed using tryptic digestion without predigestion reduction and alkylation, followed by LC separation coupled with isotope dilution MS analysis. The accuracy of the method was assured by selecting structurally exposed signature peptides, optimal choice of detergent, protein:enzyme ratio, and incubation time. Peptide calibrators were value assigned by isobaric tagging isotope dilution MS amino acid analysis. The method reproducibility was validated in technical repeats of three serum samples, giving 2-3% intraday CVs (N = 5) and <7% interday CVs (N = 21). The repeated analysis of interlaboratory harmonization standards showed -1% difference for ApoA-I and -12% for ApoB-100 relative to the assigned value. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by repeated analysis of 24 patient samples with a wide range of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The method is applicable for simultaneous analysis of ApoA-I and ApoB-100 in patient samples, and for characterization of serum pool calibrators for other analytical platforms. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. A role for apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein A-I, and low density lipoprotein receptors in cholesterol transport during regeneration and remyelination of the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, J K; Zoellner, C D; Anderson, L J; Kosik, L M; Pitas, R E; Weisgraber, K H; Hui, D Y; Mahley, R W; Gebicke-Haerter, P J; Ignatius, M J

    1989-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that apo E secretion and accumulation increase in the regenerating peripheral nerve. The fact that apoE, in conjunction with apoA-I and LDL receptors, participates in a well-established lipid transfer system raised the possibility that apoE is also involved in lipid transport in the injured nerve. In the present study of the crushed rat sciatic nerve, a combination of techniques was used to trace the cellular associations of apoE, apoA-I, and the LDL receptor during nerve repair and to determine the distribution of lipid at each stage. After a crush injury, as axons died and Schwann cells reabsorbed myelin, resident and monocyte-derived macrophages produced large quantities of apoE distal to the injury site. As axons regenerated in the first week, their tips contained a high concentration of LDL receptors. After axon regeneration, apoE and apoA-I began to accumulate distal to the injury site and macrophages became increasingly cholesterol-loaded. As remyelination began in the second and third weeks after injury, Schwann cells exhausted their cholesterol stores, then displayed increased LDL receptors. Depletion of macrophage cholesterol stores followed over the next several weeks. During this stage of regeneration, apoE and apoA-I were present in the extracellular matrix as components of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Our results demonstrate that the regenerating peripheral nerve possesses the components of a cholesterol transfer mechanism, and the sequence of events suggests that this mechanism supplies the cholesterol required for rapid membrane biogenesis during axon regeneration and remyelination. Images PMID:2493483

  11. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.13 Section... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.13 Responsibilities within A.I.D. (a) The A.I.D. Office or Bureau seeking establishment of a new A.I.D. advisory committee: (1) Justifies the need for the advisory...

  12. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.13 Section... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.13 Responsibilities within A.I.D. (a) The A.I.D. Office or Bureau seeking establishment of a new A.I.D. advisory committee: (1) Justifies the need for the advisory...

  13. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.13 Section... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.13 Responsibilities within A.I.D. (a) The A.I.D. Office or Bureau seeking establishment of a new A.I.D. advisory committee: (1) Justifies the need for the advisory...

  14. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.13 Section... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.13 Responsibilities within A.I.D. (a) The A.I.D. Office or Bureau seeking establishment of a new A.I.D. advisory committee: (1) Justifies the need for the advisory...

  15. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.13 Section... Establishment of Advisory Committees § 214.13 Responsibilities within A.I.D. (a) The A.I.D. Office or Bureau seeking establishment of a new A.I.D. advisory committee: (1) Justifies the need for the advisory...

  16. Human apolipoprotein A-I exerts a prophylactic effect on high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis via inflammation inhibition in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiyang; Wang, Weina; Han, Lei; Feng, Meiqing; Lu, Hui; Yang, Li; Hu, Xiangxiang; Shi, Si; Jiang, Shanshan; Wang, Qian; Ye, Li

    2017-02-06

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major functional protein fraction of high-density lipoprotein. The prophylactic effect and mechanism of human apoA-I on atherosclerosis (AS) were investigated in a high-fat diet-induced AS rabbit model. The rabbits were injected with apoA-I once a week while fed high-fat diet for 20 weeks. Our results showed that apoA-I could raise the serum level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and reduce those of lipid total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in AS rabbits. Decreased aortic plaque area and aortic injury degree were also observed by Oil Red O staining and HE staining in apoA-I-treated high-fat diet-induced AS rabbits. Further study elucidated that apoA-I could down-regulate the expression of some inflammatory mediators including intercellular adhesion molecule type 1, vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein in serum and aorta of AS rabbits. In addition, real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that the apoA-I infusions decreased the mRNA levels of two pro-inflammatory molecules, i.e. nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in aorta of AS rabbits, which was associated with a concomitant reduction in endothelial VCAM-1 and IL-6 mRNA transcription. Together, our results support the atheroprotective and prophylactic role of apoA-I in vivo, and this activity may be correlated with its anti-inflammatory effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Composition, structure and substrate properties of reconstituted discoidal HDL with apolipoprotein A-I and cholesteryl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergunov, Alexander D.; Shabrova, Elena V.; Dobretsov, Gennady E.

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the influence of lipid unsaturation and neutral lipid on the maturation of high density lipoproteins, the discoidal complexes of apoA-I, phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl ester (CE) were prepared. Saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and unsaturated palmitoyllinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (PLPC), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), and fluorescent probe cholesteryl 1-pyrenedecanoate (CPD) that forms in a diffusion- and concentration-dependent manner short-lived dimer of unexcited and excited molecules (excimer) were used. The apoA-I/DPPC/CPD complexes were heterogeneous by size, composition and probe location. CPD molecules incorporated more efficiently into larger complexes and accumulated in a central part of the discs. The apoA-I/POPC(PLPC)/CPD were also heterogeneous, however, probe molecules distributed preferentially into smaller complexes and accumulated at disc periphery. The kinetics of CPD transfer by recombinant cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to human plasma LDL is well described by two-exponential decay, the fast component with a shorter transfer time being more populated in PLPC compared to DPPC complexes. The presence of CE molecules in discoidal HDL results in particle heterogeneity. ApoA-I influences the CETP activity modulating the properties of apolipoprotein-phospholipid interface. This may include CE molecules accumulation in the boundary lipid in unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and cluster formation in the bulk bilayer in saturated phosphatidylcholine.

  18. Effect of an isoenergetic traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoprotein A-I kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics has not been studied to date. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of the MedDiet in the absence of changes in body weight on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I kinetic in men with metaboli...

  19. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. 214... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each advisory committee used by A.I.D., the Administrator designates an A.I.D., employee to serve as the A.I.D...

  20. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. 214... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each advisory committee used by A.I.D., the Administrator designates an A.I.D., employee to serve as the A.I.D...

  1. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. 214... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each advisory committee used by A.I.D., the Administrator designates an A.I.D., employee to serve as the A.I.D...

  2. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. 214... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each advisory committee used by A.I.D., the Administrator designates an A.I.D., employee to serve as the A.I.D...

  3. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. 214... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each advisory committee used by A.I.D., the Administrator designates an A.I.D., employee to serve as the A.I.D...

  4. Metrological traceability in mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantitation: a proof-of-principle study for serum apolipoproteins A-I and B100.

    PubMed

    Smit, Nico P M; Romijn, Fred P H T M; van den Broek, Irene; Drijfhout, Jan W; Haex, Martin; van der Laarse, Arnoud; van der Burgt, Yuri E M; Cobbaert, Christa M

    2014-09-23

    In this study, we have followed up on previous liquid chromatography (LC) multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS) approaches for measurement of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apo B100 in serum aiming for implementation of a multiplexed assay in a clinical chemistry laboratory with full metrological traceability. Signature peptides were selected and detected by dynamic MRM, and stable isotope labeled (SIL)-peptides were used as internal standards. Five apo A-I and four apo B100 peptides were measured in serum digests with linearity (R(2)>0.992) in the physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Linearity with regard to protein concentration was ascertained at five concentration levels (R(2)>0.926 and R(2)>0.965, for the apo A-I and apo B100 peptides, respectively). Three native value-assigned sera were used as external calibrators for further method verification. Imprecision values on sample preparation and LC-MS/MS acquisition were below the established minimal specifications for apo A-I and apo B100 (5.0% and 5.3%, respectively). Correlation of LC-MS/MS results with immunoturbidimetric assay results, for normo- and hypertriglyceridemic samples, showed R(2)>0.944 for apo A-I and R(2)>0.964 for apo B100. This LC-MS/MS method has potential for clinical application in normo- and dyslipidemic patients. Measurement of apo A-I and apo B100 may offer an alternative to high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c and LDL-c) methods for cardiovascular disease risk assessment in dyslipidemic patients [1]. An LC-MS/MS method for apo A-I and apo B100 has the advantage of antibody independent and specific detection of protein signature peptides. The introduction of an LC-MS/MS method for apo A-I and apo B100 can serve as an example for many existing and newly developed (multiplex) biomarker methods in quantitative clinical chemistry proteomics (qCCP). Such LC-MS/MS methods should meet basic clinical chemistry principles with regard to test evaluation

  5. Influence of route of administration and lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I peptide on pharmacokinetics and cholesterol mobilization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Li, Dan; Drake, Lindsey; Yuan, Wenmin; Deschaine, Sara; Morin, Emily E; Ackermann, Rose; Olsen, Karl; Smith, David E; Schwendeman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    apoA-I, apoA-I mimetic peptides, and their lipid complexes or reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have been studied as treatments for various pathologies. However, consensus is lacking about the best method for administration, by intravenous (IV) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes, and formulation, as an HDL particle or in a lipid-free form. The objective of this study was to systematically examine peptide plasma levels, cholesterol mobilization, and lipoprotein remodeling in vivo following administration of lipid-free apoA-I peptide (22A) or phospholipid reconstituted 22A-sHDL by IV and IP routes. The mean circulation half-life was longer for 22A-sHDL (T 1/2 = 6.27 h) than for free 22A (T 1/2 = 3.81 h). The percentage of 22A absorbed by the vascular compartment after the IP dosing was ∼50% for both 22A and 22A-sHDL. The strongest pharmacologic response came from IV injection of 22A-sHDL, specifically a 5.3-fold transient increase in plasma-free cholesterol (FC) level compared with 1.3- and 1.8-fold FC increases for 22A-IV and 22A-sHDL-IP groups. Addition of either 22A or 22A-sHDL to rat plasma caused lipoprotein remodeling and appearance of a lipid-poor apoA-I. Hence, both the route of administration and the formulation of apoA-I peptide significantly affect its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Endotoxin Contamination of Apolipoprotein A-I: Effect on Macrophage Proliferation – A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation >90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25778625

  7. Anti-CD20 single chain variable antibody fragment-apolipoprotein A-I chimera containing nanodisks promote targeted bioactive agent delivery to CD20-positive lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Natasha M; Ghosh, Mistuni; Su, Betty; Beckstead, Jennifer A; Kamei, Ayako; Simonsen, Jens B; Luo, Bing; Gordon, Leo I; Forte, Trudy M; Ryan, Robert O

    2015-08-01

    A fusion protein comprising an α-CD20 single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, a spacer peptide, and human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. The lipid interaction properties intrinsic to apoA-I as well as the antigen recognition properties of the scFv were retained by the chimera. scFv•apoA-I was formulated into nanoscale reconstituted high-density lipoprotein particles (termed nanodisks; ND) and incubated with cultured cells. α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND bound to CD20-positive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) cells (Ramos and Granta) but not to CD20-negative T lymphocytes (i.e., Jurkat). Binding to NHL cells was partially inhibited by pre-incubation with rituximab, a monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis of Granta cells following incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND formulated with the intrinsically fluorescent hydrophobic polyphenol, curcumin, revealed α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I localizes to the cell surface, while curcumin off-loads and gains entry to the cell. Compared to control incubations, viability of cultured NHL cells was decreased upon incubation with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I ND harboring curcumin. Thus, formulation of curcumin ND with α-CD20 scFv•apoA-I as the scaffold component confers cell targeting and enhanced bioactive agent delivery, providing a strategy to minimize toxicity associated with chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio in relation to the metabolic syndrome, its components, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the population of Georgia.

    PubMed

    Makaridze, Z; Giorgadze, E; Asatiani, K

    2014-09-01

    The study was designed to assess the association of ApolipoproteinB/ApolipoproteinA-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) ratio with metabolic syndrome, its components, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the population of Georgia. The subjects were 1522 Georgians of Caucasian origin aged 18-80 (653 women and 869 men) without diabetes mellitus. The subjects were divided into two groups. High ApoB/ApoA-I ratio group was defined as gender-specific upper quartile (≥0.88 for women and (≥1.0 for men) and low ApoB/ApoA-I ratio group as the remaining three quartiles (<0.88 for women and <1.0 for men). ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was significantly higher in patients with vs. without MetS (p<.0001). Mean values of ApoB/ApoA-I ratio significantly increased as the numbers of MetS components increased (p<.0001 in both sexes). After adjustment for age and gender, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio was associated significantly with MetS as definition (OR=1.86), IR as definition (OR=9.83), LDL-C (OR=1.99), systolic pressure (OR=3.31), diastolic pressure (OR=1.64), fasting glucose (OR=2.46), triglycerides (OR=2.52), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR=7.08) (all p<0.05).

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I: the dual face of a protein.

    PubMed

    Arciello, Angela; Piccoli, Renata; Monti, Daria Maria

    2016-12-01

    Conformational plasticity and flexibility are key structural features of ApoAI in lipid metabolism. Amyloidogenic single point mutations, associated with incurable familial amyloidosis with fibril deposition in peripheral organs, may have a dramatic impact on the structural and functional features of ApoAI. Here, the consistent body of data on ApoAI variants has been reviewed, with the aim of highlighting the hallmarks of the pathology. In accordance with our observations, as well as that of others, we propose a model that accounts for the alteration of the delicate balance between lipid-free/lipid-bound dynamic states which is based on monomer-to-dimer interconversion via domain swapping. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. A case report of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis associated with a novel APOA1 mutation and variable phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Birgitte G; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Krag, Søren Rasmus; Gilbertson, Janet A; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gillmore, Julian D; Birn, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) amyloidosis is a non-AL, non-AA, and non-transthyretin type of amyloidosis associated with mutations in the APOA1 gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a form of systemic amyloidosis, but at presentation, can also mimic localized amyloidosis. The renal presentation generally involves interstitial and medullary deposition of apo A-I amyloid protein. We describe the identification of apo A-I amyloidosis by mass spectrometry in a 52-year old male, with no family history of amyloidosis, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and associated with heterozygosity for a novel APOA1 mutation (c.220 T > A) which encodes the known amyloidogenic Trp50Arg variant. Renal amyloid deposits in this case were confined to the glomeruli alone, and the patient developed progressive renal impairment. One year after diagnosis, the patient had a successful kidney transplant from an unrelated donor. Pathogenic mutations in the APOA1 gene are generally associated with symptoms of amyloidosis. In this family however, genotyping of family members identified several unaffected carriers suggesting a variable disease penetrance, which has not been described before in this form of amyloidosis and has implications when counselling those with APOA1 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Featured Article: Alterations of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity and apolipoprotein A-I functionality in human sickle blood.

    PubMed

    Soupene, Eric; Borja, Mark S; Borda, Mauricio; Larkin, Sandra K; Kuypers, Frans A

    2016-11-01

    In sickle cell disease (SCD) cholesterol metabolism appears dysfunctional as evidenced by abnormal plasma cholesterol content in a subpopulation of SCD patients. Specific activity of the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) enzyme, which catalyzes esterification of cholesterol, and generates lysoPC (LPC) was significantly lower in sickle plasma compared to normal. Inhibitory amounts of LPC were present in sickle plasma, and the red blood cell (RBC) lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), essential for the removal of LPC, displayed a broad range of activity. The functionality of sickle HDL appeared to be altered as evidenced by a decreased HDL-Apolipoprotein A-I exchange in sickle plasma as compared to control. Increased levels of oxidized proteins including ApoA-I were detected in sickle plasma. In vitro incubation of sickle plasma with washed erythrocytes affected the ApoA-I-exchange supporting the view that the RBC blood compartment can affect cholesterol metabolism in plasma. HDL functionality appeared to decrease during acute vaso-occlusive episodes in sickle patients and was associated with an increase of secretory PLA 2 , a marker for increased inflammation. Simvastatin treatment to improve the anti-inflammatory function of HDL did not ameliorate HDL-ApoA-I exchange in sickle patients. Thus, the cumulative effect of an inflammatory and highly oxidative environment in sickle blood contributes to a decrease in cholesterol esterification and HDL function, related to hypocholesterolemia in SCD. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  12. Preservation of biological function despite oxidative modification of the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F

    PubMed Central

    White, C. Roger; Datta, Geeta; Buck, Amanda K. W.; Chaddha, Manjula; Reddy, Gautam; Wilson, Landon; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N.; Abbasi, Mohammad; Anantharamaiah, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-derived hypochlorous acid induces changes in HDL function via redox modifications at the level of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). As 4F and apoA-I share structural and functional properties, we tested the hypothesis that 4F acts as a reactive substrate for hypochlorous acid (HOCl). 4F reduced the HOCl-mediated oxidation of the fluorescent substrate APF in a concentration-dependent manner (ED50 ∼ 56 ± 3 μM). This reaction induced changes in the physical properties of 4F. Addition of HOCl to 4F at molar ratios ranging from 1:1 to 3:1 reduced 4F band intensity on SDS-PAGE gels and was accompanied by the formation of a higher molecular weight species. Chromatographic studies showed a reduction in 4F peak area with increasing HOCl and the formation of new products. Mass spectral analyses of collected fractions revealed oxidation of the sole tryptophan (Trp) residue in 4F. 4F was equally susceptible to oxidation in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states. To determine whether Trp oxidation influenced its apoA-I mimetic properties, we monitored effects of HOCl on 4F-mediated lipid binding and ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux. Neither property was altered by HOCl. These results suggest that 4F serves as a reactive substrate for HOCl, an antioxidant response that does not influence the lipid binding and cholesterol effluxing capacities of the peptide. PMID:22589558

  13. Early prediction of persistent organ failure by serum apolipoprotein A-I and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chen-Liang; Zhang, Chi-Hao; Zhao, Xiang-Yun; Chen, Shu-Huai; Liang, Hui-Jie; Hu, Chun-Liang; Chen, Ni-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Early identification of acute pancreatitis (AP) patients at high-risk of developing persistent organ failure (persistent OF) is a vital clinical goal. This research intends to assess the ability of apolipoprotein A-I (APO A-I) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to predict persistent OF. Between January 2011 and September 2016, a total of 102 adult AP patients with organ failure, local complications or deterioration of former comorbidities disease during hospitalization were included in this study retrospectively. Serum lipids were tested and computed the correlation with clinical outcomes or scoring systems. The AUCs to predict persistent OF were also calculated and compared with each other. Serum APO A-I and HDL-C levels were negatively associated with scoring systems. Meanwhile, serum lipids were negatively correlated with poor clinical outcomes. The AUCs of APO A-I, HDL-C, the combination of APO A-I and BISAP, or the combination of APO A-I and MCTSI to predict persistent OF among Moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) and Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients were 0.886, 0.811, 0.912, and 0.900 or among those with organ failure were 0.915, 0.859, 0.933, and 0.933, respectively. The concentrations of APO A-I, HDL-C, and the combinations of APO A-I and scoring systems have high predictive value to predict persistent OF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modifying Apolipoprotein A-I by Malondialdehyde, but Not by an Array of Other Reactive Carbonyls, Blocks Cholesterol Efflux by the ABCA1 Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Baohai; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Pagani, Ioanna; Oda, Michael N.; Witztum, Joseph L.; Oram, John F.; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunctional high density lipoprotein (HDL) is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, but the underlying pathways remain poorly understood. One potential mechanism involves covalent modification by reactive carbonyls of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major HDL protein. We therefore determined whether carbonyls resulting from lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxynonenal) or carbohydrate oxidation (glycolaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal) covalently modify lipid-free apoA-I and inhibit its ability to promote cellular cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway. MDA markedly impaired the ABCA1 activity of apoA-I. In striking contrast, none of the other four carbonyls were effective. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of MDA-modified apoA-I revealed that Lys residues at specific sites had been modified. The chief adducts were MDA-Lys and a Lys-MDA-Lys cross-link. Lys residues in the C terminus of apoA-I were targeted for cross-linking in high yield, and this process may hinder the interaction of apoA-I with lipids and ABCA1, two key steps in reverse cholesterol transport. Moreover, levels of MDA-protein adducts were elevated in HDL isolated from human atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that lipid peroxidation might render HDL dysfunctional in vivo. Taken together, our observations indicate that MDA damages apoA-I by a pathway that generates lysine adducts at specific sites on the protein. Such damage may facilitate the formation of macrophage foam cells by impairing cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 pathway. PMID:20378541

  15. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. 224.39 Section... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.39 Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely... appeal such decision to the A.I.D. Administrator by filing a notice of appeal with the A.I.D...

  16. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. 224.39 Section... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.39 Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely... appeal such decision to the A.I.D. Administrator by filing a notice of appeal with the A.I.D...

  17. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. 224.39 Section... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.39 Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely... appeal such decision to the A.I.D. Administrator by filing a notice of appeal with the A.I.D...

  18. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24... Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a Noteholder under this Guarantee, A.I.D. shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the...

  19. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24... Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a Noteholder under this Guarantee, A.I.D. shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the...

  20. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24... Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a Noteholder under this Guarantee, A.I.D. shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the...

  1. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. 224.39 Section... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.39 Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely... appeal such decision to the A.I.D. Administrator by filing a notice of appeal with the A.I.D...

  2. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24... Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a Noteholder under this Guarantee, A.I.D. shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the...

  3. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. 224.39 Section... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.39 Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator. (a) Any defendant who has filed a timely... appeal such decision to the A.I.D. Administrator by filing a notice of appeal with the A.I.D...

  4. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24... Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a Noteholder under this Guarantee, A.I.D. shall be subrogated to the extent of such payment to all of the...

  5. Homocysteine diminishes apolipoprotein A-I function and expression in patients with hypothyroidism: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Yao, Zhi; Miao, Li; Liu, Jia; Gao, Xia; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Guang

    2016-07-26

    Hypothyroidism (HO) can significantly impair lipid metabolism and increase cardiovascular disease risk. Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Our previous study demonstrated that HHcy significantly induced insulin resistance and impaired coronary artery endothelial function in patients with either hypertension or HO. In the present study, we studied whether plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) were altered in patients with HO, and if so, whether this change was mediated by HHcy. A total of 258 subjects were enrolled and divided into the following three groups: control group (n = 94), HO group (n = 73), and subclinical hypothyroidism (SHO) group (n = 91). Additionally, all groups were subdivided based on the subjects' Hcy levels into HHcy (plasma Hcy level over 15 μmol/l) and normal Hcy subgroups. The plasma levels of lipid indexes were measured. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between groups. The plasma Hcy levels were significantly higher in the HO group than in the SHO or control groups (all p < 0.05). Moreover, levels of Apo A-I and HDL-C were markedly reduced in the HHcy subgroup compared with the normal Hcy subgroup for patients with either HO (Apo A-I: p < 0.05; HDL-C: p < 0.01) or SHO (Apo A-I: p < 0.05; HDL-C: p < 0.01). In addition, the plasma Hcy levels were negatively correlated with levels of Apo A-I in all three groups (HO group: r = - 0.320, SHO group: r = - 0.337 and control group: r = - 0.317; all p < 0.01). Hcy levels were significantly increased in patients with HO or SHO. These increased Hcy levels may impair cardiovascular function via the inhibition of Apo A-1 expression and impairment of its antioxidant capacity. Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism-induced metabolic disorders.

  6. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section... Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within A.I.D. for the renewal of advisory committees are as follows: (a) The Office or Bureau through which...

  7. 22 CFR 204.33 - A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Covenants § 204.33 A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. Without the prior approval of A.I.D., the Lender or any Assignee shall not accelerate any Eligible Notes held by it on...

  8. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section... Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within A.I.D. for the renewal of advisory committees are as follows: (a) The Office or Bureau through which...

  9. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section... Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within A.I.D. for the renewal of advisory committees are as follows: (a) The Office or Bureau through which...

  10. 22 CFR 204.33 - A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Covenants § 204.33 A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. Without the prior approval of A.I.D., the Lender or any Assignee shall not accelerate any Eligible Notes held by it on...

  11. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section... Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within A.I.D. for the renewal of advisory committees are as follows: (a) The Office or Bureau through which...

  12. 22 CFR 204.33 - A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Covenants § 204.33 A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. Without the prior approval of A.I.D., the Lender or any Assignee shall not accelerate any Eligible Notes held by it on...

  13. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section... Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within A.I.D. for the renewal of advisory committees are as follows: (a) The Office or Bureau through which...

  14. 22 CFR 204.33 - A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Covenants § 204.33 A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. Without the prior approval of A.I.D., the Lender or any Assignee shall not accelerate any Eligible Notes held by it on...

  15. 22 CFR 204.33 - A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. 204... TERMS AND CONDITIONS Covenants § 204.33 A.I.D. approval of acceleration of notes. Without the prior approval of A.I.D., the Lender or any Assignee shall not accelerate any Eligible Notes held by it on...

  16. Fructated apolipoprotein A-I exacerbates cellular senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells accompanied by impaired insulin secretion activity and embryo toxicity.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Yong; Choi, Inho; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Won, Kyu Chang; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Glycation of apolipoproteins is a major feature of the production of dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which is associated with the incidence of several metabolic diseases such as coronary artery disease and diabetes. In this report, fructated apoA-I (fA-I) induced by fructose treatment showed a covalently multimerized band without cross-linking, and lysine residues were irreversibly modified to prevent crosslinking. Using pancreatic β-cells, insulin secretion was impaired by fA-I in the lipid-free and reconstituted HDL (rHDL) states, by up to 35%, and 40%, respectively, under hyperglycemic conditions (25 mmol/L glucose). Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with fA-I and HDL from elderly patients caused a 1.8-fold and 1.5-fold increased cellular senescence, respectively, along with increased lysosomal enlargement. In the lipid-free and rHDL states, fA-I increased embryo death by 1.5-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively, along with the production of oxidized species. Furthermore, rHDL containing fA-I (fA-I-rHDL) showed a higher isoelectric point (pI, approximately 8.5), whereas rHDL containing nA-I (nA-I-rHDL) showed a narrow band range with lower pI (around 8.0) as well as a much smaller particle size than that of nA-I-rHDL. In conclusion, fructose-mediated apoA-I fructation resulted in the severe loss of several beneficial functions of apoA-I and HDL, including anti-senescence and insulin secretion activities, accompanied with increased susceptibility to protein degradation and structural modification.

  17. Serum amyloid A protein forms a complex with a fragment of apolipoprotein A-I in the domestic blue fox: a protective mechanism against AA amyloidosis?

    PubMed

    Elisen, Ellen Johanne; Bruun, Cathrine Foyn; Nordstoga, Knut; Husby, Gunnar; Sletten, Knut

    2004-09-01

    The spontaneous occurrence of protein AA-type of amyloidosis varies among animal species. As reactive AA-type of amyloidosis has never been detected in the blue fox, we obtained acute phase sera to search for amyloid-protective elements. The purified SAA fraction was characterized by mass and sequence analyses to disclose any unique domains in the amino acid sequence. The data revealed an SAA protein with heterogeneities in several positions, and showed the typical insertion between positions 69 and 70. By comparing the amino acid sequence with that from other mammals, no unique sequence could be observed. However, a C-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) was found attached to the SAA. The amino acid sequence of the ApoA-I fragment revealed a partially blocked and ragged N-terminus. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of ApoA-I with that from the dog showed that the ApoA-I fragment started about position 190, had an intact C-terminus, and showed an identical sequence in all positions, except one. Based on the data, we suggest an interaction of the C-terminal fragment of ApoA-I with the SAA protein that inhibits the AA fibrillogenesis in the blue fox.

  18. A consensus model of human apolipoprotein A-I in its monomeric and lipid-free state.

    PubMed

    Melchior, John T; Walker, Ryan G; Cooke, Allison L; Morris, Jamie; Castleberry, Mark; Thompson, Thomas B; Jones, Martin K; Song, Hyun D; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Oda, Michael N; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G; Thomas, Michael J; Heinecke, Jay W; Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David; Segrest, Jere P; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C; Davidson, W Sean

    2017-12-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I is an organizing scaffold protein that is critical to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and metabolism, probably mediating many of its cardioprotective properties. However, HDL biogenesis is poorly understood, as lipid-free apoA-I has been notoriously resistant to high-resolution structural study. Published models from low-resolution techniques share certain features but vary considerably in shape and secondary structure. To tackle this central issue in lipoprotein biology, we assembled a team of structural biologists specializing in apolipoproteins and set out to build a consensus model of monomeric lipid-free human apoA-I. Combining novel and published cross-link constraints, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) and crystallography data, we propose a time-averaged model consistent with much of the experimental data published over the last 40 years. The model provides a long-sought platform for understanding and testing details of HDL biogenesis, structure and function.

  19. BMI, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio, and insulin resistance in patients with prolactinomas: a pilot study in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-Bing; He, Dong-Sheng; Mao, Zhi-Gang; Fan, Xiang; Lei, Ni; Hu, Bin; Song, Bing-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2013-04-01

    Deranged metabolic profiles and insulin resistance (IR) have been documented in patients with prolactinomas. Few data are yet available on the apolipoprotein (apo) B/apoA-I ratio and its relationship with IR in patients with prolactinomas. This study was aimed to evaluate the level of apoB/apoA-I ratio and its association with IR in a Chinese subgroup with prolactinomas. Twenty-three prolactinoma patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The clinical anthropometric parameters and laboratory evaluation were collected. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using homeostatic model assessment [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Waist circumference and body weight index (BMI) were significantly higher in patients with prolactinomas than those in the controls (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity seemed more pronounced in male patients compared to that in healthy subjects (57.14 vs. 0 % and 71.43 vs. 16.7 %, respectively). Furthermore, fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglyceride, and apoB/apoA-I ratio were also significantly higher in prolactinoma patients, but with lower level of apoA-I (p < 0.05). Univariate regression analysis revealed that prolactin, waist circumference, BMI, and presence of hypogonadism were significantly associated with IR (p < 0.05). However, only BMI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.937, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.112-3.375, p = 0.02] and prolactin (OR = 5.173, 95 % CI 1.073-24.94, p = 0.041) were shown to be independent predictors for the presence of IR in multivariate logistic analysis. This study confirmed the altered metabolic profile, including body weight gain, IR, disordered lipids, and apolipoproteins in prolactinoma patients. Prolactin and BMI were independently associated with IR. The effect of apoB/apoA-I ratio on IR is warranted to be determined in further studies.

  20. Development of a new bioactivatable fluorescent probe for quantification of apolipoprotein A-I proteolytic degradation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maafi, Foued; Li, Baoqiang; Gebhard, Catherine; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Nachar, Walid; Villeneuve, Louis; Lesage, Frédéric; Rhainds, David; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2017-03-01

    The potential benefits of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) against atherosclerosis are attributed to its major protein component, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Most of the apoA-I in the vascular wall appears to be in its lipid-poor form. The latter, however, is subjected to degradation by proteases localized in atherosclerotic plaques, which, in turn, has been shown to negatively impact its atheroprotective functions. Here, we report the development and in vivo use of a bioactivatable near-infrared full-length apoA-I-Cy5.5 fluorescent probe for the assessment of apoA-I-degrading proteolytic activities. Fluorescence quenching was obtained by saturation of Cy5.5 fluorophore molecules on apoA-I protein. ApoA-I cleavage led to near-infrared fluorescence enhancement. In vitro proteolysis of the apoA-I probe by a variety of proteases including serine, cysteine, and metalloproteases resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in fluorescence (n = 5, p ≤ 0.05). We detected activation of the probe in atherosclerotic mice aorta sections using in situ zymography and showed that broad-spectrum protease inhibitors protected the probe from degradation, resulting in decreased fluorescence (-54%, n = 6 per group, p ≤ 0.0001). In vivo, the injected probe showed stronger fluorescence emission in the aorta of human apoB transgenic Ldlr - /- atherosclerotic mice (ATX) as compared to wild-type mice. In vivo observations were confirmed by ex vivo aorta imaging quantification where a 10-fold increase in fluorescent signal in ATX mice (p ≤ 0.05 vs. control mice) was observed. The use of this probe in different applications may help to assess new molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis and may improve current HDL-based therapies by enhancing apoA-I functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in south-west Chinese women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinxia; Fan, Ping; Liu, Hongwei; Bai, Huai; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    What are the relationships between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and apoB concentrations, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and the prevalences of dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) in south-west Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). There is a relatively high incidence of dyslipidemia and MS in south-west Chinese women with PCOS, especially in patients without hyperandrogenism. Patients with dyslipidemia are more obese, and have a more adverse glucose and lipid metabolic profile and higher apoB levels and apoB/apoA-I ratio. The increased apoB levels and apoB/A1 ratio and the MS are strongly associated with PCOS, suggesting that there is an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in these patients. Dyslipidemia and MS have been widely studied in women with PCOS, but to date no data from south-west Chinese subjects have been available. The apoB/apoA-I ratio has been reported to be strongly associated with MS and insulin resistance (IR) and to be a reliable parameter that reflects lipid disturbances and the potential to develop atherosclerosis, but its relationship with PCOS is unclear. DESIGN This case-control study included 406 patients with PCOS and 342 control women between 17 and 40 years of age from a population in south-west China during 2006-2011. The diagnosis of PCOS was based on the revised 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control group, consisting of women with infertility due to a Fallopian obstruction or the husband's infertility, women undergoing a pre-pregnancy check and healthy volunteers, was recruited from the same hospital during the same period. All women were not taking any medication known to affect carbohydrate or lipid or hormone metabolism for at least 3 months prior to the study, and were studied during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. MS was assessed by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP) III criteria modified for Asian populations. Dyslipidemia was defined by one or more of the

  2. Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Inhibition With Anacetrapib Decreases Fractional Clearance Rates of High-Density Lipoprotein Apolipoprotein A-I and Plasma Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Soffer, Gissette; Millar, John S; Ngai, Colleen; Jumes, Patricia; Coromilas, Ellie; Asztalos, Bela; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Wagner, John A; Donovan, Daniel S; Karmally, Wahida; Ramakrishnan, Rajasekhar; Holleran, Stephen; Thomas, Tiffany; Dunbar, Richard L; deGoma, Emil M; Rafeek, Hashmi; Baer, Amanda L; Liu, Yang; Lassman, Michael E; Gutstein, David E; Rader, Daniel J; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2016-05-01

    Anacetrapib (ANA), an inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity, increases plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A-I (apoA)-I, apoA-II, and CETP. The mechanisms responsible for these treatment-related increases in apolipoproteins and plasma CETP are unknown. We performed a randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled, double-blind, fixed-sequence study to examine the effects of ANA on the metabolism of HDL apoA-I and apoA-II and plasma CETP. Twenty-nine participants received atorvastatin (ATV) 20 mg/d plus PBO for 4 weeks, followed by ATV plus ANA 100 mg/d for 8 weeks (ATV-ANA). Ten participants received double PBO for 4 weeks followed by PBO plus ANA for 8 weeks (PBO-ANA). At the end of each treatment, we examined the kinetics of HDL apoA-I, HDL apoA-II, and plasma CETP after D3-leucine administration as well as 2D gel analysis of HDL subspecies. In the combined ATV-ANA and PBO-ANA groups, ANA treatment increased plasma HDL-C (63.0%; P<0.001) and apoA-I levels (29.5%; P<0.001). These increases were associated with reductions in HDL apoA-I fractional clearance rate (18.2%; P=0.002) without changes in production rate. Although the apoA-II levels increased by 12.6% (P<0.001), we could not discern significant changes in either apoA-II fractional clearance rate or production rate. CETP levels increased 102% (P<0.001) on ANA because of a significant reduction in the fractional clearance rate of CETP (57.6%, P<0.001) with no change in CETP production rate. ANA treatment increases HDL apoA-I and CETP levels by decreasing the fractional clearance rate of each protein. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  4. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  5. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  6. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  7. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section... CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60) days after the Date of Application for Compensation, A.I.D. may at any time make payments to the Lender...

