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Sample records for a-i apoa-i mimetic

  1. ApoA-I mimetics.

    PubMed

    Stoekenbroek, R M; Stroes, E S; Hovingh, G K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of evidence indicates that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Consequently, HDL-C has been considered a target for therapy in order to reduce the residual CVD burden that remains significant, even after application of current state-of-the-art medical interventions. In recent years, however, a number of clinical trials of therapeutic strategies that increase HDL-C levels failed to show the anticipated beneficial effect on CVD outcomes. As a result, attention has begun to shift toward strategies to improve HDL functionality, rather than levels of HDL-C per se. ApoA-I, the major protein component of HDL, is considered to play an important role in many of the antiatherogenic functions of HDL, most notably reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and several therapies have been developed to mimic apoA-I function, including administration of apoA-I, mutated variants of apoA-I, and apoA-I mimetic peptides. Based on the potential anti-inflammatory effects, apoA-I mimetics hold promise not only as anti-atherosclerotic therapy but also in other therapeutic areas.

  2. Apolipoprotein A-I and its mimetics for the treatment of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Although statin treatment leads consistently to a reduction in major adverse coronary events and death in clinical trials, approximately 60 to 70% residual risk of these outcomes still remains. One frontier of investigational drug research is treatment to increase HDL, the ‘good cholesterol’ that is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) are protective against atherosclerosis through several mechanisms, including the ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical findings for two types of therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis: apoAI-containing compounds and apoAI mimetic peptides. Both of these therapies have excellent potential to be useful clinically to promote atherosclerosis regression and stabilize existing plaques, but significant hurdles must be overcome in order to develop these approaches into safe and effective therapies. PMID:20730693

  3. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  4. The 5A apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Fatiha; Remaley, Alan T.; Segaliny, Aude I.; Millet, Jonathan; Yan, Ling; Nakhla, Shirley; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Lambert, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptide 5A is highly specific for ABCA1-transporter mediated cholesterol efflux. We investigated whether the 5A peptide shares other beneficial features of apoA-I, such as protection against inflammation and oxidation. Methods New-Zealand White rabbits received an infusion of apoA-I, reconstituted HDL containing apoA-I ((A-I)rHDL) or the 5A peptide complexed with phospholipids (PLPC), prior to inserting a collar around the carotid artery. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were incubated with (A-I)rHDL or 5A/PLPC prior to TNFa stimulation. Results ApoA-I, (A-I)rHDL and 5A/PLPC reduced the collar mediated increase in (i) endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, (ii) O2− production as well as the expression of the Nox4 catalytic subunits of the NADPH oxidase, and (iii) infiltration of circulating neutrophils into the carotid intima-media. In HCAECs, both 5A/PLPC and (A-I)rHDL inhibited TNFa induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the NF-κB signalling cascade and O2− production. The effects of the 5A/PLPC complex were no longer apparent in HCAECs knocked down for ABCA1. Conclusion Like apoA-I, the 5A peptide inhibits acute inflammation and oxidative stress in rabbit carotids and HCAECs. In vitro, the 5A peptide exerts these beneficial effects through interaction with ABCA1. PMID:19965776

  5. D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, inhibits TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human alveolar epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    You, Jia; Wang, Jintao; Xie, Linshen; Zhu, Chengwen; Xiong, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidences support that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and asthmatic airway remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the only known substance that can resolve established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and Apo A-I mimetic D-4F (a synthetic polypeptide consisting of 18 amino acids) plays an inhibitory role in murine asthmatic model. However, cellular mechanisms for such therapeutic effects of Apo A-I and D-4F remain to be elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of D-4F on TGF-β1 induced EMT in human type II alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-β1 manifested distinct EMT, including fibroblastic morphological changes, down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal marker vimentin. These EMT related changes were all inhibited by D-4F in a concentration dependent manner. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated clearly that D-4F dose-dependently compensated for the reduced E-cadherin mRNA level and the increased vimentin mRNA level in TGF-β1 treated A549 cells. Translational analysis revealed that D-4F significantly reversed the TGF-β1 induced changes of E-cadherin and vimentin levels. These results suggested that D-4F inhibits TGF-β1 induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell. Given the functional similarities between D-4F and Apo A-I, it is speculated that D-4F and Apo A-I are able to exert possible anti-fibrotic and anti-asthmatic effects via inhibiting alveolar EMT, and D-4F may possess beneficial clinical potential for patients suffering from pulmonary fibrosis and asthma.

  6. Significant interaction of APOE rs4420638 polymorphism with HDL-C and APOA-I levels in coronary heart disease in Han Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y; Ye, H D; Gao, X; Nie, S; Hong, Q X; Ji, H H; Sun, J; Zhou, S J; Fei, B; Li, K Q; Zhao, J K; Wang, Z P; Xu, M Q; Duan, S W

    2015-10-28

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is recognized for its importance in lipoprotein metabolism and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the association between APOE rs4420638 genotypes and circulating lipid concentrations along with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We conducted a case-control study involving 1508 individuals to investigate the contribution of rs4420638 to the risk of CHD in Han Chinese. In addition, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between rs4420638 and CHD in Europeans and Asians. The results show that rs4420638 is significantly correlated with increased CHD risk in male Han Chinese [P = 0.040, odds ratio (OR) = 1.34, 95% confidential interval (95%CI) = 1.01-1.78] and is likely to increase the risk of CHD under the dominant model in males (P = 0.036, OR = 1.38, 95%CI = 1.02-1.88). A further subgroup analysis by rs4420638 genotype found a significant association of rs4420638 AA with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P = 0.012) and APOA-I levels (P = 0.0001) in males. The meta-analysis suggests that rs4420638 significantly increases the risk of CHD (OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.14-1.22, P < 0.0001, fixed-effect method). Our case-control study shows that rs4420638 genotype AA has a significant association with the concentrations of circulating HDL-C and APOA-I in CHD in Han Chinese males. The meta-analysis suggests that rs4420638 is associated with CHD risk in Europeans and Asians.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides inhibit expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines and a mouse ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor; Su, Feng; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Farias-Eisner, Robin

    2012-08-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides L-4F and L-5F inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor production and tumor angiogenesis. The present study was designed to test whether apoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which plays a critical role in the production of angiogenic factors and angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues. Immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and luciferase activity assays were used to determine the expression and activity of HIF-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that L-4F treatment dramatically decreased HIF-1α expression in mouse ovarian tumor tissues. L-4F inhibited the expression and activity of HIF-1α induced by low oxygen concentration, cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia-mimic compound), lysophosphatidic acid, and insulin in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OV2008 and CAOV-3. L-4F had no effect on the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p70s6 kinase, leading to the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis. Pretreatment with L-4F dramatically accelerated the proteasome-dependent protein degradation of HIF-1α in both insulin- and CoCl(2)-treated cells. The inhibitory effect of L-4F on HIF-1α expression is in part mediated by the reactive oxygen species-scavenging effect of L-4F. ApoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of HIF-1α in both in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting the inhibition of HIF-1α may be a critical mechanism responsible for the suppression of tumor progression by apoA-I mimetic peptides.

  8. Neural ECM mimetics.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Veronica; Tekinay, Ayse; Müller, Hans Werner

    2014-01-01

    The consequence of numerous neurological disorders is the significant loss of neural cells, which further results in multilevel dysfunction or severe functional deficits. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is of tremendous importance for neural regeneration mediating ambivalent functions: ECM serves as a growth-promoting substrate for neurons but, on the other hand, is a major constituent of the inhibitory scar, which results from traumatic injuries of the central nervous system. Therefore, cell and tissue replacement strategies on the basis of ECM mimetics are very promising therapeutic interventions. Numerous synthetic and natural materials have proven effective both in vitro and in vivo. The closer a material's physicochemical and molecular properties are to the original extracellular matrix, the more promising its effectiveness may be. Relevant factors that need to be taken into account when designing such materials for neural repair relate to receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions, which are dependent on chemical and mechanical sensing. This chapter outlines important characteristics of natural and synthetic ECM materials (scaffolds) and provides an overview of recent advances in design and application of ECM materials for neural regeneration, both in therapeutic applications and in basic biological research.

  9. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  10. High-Density Lipoprotein Mimetics: a Therapeutic Tool for Atherosclerotic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Masahiro; Higaki, Yasuki; Saku, Keijiro; Uehara, Yoshinari

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials and epidemiological studies have revealed a negative correlation between serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, statin treatment is the standard therapy for cardiovascular diseases, reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. However, more than half of the patients have not been able to receive the beneficial effects of this treatment.The reverse cholesterol transport pathway has several potential anti-atherogenic properties. An important approach to HDL-targeted therapy is the optimization of HDL cholesterol levels and function in the blood to enhance the removal of circulating cholesterol and to prevent or mitigate inflammation that causes atherosclerosis. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors increase HDL cholesterol levels in humans, but whether they reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases is unknown. HDL therapies using HDL mimetics, including reconstituted HDL, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-IMilano, ApoA-I mimetic peptides, or full-length ApoA-I, are highly effective in animal models. In particular, the Fukuoka University ApoA-I-mimetic peptide (FAMP) effectively removes cholesterol via the ABCA1 transporter and acts as an anti-atherosclerotic agent by enhancing the biological functions of HDL without elevating HDL cholesterol levels.Our literature review suggests that HDL mimetics have significant atheroprotective potential and are a therapeutic tool for atherosclerotic diseases.

  11. [Incretin mimetic drugs: therapeutic positioning].

    PubMed

    López Simarro, F

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, due to the differences among affected individuals, which affect choice of treatment. The number of drug families has increased in the last few years, and these families have widely differing mechanisms of action, which contributes greatly to the individualization of treatment according to the patient's characteristics and comorbidities. The present article discusses incretin mimetic drugs. Their development has been based on knowledge of the effects of natural incretin hormones: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and dipeptidyl peptidase enzyme 4 (DPP4), which rapidly degrade them in the systemic circulation. This group is composed of 2 different types of molecules: GLP-1 analogs and DPP4 enzyme inhibitors. The benefits of these molecules include a reduction in plasma glucose without the risk of hypoglycemias or weight gain. There are a series of questions that require new studies to establish a possible association between the use of these drugs and notification of cases of pancreatitis, as well as their relationship with pancreatic and thyroid cancer. Also awaited is the publication of several studies that will provide information on the relationship between these drugs and cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. All these questions will probably be progressively elucidated with greater experience in the use of these drugs.

  12. Mitochondrial apoptosis and BH3 mimetics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The BCL2-selective BH3 mimetic venetoclax was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed, chromosome 17p-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is undergoing extensive testing, alone and in combination, in lymphomas, acute leukemias, and solid tumors. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding of the biology of BCL2 family members that shed light on the action of BH3 mimetics, review preclinical and clinical studies leading to the regulatory approval of venetoclax, and discuss future investigation of this new class of antineoplastic agent. PMID:27990281

  13. Mitochondrial apoptosis and BH3 mimetics.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haiming; Meng, X Wei; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    The BCL2-selective BH3 mimetic venetoclax was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed, chromosome 17p-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is undergoing extensive testing, alone and in combination, in lymphomas, acute leukemias, and solid tumors. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding of the biology of BCL2 family members that shed light on the action of BH3 mimetics, review preclinical and clinical studies leading to the regulatory approval of venetoclax, and discuss future investigation of this new class of antineoplastic agent.

  14. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  15. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.

  16. Non-local F(R)-mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study non-local F(R)-mimetic gravity. We implement mimetic gravity in the framework of non-local F(R)-theories of gravity. Given some specific class of models and using a potential on the mimetic field, we investigate some scenarios related to the early-time universe, namely the inflation and the cosmological bounce, which bring to Einstein's gravity with cold dark matter at the late-time.

  17. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics reveals apolipoprotein A-I and transferrin as potential serum markers in CA19-9 negative pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Zhao, Guo-Chao; Wang, Dan-Song; Lou, Wen-Hui; Jin, Da-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) relies on CA19-9 and radiological means, whereas some patients do not have elevated levels of CA19-9 secondary to pancreatic cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify potential serum biomarkers for CA19-9 negative PDAC. A total of 114 serum samples were collected from 3 groups: CA19-9 negative PDAC patients (n = 34), CA19-9 positive PDAC patients (n = 44), and healthy volunteers (n = 36), whereas the first 12 samples from each group were used for isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis. Thereafter, candidate biomarkers were selected for validation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the rest specimens. Using the iTRAQ approach, a total of 5 proteins were identified as significantly different between CA19-9 negative PDAC patients and healthy subjects according to our defined criteria. Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-I) and transferrin (TF) were selected to validate the proteomic results by ELISA in a further 78 serum specimens. It revealed that TF significantly correlated with the degree of histological differentiation (P = 0.042), and univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that TF is an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio, 0.302; 95% confidence interval, 0.118–0.774; P = 0.013) of patients with PDAC after curative surgery. ITRAQ-based quantitative proteomics revealed that APOA-I and TF may be potential CA19-9 negative PDAC serum markers. PMID:27495108

  18. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Ripley, Justin; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC) is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space-times always decreases while in contracting space-times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this letter, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples). Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein-Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. We also show that mimetic cosmology can be understood as a singular limit of known, well-behaved theories involving higher-derivative kinetic terms and discuss ways of removing the instability.

  19. Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a dominant feature of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, Gina; Izzi, Claudia; Ravani, Pietro; Obici, Laura; Dallera, Nadia; Del Barba, Andrea; Negrinelli, Alessandro; Tardanico, Regina; Nardi, Matilde; Biasi, Luciano; Scalvini, Tiziano; Merlini, Giampaolo; Scolari, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I is the main protein of high-density lipoprotein particles, and is encoded by the APOA1 gene. Several APOA1 mutations have been found, either affecting the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity, determining familial HDL deficiency, or resulting in amyloid formation with prevalent deposits in the kidney and liver. Evaluation of familial tubulointerstitial nephritis in patients with the Leu75Pro APOA-I amyloidosis mutation resulted in the identification of 253 carriers belonging to 50 families from Brescia, Italy. A total of 219 mutation carriers underwent clinical, laboratory, and instrumental tests. Of these, 62% had renal, hepatic, and testicular disease; 38% were asymptomatic. The disease showed an age-dependent penetrance. Tubulointerstitial nephritis was diagnosed in 49% of the carriers, 13% of whom progressed to kidney failure requiring dialysis. Hepatic involvement with elevation of cholestasis indices was diagnosed in 30% of the carriers, 38% of whom developed portal hypertension. Impaired spermatogenesis and hypogonadism was found in 68% of male carriers. The cholesterol levels were lower than normal in 80% of the mutation carriers. Thus, tubulointerstitial nephritis was highly prevalent in this large series of patients with Leu75Pro apoA-I amyloidosis. Persistent elevation of alkaline phosphatase, reduced HDL cholesterol plasma levels, and hypogonadism in men are key diagnostic features of this form of amyloidosis.

  20. Progress of Mimetic Enzymes and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Deng, Huan; Zhang, Lianming

    2016-11-01

    The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated.

  1. From neutron stars to quark stars in mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2016-09-01

    Realistic models of neutron and quark stars in the framework of mimetic gravity with a Lagrange multiplier constraint are presented. We discuss the effect of a mimetic scalar aiming to describe dark matter on the mass-radius relation and the moment of inertia for slowly rotating relativistic stars. The mass-radius relation and moment of inertia depend on the value of the mimetic scalar in the center of the star. This fact leads to the ambiguity in the mass-radius relation for a given equation of state. Such ambiguity allows us to explain some observational facts better than in standard general relativity. The case of mimetic potential V (ϕ )˜A eC ϕ2 is considered in detail. The relative deviation of the maximal moment of inertia is approximately twice as large as the relative deviation of the maximal stellar mass. We also briefly discuss the mimetic f (R ) gravity. In the case of f (R )=R +a R2 mimetic gravity, it is expected that the increase of maximal mass and maximal moment of inertia due to the mimetic scalar becomes much stronger with bigger parameter a . The influence of the scalar field in mimetic gravity can lead to the possible existence of extreme neutron stars with large masses.

  2. Disformal transformations, veiled General Relativity and Mimetic Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Deruelle, Nathalie; Rua, Josephine E-mail: rua@cbpf.br

    2014-09-01

    In this Note we show that Einstein's equations for gravity are generically invariant under ''disformations''. We also show that the particular subclass when this is not true yields the equations of motion of ''Mimetic Gravity''. Finally we give the ''mimetic'' generalization of the Schwarzschild solution.

  3. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: Mechanisms of Action as Anti-atherogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Hwedieh, David O.; Amar, Marcelo; Sviridov, Dmitri; Remaley, Alan T.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein mimetic peptides are short synthetic peptides that share structural, as well as biological features of native apolipoproteins. The early positive clinical trials of intravaenous preparations of apoA-I, the main protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), have stimulated great interest in the use of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as possible therapeutic agents. Currently, there are a wide variety of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides at various stages of drug development. These peptides typically have been designed to either promote cholesterol efflux or act as anti-oxidants, but they usually exert other biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. Uncertainty about which of these biological properties is the most important for explaining their anti-atherogenic effect is a major unresolved question in the field. Structure-function studies relating the in vitro properties of these peptides to their ability to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models may uncover the best rationale for the design of these peptides and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the atheroprotective effect of HDL. PMID:21172387

  4. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations?

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Richard T; Zillikens, M Carola; Friesema, Edith C H; delli Paoli, Giuseppe; Bloch, Wilhelm; Uitterlinden, André G; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities. In recent years signal transduction pathways related to exercise and fasting/food withdrawal in muscle have been intensively studied, both in animals and in humans. Combining fasting/food withdrawal with exercise in animals as well as in humans causes changes unlike those seen during fasting/food withdrawal or exercise alone, which favor repair of muscle over autophagy. In addition, compounds that mimic exercise have been studied in combination with exercise or fasting/food withdrawal. This review addresses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the individual and combined effects of fasting/food withdrawal, endurance or resistance exercise, and their mimetics, in muscle vs other organs in rodents and humans, and highlights which combinations may improve metabolic disorders.-Jaspers, R. T., Zillikens, M. C., Friesema, E. C. H., delli Paoli, G., Bloch, W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Goglia, F., Lanni, A., de Lange, P. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations.

  5. Interfacing membrane mimetics with mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Michael T.; Hoi, Kin Kuan; Robinson, Carol V.

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus Membrane proteins play critical physiological roles and make up the majority of drug targets. Due to their generally low expression levels and amphipathic nature, membrane proteins represent challenging molecular entities for biophysical study. Mass spectrometry offers several sensitive approaches to study the biophysics of membrane proteins. By preserving noncovalent interactions in the gas phase and using collisional activation to remove solubilization agents inside the mass spectrometer, native mass spectrometry (MS) is capable of studying isolated assemblies that would be insoluble in aqueous solution, such as membrane protein oligomers and protein-lipid complexes. Conventional methods use detergent to solubilize the protein prior to electrospray ionization. Gas-phase activation inside the mass spectrometer removes the detergent to yield the isolated proteins with bound ligands. This approach has proven highly successful for ionizing membrane proteins. With the appropriate choice of detergents, membrane proteins with bound lipid species can be observed, which allows characterization of protein-lipid interactions. However, detergents have several limitations. They do not necessarily replicate the native lipid bilayer environment, and only a small number of protein-lipid interactions can be resolved. In this Account, we summarize the development of different membrane mimetics as cassettes for MS analysis of membrane proteins. Examples include amphipols, bicelles, and picodiscs with a special emphasis on lipoprotein Nanodiscs. Polydispersity and heterogeneity of the membrane mimetic cassette is a critical issue for study by MS. Ever more complex datasets consisting of overlapping protein charge states and multiple lipid-bound entities have required development of new computational, theoretical, and experimental approaches to interpret both mass and ion mobility spectra. We will present the rationale and limitations of these approaches. Starting with the

  6. Caloric restriction mimetics: towards a molecular definition.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Frank; Pietrocola, Federico; Eisenberg, Tobias; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Caloric restriction, be it constant or intermittent, is reputed to have health-promoting and lifespan-extending effects. Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are compounds that mimic the biochemical and functional effects of caloric restriction. In this Opinion article, we propose a unifying definition of CRMs as compounds that stimulate autophagy by favouring the deacetylation of cellular proteins. This deacetylation process can be achieved by three classes of compounds that deplete acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA; the sole donor of acetyl groups), that inhibit acetyl transferases (a group of enzymes that acetylate lysine residues in an array of proteins) or that stimulate the activity of deacetylases and hence reverse the action of acetyl transferases. A unifying definition of CRMs will be important for the continued development of this class of therapeutic agents.