  8. Small, dense HDL 3 particles attenuate apoptosis in endothelial cells: pivotal role of apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Juliana A; Vindis, Cecile; Nègre-Salvayre, Anne; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Couturier, Martine; Therond, Patrice; Chantepie, Sandrine; Salvayre, Robert; Chapman, M John; Kontush, Anatol

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect endothelial cells against apoptosis induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The specific component(s) of HDLs implicated in such cytoprotection remain(s) to be identified. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) were incubated with mildly oxLDL in the presence or absence of each of five physicochemically distinct HDL subpopulations fractionated from normolipidemic human plasma (n= 7) by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation. All HDL subfractions protected HMEC-1 against oxLDL-induced primary apoptosis as revealed by nucleic acid staining, annexin V binding, quantitative DNA fragmentation, inhibition of caspase-3 activity and reduction of cytoplasmic release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor. Small, dense HDL 3c displayed twofold superior intrinsic cytoprotective activity (as determined by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity) relative to large, light HDL 2b on a per particle basis (P < 0.05). Equally, all HDL subfractions attenuated intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); such anti-oxidative activity diminished from HDL 3c to HDL 2b. The HDL protein moiety, in which apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) predominated, accounted for ∼70% of HDL anti-apoptotic activity. Furthermore, HDL reconstituted with apoA-I, cholesterol and phospholipid potently protected HMEC-1 from apoptosis. By contrast, modification of the content of sphingosine-1-phosphate in HDL did not significantly alter cytoprotection. We conclude that small, dense, lipid-poor HDL 3 potently protects endothelial cells from primary apoptosis and intracellular ROS generation induced by mildly oxLDL, and that apoA-I is pivotal to such protection. PMID:19243471

  9. A retractable lid in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase provides a structural mechanism for activation by apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Manthei, Kelly A; Ahn, Joomi; Glukhova, Alisa; Yuan, Wenmin; Larkin, Christopher; Manett, Taylor D; Chang, Louise; Shayman, James A; Axley, Milton J; Schwendeman, Anna; Tesmer, John J G

    2017-12-08

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport by transferring an acyl group from phosphatidylcholine to cholesterol, promoting the maturation of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) from discoidal to spherical particles. LCAT is activated through an unknown mechanism by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and other mimetic peptides that form a belt around HDL. Here, we report the crystal structure of LCAT with an extended lid that blocks access to the active site, consistent with an inactive conformation. Residues Thr-123 and Phe-382 in the catalytic domain form a latch-like interaction with hydrophobic residues in the lid. Because these residues are mutated in genetic disease, lid displacement was hypothesized to be an important feature of apoA-I activation. Functional studies of site-directed mutants revealed that loss of latch interactions or the entire lid enhanced activity against soluble ester substrates, and hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) mass spectrometry revealed that the LCAT lid is extremely dynamic in solution. Upon addition of a covalent inhibitor that mimics one of the reaction intermediates, there is an overall decrease in HDX in the lid and adjacent regions of the protein, consistent with ordering. These data suggest a model wherein the active site of LCAT is shielded from soluble substrates by a dynamic lid until it interacts with HDL to allow transesterification to proceed. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Effect of lipid-bound apolipoprotein A-I cysteine mutant on ATF3 in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunlong; Wang, Yanhui; Jia, Shaoyou; Dong, Qingzhe; Chen, Yuanbin; Lu, Shulai; Hou, Lin

    2017-02-28

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a TLR-induced repressor that plays an important role in the inhibition of specific inflammatory signals. We previously constructed recombinant high density lipoproteins (rHDL) (including rHDL WT , rHDL M , rHDL 228 and rHDL 74 ) and found that rHDL 74 had a strong anti-inflammatory ability. In the present study, we investigate the roles of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) (rHDL WT ) and its cysteine mutant HDLs (rHDL M , rHDL 228 and rHDL 74 ) on ATF3 function in RAW264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. Our results showed that compared with the LPS group, rHDL 74 can decrease the level of TNF-α and IL-6, whereas rHDL 228 increases their expression levels. RT-PCR and Western blotting results showed that compared with the LPS group, rHDL 74 , rHDL WT and rHDL M can markedly increase the expression level of ATF3, whereas the level of ATF3 decreases in the rHDL 228 group. In summary, the different anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ApoA-I cysteine mutants might be associated with the regulation of ATF3 level. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  12. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  13. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  14. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  15. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  16. A comparison of the theoretical relationship between HDL size and the ratio of HDL cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I with experimental results from the Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Norman A; Giulianini, Franco; Paynter, Nina P; Jordan, Paul; Mora, Samia

    2013-06-01

    HDL size and composition vary among individuals and may be associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We investigated the theoretical relationship between HDL size and composition using an updated version of the spherical model of lipoprotein structure proposed by Shen et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1977;74:837-41.) and compared its predictions with experimental data from the Women's Health Study (WHS). The Shen model was updated to predict the relationship between HDL diameter and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) plasma concentrations (HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio). In the WHS (n = 26 772), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to measure the mean HDL diameter (d(mean,NMR)) and particle concentration (HDL-P); HDL-C and ApoA-I (mg/dL) were measured by standardized assays. The updated Shen model predicts a quasilinear increase of HDL diameter with the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio, consistent with the d(mean,NMR) values from WHS, which ranged between 8.0 and 10.8 nm and correlated positively with the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio (r = 0.608, P < 2.2 × 10(-16)). The WHS data were further described by a linear regression equation: d(WHS) = 4.66 nm + 12.31(HDL-C/Apo-I), where d(WHS) is expressed in nanometers. The validity of this equation for estimating HDL size was assessed with data from cholesteryl ester transfer protein deficiency and pharmacologic inhibition. We also illustrate how HDL-P can be estimated from the HDL size and ApoA-I concentration. This study provides a large-scale experimental examination of the updated Shen model. The results offer new insights into HDL structure, composition and remodeling and suggest that the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio might be a readily available biomarker for estimating HDL size and HDL-P. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. β3-Adrenoceptor activation upregulates apolipoprotein A-I expression in HepG2 cells, which might further promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia-Qing; Li, Yan-Fang; Jiang, Zhi-Li

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of β 3 -adrenoceptor (β 3 -AR) activation on HepG2 cells and its influence on cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. HepG2 cells were cultured and treated with the β 3 -AR agonist, BRL37344, and antagonist, SR52390A, and the expression of apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, ApoA-II, ApoB, and β 3 -AR in the supernatants and cells was determined. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and PPARα in the HepG2 cells was also assessed. Next, using the RAW264.7 macrophage foam cell model, we also assessed the influence of the HepG2 cell supernatants on lipid efflux. The cholesterol content of the foam cells was also measured, and the cholesterol efflux from the macrophages was examined by determining 3 H-labeled cholesterol levels. Expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABC) A1 and ABCG1 of the macrophage foam cells was also assessed. β 3 -AR activation increased ApoA-I expression in both the HepG2 cells and the supernatants; PPARγ expression was upregulated, but PPARα expression was not. Treatment with GW9662 abolished the increased expression of ApoA-I induced by the β 3 -AR agonist. The HepG2 cell supernatants decreased the lipid accumulation and increased the cholesterol efflux from the macrophage foam cells. ABCA1 expression, but not ABCG1 expression, increased in the macrophage foam cells treated with BRL37344-treated HepG2 cell supernatants. Activation of β 3 -AR in HepG2 cells upregulates ApoA-I expression, which might further promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells. PPARγ might be required for the induction of ApoA-I expression.

  18. Heparin and Methionine Oxidation Promote the Formation of Apolipoprotein A-I Amyloid Comprising α-Helical and β-Sheet Structures.

    PubMed

    Townsend, David; Hughes, Eleri; Hussain, Rohanah; Siligardi, Giuliano; Baldock, Sarah; Madine, Jillian; Middleton, David A

    2017-03-21

    Peptides derived from apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), constitute the main component of amyloid deposits that colocalize with atherosclerotic plaques. Here we investigate the molecular details of full-length, lipid-deprived apoA-I after assembly into insoluble aggregates under physiologically relevant conditions known to induce aggregation in vitro. Unmodified apoA-I is shown to remain soluble at pH 7 for at least 3 days, retaining its native α-helical-rich structure. Upon acidification to pH 4, apoA-I rapidly assembles into insoluble nonfibrillar aggregates lacking the characteristic cross-β features of amyloid. In the presence of heparin, the rate and thioflavin T responsiveness of the aggregates formed at pH 4 increase and short amyloid-like fibrils are observed, which give rise to amyloid-characteristic X-ray reflections at 4.7 and 10 Å. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) and synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy of fibrils formed in the presence of heparin show they retain some α-helical characteristics together with new β-sheet structures. Interestingly, SSNMR indicates a similar molecular structure of aggregates formed in the absence of heparin at pH 6 after oxidation of the three methionine residues, although their morphology is rather different from that of the heparin-derived fibrils. We propose a model for apoA-I aggregation in which perturbations of a four-helix bundle-like structure, induced by interactions of heparin or methionine oxidation, cause the partially helical N-terminal residues to disengage from the remaining, intact helices, thereby allowing self-assembly via β-strand associations.

  19. D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, inhibits TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human alveolar epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    You, Jia; Wang, Jintao; Xie, Linshen; Zhu, Chengwen; Xiong, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidences support that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and asthmatic airway remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the only known substance that can resolve established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and Apo A-I mimetic D-4F (a synthetic polypeptide consisting of 18 amino acids) plays an inhibitory role in murine asthmatic model. However, cellular mechanisms for such therapeutic effects of Apo A-I and D-4F remain to be elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of D-4F on TGF-β1 induced EMT in human type II alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-β1 manifested distinct EMT, including fibroblastic morphological changes, down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal marker vimentin. These EMT related changes were all inhibited by D-4F in a concentration dependent manner. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated clearly that D-4F dose-dependently compensated for the reduced E-cadherin mRNA level and the increased vimentin mRNA level in TGF-β1 treated A549 cells. Translational analysis revealed that D-4F significantly reversed the TGF-β1 induced changes of E-cadherin and vimentin levels. These results suggested that D-4F inhibits TGF-β1 induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell. Given the functional similarities between D-4F and Apo A-I, it is speculated that D-4F and Apo A-I are able to exert possible anti-fibrotic and anti-asthmatic effects via inhibiting alveolar EMT, and D-4F may possess beneficial clinical potential for patients suffering from pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Screening and identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a potential hepatoblastoma biomarker in children, excluding inflammatory factors

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, WEI; LI, JUAN; ZHANG, YILIN; GAO, PENGFEI; ZHANG, JUNJIE; GUO, FEI; YU, JIEKAI; ZHENG, SHU; WANG, JIAXIANG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a child hepatoblastoma serum biomarker that is unaffected by inflammatory factors, with the ultimate aim of finding an effective method for the early diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. The magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography technique was used to process serum harvested from 30 children with hepatoblastoma, 20 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 20 healthy children. Proteins differentially expressed in SIRS were excluded from consideration as biomarkers for hepatoblastoma. Proteins differentially expressed in hepatoblastoma and healthy controls were screened using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Target proteins were purified by SDS-PAGE, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-TOF-MS was used to determine their amino acid sequences. Protein matches were searched in the SwissProt database. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and ELISA were employed to confirm the expression of target proteins. Following screening to exclude inflammatory factors, SELDI-TOF-MS revealed a protein with a mass-to-charge ratio of 9,348 Da that was expressed at significantly lower levels in the serum of children with hepatoblastoma compared with healthy controls (P<0.01). Sequence analysis identified this protein as apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I). qPCR and ELISA confirmed that the expression of Apo A-I mRNA and protein were significantly lower in children with hepatoblastoma compared with healthy controls (P<0.05). These results indicate that Apo A-I is a non-inflammatory protein marker for hepatoblastoma with the potential for use in early diagnosis of hepatoblastoma. In addition, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of proteomic screening for the identification of proteins that can serve as markers for a specific tumor. PMID:26171005

  1. Correlation Between ABCA1 Gene Polymorphism and aopA-I and HDL-C in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingfeng; Jin, Hui; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Shichao; Han, Shengbin; Yin, Fang; Feng, Yaoyu

    2016-01-17

    As the most common type of aneurysm, abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has an unfavorable prognosis due to the high frequency of rupture. Studies have indicated a close relationship between the pathogenesis and progression of AAA and abnormal serum lipid levels. ATP-binding cassette transport protein A1 (ABCA1) is a cell-surface protein facilitating cellular efflux of cholesterol. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ABCA1 gene has been suggested to be correlated with abnormal metabolism of lipids. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between ABCA1 polymorphism and apoA-I and HDL-C in an attempt to elucidate its correlation with AAA occurrence. We included 126 AAA patients and 119 healthy controls in this study. PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) were used to detect the SNP pattern of ABCA1 gene at locus rs2230806 from both AAA patients and healthy controls. The distribution pattern and correlation with apoA-I and HDL-C was analyzed. The distribution of KK/RR genotype of ABCA1 gene had significant difference between disease and control group, with lower rates of RR genotype and R allele in the disease group (p<0.05). Levels of apoA-I and HDL-C, but not triglyceride and LDL-C levels, in AAA patients who carried R allele in ABCA1 gene (including RR and RK genotypes) were higher than in non-carriers (p<0.05). The R allele of ABCA1 gene was shown to be related with the occurrence of AAA (p<0.05). Polymorphism of ABCA1 gene is correlated with AAA occurrence, possibly via the regulation of serum lipid metabolism by R allele.

  2. A Comparison of the Theoretical Relationship between HDL Size and the Ratio of HDL Cholesterol to Apolipoprotein A-I with Experimental Results from the Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mazer, Norman A.; Giulianini, Franco; Paynter, Nina P.; Jordan, Paul; Mora, Samia

    2013-01-01

    Background HDL size and composition vary among individuals and may be associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We investigated the theoretical relationship between HDL size and composition using an updated version of the spherical model of lipoprotein structure proposed by Shen et al. and compared its predictions with experimental data from the Women’s Health Study (WHS). Methods The Shen model was updated to predict the relationship between HDL diameter and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) plasma concentrations, i.e., the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio. In WHS (n=26,772), NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the average HDL diameter (davg,NMR) and particle concentration (HDL-P); HDL-C and ApoA-I (mg/dL) were measured by standardized assays. Results The updated Shen model predicts a quasi-linear increase of HDL diameter with the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio, consistent with the measured davg,NMR values from WHS, which ranged between 8.0 and 10.8 nm and correlated positively with the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio (r=0.608, p<2.2×10−16). The WHS data were further described by a linear regression equation: dWHS (nm) = 4.66 + 12.31 HDL-C/ApoA-I. The validity of this equation for estimating HDL size was assessed with data from CETP deficiency and pharmacologic inhibition. We also illustrate how HDL-P can be estimated from the HDL size and ApoA-I level. Conclusions This study provides a large-scale experimental examination of the updated Shen model, offers new insights into HDL structure, composition and remodeling, and suggests that the HDL-C/ApoA-I ratio could be a readily available biomarker for estimating HDL size and HDL-P. PMID:23426429

  3. PI3Kβ Plays a Key Role in Apolipoprotein A-I-Induced Endothelial Cell Proliferation Through Activation of the Ecto-F1-ATPase/P2Y1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Castaing-Berthou, Audrey; Malet, Nicole; Radojkovic, Claudia; Cabou, Cendrine; Gayral, Stéphanie; Martinez, Laurent Olivier; Laffargue, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins (HDL) exert multiple cardioprotective functions on the arterial wall, including the promotion of endothelial cell survival and proliferation. Among mechanism contributing to endothelial protection, it has been reported that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein in HDL, binds and activates the endothelial ecto-F1-ATPase receptor. This generates extracellular ADP, which in turn promotes endothelial cell survival. In this study we aimed to further investigate the signaling pathway involved downstream of apoA-I-induced ecto-F1-ATPase activation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), pharmacological and gene silencing approaches were used to study pathways involved downstream ecto-F1-ATPase activation by apoA-I. ApoA-I and HDL both induced Akt phosphorylation. F1-ATPase inhibitors such as inhibitory factor 1 and oligomycin completely blocked apoA-I-induced Akt phosphorylaton and significantly blocked HDL-induced phosphorylation, indicating that this signaling pathway is dependent on ecto-F1-ATPase activation by apoA-I. Further, we were able to specify roles for the P2Y1-ADPreceptor and the PI3Kβ isoform in this pathway since pharmacological inhibition and silencing of these proteins dramatically inhibited apoA-I-induced Akt phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Altogether, these data highlight a key role of the P2Y1/PI3Kβ axis in endothelial cell proliferation downstream of ecto-F1-ATPase activation by apoA-I. Pharmacological targeting of this pathway could represent a promising approach to enhance vascular endothelial protection. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Increased intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the fractional catabolic rate of Lp A-I in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Vajo, Zoltan; Terry, James G; Brinton, Eliot A

    2002-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles without apolipoprotein A-II (Lp A-I) may be more anti-atherogenic than HDL with apo A-II (Lp A-I/AII) and Lp A-I is reported selectively to be reduced in cases of intra-abdominal obesity. We explored the mechanisms of this reduction by studying the turnover of Lp A-I and Lp A-I/A-II in postmenopausal women well characterized for total body, regional and sub-regional adiposity by body mass index (BMI), truncal girth ratio, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We tested for possible cause-effect relationships by measuring inter-correlations among these variables. Intra-abdominal fat area correlated strongly and positively with the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of Lp A-I (r=0.98, P=0.003). Intra-abdominal fat only showed a non-significant trend toward correlation with the FCR of Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.84, P=0.07), and had no correlation with the production or transport rate (TR) of either Lp A-I or Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.48 and 0.02, respectively, P>0.1). Subjects were studied both with and without estrogen replacement, allowing exploration of a possible interaction of adiposity with estrogen effects on HDL turnover. Response of HDL turnover to estrogen did not correlate with adiposity, except for a parameter of waist to hip ratio (WHR), which predicted the increase in LP A-I TR with estrogen (r=0.84, P=0.04). We conclude that intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the FCR of Lp A-I, suggesting a mechanism by which central adiposity may be proatherogenic.

  5. 11. Photographed 19131914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographed 1913-1914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by Mr. Leisenring 1959 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  6. 10. Photographed 19131914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographed 1913-1914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by Mr. Leisenring 1959 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I Stimulates Cell Proliferation in Bone Marrow Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Usynin, I F; Dudarev, A N; Gorodetskaya, A Yu; Miroshnichenko, S M; Tkachenko, T A; Tkachenko, V I

    2018-01-01

    Culturing of bone marrow cells in serum-free RPMI-1640 medium led to a decrease in the rate of DNA biosynthesis. Addition of HDL or their main protein component apolipoprotein A-I to the culture medium dose-dependently increased the rate of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA. The maximum stimulation was achieved at HDL concentration of 80 μg/ml and apolipoprotein A-I concentration of 20 μg/ml. To identify the target-cells of apolipoprotein A-I, we used thymidine analogue 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) that incorporates into cell DNA at the stage of replicative DNA synthesis (S phase) and can be detected by fluorescence microscopy. In bone marrow cell culture, apolipoprotein A-I stimulates the proliferation of monocyte (monoblasts, promonocytes) and granulocyte (myeloblasts, promyelocytes) progenitor cells, as well as bone marrow stromal cells.

  8. A case of apolipoprotein A-I deficiency due to carboxyl-terminal truncation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sho; Haketa, Akira; Sakimoto, Tohru; Abe, Masanori

    Apolipoprotein A-I deficiency is a rare metabolic disease characterized by an impaired reverse cholesterol transport system resulting in excessive cholesterol accumulation. Here, we discuss a case of apolipoprotein A-I deficiency caused by a carboxyl-terminal truncation mutation p.His186ProfsX46 in APOA1, which might result in increased catabolism of the mutant protein. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I exchange is impaired in metabolic syndrome patients asymptomatic for diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Borja, Mark S; Hammerson, Bradley; Tang, Chongren; Savinova, Olga V; Shearer, Gregory C; Oda, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that HDL-apolipoprotein A-I exchange (HAE), a measure of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and a key step in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), is impaired in metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) patients who are asymptomatic for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We also compared HAE with cell-based cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC) to address previous reports that CEC is enhanced in MetSyn populations. HAE and ABCA1-specific CEC were measured as tests of HDL function in 60 MetSyn patients and 14 normolipidemic control subjects. Predictors of HAE and CEC were evaluated with multiple linear regression modeling using clinical markers of MetSyn and CVD risk. HAE was significantly reduced in MetSyn patients (49.0 ± 10.9% vs. 61.2 ± 6.1%, P < 0.0001), as was ABCA1-specific CEC (10.1 ± 1.6% vs. 12.3 ± 2.0%, P < 0.002). Multiple linear regression analysis identified apoA-I concentration as a significant positive predictor of HAE, and MetSyn patients had significantly lower HAE per mg/dL of apoA-I (P = 0.004). MetSyn status was a negative predictor of CEC, but triglyceride (TG) was a positive predictor of CEC, with MetSyn patients having higher CEC per mg/dL of TG, but lower overall CEC compared to controls. MetSyn patients have impaired HAE that contributes to reduced capacity for ABCA1-mediated CEC. MetSyn status is inversely correlated with CEC but positively correlated with TG, which explains the contradictory results from earlier MetSyn studies focused on CEC. HAE and CEC are inhibited in MetSyn patients over a broad range of absolute apoA-I and HDL particle levels, supporting the observation that this patient population bears significant residual cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Liver-directed gene therapy of chronic hepadnavirus infection using interferon alpha tethered to apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    Berraondo, Pedro; Di Scala, Marianna; Korolowicz, Kyle; Thampi, Linta M.; Otano, Itziar; Suarez, Lester; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Ardaiz, Nuria; Yang, Junming; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.; Tucker, Robin D.; Vasquez, Marcos; Menne, Stephan; Prieto, Jesús; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Current HBV management is challenging as treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogs needs to be maintained indefinitely and because IFNα therapy is associated with considerable toxicity. Previously we showed that linking IFNα to apolipoprotein A-I generates a molecule (IA) with distinct antiviral and immunostimulatory activities which lacks the hematological toxicity of IFNα. Methods Here, we analyze the antiviral potential of an adeno-associated vector encoding interferon alpha fused to apolipoprotein A-I (AAV-IA) in comparison to a vector encoding only IFNα (AAV-IFN) in two animal models of chronic hepadnavirus infection. Results In HBV transgenic mice, we found that both vectors induced marked reductions in serum and liver HBV DNA and in hepatic HBV RNA but AAV-IFN caused lethal pancytopenia. Woodchucks with chronic WHV infection that were treated by intrahepatic injection of vectors encoding the woodchuck sequences (AAV-wIFN or AAV-wIA) experienced only a slight reduction of viremia which was associated with hematological toxicity and high mortality when using AAV-wIFN while AAV-wIA was well tolerated. However, when we tested AAV-wIA or a control vector encoding woodchuck apolipoprotein A-I (AAV-wApo) in combination with entecavir, we found that AAV-wApo-treated animals exhibited an immediate rebound of viral load upon entecavir withdrawal while, in AAV-wIA-treated woodchuks, viremia and antigenemia remained at low levels for several weeks following entecavir interruption. Conclusions Treatment with AAV-IA is safe and elicits antiviral effects in animal models with difficult-to-treat chronic hepadnavirus infection. AAV-IA in combination with nucleos(t)ide analogs represents a promising approach for the treatment of HBV infection in highly viremic patients. PMID:25772035

  11. C/EBP-β Is Differentially Affected by PPARα Agonists Fenofibric Acid and GW7647, But Does Not Change Apolipoprotein A-I Production During ER-Stress and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    van der Krieken, Sophie E; Popeijus, Herman E; Konings, Maurice; Dullens, Stefan P J; Mensink, Ronald P; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-04-01

    Increasing apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) production may be anti-atherogenic. Thus, there is a need to identify regulatory factors involved. Transcription of apoA-I involves peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha (PPARα) activation, but endoplasmic reticulum (ER) -stress and inflammation also influence apoA-I production. To unravel why PPARα agonist GW7647 increased apoA-I production compared to PPARα agonist fenofibric acid (FeAc) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (CaCo-2) cells, gene expression profiles were compared. Microarray analyses suggested CCAAT/enhancer-binding-protein-beta (C/EBP-β) involvement in the FeAc condition. Therefore, C/EBP-β silencing and isoform-specific overexpression experiments were performed under ER-stressed, inflammatory and non-inflammatory conditions. mRNA expression of C/EBP-β, ATF3, NF-IL3 and GDF15 were upregulated by FeAc compared to GW7647 in both cell lines, while DDIT3 and DDIT4 mRNA were only upregulated in HepG2 cells. This ER-stress related signature was associated with decreased apoA-I secretion. After ER-stress induction by thapsigargin or FeAc addition, intracellular apoA-I concentrations decreased, while ER-stress marker expression (CHOP, XBP1s, C/EBP-β) increased. Cytokine addition increased intracellular C/EBP-β levels and lowered apoA-I concentrations. Although a C/EBP binding place is present in the apoA-I promoter, C/EBP-β silencing or isoform-specific overexpression did not affect apoA-I production in inflammatory, non-inflammatory and ER-stressed conditions. Therefore, C/EBP-β is not a target to influence hepatic apoA-I production. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 754-763, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Insulin-Mediated Downregulation of Apolipoprotein A-I Gene in Human Hepatoma Cell Line HepG2: The Role of Interaction Between FOXO1 and LXRβ Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Tanyanskiy, Dmitry A; Efremov, Alexander M; Oleinikova, Galina N; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2017-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a key component of high density lipoproteins which possess anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties. Insulin is a crucial mediator of the glucose and lipid metabolism that has been implicated in atherosclerotic and inflammatory processes. Important mediators of insulin signaling such as Liver X Receptors (LXRs) and Forkhead Box A2 (FOXA2) are known to regulate apoA-I expression in liver. Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1) is a well-known target of insulin signaling and a key mediator of oxidative stress response. Low doses of insulin were shown to activate apoA-I expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. However, the detailed mechanisms for these processes are still unknown. We studied the possible involvement of FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRα, and LXRβ transcription factors in the insulin-mediated regulation of apoA-I expression. Treatment of HepG2 cells with high doses of insulin (48 h, 100 nM) suppresses apoA-I gene expression. siRNAs against FOXO1, FOXA2, LXRβ, or LXRα abrogated this effect. FOXO1 forms a complex with LXRβ and insulin treatment impairs FOXO1/LXRβ complex binding to hepatic enhancer and triggers its nuclear export. Insulin as well as LXR ligand TO901317 enhance the interaction between FOXA2, LXRα, and hepatic enhancer. These data suggest that high doses of insulin downregulate apoA-I gene expression in HepG2 cells through redistribution of FOXO1/LXRβ complex, FOXA2, and LXRα on hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 382-396, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High-density lipoprotein and apolipoprotein A-I inhibit palmitate-induced translocation of toll-like receptor 4 into lipid rafts and inflammatory cytokines in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hodaka; Umemoto, Tomio; Kawano, Mikihiko; Kawakami, Masanobu; Kakei, Masafumi; Momomura, Shin-Ichi; Ishikawa, San-E; Hara, Kazuo

    2017-03-04

    Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) activate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signal transduction in macrophages and are involved in the chronic inflammation accompanying obesity. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) produce anti-inflammatory effects via reverse cholesterol transport. However, the underlying mechanisms by which HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammatory responses in adipocytes remain to be determined. Here we examined whether palmitate increases the translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts and whether HDL and apoA-I inhibit inflammation in adipocytes. Palmitate exposure (250 μM, 24 h) increased interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α gene expressions and translocation of TLR4 into lipid rafts in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Pretreatment with HDL and apoA-I (50 μg/mL, 6 h) suppressed palmitate-induced inflammatory cytokine expression and TLR4 translocation into lipid rafts. Moreover, HDL and apoA-I inhibited palmitate-induced phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B. HDL showed an anti-inflammatory effect via ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 1, whereas apoA-I showed an effect via ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. These results demonstrated that HDL and apoA-I reduced palmitate-potentiated TLR4 trafficking into lipid rafts and its related inflammation in adipocytes via these specific transporters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of APOA1 gene and their relationship with serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations in the native population of Assam

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Kaustubh; Pathak, Mauchumi Saikia; Borah, Probodh; Hussain, Md. Iftikar; Das, Dulmoni

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in the role of allelic variants of the APOA1 gene in relation to a number of disorders. We described two common polymorphisms of the APOA1 gene, G-75A and C+83T and investigated their potential influence on the serum apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) levels in the native population of Assam — a region that is ethnically distinct and from where no information is hitherto available. Methods Blood samples were collected from 150 healthy volunteers. Apo A-I levels were estimated by immunoturbidometry. Genotyping was done by a PCR-RFLP method that involved DNA extraction from whole blood, followed by polymerase chain reaction and digestion of the PCR product by MspI restriction enzyme, and analysis of fragment sizes in 12% polyacrylamide gel. Results The GG variant at G-75A locus and CC variant at C+83T locus were the most prevalent. GG/CC was the most common combination. Homozygous TT genotype was not detected in any of the subjects. The rare allele frequencies for the G-75A and C+83T sites were found to be 0.22 and 0.06 respectively, which significantly differed from those reported in some other populations in neighbouring regions. Serum apo A-I concentrations did not vary significantly across the detected genotypes. These findings were consistent in both sexes. Conclusion We described the distribution of the G-75A and C+83T polymorphisms of the APOA1 gene in the population of Assam for the first time. These polymorphisms were not found to directly influence apo A-I concentrations in this population either individually or synergistically. PMID:26702398

  15. Breast Milk from Smokers Contains Less Cholesterol and Protein and Smaller Size of Apolipoprotein A-I Resulting in Lower Zebrafish Embryo Survivability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Suk-Jeong; Kim, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    To determine the quality of breast milk (BM), we compared the functions of BM from ex-smokers and nonsmokers. We analyzed the contents of lipids, glucose, and protein in BM from ex-smokers (10 cigarettes/day for 13 ± 3 years) as well as infant formula. Nonsmokers' BM showed 2.4- and 1.4-fold higher cholesterol and protein contents, respectively, than BM from smokers. Infant formula contained almost no cholesterol, but did show remarkably higher glucose and triglyceride levels than BM. Microinjection of BM (50 nL) from nonsmokers and smokers into zebrafish embryos resulted in 59% and 44% survival, respectively, whereas formula injection resulted in 31% survival. The higher cholesterol and protein contents of BM were directly correlated with higher embryo survivability, suggesting that cholesterol content is directly and critically associated with growth of neonate infants. Smokers' BM contained smaller-sized apolipoproteinA-I (apoA-I) (24.4 ± 0.2 kDa) than BM from nonsmokers (26.7 ± 0.4 kDa), suggesting that putative modification and cleavage occurred in apoA-I. BM containing higher molecular weight apoA-I resulted in higher embryo survivability. Smoking before pregnancy can affect the composition and quality of BM, resulting in almost complete loss of cholesterol and protein, especially lactoferrin, lactalbumin, and apoA-I, accompanied by proteolytic degradation. These impairment effects of BM are associated with elevation of oxidative stress and lower embryo survivability.

  16. [To the history of Tretiyakov almshouse of the A.I. Vishnevskiy Institute of Surgery].