  7. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself.

  8. A spectral mimetic least-squares method

    DOE PAGES

    Bochev, Pavel; Gerritsma, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral mimetic least-squares method for a model diffusion–reaction problem, which preserves key conservation properties of the continuum problem. Casting the model problem into a first-order system for two scalar and two vector variables shifts material properties from the differential equations to a pair of constitutive relations. We also use this system to motivate a new least-squares functional involving all four fields and show that its minimizer satisfies the differential equations exactly. Discretization of the four-field least-squares functional by spectral spaces compatible with the differential operators leads to a least-squares method in which the differential equations are alsomore » satisfied exactly. Additionally, the latter are reduced to purely topological relationships for the degrees of freedom that can be satisfied without reference to basis functions. Furthermore, numerical experiments confirm the spectral accuracy of the method and its local conservation.« less

  9. A spectral mimetic least-squares method

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel; Gerritsma, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral mimetic least-squares method for a model diffusion–reaction problem, which preserves key conservation properties of the continuum problem. Casting the model problem into a first-order system for two scalar and two vector variables shifts material properties from the differential equations to a pair of constitutive relations. We also use this system to motivate a new least-squares functional involving all four fields and show that its minimizer satisfies the differential equations exactly. Discretization of the four-field least-squares functional by spectral spaces compatible with the differential operators leads to a least-squares method in which the differential equations are also satisfied exactly. Additionally, the latter are reduced to purely topological relationships for the degrees of freedom that can be satisfied without reference to basis functions. Furthermore, numerical experiments confirm the spectral accuracy of the method and its local conservation.

  10. Peptide Mimetics of Apolipoproteins Improve HDL Function

    PubMed Central

    Navab, Mohamad; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Buga, Georgette M.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade evidence has accumulated that suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL may be at least as important as the levels of HDL-cholesterol. The recent failure of the torcetrapib clinical trails has highlighted the potential differences between HDL-cholesterol levels and HDL function. Agents to improve HDL function including HDL anti-inflammatory properties provide a new therapeutic strategy for ameliorating atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions related to dyslipidemia. Seeking guidance from the structure of the apolipoproteins of the plasma lipoproteins has allowed the creation of a series of polypeptides that have interesting functionality with therapeutic implications. In animal models of atherosclerosis, peptide mimetics of apolipoproteins have been shown to improve the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL, significantly reduce lesions and improve vascular inflammation and function without necessarily altering HDL-cholesterol levels. Some of these are now entering the clinical arena as interventions in pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic studies. PMID:18449337

  11. Crossmodal Modulation of Spatial Localization by Mimetic Words

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Miura, Kayo

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether aurally presented mimetic words affect the judgment of the final position of a moving object. In Experiment 1, horizontal apparent motion of a visual target was presented, and an auditory mimetic word of “byun” (representing rapid forward motion), “pitari” (representing stop of motion), or “nisahi” (nonsense syllable) was presented via headphones. Observers were asked to judge which of two test stimuli was horizontally aligned with the target. The results showed that forward displacement in the “pitari” condition was significantly smaller than in the “byun” and “nisahi” conditions. However, when non-mimetic but meaningful words were presented (Experiment 2), this effect did not occur. Our findings suggest that the mimetic words, especially that meaning stop of motion, affect spatial localization by means of mental imagery regarding “stop” established by the phonological information of the word. PMID:27994845

  12. Design and synthesis of a protein. beta. -turn mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.L.; Voss, M.E.; Hill, D.E.; Kahn, M.; Madison, V.S.; Cook, C.M. )

    1990-01-03

    A nine-membered-ring lactam system (1) has been chosen as a framework for the development of non-peptide molecules to mimic structural features of peptide and protein {beta}-turns. The synthesis of model di- and tetrapeptide mimetics starting from 1,5-cyclooctadiene derivatives is reported. In the model dipeptide mimetic (9), the amide linkages is trans (NMR, X-ray) and functional groups at positions adjacent to the lactam amide bond correspond closely to the side-chain positions of residues i + 1 and i + 2 of classical type II{prime} {beta}-turns. In the model tetrapeptide mimetic (30), all four side chains of low-energy trans amide conformers of the mimetic are well matched to their peptide counterparts.

  13. Promises and Challenges of Smac Mimetics as Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-11-15

    Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins block programmed cell death and are expressed at high levels in various human cancers, thus making them attractive targets for cancer drug development. Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetics are small-molecule inhibitors that mimic Smac, an endogenous antagonist of IAP proteins. Preclinical studies have shown that Smac mimetics can directly trigger cancer cell death or, even more importantly, sensitize tumor cells for various cytotoxic therapies, including conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or novel agents. Currently, several Smac mimetics are under evaluation in early clinical trials as monotherapy or in rational combinations (i.e., GDC-0917/CUDC-427, LCL161, AT-406/Debio1143, HGS1029, and TL32711/birinapant). This review discusses the promise as well as some challenges at the translational interface of exploiting Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics.

  14. Vasculoprotective Effects of Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: An Evolving Paradigm In Hdl Therapy (Vascular Disease Prevention, In Press.).

    PubMed

    White, C Roger; Datta, Geeta; Mochon, Paulina; Zhang, Zhenghao; Kelly, Ollie; Curcio, Christine; Parks, Dale; Palgunachari, Mayakonda; Handattu, Shaila; Gupta, Himanshu; Garber, David W; Anantharamaiah, G M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-atherogenic effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its major protein component apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are principally thought to be due to their ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. These agents also possess anti-oxidant properties that prevent the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and anti-inflammatory properties that include inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. Results of the Framingham study revealed that a reduction in HDL levels is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Accordingly, there has been considerable interest in developing new therapies that specifically elevate HDL cholesterol. However, recent evidence suggests that increasing circulating HDL cholesterol levels alone is not sufficient as a mode of HDL therapy. Rather, therapeutic approaches that increase the functional properties of HDL may be superior to simply raising the levels of HDL per se. Our laboratory has pioneered the development of synthetic, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides which are structurally and functionally similar to apoA-I but possess unique structural homology to the lipid-associating domains of apoA-I. The apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F inhibits atherogenic lesion formation in murine models of atherosclerosis. This effect is related to the ability of 4F to induce the formation of pre-β HDL particles that are enriched in apoA-I and paraoxonase. 4F also possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties that are independent of its effect on HDL quality per se. Recent studies suggest that 4F stimulates the expression of the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase and inhibits superoxide anion formation in blood vessels of diabetic, hypercholesterolemic and sickle cell disease mice. The goal of this review is to discuss HDL-dependent and -independent mechanisms by which apoA-I mimetic peptides reduce vascular injury in experimental animal models.

  15. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  16. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  17. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications.

  18. Dispersal of mimetic seeds of three species of Ormosia (Leguminosae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.; DeLay, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds with 'imitation arils' appear wholly or partially covered by pulp or aril but actually carry no fleshy material. The mimetic seed hypothesis to explain this phenomenon proposes a parasitic relationship in which birds are deceived into dispersing seeds that resemble bird-dispersed fruits, without receiving a nutrient reward. The hard-seed for grit hypothesis proposes a mutualistic relationship in which large, terrestrial birds swallow the exceptionally hard 'mimetic' seeds as grit for grinding the softer seeds on which they feed. They defecate, dispersing the seeds, and abrade the seed surface, enhancing germination. Any fruit mimicry is incidental. Fruiting trees of Ormosia spp. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) were observed to ascertain mechanisms of seed dispersal and the role of seemingly mimetic characteristics of the seeds in that dispersal. Seed predation and seed germination were also examined. Ormosia isthamensis and O. macrocalyx (but not O. bopiensis) deceived arboreally-foraging frugivorous birds into taking their mimetic seeds, although rates of seed dispersal were low. These results are consistent with the mimetic seed hypothesis. On the other hand, the rates of disappearance of seeds from the ground under the Ormosia trees, hardness of the seeds, and enhancement of germination with the abrasion of the seed coat are all consistent with the hard-seed for grit hypothesis.

  19. Dark energy oscillations in mimetic F (R ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the problem of dark energy oscillations in the context of mimetic F (R ) gravity with potential. The issue of dark energy oscillations can be a problem in some models of ordinary F (R ) gravity, and a remedy that can make the oscillations milder is to introduce additional modifications in the functional form of the F (R ) gravity. As we demonstrate, the power-law modifications are not necessary in the mimetic F (R ) case, and by appropriately choosing the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier, it is possible to make the oscillations almost vanish at the end of the matter domination era and during the late-time acceleration era. We examine the behavior of the dark energy equation of state parameter and of the total effective equation of state parameter as functions of the redshift, and we compare the resulting picture with the ordinary F (R ) gravity case. As we also show that the present day values of the dark energy equation of state parameter and of the total effective equation of state parameter are in better agreement with the observational data, in comparison to the ordinary F (R ) gravity case. Finally, we study the evolution of the growth factor as a function of the redshift for all the mimetic models we use.

  20. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  1. Bio-mimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted membranes.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-07-30

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  2. A BH3 Mimetic for Killing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R

    2016-06-16

    Venetoclax is a BH3 mimetic approved for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis but "primed for death" by elevated BCL-2, which binds to pro-apoptotic proteins and holds them in check. Venetoclax releases this antagonism and is the first approved drug to target a protein-protein interaction.

  3. Designing a small molecule erythropoietin mimetic.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a protein made by the kidneys in response to low red blood cell count that is secreted into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor on hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow inducing them to become new red blood cells. EPO made with recombinant DNA technology was brought to market in the 1980s to treat anemia caused by kidney disease and cancer chemotherapy. Because EPO infusion was able to replace blood transfusions in many cases, it rapidly became a multibillion dollar per year drug and as the first biologic created with recombinant technology it launched the biotech industry. For many years intense research was focused on creating a small molecule orally available EPO mimetic. The Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) group seemed to definitively establish that only large peptides with a minimum of 60 residues could replace EPO, as anything less was not a full agonist. An intense study of the published work led me to hypothesize that the size of the mimetic is not the real issue, but the symmetry making and breaking of the EPO receptor induced by the ligand is the key to activating the stem cells. This analysis meant that residues in the binding site of the receptor deemed absolutely essential for ligand binding and activation from mutagenesis experiments, were probably not really that important. My fundamental hypotheses were: (a) the symmetric state of the homodimeric receptor is the most stable state and thus must be the off-state, (b) a highly localized binding site exists at a pivot point where the two halves of the receptor meet, (c) small molecules can be created that have high potency for this site that will be competitive with EPO and thus can displace the protein-protein interaction, (d) small symmetric molecules will stabilize the symmetric off-state of the receptor, and (e) a key asymmetry in the small molecule will stabilize a mirror image asymmetry in the receptor resulting in the stabilization of the on-state and proliferation of

  4. A novel mimetic antigen eliciting protective antibody to Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; Moe, G R; Giuliani, M M; Adu-Bobie, J; Santini, L; Brunelli, B; Piccinetti, F; Zuno-Mitchell, P; Lee, S S; Neri, P; Bracci, L; Lozzi, L; Rappuoli, R

    2001-12-01

    Molecular mimetic Ags are of considerable interest as vaccine candidates. Yet there are few examples of mimetic Ags that elicit protective Ab against a pathogen, and the functional activity of anti-mimetic Abs has not been studied in detail. As part of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B genome sequencing project, a large number of novel proteins were identified. Herein, we provide evidence that genome-derived Ag 33 (GNA33), a lipoprotein with homology to Escherichia coli murein transglycosylase, elicits protective Ab to meningococci as a result of mimicking an epitope on loop 4 of porin A (PorA) in strains with serosubtype P1.2. Epitope mapping of a bactericidal anti-GNA33 mAb using overlapping peptides shows that the mAb recognizes peptides from GNA33 and PorA that share a QTP sequence that is necessary but not sufficient for binding. By flow cytometry, mouse antisera prepared against rGNA33 and the anti-GNA33 mAb bind as well as an anti-PorA P1.2 mAb to the surface of eight of nine N. meningitidis serogroup B strains tested with the P1.2 serosubtype. Anti-GNA33 Abs also are bactericidal for most P1.2 strains and, for susceptible strains, the activity of an anti-GNA33 mAb is similar to that of an anticapsular mAb but less active than an anti-P1.2 mAb. Anti-GNA Abs also confer passive protection against bacteremia in infant rats challenged with P1.2 strains. Thus, GNA33 represents one of the most effective immunogenic mimetics yet described. These results demonstrate that molecular mimetics have potential as meningococcal vaccine candidates.

  5. Imperfect Batesian mimicry and the conspicuousness costs of mimetic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2010-07-01

    We apply signal detection methodology to make predictions about the evolution of Batesian mimicry. Our approach is novel in three ways. First, we applied a deterministic evolutionary modeling system that allows a large number of alternative mimetic morphs to coexist and compete. Second, we considered that there may be natural boundaries to phenotypic expression. Finally, we allowed increasing conspicuousness to impose an increasing detection cost on mimics. In some instances, the model predicts widespread variation in mimetic forms at evolutionary stability. In other situations, rather than a polymorphism the model predicts dimorphisms in which some prey were maximally cryptic and had minimal resemblance to the model, whereas many others were more conspicuous than the model. The biological implications of these results, particularly for our understanding of imperfect mimicry, are discussed.

  6. Small-molecule SMAC mimetics as new cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longchuan; Smith, David C; Wang, Shaomeng

    2014-10-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cellular process and faulty regulation of apoptosis is a hallmark of human cancers. Targeting key apoptosis regulators with the goal to restore apoptosis in tumor cells has been pursued as a new cancer therapeutic strategy. XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, members of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, are critical regulators of cell death and survival and are attractive targets for new cancer therapy. The SMAC/DIABLO protein is an endogenous antagonist of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2. In the last decade, intense research efforts have resulted in the design and development of several small-molecule SMAC mimetics now in clinical trials for cancer treatment. In this review, we will discuss the roles of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 in regulation of cell death and survival, and the design and development of small-molecule SMAC mimetics as novel cancer treatments.

  7. Dynamical behavior in mimetic F(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N. E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological behavior of mimetic F(R) gravity. This scenario is the F(R) extension of usual mimetic gravity classes, which are based on re-parametrizations of the metric using new, but not propagating, degrees of freedom, that can lead to a wider family of solutions. Performing a detailed dynamical analysis for exponential, power-law, and arbitrary F(R) forms, we extracted the corresponding critical points. Interestingly enough, we found that although the new features of mimetic F(R) gravity can affect the universe evolution at early and intermediate times, at late times they will not have any effect, and the universe will result at stable states that coincide with those of usual F(R) gravity. However, this feature holds for the late-time background evolution only. On the contrary, the behavior of the perturbations is expected to be different since the new term contributes to the perturbations even if it does not contribute at the background level.

  8. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kooijmans, Sander A A; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2012-01-01

    The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.

  9. BH3 mimetics activate multiple pro-autophagic pathways.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Orhon, I; Morselli, E; Criollo, A; Shen, S; Mariño, G; BenYounes, A; Bénit, P; Rustin, P; Maiuri, M C; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-15

    The BH3 mimetic ABT737 induces autophagy by competitively disrupting the inhibitory interaction between the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), thereby stimulating the Beclin 1-dependent allosteric activation of the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Here, we examined whether ABT737 stimulates other pro-autophagic signal-transduction pathways. ABT737 caused the activating phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and of the AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, the activating phosphorylation of several subunits of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) and the hyperphosphorylation of the IKK substrate IκB, inhibition of the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and consequent dephosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase. In addition, ABT737 treatment dephosphorylates (and hence likewise inhibits) p53, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt. All these effects were shared by ABT737 and another structurally unrelated BH3 mimetic, HA14-1. Functional experiments revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IKK, Sirtuin and the p53-depleting ubiquitin ligase MDM2 prevented ABT737-induced autophagy. These results point to unexpected and pleiotropic pro-autophagic effects of BH3 mimetics involving the modulation of multiple signalling pathways.

  10. Phylogenetic Codivergence Supports Coevolution of Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer; Charleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The unpalatable and warning-patterned butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene provide the best studied example of mutualistic Müllerian mimicry, thought–but rarely demonstrated–to promote coevolution. Some of the strongest available evidence for coevolution comes from phylogenetic codivergence, the parallel divergence of ecologically associated lineages. Early evolutionary reconstructions suggested codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and this was initially hailed as one of the most striking known cases of coevolution. However, subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses found discrepancies in phylogenetic branching patterns and timing (topological and temporal incongruence) that argued against codivergence. We present the first explicit cophylogenetic test of codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and re-examine the timing of these radiations. We find statistically significant topological congruence between multilocus coalescent population phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene. Cophylogenetic historical reconstructions support repeated codivergence of mimetic populations, from the base of the sampled radiations. Pairwise distance correlation tests, based on our coalescent analyses plus recently published AFLP and wing colour pattern gene data, also suggest that the phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene show significant topological congruence. Divergence time estimates, based on a Bayesian coalescent model, suggest that the evolutionary radiations of H. erato and H. melpomene occurred over the same time period, and are compatible with a series of temporally congruent codivergence events. Our results suggest that differences in within-species genetic divergence are the result of a greater overall effective population size for H. erato relative to H. melpomene and do not imply incongruence in the timing of their phylogenetic radiations. Repeated codivergence between M

  11. Non-peptidyl insulin mimetics as a potential antidiabetic agent.

    PubMed

    Nankar, Rakesh P; Doble, Mukesh

    2013-08-01

    Insulin has an important role in the maintenance of blood sugar. It is the only available therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and there is a dire need for an oral substitute. Different categories of compounds including mono and di substituted benzoquinones, vanadium based compounds and natural products have been reported to cause insulin-like effects either by increasing phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) or inhibiting the protein tyrosine phosphatases. This review summarizes the development of various insulin mimetics with special emphasis on their structure-activity relationships and various biological actions they produce.

  12. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the

  13. Microemulsions, micelles, and vesicles as media for membrane mimetic photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1980-06-12

    Microemulsions, micelles, and vesicles are compared as media for membrane mimetic photochemistry. These systems solubilize, concentrate, compartmentalize, organize, and localize reactants; maintain proton and/or reactant gradients; alter quantum efficiencies; lower ionization potentials; change oxidation and reduction properties; change dissociation constants; affect vectorial electron displacements; alter photophysical pathways and rates; alter chemical pathways and rates; stabilize reactants, intermediates, and products; and separate products (charges). Formation of structures of microemulsions, micelles, and vesicles as well as substrate solubilization therein are summarized. Attention is focused on the utilization of microemulsions as reaction media. 72 references.

  14. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic) or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic) to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation. PMID:21631947

  15. Road to exercise mimetics: targeting nuclear receptors in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Atkins, Annette R; Yu, Ruth T; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body and is the major site for energy expenditure. It exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to physiological stimuli such as exercise. Physical exercise remodels skeletal muscle and enhances its capability to burn calories, which has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical conditions including the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a class of transcription factors found only in metazoans that regulate major biological processes such as reproduction, development, and metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated crucial roles for NRs and their co-regulators in the regulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism and exercise-induced muscle remodeling. While nothing can fully replace exercise, development of exercise mimetics that enhance or even substitute for the beneficial effects of physical exercise would be of great benefit. The unique property of NRs that allows modulation by endogenous or synthetic ligands makes them bona fide therapeutic targets. In this review, we present an overview of the current understanding of the role of NRs and their co-regulators in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and summarize recent progress in the development of exercise mimetics that target NRs and their co-regulators.