    PubMed

    Kuzybayeva, M P

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with reconstruction of history of building and functioning of Tretiyakov almshouse in the A.I. Vishnevskiy institute of surgery. The archive documents were used for exploration. The input of architect S.I. Soloviyev into formation of architectural complex is demonstrated. The significance of this object in the history of national architecture is established.

  17. Conformational switching and fibrillogenesis in the amyloidogenic fragment of apolipoprotein a-I.

    PubMed

    Andreola, Alessia; Bellotti, Vittorio; Giorgetti, Sofia; Mangione, Palma; Obici, Laura; Stoppini, Monica; Torres, Jaume; Monzani, Enrico; Merlini, Giampaolo; Sunde, Margaret

    2003-01-24

    The N-terminal portion of apolipoprotein A-I corresponding to the first 93 residues has been identified as the main component of apolipoprotein A-I fibrils in a form of systemic amyloidosis. We have been able to characterize the process of conformational switching and fibrillogenesis in this fragment of apolipoprotein A-I purified directly from ex vivo amyloid material. The peptide exists in an unstructured form in aqueous solution at neutral pH. The acidification of the solution provokes a collapse into a more compact, intermediate state and the transient appearance of a helical conformation that rapidly converts to a stable, mainly beta-structure in the fibrils. The transition from helical to sheet structure occurs concomitantly with peptide self-aggregation, and fibrils are detected after 72 h. The alpha-helical conformation is induced by the addition of trifluoroethanol and phospholipids. Interaction of the amyloidogenic polypeptide with phospholipids prevents the switching from helical to beta-sheet form and inhibits fibril formation. The secondary structure propensity of the apolipoprotein A-I fragment appears poised between helix and the beta-sheet. These findings reinforce the idea of a delicate balance between natively stabilizing interactions and fatally stabilizing interactions and stress the importance of cellular localization and environment in the maintenance of protein conformation.

  18. Transcriptome-wide identification of A > I RNA editing sites by inosine specific cleavage.

    PubMed

    Cattenoz, Pierre B; Taft, Ryan J; Westhof, Eric; Mattick, John S

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition.

  19. Transcriptome-wide identification of A > I RNA editing sites by inosine specific cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Taft, Ryan J.; Westhof, Eric; Mattick, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition. PMID:23264566

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I Is a Prognosticator of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in the Era of Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Wei, Jia-Wang; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Shu; Han, Fei; Lu, Li-Xia; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2018-01-01

    Background: In the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), distant metastasis remains the major cause of death from nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of pretreatment serum lipid profiles in predicting clinical outcome of NPC. Methodology / Principal Findings: A total of 1927 consecutive patients who had untreated NPC and completed radical IMRT between Jan. 2010 and Dec. 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Pretreatment serum lipid indexes including total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) and apolipoprotein B were analyzed for their association with survivals, together with the clinical features (age, sex, pathological type, anemia, chemotherapy sequence and Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for each independent prognosticator. After univariate and multivariate survival analysis, low apoAI level (< 1.125 mmol/L) appeared to predict poor 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS).The HRs were 1.549 (95% CI, 1.137-2.109), 1.293 (95% CI, 1.047-1.597) and 1.288 (95% CI, 1.022-1.623), respectively. Subgroup survival analysis showed that the apoAI maintained predicting independence for OS, DFS and DMFS in patients with locally advanced NPC, even in those treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Conclusions / Significance: NPC patient with low serum level of pretreatment apoAI might be at risk of distant metastasis. Treatment aiming to eradicate distant metastasis might improve survival of these patients.

  1. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients: comparison of apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio with fasting and postprandial conventional lipid ratios

    PubMed Central

    Diaf, Mustapha; Khaled, Boumediene M.; Sellam, Fériel

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective The incidence of diabetes co-morbidities could probably be better assessed by studying its associations with major corpulence parameters and glycaemic control indicators. We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. Methods Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from 238 type 2 diabetic patients aged 57.4±11.9 years. The sera were analysed for glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB). Ratios of lipids and apolipoproteins were calculated and their associations with BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels were analysed. Results Our investigation showed increases in most fasting and postprandial lipid parameters according to BMI and WC. In men, postprandial HDL-c and TG levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in overweight and obese patients, respectively, as well as in patients with abdominal obesity. Contrariwise, postprandial TC levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in overweight and abdominal obese women. However, elevations of apoA-I and apoB levels were according to BMI and WC in both genders. There was a strong influence of BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels on the apoB/apoA-I ratio compared to traditional fasting and postprandial lipid ratios in both men and women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women. Conclusion The apoB/apoA-I ratio is helpful in assessing metabolic risk caused by overall obesity, abdominal obesity and impaired glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:25959906

  2. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients: comparison of apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio with fasting and postprandial conventional lipid ratios.

    PubMed

    Diaf, Mustapha; Khaled, Boumediene M; Sellam, Fériel

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes co-morbidities could probably be better assessed by studying its associations with major corpulence parameters and glycaemic control indicators. We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were collected from 238 type 2 diabetic patients aged 57.4±11.9 years. The sera were analysed for glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and apolipoproteins (apoA-I and apoB). Ratios of lipids and apolipoproteins were calculated and their associations with BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels were analysed. Our investigation showed increases in most fasting and postprandial lipid parameters according to BMI and WC. In men, postprandial HDL-c and TG levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in overweight and obese patients, respectively, as well as in patients with abdominal obesity. Contrariwise, postprandial TC levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) in overweight and abdominal obese women. However, elevations of apoA-I and apoB levels were according to BMI and WC in both genders. There was a strong influence of BMI, WC, and HbA1c levels on the apoB/apoA-I ratio compared to traditional fasting and postprandial lipid ratios in both men and women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women. The apoB/apoA-I ratio is helpful in assessing metabolic risk caused by overall obesity, abdominal obesity and impaired glycaemia in type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Extended-release niacin increases anti-apolipoprotein A-I antibodies that block the antioxidant effect of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol: the EXPLORE clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Batuca, Joana R; Amaral, Marta C; Favas, Catarina; Paula, Filipe S; Ames, Paul R J; Papoila, Ana L; Delgado Alves, José

    2017-05-01

    Extended-release niacin (ERN) is the most effective agent for increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Having previously identified anti-HDL antibodies, we investigated whether ERN affected the antioxidant capacity of HDL and whether ERN was associated with the production of antibodies against HDL (aHDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (aApoA-I). Twenty-one patients older than 18 years, with HDL-C ≤40 mg dl -1 (men) or ≤50 mg dl -1 (women) were randomly assigned to receive daily ERN (n = 10) or placebo (n = 11) for two sequential 12-week periods, with 4 weeks of wash-out before cross-over. Primary outcome was change of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity and secondary outcomes were changes in aHDL and aApoA-I antibodies. Clinical Trial Unique Identifier: EudraCT 2006-006889-42. The effect of ERN on PON1 activity was nonsignificant (coefficient estimate 20.83 U l -1 , 95% confidence interval [CI] -9.88 to 51.53; P = 0.184). ERN was associated with an increase in HDL-C levels (coefficient estimate 5.21 mg dl -1 , 95% CI 1.16 to 9.25; P = 0.012) and its subclasses HDL2 (coefficient estimate 2.46 mg dl -1 , 95% CI 0.57 to 4.34; P = 0.011) and HDL3 (coefficient estimate 2.73 mg dl -1 , 95% CI 0.47 to 4.98; P = 0.018). ERN was significantly associated with the production of aApoA-I antibodies (coefficient estimate 0.25 μg ml -1 , 95% CI 0.09-0.40; P = 0.001). aApoA-I titres at baseline were correlated with decreased PON activity. The rise in HDL-C achieved with ERN was not matched by improved antioxidant capacity, eventually hampered by the emergence of aApoA-I antibodies. These results may explain why Niacin and other lipid lowering agents fail to reduce cardiovascular risk. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Ochracenes A-I, Humulane-Derived Sesquiterpenoids from the Antarctic Fungus Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junfeng; He, Weijun; Kong, Fandong; Tian, Xinpeng; Wang, Pei; Zhou, Xiaojiang; Liu, Yonghong

    2017-06-23

    Nine new humulane-derived sesquiterpenoids, ochracenes A-I (1-9), were isolated from the Antarctic fungus Aspergillus ochraceopetaliformis SCSIO 05702. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, Mosher's method, and electronic circular dichroism analysis. Compared with previous humulane-type sesquiterpenoids, ochracenes A-I (1-9) featured novel carbon skeletons with corresponding methyl migration, ring cleavage, and carbon loss. Two unprecedented 8,9-secocyclic sesquiterpenoids (2 and 3) exhibited inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced NO release in RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell lines with IC 50 values of 14.6 ± 0.5 and 18.3 ± 1.7 μM, respectively.

  5. 8. Print of a drawing: "Plan No. 24, A.I. No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Print of a drawing: "Plan No. 24, A.I. No. 00036-A, Bldg. 27 (no date). Probably not of Building 27, but a similar heating installation elsewhere on the fort, or an alternate plan for the building which was never constructed. (8" x 10" print enlarged from 4" x 5" negative.) - Fort Benjamin Harrison, Building No. 27, Otis Avenue east of Green Avenue, Lawrence, Marion County, IN

  6. 38 CFR 3.809 - Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a)(2)(A)(i).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a)(2)(A)(i). 3.809 Section 3.809 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... Special Benefits § 3.809 Specially adapted housing under 38 U.S.C. 2101(a)(2)(A)(i). In order for a...)(i) or 2101A(a) to be extended to a veteran or a member of the Armed Forces serving on active duty...

  7. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by....I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. If a Noteholder shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guarantee, receive an excess payment, it shall refund the excess to A.I.D. ...

  8. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by....I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. If a Noteholder shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guarantee, receive an excess payment, it shall refund the excess to A.I.D. ...

  9. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by....I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. If a Noteholder shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guarantee, receive an excess payment, it shall refund the excess to A.I.D. ...

  10. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by....I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. If a Noteholder shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guarantee, receive an excess payment, it shall refund the excess to A.I.D. ...

  11. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by....I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. If a Noteholder shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guarantee, receive an excess payment, it shall refund the excess to A.I.D. ...

  12. Lipid-Free Apolipoprotein A-I Reduces Progression of Atherosclerosis by Mobilizing Microdomain Cholesterol and Attenuating the Number of CD131 Expressing Cells: Monitoring Cholesterol Homeostasis Using the Cellular Ester to Total Cholesterol Ratio.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sushma; Xu, Hao; Zabalawi, Manal; Maruko, Elisa; Fulp, Brian E; Bluemn, Theresa; Brzoza-Lewis, Kristina L; Gerelus, Mark; Weerasekera, Ranjuna; Kallinger, Rachel; James, Roland; Zhang, Yi Sherry; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G

    2016-11-07

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder whose development is inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein concentration. Current therapies involve pharmaceuticals that significantly elevate plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Our studies were conducted to investigate the effects of low-dose lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) on chronic inflammation. The aims of these studies were to determine how subcutaneously injected lipid-free apoA-I reduces accumulation of lipid and immune cells within the aortic root of hypercholesterolemic mice without sustained elevations in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Ldlr -/- and Ldlr -/- apoA-I -/- mice were fed a Western diet for a total of 12 weeks. After 6 weeks, a subset of mice from each group received subcutaneous injections of 200 μg of lipid-free human apoA-I 3 times a week, while the other subset received 200 μg of albumin, as a control. Mice treated with lipid-free apoA-I showed a decrease in cholesterol deposition and immune cell retention in the aortic root compared with albumin-treated mice, regardless of genotype. This reduction in atherosclerosis appeared to be directly related to a decrease in the number of CD131 expressing cells and the esterified cholesterol to total cholesterol content in several immune cell compartments. In addition, apoA-I treatment altered microdomain cholesterol composition that shifted CD131, the common β subunit of the interleukin 3 receptor, from lipid raft to nonraft fractions of the plasma membrane. ApoA-I treatment reduced lipid and immune cell accumulation within the aortic root by systemically reducing microdomain cholesterol content in immune cells. These data suggest that lipid-free apoA-I mediates beneficial effects through attenuation of immune cell lipid raft cholesterol content, which affects numerous types of signal transduction pathways that rely on microdomain integrity for assembly and activation

  13. Association of the apolipoprotein b/apolipoprotein a-I ratio, metabolic syndrome components, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol with insulin resistance in the population of georgia.

    PubMed

    Makaridze, Zaza; Giorgadze, Elene; Asatiani, Ketevan

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to assess the association between insulin resistance (IR) and apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I ratio (ApoB/ApoA-I ratio), metabolic syndrome (MetS) components, total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the nondiabetic population of Georgia. The subjects were 1522 Georgians of Caucasian origin (mean age = 45 years, 653 women) without diabetes who had visited the clinics for a related health checkup between 2012 and 2013. IR was calculated using the computer homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR) and was defined as the upper quartile. MetS was diagnosed using the updated ATP-III definition of the metabolic syndrome. Logistic and multiple regression models were used to estimate the association between IR and other components. IR was positively correlated with age, ApoB, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, MetS components (excluding high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-HDL-C), LDL-C, fasting insulin, and TC and negatively correlated with HDL-C and ApoA-I in both sexes (all P < 0.001). In the logistic regression models, gender, age, ApoB/ApoA-I ratio, diastolic pressure, HDL-C, LDL-C, fasting glucose, and triglycerides were the covariates significantly associated with IR (OR: 8.64, 1.03, 17.95, 1.06, 0.13, 1.17, 3.75, and 2.29, resp.; all P < 0.05). Multiple regression models demonstrated that these components (except for HDL-C) made an independent contribution to the prediction of HOMA2 (all P < 0.05).

  14. Francisella tularensis Subtype A.II Genomic Plasticity in Comparison with Subtype A.I

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Marilynn A.; Nalbantoglu, Ufuk; Sayood, Khalid; Zentz, Emily B.; Bartling, Amanda M.; Francesconi, Stephen C.; Fey, Paul D.; Dempsey, Michael P.; Hinrichs, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Francisella tularensis is considered a monomorphic intracellular pathogen, molecular genotyping and virulence studies have demonstrated important differences within the tularensis subspecies (type A). To evaluate genetic variation within type A strains, sequencing and assembly of a new subtype A.II genome was achieved for comparison to other completed F. tularensis type A genomes. In contrast with the F. tularensis A.I strains (SCHU S4, FSC198, NE061598, and TI0902), substantial genomic variation was observed between the newly sequenced F. tularensis A.II strain (WY-00W4114) and the only other publically available A.II strain (WY96-3418). Genome differences between WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 included three major chromosomal translocations, 1580 indels, and 286 nucleotide substitutions of which 159 were observed in predicted open reading frames and 127 were located in intergenic regions. The majority of WY-00W4114 nucleotide deletions occurred in intergenic regions, whereas most of the insertions and substitutions occurred in predicted genes. Of the nucleotide substitutions, 48 (30%) were synonymous and 111 (70%) were nonsynonymous. WY-00W4114 and WY96-3418 nucleotide polymorphisms were predominantly G/C to A/T allelic mutations, with WY-00W4114 having more A+T enrichment. In addition, the A.II genomes contained a considerably higher number of intact genes and longer repetitive sequences, including transposon remnants than the A.I genomes. Together these findings support the premise that F. tularensis A.II may have a fitness advantage compared to the A.I subtype due to the higher abundance of functional genes and repeated chromosomal sequences. A better understanding of the selective forces driving F. tularensis genetic diversity and plasticity is needed. PMID:25918839

  15. EphrinA I-targeted nanoshells for photothermal ablation of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Andre M; Moon, James J; West, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    Gold-coated silica nanoshells are a class of nanoparticles that can be designed to possess strong absorption of light in the near infrared (NIR) wavelength region. When injected intravenously, these nanoshells have been shown to accumulate in tumors and subsequently mediate photothermal treatment, leading to tumor regression. In this work, we sought to improve their specificity by targeting them to prostate tumor cells. We report selective targeting of PC-3 cells with nanoshells conjugated to ephrinA I, a ligand for EphA2 receptor that is overexpressed on PC-3 cells. We demonstrate selective photo-thermal destruction of these cells upon application of the NIR laser.

  16. Health education for prevalent problems in prison, Ocaña-I proyect (Spain).

    PubMed

    Maestre-Miquel, C; Zabala-Baños, C; García, J A; Antolín, J M

    2016-12-01

    Pilot project focusing on the implementation and evaluation of a health education (HE) program for inmates of the prison of Ocaña I (Spain). The objective was to analyze the intentions for change in health habits and perceptions, and to assess whether the HE-program had differential effects depending on whether the participants belonged to the PAIEM or not and their socio-demographic characteristics. The participants were 65 men, who answered an ad hoc questionnaire at the end of each session. Data analysis applied was univariate and bivariate (one-way ANOVA, t-test for Equality of Means and Chi-Square test). The average rating of the sessions was 3.51 out of 4 (SD = 0.62). The percentage of positive answers about the intention to adopt healthy habits was higher among non-PAIEM subjects (84.8%) than among those who were part of this program (57.9%). All subjects having a couple indicated an intention to change negative habits, compared to 67.3% for those without a couple. The percentage of subjects who said that their perception on the issue had changed was highest among those without education (89.7%) than among those with education (61.5%). The evaluation of implanted HE-program implemented in the Ocaña I prison was very positive, there are differences between subjects belonging to the PAIEM and those who do not.

  17. Tamarindus indica Extract Alters Release of Alpha Enolase, Apolipoprotein A-I, Transthyretin and Rab GDP Dissociation Inhibitor Beta from HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Ursula Rho Wan; Abdul-Rahman, Puteri Shafinaz; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina; Hashim, Onn Haji; Mat Junit, Sarni

    2012-01-01

    Background The plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol lowering effects of Tamarindus indica extract have been previously described. We have also shown that the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the expression of lipid-associated genes including ABCG5 and APOAI in HepG2 cells. In the present study, effects of the same extract on the release of proteins from the cells were investigated using the proteomics approach. Methodology/Principal Findings When culture media of HepG2 cells grown in the absence and presence of the methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp were subjected to 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the expression of seven proteins was found to be significantly different (p<0.03125). Five of the spots were subsequently identified as alpha enolase (ENO1), transthyretin (TTR), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I; two isoforms), and rab GDP dissociation inhibitor beta (GDI-2). A functional network of lipid metabolism, molecular transport and small molecule biochemistry that interconnects the three latter proteins with the interactomes was identified using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis software. Conclusion/Significance The methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the release of ENO1, ApoA-I, TTR and GDI-2 from HepG2 cells. Our results provide support on the effect of T. indica extract on cellular lipid metabolism, particularly that of cholesterol. PMID:22724021

  18. 78 FR 46807 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) AGENCY: Internal Revenue... section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (Temporary). * * * * * (b) * * * (6) Accrued gain and loss with respect to... taxpayers electing to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. These temporary...

  19. 78 FR 64396 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction AGENCY... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (Temporary). * * * * * (b)(6) Accrued gain and loss with respect... to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. These amendments include a...

  20. 78 FR 46854 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) AGENCY: Internal... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I). [The text of the proposed amendments to Sec. 1.1092(b)-3(b)(6... account for unrealized gain or loss on a position held by a taxpayer prior to the time the taxpayer...

  1. Klyflaccicembranols A-I, New Cembranoids from the Soft Coral Klyxum flaccidum.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Atallah F; Tsai, Chia-Ruei; Huang, Chiung-Yao; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Sheu, Jyh-Horng

    2017-01-21

    New cembranoids klyflaccicembranols A-I ( 1 - 9 ), along with gibberosene D ( 10 ), have been isolated from the organic extract of a Formosan soft coral Klyxum flaccidum . Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 2D NMR spectroscopy, and spectral data comparison with related structures. The cytotoxicity of the isolated metabolites, as well as their nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity, were evaluated and reported. Metabolites 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 and 9 were found to exhibit variable activities against a limited panel of cancer cell lines in a range of IC 50 16.5-49.4 μM. Among the tested cembranoids, compounds 4 , 5 , 6 , and 9 significantly inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages at a dose of 50 μg/mL.

  2. C1QBP is upregulated in colon cancer and binds to apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kun; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Ahn, Sun-A; Kim, Jong Heon; Cho, Jae Youl; Yeo, Seung-Gu

    2017-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression of complement component 1, q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP) in colon cancer cells, and identify proteins that interact with C1QBP. Total proteins were extracted from both the tumor and normal tissues of 22 patients with colon cancer and analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to identify proteins that were differentially-expressed in tumor tissues. C1QBP overexpression was induced in 293T cells using a pFLAG-CMV2 expression vector. Overexpressed FLAG-tagged C1QBP protein was then immunoprecipitated using anti-FLAG antibodies and C1QBP-interacting proteins were screened using LC-MS analysis of the immunoprecipitates. The C1QBP-interacting proteins were confirmed using reverse-immunoprecipitation and the differential expression of C1QBP in tissues and cell lines was confirmed using western blot analysis. LC-MS analysis revealed that C1QBP exhibited a typical tumor expression pattern. Two immune-reactive signals (33 and 14 kDa) were detected in normal and tumor tissues from 19 patients. Furthermore, 14 kDa C1QBP protein was upregulated in the tumors of 15 patients. In total, 39 proteins were identified as candidate C1QBP-interacting proteins, and an interaction between C1QBP and apolipoprotein A-I was confirmed. The present study indicates that C1QBP is involved in colon cancer carcinogenesis, and that the mechanisms underlying the established anti-tumor properties of apolipoprotein A-I may include interacting with and inhibiting the activity of C1QBP.

  3. Controlling for apolipoprotein A-I concentrations changes the inverse direction of the relationship between high HDL-C concentration and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Wild, Sarah H; Byrne, Christopher D

    2013-12-01

    The independent effect of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration to confer cardiovascular disease protection has been questioned. We investigated whether the inverse association between HDL-C concentration and a measure of preclinical atherosclerosis was modified by other risk factors. Cross-sectional data were analysed from an occupational cohort of 12,031 men who had measurements of cardiovascular risk factors and a cardiac computed tomography (CT) estimation of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Logistic regression was used to describe associations between both HDL-C and Apo-A-I concentrations and their ratio as exposures, and CAC scores > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100, as outcomes. 1351 (11.2%), 665 (5.5%) and 230 (1.9%) of participants had a CAC score > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100, respectively. Adjusting for age, glucose, triglyceride, LDL-C, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, prior cerebrovascular accident, prior coronary artery disease, prior hypertension, alcohol consumption, smoking status and exercise, a negative association existed between HDL-C and CAC score. (E.g. odds ratio (OR) for top compared to bottom HDL-C quartile for CAC > 0 = 0.78 [95%CI 0.64, 0.94], p = 0.01). Further adjustment for Apo A-I changed the direction of the association between HDL-C and CAC score > 0 (OR for top compared to bottom quartiles 1.61 [95%CI 1.18, 2.21], p = 0.003). Sensitivity analyses showed that point estimates for ORs were very similar regardless of CAC score threshold (CAC > 0, ≥ 20 and ≥ 100). Controlling for Apo A-I concentrations changes the inverse direction of relationship between high HDL-C concentration and a measure of pre-clinical atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of High-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol Versus Apolipoprotein A-I With Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer-Norfolk Prospective Population Study, the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, and the Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    van Capelleveen, Julian C; Bochem, Andrea E; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Mora, Samia; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Ballantyne, Christie M; Ridker, Paul M; Sun, Wensheng; Barter, Philip J; Tall, Alan R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Kastelein, John J P; Wareham, Nick J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hovingh, G Kees

    2017-08-03

    The contribution of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk stratification over and above high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is unclear. We studied the associations between plasma levels of HDL-C and apoA-I, either alone or combined, with risk of CHD events and cardiovascular risk factors among apparently healthy men and women. HDL-C and apoA-I levels were measured among 17 661 participants of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-Norfolk prospective population study. Hazard ratios for CHD events and distributions of risk factors were calculated by quartiles of HDL-C and apoA-I. Results were validated using data from the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) and WHS (Women's Health Study) cohorts, comprising 15 494 and 27 552 individuals, respectively. In EPIC-Norfolk, both HDL-C and apoA-I quartiles were strongly and inversely associated with CHD risk. Within HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were not associated with lower CHD risk; in fact, CHD risk was higher within some HDL-C quartiles. ApoA-I levels were associated with higher levels of CHD risk factors: higher body mass index, HbA1c, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein, within fixed HDL-C quartiles. In contrast, HDL-C levels were consistently inversely associated with overall CHD risk and CHD risk factors within apoA-I quartiles ( P <0.001). These findings were validated in the ARIC and WHS cohorts. Our findings demonstrate that apoA-I levels do not offer predictive information over and above HDL-C. In fact, within some HDL-C quartiles, higher apoA-I levels were associated with higher risk of CHD events, possibly because of the unexpected higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in association with higher apoA-I levels. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000479. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  5. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). 57.22217 Section 57.22217 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  10. Natural resource management: A. I. D. 's experience in Nepal. Occasional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    Since 1980, the Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) has invested about $77 million in projects to improve Nepal's natural resource management. The paper reviews the two largest projects; it also describes how USAID/Nepal is supporting multidonor forestry projects. The review identifies several important lessons. USAID/Nepal has been more effective in influencing policymaking and institutional changes when supporting multidonor projects than when acting alone. The reviewed projects underscore the difficulty of implementing large projects that involve technologies far beyond the host country's capabilities. More importantly, they demonstrate that support for resource conservation need not always be technically sophisticated, but sometimes canmore » -- and should -- begin by integrating research and extension activities into existing agricultural and rural development projects. To gain farmer support, such activities should increase livestock and tree production without compromising food crop production. Efforts to decentralize forestry management should not stop at the local government but should involve the affected communities themselves.« less

  11. Solution structure of discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles with a shortened apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Bibow, Stefan; Polyhach, Yevhen; Eichmann, Cédric; Chi, Celestine N; Kowal, Julia; Albiez, Stefan; McLeod, Robert A; Stahlberg, Henning; Jeschke, Gunnar; Güntert, Peter; Riek, Roland

    2017-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles are cholesterol and lipid transport containers. Mature HDL particles destined for the liver develop through the formation of intermediate discoidal HDL particles, which are the primary acceptors for cholesterol. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of reconstituted discoidal HDL (rdHDL) particles, using a shortened construct of human apolipoprotein A-I, determined from a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data. The rdHDL particles feature a protein double belt surrounding a lipid bilayer patch in an antiparallel fashion. The integrity of this structure is maintained by up to 28 salt bridges and a zipper-like pattern of cation-π interactions between helices 4 and 6. To accommodate a hydrophobic interior, a gross 'right-to-right' rotation of the helices after lipidation is necessary. The structure reflects the complexity required for a shuttling container to hold a fluid lipid or cholesterol interior at a protein:lipid ratio of 1:50.

  12. Proceedings of the XXII A.I.VE.LA. National Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    A.I.VE.LA. - the Italian Association of Laser Velocimetry and non-invasive diagnostics - is a non-profit cultural association whose objective is to promote and support research in the field of non-contact or minimally invasive measurement techniques, particularly electromagnetic-based techniques and optical techniques. Through its Annual Meeting, AIVELA aims to create an active and stimulating forum where current research results and technical advances can be exchanged and the development of new systems for laboratory use, field testing and industrial application can be promoted. The techniques covered include Laser Doppler Anemometry - LDA, Phase Doppler Anemometry - PDA, Image Velocimetry - PIV, Flow visualization techniques, Spectroscopic measurement techniques (LIF, Raman, etc.), Laser Doppler Vibrometry - LDV, Speckle Pattern Interferometry - ESPI, Holographic techniques, Shearography, Digital Image Correlation - DIC, Moiré techniques, Structured light techniques, Infrared imaging, Photoelasticity, Image based measurement techniques, Ultrasonic sensing, Acoustic and Aeroacoustic measurements, etc. The first Annual Meeting was held back in October 1992 and since then there has been a large consensus among the research and scientific communities that the papers presented at the event are of a high scientific interest. The XXII AIVELA Annual Meeting was held at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Rome Tor Vergata on 15-16 December 2014 and was organised in collaboration with the International Master Courses in "Protection Against CBRNe Events". This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the event. The detailed Programme of the Meeting can be found at: http://www.aivela.org/XXII_Convegno/index.html Trusting our Association and its initiatives will meet your interest, I wish to thank you in advance for your kind attention and hope to meet you soon at one of our events.

  13. M.A.I.D.: a prognostic score estimating probability of healing in chronic lower extremity wounds.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Stefan; Pietsch, Anne Mirja; Küper, Markus; Wicke, Corinna; Witte, Maria; Königsrainer, Alfred; Coerper, Stephan

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate a wound-based prognostic score for chronic lower extremity wounds suitable for daily routine use capable of predicting long-term healing. The main obstacle in the treatment of chronic wounds is to estimate long-term clinical outcome. For diabetic foot ulcers, several ulcer, and nonulcer-related risk factors associated with impaired healing have been described in the past. A new chronic lower extremity ulcer score (M.A.I.D.) was created out of 4 clinically defined parameters, namely palpable pedal pulses (I), wound area (A), ulcer duration (D), and presence of multiple ulcerations (M). Palpable pedal pulses were categorized by the absence (scored as 1) or presence (scored as 0) of pedal pulses, while wounds >4 cm were scored as 1 and wounds < or = 4 cm as 0. Ulcers lasting more than 130 days were categorized as 1 and wounds with a duration of <130 days as 0. Patients with multiple ulcerations were graded as 1 (=1) compared with those with single ulcers (=0). M.A.I.D. was calculated by adding these separate scores to a theoretical maximum of 4. Two thousand nineteen consecutive patients with 4004 wounds were included. When patients were divided into subgroups with the same M.A.I.D., we showed a decreasing probability of healing for ulcers with higher M.A.I.D. scores. An increase in the M.A.I.D. by 1 score-point reduced the chance for healing by 37%. Similarly, the higher the ulcer score, the larger the initial wound area, the longer the wound history, and the more likely the occurrence of soft-tissue infection during follow-up. This new chronic lower extremity ulcer score is capable of anticipating long-term probability of healing by combining 4 clinically assessable parameters. However, adequate and standardized wound care is an indispensable prerequisite for M.A.I.D. to be a valid diagnostic tool in daily clinical routine.

  14. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides inhibit expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines and a mouse ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor; Su, Feng; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Farias-Eisner, Robin

    2012-08-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides L-4F and L-5F inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor production and tumor angiogenesis. The present study was designed to test whether apoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which plays a critical role in the production of angiogenic factors and angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues. Immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and luciferase activity assays were used to determine the expression and activity of HIF-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that L-4F treatment dramatically decreased HIF-1α expression in mouse ovarian tumor tissues. L-4F inhibited the expression and activity of HIF-1α induced by low oxygen concentration, cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia-mimic compound), lysophosphatidic acid, and insulin in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OV2008 and CAOV-3. L-4F had no effect on the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p70s6 kinase, leading to the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis. Pretreatment with L-4F dramatically accelerated the proteasome-dependent protein degradation of HIF-1α in both insulin- and CoCl(2)-treated cells. The inhibitory effect of L-4F on HIF-1α expression is in part mediated by the reactive oxygen species-scavenging effect of L-4F. ApoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of HIF-1α in both in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting the inhibition of HIF-1α may be a critical mechanism responsible for the suppression of tumor progression by apoA-I mimetic peptides.

  15. 22 CFR 204.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by... Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee. If the Lender or Assignee shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guaranty, receive an excess payment, it...

  16. 22 CFR 204.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by... Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee. If the Lender or Assignee shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guaranty, receive an excess payment, it...

  17. 22 CFR 204.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by... Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee. If the Lender or Assignee shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guaranty, receive an excess payment, it...

  18. 22 CFR 204.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by... Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee. If the Lender or Assignee shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guaranty, receive an excess payment, it...

  19. 77 FR 44677 - Quad/Graphics Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D., Jonesboro, AR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ....,Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staff Mart and A.I.D.,Jonesboro, AR; Amended Certification Regarding... workers leased from Staff Mart and A.I.D. were employed on-site at the Jonesboro, Arkansas location of... amending this certification to include workers leased from Staff Mart and A.I.D. working on-site at the...

  20. 22 CFR 204.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by... Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by the lender of any assignee. If the Lender or Assignee shall, as a result of A.I.D. paying compensation under this Guaranty, receive an excess payment, it...

  1. 78 FR 64430 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction... amendments to proposed regulations relating to guidance for taxpayers electing to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. These amendments include a change to the applicability date...

  2. Mosaic Interdigitated Structure in Nanoparticle-Templated Phospholipid Bilayer Supports Partial Lipidation of Apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wangqiang; Wu, Weiqiang; McMahon, Kaylin M; Rink, Jonathan S; Thaxton, C Shad

    2016-06-01

    Using gold nanoparticle-templated high-density lipoprotein-like particles as a model, the nanoparticle-templated phospholipid bilayer is studied from the bottom-up. Data support the phospholipids have a mosaic interdigitated structure. The discontinuous lipid milieu supports partial lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I, different from an ordinary phospholipid bilayer, suggesting that synergy between nanoparticle templates and bound phospholipid layers can modulate amphiphilic proteins for desired functions.