  16. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicholes, N.; Date, A.; Beaujean, P.; Hauk, P.; Kanwar, M.; Ostermeier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. PMID:26637825

  17. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicholes, N; Date, A; Beaujean, P; Hauk, P; Kanwar, M; Ostermeier, M

    2016-02-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms.

  18. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of zinc.

    PubMed

    Vardatsikos, George; Pandey, Nihar R; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-03-01

    While it has long been known that zinc (Zn) is crucial for the proper growth and maintenance of normal biological functions, Zn has also been shown to exert insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects. These insulin-like properties have been demonstrated in isolated cells, tissues, and different animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Zn treatment has been found to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rodent models of diabetes. In isolated cells, it enhances glucose transport, glycogen and lipid synthesis, and inhibits gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the insulin-like effects of Zn compounds involves the activation of several key components of the insulin signaling pathways, which include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) pathways. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which Zn triggers the activation of these pathways remain to be clarified. In this review, we provide a brief history of zinc, and an overview of its insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects, as well as the potential mechanisms by which zinc exerts these effects.

  19. Chronic Wound Dressings Based on Collagen-Mimetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cereceres, Stacy; Touchet, Tyler; Browning, Mary Beth; Smith, Clayton; Rivera, Jose; Höök, Magnus; Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan; Russell, Brooke; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic wounds are projected to reach epidemic proportions due to the aging population and the increasing incidence of diabetes. There is a strong clinical need for an improved wound dressing that can balance wound moisture, promote cell migration and proliferation, and degrade at an appropriate rate to minimize the need for dressing changes. Approach: To this end, we have developed a bioactive, hydrogel microsphere wound dressing that incorporates a collagen-mimetic protein, Scl2GFPGER, to promote active wound healing. A redesigned Scl2GFPGER, engineered collagen (eColGFPGER), was created to reduce steric hindrance of integrin-binding motifs and increase overall stability of the triple helical backbone, thereby resulting in increased cell adhesion to substrates. Results: This study demonstrates the successful modification of the Scl2GFPGER protein to eColGFPGER, which displayed enhanced stability and integrin interactions. Fabrication of hydrogel microspheres provided a matrix with adaptive moisture technology, and degradation rates have potential for use in human wounds. Innovation: This collagen-mimetic wound dressing was designed to permit controlled modulation of cellular interactions and degradation rate without impact on other physical properties. Its fabrication into uniform hydrogel microspheres provides a bioactive dressing that can readily conform to irregular wounds. Conclusion: Overall, this new eColGFPGER shows strong promise in the generation of bioactive hydrogels for wound healing as well as a variety of tissue scaffolds. PMID:26244101

  20. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  1. Molecules that Mimic Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential Agents for Treating Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Luke J.; Maryanoff, Bruce E.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2013-01-01

    Certain amphipathic α-helical peptides can functionally mimic many of the properties of full-length apolipoproteins, thereby offering an approach to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for combating atherosclerosis. In this Perspective, we summarize the key findings and advances over the past 25 years in the development of peptides that mimic apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). This assemblage of information provides a reasonably clear picture of the state of the art in the apolipoprotein mimetic field, an appreciation of the potential for such agents in pharmacotherapy, and a sense of the opportunities for optimizing the functional properties of HDL. PMID:24168751

  2. Modification of biomaterials surface by mimetic cell membrane to improve biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Guo-Xin; Ning, Cheng-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Modification of biomaterials surface by mimetic cell membrane for improving biocompatibility, to imitate the excellent biological and physiological properties of the natural cell membrane, is an important research area in materials science. Numerous studies have been attempted to construct a mimetic cell membrane biointerface composed of phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing polymers or other phospholipid analogues on biomaterials surface. PC-containing biointerfaces show outstanding characteristics, especially in biological aspects such as blood compatibility and antifouling property. In this mini-review, the strategies of membrane mimetic modification of biomaterials and their antifouling applications are summarized.

  3. Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein and the Potential of Apolipoprotein A-1 Mimetic Peptides to Normalize the Composition and Function of Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Navab, Mohamad; Morgantini, Cecilia; Charles-Sehoeman, Christina; Su, Feng; Gao, Feng; Kwon, Murray; Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Meriwether, David; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2013-01-01

    Although high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in large epidemiological studies are inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), increasing the level of circulating HDL-C does not necessarily decrease the risk of CHD events, CHD deaths, or mortality, HDL can act as an anti- or a proinflammatory molecule, depending on the context and environment. Based on a number of recent studies, it appears that the anti- or proinflammatory nature of HDL may be a more sensitive indicator of the presence or absence of atherosclerosis than HDL-C levels. The HDL proteome has been suggested to be a marker, and perhaps a mediator, of CHD. Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-I), the major protein in HDL is a selective target for oxidation by myeloperoxidase, which results in impaired HDL function. Improving HDL function through modification of its lipid and/or protein content maybe a therapeutic target for the treatment of CHD and many inflammatory disorders. HDL/apoA-I mimetic peptides may have the ability to modify the lipid and protein content of HDL and convert dysfunctional HDL to functional HDL. This review focuses on recent studies of dysfunctional HDL in animal models and human disease, and the potential of apoA-I mimetic peptides to normalize the composition and (function of lipoproteins. PMID:21628835

  4. Inflamed leukocyte-mimetic nanoparticles for molecular imaging of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Wong, Richard; Khalidov, Ildar; Wang, Andrew Y; Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Wang, Yi; Jin, Moonsoo M

    2011-10-01

    Dysregulated host inflammatory response causes many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and sepsis. Sensitive detection of the site of inflammation will, therefore, produce a wide-ranging impact on disease diagnosis and treatment. We hypothesized that nanoprobes designed to mimic the molecular interactions occurring between inflamed leukocytes and endothelium may possess selectivity toward diverse host inflammatory responses. To incorporate inflammation-sensitive molecular interactions, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were conjugated with integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 I domain, engineered to mimic activated leukocytes in physiology. Whole body optical and magnetic resonance imaging in vivo revealed that leukocyte-mimetic nanoparticles localized preferentially to the vasculature within and in the invasive front of the tumor, as well as to the site of acute inflammation. This study explored in vivo detection of tumor-associated vasculature with systemically injected inflammation-specific nanoparticles, presenting a possibility of tumor detection by inflamed tumor microenvironment.

  5. A multilevel multiscale mimetic method for an anisotropic infiltration problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Moulton, David; Svyatskiy, Daniil

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed to simulate two-phase flow in porous media. The M{sup 3} method is locally mass conserving at all levels in its hierarchy, it supports unstructured polygonal grids and full tensor permeabilities, and it can achieve large coarsening factors. In this work we consider infiltration of water into a two-dimensional layered medium. The grid is aligned with the layers but not the coordinate axes. We demonstrate that with an efficient temporal updating strategy for the coarsening parameters, fine-scale accuracy of prominent features in the flow is maintained by the M{sup 3} method.

  6. New diketone based vanadium complexes as insulin mimetics.

    PubMed

    Sheela, A; Roopan, S Mohana; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2008-10-01

    Since 1985, when Heyliger et al. first reported the in vivo insulin mimetic activity of oral vanadate, extensive studies exploring vanadium chemistry, including the synthesis of novel complexes and their biological effects both in vitro and in vivo have been pursued. Such complexes have emerged as possible potential agents for diabetes therapy. Among the several existing compounds, diketone based vanadium complexes have been chosen for the current study. Two new complexes namely bisdimethylmalonatooxovanadium(IV) and bisdiethylmalonatooxovanadium(IV) have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible, FTIR and mass spectral studies. The antidiabetic activity of the complexes was proved by animal study. The results show that the above complexes have comparable antidiabetic potential with respect to the standard drug as well as with bisacetylacetonatooxovanadium(IV) which has been studied earlier by Reul et al.

  7. Resveratrol as a calorie restriction mimetic: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jay H.; Manganiello, Vincent; Dyck, Jason R.B.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that calorie restriction (CR) can extend the lifespan of model organisms and protect against aging-related diseases. A potential CR mimetic is resveratrol, which may have beneficial effects against numerous diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in tissue culture and animal models. However, resveratrol in its current form is not ideal as therapy, because even at very high doses it has modest efficacy and many downstream effects. Identifying the cellular targets responsible for the effects of resveratrol and developing target-specific therapies will be helpful in increasing the efficacy of this drug without increasing its potential adverse effects. A recent discovery suggests that the metabolic effects of resveratrol may be mediated by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), particularly PDE4. Here, we review the current literature on the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of resveratrol and attempt to shed light on the controversies surrounding its action. PMID:22885100

  8. Genes controlling mimetic colour pattern variation in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Nicola J

    2016-10-01

    Butterfly wing patterns are made up of arrays of coloured scales. There are two genera in which within-species variation in wing patterning is common and has been investigated at the molecular level, Heliconius and Papilio. Both of these species have mimetic relationships with other butterfly species that increase their protection from predators. Heliconius have a 'tool-kit' of five genetic loci that control colour pattern, three of which have been identified at the gene level, and which have been repeatedly used to modify colour pattern by different species in the genus. By contrast, the three Papilio species that have been investigated each have different genetic mechanisms controlling their polymorphic wing patterns.