  3. Effects of dietary maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)-seed oil on high-density lipoprotein levels and in vitro cholesterol efflux in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Asset, G; Leroy, A; Bauge, E; Wolff, R L; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    2000-09-01

    Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster)-seed oil contains two Delta5 unsaturated polymethylene interrupted fatty acids (all cis-5,9, 12-18:3 and all cis-5,11,14-20:3 acids) one of which resembles eicosapentaenoic acid. The goal of the present study was to test whether maritime pine-seed oil consumption affects HDL and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I levels as well as the ability of serum to promote efflux of cholesterol from cultured cells. To this end, wild type (WT) non-transgenic mice and transgenic mice expressing human ApoA-I (HuA-ITg) were fed on isoenergetic diet containing either 200 g maritime pine-seed oil/kg or 200 g lard/kg for 2 weeks. WT and HuA-ITg mice fed maritime pine-seed oil had lower cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HuA-ITg mice had lower human ApoA-I than those fed lard. The differences in cholesterol (P < 0.0001) and HDL-cholesterol (P < 0.003) levels between mice fed on the two diets were more pronounced in the HuA-ITg than in the WT mice. The ability of HuA-ITg serum to promote cholesterol efflux in cultured cells was greater (P < 0.008) than that of WT animals. However, the maritime pine-seed oil diet was associated with lower (P < 0.005) in vitro cholesterol efflux ability than the lard diet in both mice genotypes. This suggests a negative effect of the maritime pine-seed oil on reverse cholesterol transport. Cholesterol efflux was correlated with serum free or esterified cholesterol and phospholipid levels. The slope of the regression line was smaller in the HuA-ITg than in the WT mice indicating that overexpression of human ApoA-I reduces the negative impact of maritime pine-seed oil on cholesterol efflux. In conclusion, maritime pine-seed oil diet lowers HDL-cholesterol and diminishes in vitro cholesterol efflux. This potentially detrimental effect is attenuated by overexpression of human ApoA-I in mice.

  4. Extended-release niacin alters the metabolism of plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I- and apoB-containing lipoproteins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Extended-release niacin effectively lowers plasma TG levels and raises plasma HDL cholesterol levels, but the mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear. We examined the effects of extended-release niacin (2 g/d) and extended-release niacin (2 g/d) plus lovastatin (40 mg/d), relative to pl...

  5. Novel Pathways of Apolipoprotein A-I Metabolism in High-Density Lipoprotein of Different Sizes in Humans.

    PubMed

    Mendivil, Carlos O; Furtado, Jeremy; Morton, Allyson M; Wang, Liyun; Sacks, Frank M

    2016-01-01

    A prevailing concept is that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is secreted into the systemic circulation as a small mainly discoidal particle, which expands progressively and becomes spherical by uptake and esterification of cellular cholesterol and then contracts by cholesterol ester delivery to the liver, a process known as reverse cholesterol transport, thought to be impaired in people with low HDL cholesterol (HDLc). This metabolic framework has not been established in humans. We studied the metabolism of apolipoprotein A-I in 4 standard HDL sizes by endogenous isotopic labeling in 6 overweight adults with low HDLc and in 6 adults with normal body weight with high plasma HDLc. Contrary to expectation, HDL was secreted into the circulation in its entire size distribution from very small to very large similarly in both groups. Very small (prebeta) HDL comprised only 8% of total apolipoprotein A-I secretion. Each HDL subfraction circulated mostly within its secreted size range for 1 to 4 days and then was cleared. Enlargement of very small and medium to large and very large HDL and generation of very small from medium HDL were minor metabolic pathways. Prebeta HDL was cleared slower, whereas medium, large, and very large HDL were cleared faster in the low HDLc group. A new model is proposed from these results in which HDL is metabolized in plasma mainly within several discrete, stable sizes across the common range of HDLc concentrations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Recombinant models of lipoproteins. Apolipoprotein A-I/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol complexes formed in a 2-chloroethanol-water mixture.

    PubMed

    Antonov, I V; Medvedeva, N V; Misharin AJu; Morozkin, A D; Ruuge, E K

    1985-06-14

    Apolipoprotein A-I can spontaneously associate with phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol in 2-chloroethanol-water mixture. It was demonstrated, using a spin label technique, that dissolved molecules participate in complex formation. The apolipoprotein A-I/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol complexes were isolated by gel chromatography. Complexes of three types were prepared and characterized: type A, large heterogeneous aggregates with molecular weight 600 000, sedimentation coefficient 10 S and the following molar composition - protein/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:(70-100):(10-12); types B and C, with weight average molecular weights 140 000 and 110 000, average sedimentation coefficients 3.6 S and 1.7 S, respectively. Both types have the same molar composition - protein/phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol, 1:25:8. The dissimilar sedimentation coefficients between complexes B and C may be explained by the difference in the monomer/tetramer ratio (monomer molecular weight 50 000). The spin label sn-1-O-stearoyl-2-O-9'-spiro(4'',4''-dimethyloxazolidine-3''-oxyl) heptadecanoylglycero-3-phosphocholine introduced into the complexes A and B showed different thermal properties of these complexes, which may be due to differences in the lipid-protein interactions.

  7. The effect of an apolipoprotein A-I-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle (CER-001) on carotid artery wall thickness in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: The Modifying Orphan Disease Evaluation (MODE) study.

    PubMed

    Hovingh, G Kees; Smits, Loek P; Stefanutti, Claudia; Soran, Handrean; Kwok, See; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Gaudet, Daniel; Keyserling, Constance H; Klepp, Heather; Frick, Jennifer; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Kastelein, John J P; Stroes, Erik S

    2015-05-01

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) are at extremely elevated risk for early cardiovascular disease because of exposure to elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) plasma levels from birth. Lowering LDL-C by statin therapy is the cornerstone for cardiovascular disease prevention, but the residual risk in HoFH remains high, emphasizing the need for additional therapies. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of serial infusions with CER-001, a recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle, on carotid artery wall dimensions in patients with HoFH. Twenty-three patients (mean age 39.4 ± 13.5 years, mean LDL-C 214.2 ± 81.5 mg/dL) with genetically confirmed homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for LDLR, APOB, PCSK9, or LDLRAP1 mutations received 12 biweekly infusions with CER-001 (8 mg/kg). Before and 1 hour after the first infusion, lipid values were measured. Magnetic resonance imaging (3-T magnetic resonance imaging) scans of the carotid arteries were acquired at baseline and after 24 weeks to assess changes in artery wall dimensions. After CER-001 infusion, apoA-I increased from 114.8 ± 20.7 mg/dL to 129.3 ± 23.0 mg/dL. After 24 weeks, mean vessel wall area (primary end point) decreased from 17.23 to 16.75 mm(2) (P = .008). A trend toward reduction of mean vessel wall thickness was observed (0.75 mm at baseline and 0.74 mm at follow-up, P = .0835). In HoFH, 12 biweekly infusions with an apoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein-mimetic particle resulted in a significant reduction in carotid mean vessel wall area, implying that CER-001 may reverse atherogenic changes in the arterial wall on top of maximal low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapy. This finding supports further clinical evaluation of apoA-I-containing particles in patients with HoFH. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). 1.1092(b)-3T Section 1.1092(b)-3T Internal Revenue... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided, a... constitute independent verification: (i) Separate account. Placement of one or more positions of a section...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). 1.1092(b)-3T Section 1.1092(b)-3T Internal Revenue... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided, a... constitute independent verification: (i) Separate account. Placement of one or more positions of a section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). 1.1092(b)-3T Section 1.1092(b)-3T Internal Revenue... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided, a... constitute independent verification: (i) Separate account. Placement of one or more positions of a section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). 1.1092(b)-3T Section 1.1092(b)-3T Internal Revenue... section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided, a taxpayer shall... constitute independent verification: (i) Separate account. Placement of one or more positions of a section...

  12. 26 CFR 1.1092(b)-3T - Mixed straddles; straddle-by-straddle identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). 1.1092(b)-3T Section 1.1092(b)-3T Internal Revenue... identification under section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I) (temporary). (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided, a... constitute independent verification: (i) Separate account. Placement of one or more positions of a section...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts... Eclipse. Endeavor. Galant. iMiEV. Lancer. Outlander. Outlander Sport. Mirage.1 NISSAN Altima. Cube. Juke...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which are Exempted From the Parts...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts...

  17. Effects of combination of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on serum fasting blood sugar, insulin, apoprotein B and apoprotein A-I in patients with type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, Farzad; Aghasi, Mahshid; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Heydari, Iraj; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad

    2010-03-01

    There is accumulating evidence that shows the metabolism of zinc and vitamin A are altered in diabetes mellitus type I (DMTI), thus the present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of combination of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, apoprotein B and apoprotein A-I in patients with DMTI. Forty-eight, 7-year-old to 20-year-old patients with at least 2 years of DMTI history, without any metabolic condition or medicine intake with insulin treatment, participated in a randomized double-blind clinical trial for 12 weeks. They were divided into zinc and vitamin A (VAZ)-supplemented (10 mg elemental zinc per day and one-half of a 25,000 IU vitamin A tablet every other day) and/or placebo groups after matching for sex, age and DMTI duration. Nutrient intake was estimated using 24 h recall and was analyzed by food processor program. Serum apoproteins B and A-I, FBS and insulin levels were determined at the beginning and end of the trial. There was significant increase in apoprotein A-I (P < 0.0001) and a significant decrease in apoprotein B (P < 0.0001) and apoprotein B/apoprotein A-I ratio (P < 0.0001) at the end of the study compared with baseline values in the VAZ group but apoprotein A-I had a significant increase (P < 0.0001) and the apoprotein B/apoprotein A-I ratio had a significant decrease (P = 0.02) at the end of study in the VAZ group compared with the control group It seems that combined zinc and vitamin A supplementation can improve serum apoprotein A-I, apoprotein B and the apoprotein B/apoprotein A-I ratio in patients with DMTI.

  18. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22234 Section 57.22234 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A-I to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-I to Part.... 541, App. A-1 Appendix A-I to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted From the Parts.... E320/E320DT CDi. E350/E500/E550. E400 HYBRID. CLS500/CLS55. MITSUBISHI Eclipse. Endeavor. Galant. iMiEV...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in noncombustible housings provided with noncombustible air ducts; (2) Except in Subcategory I-A...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in noncombustible housings provided with noncombustible air ducts; (2) Except in Subcategory I-A...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in noncombustible housings provided with noncombustible air ducts; (2) Except in Subcategory I-A...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22234 Section 57.22234 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22222 - Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22222 Section 57.22222 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22222 Ventilation materials (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). Brattice cloth and...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in noncombustible housings provided with noncombustible air ducts; (2) Except in Subcategory I-A...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22234 Section 57.22234 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0...

  14. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22234 Section 57.22234 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0...

  15. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  16. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the surface in noncombustible housings provided with noncombustible air ducts; (2) Except in Subcategory I-A...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22234 - Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22234 Section 57.22234 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22234 Actions at 1.0 percent methane (I-A, I-B, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) If methane reaches 1.0...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22228 - Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). 57.22228 Section 57.22228 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Preshift examination (I-A, I-C, II-A, III, and V-A mines). (a) Preshift examinations shall be conducted...

  19. The neoplastic potential of rat tracheal epithelial cell lines induced by dibenzo(a, i)pyrene and 1-nitropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, M.; Ong, T.; Nath, J.

    1997-10-01

    The rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cell transformation system is an important short-term assay for respiratory carcinogenesis. In our laboratories, studies have been performed using this assay system to determine the carcinogenic potential of dibenzo(a,i)pyrene (DBP) and 1-nitropyrene (1-NP), two compounds commonly contaminating occupational and environmental settings. RTE cells were exposed in vivo to DBP or 1-NP by intertracheal instillation. RTE cells were then isolated and plated on a medium for determination of cloning and transformation frequencies. Cell lines established from transformed cells induced by DBP and 1-NP were analyzed for their neoplastic potential with the soft agar cloning and themore » athymic nude mouse tumorigenicity assays. Results showed that: (1) incidence of transformed foci in cultures treated with DBP or 1-NP in vivo was significantly higher than that in the control cultures; (2) 8 and 25 cell lines were established from 28 and 48 transformed foci induced by DBP and 1-NP, respectively; (3) 3 of 5 cell lines from DBP and 5 anchorage independent growth in soft agar; (4) some of the cell lines from DBP and 1-NP induced transformed foci formed tumors after cells were injected in athymic nude mice. These results indicate that in vivo exposure to DBP and 1-NP can induce RTE cell transformation and that transformed cells induced by DBP and 1-NP may have neoplastic potential.« less

  20. The forgotten dispute: A.I. Oparin and H.J. Muller on the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Falk, Raphael; Lazcano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The debate between A.I. Oparin's heterotrophic proposal of the origin of life and H.J. Muller's suggestion that what may be considered a posteriori the beginning of life, was an autocatalytic, replicative gene, is analyzed. Although both recognized that what was needed was an interacting system contiguous in space and time, it is now rarely mentioned that this scientific confrontation went on for several decades against the background of intense ideological issues, political tensions, and scientific developments that include the rise and demise of Lysenkoism, on the one hand, and, on the other, the establishment of neoDarwinism and the birth of molecular biology. Whereas for Oparin life was the outcome of the step-wise slow process of precellular evolution in which membrane-bounded polymolecular systems played a key role, Muller argued that life started with the appearance of the first nucleic-acid (DNA) molecule in the primitive oceans. Oparin and Muller came from different scientific backgrounds and almost opposite intellectual traditions, so their common interest in the origin of life did nothing to assuage their opposing views, which as argued soon became part of the debates that took place within the framework of intense ideological confrontations.

  1. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, alleviates ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and promotes endothelial repair through the eNOS/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghui; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wu, Mengzhang; Xu, Wenqi; Qian, Mingming; Du, Qian; Zhang, Le; Cui, Ye; Zheng, Jianlan; Chang, He; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai; Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide exerts many anti-atherogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms related to the endothelial protective effects remain elusive. In this study, the apoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, was used. Proliferation assay, wound healing, and transwell migration experiments showed that D-4F improved the impaired endothelial proliferation and migration resulting from ox-LDL. Endothelial adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion assay demonstrated that D-4F inhibited endothelial inflammation. Caspase-3 activation and TUNEL stain indicated that D-4F reduced endothelial cell apoptosis. A pivotal anti-oxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated by D-4F. The Akt/AMPK/eNOS pathways were involved in the expression of HO-1 induced by D-4F. Moreover, the anti-oxidation, pro-proliferation, and pro-migration capacities of D-4F were diminished by the inhibitors of both eNOS (L-NAME) and HO-1 (Znpp). Additionally, downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) by siRNA abolished the activation of Akt, AMPK and eNOS, and reduced the upregulation of HO-1 triggered by D-4F. Furthermore, D-4F promoted the reendothelialization of injured intima in carotid artery injury model of C57BL/6J mice in vivo. In summary, these findings suggested that D-4F might be a powerful candidate in the protection of endothelial cells and the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Coronal mass ejection hits mercury: A.I.K.E.F. hybrid-code results compared to MESSENGER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, W.; Heyner, D.; Liuzzo, L.; Motschmann, U.; Shiota, D.; Kusano, K.; Shibayama, T.

    2018-04-01

    Mercury is the closest orbiting planet around the sun and is therefore embedded in an intensive and highly varying solar wind. In-situ data from the MESSENGER spacecraft of the plasma environment near Mercury indicates that a coronal mass ejection (CME) passed the planet on 23 November 2011 over the span of the 12 h MESSENGER orbit. Slavin et al. (2014) derived the upstream parameters of the solar wind at the time of that orbit, and were able to explain the observed MESSENGER data in the cusp and magnetopause segments of MESSENGER's trajectory. These upstream parameters will be used for our first simulation run. We use the hybrid code A.I.K.E.F. which treats ions as individual particles and electrons as a mass-less fluid, to conduct hybrid simulations of Mercury's magnetospheric response to the impact of the CME on ion gyro time scales. Results from the simulation are in agreement with magnetic field measurements from the inner day-side magnetosphere and the bow-shock region. However, at the planet's nightside, Mercury's plasma environment seemed to be governed by different solar wind conditions, in conclusion, Mercury's interaction with the CME is not sufficiently describable by only one set of upstream parameters. Therefore, to simulate the magnetospheric response while MESSENGER was located in the tail region, we use parameters obtained from the MHD solar wind simulation code SUSANOO (Shiota et al. (2014)) for our second simulation run. The parameters of the SUSANOO model achieve a good agreement of the data concerning the plasma tail crossing and the night-side approach to Mercury. However, the polar and closest approach are hardly described by both upstream parameters, namely, neither upstream dataset is able to reproduce the MESSENGER crossing of Mercury's magnetospheric cusp. We conclude that the respective CME was too variable on the timescale of the MESSENGER orbit to be described by only two sets of upstream conditions. Our results suggest locally strong

  3. The I.A.G. / A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme: Current and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.; Lamoureux, Scott; Decaulne, Armelle

    2013-04-01

    Projected climate change in cold regions is expected to alter melt season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active layer depths. These effects will undoubtedly change surface environments in cold regions and alter the fluxes of sediments, nutrients and solutes, but the absence of quantitative data and coordinated geomorphic process monitoring and analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment is acute in cold climate environments. The International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G. / A.I.G. ) SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Programme was formed in 2005 to address this existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD currently has about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international programme is composed of ten scientists from eight different countries: Achim A. Beylich (Chair) (Norway), Armelle Decaulne (Secretary) (France), John C. Dixon (USA), Scott F. Lamoureux (Vice-Chair) (Canada), John F. Orwin (Canada), Jan-Christoph Otto (Austria), Irina Overeem (USA), Thorsteinn Sæmundsson (Iceland), Jeff Warburton (UK) and Zbigniew Zwolinski (Poland). The central research question of this global group of scientists is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Initially formed as European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments) (2004 - ), SEDIBUD has further expanded to a global group of researchers with field research sites located in polar and alpine regions in the northern and southern hemisphere. Research carried out at each of the close to 50 defined SEDIBUD key test sites varies by programme, logistics and available

  4. Intestinal growth and pathology of Giardia duodenalis assemblage subtype A(I), A(II), B and E in the gerbil model.

    PubMed

    Bénéré, E; Van Assche, T; Van Ginneken, C; Peulen, O; Cos, P; Maes, L

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the significance of the genetic differences between assemblages A, B and E on intestinal growth and virulence. Intestinal growth and virulence were studied in 2 laboratory (A(I): WB and B: GS/M-83-H7) and 6 field isolates of assemblage subtype A(I), A(II), B and E(III). Intestinal trophozoite burdens, body weight and faecal consistency were monitored until day 29 post-infection (p.i.), morphological (mucosal architecture and inflammation) and functional (disaccharidase and alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity) damage to the small intestine were evaluated on days 7 and 18 p.i. The assemblage subtypes A(I) and B were more infectious and produced higher trophozoite loads for a longer period compared to the subtypes A(II) and E(III). The body weight of infected gerbils was significantly reduced compared to uninfected controls, but did not differ between the assemblage subtypes. Consistent softening of the faeces was only observed with assemblage B. Assemblage B next to assemblage subtype A(I) elicited relatively higher pathogenicity, characterized by more extensive damage to mucosal architecture, decreased brush-border enzyme function and infiltration of inflammatory cells. Assemblage E(III) and A(II) isolates showed relatively low virulence. The Giardia assemblage subtypes exhibit different levels of growth and virulence in the gerbil model.

  5. The association between the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio and coronary calcification may differ depending on kidney function in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Oh, Donghwan; Jung, Kwon Soo; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kim, Beom Seok; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Lee, Byoung Kwon; Choi, Hoon Young

    2017-01-01

    The apolipoprotein B/A-1 ratio has been reported to be one of the strongest risk predictors of cardiovascular events. However, its prognostic value for cardiovascular disease is still uncertain, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to investigate whether the association between the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio and coronary artery calcification differed according to kidney function in a healthy population. Of the data from 7,780 participants from the medical records database in Gangnam Severance Hospital from 2005 through 2016, a cross-sectional analysis included participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 determined based on the Chronic Kidney Disease -Epidemiology Collaboration equation (n  =  1,800). Mild renal insufficiency was defined as an eGFR of 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Coronary artery calcification measured with computed tomography was defined as an above-zero score. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between coronary calcification and the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio according to eGFR by adjusting for the influence of confounders. The mean apolipoprotein B/A-I level was significantly higher in the participants with coronary artery calcification than in the participants without coronary artery calcification. The apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio was significantly different according to coronary artery calcification in the participants with normal kidney function, but in the participants with mild renal insufficiency, it was not different. After adjusting for age, male sex, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, current smoking status, and fasting plasma glucose, the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio was significantly associated with an increased risk of coronary artery calcification in participants with normal kidney function (odds ratio = 2.411, p = 0.011), while in the participants with mild renal insufficiency, the apolipoprotein B/A-I ratio was not associated

  6. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  7. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  8. Development and testing of the Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.): a measure of coordinated gait components.

    PubMed

    Daly, J J; Nethery, J; McCabe, J P; Brenner, I; Rogers, J; Gansen, J; Butler, K; Burdsall, R; Roenigk, K; Holcomb, J

    2009-04-15

    Recent neuroscience methods have provided the basis upon which to develop effective gait training methods for recovery of the coordinated components of gait after neural injury. We determined that there was not an existing observational measure that was, at once, adequately comprehensive, scored in an objectively-based manner, and capable of assessing incremental improvements in the coordinated components of gait. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to use content valid procedures in order to develop a relatively inexpensive, more comprehensive measure, scored with an objectively-based system, capable of incrementally scoring improvements in given items, and that was both reliable and capable of discriminating treatment response for those who had a stroke. Eight neurorehabilitation specialists developed criteria for the gait measure, item content, and scoring method. In subjects following stroke (>12 months), the new measure was tested for intra- and inter-rater reliability using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient; capability to detect treatment response using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test; and discrimination between treatment groups, using the Plum Ordinal Regression. The Gait Assessment and Intervention Tool (G.A.I.T.) is a 31-item measure of the coordinated movement components of gait and associated gait deficits. It exhibited the following advantages: comprehensive, objective-based scoring method, incremental measurement of improvement within given items. The G.A.I.T. had good intra- and inter-rater reliability (ICC=.98, p=.0001, 95% CI=.95, .99; ICC=.83, p=.007, 95% CI=.32, .96, respectively. The inexperienced clinician who had training, had an inter-rater reliability with an experienced rater of ICC=.99 (p=.0001, CI=.97, .999). The G.A.I.T. detected improvement in response to gait training for two types of interventions: comprehensive gait training (z=-2.93, p=.003); and comprehensive gait training plus functional electrical stimulation (FES; z=-3.3, p

  9. Quantification by nano liquid chromatography parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry of human apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein B, and hemoglobin A1c in dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Clark M; Bollinger, James G; Becker, Jessica O; Wallace, Jennifer M; Laha, Thomas J; MacCoss, Michael J; Hoofnagle, Andrew N

    2017-07-01

    Proteomic analysis of blood proteins in dried blood spots (DBS) is gaining attention as a possible replacement for measurements in plasma/serum collected by venipuncture. We aimed to develop and provisionally validate a nanoflow LC-PRM-MS method for clinical use. We used Skyline to develop a nanoflow LC-PRM-MS method to quantify glycated hemoglobin-β, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in DBS. Precision, linearity, interferences, and stability were determined and the method was used to analyze samples from 36 human volunteers. The method was compared with clinically validated measurements in paired blood collected via venipuncture. The method was relatively precise for these proteins (10-11% CV) and linear across the normal concentration ranges of these proteins. Interference from high total serum protein concentration (>8 g/dL) was noted for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B. Proteins in DBS were stable for 14 days at temperatures below 25°C and trypsinized samples were stable for 48 h at 7°C. There was moderate correlation with clinical methods (r = 0.783-0.858) and significant bias in individual samples. Although the method had adequate precision and linearity for a biomarker, the accuracy compared with clinically validated assays raises concerns regarding the use of DBS compared with venipuncture for clinical use. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Membrane microdomains modulate oligomeric ABCA1 function: impact on apoAI-mediated lipid removal and phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis[S

    PubMed Central

    Iatan, Iulia; Bailey, Dana; Ruel, Isabelle; Hafiane, Anouar; Campbell, Steven; Krimbou, Larbi; Genest, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have identified an ABCA1-dependent, phosphatidylcholine-rich microdomain, called the “high-capacity binding site” (HCBS), that binds apoA-I and plays a pivotal role in apoA-I lipidation. Here, using sucrose gradient fractionation, we obtained evidence that both ABCA1 and [125I]apoA-I associated with the HCBS were found localized to nonraft microdomains. Interestingly, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) was selectively removed from nonraft domains by apoA-I, whereas sphingomyelin and cholesterol were desorbed from both detergent-resistant membranes and nonraft domains. The modulatory role of cholesterol on apoA-I binding to ABCA1/HCBS was also examined. Loading cells with cholesterol resulted in a drastic reduction in apoA-I binding. Conversely, depletion of membrane cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin treatment resulted in a significant increase in apoA-I binding. Finally, we obtained evidence that apoA-I interaction with ABCA1 promoted the activation and gene expression of key enzymes in the PtdCho biosynthesis pathway. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that the partitioning of ABCA1/HCBS to nonraft domains plays a pivotal role in the selective desorption of PtdCho molecules by apoA-I, allowing an optimal environment for cholesterol release and regeneration of the PtdCho-containing HCBS. This process may have important implications in preventing and treating atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:21846716

  11. Fluorescence study of the effect of the oxidized phospholipids on amyloid fibril formation by the apolipoprotein A-I N-terminal fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vus, Kateryna; Girych, Mykhailo; Trusova, Valeriya; Gorbenko, Galyna; Kinnunen, Paavo; Mizuguchi, Chiharu; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    The effects of the oxidized phospholipids (oxPLs) on amyloid fibril formation by the apolipoprotein A-I variant 1-83/G26R have been investigated using Thioflavin T fluorescence assay. All types of the PoxnoPC assemblies (dispersions, micelles and lipid bilayer vesicles) induced retardation of amyloid nucleation and elongation and the enhancement of the 1-83/G26R fibrillization, although PazePC micelles completely prevented protein aggregation at low protein-to-lipid molar ratios. The ability of PazePC to inhibit 1-83/G26R aggregation was explained by the protein-lipid electrostatic interactions, which either stabilize the α-helical structure of the membrane-associated 1-83/G26R or facilitate the protein solubilization by the detergent micelles.

  12. Evaluation of potential antiplatelet effects of CSL112 (Apolipoprotein A-I [Human]) in patients with atherosclerosis: results from a phase 2a study.

    PubMed

    Gurbel, Paul A; Tantry, Udaya S; D'Andrea, Denise; Chung, Thomas; Alexander, John H; Bliden, Kevin P; Wright, Samuel D; Tricoci, Pierluigi

    2018-05-01

    CSL112 (Apolipoprotein A-I [Human]), an infusible, plasma-derived apolipoprotein A-I, is being developed to reduce cardiovascular events following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A predecessor compound (CSL111) demonstrated a potential antiplatelet effect. A phase 2a multicentre, randomised, single-ascending dose study in patients with stable atherosclerotic disease receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) assessed the potential additive effects of CSL112 administration on platelet function and increase bleeding risk in the subacute period after AMI. Patients (n = 44) on aspirin (75-325 mg/day) and either clopidogrel (75 mg/day, n = 37) or prasugrel (10 mg/day, n = 7) for > 30 days alongside standard-of-care therapy were randomised to a single dose of placebo or CSL112: 1.7, 3.4, or 6.8 g. Light transmission aggregometry was used to assess platelet aggregation in response to 2 mM arachidonic acid, 5 and 20 µM adenosine diphosphate, and 4 µg/mL collagen, pre-dose (baseline) and up to 48 h post-dosing. Compared to placebo, CSL112 had no clinically meaningful time- or dose-dependent effects on maximum platelet aggregation in response to any agonist, by either dose or renal function subgroup (p > 0.05). Coagulation parameters showed little variation over time or between treatment groups (p > 0.05). CSL112, when co-administered with standard DAPT, did not significantly influence platelet aggregation in response to agonists and is, therefore, not expected to significantly increase bleeding risk when administered with antiplatelet therapies.

  13. Phylogenies Constrained by the Crossover Process as Illustrated by Human Hemoglobins and a Thirteen-Cycle, Eleven-Amino-Acid Repeat in Human Apolipoprotein a-I

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, Walter M.

    1977-01-01

    Examination of human apolipoprotein A-I revealed a segment of eleven amino acids that repeated itself 13 times in succession without any additional intervening amino acids between the beginning of the repeats (amino acid 93) and their end at the carboxyl terminus of the sequence. The segments are not identical, but the pattern of their physical and chemical properties is highly conserved. The pattern is shown to be suitable to the formation of alpha helices with an amphipathic character consistent with the formation of a micellar structure, a process entirely appropriate to the protein's known function in the blood stream as a lipid carrier. The simplest hypothesis to account for repeated segments is a series of unequal crossovers. But such a series implies that some segments are more closely related to each other than they are to others, that is, they have a "phylogenetic" relationship. It is shown that only a small fraction of all possible phylogenies are consistent with a set of segments arising by simple unequal crossing over. Nevertheless, it is shown that the apolipoprotein A-I segments are readily interpretable as the result of simple unequal crossing over. Moreover, the crossover constraint applies with as much force to segments larger than a gene as to segments within a gene, and this is shown to require that the human gamma (Gly) hemoglobin gene lie to the left, rather than to the right, of the other non-alpha human hemoglobin genes, a conclusion for which there is no direct genetic evidence currently available. PMID:892425

  14. Gravity-dependent differentiation and root coils in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and phospholipase-A-I knockdown mutant grown on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Scherer, G F E; Pietrzyk, P

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis roots on 45° tilted agar in 1-g grow in wave-like figures. In addition to waves, formation of root coils is observed in several mutants compromised in gravitropism and/or auxin transport. The knockdown mutant ppla-I-1 of patatin-related phospholipase-A-I is delayed in root gravitropism and forms increased numbers of root coils. Three known factors contribute to waving: circumnutation, gravisensing and negative thigmotropism. In microgravity, deprivation of wild type (WT) and mutant roots of gravisensing and thigmotropism and circumnutation (known to slow down in microgravity, and could potentially lead to fewer waves or increased coiling in both WT and mutant). To resolve this, mutant ppla-I-1 and WT were grown in the BIOLAB facility in the International Space Station. In 1-g, roots of both types only showed waving. In the first experiment in microgravity, the mutant after 9 days formed far more coils than in 1-g but the WT also formed several coils. After 24 days in microgravity, in both types the coils were numerous with slightly more in the mutant. In the second experiment, after 9 days in microgravity only the mutant formed coils and the WT grew arcuated roots. Cell file rotation (CFR) on the mutant root surface in microgravity decreased in comparison to WT, and thus was not important for coiling. Several additional developmental responses (hypocotyl elongation, lateral root formation, cotyledon expansion) were found to be gravity-influenced. We tentatively discuss these in the context of disturbances in auxin transport, which are known to decrease through lack of gravity. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Full-length apolipoprotein E protects against the neurotoxicity of an apoE-related peptide

    PubMed Central

    Crutcher, K.A.; Lilley, H.N.; Anthony, S. R.; Zhou, W.; Narayanaswami, V.

    2009-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E was found to protect against the neurotoxic effects of a dimeric peptide derived from the receptor-binding region of this protein (residues 141–149). Both apoE3 and apoE4 conferred protection but the major N-terminal fragment of each isoform did not. Nor was significant protection provided by bovine serum albumin or apoA-I. Full-length apoE3 and apoE4 also inhibited the uptake of a fluorescent-labeled derivative of the peptide, suggesting that the mechanism of inhibition might involve competition for cell surface receptors/proteoglycans that mediate endocytosis and/or signaling pathways. These results might bear on the question of the role of apoE in neuronal degeneration, such as occurs in Alzheimer’s disease where apoE4 confers a significantly greater risk of pathology. PMID:19836363

  16. Using the Principles of F.A.I.R Data to Improve the Measure of Value of Big Data and Big Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, C. J.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Wang, J.; Druken, K. A.; Smillie, J.; Pringle, S.

    2017-12-01

    In a data-intensive world, finding the right data can be time-consuming and, when found, may involve compromises on quality and often considerable extra effort to wrangle it into shape. This is particularly true as users are exploring new and innovative ways of working with data from different sources and scientific domains. It is recognised that the effort and specialist knowledge required to transform datasets to meet these requirements goes beyond the reasonable remit of a single research project or research community. Instead, Government investments in national collaborations like the Australian National University's National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), provide a sustainable way to bring together and transform disparate data collections from a range of disciplines in ways which enable new and innovative analysis and use. With these goals in mind, the NCI established a Data Quality Strategy (DQS) for managing 10PB of reference data collections with a particular focus on improving data use and reuse across scientific domains, making the data suitable for use in a high-end computational and data-intensive environment, and supporting programmatic access for a range of applications. Evaluating how effectively we're achivieving these goals and maintaining ongoing funding requires demonstration of the value and impact of these data collections. Standard approaches to measuring data value involve basic measures of `data usage' or make an attempt to track data to `research outcomes'. While useful, these measures fail to capture the value of the level of curation or quality assurance in making the data available. To fill this gap, NCI has developed a 3-tiered approach to measuring the return on investment which broadens the concept of value to include improvements in access to and use of the data. Key to this approach was integrating the guiding principles of the Force 11 community's F.A.I.R data into the DQS because it provides a community-driven standards

  17. The polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents apoA-IIowa amyloidosis in vitro and protects human embryonic kidney 293 cells against amyloid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Kaori; Mikawa, Shiho; Uchimura, Kenji; Akaji, Kenichi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Saito, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) amyloidosis is either a non-hereditary form with deposits of wild-type apoA-I proteins in atherosclerotic plaques or a hereditary form with progressive accumulation of mutant apoA-I proteins in different tissues. Several small polyphenolic molecules reportedly inhibited formation of fibrillar assemblies of some amyloidogenic proteins and their cytotoxicity, but small molecules that inhibit apoA-I fibril formation have never been reported. Our methods included a thioflavin-T-binding assay, atomic force microscopy and dot blot and cell-based assays. We showed that (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a tea-derived flavanol, inhibited in vitro fibril formation and disaggregated fibrils preformed by the N-terminal 1-83 fragments of wild-type (WT) apoA-I and the G26R point mutation of apoA-I (apoA-IIowa). We eliminated a common structure recognized by the anti-amyloid antibody OC by incubating apoA-IIowa with EGCG or treating apoA-IIowa fibrils with EGCG, which supported the above observation. In addition, EGCG rescued human embryonic kidney 293 cells from cytotoxicity and attenuated production of reactive oxygen species, which were induced by apoA-IIowa fibrils. Our results support the concept that EGCG inhibits amyloid fibril formation of various amyloidogenic proteins. Thus, EGCG may be a candidate for providing a structure to develop de novo inhibitors for amyloidosis treatment.

  18. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  6. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  7. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  8. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  10. 30 CFR 57.22201 - Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22201 Section 57.22201 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH....22201 Mechanical ventilation (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). All mines shall...

  11. 30 CFR 57.22227 - Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22227 Section 57.22227 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Ventilation § 57.22227 Approved testing devices (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). (a...

  12. 30 CFR 57.22501 - Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines). 57.22501 Section 57.22501 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND... Illumination § 57.22501 Personal electric lamps (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, II-B, III, IV, V-A, and V-B mines...

  13. The I.A.G./A.I.G. SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program (2005 - 2017): Key activities and outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beylich, Achim A.

    2017-04-01

    Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of high-latitude and high-altitude cold climate environments has been highlighted as a key global environmental issue. Projected climate change in largely undisturbed cold regions is expected to alter melt-season duration and intensity, along with the number of extreme rainfall events, total annual precipitation and the balance between snowfall and rainfall. Similarly, changes to the thermal balance are expected to reduce the extent of permafrost and seasonal ground frost and increase active-layer depths. These combined effects will undoubtedly change Earth surface environments in cold regions and will alter the fluxes of sediments, solutes and nutrients. However, the absence of quantitative data and coordinated analysis to understand the sensitivity of the Earth surface environment are acute in cold regions. Contemporary cold climate environments generally provide the opportunity to identify solute and sedimentary systems where anthropogenic impacts are still less important than the effects of climate change. Accordingly, it is still possible to develop a library of baseline fluvial yields and sedimentary budgets before the natural environment is completely transformed. The SEDIBUD (Sediment Budgets in Cold Environments) Program, building on the European Science Foundation (ESF) Network SEDIFLUX (Sedimentary Source-to-Sink Fluxes in Cold Environments, since 2004) was formed in 2005 as a new Program (Working Group) of the International Association of Geomorphologists (I.A.G./A.I.G.) to address this still existing key knowledge gap. SEDIBUD (2005-2017) has currently about 400 members worldwide and the Steering Committee of this international program is composed of eleven scientists from ten different countries. The central research question of this global program is to: Assess and model the contemporary sedimentary fluxes in cold climates, with emphasis on both particulate and dissolved components. Research carried

  14. A compilation of life cycle studies for six household detergent product categories in Europe: the basis for product-specific A.I.S.E. Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles.

    PubMed

    Golsteijn, Laura; Menkveld, Rimousky; King, Henry; Schneider, Christine; Schowanek, Diederik; Nissen, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    A.I.S.E., the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products, launched the 'A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning' in Europe in 2005 to promote sustainability in the cleaning and maintenance products industry. This Charter is a proactive programme for translating the concept of sustainable innovation into reality and actions. Per product category, life cycle assessments (LCA) are used to set sustainability criteria that are ambitious, but also achievable by all market players. This paper presents and discusses LCAs of six household detergent product categories conducted for the Charter, i.e.: manual dishwashing detergents, powder and tablet laundry detergents, window glass trigger spray cleaners, bathroom trigger spray cleaners, acid toilet cleaners, and bleach toilet cleaners. Relevant impact categories are identified, as well as the life cycle stages with the largest contribution to the environmental impact. It was concluded that the variables that mainly drive the results (i.e. the environmental hotspots) for manual dishwashing detergents and laundry detergents were the water temperature, water consumption (for manual dishwashing detergents), product dosage (for laundry detergents), and the choice and amount of surfactant. By contrast, for bathroom trigger sprays, acid and bleach toilet cleaners, the driving factors were plastic packaging, transportation to retailer, and specific ingredients. Additionally, the type of surfactant was important for bleach toilet cleaners. For window glass trigger sprays, the driving factors were the plastic packaging and the type of surfactant, and the other ingredients were of less importance. A.I.S.E. used the results of the studies to establish sustainability criteria, the so-called 'Charter Advanced Sustainability Profiles', which led to improvements in the marketplace.

  15. Complementary prediction of cardiovascular events by estimated apo- and lipoprotein concentrations in the working age population. The Health 2000 Study.

    PubMed

    Oksala, Niku; Seppälä, Ilkka; Hernesniemi, Jussi; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Kähönen, Mika; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Reunanen, Antti; Jula, Antti; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho

    2013-03-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and B (apoB) and multiple lipoprotein cardiovascular risk factors can be computationally estimated with our extended Friedewald approach (EFW) from classical inputs. Their impact on cardiovascular events and mortality in the working age population is not known. The working age (≤ 65 years, n = 5956) prospective population-based cohort (follow-up of 7.8 ± 0.9 years; 46,572 patient years, 409 non-fatal incident cardiovascular events, and 55 cardiovascular and 266 all-cause deaths) had their total serum cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and HDL-C measured. Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated. In Cox models adjusted with cardiovascular risk factors, EFW-HDL(2)-C (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.91; NRI 16.5%), apoA-I (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69-0.89; NRI 15.2%), apoB/apoA-I (HR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.40; NRI 20.6%), and VLDL-TG (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.25; NRI 20.1%) were associated with incident non-fatal cardiovascular events and improved risk prediction compared with TC, LDL-C, or non-HDL-C. Cardiovascular deaths could be best predicted with EFW apoB (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.18-2.77; NRI 77.3%). EFW approach-derived HDL(2)-C, apoA-I, apoB/apoA-I, and VLDL-TG improve prediction of non-fatal cardiovascular events, and apoB of cardiovascular mortality, and can be utilized for risk estimation in a working age population without extra cost.

  16. Rosuvastatin enhances the catabolism of LDL apoB-100 in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia in a dose dependent manner

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dose-associated effects of rosuvastatin on the metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100 in triacylglycerol rich lipoprotein (TRL, d < 1.019 g/ml) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) and of apoA-I in high density lipoprotein (HDL) were assessed in subjects with combined hyperlipidemia. Our primary hypo...

  17. Learning from Synthetic Models of Extracellular Matrix; Differential Binding of Wild Type and Amyloidogenic Human Apolipoprotein A-I to Hydrogels Formed from Molecules Having Charges Similar to Those Found in Natural GAGs.

    PubMed

    Rosú, Silvana A; Toledo, Leandro; Urbano, Bruno F; Sanchez, Susana A; Calabrese, Graciela C; Tricerri, M Alejandra

    2017-08-01

    Among other components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been strongly associated to the retention or misfolding of different proteins inducing the formation of deposits in amyloid diseases. The composition of these molecules is highly diverse and a key issue seems to be the equilibrium between physiological and pathological events. In order to have a model in which the composition of the matrix could be finely controlled, we designed and synthesized crosslinked hydrophilic polymers, the so-called hydrogels varying the amounts of negative charges and hydroxyl groups that are prevalent in GAGs. We checked and compared by fluorescence techniques the binding of human apolipoprotein A-I and a natural mutant involved in amyloidosis to the hydrogel scaffolds. Our results indicate that both proteins are highly retained as long as the negative charge increases, and in addition it was shown that the mutant is more retained than the Wt, indicating that the retention of specific proteins in the ECM could be part of the pathogenicity. These results show the importance of the use of these polymers as a model to get deep insight into the studies of proteins within macromolecules.

  18. Supplementation with tocotrienol-rich fraction alters the plasma levels of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor from young and old individuals.

    PubMed

    Heng, Eng Chee; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Abdul Rahman, Mariati; Abdul Hamid, Noor Aini; Hamid, Zalina; Wan Ngah, Wan Zurinah

    2013-10-01

    Tocotrienol possess beneficial effects not exhibited by tocopherol. In vitro studies using animal models have suggested that these effects are caused via modulation of gene and protein expression. However, human supplementation studies using tocotrienol-rich isomers are limited. This study aims to identify plasma proteins that changed in expression following tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation within two different age groups. Subjects were divided into two age groups-32 ± 2 (young) and 52 ± 2 (old) years old. Four subjects from each group were assigned with TRF (78% tocotrienol and 22% tocopherol, 150 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 6 months. Fasting plasma were obtained at 0, 3, and 6 months. Plasma tocopherol and tocotrienol levels were determined. Plasma proteome was resolved by 2DE, and differentially expressed proteins identified by MS. The expressions of three proteins were validated by Western blotting. Six months of TRF supplementation significantly increased plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Proteins identified as being differentially expressed were related to cholesterol homeostasis, acute-phase response, protease inhibitor, and immune response. The expressions of Apolipoprotein A-I precursor, Apolipoprotein E precursor, and C-reactive protein precursor were validated. The old groups showed more proteins changing in expression. TRF appears to not only affect plasma levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols, but also the levels of plasma proteins. The identity of these proteins may provide insights into how TRF exerts its beneficial effects. They may also be potentially developed into biomarkers for the study of the effects and effectiveness of TRF supplementation.

  19. Putative apolipoprotein A-I, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g are involved in the early immune response of brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Forskal, to Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Low, C-F; Shamsudin, M N; Chee, H-Y; Aliyu-Paiko, M; Idrus, E S

    2014-08-01

    The gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, has frequently been identified as the pathogen responsible for the infectious disease called vibriosis. This disease is one of the major challenges facing brown-marbled grouper aquaculture, causing fish farmers globally to suffer substantial economic losses. The objective of this study was to investigate the proteins involved in the immune response of brown-marbled grouper fingerlings during their initial encounter with pathogenic organisms. To achieve this objective, a challenge experiment was performed, in which healthy brown-marbled grouper fingerlings were divided into two groups. Fish in the treated group were subjected to intraperitoneal injection with an infectious dose of V. alginolyticus suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and those in the control group were injected with an equal volume of PBS. Blood samples were collected from a replicate number of fish from both groups at 4 h post-challenge and analysed for immune response-related serum proteins via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that 14 protein spots were altered between the treated and control groups; these protein spots were further analysed to determine the identity of each protein via MALDI-TOF/TOF. Among the altered proteins, three were clearly overexpressed in the treated group compared with the control; these were identified as putative apolipoprotein A-I, natural killer cell enhancement factor and lysozyme g. Based on these results, these three highly expressed proteins participate in immune response-related reactions during the initial exposure (4 h) of brown-marbled grouper fingerling to V. alginolyticus infection. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A risk-based, product-level approach for assuring aquatic environmental safety of cleaning products in the context of sustainability: The Environmental Safety Check (ESC) scheme of the A.I.S.E. Charter for Sustainable Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Pickup, John Alexander; Dewaele, Joost; Furmanski, Nicola L; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Luijkx, Gerard Ca; Mathieu, Sophie; Stelter, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Cleaning products have long been a focus of efforts to improve sustainability and assure safety for the aquatic environment when disposed of after use. The latter is addressed at ingredient level through environmental risk assessment, including in formal frameworks such as REACH. Nevertheless, in the context of programs to improve overall sustainability, stakeholders demand both environmental safety assurance and progress at product level. Current product-level approaches for aquatic toxicity (e.g., USEtox™, Critical Dilution Volume) can be seen as predominantly hazard-based. The more logical approach would be risk-based, because ecotoxicity is generally threshold-dependent and hazard-based assessment produces conflicts with risk-based learnings. The development of a risk-based approach to assess formulated products is described: the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (A.I.S.E.) Charter Environmental Safety Check (ESC), which is consistent with the scientific principles underlying REACH. This is implemented through a simple spreadsheet tool and internal database of ingredient parameters including predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) and removal rate. A novel feature is applying market volume information for both product types and ingredients to permit a risk-based calculation. To pass the ESC check, the projected environmental safety ratio (PESR) for each ingredient as formulated and dosed (unless cleared by a published risk assessment or exempted as inherently low risk) must be less than 1. The advantages of a risk-based approach are discussed. The strengths and limitations of various possible approaches to standard-setting, product-ranking and driving continuous improvement in respect of potential ecotoxic impacts on the aquatic environment are considered. It is proposed that as ecotoxicity is generally accepted to be threshold-dependent, with no effect below the threshold, the most constructive approach to continuous

  1. Apolipoproteins C-III and E in apoB- and non-apoB-containing lipoproteins in two populations at contrasting risk for myocardial infarction: the ECTIM study. Etude Cas Témoins sur 'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    PubMed

    Luc, G; Fievet, C; Arveiler, D; Evans, A E; Bard, J M; Cambien, F; Fruchart, J C; Ducimetiere, P

    1996-03-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III and apoE are components of two major classes of plasma lipoproteins, i.e., apoB- and non-apoB-containing lipoproteins. To analyze the relationship between the distribution of apoC-III and apoE among lipoproteins and coronary heart disease, we compared the distribution of these two apolipoproteins in survivors of myocardial infarction (MI) and control subjects, within and between populations at contrasting risk for MI. ApoC-III and apoE concentrations were determined in plasma devoid of apoB-containing lipoproteins by immunoprecipitation using a specific anti-apoB antiserum. These assays referred to apoC-III-Lp non-B and apoE-Lp non-B, respectively. By examining the difference with total plasma apoC-III and apoE levels, we calculated apoC-III and apoE in apoB-containing lipoproteins (apoCIII-LpB and apoE-LpB, respectively). These determinations were performed in control subjects and in survivors of MI, all males aged 25 to 64 years. They were recruited in Northern Ireland and France, countries characterized by a large difference in the incidence of coronary heart disease. In univariate analysis, apoCIII-LpB appeared significantly higher and the apoC-III ratio (apoC-III-Lp non-B/apoC-III-LpB) significantly lower in MI survivors than in control subjects in both countries. ApoE-LpB was higher in MI survivors than in control subjects in Northern Ireland but not in France. The two French and Irish control populations differed for apoC-ILL-Lp non-B, apoC-III ratio, and apoE ratio, which were higher in France than in Northern Ireland, and for apoC-III-LpB, apoE, and apoE-LpB, which were lower. Multivariate analysis showed that no parameter involving apoC-III and apoE was more discriminatory than HDL-cholesterol, cholesterol, and triglycerides or apoA-I, apoB, and triglycerides between controls and MI subjects. In contrast, the apoC-III ratio was a better discriminatory parameter between the two control populations than the listed parameters. The

  2. FIRST Quantum-(1980)-Computing DISCOVERY in Siegel-Rosen-Feynman-...A.-I. Neural-Networks: Artificial(ANN)/Biological(BNN) and Siegel FIRST Semantic-Web and Siegel FIRST ``Page''-``Brin'' ``PageRank'' PRE-Google Search-Engines!!!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Charles; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig; Feynman, Richard; Wunderman, Irwin; Smith, Adolph; Marinov, Vesco; Goldman, Jacob; Brine, Sergey; Poge, Larry; Schmidt, Erich; Young, Frederic; Goates-Bulmer, William-Steven; Lewis-Tsurakov-Altshuler, Thomas-Valerie-Genot; Ibm/Exxon Collaboration; Google/Uw Collaboration; Microsoft/Amazon Collaboration; Oracle/Sun Collaboration; Ostp/Dod/Dia/Nsa/W.-F./Boa/Ubs/Ub Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Belew[Finding Out About, Cambridge(2000)] and separately full-decade pre-Page/Brin/Google FIRST Siegel-Rosen(Machine-Intelligence/Atherton)-Feynman-Smith-Marinov(Guzik Enterprises/Exxon-Enterprises/A.-I./Santa Clara)-Wunderman(H.-P.) [IBM Conf. on Computers and Mathematics, Stanford(1986); APS Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/Santa Clara/San Francisco/...(1980s) MRS Spring-Mtgs.(1980s): Palo Alto/San Jose/San Francisco/...(1980-1992) FIRST quantum-computing via Bose-Einstein quantum-statistics(BEQS) Bose-Einstein CONDENSATION (BEC) in artificial-intelligence(A-I) artificial neural-networks(A-N-N) and biological neural-networks(B-N-N) and Siegel[J. Noncrystalline-Solids 40, 453(1980); Symp. on Fractals..., MRS Fall-Mtg., Boston(1989)-5-papers; Symp. on Scaling..., (1990); Symp. on Transport in Geometric-Constraint (1990)

  3. A Model Structure for the Heterodimer apoA-IMilano–apoA-II Supports Its Peculiar Susceptibility to Proteolysis

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Alessandro Guerini; Mollica, Luca; Gianazza, Elisabetta; Calabresi, Laura; Franceschini, Guido; Sirtori, Cesare R.; Eberini, Ivano

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we propose a structure for the heterodimer between apolipoprotein A-IMilano and apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-IM–apoA-II) in a synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing L-α-palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine. We applied bioinformatics/computational tools and procedures, such as molecular docking, molecular and essential dynamics, starting from published crystal structures for apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein A-II. Structural and energetic analyses onto the simulated system showed that the molecular dynamics produced a stabilized synthetic HDL. The essential dynamic analysis showed a deviation from the starting belt structure. Our structural results were validated by limited proteolysis experiments on HDL from apoA-IM carriers in comparison with control HDL. The high sensitivity of apoA-IM–apoA-II to proteases was in agreement with the high root mean-square fluctuation values and the reduction in secondary structure content from molecular dynamics data. Circular dichroism on synthetic HDL containing apoA-IM–apoA-II was consistent with the α-helix content computed on the proposed model. PMID:16891368

  4. A.I.D. Economic Data Book: Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This data book, updating a December 1968 publication, is designed to serve the internal program and operational needs of the Agency for International Development. More than 19 Latin American republics are referred to in major sections on: (1) Latin America in the Free World: population and production, (2) summary of basic data, (3) population…

  5. A.I.e. in-flight blood collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hank, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The hardware selected to obtain and partially process human blood samples during the Skylab missions is described and consists of the following three major items: a centrifuge, an evacuation regulator, and a Beta cloth bag.

  6. Artificial Intelligence: Is the Future Now for A.I.?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    In education, artificial intelligence (AI) has not made much headway. In the one area where it would seem poised to lend the most benefit--assessment--the reliance on standardized tests, intensified by the demands of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, which holds schools accountable for whether students pass statewide exams, precludes its use.…

  7. Improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A). I - Demonstration of precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. C.; Barnes, R. A.; Lee, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the daytime ozone distribution in the stratosphere have been made with an improved rocket ozonesonde (ROCOZ-A). Vertical cumulative ozone as a function of geometric altitude is the basic information content of these measurements. The instrument-to-instrument repeatability of the ozonesonde was determined by two series of four soundings each. At one standard deviation the instrument repeatability averages from 2.0 to 2.5 percent over the entire altitude range of the instrument. The worst measured repeatability is 3.7 percent at 55 km for one of the flight series.

  8. FIRST DETAILS OF A.I.'S EPITHERMAL Th BREEDER

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, R.J.

    1958-11-01

    The program for the development of the Advanced Epithermal Thorium Breeder Reactor (AETR) is outlined. The objective of the AETR program is to get enough information to permit a realistic economic evaluation of a full-scale power plant. The present concept of the AETR involves a core-and-blanket system. The core consists of solid fuel rods or tubes of Th-U alloy cooled with Na and moderated with graphite or Be; the blanket contains Th or ThO/sub 2/ rods also cooled with Na and moderated with graphite or Be. (C.W.H,)

  9. V.A. I Animal Science Technical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains two units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in an animal science course in vocational agriculture. Unit A on breeds and selection of livestock and poultry includes 13 topics covering beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine, horses, goats, sheep, and poultry. Unit B on…

  10. A.I. DuPont Institute PSD Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Effects of aspirin in combination with EPA and DHA on HDL-C cholesterol and ApoA1 exchange in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Block, Robert C; Holub, Ashley; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin M; Mousa, Shaker A; Oda, Michael N

    2017-11-01

    Low-dose aspirin is an effective drug for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but individuals with diabetes mellitus can be subject to 'aspirin resistance'. Thus, aspirin's effect in these individuals is controversial. Higher blood levels of seafood-derived omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also have beneficial effects in reducing risk of CVD events but few studies have examined the interaction of plasma EPA and DHA with aspirin ingestion. Our study examined the combinatory effects of EPA, DHA, and aspirin ingestion on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I exchange (shown to be associated with CVD event risk). 30 adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81mg/day) for 7 consecutive days, EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for 7 days. Plasma was collected at baseline and at 5 subsequent visits including 4h after each aspirin ingestion. Mixed model methods were used to determine HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange compared to the baseline visit values. LOWESS curves were used for non-linear analyses of outcomes to help discern change patterns, which was followed by piecewise linear functions for formal testing of curvilinear relationships. Significant changes (p < 0.05) compared to baseline in both HDL-C-concentrations and apoA-I exchange were present at different times. After 7 days of aspirin-only ingestion, apoA-I exchange was significantly modified by increasing levels of DHA concentration, with increased apoA-I exchange observed up until log(DHA) of 4.6 and decreased exchange thereafter (p = 0.03). These LOWESS curve effects were not observed for EPA or HDL-C (p > 0.05). Aspirin's effects on apoA-I exchange were the greatest when EPA or DHA concentrations were moderate compared to high or low. Comparison of EPA, DHA, and EPA+DHA LOWESS curves, demonstrated that the majority of the effect is due to DHA. Our results strongly suggest that plasma concentrations

  12. Opposing effects of Apoe/Apoa1 double deletion on amyloid-β pathology and cognitive performance in APP mice

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Nicholas F.; Tapias, Victor; Cronican, Andrea A.; Castranio, Emilie L.; Saleem, Muzamil; Carter, Alexis Y.; Lefterova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    See Corona and Landreth (doi:10.1093/awv300) for a scientific commentary on this article. ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (encoded by ABCA1) regulates cholesterol efflux from cells to apolipoproteins A-I and E (ApoA-I and APOE; encoded by APOA1 and APOE, respectively) and the generation of high density lipoproteins. In Abca1 knockout mice (Abca1ko), high density lipoproteins and ApoA-I are virtually lacking, and total APOE and APOE-containing lipoproteins in brain substantially decreased. As the ε4 allele of APOE is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease, ABCA1 role as a modifier of APOE lipidation is of significance for this disease. Reportedly, Abca1 deficiency in mice expressing human APP accelerates amyloid deposition and behaviour deficits. We used APP/PS1dE9 mice crossed to Apoe and Apoa1 knockout mice to generate Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice. We hypothesized that Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice would mimic the phenotype of APP/Abca1ko mice in regards to amyloid plaques and cognitive deficits. Amyloid pathology, peripheral lipoprotein metabolism, cognitive deficits and dendritic morphology of Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice were compared to APP/Abca1ko, APP/PS1dE9, and single Apoa1 and Apoe knockouts. Contrary to our prediction, the results demonstrate that double deletion of Apoe and Apoa1 ameliorated the amyloid pathology, including amyloid plaques and soluble amyloid. In double knockout mice we show that 125I-amyloid-β microinjected into the central nervous system cleared at a rate twice faster compared to Abca1 knockout mice. We tested the effect of Apoe, Apoa1 or Abca1 deficiency on spreading of exogenous amyloid-β seeds injected into the brain of young pre-depositing APP mice. The results show that lack of Abca1 augments dissemination of exogenous amyloid significantly more than the lack of Apoe. In the periphery, Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice exhibited substantial atherosclerosis and very high levels of low

  13. Opposing effects of Apoe/Apoa1 double deletion on amyloid-β pathology and cognitive performance in APP mice.

    PubMed

    Fitz, Nicholas F; Tapias, Victor; Cronican, Andrea A; Castranio, Emilie L; Saleem, Muzamil; Carter, Alexis Y; Lefterova, Martina; Lefterov, Iliya; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2015-12-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (encoded by ABCA1) regulates cholesterol efflux from cells to apolipoproteins A-I and E (ApoA-I and APOE; encoded by APOA1 and APOE, respectively) and the generation of high density lipoproteins. In Abca1 knockout mice (Abca1(ko)), high density lipoproteins and ApoA-I are virtually lacking, and total APOE and APOE-containing lipoproteins in brain substantially decreased. As the ε4 allele of APOE is the major genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease, ABCA1 role as a modifier of APOE lipidation is of significance for this disease. Reportedly, Abca1 deficiency in mice expressing human APP accelerates amyloid deposition and behaviour deficits. We used APP/PS1dE9 mice crossed to Apoe and Apoa1 knockout mice to generate Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice. We hypothesized that Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice would mimic the phenotype of APP/Abca1(ko) mice in regards to amyloid plaques and cognitive deficits. Amyloid pathology, peripheral lipoprotein metabolism, cognitive deficits and dendritic morphology of Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice were compared to APP/Abca1(ko), APP/PS1dE9, and single Apoa1 and Apoe knockouts. Contrary to our prediction, the results demonstrate that double deletion of Apoe and Apoa1 ameliorated the amyloid pathology, including amyloid plaques and soluble amyloid. In double knockout mice we show that (125)I-amyloid-β microinjected into the central nervous system cleared at a rate twice faster compared to Abca1 knockout mice. We tested the effect of Apoe, Apoa1 or Abca1 deficiency on spreading of exogenous amyloid-β seeds injected into the brain of young pre-depositing APP mice. The results show that lack of Abca1 augments dissemination of exogenous amyloid significantly more than the lack of Apoe. In the periphery, Apoe/Apoa1 double-knockout mice exhibited substantial atherosclerosis and very high levels of low density lipoproteins compared to APP/PS1dE9 and APP/Abca1(ko). Plasma level of amyloid

  14. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  15. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  16. ApoL1 levels in high density lipoprotein and cardiovascular event presentation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia[S

    PubMed Central

    Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Pedro; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    HDL composition rather than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels seems to be a key determinant of HDL-induced atheroprotection. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, with lifelong exposure to high LDL levels, show a high prevalence of premature coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that HDL of FH patients might have a modified protein composition and investigated the proteomic signature of HDL obtained from FH patients and their unaffected relatives. HDLs were characterized by 2D electrophoresis/MS in 10 families from the SAFEHEART cohort (3 individuals/family: 2 with genetic FH diagnosis and 1 non-FH relative) clinically characterized and treated as per guidelines. FH patients had lower apoA-I levels and a differential HDL distribution profile of apoL1 and apoA-IV. ELISA validation revealed decreased apoL1 serum levels in FH patients. ApoL1 levels were able to predict presentation of an ischemic cardiac event, and apoL1/HDL-C ratio was associated with the survival rate after the event. FH patients who died because of a fatal cardiac event had lower apoL1 and LCAT content in HDL3 an average of 3.5 years before the event than those who survived. Changes in HDL protein composition could affect patients’ prognosis. The proteomic profile of apoL1 is modified in HDLs of high cardiovascular risk patients, and apoL1 plasma levels are significantly lower in serum and in HDL3 of patients that will suffer an adverse cardiac event within 3 years. PMID:27112635

  17. ApoL1 levels in high density lipoprotein and cardiovascular event presentation in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Alonso, Rodrigo; Mata, Pedro; Badimon, Lina

    2016-06-01

    HDL composition rather than HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels seems to be a key determinant of HDL-induced atheroprotection. Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, with lifelong exposure to high LDL levels, show a high prevalence of premature coronary artery disease. We hypothesized that HDL of FH patients might have a modified protein composition and investigated the proteomic signature of HDL obtained from FH patients and their unaffected relatives. HDLs were characterized by 2D electrophoresis/MS in 10 families from the SAFEHEART cohort (3 individuals/family: 2 with genetic FH diagnosis and 1 non-FH relative) clinically characterized and treated as per guidelines. FH patients had lower apoA-I levels and a differential HDL distribution profile of apoL1 and apoA-IV. ELISA validation revealed decreased apoL1 serum levels in FH patients. ApoL1 levels were able to predict presentation of an ischemic cardiac event, and apoL1/HDL-C ratio was associated with the survival rate after the event. FH patients who died because of a fatal cardiac event had lower apoL1 and LCAT content in HDL3 an average of 3.5 years before the event than those who survived. Changes in HDL protein composition could affect patients' prognosis. The proteomic profile of apoL1 is modified in HDLs of high cardiovascular risk patients, and apoL1 plasma levels are significantly lower in serum and in HDL3 of patients that will suffer an adverse cardiac event within 3 years. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Terms of Endowment: A New A.I.D. Approach to Institutional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Gary

    1990-01-01

    This series issue presents a description and assessment of the Agency for International Development (AID) funded endowment concept as conducted by a number of AID Missions and host governments in Latin American and the Caribbean. These endowments are being used to strengthen and sustain the financial base of existing or new non-governmental…

  19. The Challenge of Connecting the Dots in the B.R.A.I.N

    PubMed Central

    Devor, Anna; Bandettini, Peter A.; Boas, David A.; Bower, James M.; Buxton, Richard B.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Dale, Anders M.; Einevoll, Gaute T.; Fox, Peter T.; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Friston, Karl J.; Fujimoto, James G.; Geyer, Marc A.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Halgren, Eric; Hämäläinen, Matti S.; Helmchen, Fritjof; Hyman, Bradley T.; Jasanoff, Alan; Jernigan, Terry L.; Judd, Lewis L.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Kleinfeld, David; Kopell, Nancy J.; Kutas, Marta; Kwong, Kenneth K.; Larkum, Matthew E.; Lo, Eng H.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Masliah, Eliezer; Mitra, Partha P.; Mobley, William C.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Reynolds, John H.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Salzberg, Brian M.; Schaffer, Chris B.; Silva, Gabriel A.; So, Peter T. C.; Spitzer, Nicholas C.; Tootell, Roger B.; Van Essen, David C.; Vanduffel, Wim; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Wald, Larry L.; Wang, Lihong V.; Weber, Bruno; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2013-01-01

    The Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative has focused scientific attention on the necessary tools to understand the human brain and mind. Here, we outline our collective vision for what we can achieve within a decade with properly targeted efforts, and discuss likely technological deliverables and neuroscience progress. PMID:24139032

  20. Soil Science. III-A-1 to III-D-4. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains four units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a soil science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit discusses the importance of soils. In the second unit, the nature and properties of soils are discussed,…

  1. The National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): I. Background and Measures

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, E. Jane; Koretz, Doreen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This paper presents an overview of the background and measures used in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Methods The NCS-A is a national psychiatric epidemiological survey of adolescents ages 13–17. Results The NCS-A was designed to provide the first nationally representative estimates of the prevalence, correlates and patterns of service use for DSM-V mental disorders among US adolescents and to lay the groundwork for follow-up studies of risk-protective factors, consequences, and early expressions of adult mental disorders. The core NCS-A diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), is a fully-structured research diagnostic interview designed for use by trained lay interviewers. A multi-construct, multi-method, multi-informant battery was also included to assess risk and protective factors and barriers to service use. Design limitations due to the NCS-A evolving as a supplement to an ongoing survey of mental disorders of US adults include restricted age range of youth, cross-sectional assessment, and lack of full parental/surrogate informant reports on youth mental disorders and correlates. Conclusions Despite these limitations, the NCS-A contains unparalleled information that can be used to generate national estimates of prevalence and correlates of adolescent mental disorders, risk and protective factors, patterns of service use, and barriers to receiving treatment for these disorders. The retrospective NCS-A data on the development of psychopathology can additionally complement data from longitudinal studies based on more geographically restricted samples and serve as a useful baseline for future prospective studies of the onset and progression of mental disorders in adulthood. PMID:19242382

  2. DCAA Contract Audit Manual. Volume 2, Chapters 12 - 15, Appendixes A - I. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    intangible capital assets that are poses is allocable to the production of subject to amortization. goods and services during a cost account- "Final...when the " Intangible capital asset " means an unit is ready and available for normal asset that has no physical substance, has operations. more than...entry of the cost, and (ii) maintain, case of intangible capital assets , the cost in a manner that permits audit and of money is included in the cost

  3. Pu'a i ka 'Olelo, Ola ka 'Ohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.; Housman, Alohalani Kaluhiokalani; Alencastre, Makalapua

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Hawaiian language had reached its low point with fewer than 50 native speakers of Hawaiian under the age of 18. Outside of the Ni'ihau community, a small group of families in Honolulu and Hilo were raising their children through Hawaiian. This article shares the perspectives of three pioneering families of the Hawaiian…

  4. Non-Formal Education: A Selected List of References for A.I.D. Technicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Office of Education and Human Resources.

    This annotated bibliography represents a compilation of nonformal education programs. Included are Agency for International Development (AID) reports and documents and other materials covering the work of international agencies and various other organizations and individuals. The materials are classified under four main headings. They are: (1)…

  5. THE SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN ORION A. I. DISK PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, Dan M.; Manoj, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present our investigation of 319 Class II objects in Orion A observed by Spitzer /IRS. We also present the follow-up observations of 120 of these Class II objects in Orion A from the Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX. We measure continuum spectral indices, equivalent widths, and integrated fluxes that pertain to disk structure and dust composition from IRS spectra of Class II objects in Orion A. We estimate mass accretion rates using hydrogen recombination lines in the SpeX spectra of our targets. Utilizing these properties, we compare the distributions of the disk and dust properties of Orion A disks with thosemore » of Taurus disks with respect to position within Orion A (Orion Nebular Cluster [ONC] and L1641) and with the subgroups by the inferred radial structures, such as transitional disks (TDs) versus radially continuous full disks (FDs). Our main findings are as follows. (1) Inner disks evolve faster than the outer disks. (2) The mass accretion rates of TDs and those of radially continuous FDs are statistically significantly displaced from each other. The median mass accretion rate of radially continuous disks in the ONC and L1641 is not very different from that in Taurus. (3) Less grain processing has occurred in the disks in the ONC compared to those in Taurus, based on analysis of the shape index of the 10 μ m silicate feature ( F {sub 11.3}/ F {sub 9.8}). (4) The 20–31 μ m continuum spectral index tracks the projected distance from the most luminous Trapezium star, θ {sup 1} Ori C. A possible explanation is UV ablation of the outer parts of disks.« less

  6. Educational Planning: A Critical Review and Recommendations for A.I.D.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniere, A.