  9. Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Jason R.; Imhoff, Vance E.; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Pote, Ben L.; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E.; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

  10. Towards protein-based viral mimetics for cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Vázquez, Esther; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Mangues, Ramón; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    High resistance and recurrence rates, together with elevated drug clearance, compel the use of maximum-tolerated drug doses in cancer therapy, resulting in high-grade toxicities and limited clinical applicability. Promoting active drug accumulation in tumor tissues would minimize such issues and improve therapeutic outcomes. A new class of therapeutic drugs suitable for the task has emerged based on the concept of virus-mimetic nanocarriers, or 'artificial viruses'. Among the spectrum of materials under exploration in nanocarrier research, proteins offer unparalleled structural and functional versatility for designing virus-like molecular vehicles. By exhibiting 'smart' functions and biomimetic traits, protein-based nanocarriers will be a step ahead of the conventional drug-protein conjugates already in the clinic in ensuring efficient delivery of passenger antitumor drugs.

  11. Type I Collagen and Collagen Mimetics as Angiogenesis Promoting Superpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Twardowski, T.; Fertala, A.; Orgel, J.P.R.O.; San Antonio, J.D.

    2008-07-18

    Angiogenesis, the development of blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, is a key component of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Angiogenesis also drives pathologies such as tumor growth and metastasis, and hemangioma development in newborns. On the other hand, promotion of angiogenesis is needed in tissues with vascular insufficiencies, and in bioengineering, to endow tissue substitutes with appropriate microvasculatures. Therefore, much research has focused on defining mechanisms of angiogenesis, and identifying pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. Type I collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, potently stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Crucial to its angiogenic activity appears to be ligation and possibly clustering of endothelial cell (EC) surface {alpha}1{beta}1/{alpha}2{beta}1 integrin receptors by the GFPGER502-507 sequence of the collagen fibril. However, additional aspects of collagen structure and function that may modulate its angiogenic properties are discussed. Moreover, type I collagen and fibrin, another angiogenic polymer, share several structural features. These observations suggest strategies for creating 'angiogenic superpolymers', including: modifying type I collagen to influence its biological half-life, immunogenicity, and integrin binding capacity; genetically engineering fibrillar collagens to include additional integrin binding sites or angiogenic determinants, and remove unnecessary or deleterious sequences without compromising fibril integrity; and exploring the suitability of poly(ortho ester), PEG-lysine copolymer, tubulin, and cholesteric cuticle as collagen mimetics, and suggesting means of modifying them to display ideal angiogenic properties. The collagenous and collagen mimetic angiogenic superpolymers described here may someday prove useful for many applications in tissue engineering and human medicine.

  12. Design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of ShK toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baell, Jonathan B.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2002-04-01

    ShK toxin is a structurally defined, 35-residue polypeptide which blocks the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel in T-lymphocytes and has been identified as a possible immunosuppressant. Our interest lies in the rational design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of protein and polypeptide structure and function. ShK toxin is a challenging target for mimetic design as its binding epitope consists of relatively weakly binding residues, some of which are discontinuous. We discuss here our investigations into the design and synthesis of 1st generation, small molecule mimetics of ShK toxin and highlight any principles relevant to the generic design of type-III mimetics of continuous and discontinuous binding epitopes. We complement our approach with attempted pharmacophore-based database mining.

  13. A non-linear constrained optimization technique for the mimetic finite difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco; Svyatskiy, Daniil; Bertolazzi, Enrico; Frego, Marco

    2014-09-30

    This is a strategy for the construction of monotone schemes in the framework of the mimetic finite difference method for the approximation of diffusion problems on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes.

  14. The Benefits of Calorie Restriction and Calorie Restriction Mimetics as Related to the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Anekonda, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of calorie restriction without malnutrition seem to possess many beneficial effects in numerous disease states. Recently, studies related to calorie restriction mimetics that biochemically mimic the effects of calorie restriction are also becoming increasingly popular. Both calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics trigger an adaptive response reminiscent of mild-stress or low-dose toxic response, which is frequently referred to as hormesis in the toxicology literature. Although some benefits of calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics have been studied, the role of hormesis-related pathways in the eye has not been given a special attention. This review will present the current literature on calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics as related to most prominent eye diseases and provide insights on the therapeutic role of hormesis in eye diseases. PMID:20844606

  15. Female preferences drive the evolution of mimetic accuracy in male sexual displays.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Seth William; Patricelli, Gail Lisa; Coyle, Brian; Siani, Jennifer; Borgia, Gerald

    2007-10-22

    Males in many bird species mimic the vocalizations of other species during sexual displays, but the evolutionary and functional significance of interspecific vocal mimicry is unclear. Here we use spectrographic cross-correlation to compare mimetic calls produced by male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) in courtship with calls from several model species. We show that the accuracy of vocal mimicry and the number of model species mimicked are both independently related to male mating success. Multivariate analyses revealed that these mimetic traits were better predictors of male mating success than other male display traits previously shown to be important for male mating success. We suggest that preference-driven mimetic accuracy may be a widespread occurrence, and that mimetic accuracy may provide females with important information about male quality. Our findings support an alternative hypothesis to help explain a common element of male sexual displays.

  16. Photochemical solar energy conversion utilizing semiconductors localized in membrane-mimetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1991-08-31

    Extending the frontiers of colloidal photochemistry and colloidal electrochemistry to solar photochemistry research had been the main objective of this research. More specific objectives of this proposal include the examination of semiconductor-particle-mediated photoelectron transfer and photoelectric effects in different membrane mimetic systems. Emphasis had been placed on developing bilayer lipid membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett films as new membrane-mimetic systems, as well as on the characterization and utilization of these systems.

  17. How sound symbolism is processed in the brain: a study on Japanese mimetic words.

    PubMed

    Kanero, Junko; Imai, Mutsumi; Okuda, Jiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the systematic and non-arbitrary link between word and meaning. Although a number of behavioral studies demonstrate that both children and adults are universally sensitive to sound symbolism in mimetic words, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been extensively investigated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how Japanese mimetic words are processed in the brain. In Experiment 1, we compared processing for motion mimetic words with that for non-sound symbolic motion verbs and adverbs. Mimetic words uniquely activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). In Experiment 2, we further examined the generalizability of the findings from Experiment 1 by testing another domain: shape mimetics. Our results show that the right posterior STS was active when subjects processed both motion and shape mimetic words, thus suggesting that this area may be the primary structure for processing sound symbolism. Increased activity in the right posterior STS may also reflect how sound symbolic words function as both linguistic and non-linguistic iconic symbols.

  18. Carbohydrate-mimetic peptides for pan anti-tumor responses.

    PubMed

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate-peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells.

  19. Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, Jacob; Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown remarkable potential for a wide range of applications over the past decades. Particularly, the biological compatibilities and functions of NPs have been extensively studied for expanding their potential in areas of biomedical application such as bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. In doing so, surface functionalization of NPs by introducing synthetic ligands and/or natural biomolecules has become a critical component in regards to the overall performance of the NP system for its intended use. Among known examples of surface functionalization, the construction of an artificial cell membrane structure, based on phospholipids, has proven effective in enhancing biocompatibility and has become a viable alternative to more traditional modifications, such as direct polymer conjugation. Furthermore, certain bioactive molecules can be immobilized onto the surface of phospholipid platforms to generate displays more reminiscent of cellular surface components. Thus, NPs with membrane-mimetic displays have found use in a range of bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery applications. This review herein describes recent advances in the preparations and characterization of integrated functional NPs covered by artificial cell membrane structures and their use in various biomedical applications. PMID:23688632

  20. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  1. Membrane-mimetic films of asymmetric phosphatidylcholine lipid bolaamphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Long; Biswas, Nilanjana; Kai, Toshitsugu; Dai, Zhifei; Dluhy, Richard A; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2006-01-31

    Membrane-spanning phospholipid bolaamphiphiles either alone or as a constituent of a multicomponent lipid membrane may prove to be facile building blocks for generating robust bioactive membrane-mimetic assemblies. We have previously reported the synthesis of asymmetric dialkyl phospholipid bolaamphiphiles that contain ester linked phosphatidylcholine and amine functionalities at opposite chain ends. In this report, we describe the synthesis of phospholipid bolaamphiphiles that are conjugated to biotin via the terminal amine with or without a poly(ethylene oxide) spacer arm of varying chain length. The behavior of biotinylated bolaamphiphiles as a self-assembled monolayer at an air-water interface was characterized by epi-fluorescence microscopy and revealed that domain structure and pi-A isotherms were substantially influenced by linker type and size. Substrate bound assemblies were produced by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto planar substrates coated with an avidin derivatized polyelectrolyte multilayer. Significantly, external reflectance infrared spectroscopy confirmed the fabrication of bolaamphiphile thin films that display extended stability in vitro.

  2. Preclinical pharmacokinetic analysis of NOV-002, a glutathione disulfide mimetic.

    PubMed

    Uys, J D; Manevich, Y; Devane, L C; He, L; Garret, T E; Pazoles, C J; Tew, K D; Townsend, D M

    2010-09-01

    NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic that is the subject of clinical investigation in oncology indications. GSSG is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to form glutathione (GSH), thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to report the pharmacokinetic properties of NOV-002 and evaluate the effect that NOV-002 elicits in redox homeostasis. The pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of NOV-002 and GSH was evaluated in mice following a dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. The redox potential and total protein thiol status was calculated. Here we show that NOV-002 is a substrate for GR and that GSH is a primary metabolite. Non-linear pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that the estimated absorption and elimination rate constants correspond to a half-life of approximately 13 min with an AUC of 1.18 μgh/mL, a C(max) of 2.16 μg/ml and a volume of distribution of 42.61 L/kg. In addition, measurement of the redox potential and total protein thiol status indicated the generation of a transient oxidative signal in the plasma compartment after administration of NOV-002. These results indicate that NOV-002 exerts kinetic and dynamic effects in mice consistent with the GSSG component as the active pharmacological constituent of the drug. A longer-lasting decrease in total plasma free thiol content was also seen, suggesting that the oxidative effect of the GSSG from NOV-002 was impacting redox homeostasis.

  3. The population genetics of mimetic diversity in Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kronforst, Marcus R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts strong stabilizing selection on warning patterns within species and convergent evolution among species in Müllerian mimicry systems yet Heliconius butterflies exhibit extreme wing pattern diversity. One potential explanation for the evolution of this diversity is that genetic drift occasionally allows novel warning patterns to reach the frequency threshold at which they gain protection. This idea is controversial, however, because Heliconius butterflies are unlikely to experience pronounced population subdivision and local genetic drift. To examine the fine-scale population genetic structure of Heliconius butterflies we genotyped 316 individuals from eight Costa Rican Heliconius species with 1428 AFLP markers. Six species exhibited evidence of population subdivision and/or isolation by distance indicating genetic differentiation among populations. Across species, variation in the extent of local genetic drift correlated with the roles different species have played in generating pattern diversity: species that originally generated the diversity of warning patterns exhibited striking population subdivision while species that later radiated onto these patterns had intermediate levels of genetic diversity and less genetic differentiation among populations. These data reveal that Heliconius butterflies possess the coarse population genetic structure necessary for local populations to experience pronounced genetic drift which, in turn, could explain the origin of mimetic diversity. PMID:18077248

  4. Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Heather M.; Counterman, Brian A.; Papa, Riccardo; Albuquerque de Moura, Priscila; Cardoso, Marcio Z.; Linares, Mauricio; Mallet, James; Reed, Robert D.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2011-01-01

    The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing-pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries, and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive traits as accurately as markers linked to color pattern genes. To assess the evolutionary histories across different loci, we compared relationships among races within H. erato and within H. melpomene using a series of unlinked genes, genes linked to color pattern loci, and optix, a gene recently shown to control red color-pattern variation. We found that although unlinked genes partition populations by geographic region, optix had a different history, structuring lineages by red color patterns and supporting a single origin of red-rayed patterns within each species. Genes closely linked (80–250 kb) to optix exhibited only weak associations with color pattern. This study empirically demonstrates the necessity of examining phenotype-determining genomic regions to understand the history of adaptive change in rapidly radiating lineages. With these refined relationships, we resolve a long-standing debate about the origins of the races within each species, supporting the hypothesis that the red-rayed Amazonian pattern evolved recently and expanded, causing disjunctions of more ancestral patterns. PMID:22084094

  5. Cerebral Response to Peripheral Challenge with a Viral Mimetic.

    PubMed

    Konat, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    It has been well established that peripheral inflammation resulting from microbial infections profoundly alters brain function. This review focuses on experimental systems that model cerebral effects of peripheral viral challenge. The most common models employ the induction of the acute phase response via intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The ensuing transient surge of blood-borne inflammatory mediators induces a "mirror" inflammatory response in the brain characterized by the upregulated expression of a plethora of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory/stress proteins. These inflammatory mediators modify the activity of neuronal networks leading to a constellation of behavioral traits collectively categorized as the sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is an important protective response of the host that has evolved to enhance survival and limit the spread of infections within a population. However, a growing body of clinical data indicates that the activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain may constitute a serious comorbidity factor for neuropathological conditions. Such comorbidity has been demonstrated using the PIC paradigm in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, prion disease and seizures. Also, prenatal or perinatal PIC challenge has been shown to disrupt normal cerebral development of the offspring resulting in phenotypes consistent with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Remarkably, recent studies indicate that mild peripheral PIC challenge may be neuroprotective in stroke. Altogether, the PIC challenge paradigm represents a unique heuristic model to elucidate the immune-to-brain communication pathways and to explore preventive strategies for neuropathological disorders.

  6. Synthesis of glycosaminoglycan mimetics through sulfation of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Rami A; Karuturi, Rajesh; Verespy, Stephen; Desai, Umesh R

    2015-01-01

    In nearly all cases of biological activity of sulfated GAGs, the sulfate group(s) are critical for interacting with target proteins. A growing paradigm is that appropriate small, sulfated, nonsaccharide GAG mimetics can be designed to either mimic or interfere with the biological functions of natural GAG sequences resulting in the discovery of either antagonist or agonist agents. A number of times these sulfated NSGMs can be computationally designed based on the parent GAG-protein interaction. The small sulfated NSGMs may possess considerable aromatic character so as to engineer hydrophobic, hydrogen-bonding, Coulombic or cation-pi forces in their interactions with target protein(s) resulting in higher specificity of action relative to parent GAGs. The sulfated NSGMs can be easily synthesized in one step from appropriate natural polyphenols through chemical sulfation under microwave-based conditions. We describe step-by-step procedures to perform microwave-based sulfation of several small polyphenol scaffolds so as to prepare homogenous NSGMs containing one to more than 10 sulfate groups per molecule in high yields.

  7. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  8. Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate–peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:25071769

  9. Metal stabilization of collagen and de novo designed mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Avanish S.; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H.; Belure, Sandeep V.; Hasan, Nida F.; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E.; Shreiber, David I.; Nanda, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacency of the carboxy-termini of the three chains makes this region an attractive target for introducing metal binding sites. We engineered His3 sites based on structural modeling constraints into a series of designed homotrimeric and heterotrimeric peptides, assessing the capacity of metal binding to improve stability and in the case of heterotrimers, affect specificity of assembly. Notable enhancements in stability for both homo and heteromeric systems were observed upon addition of zinc(II) and several other metal ions only when all three histidine ligands were present. Metal binding affinities were consistent with the expected Irving-Williams series for imidazole. Unlike other metals tested, copper(II) also bound to peptides lacking histidine ligands. Acetylation of the peptide N-termini prevented copper binding, indicating proline backbone amide metal-coordination at this site. Copper similarly stabilized animal extracted Type I collagen in a metal specific fashion, highlighting the potential importance of metal homeostasis within the extracellular matrix. PMID:26225466

  10. SOCS1 Mimetic Peptide Suppresses Chronic Intraocular Inflammatory Disease (Uveitis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sun, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening disease characterized by repeated cycles of remission and recurrent inflammation. The JAK/STAT pathway regulates the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells that mediate uveitis. A SOCS1 mimetic peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK2/STAT1 pathways has recently been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, it is not clear whether SOCS1-KIR ameliorated uveitis by targeting JAK/STAT pathways of pathogenic lymphocytes or via inhibition of macrophages and antigen-presenting cells that also enter the retina during EAU. To further investigate mechanisms that mediate SOCS1-KIR effects and evaluate the efficacy of SOCS1-KIR as an investigational drug for chronic uveitis, we induced EAU in rats by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T-cells and monitored disease progression and severity by slit-lamp microscopy, histology, and optical coherence tomography. Topical administration of SOCS1-KIR ameliorated acute and chronic posterior uveitis by inhibiting Th17 cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into retina while promoting expansion of IL-10-producing Tregs. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection of resident retinal cells that play critical role in vision from cytotoxic effects of inflammatory cytokines by downregulating proapoptotic genes. Thus, SOCS1-KIR suppresses uveitis and confers neuroprotective effects and might be exploited as a noninvasive treatment for chronic uveitis. PMID:27703302

  11. Bio-mimetic optical sensor for structural deflection measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Streeter, Robert W.; Khan, Md. A.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2014-03-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a primary goal of NASA aeronautics research. One approach to achieve this goal is to build lighter weight aircraft, which presents complex challenges due to a corresponding increase in structural flexibility. Wing flexibility can adversely affect aircraft performance from the perspective of aerodynamic efficiency and safety. Knowledge of the wing position during flight can aid active control methods designed to mitigate problems due to increased wing flexibility. Current approaches to measuring wing deflection, including strain measurement devices, accelerometers, or GPS solutions, and new technologies such as fiber optic strain sensors, have limitations for their practical application to flexible aircraft control. Hence, it was proposed to use a bio-mimetic optical sensor based on the fly-eye to track wing deflection in real-time. The fly-eye sensor has several advantages over conventional sensors used for this application, including light weight, low power requirements, fast computation, and a small form factor. This paper reports on the fly-eye sensor development and its application to real-time wing deflection measurement.

  12. A Genetic Linkage Map of the Mimetic Butterfly Heliconius melpomene

    PubMed Central

    Jiggins, Chris D.; Mavarez, Jesus; Beltrán, Margarita; McMillan, W. Owen; Johnston, J. Spencer; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2005-01-01

    Heliconius melpomene is a mimetic butterfly that exhibits great geographic variation in color pattern. We present here a genetic linkage map based on analysis of genetic markers in 73 individuals from a single F2 family, offspring of a cross between H. m. cythera from western Ecuador and H. m. melpomene from French Guiana. A novel “three-step method” is described for the analysis of dominant markers in an F2 cross, using outbred parental strains and taking advantage of the lack of crossing over in female Lepidoptera. This method is likely to prove useful for future mapping studies in outbred species with crossing over restricted to one sex, such as the Lepidoptera and Drosophila. The resulting linkage map has 21 linkage groups corresponding to the 21 chromosomes of H. melpomene and includes 219 AFLP markers, 23 microsatellites, 19 single-copy nuclear genes, and the color pattern switch genes Yb and Sb. The marker density is high, averaging >1/7 cM. The total map length is 1616 cM and the average chromosome length is 77 cM. The genome size of H. melpomene was estimated to be 292 Mb, giving a relationship of physical-to-map distance of 180 kb/cM. This map forms the basis for future comparative linkage analysis of color pattern evolution in Heliconius. PMID:15489522

  13. Metal Stabilization of Collagen and de Novo Designed Mimetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Avanish S; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H; Belure, Sandeep V; Hasan, Nida F; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E; Shreiber, David I; Nanda, Vikas

    2015-08-18

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacency of the carboxy-termini of the three chains makes this region an attractive target for introducing metal binding sites. We engineered His3 sites based on structural modeling constraints into a series of designed homotrimeric and heterotrimeric peptides, assessing the capacity of metal binding to improve stability and in the case of heterotrimers, affect specificity of assembly. Notable enhancements in stability for both homo- and heteromeric systems were observed upon addition of zinc(II) and several other metal ions only when all three histidine ligands were present. Metal binding affinities were consistent with the expected Irving-Williams series for imidazole. Unlike other metals tested, copper(II) also bound to peptides lacking histidine ligands. Acetylation of the peptide N-termini prevented copper binding, indicating proline backbone amide metal-coordination at this site. Copper similarly stabilized animal extracted Type I collagen in a metal-specific fashion, highlighting the potential importance of metal homeostasis within the extracellular matrix.