    Directed toward personnel in the Agency for International Development (AID), this document reviews the planning of AID educational assistance programs in developing nations. The report recommends that AID personnel should be in a position (a) to assign, organize, and monitor the planning of their own activities in the field of education; (b) to…

  7. SCINTILLATION DETECTOR AND PREAMPLIFIER UNIT FOR GENERAL COUNTING ROOM USE, A.I. CRITICAL EXPERIMENT LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, L.S.

    1958-12-01

    Scintillation counting techniques were chosen for a critical experiment laboratory. Three detector units were built and tested. They are exceptionally stable mechanically. The unit has sufficient sensitivity and signal to noise ratio to detect reliably from thin stilbene crystals. The system has sufficient resolution for gamma spectrum analysis. The output will drive up to 500 feet of G-62/U cable with good linearity. (W.L.H.)

  8. A.I.-based real-time support for high performance aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) based software and hardware concepts are applied to the handling system malfunctions during flight tests. A representation of malfunction procedure logic using Boolean normal forms are presented. The representation facilitates the automation of malfunction procedures and provides easy testing for the embedded rules. It also forms a potential basis for a parallel implementation in logic hardware. The extraction of logic control rules, from dynamic simulation and their adaptive revision after partial failure are examined. It uses a simplified 2-dimensional aircraft model with a controller that adaptively extracts control rules for directional thrust that satisfies a navigational goal without exceeding pre-established position and velocity limits. Failure recovery (rule adjusting) is examined after partial actuator failure. While this experiment was performed with primitive aircraft and mission models, it illustrates an important paradigm and provided complexity extrapolations for the proposed extraction of expertise from simulation, as discussed. The use of relaxation and inexact reasoning in expert systems was also investigated.

  9. A I-V analysis of irradiated Gallium Arsenide solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heulenberg, A.; Maurer, R. H.; Kinnison, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    A computer program was used to analyze the illuminated I-V characteristics of four sets of gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and 10-MeV protons. It was concluded that junction regions (J sub r) dominate nearly all GaAs cells tested, except for irradiated Mitsubishi cells, which appear to have a different doping profile. Irradiation maintains or increases the dominance by J sub r. Proton irradiation increases J sub r more than does electron irradiation. The U.S. cells were optimized for beginning of life (BOL) and the Japanese for end of life (EOL). I-V analysis indicates ways of improving both the BOL and EOL performance of GaAs solar cells.

  10. Evaluation of new techniques to enhance the use of A.I. on farm.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artificial insemination (AI) has played a seminal role in facilitating genetic improvement in dairy, beef and swine industries. The technology has not been routinely employed by the sheep industry and as a result genetic improvement has not been fully realized. The University of Wyoming and the US...

  11. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    PubMed

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored.

  12. Core III Materials for Metropolitan Agriculture/Horticulture Programs. Units A-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biondo, Ron; And Others

    This first volume of a two-volume curriculum guide contains 11 problem areas selected for study to be included in a core curriculum for 11th-grade or third-year students enrolled in a metropolitan agricultural program. The 11 problem areas are divided into eight units: Orientation to Agricultural Occupations (Gaining Employment), Supervised…

  13. Plant Science. IV-A-1 to IV-F-2. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains six units of informational materials and transparency masters, with accompanying scripts, for teachers to use in a plant science course in vocational agriculture. Designed especially for use in Texas, the first unit introduces the course through the following topics: economic importance of major crops, major areas of…

  14. Agricultural Mechanics. V-A-1 to V-E-1. Basic V.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This packet contains five units of informational materials and transparency masters with accompanying scripts, skill sheets, and safety tests for teacher and student use in an agricultural mechanics course in vocational agriculture. The first unit introduces the agricultural mechanics shop, covering the following topics: importance of agricultural…

  15. Acoustic Features and Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials according to Emotional Statues of /u/, /a/, /i/ Vowels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunhyeok; Lee, Seungwan; Jin, Inki; Kim, Jinsook

    2018-04-01

    Although Ling 6 sounds are often used in the rehabilitation process, its acoustic features have not been fully analyzed and represented in cortical responses. Current study was aimed to analyze acoustic features according to gender and emotional statuses of core vowels of Ling 6 sounds, /u/, /a/, and /i/. Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) were also observed in those vowels. Vowel sounds /u/, /a/, and /i/ out of Ling 6 sounds representing low, middle and high frequencies were recorded from normal 20 young adults. The participants watched relevant videos for 4-5 minutes in order for them to sympathize emotions with anger (A), happiness (H), and sadness (S) before producing vowels. And without any emotional salience, neutrally production was performed. The recording was extracted for 500 ms to select pure vowel portion of production. For analysis of CAEP, the latencies and amplitudes of P1, N1, P2, N2, N1-P2 were analyzed. Intensities of /u/, /a/, and /i/ were 61.47, 63.38, and 60.55 dB. The intensities of neutral (N), H, A, S were 60.60, 65.43, 64.21, and 55.75 dB for vowel /u/, vowel /a/ were 61.80, 68.98, 66.50, and 56.23 dB, and vowel /i/ were 59.34, 64.90, 61.90, and 56.05 dB. The statistical significances for vowel and emotion were found but not for gender. The fundamental frequency (F0) of vowels for N, A, H, and S were 168.04, 174.93, 182.72, and 149.76 Hz and the first formant were 743.75, 815.59, 823.32, and 667.62 Hz. The statistical significance of F0 was found by vowel, emotion, and gender. The latencies and amplitudes of CAEP components did not show any statistical significance according to vowel. Ling 6 sounds should be produced consistently in the rehabilitation process for considering their difference of intensities and frequencies according to speaker's emotions and gender. The vowels seemed to be interpreted as tonal stimuli for CAEP components of this study with similar acoustic features among them. Careful selection of materials is necessary to observe meaningful conclusion of CAEP measurement with vowel stimuli.

  16. ApoE (Apolipoprotein E) Genotyping

    MedlinePlus

    ... in symptomatic adults. It is called susceptibility or risk factor testing because it indicates whether there is an ... to talk to your father's doctor about family risk factors. Should everyone have their APOE genotype tested? No, ...

  17. Students&apos;, Guardians&apos;, and Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Student-Led Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orso, Charlotte Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the ELL and non-ELL students&apos;, guardians&apos;, and the English as a second language (ESL) teachers&apos; perceptions of student-led conferences. Specifically, the study examined if ELL students&apos; and guardians&apos; preferences were similar to non-ELL students&apos; and guardians&apos; preferences…

  18. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... it ordered? As a test to evaluate lipid metabolism or cardiovascular risk, APOE genotyping is ordered when someone has: Significantly elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels that do not respond to dietary and ...

  19. Genetic Restoration of Plasma ApoE Improves Cognition and Partially Restores Synaptic Defects in ApoE-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Wong, Wen Mai; Durakoglugil, Murat S; Wasser, Catherine R; Jiang, Shan; Xian, Xunde; Herz, Joachim

    2016-09-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in individuals over the age of 65 years. The most prevalent genetic risk factor for AD is the ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4), and novel AD treatments that target ApoE are being considered. One unresolved question in ApoE biology is whether ApoE is necessary for healthy brain function. ApoE knock-out (KO) mice have synaptic loss and cognitive dysfunction; however, these findings are complicated by the fact that ApoE knock-out mice have highly elevated plasma lipid levels, which may independently affect brain function. To bypass the effect of ApoE loss on plasma lipids, we generated a novel mouse model that expresses ApoE normally in peripheral tissues, but has severely reduced ApoE in the brain, allowing us to study brain ApoE loss in the context of a normal plasma lipid profile. We found that these brain ApoE knock-out (bEKO) mice had synaptic loss and dysfunction similar to that of ApoE KO mice; however, the bEKO mice did not have the learning and memory impairment observed in ApoE KO mice. Moreover, we found that the memory deficit in the ApoE KO mice was specific to female mice and was fully rescued in female bEKO mice. Furthermore, while the AMPA/NMDA ratio was reduced in ApoE KO mice, it was unchanged in bEKO mice compared with controls. These findings suggest that plasma lipid levels can influence cognition and synaptic function independent of ApoE expression in the brain. One proposed treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the reduction of ApoE, whose ε4 isoform is the most common genetic risk factor for the disease. A major concern of this strategy is that an animal model of ApoE deficiency, the ApoE knock-out (KO) mouse, has reduced synapses and cognitive impairment; however, these mice also develop dyslipidemia and severe atherosclerosis. Here, we have shown that genetic restoration of plasma ApoE to wild-type levels normalizes plasma lipids in ApoE KO mice. While this does

  20. Extracellular Proteolysis of Apolipoprotein E (apoE) by Secreted Serine Neuronal Protease

    PubMed Central

    Tamboli, Irfan Y.; Heo, Dongeun; Rebeck, G. William

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, brain apolipoprotein E (apoE) is secreted and lipidated by astrocytes, then taken up by neurons via receptor mediated endocytosis. Free apoE is either degraded in intraneuronal lysosomal compartments or released. Here we identified a novel way by which apoE undergoes proteolysis in the extracellular space via a secreted neuronal protease. We show that apoE is cleaved in neuronal conditioned media by a secreted serine protease. This apoE cleavage was inhibited by PMSF and α1-antichymotrypsin, but not neuroserpin-1 or inhibitors of thrombin and cathepsin G, supporting its identity as a chymotrypsin like protease. In addition, apoE incubation with purified chymotrypsin produced a similar pattern of apoE fragments. Analysis of apoE fragments by mass spectrometry showed cleavages occuring at the C-terminal side of apoE tryptophan residues, further supporting our identification of cleavage by chymotrypsin like protease. Hippocampal neurons were more efficient in mediating this apoE cleavage than cortical neurons. Proteolysis of apoE4 generated higher levels of low molecular weight fragments compared to apoE3. Primary glial cultures released an inhibitor of this proteolytic activity. Together, these studies reveal novel mechanism by which apoE can be regulated and therefore could be useful in designing apoE directed AD therapeutic approaches. PMID:24675880

  1. ApoE isoform-specific regulation of regeneration in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Comley, Laura H.; Fuller, Heidi R.; Wishart, Thomas M.; Mutsaers, Chantal A.; Thomson, Derek; Wright, Ann K.; Ribchester, Richard R.; Morris, Glenn E.; Parson, Simon H.; Horsburgh, Karen; Gillingwater, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a 34 kDa glycoprotein with three distinct isoforms in the human population (apoE2, apoE3 and apoE4) known to play a major role in differentially influencing risk to, as well as outcome from, disease and injury in the central nervous system. In general, the apoE4 allele is associated with poorer outcomes after disease or injury, whereas apoE3 is associated with better responses. The extent to which different apoE isoforms influence degenerative and regenerative events in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is still to be established, and the mechanisms through which apoE exerts its isoform-specific effects remain unclear. Here, we have investigated isoform-specific effects of human apoE on the mouse PNS. Experiments in mice ubiquitously expressing human apoE3 or human apoE4 on a null mouse apoE background revealed that apoE4 expression significantly disrupted peripheral nerve regeneration and subsequent neuromuscular junction re-innervation following nerve injury compared with apoE3, with no observable effects on normal development, maturation or Wallerian degeneration. Proteomic isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) screens comparing healthy and regenerating peripheral nerves from mice expressing apoE3 or apoE4 revealed significant differences in networks of proteins regulating cellular outgrowth and regeneration (myosin/actin proteins), as well as differences in expression levels of proteins involved in regulating the blood–nerve barrier (including orosomucoid 1). Taken together, these findings have identified isoform-specific roles for apoE in determining the protein composition of peripheral nerve as well as regulating nerve regeneration pathways in vivo. PMID:21478199

  2. Plasmalogen modulation attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Rasmiena, Aliki A; Barlow, Christopher K; Stefanovic, Nada; Huynh, Kevin; Tan, Ricardo; Sharma, Arpeeta; Tull, Dedreia; de Haan, Judy B; Meikle, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    We previously reported a negative association of circulating plasmalogens (phospholipids with proposed atheroprotective properties) with coronary artery disease. Plasmalogen modulation was previously demonstrated in animals but its effect on atherosclerosis was unknown. We assessed the effect of plasmalogen enrichment on atherosclerosis of murine models with differing levels of oxidative stress. Six-week old ApoE- and ApoE/glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx1)-deficient mice were fed a high-fat diet with/without 2% batyl alcohol (precursor to plasmalogen synthesis) for 12 weeks. Mass spectrometry analysis of lipids showed that batyl alcohol supplementation to ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice increased the total plasmalogen levels in both plasma and heart. Oxidation of plasmalogen in the treated mice was evident from increased level of plasmalogen oxidative by-product, sn-2 lysophospholipids. Atherosclerotic plaque in the aorta was reduced by 70% (P = 5.69E-07) and 69% (P = 2.00E-04) in treated ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice, respectively. A 40% reduction in plaque (P = 7.74E-03) was also seen in the aortic sinus of only the treated ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice. Only the treated ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice showed a decrease in VCAM-1 staining (-28%, P = 2.43E-02) in the aortic sinus and nitrotyrosine staining (-78%, P = 5.11E-06) in the aorta. Plasmalogen enrichment via batyl alcohol supplementation attenuated atherosclerosis in ApoE- and ApoE/GPx1-deficient mice, with a greater effect in the latter group. Plasmalogen enrichment may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to prevent atherosclerosis and reduce cardiovascular disease risk, particularly under conditions of elevated oxidative stress and inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Npp1 promotes atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Nitschke, Yvonne; Weissen-Plenz, Gabriele; Terkeltaub, Robert; Rutsch, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (NPP1) generates inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiologic inhibitor of hydroxyapatite deposition. In a previous study, we found NPP1 expression to be inversely correlated with the degree of atherosclerotic plaque calcification. Moreover, function-impairing mutations of ENPP1, the gene encoding for NPP1, are associated with severe, artery tunica media calcification and myointimal hyperplasia with infantile onset in human beings. NPP1 and PPi have the potential to modulate atherogenesis by regulating arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation and function, including increase of pro-atherogenic osteopontin (OPN) expression. Hence, this study tested the hypothesis that NPP1 deficiency modulates both atherogenesis and atherosclerotic intimal plaque calcification. Npp1/ApoE double deficient mice were generated by crossing mice bearing the ttw allele of Enpp1 (that encodes a truncation mutation) with ApoE null mice and fed with high-fat/high-cholesterol atherogenic diet. Atherosclerotic lesion area and calcification were examined at 13, 18, 23 and 28 weeks of age. The aortic SMCs isolated from both ttw/ttw ApoE−/− and ttw/+ ApoE−/− mice demonstrated decreased Opn expression. The 28-week-old ttw/ttw ApoE−/− and ttw/+ ApoE−/− had significantly smaller atherosclerotic lesions compared with wild-type congenic ApoE−/− mice. Only ttw/ttw but not ttw/+ mice developed artery media calcification. Furthermore in ttw/+ mice, there was a tendency towards increased plaque calcification compared to ApoE−/− mice without Npp1 deficiency. We conclude that Npp1 promotes atherosclerosis, potentially mediated by Opn expression in ApoE knockout mice. PMID:21477221

  4. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME II. APPENDICES A-I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spitzer/IRS survey of Class II objects in Orion A. I. (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. H.; Watson, D. M.; Manoj, P.; Forrest, W. J.; Furlan, E.; Najita, J.; Sargent, B.; Hernandez, J.; Calvet, N.; Adame, L.; Espaillat, C.; Megeath, S. T.; Muzerolle, J.; McClure, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We present 319 Class II disks observed with Spitzer/IRS in the Orion A star-forming region. We described the Spitzer/IRS and IRTF/SpeX observations and data reduction process in Kim+ (2013, J/ApJ/769/149). The Orion A objects in this paper were selected based on the identification of young stars with disks by IRAC/Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) color-color diagrams (Megeath+ 2012, J/AJ/144/192). We observed them using Spitzer/IRS during campaigns 36, 39, 40, and 44 between 2006 November and 2007 October. To this group we added 16 additional objects (5 in the ONC; 11 in L1641) that were reclassified as Class II from Class 0/I sources observed in the Orion A protostar survey by C. Poteet et al. (2016, in preparation); 14 of these 16 were observed during campaigns 39 and 40, but 2 sources were observed in campaign 56 (see table 1). Of our IRS targets observed in both SL and LL modules in Orion A with Spitzer/IRS, we observed 120 at near-IR (0.8-2.4um) wavelengths with the medium-resolution spectrograph SpeX, on the NASA IRTF on Mauna Kea during the 2010A, 2011A, and 2011B semesters (see table 3). (9 data files).

  6. Pandemics: waves of disease, waves of hate from the Plague of Athens to A.I.D.S.*

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Samuel K.

    2015-01-01

    This article briefly surveys the history of pandemics in the West, contesting long-held assumptions that epidemics sparked hatred and blame of the ‘Other’, and that it was worse when diseases were mysterious as to their causes and cures. The article finds that blame and hate were rarely connected with pandemics in history. In antiquity, epidemics more often brought societies together rather than dividing them as continued to happen with some diseases such as influenza in modernity. On the other hand, some diseases such as cholera were more regularly blamed than others and triggered violence even after their agents and mechanisms of transmission had become well known. PMID:25960572

  7. AID and Education: A Sector Report on Lessons Learned. A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Marion Kohashi

    Twelve United States Agency for International Development (AID) education projects were evaluated between 1980 and 1981. Four were in Asia (Philippines, Nepal, Thailand, Korea), two in Africa (Kenya, Nigeria), four in Latin America (Colombia, Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador), and two in the Near East (Jordan, Afghanistan). The evaluations measured the…

  8. VARIATIONS IN INTENSITY OF COSMIC RADIATION DURING MAGNETIC STORMS WITH A SUDDEN AND GRADUAL COMMENCEMENT. A.I.01

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1959-01-01

    Variations in cosmic-ray intensity during magnetic storms were investigated by the epoch superposition method, using mean daily values of cosmic meson intensities taken from Apr. 1937 to Dec. 1946 at Godhaven, Chaltnam, Wankayo, and Christchurch. During suddenly com mencing storms, cosmic radiation intensity was found to decrease by 0.7%, while during gradually commencing storms, the intensity remained constant within 0.2%. Measurements were taken during the IGY at Heuss Island, Moscow, Berkeley, and Zugqpitye. During suddenly commencing storms, an intensity decrease of 2.0% was observed, while during gradually commencing storms, an intensity increase of almost 1% was found. The IGY measurementsmore » included neutron intensities. Possible solar origins of the intensity fluctuations were discussed. (TCO)« less

  9. Effect of ozone on the agglutination of erythrocytes by concanavalin A. I. Studies in rats. [Rats, tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, S.J.; Goldstein, B.D.

    1979-08-01

    A decrease in the agglutination of rat erythrocytes by the lectin concanavalin A was observed after in vitro exposure to ozone (1 ppM for 2 h) and after inhalation of 0.5 to 2.0 ppM ozone for 2 h. Agglutination was inhibited by ..cap alpha..-methyl-D-mannopyrannoside demonstrating that it is specific for the lectin. Studies with radioactive concanavalin A indicated that ozone exposure did not significantly affect the number of membrane sites available for lectin binding. Further studies revealed that erythrocytes incubated with malonaldehyde, a decomposition product of lipid peroxidation, also showed a decrease in agglutination as did erythrocytes obtained from ratsmore » injected with the oxidizing agent, acetylphenylhydrazine. These findings are consistent with a possible causal role for malonaldehyde in mediating extrapulmonary effects observed after ozone exposure.« less

  10. Broadband Radio Polarimetry of Fornax A. I. Depolarized Patches Generated by Advected Thermal Material from NGC 1316

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Heald, G. H.; O’Sullivan, S. P.; Kaczmarek, J. F.; Feain, I. J.

    2018-03-01

    We present observations and analysis of the polarized radio emission from the nearby radio galaxy Fornax A over 1.28–3.1 GHz, using data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array. In this, the first of two associated papers, we use modern broadband polarimetric techniques to examine the nature and origin of conspicuous low-polarization (low-p) patches in the lobes. We resolve the (low-p) patches and find that their low fractional polarization is associated with complicated frequency-dependent interference in the polarized signal generated by Faraday effects along the line of sight (LOS). The low-p patches are spatially correlated with interfaces in the magnetic structure of the lobe, across which the LOS-projected magnetic field changes direction. Spatial correlations with the sky-projected magnetic field orientation and structure in total intensity are also identified and discussed. We argue that the (low-p) patches, along with associated reversals in the LOS magnetic field and other related phenomena, are best explained by the presence of { \\mathcal O }({10}9) {M}ȯ of magnetized thermal plasma in the lobes, structured in shells or filaments, and likely advected from the interstellar medium of NCG 1316 or its surrounding intracluster medium. Our study underscores the power and utility of spatially resolved, broadband, full-polarization radio observations to reveal new facets of flow behaviors and magneto-ionic structure in radio lobes and their interplay with the surrounding environment.

  11. Cognitive frailty: rational and definition from an (I.A.N.A./I.A.G.G.) international consensus group.

    PubMed

    Kelaiditi, E; Cesari, M; Canevelli, M; van Kan, G Abellan; Ousset, P-J; Gillette-Guyonnet, S; Ritz, P; Duveau, F; Soto, M E; Provencher, V; Nourhashemi, F; Salvà, A; Robert, P; Andrieu, S; Rolland, Y; Touchon, J; Fitten, J L; Vellas, B

    2013-09-01

    The frailty syndrome has recently attracted attention of the scientific community and public health organizations as precursor and contributor of age-related conditions (particularly disability) in older persons. In parallel, dementia and cognitive disorders also represent major healthcare and social priorities. Although physical frailty and cognitive impairment have shown to be related in epidemiological studies, their pathophysiological mechanisms have been usually studied separately. An International Consensus Group on "Cognitive Frailty" was organized by the International Academy on Nutrition and Aging (I.A.N.A) and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics (I.A.G.G) on April 16th, 2013 in Toulouse (France). The present report describes the results of the Consensus Group and provides the first definition of a "Cognitive Frailty" condition in older adults. Specific aim of this approach was to facilitate the design of future personalized preventive interventions in older persons. Finally, the Group discussed the use of multidomain interventions focused on the physical, nutritional, cognitive and psychological domains for improving the well-being and quality of life in the elderly. The consensus panel proposed the identification of the so-called "cognitive frailty" as an heterogeneous clinical manifestation characterized by the simultaneous presence of both physical frailty and cognitive impairment. In particular, the key factors defining such a condition include: 1) presence of physical frailty and cognitive impairment (CDR=0.5); and 2) exclusion of concurrent AD dementia or other dementias. Under different circumstances, cognitive frailty may represent a precursor of neurodegenerative processes. A potential for reversibility may also characterize this entity. A psychological component of the condition is evident and concurs at increasing the vulnerability of the individual to stressors.

  12. Radiation Hydrodynamics of SN 1987A. I. Global Analysis of the Light Curve for the First 4 Months

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinnikov, Sergei; Lundqvist, Peter; Bartunov, Oleg; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Iwamoto, Koichi

    2000-04-01

    The optical/UV light curves of SN 1987A are analyzed with the multienergy group radiation hydrodynamics code STELLA. The calculated monochromatic and bolometric light curves are compared with observations shortly after shock breakout, during the early plateau, through the broad second maximum, and during the earliest phase of the radioactive tail. We have concentrated on a progenitor model calculated by Nomoto & Hashimoto and Saio, Nomoto, & Kato, which assumes that 14 Msolar of the stellar mass is ejected. Using this model, we have updated constraints on the explosion energy and the extent of mixing in the ejecta. In particular, we determine the most likely range of E/M (explosion energy over ejecta mass) and R0 (radius of the progenitor). In general, our best models have energies in the range E=(1.1+/-0.3)x1051 ergs, and the agreement is better than in earlier, flux-limited diffusion calculations for the same explosion energy. Our modeled B and V fluxes compare well with observations, while the flux in U undershoots after ~10 days by a factor of a few, presumably owing to NLTE and line transfer effects. We also compare our results with IUE observations, and a very good quantitative agreement is found for the first days, and for one IUE band (2500-3000 Å) as long as for 3 months. We point out that the V flux estimated by McNaught & Zoltowski should probably be revised to a lower value.

  13. Deleuze&apos;s Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickey-Moody, Anna Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Children, the image of the child, and the gendered figures of the girl and the boy are thematics that run through the work of Deleuze and feature prominently in his joint writing with Guattari. However, there are many different children in Deleuze&apos;s writings. Various child figures do distinct things in Deleuze&apos;s work. In this article, I…

  14. Profile and regulation of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) expression in the CNS in mice with targeting of green fluorescent protein gene to the ApoE locus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Bernardo, Aubrey; Walker, David; Kanegawa, Tiffany; Mahley, Robert W; Huang, Yadong

    2006-05-10

    To study the profile and regulation of apolipoprotein E (apoE) expression in the CNS, we generated mice in which apoE expression can be detected in vivo with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. cDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) with a stop codon was inserted by gene targeting into the apoE gene locus (EGFPapoE) immediately after the translation initiation site. Insertion of EGFP into one apoE allele provides a real-time location marker of apoE expression in vivo; the remaining allele is sufficient to maintain normal cellular physiology. In heterozygous EGFPapoE mice, EGFP was highly expressed in hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages. EGFP was also expressed in brain astrocytes; however some astrocytes (approximately 25%) expressed no EGFP, suggesting that a subset of these cells does not express apoE. EGFP was expressed in <10% of microglia after kainic acid treatment, suggesting that microglia are not a major source of brain apoE. Although hippocampal neurons did not express EGFP under normal conditions, kainic acid treatment induced intense expression of EGFP in injured neurons, demonstrating apoE expression in neurons in response to excitotoxic injury. The neuronal expression was confirmed by in situ hybridization of mouse apoE mRNA and by anti-apoE immunostaining. Smooth muscle cells of large blood vessels and cells surrounding small vessels in the CNS also strongly expressed EGFP, as did cells in the choroid plexus. EGFPapoE reporter mice will be useful for studying the regulation of apoE expression in the CNS and might provide insights into the diverse mechanisms of apoE4-related neurodegeneration.

  15. The Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Brain Plasticity, Inflammation and Cognition in Female ApoE4-Knockin and ApoE-Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Carola I. F.; Jansen, Diane; Mutsaers, Martina P. C.; Dederen, Pieter J. W. C.; Geenen, Bram; Mulder, Monique T.; Kiliaan, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4), one of three common isoforms of ApoE, is a major risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). ApoE-deficient mice, as well as mice expressing human ApoE4, display impaired learning and memory functions and signs of neurodegeneration. Moreover, ApoE protects against high-fat (HF) diet induced neurodegeneration by its role in the maintenance of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. The influence of a HF diet on the progression of AD-like cognitive and neuropathological changes was assessed in wild-type (WT), human ApoE4 and ApoE-knockout (ApoE-/-) mice to evaluate the modulatory role of ApoE in this process. From 12 months of age, female WT, ApoE4, and ApoE-/- mice were fed either a standard or a HF diet (19% butter, 0.5% cholate, 1.25% cholesterol) throughout life. At 15 months of age mice performed the Morris water maze, evaluating spatial learning and memory. ApoE-/- showed increased spatial learning compared to WT mice (p = 0.009). HF diet improved spatial learning in WT mice (p = 0.045), but did not affect ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. Immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampus demonstrated increased neuroinflammation (CD68) in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region in ApoE4 (p = 0.001) and in ApoE-/- (p = 0.032) mice on standard diet. HF diet tended to increase CD68 in the CA1 in WT mice (p = 0.052), while it decreased in ApoE4 (p = 0.009), but ApoE-/- remained unaffected. A trend towards increased neurogenesis (DCX) was found in both ApoE4 (p = 0.052) and ApoE-/- mice (p = 0.068). In conclusion, these data suggest that HF intake induces different effects in WT mice compared to ApoE4 and ApoE-/- with respect to markers for cognition and neurodegeneration. We propose that HF intake inhibits the compensatory mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurogenesis in aged female ApoE4 and ApoE-/- mice. PMID:27171180

  16. Exclusion of the apoE gene in autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Souied, E H; Benlian, P; Rozet, J M; Gerber, S; Lagarde, J P; Coscas, G; Soubrane, G; Duffier, J L; Munnich, A; Kaplan, J

    1998-12-01

    Our purpose was to search for mutations in the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene and to evaluate the role of apoE polymorphisms in the occurrence of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). The ApoE gene coding sequence was analyzed in 51 unrelated patients affected with ADRP. A screening for mutations by SSCP and an analysis of the apoE polymorphisms were performed using PCR and restriction enzymatic digestion. No abnormal patterns of migration were observed by SSCP analysis. No significant statistical difference was seen between our ADRP population and the French general population for apoE allele frequency. From these results we report that the apoE gene does not seems to be involved in our ADRP population.

  17. The effects of the apoE4 genotype on the developing mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Maharshak, Idit; Salomon-Zimri, Shiran; Antes, Ran; Liraz, Ori; Nisgav, Yael; Livnat, Tami; Weinberger, Dov; Colton, Carol A; Solomon, Arieh S; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-04-01

    Apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4), the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with neuronal and vascular impairments. The retina, which is as an extension of the central nervous system (CNS), is a particularly suitable model for studying developmental and functional aspects of the neuronal and vascular systems. This study investigates the apoE4-dependent developmental effects on the retinal vasculature and neuronal systems and on the levels of apoE and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina. This was performed utilizing retinas of 4, 7, 12, and of 120-day-old human-apoE4-targeted replacement mice and of corresponding mice that express the AD benign isoform, apoE3. The results obtained revealed retinal vascular pathology in the apoE4 mice, which started on the early post-natal days. This includes transient increase in vascular branching, and vascular buds which are round vascular elements representing sprouting or retracting vessels. These effects peaked and ended during the neonatal period. Examination of the synaptic system utilizing the pre-synaptic marker synaptophysin revealed a significant decrease of retinal synaptic density in the apoE4 mice, which was detectable by post-natal day 12 (P12). These morphological changes are associated with neonatal age-dependent elevation in the apoE levels in both apoE3 and apoE4 retinas which is more profound in the apoE4 mice and a corresponding increase in VEGF levels, which is less profound in the apoE4 mice. Additionally, we observed lower levels of retinal VEGF in the apoE4 mice compared to the apoE3 mice retinas on P12. These results show that apoE4 has a transient vascular effect during retinal development that ends in the neonatal period, which is accompanied by a synaptic effect that begins at the end of the neonatal period. These findings show that the apoE4 genotype can have distinct developmental effects on both the retinal vasculature and on neurons and

  18. ApoE4 and Aβ Oligomers Reduce BDNF Expression via HDAC Nuclear Translocation.

    PubMed

    Sen, Abhik; Nelson, Thomas J; Alkon, Daniel L

    2015-05-13

    Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) is a major genetic risk factor for several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epigenetic dysregulation, including aberrations in histone acetylation, is also associated with AD. We show here for the first time that ApoE4 increases nuclear translocation of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in human neurons, thereby reducing BDNF expression, whereas ApoE3 increases histone 3 acetylation and upregulates BDNF expression. Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, which have been implicated in AD, caused effects similar to ApoE4. Blocking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) receptor with receptor-associated protein (RAP) or LRP-1 siRNA abolished the ApoE effects. ApoE3 also induced expression of protein kinase C ε (PKCε) and PKCε retained HDACs in the cytosol. PKCε activation and ApoE3 supplementation prevented ApoE4-mediated BDNF downregulation. PKCε activation also reversed Aβ oligomer- and ApoE4-induced nuclear import of HDACs, preventing the loss in BDNF. ApoE4 induced HDAC6-BDNF promoter IV binding, which reduced BDNF exon IV expression. Nuclear HDAC4 and HDAC6 were more abundant in the hippocampus of ApoE4 transgenic mice than in ApoE3 transgenic mice or wild-type controls. Nuclear translocation of HDA6 was also elevated in the hippocampus of AD patients compared with age-matched controls. These results provide new insight into the cause of synaptic loss that is the most important pathologic correlate of cognitive deficits in AD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357538-14$15.00/0.

  19. Relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease in Gaza Strip

    PubMed Central

    Marrzoq, Lamia F. Abu.; Sharif, Fadel A.; Abed, Abdalla A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in humans. ApoE, a 229-amino-acid polypeptide, is classified into three major isoforms (E2, E3, and E4) according to the differences in amino acids at positions 112 and 158. In the normal population, ApoE3 isoform is the most prevalent, and ApoE2 or E4 is frequently associated with hyperlipoproteinemia. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between ApoE gene polymorphism and coronary heart disease (CHD) in Gaza Strip and investigate the association between serum lipid levels and CHD. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 137 subjects including 69 CHD cases (45 male, 24 female) and 68 healthy subjects (33 male and 35 female). Results: The ApoE3/E3 genotype was the most common in the control and the CHD groups. ApoE2/E3 and ApoE3/E4 were the next most common genotypes. The frequencies of ApoE alleles in the CHD subjects were 0.826 for E3, 0.137 for E4, and 0.0362 for E2. These frequencies are comparable to those found in the control group which were 0.875 for the E3, 0.073 for E4, and 0.0515 for E2. No statistically significant differences in ApoE genotypes were found between the patients and the control groups. Moreover, there was no significant difference between the mean of triglyceride (TG) and HDL levels among different ApoE genotypes. However, there was a significant difference in the mean of LDL and ApoE genotypes where the mean of LDL was 218.17 mg/dl in ApoE4, 149.67 mg/dl in ApoE2, and 184.52 mg/dl in ApoE3. A significant difference was also evident between the mean of LDL levels in the CHD and the control group where the mean of LDL was 126 mg/dl in CHD and 111.47 mg/dl in the control group. Our study indicated that there was no significant difference between the mean of cholesterol and TG levels of the CHD and the control groups. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study in Gaza Strip investigating the relation

  20. Class I HDAC inhibition is a novel pathway for regulating astrocytic apoE secretion.

    PubMed

    Dresselhaus, Erica; Duerr, James M; Vincent, Fabien; Sylvain, Emily K; Beyna, Mercedes; Lanyon, Lorraine F; LaChapelle, Erik; Pettersson, Martin; Bales, Kelly R; Ramaswamy, Gayathri

    2018-01-01

    Despite the important role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) secretion from astrocytes in brain lipid metabolism and the strong association of apoE4, one of the human apoE isoforms, with sporadic and late onset forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) little is known about the regulation of astrocytic apoE. Utilizing annotated chemical libraries and a phenotypic screening strategy that measured apoE secretion from a human astrocytoma cell line, inhibition of pan class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) was identified as a mechanism to increase apoE secretion. Knocking down select HDAC family members alone or in combination revealed that inhibition of the class I HDAC family was responsible for enhancing apoE secretion. Knocking down LXRα and LXRβ genes revealed that the increase in astrocytic apoE in response to HDAC inhibition occurred via an LXR-independent pathway. Collectively, these data suggest that pan class I HDAC inhibition is a novel pathway for regulating astrocytic apoE secretion.

  1. Class I HDAC inhibition is a novel pathway for regulating astrocytic apoE secretion

    PubMed Central

    Dresselhaus, Erica; Sylvain, Emily K.; Beyna, Mercedes; Lanyon, Lorraine F.; LaChapelle, Erik; Pettersson, Martin; Bales, Kelly R.

    2018-01-01

    Despite the important role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) secretion from astrocytes in brain lipid metabolism and the strong association of apoE4, one of the human apoE isoforms, with sporadic and late onset forms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) little is known about the regulation of astrocytic apoE. Utilizing annotated chemical libraries and a phenotypic screening strategy that measured apoE secretion from a human astrocytoma cell line, inhibition of pan class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) was identified as a mechanism to increase apoE secretion. Knocking down select HDAC family members alone or in combination revealed that inhibition of the class I HDAC family was responsible for enhancing apoE secretion. Knocking down LXRα and LXRβ genes revealed that the increase in astrocytic apoE in response to HDAC inhibition occurred via an LXR-independent pathway. Collectively, these data suggest that pan class I HDAC inhibition is a novel pathway for regulating astrocytic apoE secretion. PMID:29579087

  2. ABCA1 Agonist Reverses the ApoE4-Driven Cognitive and Brain Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Boehm-Cagan, Anat; Bar, Roni; Liraz, Ori; Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan O; Michaelson, Daniel M

    2016-10-04

    The allele ɛ4 of apolipoprotein E (apoE4) is the most prevalent genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is therefore a promising therapeutic target. Human and animal model studies suggest that apoE4 is hypolipidated; accordingly, we have previously shown that the retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonist bexarotene upregulates ABCA1, the main apoE-lipidating protein, resulting in increased lipidation of apoE4, and the subsequent reversal of the pathological effects of apoE4, namely: accumulation of Aβ42 and hyperphosphorylated tau, as well as reduction in the levels of synaptic markers and cognitive deficits. Since the RXR system has numerous other targets, it is important to devise the means of activating ABCA1 selectively. We presently utilized CS-6253, a peptide shown to directly activate ABCA1 in vitro, and examined the extent to which it can affect the degree of lipidation of apoE4 in vivo and counteract the associated brain and behavioral pathologies. This revealed that treatment of young apoE4-targeted replacement mice with CS-6253 increases the lipidation of apoE4. This was associated with a reversal of the apoE4-driven Aβ42 accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation in hippocampal neurons, as well as of the synaptic impairments and cognitive deficits. These findings suggest that the pathological effects of apoE4 in vivo are associated with decreased activation of ABCA1 and impaired lipidation of apoE4 and that the downstream brain-related pathology and cognitive deficits can be counteracted by treatment with the ABCA1 agonist CS-6253. These findings have important clinical ramifications and put forward ABCA1 as a promising target for apoE4-related treatment of AD.

  3. Attributional Gender Bias: Teachers&apos; Ability and Effort Explanations for Students&apos; Math Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Penelope; Arêas da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Arms-Chavez, Clarissa J.

    2014-01-01

    Research is presented on the attributional gender bias: the tendency to generate different attributions (explanations) for female versus male students&apos; performance in math. Whereas boys&apos; successes in math are attributed to ability, girls&apos; successes are attributed to effort; conversely, boys&apos; failures in math are attributed to a…

  4. Phospholipid dysregulation contributes to ApoE4-associated cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li; Zhong, Minghao; Elder, Gregory A.; Sano, Mary; Holtzman, David M.; Gandy, Sam; Cardozo, Christopher; Haroutunian, Vahram; Robakis, Nikolaos K.; Cai, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) allele is the strongest genetic risk factor for developing sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenic nature of ApoE4 are not well understood. In this study, we have found that ApoE proteins are critical determinants of brain phospholipid homeostasis and that the ApoE4 isoform is dysfunctional in this process. We have found that the levels of phosphoinositol biphosphate (PIP2) are reduced in postmortem human brain tissues of ApoE4 carriers, in the brains of ApoE4 knock-in (KI) mice, and in primary neurons expressing ApoE4 alleles compared with those levels in ApoE3 counterparts. These changes are secondary to increased expression of a PIP2-degrading enzyme, the phosphoinositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 (synj1), in ApoE4 carriers. Genetic reduction of synj1 in ApoE4 KI mouse models restores PIP2 levels and, more important, rescues AD-related cognitive deficits in these mice. Further studies indicate that ApoE4 behaves similar to ApoE null conditions, which fails to degrade synj1 mRNA efficiently, unlike ApoE3 does. These data suggest a loss of function of ApoE4 genotype. Together, our data uncover a previously unidentified mechanism that links ApoE4-induced phospholipid changes to the pathogenic nature of ApoE4 in AD. PMID:26372964

  5. ApoE enhances nanodisk-mediated curcumin delivery to glioblastoma multiforme cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mistuni; Ryan, Robert O

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effect of incorporating the polyphenol, curcumin, into nanodisk (ND) particles on its biological activity. Materials & methods Curcumin-NDs formulated with different scaffold proteins were incubated with cultured glioblastoma multiforme cells. Results When ApoE was employed as the ND scaffold protein, enhanced curcumin uptake was observed. Furthermore, ApoE curcumin-NDs induced greater cell death than either free curcumin or ApoAI curcumin-NDs. A total of 1 h after exposure of glioblastoma multiforme cells to ApoE curcumin-NDs, significant curcumin uptake was detected while ApoE was localized at the cell surface. After 2 h, a portion of the curcumin had migrated to the nucleus, giving rise to enhanced fluorescence intensity in discrete intranuclear sites. Conclusion ApoE-mediated interaction of curcumin-NDs with glioblastoma multiforme cells leads to enhanced curcumin uptake and increased biological activity. PMID:23879635

  6. Interaction of ApoE3 and ApoE4 isoforms with an ITM2b/BRI2 mutation linked to the Alzheimer disease-like Danish dementia: Effects on learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Fabrizio; Ishiwari, Keita; Del Prete, Dolores; D'Adamio, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in Amyloid β Precursor Protein (APP) and in genes that regulate APP processing--such as PSEN1/2 and ITM2b/BRI2--cause familial dementia, such Familial Alzheimer disease (FAD), Familial Danish (FDD) and British (FBD) dementias. The ApoE gene is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic AD. Three major variants of ApoE exist in humans (ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4), with the ApoE4 allele being strongly associated with AD. ITM2b/BRI2 is also a candidate regulatory node genes predicted to mediate the common patterns of gene expression shared by healthy ApoE4 carriers and late-onset AD patients not carrying ApoE4. This evidence provides a direct link between ITM2b/BRI2 and ApoE4. To test whether ApoE4 and pathogenic ITM2b/BRI2 interact to modulate learning and memory, we crossed a mouse carrying the ITM2b/BRI2 mutations that causes FDD knocked-in the endogenous mouse Itm2b/Bri2 gene (FDDKI mice) with human ApoE3 and ApoE4 targeted replacement mice. The resultant ApoE3, FDDKI/ApoE3, ApoE4, FDDKI/ApoE4 male mice were assessed longitudinally for learning and memory at 4, 6, 12, and 16-17 months of age. The results showed that ApoE4-carrying mice displayed spatial working/short-term memory deficits relative to ApoE3-carrying mice starting in early middle age, while long-term spatial memory of ApoE4 mice was not adversely affected even at 16-17 months, and that the FDD mutation impaired working/short-term spatial memory in ApoE3-carrying mice and produced impaired long-term spatial memory in ApoE4-carrying mice in middle age. The present results suggest that the FDD mutation may differentially affect learning and memory in ApoE4 carriers and non-carriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Jack Michael&apos;s Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael&apos;s contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner&apos;s (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael&apos;s term helped us change our focus on…

  8. RNA-Seq Mouse Brain Regions Expression Data Analysis: Focus on ApoE Functional Network

    PubMed

    Babenko, Vladimir N; Smagin, Dmitry A; Kudryavtseva, Natalia N

    2017-09-13

    ApoE expression status was proved to be a highly specific marker of energy metabolism rate in the brain. Along with its neighbor, Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 kDa (TOMM40) which is involved in mitochondrial metabolism, the corresponding genomic region constitutes the neuroenergetic hotspot. Using RNA-Seq data from a murine model of chronic stress a significant positive expression coordination of seven neighboring genes in ApoE locus in five brain regions was observed. ApoE maintains one of the highest absolute expression values genome-wide, implying that ApoE can be the driver of the neighboring gene expression alteration observed under stressful loads. Notably, we revealed the highly statistically significant increase of ApoE expression in the hypothalamus of chronically aggressive (FDR < 0.007) and defeated (FDR < 0.001) mice compared to the control. Correlation analysis revealed a close association of ApoE and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene expression profiles implying the putative neuroendocrine stress response background of ApoE expression elevation therein.

  9. Impact of ApoE genotypes variations on Toxoplasma patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Raida S; Awad, Soha I; El-Baz, Hatim A; Saudy, Niveen; Abdelsalam, Osama A; Al-Din, Mohamed S Shehab

    2017-05-01

    Toxoplasma deprives host neuron cells from cholesterol and leads to its ability to potentiate dementia. ApoE intermediates neuronal transmission of cholesterol, which is a key constituent for axonal development, redesigning occasions that are important for education and synaptic arrangement, development of memory and repair of neuron. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of ApoE genotypes on dementia associated with neurodegeneration in latent Toxoplasma gondii in elderly population. This study comprised: 133 patients with dementia (78 were positive for toxoplasma IgG and 55 were negative) and 95 subjects as control group without dementia (30 were positive for toxoplasma IgG and 65 were negative). All of them were subjected to a cognitive assessment, T. gondii seropositivity (ELISA) and determination of ApoE allelic forms (PCR). The ApoE genotype distribution shows that the most predominant genotype is ApoE3/3 and the most widely recognized allele is E3. Both patients and control were further divided into Toxoplasma IgG positive group (n=108) and Toxoplasma IgG negative group (n=120). ApoE4 non carrier, ApoE 2/3 and ApoE 3/3 alleles have highly significant differences (P<0.001) between dementia and non-dementia patients in Toxoplasma infected patients in comparison to non-infected ones. Toxoplasma positive patients have more risk to develop dementia regardless ApoE4 carriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring Beliefs in Centimeters: Private Knowledge Biases Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Representation of Others&apos; Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    A novel task, using a continuous spatial layout, was created to investigate the degree to which (in centimeters) 3-year-old children&apos;s ("N" = 63), 5-year-old children&apos;s ("N" = 60), and adults&apos; ("N" = 60) own privileged knowledge of the location of an object biased their representation of a…

  11. Map3k8 Modulates Monocyte State and Atherogenesis in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Garcia, Carlos; Sánchez, Ángela; Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; Cales, Carmela; Barranquero, Cristina; Muñoz, Marta; Merino, Ramón; Escudero, Paula; Sanz, Maria-Jesús; Osada, Jesús; Aranda, Ana; Alemany, Susana

    2017-02-01

    Map3k8 (Cot/Tpl2) activates the MKK1/2-ERK1/2, MAPK pathway downstream from interleukin-1R, tumor necrosis factor-αR, NOD-2R (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like 2R), adiponectinR, and Toll-like receptors. Map3k8 plays a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and influences inflammatory processes by modulating the functions of different cell types. However, its role in atherogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we analyzed the role of this kinase in this pathology. We show here that Map3k8 deficiency results in smaller numbers of Ly6C high CD11c low and Ly6C low CD11c high monocytes in ApoE - /- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- monocytes displayed high rates of apoptosis and reduced amounts of Nr4a1, a transcription factor known to modulate apoptosis in Ly6C low CD11c high monocytes. Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- splenocytes and macrophages showed irregular patterns of cytokine and chemokine expression. Map3k8 deficiency altered cell adhesion and migration in vivo and decreased CCR2 expression, a determinant chemokine receptor for monocyte mobilization, on circulating Ly6C high CD11c low monocytes. Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- mice fed an HFD showed decreased cellular infiltration in the atherosclerotic plaque, with low lipid content. Lesions had similar size after Map3k8 +/+ ApoE -/- bone marrow transplant into Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- and Map3k8 +/+ ApoE -/- mice fed an HFD, whereas smaller plaques were observed after the transplantation of bone marrow lacking both ApoE and Map3k8. Map3k8 decreases apoptosis of monocytes and enhances CCR2 expression on Ly6C high CD11c low monocytes of ApoE -/- mice fed an HFD. These findings explain the smaller aortic lesions in ApoE -/- mice with Map3k8 -/- ApoE -/- bone marrow cells fed an HFD, supporting further studies of Map3k8 as an antiatherosclerotic target. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Why Was Kelvin&apos;s Estimate of the Earth&apos;s Age Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovatt, Ian; Syed, M. Qasim

    2014-01-01

    This is a companion to our previous paper in which we give a published example, based primarily on Perry&apos;s work, of a graph of ln "y" versus "t" when "y" is an exponential function of "t". This work led us to the idea that Lord Kelvin&apos;s (William Thomson&apos;s) estimate of the Earth&apos;s age was…

  13. On the Relations between Parents&apos; Ideals and Children&apos;s Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2013-01-01

    In this article Doret J. de Ruyter and Anders Schinkel argue that parents&apos; ideals can enhance children&apos;s autonomy, but that they may also have a detrimental effect on the development of children&apos;s autonomy. After describing the concept of "ideals" and elucidating a systems theoretical conception of autonomy, de Ruyter and…

  14. Hispanic Parents&apos; and Teachers&apos; Perceptions of Literacy: Finding Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almburg, Anne T.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of Hispanic students in U.S. schools demands that school personnel meet the needs of Hispanic students and their families. This study examined teachers&apos; and Hispanic parents&apos; perceptions of Hispanic students&apos; literacy practices and the home literacy practices of Hispanic families. Interviews,…

  15. Developing Preschool Teachers&apos; Knowledge of Students&apos; Number Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamir, Pessia; Tirosh, Dina; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a study that investigates preschool teachers&apos; knowledge of their young students&apos; number conceptions and the teachers&apos; related self-efficacy beliefs. It also presents and illustrates elements of a professional development program designed explicitly to promote this knowledge among preschool teachers. Results…

  16. Individual Differences in Children&apos;s and Parents&apos; Generic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Ware, Elizabeth A.; Kleinberg, Felicia; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Generics ("&apos;Dogs&apos; bark") convey important information about categories and facilitate children&apos;s learning. Two studies with parents and their 2- or 4-year-old children (N = 104 dyads) examined whether individual differences in generic language use are as follows: (a) stable over time, contexts, and domains, and (b) linked…

  17. James Baldwin&apos;s "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel": Educating Our Responses to Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to establish--and explore--James Baldwin&apos;s significance for educational theory. Through a close reading of "Everybody&apos;s Protest Novel", I show that Baldwin&apos;s thinking is an important (if unrecognized) precursor to the work of Stanley Cavell and Cora Diamond, and is relevant to a number of…

  18. Teaching Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" in "Ways of Reading"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Matthew A.

    2013-01-01

    This essay describes a method of teaching a very challenging anthology piece: Laura Kipnis&apos;s "Love&apos;s Labors" (chapter 1 of her 2003 "Against Love: A Polemic"). The method, although designed for a critical thinking course, should also provide resources for those who teach Kipnis&apos;s work in writing courses. Using…

  19. Calculus Students&apos; and Instructors&apos; Conceptualizations of Slope: A Comparison across Academic Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Courtney; Moore-Russo, Deborah; Viglietti, Janine; Martin, Kristi

    2013-01-01

    This study considers tertiary calculus students&apos; and instructors&apos; conceptualizations of slope. Qualitative techniques were employed to classify responses to 5 items using conceptualizations of slope identified across various research settings. Students&apos; responses suggest that they rely on procedurally based conceptualizations of…

  20. Abca1 Deficiency Affects Alzheimer's Disease-Like Phenotype in Human ApoE4 But Not in ApoE3-Targeted Replacement Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fitz, Nicholas F.; Cronican, Andrea A.; Saleem, Muzamil; Fauq, Abdul H.; Chapman, Robert; Lefterov, Iliya

    2012-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) transporter regulates cholesterol efflux and is an essential mediator of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. In amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, Abca1 deficiency increased amyloid deposition in the brain paralleled by decreased levels of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE). The APOEε4 allele is the major genetic risk factor of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we reveal the effect of Abca1 deficiency on phenotype in mice expressing human ApoE3 or ApoE4. We used APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice generated by crossing APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice to human APOE3- and APOE4-targeted replacement mice and examined Abca1 gene dose effect on amyloid deposition and cognition. The results from two behavior tests demonstrate that lack of one copy of Abca1 significantly exacerbates memory deficits in APP/E4/Abca1−/+ but not in APP/E3/Abca1−/+ mice. The data for amyloid plaques and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) also show that Abca1 hemizygosity increases Aβ deposition only in APP/E4/Abca1−/+ but not in APP/E3/Abca1−/+ mice. Our in vivo microdialysis assays indicate that Abca1 deficiency significantly decreases Aβ clearance in ApoE4-expressing mice, while the effect of Abca1 on Aβ clearance in ApoE3-expressing mice was insignificant. In addition, we demonstrate that plasma HDL and Aβ42 levels in APP/E4/Abca1−/+ mice are significantly decreased, and there is a negative correlation between plasma HDL and amyloid plaques in brain, suggesting that plasma lipoproteins may be involved in Aβ clearance. Overall, our results prove that the presence of functional Abca1 significantly influences the phenotype of APP mice expressing human ApoE4 and further substantiate therapeutic approaches in AD based on ABCA1–APOE regulatory axis. PMID:22993429

  1. The Influence of Teachers&apos; Conceptions on Their Students&apos; Learning: Children&apos;s Understanding of Sheet Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-Íñiguez, Guadalupe; Pozo, Juan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing interest in teachers&apos; and students&apos; conceptions of learning and teaching, and how they influence their practice, there are few studies testing the influence of teachers&apos; conceptions on their students&apos; learning. Aims: This study tests how teaching conception (TC; with a distinction between…

  2. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Link of Friends&apos; and Nonfriends&apos; Behaviors with Children&apos;s Social Reticence in a Competitive Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guimond, Fanny-Alexandra; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Boivin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This study used a genetically informed design to assess the effects of friends&apos; and nonfriends&apos; reticent and dominant behaviors on children&apos;s observed social reticence in a competitive situation. Potential gene-environment correlations (rGE) and gene-environment interactions (GxE) in the link between (a) friends&apos; and…

  3. Science Teachers&apos; Analogical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozzer, Nilmara Braga; Justi, Rosária

    2013-01-01

    Analogies can play a relevant role in students&apos; learning. However, for the effective use of analogies, teachers should not only have a well-prepared repertoire of validated analogies, which could serve as bridges between the students&apos; prior knowledge and the scientific knowledge they desire them to understand, but also know how to…

  4. Exploring Students&apos; Patterns of Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matloob Haghanikar, Mojgan

    2012-01-01

    As part of a collaborative study of the science preparation of elementary school teachers, we investigated the quality of students&apos; reasoning and explored the relationship between sophistication of reasoning and the degree to which the courses were considered inquiry oriented. To probe students&apos; reasoning, we developed open-ended written…

  5. Teaching the Writer&apos;s Craft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny

    2014-01-01

    "Writing is a core skill for living, not just for school," writes high school English teacher Penny Kittle. Although it&apos;s important to teach students the conventions of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure, teachers don&apos;t need to approach this task "like scolds, red pens in hand, stamping out sin, and punishing…

  6. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) peptide regulates tau phosphorylation via two different signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Luebbe, P; Gruenstein, E; Zemlan, F

    1998-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that treating rat cortical neurons in primary culture with apolipoprotein E (apoE) peptide increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ by 2 mechanisms: 1) an influx of extracellular Ca2+ resulting from the activation of a cell surface Ca2+ channel; and 2) release of Ca2+ from internal Ca2+ stores via a G-protein-coupled pathway (Wang and Gruenstein, 1997). These studies employed a biologically active apoE synthetic peptide (apoEdp) derived from the receptor binding domain of apoE. In the present study we examined whether activation of these 2 signal transduction pathways affects phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau. The levels of tau phosphorylation at thr231, ser235, and ser396 were quantified by ELISA employing monoclonal antibodies PHF-6, SMI33, and PHF-1. ApoEdp treatment resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent dephosphorylation of tau at all 3 phosphorylation sites. The apoEdp-induced dephosphorylation of tau at thr231, and ser235 was dependent on the influx of extracellular Ca2+, while dephosphorylation at ser396 was mediated by a pertusis toxin-sensitive G-protein pathway. The involvement of protein phosphatases in mediating the apoEdp-induced dephosphorylation of tau was examined. Pretreatment with the protein phosphatase 2B inhibitor cyclosporin A blocked the apoEdp-induced dephosphorylation of tau at thr231 and ser235 but not at ser396. Pretreatment with the protein phosophatase 2A/1 inhibitor okadaic acid blocked the apoEdp-induced dephosphorylation of tau at all 3 sites, while pretreatment with the protein phosphates 1 inhibitor tautomycin was without effect. The present study suggests that apoE may affect several Ca2+-associated signal transduction pathways that increase the activity of protein phosphatases 2A and 2B, which in turn dephosphorylate tau.

  7. Size is a major determinant of dissociation and denaturation behaviour of reconstituted high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gianazza, Elisabetta; Eberini, Ivano; Sirtori, Cesare R; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Lipid-free apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and A-I(Milano) (A-I(M)) were compared for their denaturation behaviour by running across transverse gradients of a chaotrope, urea, and of a ionic detergent, SDS. For both apo A-I and monomeric apoA-I(M) in the presence of increasing concentrations of urea the transition from high to low mobility had a sigmoidal course, whereas for dimeric A-I(M)/A-I(M) a non-sigmoidal shape was observed. The co-operativity of the unfolding process was lower for dimeric A-I(M)/A-I(M) than for apoA-I or for monomeric apoA-I(M). A slightly higher susceptibility to denaturation was observed for dimeric A-I(M)/A-I(M) than for monomeric apoA-I(M). A similar behaviour of A-I(M)/A-IM versus apoA-I(M) was observed in CD experiments. Large- (12.7/12.5 nm) and small- (7.8 nm) sized reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) containing either apoA-I or A-I(M)/A-I(M) were compared with respect to their protein-lipid dissociation behaviour by subjecting them to electrophoresis in the presence of urea, of SDS and of a non-ionic detergent, Nonidet P40. A higher susceptibility to dissociation of small-sized versus large-sized rHDL, regardless of the apolipoprotein component, was observed in all three instances. Our data demonstrate that the differential plasticity of the various classes of rHDL is a function of their size; the higher stability of 12.5/12.7 nm rHDL is likely connected to the higher number of protein-lipid and lipid-lipid interactions in larger as compared with smaller rHDL. PMID:11996671

  8. Human Central Nervous System (CNS) ApoE Isoforms Are Increased by Age, Differentially Altered by Amyloidosis, and Relative Amounts Reversed in the CNS Compared with Plasma*

    PubMed Central

    Mawuenyega, Kwasi G.; Bollinger, James G.; Kasten, Tom; Franklin, Erin E.; Jiang, Hong; Cairns, Nigel J.; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is highly dependent on apolipoprotein-E (apoE) genotype. The reasons for apoE isoform-selective risk are uncertain; however, both the amounts and structure of human apoE isoforms have been hypothesized to lead to amyloidosis increasing the risk for AD. To address the hypothesis that amounts of apoE isoforms are different in the human CNS, we developed a novel isoform-specific method to accurately quantify apoE isoforms in clinically relevant samples. The method utilizes an antibody-free enrichment step and isotope-labeled physiologically relevant lipoprotein particle standards produced by immortalized astrocytes. We applied this method to a cohort of well characterized clinical samples and observed the following findings. The apoE isoform amounts are not different in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from young normal controls, suggesting that the amount of apoE isoforms is not the reason for risk of amyloidosis prior to the onset of advanced age. We did, however, observe an age-related increase in both apoE isoforms. In contrast to normal aging, the presence of amyloid increased apoE3, whereas apoE4 was unchanged or decreased. Importantly, for heterozygotes, the apoE4/apoE3 isoform ratio was increased in the CNS, although the reverse was true in the periphery. Finally, CSF apoE levels, but not plasma apoE levels, correlated with CSF β-amyloid levels. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that CNS and peripheral apoE are separate pools and differentially regulated. Furthermore, these results suggest that apoE mechanisms for the risk of amyloidosis and AD are related to an interaction between apoE, aging, and the amount of amyloid burden. PMID:27793990

  9. Apo A1 Mimetic Rescues the Diabetic Phenotype of HO-2 Knockout Mice via an Increase in HO-1 Adiponectin and LKBI Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Puri, Nitin; Sodhi, Komal; Bellner, Lars; Abraham, Nader G.; Kappas, Attallah

    2012-01-01

    Insulin resistance, with adipose tissue dysfunction, is one of the hallmarks of metabolic syndrome. We have reported a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype in heme oxygenase (HO)-2 knockout mice, which presented with concurrent HO-1 deficiency and were amenable to rescue by an EET analog. Apo A-I mimetic peptides, such as L-4F, have been shown to induce HO-1 expression and decrease oxidative stress and adiposity. In this study we aimed to characterize alleviatory effects of HO-1 induction (if any) on metabolic imbalance observed in HO-2 KO mice. In this regard, HO-2(−/−) mice were injected with 2 mg/kg/day L-4F, or vehicle, i.p., for 6 weeks. As before, compared to WT animals, the HO-2 null mice were obese, displayed insulin resistance, and had elevated blood pressure. These changes were accompanied by enhanced tissue (hepatic) oxidative stress along with attenuation of HO-1 expression and activity and reduced adiponectin, pAMPK, and LKB1 expression. Treatment with L-4F restored HO-1 expression and activity and increased adiponectin, LKB1, and pAMPK in the HO-2(−/−) mice. These alterations resulted in a decrease in blood pressure, insulin resistance, blood glucose, and adiposity. Taken together, our results show that a deficient HO-1 response, in a state with reduced HO-2 basal levels, is accompanied by disruption of metabolic homeostasis which is successfully restored by an HO-1 inducer. PMID:22577519

  10. B.A.I.L.A. - a Latin dance randomized controlled trial for older Spanish-speaking Latinos: rationale, design, and methods.

    PubMed

    Marquez, David X; Wilbur, JoEllen; Hughes, Susan L; Berbaum, Michael L; Wilson, Robert S; Buchner, David M; McAuley, Edward

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) has documented health benefits, but older Latinos are less likely to engage in leisure time PA than older non-Latino whites. Dance holds a promise as a culturally appropriate form of PA that challenges individuals physically and cognitively. This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will test the efficacy of BAILAMOS, a 4-month Latin dance program followed by a 4-month maintenance program, for improving lifestyle PA and health outcomes. Older adults (n=332), aged 55+, Latino/Hispanic, Spanish speaking, with low PA levels, and at risk for disability will be randomized to one of two programs, a dance program or health education control group. BAILAMOS is a 4-month program that meets two times per week for one 1h per session. Dance sessions focus on instruction, including four styles of dance, and couples dancing. Bi-monthly Fiestas de Baile (dance parties) are also included, in which participants dance and practice what they have learned. Monthly 1-hour discussion sessions utilize a Social Cognitive framework and focus on knowledge, social support, and self-efficacy to increase lifestyle PA. The health education control group will meet one time per week for two 2h per session. Primary outcomes including PA changes and secondary outcomes including self-efficacy, physical function, cognitive function, and disability will be assessed at baseline, 4, and 8 months. It is hypothesized that PA, self-efficacy, physical function, cognitive function, and functional limitations and disability scores will be significantly better in the BAILAMOS group at 4 and 8 months compared to the control group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 2011-12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:12). Data File Documentation. Appendix A-I. NCES 2014-182_1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer; Bryan, Michael; Siegel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) helps fulfill the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) mandate to collect, analyze, and publish statistics related to education. The purpose of NPSAS is to compile a comprehensive research dataset, based on student-level records, on financial aid…

  12. Enhancing the Material Control & Accounting Measurement System at the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Carolynn P.; Bezhunov, Gennady M.; Bogdanov, Sergey A.

    2012-07-11

    Nuclear material control and accounting (NMCA) system is improving under cooperation with USA national laboratories. Standard reference materials (RMs) and measurement techniques certified at IPPE level are required for: instrument calibration, verification measurements of parameters of items and materials, measurement error estimation, and quality control measurements. We present the main results for development of nuclear RMs for two uranium strata and the results for certification of three measurement techniques (MT) for U-235 mass fraction in uranium and U-235 mass in items. We present the results for developing measurement techniques for Pu-239 in PuO{sub 2}.

  13. B.A.I.L.A. - A Latin dance randomized controlled trial for older Spanish-speaking Latinos: Rationale, design, and methods

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, David X.; Wilbur, JoEllen; Hughes, Susan; Berbaum, Michael L.; Wilson, Robert; Buchner, David M.; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has documented health benefits, but older Latinos are less likely to engage in leisure time PA than older non-Latino whites. Dance holds promise as a culturally appropriate form of PA that challenges individuals physically and cognitively. This paper describes a randomized controlled trial that will test the efficacy of BAILAMOS©, a 4-month Latin dance program followed by a 4-month maintenance program, for improving lifestyle PA and health outcomes. Older adults (n = 332), aged 55+, Latino/Hispanic, Spanish speaking, with low PA levels, and at risk for disability will be randomized to one of two programs, a dance program or health education control group. BAILAMOS© is a 4-month program that meets two times per week for one hour per session. Dance sessions focus on instruction, including four styles of dance, and couples dancing. Bi-monthly “Fiestas de Baile” (dance parties) are also included, in which participants dance and practice what they have learned.. Monthly 1-hour discussion sessions utilize a Social Cognitive framework and focus on knowledge, social support, and self-efficacy to increase lifestyle PA. The health education control group will meet one time per week for two hours per session. Primary outcomes including PA changes and secondary outcomes including self-efficacy, physical function, cognitive function, and disability will be assessed at baseline, 4, and 8 months. It is hypothesized that PA, self-efficacy, physical function, cognitive function, and functional limitations and disability scores will be significantly better in the BAILAMOS© group at 4 and 8 months compared to the control group. PMID:24969395

  14. Pearson Syndrome: A Retrospective Cohort Study from the Marrow Failure Study Group of A.I.E.O.P. (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    PubMed

    Farruggia, Piero; Di Cataldo, Andrea; Pinto, Rita M; Palmisani, Elena; Macaluso, Alessandra; Valvo, Laura Lo; Cantarini, Maria E; Tornesello, Assunta; Corti, Paola; Fioredda, Francesca; Varotto, Stefania; Martire, Baldo; Moroni, Isabella; Puccio, Giuseppe; Russo, Giovanna; Dufour, Carlo; Pillon, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Pearson syndrome (PS) is a very rare and often fatal multisystemic mitochondrial disorder involving the liver, kidney, pancreas, and hematopoietic and central nervous system. It is characterized principally by a transfusion-dependent anemia that usually improves over time, a tendency to develop severe infections, and a high mortality rate. We describe a group of 11 PS patients diagnosed in Italy in the period 1993-2014. The analysis of this reasonably sized cohort of patients contributes to the clinical profile of the disease and highlights a rough incidence of 1 case/million newborns. Furthermore, it seems that some biochemical parameters like increased serum alanine and urinary fumaric acid can help to address an early diagnosis.

  15. U.S. Aid to Education in Paraguay: The Rural Education Development Project. A.I.D. Project Impact Evaluation Report No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Ronald; And Others

    Between 1970 and 1976, with continued funding and personnel support from the Agency for International Development (AID), Paraguay instituted major rural educational reforms encompassing curriculum revision, teacher training and retraining, training of administrators and supervisors, new school construction, and provision of teaching materials and…

  16. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  17. Acoustic emission monitoring of the trunnion shafts on Oregon DOT Bridge #1377A, I-5 (Interstate) Columbia River Bridge east lift span, Portland, Oregon

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-11-30

    A multi-year study was recently completed that examined several major highway crash types. The examined crash types included rear-end, roadway departure, backing, lane change, opposite-direction, and various intersection-related crashes, Each analysi...

  18. Preformulation studies for an ultrashort-acting neuromuscular blocking agent GW280430A. I. Buffer and cosolvent effects on the solution stability.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haijian; Meserve, Kathy; Floyd, Alison

    2002-01-01

    GW280430A is an ultrashort-acting neuromuscular blocking agent targeted at muscle relaxation to facilitate surgical intubation. The objective of this work was to study the buffer and cosolvent effects on the solution stability of GW280430A. The buffer catalytic effect was examined in citrate, malate, tartrate, and glycine by measuring the rate of degradation of GW280430A (0.2 mg/mL) at constant pH (3), ionic strength (0.15 M), and various buffer concentrations (0.01-0.05 M). The temperature dependence of the buffer catalytic effect and the degradation of the GW280430A in cosolvent (ethanol, propylene glycol, polyethylene glycol 400, N,N-dimethylacetamide)/water mixtures were studied at 40, 50, and 60 degrees C. The loss of parent drug was monitored by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The degradation of GW280430A followed first-order kinetics in all buffer solutions. Significant buffer-catalyzed hydrolysis of GW280430A was observed with citrate, tartrate, and malate buffers, but not in glycine-buffered solutions. The activation energies in all buffered drug solutions ranged from 70 to 80 kJ/mol and decreased with increasing buffer concentration. GW280430A degradation was primarily through ester hydrolysis and followed first-order kinetics in aqueous solutions. In cosolvent/water mixtures, new degradation products were observed, indicating a chemical reaction between GW280430A and cosolvents. The reaction activation energies in the cosolvent/water mixtures ranged from 75 to 85 kJ/mol, with the longest t(0.9) at 5 degrees C equal to approximately 12 months and at 25 degrees C equal to 36 days. Consideration should be given to the incorporation of glycine or a low concentration of citrate, malate, or tartrate buffer in the parenteral formulation development of GW280430A. Cosolvents prolonged the predicted t(0.9) for GW280430A in solution, but the enhancement was not significant enough to pursue a liquidformulation.

  19. First report of a <i>Staphylococcus caprae isolated from middle ear fluid of an infant with recurrent acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Elżbieta; Żychowski, Piotr; Juda, Marek; Korona-Głowniak, Izabela; Niedzielska, Grażyna; Malm, Anna; Kozioł-Montewka, Maria

    2017-09-21

    Staphylococcus caprae was originally isolated from goat milk. This uncommon coagulase-negative staphylococcus, usually associated with animals, has only infrequently been detected in human clinical specimens. Its association with acute otitis media has not been demonstrated so far. The study reports the first isolation of S. caprae from the middle ear fluid of a 12-month-old infant with recurrent, bilateral acute otitis media. Biochemical traits and susceptibility pattern of the isolated strain are also presented.

  20. Infants&apos; Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There&apos;s extensive research on infant&apos;s discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant&apos;s discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants&apos; perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  1. Map kinase and PKC signaling pathways modulate NGF-mediated apoE transcription.

    PubMed

    Strachan-Whaley, Megan R; Reilly, Kate; Dobson, James; Kalisch, Bettina E

    2015-05-19

    The present study assessed the mechanisms by which nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the level of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in PC12 cells. NGF (50ng/mL) significantly increased apoE protein levels following 72h of treatment. Similarly NGF increased luciferase activity in cells transfected with a luciferase reporter construct containing a 500bp fragment of the apoE promoter, indicating NGF-induced apoE expression is regulated, at least in part, at the level of transcription. The non-selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(ɷ)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME; 20mM) did not attenuate the NGF-mediated increase in luciferase activity, while the inducible NOS inhibitor s-methylisothiourea (S-MIU; 2mM) partially attenuated this action of NGF. Inhibition of MAP kinase activation with 50μM U0126 or pre-treatment with the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide 1 (BIS-1; 10μM) prevented the NGF-mediated activation of the apoE promoter. Pre-treatment with the phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122 (5μM) partially inhibited the NGF-induced increase in luciferase activity while the Akt inhibitor LY294002 (10μM) had no effect. These data suggest NGF-induced apoE transcription requires MAP kinase and PKC activation and that these TrkA signaling pathways may be modulated by NO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applications of Dweck&apos;s Model of Implicit Theories to Teachers&apos; Self-Efficacy and Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alexis Ymon

    2012-01-01

    The current study explored Dweck&apos;s (1999; Dweck & Leggett, 1988) model of implicit theories in the context of teaching in order to establish its usefulness for describing teachers&apos; beliefs about students&apos; ability and social behavior. Further it sought to explain the connections between teachers&apos; implicit beliefs and their…

  3. The Problem of Character Education and Kohlberg&apos;s Moral Education: Critique from Dewey&apos;s Moral Deliberation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Dewey&apos;s moral deliberation. Liu argues that Dewey&apos;s work will enrich both character education and Kohlberg&apos;s moral education. Liu focuses on character education and on Kohlberg&apos;s moral education because these are the two dominant approaches. Character education seeks to cultivate good…

  4. The effect of the ApoE genotype on the association between head circumference and cognition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Kang Soo; Kim, Eun A; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon; Hong, Chang Hyung

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the ApoE genotype on the association between head circumference (HC) and cognition. Cross-sectional factorial design in which Korean version of Mini Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) score was the dependent variable with ApoE4 status as one factor and HC as the other. A longitudinal cohort study of the Korea Health 21 R&D Project Clinical Research Center for Dementia. A total of 1,902 Koreans (599 men and 1303 women) aged over 60 years. Cognitive function was assessed by the K-MMSE. HC and ApoE genotyping were carried out on all subjects. The HC was correlated with the K-MMSE scores (r = 0.22, df = 1,525, p < 0.01), age (r = -0.11, df = 1,521, p < 0.01), educational level (r = 0.30, df = 1,525, p < 0.01), height (r = 0.50, df = 1,384, p < 0.01), and weight (r = 0.49, df = 1,445, p < 0.01). On analysis of covariance, the interaction of ApoE with HC on K-MMSE was observed after adjusting for the age, sex, educational level, height, and weight (F = 2.527, df = 4, 1, 364, p = 0.039). A test of simple main effect according to ApoE status showed that, in the ApoE epsilon 4(-) group, the mean of K-MMSE between HC quintile was not different (F = 0.517, df = 4, 1,148, p = 0.723). But in the ApoE epsilon 4(+) group, the mean of K-MMSE between HC quintile was significantly different. (F = 4.163, df = 4, 211, p = 0.003). All these findings suggest the possibility that the presence of ApoE epsilon 4 affects cognitive function only when the brain reserve is low. In other words, these findings support the structural "brain reserve hypothesis," and the effects are more pronounced in genetically predisposed individuals.

  5. Mapping of ApoE4 related white matter damage using diffusion MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Hwang, Darryl H.; Kriger, Stephen; Law, Meng; Chui, Helena; Weiner, Michael; Lepore, Natasha

    2014-04-01

    ApoliopoproteinE Ɛ4 (ApoE-Ɛ4) polymorphism is the most well known genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimers Disease. The exact mechanism through which ApoE 4 increases AD risk is not fully known, but may be related to decreased clearance and increased oligomerization of Aβ. By making measurements of white matter integrity via diffusion MR and correlating the metrics in a voxel-based statistical analysis with ApoE-Ɛ4 genotype (whilst controlling for vascular risk factor, gender, cognitive status and age) we are able to identify changes in white matter associated with carrying an ApoE Ɛ4 allele. We found potentially significant regions (Puncorrected < 0:05) near the hippocampus and the posterior cingulum that were independent of voxels that correlated with age or clinical dementia rating (CDR) status suggesting that ApoE may affect cognitive decline via a pathway in dependent of normal aging and acute insults that can be measured by CDR and Framingham Coronary Risk Score (FCRS).

  6. Relations among Teachers&apos; Emotion Socialization Beliefs and Practices and Preschoolers&apos; Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Carol A. S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Utilizing a 3-part model of emotion socialization that included modeling, contingent responding, and teaching, this study examined the associations between 44 teachers&apos; self-reported and observed emotion socialization practices and 326 preschoolers&apos; emotion knowledge and observed emotional behavior. Multilevel analyses…

  7. Extension&apos;s Role in Developing a Farmers&apos; Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civittolo, David

    2012-01-01

    Interest in access to local food is increasing. Communities of all types and sizes have volunteers interested in creating farmers&apos; markets. Extension can play an important role in the development of farmers&apos; markets because it is ideally suited to organize and coordinate these volunteer energies. By helping community volunteers focus…

  8. The cathelicidin protein CRAMP is a potential atherosclerosis self-antigen in ApoE(-/-) mice

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Peter M.; Lio, Wai Man; Yano, Juliana; Zhao, Xiaoning; Zhou, Jianchang; Chyu, Kuang-Yuh; Shah, Prediman K.; Cercek, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Auto-immunity is believed to contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a fragment of the cathelicidin protein precursor hCAP18, was previously identified as an autoantigen in psoriasis. Given the reported link between psoriasis and coronary artery disease, the biological relevance of the autoantigen to atherosclerosis was tested in vitro using a truncated (t) form of the mouse homolog of hCAP18, CRAMP, on splenocytes from athero-prone ApoE(-/-) mice. Stimulation with tCRAMP resulted in increased CD8+ T cells with Central Memory and Effector Memory phenotypes in ApoE(-/-) mice, differentially activated by feeding with normal chow or high fat diet. Immunization of ApoE(-/-) with different doses of the shortened peptide (Cramp) resulted in differential outcomes with a lower dose reducing atherosclerosis whereas a higher dose exacerbating the disease with increased neutrophil infiltration of the atherosclerotic plaques. Low dose Cramp immunization also resulted in increased splenic CD8+ T cell degranulation and reduced CD11b+CD11c+ conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), whereas high dose increased CD11b+CD11c+ cDCs. Our results identified CRAMP, the mouse homolog of hCAP-18, as a potential self-antigen involved in the immune response to atherosclerosis in the ApoE(-/-) mouse model. PMID:29091929

  9. The effects of fish oil consumption on cardiovascular remodeling in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, Kelby; Du, Xiaozhou; Premecz, Sheena; Le, Khuong; Zeglinski, Matthew; Nicholson, Tiffany; Goh, Chun Y; Lu, Yan; Anderson, Hope D; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Jassal, Davinder S

    2013-11-01

    Owing to their spontaneous development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice (ApoE(KO)) are one of the best studied animal models for this disease. Little is known about the utility of various omega-3 fatty acid regimens, in particular fish oils, in preventing cardiac disease in ApoE(KO) mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the cardiovascular effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with either safflower oil (control), fish oil, flaxseed oil, or designed oil in ApoE(KO) mice fed a high-fat diet for a total of 16 weeks. In-vivo cardiac function was assessed weekly using murine echocardiography. Blood pressure, plasma lipid levels, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were serially measured. The results show that ApoE(KO) mice fed fish oil demonstrated an increase in left ventricular wall thickness as a result of increased afterload. Despite chronic treatment with fish oil over 16 weeks, blood pressure increased in ApoE(KO) mice by 20% compared with the baseline. Both echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and biochemical increase in BNP levels confirmed diastolic dysfunction in ApoE(KO) mice fed fish oil. This suggests that high-fat diet supplemented with fish oil may lead to adverse cardiovascular effects in ApoE deficient mice.

  10. Parallels in Preschoolers&apos; and Adults&apos; Judgments about Ownership Rights and Bodily Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W.; Friedman, Ori

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ownership rights is necessary for socially appropriate behavior. We provide evidence that preschoolers&apos; and adults&apos; judgments of ownership rights are related to their judgments of bodily rights. Four-year-olds (n = 70) and adults (n = 89) evaluated the acceptability of harmless actions targeting owned property and body…

  11. Living with Letters: An Exploration of Parents&apos;/Caregivers&apos; Perceptions of Shared Learning Activities, Socially Constructed Meaning, and Preschoolers&apos; Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janaszak, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    The researcher&apos;s purpose in this descriptive case study, drawn from a suburban school population of pre-kindergarten children and their parents/caregivers was: (a) to explore parents&apos;/caregivers&apos; perceptions of the concept of emergent literacy and how their children develop the ability to read and write; (b) to document the ways in…

  12. Longitudinal Links between Fathers&apos; and Mothers&apos; Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents&apos; Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents&apos; conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers&apos; and fathers&apos;…

  13. Fathers&apos; and Mothers&apos; Home Literacy Involvement and Children&apos;s Cognitive and Social Emotional Development: Implications for Family Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    The relations between fathers&apos; and mothers&apos; home literacy involvement at 24 months and children&apos;s cognitive and social emotional development in preschool were examined using a large sample of African American and Caucasian families ("N" = 5190) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Hierarchical…

  14. Human ApoE ɛ2 Promotes Regulatory Mechanisms of Bioenergetic and Synaptic Function in Female Brain: A Focus on V-type H+-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Woody, Sarah K; Zhou, Helen; Ibrahimi, Shaher; Dong, Yafeng; Zhao, Liqin

    2016-06-18

    Humans possess three major isoforms of the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene encoded by three alleles: ApoE ɛ2 (ApoE2), ApoE ɛ3 (ApoE3), and ApoE ɛ4 (ApoE4). It is established that the three ApoE isoforms confer differential susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, an in-depth molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is currently unavailable. In this study, we examined the cortical proteome differences among the three ApoE isoforms using 6-month-old female, human ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4 gene-targeted replacement mice and two-dimensional proteomic analyses. The results reveal that the three ApoE brains differ primarily in two areas: cellular bioenergetics and synaptic transmission. Of particular significance, we show for the first time that the three ApoE brains differentially express a key component of the catalytic domain of the V-type H+-ATPase (Atp6v), a proton pump that mediates the concentration of neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles and thus is crucial in synaptic transmission. Specifically, our data demonstrate that ApoE2 brain exhibits significantly higher levels of the B subunit of Atp6v (Atp6v1B2) when compared to both ApoE3 and ApoE4 brains, with ApoE4 brain exhibiting the lowest expression. Our additional analyses show that Atp6v1B2 is significantly impacted by aging and AD pathology and the data suggest that Atp6v1B2 deficiency could be involved in the progressive loss of synaptic integrity during early development of AD. Collectively, our findings indicate that human ApoE isoforms differentially modulate regulatory mechanisms of bioenergetic and synaptic function in female brain. A more efficient and robust status in both areas-in which Atp6v may play a role-could serve as a potential mechanism contributing to the neuroprotective and cognition-favoring properties associated with the ApoE2 genotype.

  15. Hepatic caveolin-1 is enhanced in Cyp27a1/ApoE double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zurkinden, Line; Mansour, Yosef T; Rohrbach, Beatrice; Vogt, Bruno; Mistry, Hiten D; Escher, Geneviève

    2016-10-01

    Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) is involved in bile acid synthesis and cholesterol homoeostasis. Cyp27a1 (-/-) / Apolipoprotein E (-/-) double knockout mice (DKO) fed a western diet failed to develop atherosclerosis. Caveolin-1 (CAV-1), the main component of caveolae, is associated with lipid homoeostasis and has regulatory roles in vascular diseases. We hypothesized that liver CAV-1 would contribute to the athero-protective mechanism in DKO mice. Cyp27a1 (+/+) / ApoE (-/-) (ApoE KO), Cyp27a1 (+/-) / ApoE (-/-) (het), and DKO mice were fed a western diet for 2 months. Atherosclerotic plaque and CAV-1 protein were quantified in aortas. Hepatic Cav-1 mRNA was assessed using qPCR, CAV-1 protein by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Total hepatic and plasma cholesterol was measured using chemiluminescence. Cholesterol efflux was performed in RAW264.7 cells, using mice plasma as acceptor. CAV-1 protein expression in aortas was increased in endothelial cells of DKO mice and negatively correlated with plaque surface ( P < 0.05). In the liver, both CAV-1 protein and mRNA expression doubled in DKO, compared to ApoE KO and het mice ( P < 0.001 for both) and was negatively correlated with total hepatic cholesterol ( P < 0.05). Plasma from DKO, ApoE KO and het mice had the same efflux capacity. In the absence of CYP27A1, CAV-1 overexpression might have an additional athero-protective role by partly overcoming the defect in CYP27A1-mediated cholesterol efflux.

  16. Beneficial effect on serum apo AI, apo B and Lp AI levels of Ramadan fasting.

    PubMed

    Adlouni, A; Ghalim, N; Saïle, R; Hda, N; Parra, H J; Benslimane, A

    1998-03-23

    In order to investigate for the first time in Morocco the effect of fasting in Ramadan, the ninth lunar month of the muslim year, on lipoprotein metabolism, we determined the levels of serum apolipoproteins; apolipoprotein AI (apo AI), apo B, apo AIV and those of lipoprotein particles; apo AI-containing lipoprotein particles (Lp AI) and also apo AI and apo AII containing lipoprotein particles (Lp AI:AII) in a group of 32 healthy, volunteer adult males. Determination of all these parameters was carried out on each week of the month of Ramadan and the results are compared with the pre-fasting and the post-fasting values. Ramadan fasting reduces significantly serum apo B (P < 0.05), while serum apo AI is significantly increased (P < 0.05) compared with the pre-fasting period. The increase of apo AI occurred on day 29 of Ramadan by 11.8%. Serum apo AIV was unchanged during the fasting period indicating that food intake during Ramadan is not based on lipid diet. The observed diet pattern during Ramadan showed an increase of total energy intake based on carbohydrates (+1.4% of total energy), proteins (+0.4% of total energy) but not on fat (-0.7% of total energy), compared with a usual diet used in the rest of the year. The fat diet is high in monounsaturated (P < 0.05) and polyunsaturated fatty acid in contrast to saturated fatty acid which decreased (P < 0.05) during Ramadan. On the other hand, analysis of serum Lp AI and Lp AI:AII showed that the levels of Lp AI:AII were unchanged but those of Lp AI were significantly increased (P < 0.01) at the end of Ramadan. These findings show that feeding behaviour that occurs during Ramadan beneficially affects serum apolipoprotein metabolism and may contribute to prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in women: roles of apoC-II and apoC-III.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Esther M; Chan, Dick C; Hodson, Leanne; Adiels, Martin; Boren, Jan; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-II and C-III regulate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism, but there are limited studies in humans. We investigated the metabolic associations of TRLs with apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations and kinetics in women. The kinetics of plasma apoC-II, apoC-III and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB-100 and triglycerides were measured in the postabsorptive state using stable isotopic techniques and compartmental modelling in 60 women with wide-ranging body mass index (19·5-32·9 kg/m(2) ). Plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations were positively associated with the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride (all P < 0·05). ApoC-II production rate (PR) was positively associated with VLDL1 -apoB-100 concentration, VLDL1 triglyceride concentration and VLDL1 triglyceride PR, while apoC-II fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride FCR (all P < 0·05). No significant associations were observed between apoC-II and VLDL2 apoB-100 or triglyceride kinetics. ApoC-III PR, but not FCR, was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride, and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations (all P < 0·05). No significant associations were observed between apoC-III and VLDL-apoB-100 and triglyceride kinetics. In multivariable analysis, including homoeostasis model assessment score, menopausal status and obesity, apoC-II concentration was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride, VLDL1 -apoB-100 and VLDL1 triglyceride concentrations and PR. Using the same multivariable analysis, apoC-III was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations and FCR. In women, plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations are regulated by their respective PR and are significant, independent determinants of the kinetics and plasma concentrations of TRLs. © 2016 Stichting

  18. APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Veletza, Stavroula; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors may influence the natural course of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and explain some of its variability. The aim of this review was to examine the association between apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Four relevant studies were identified. The two earlier works provided evidence that the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for this complication, while the two more recent studies were negative. Important differences in the methodology used and in the populations included are obvious, rendering difficult the comparison between studies. In conclusion, the association between APOE gene polymorphisms and diabetic peripheral neuropathy is still unclear. Available evidence is rather limited and results have so far been contradictory. Future studies should employ more robust methodology, adjusting for potential confounders and for the prevalence of neuropathy in the general population with diabetes. PMID:23056065

  19. "It&apos;s All Shiny and There&apos;s No Pollution": "Barbapapa&apos;s Ark," Environmental Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The environmental picture book "Barbapapa&apos;s Ark" was published in 1974. I was keeping a parent-observer record of my two children at the time. The book had a strong influence on them from ages three to six, moving them to query pollution and hunting, in book and environment, and as adults, becoming committed activists for the…

  20. Using Computational Simulations to Confront Students&apos; Mental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, R.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we show an example of how to use a computational simulation to obtain visual feedback for students&apos; mental models, and compare their predictions with the simulated system&apos;s behaviour. Additionally, we use the computational simulation to incrementally modify the students&apos; mental models in order to accommodate new data,…

  1. The Not-so-Random Drunkard&apos;s Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, George

    2013-01-01

    This dataset contains the results of a quasi-experiment, testing Karl Pearson&apos;s "drunkard&apos;s walk" analogy for an abstract random walk. Inspired by the alternate hypothesis that drunkards stumble to the side of their dominant hand, it includes data on intoxicated test subjects walking a 10&apos; line. Variables include: the…

  2. Mencius&apos; Educational Philosophy and Its Contemporary Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chun-chieh

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that Mencius&apos; education is "holistic education" that aims at igniting the "silent revolution" from within one&apos;s inner mind-heart to be unfolded in society, state, and the world. Mencius&apos; educational philosophy is based on his theory of human nature and his theory of self-cultivation. Mencius…

  3. Interrogating Meanings of Work in Children&apos;s Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Stacey M. B.; Bauer, Janell C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Wieland and Bauer discuss a teaching activity that helps students understand how meanings of work (MOW) are socially constructed through commonplace texts: children&apos;s books. The activity helps students consider how children&apos;s books shape future workers&apos; understandings of what work is, what kinds of work are most…

  4. Asperger&apos;s in the Holmes Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    I show that Mycroft Holmes (Sherlock Holmes&apos; brother) is a formally described case of Asperger&apos;s syndrome a half century before Asperger&apos;s description of the syndrome. Further, given the genetic similarity and links between the brothers stated by Sherlock, this also cinches the same diagnosis for Sherlock.

  5. Towards a Sociocultural Understanding of Children&apos;s Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybin, Janet

    2013-01-01

    While "voice" is frequently invoked in discussions of pupils&apos; agency and empowerment, less attention has been paid to the dialogic dynamics of children&apos;s voices and the sociocultural features shaping their emergence. Drawing on linguistic ethnographic research involving recent recordings of 10- and 11-year-old children&apos;s…

  6. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase splice variants in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Schödel, Johannes; Padmapriya, P.; Marx, Alexander; Huang, Paul L.; Ertl, Georg; Kuhlencordt, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that deletion of brain type neuronal nitric oxide synthase-α (nNOS-α) accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoproteinE (apoE) knockout (ko) mice. The regulation of nNOS expression is complex, involving the generation of mRNA splice variants. The current study investigates occurrence and distribution of nNOS variants in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE ko and apoE/nNOS-α double ko (dko) animals. Methods Mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were performed using antibodies detecting the carboxy terminal-, or amino terminal-residue of the nNOS protein. Confocal microscopy and in situ hybridization were used to identify the compartment of cellular expression. Results In situ hybridization revealed the presence of nNOS-α and -γ mRNA variants in apoE ko plaques, while only nNOS-γ was detectable in apoE/nNOS dko plaques. Consistent with mRNA expression nNOS-α protein can be detected in the neointima of apoE ko, but not apoE/nNOS dko animals. In contrast, the carboxy terminal antibody stained the neointima and media in apoE ko vessels and showed residual nNOS immunoreactivity in apoE/nNOS dko lesions. Confocal microscopy showed predominant nNOS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, while colocalization with macrophages was less pronounced. Conclusions Our study shows that nNOS-α and -γ splice variants are expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE ko mice. nNOS variants colocalized with markers for vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages but not for endothelial cells. Since nNOS-α is atheroprotective, other nNOS splice variants which differ in enzyme kinetic and subcellular localization may also influence plaque formation. PMID:19358992

  7. Expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase splice variants in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Schödel, Johannes; Padmapriya, P; Marx, Alexander; Huang, Paul L; Ertl, Georg; Kuhlencordt, Peter J

    2009-10-01

    We previously reported that deletion of brain type neuronal nitric oxide synthase-alpha (nNOS-alpha) accelerates atherosclerosis in apolipoproteinE (apoE) knockout (ko) mice. The regulation of nNOS expression is complex, involving the generation of mRNA splice variants. The current study investigates occurrence and distribution of nNOS variants in atherosclerotic lesions of apoE ko and apoE/nNOS-alpha double ko (dko) animals. Mice were fed a high fat diet for 20 weeks. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were performed using antibodies detecting the carboxy terminal-, or amino terminal-residue of the nNOS protein. Confocal microscopy and in situ hybridization were used to identify the compartment of cellular expression. In situ hybridization revealed the presence of nNOS-alpha and -gamma mRNA variants in apoE ko plaques, while only nNOS-gamma was detectable in apoE/nNOS dko plaques. Consistent with mRNA expression nNOS-alpha protein can be detected in the neointima of apoE ko, but not apoE/nNOS dko animals. In contrast, the carboxy terminal antibody stained the neointima and media in apoE ko vessels and showed residual nNOS immunoreactivity in apoE/nNOS dko lesions. Confocal microscopy showed predominant nNOS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells, while colocalization with macrophages was less pronounced. Our study shows that nNOS-alpha and -gamma splice variants are expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of apoE ko mice. nNOS variants colocalized with markers for vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages but not for endothelial cells. Since nNOS-alpha is atheroprotective, other nNOS splice variants which differ in enzyme kinetic and subcellular localization may also influence plaque formation.

  8. Intronic CYP46 polymorphism along with ApoE genotype in sporadic Alzheimer Disease: from risk factors to disease modulators.

    PubMed

    Borroni, Barbara; Archetti, Silvana; Agosti, Chiara; Akkawi, Nabil; Brambilla, Cristina; Caimi, Luigi; Caltagirone, Carlo; Di Luca, Monica; Padovani, Alessandro

    2004-07-01

    Increasing biological and clinical findings argue for a link between brain cholesterol turnover and Alzheimer Disease (AD), high cerebral levels of the former increasing Abeta load. Cerebral cholesterol elimination involves two mechanisms dependent on Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46). The aim of this study was to evaluate an intronic variation in CYP46 (intron 2, T --> C ) along with ApoE genotype as risk factors for AD and to establish the correlation between CYP46/ApoE polymorphism and disease progression. One-hundred and fifty-seven AD patients, who had been followed periodically through 1-year follow-up after enrollment, and 134 age- and gender-matched controls entered the study. The distribution of CYP46 genotypes was significantly different in AD compared to controls (P<0.004), being CYP*C allele higher in AD patients ( P<0.002). ApoE 4 genotype was more frequent in AD (41.4%) than in controls (15.9%, P<0.0001). The odds ratio (OR) for AD risk in CYP46*C carriers was 2.8, and in ApoE epsilon4 carriers was 4.05; the OR for having both CYP46*C and ApoE epsilon4 was 17.75, demonstrating the their synergic effect on AD risk. In AD patients, CYP46*C along with ApoE epsilon4 genotype were associated with a higher cognitive decline at 1-year follow-up (P<0.02). These findings provide direct evidence that CYP46 and ApoE polymorphisms synergically increase the risk for AD development, and influence on the rate of cognitive decline.

  9. High-Fat Diet Changes Hippocampal Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) in a Genotype- and Carbohydrate-Dependent Manner in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease include genetic risk factors, such as possession of ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (ApoE4) over the risk-neutral ApoE3 allele, and lifestyle risk factors, such as diet and exercise. The intersection of these two sources of disease risk is not well understood. We investigated the impact of diet on ApoE levels by feeding wildtype, ApoE3, and ApoE4 targeted replacement (TR) mice with chow, high-fat, or ketogenic (high-fat, very-low-carbohydrate) diets. We found that high-fat diet affected both plasma and hippocampal levels of ApoE in an isoform-dependent manner, with high-fat diet causing a surprising reduction of hippocampal ApoE levels in ApoE3 TR mice. Conversely, the ketogenic diet had no effect on hippocampal ApoE. Our findings suggest that the use of dietary interventions to slow the progression AD should take ApoE genotype into consideration. PMID:26828652

  10. The ApoE receptors Vldlr and Apoer2 in central nervous system function and disease.

    PubMed

    Lane-Donovan, Courtney; Herz, Joachim

    2017-06-01

    The LDL receptor (LDLR) family has long been studied for its role in cholesterol transport and metabolism; however, the identification of ApoE4, an LDLR ligand, as a genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease has focused attention on the role this receptor family plays in the CNS. Surprisingly, it was discovered that two LDLR family members, ApoE receptor 2 (Apoer2) and VLDL receptor (Vldlr), play key roles in brain development and adult synaptic plasticity, primarily by mediating Reelin signaling. This review focuses on Apoer2 and Vldlr signaling in the CNS and its role in human disease. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Is ApoE epsilon4 associated with cognitive functioning in African Americans diagnosed with Alzheimer Disease? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Mount, David L; Ashley, Angela V; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Goldstein, Felicia C

    2009-09-01

    The effect of the apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele (ApoE epsilon4) on cognitive performance in patients with probable Alzheimer disease (AD) has been studied in primarily Caucasian samples. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether the presence of ApoE epsilon4 is associated with cognitive performance in African American AD patients. A cross-sectional, retrospective design was used to address the study objective. Data were extracted from the records of 65 African American patients who participated in the National Institutes of Health-National Institute on Aging (NIH-NIA) Emory University Alzheimer Disease Center Registry. Inclusion criteria were a clinical diagnosis of probable AD, cognitive testing using the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer Disease (CERAD) neuropsychological battery, and ApoE genotyping. Seventy percent of the patients were ApoE epsilon4 positive. Multiple regression analyses indicated that ApoE epsilon4 was significantly associated with poorer design copying (CERAD Constructional Praxis subtest), but other significant relationships were not observed between positive epsilon4 status and cognitive performance. These preliminary findings suggest that the ApoE epsilon4 allele is not strongly associated with a particular pattern of cognitive functioning in African Americans once they are diagnosed with AD. However, these findings require replication in a large prospectively recruited and population-based sample of African American AD patients before firm conclusions can be reached.

  12. Teacher Characteristics Associated with Mathematics Teachers&apos; Beliefs and Awareness of Their Students&apos; Mathematical Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Lawrence M.; DePiper, Jill Neumayer; Frank, Toya Jones; Nishio, Masako; Campbell, Patricia F.; Smith, Toni M.; Griffin, Matthew J.; Rust, Amber H.; Conant, Darcy L.; Choi, Youyoung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates relationships between teacher characteristics and teachers&apos; beliefs about mathematics teaching and learning and the extent to which teachers claim awareness of their students&apos; mathematical dispositions. Regression analyses revealed statistically significant relationships between teachers&apos; beliefs and…

  13. Using Video Analysis to Support Prospective K-8 Teachers&apos; Noticing of Students&apos; Multiple Mathematical Knowledge Bases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth McDuffie, Amy; Foote, Mary Q.; Bolson, Catherine; Turner, Erin E.; Aguirre, Julia M.; Bartell, Tonya Gau; Drake, Corey; Land, Tonia

    2014-01-01

    As part of a larger research project aimed at transforming preK-8 mathematics teacher preparation, the purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which prospective teachers notice children&apos;s competencies related to children&apos;s mathematical thinking, and children&apos;s community, cultural, and linguistic funds of knowledge or what…

  14. Small molecule inducers of ABCA1 and apoE that act through indirect activation of the LXR pathway.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianjia; Zhao, Rui Qi; Parro, Cameron; Zhao, Wenchen; Chou, Hsien-Ya; Robert, Jerome; Deeb, Tarek Z; Raynoschek, Carina; Barichievy, Samantha; Engvist, Ola; Maresca, Marcello; Hicks, Ryan; Meuller, Johan; Moss, Stephen J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Wood, Michael W; Kulic, Iva; Wellington, Cheryl L

    2018-03-21

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is the primary lipid carrier within the central nervous system (CNS) and the strongest genetic risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE is primarily lipidated via the ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), and both are under transcriptional regulation by the liver X nuclear receptor (LXR). Considerable evidence from genetic (using ABCA1 overexpression) and pharmacological (using synthetic LXR agonists) studies in AD mouse models suggests that increased levels of lipidated apoE can improve cognitive performance and, in some strains, can reduce amyloid burden. However, direct synthetic LXR ligands have hepatotoxic side effects that limit their clinical use. Here we describe a set of small molecules, previously annotated as antagonists of the purinergic receptor P2X7, that enhance ABCA1 expression and activity as well as apoE secretion, which are not direct LXR ligands. Furthermore, P2X7 is not required for these molecules to induce ABCA1 upregulation and apoE secretion, demonstrating that the ABCA1 and apoE effects are mechanistically independent of P2X7 inhibition. Hence, we have identified novel dual activity compounds that upregulate ABCA1 across multiple CNS cell types, including human astrocytes, pericytes and microglia, through an indirect LXR mechanism and that also independently inhibit P2X7 receptor activity. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Parents&apos; Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviours, and Skills Predict Children&apos;s Recognition of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others&apos; emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children&apos;s abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents&apos; own emotion-related beliefs,…

  16. The Impact of Teachers&apos; Characteristics and Self-Reported Practices on Students&apos; Algebra Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Liza M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of teachers&apos; characteristics and self-reported practices on students&apos; Algebra achievement while controlling for students&apos; characteristics. This study is based on the secondary analysis of data collected from a nationally representative sample of 9 th grade students and their mathematics teachers during…

  17. "Yes, Master&apos;s": A Graduate Degree&apos;s Moment in the Age of Higher Education Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, enrollment in professional master&apos;s degree programs has grown substantially, and this category has outpaced the overall recent flattening of college enrollment. Today, 5 million more U.S. adults hold a master&apos;s degree compared with a decade ago, and in some circles the master&apos;s is being referred to as "the…

  18. What&apos;s in a Symbol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadstone, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" explores the new adaptation of Newton&apos;s Second Law of Motion, "F = ma." In older physics and applied mathematics textbooks this expression appears as "P = mf." The author examines why "f" is now favored over "a" and why practitioners write "P = mf" rather than…

  19. Students&apos; Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students&apos; estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  20. Inquiry on Teachers&apos; Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Teaching, like other caring professions, is emotional. These emotions tend to emerge as teachers&apos; goals, standards, and beliefs transact with other classroom stakeholders during everyday school activities. As such, for teachers, the classroom context involves both the extreme happiness and joy from a lesson that goes as planned to the intense…