  14. Elementary dispersion analysis of some mimetic discretizations on triangular C-grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, P.; Danilov, S.

    2017-02-01

    Spurious modes supported by triangular C-grids limit their application for modeling large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. Their behavior can be modified within a mimetic approach that generalizes the scalar product underlying the triangular C-grid discretization. The mimetic approach provides a discrete continuity equation which operates on an averaged combination of normal edge velocities instead of normal edge velocities proper. An elementary analysis of the wave dispersion of the new discretization for Poincaré, Rossby and Kelvin waves shows that, although spurious Poincaré modes are preserved, their frequency tends to zero in the limit of small wavenumbers, which removes the divergence noise in this limit. However, the frequencies of spurious and physical modes become close on shorter scales indicating that spurious modes can be excited unless high-frequency short-scale motions are effectively filtered in numerical codes. We argue that filtering by viscous dissipation is more efficient in the mimetic approach than in the standard C-grid discretization. Lumping of mass matrices appearing with the velocity time derivative in the mimetic discretization only slightly reduces the accuracy of the wave dispersion and can be used in practice. Thus, the mimetic approach cures some difficulties of the traditional triangular C-grid discretization but may still need appropriately tuned viscosity to filter small scales and high frequencies in solutions of full primitive equations when these are excited by nonlinear dynamics.

  15. Nacre-mimetics with synthetic nanoclays up to ultrahigh aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Paramita; Malho, Jani-Markus; Rahimi, Khosrow; Schacher, Felix H.; Wang, Baochun; Demco, Dan Eugen; Walther, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Nacre-mimetics hold great promise as mechanical high-performance and functional materials. Here we demonstrate large progress of mechanical and functional properties of self-assembled polymer/nanoclay nacre-mimetics by using synthetic nanoclays with aspect ratios covering three orders in magnitude (25-3,500). We establish comprehensive relationships among structure formation, nanostructuration, deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties as a function of nanoclay aspect ratio, and by tuning the viscoelastic properties of the soft phase via hydration. Highly ordered, large-scale nacre-mimetics are obtained even for low aspect ratio nanoplatelets and show pronounced inelastic deformation with very high toughness, while those formed by ultralarge nanoplatelets exhibit superb stiffness and strength, previously only reachable for highly crosslinked materials. Regarding functionalities, we report formerly impossible glass-like transparency, and excellent gas barrier considerably exceeding earlier nacre-mimetics based on natural nanoclay. Our study enables rational design of future high-performance nacre-mimetic materials and opens avenues for ecofriendly, transparent, self-standing and strong advanced barrier materials.

  16. High-density Lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential New Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Figueroa, Debbie M.; Barochia, Amisha V.; Yao, Xianglan; Levine, Stewart J.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of ALI, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27708582

  17. Prey from the eyes of predators: Color discriminability of aposematic and mimetic butterflies from an avian visual perspective.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiyu; Lim, Matthew; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2015-11-01

    Predation exerts strong selection on mimetic butterfly wing color patterns, which also serve other functions such as sexual selection. Therefore, specific selection pressures may affect the sexes and signal components differentially. We tested three predictions about the evolution of mimetic resemblance by comparing wing coloration of aposematic butterflies and their Batesian mimics: (a) females gain greater mimetic advantage than males and therefore are better mimics, (b) due to intersexual genetic correlations, sexually monomorphic mimics are better mimics than female-limited mimics, and (c) mimetic resemblance is better on the dorsal wing surface that is visible to predators in flight. Using a physiological model of avian color vision, we quantified mimetic resemblance from predators' perspective, which showed that female butterflies were better mimics than males. Mimetic resemblance in female-limited mimics was comparable to that in sexually monomorphic mimics, suggesting that intersexual genetic correlations did not constrain adaptive response to selection for female-limited mimicry. Mimetic resemblance on the ventral wing surface was better than that on the dorsal wing surface, implying stronger natural and sexual selection on ventral and dorsal surfaces, respectively. These results suggest that mimetic resemblance in butterfly mimicry rings has evolved under various selective pressures acting in a sex- and wing surface-specific manner.

  18. Erythropoietin and thrombopoietin mimetics: Natural alternatives to erythrocyte and platelet disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutti, Usha; Pasupuleti, Satya Ratan; Sahu, Itishri; Kotipalli, Aneesh; Undi, Ram Babu; Kandi, Ravinder; Venakata Saladi, Raja Gopal; Gutti, Ravi Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a major role in the regulation of hematopoietic development. Though, blood transfusion was the most widely used method to treat low blood count, over the years with advancements in recombinant technology and drug designing, the EPO and TPO mimetics are dominating the therapeutics industry. On the other hand, the recombinant human EPO and TPO are associated either with reduced half-life or immune reactions. The restoration of alternate medicine in recent years has the hope to overcome limitations associated with recombinant technology, to treat various disorder including blood diseases, with low to no side effects. The work in recent years on plant derived mimetics suggests a paradigm shift in the way diseases are treated. Here, we are providing a comprehensive review on the EPO and TPO recombinant counterparts and synthetic mimetics studied till date with a focus on the need for more natural alternatives.

  19. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    DOE PAGES

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux andmore » scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.« less

  20. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux and scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.

  1. (Pseudo)amide-linked oligosaccharide mimetics: molecular recognition and supramolecular properties

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Caballero, Fernando; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M

    2010-01-01

    Summary Oligosaccharides are currently recognised as having functions that influence the entire spectrum of cell activities. However, a distinct disadvantage of naturally occurring oligosaccharides is their metabolic instability in biological systems. Therefore, much effort has been spent in the past two decades on the development of feasible routes to carbohydrate mimetics which can compete with their O-glycosidic counterparts in cell surface adhesion, inhibit carbohydrate processing enzymes, and interfere in the biosynthesis of specific cell surface carbohydrates. Such oligosaccharide mimetics are potential therapeutic agents against HIV and other infections, against cancer, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. An efficient strategy to access this type of compounds is the replacement of the glycosidic linkage by amide or pseudoamide functions such as thiourea, urea and guanidine. In this review we summarise the advances over the last decade in the synthesis of oligosaccharide mimetics that possess amide and pseudoamide linkages, as well as studies focussing on their supramolecular and recognition properties. PMID:20485602

  2. Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves and wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering, in addition, a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such a potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which are traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials, which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild space-time. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter.

  3. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and GAG mimetics regulate the behavior of stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Lyu, Zhonglin; Gu, Hao; Li, Dan; Chen, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear sulfated polysaccharides that exist in most mammalian cells. By undergoing conjugation with various proteins, GAGs play important roles in a variety of bioactivities, including promoting stem cell differentiation. However, they have their own intrinsic disadvantages that limit their further applications for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Therefore, more and more GAG-mimetic materials have been studied as natural GAG analogs for emerging applications. This review explains the mechanism of how GAGs regulate stem cell differentiation and elaborates on the current progress of the applications of GAG-based materials on regulating stem cell differentiation. The types and applications of GAG-mimetic materials on regulating stem cell differentiation are introduced as well. Finally, the challenges and perspectives for GAGs and their mimetics in regulating stem cell differentiation are discussed.

  4. Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Analysis of NOV-002, a Glutathione Disulfide Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Joachim D.; Manevich, Yefim; DeVane, Lindsay C.; He, Lin; Garret, Tracy E.; Pazoles, Christopher J.; Tew, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Danyelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic that is in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and other oncology indications. GSSG is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to form glutathione (GSH), thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to report the pharmacokinetic properties of NOV-002 and evaluate the effect that NOV-002 elicits in redox homeostasis. The pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of NOV-002 and GSH was evaluated in mice following a dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. The redox potential and total protein thiol status was calculated. Here we show that NOV-002 is a substrate for GR and that GSH is a primary metabolite. Nonlinear pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that the estimated absorption and elimination rate constants correspond to a half-life of ~13 mins with an AUC of 1.18 μg.h/ml, a Cmax of 2.16 μg/ml and a volume of distribution of 42.61 L/kg. In addition, measurement of the redox potential and total protein thiol status indicated the generation of a transient oxidative signal in the plasma compartment after administration of NOV-002. These results indicate that NOV-002 exerts kinetic and dynamic effects in mice consistent with the GSSG component as the active pharmacological constituent of the drug. A longer-lasting decrease in total plasma free thiol content was also seen, suggesting that the oxidative effect of the GSSG from NOV-002 was impacting redox homeostasis. PMID:20359856

  5. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-07-30

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function.

  6. Cerebral Response to Peripheral Challenge with a Viral Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Konat, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that peripheral inflammation resulting from microbial infections profoundly alters brain function. This review focuses on experimental systems that model cerebral effects of peripheral viral challenge. The most common models employ the induction of the acute phase response (APR) via intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The ensuing transient surge of blood-borne inflammatory mediators induces a “mirror” inflammatory response in the brain characterized by the upregulated expression of a plethora of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory/stress proteins. These inflammatory mediators modify the activity of neuronal networks leading to a constellation of behavioral traits collectively categorized as the sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is an important protective response of the host that has evolved to enhance survival and limit the spread of infections within a population. However, a growing body of clinical data indicates that the activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain may constitute a serious comorbidity factor for neuropathological conditions. Such comorbidity has been demonstrated using the PIC paradigm in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, prion disease and seizures. Also, prenatal or perinatal PIC challenge has been shown to disrupt normal cerebral development of the offspring resulting in phenotypes consistent with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Remarkably, recent studies indicate that mild peripheral PIC challenge may be neuroprotective in stroke. Altogether, the PIC challenge paradigm represents a unique heuristic model to elucidate the immune-to-brain communication pathways and to explore preventive strategies for neuropathological disorders. PMID:26526143

  7. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  8. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  9. Development of multifunctional collagen scaffolds directed by collagen mimetic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Lan (Allen)

    Collagen is widely used for soft tissue replacement and tissue engineering scaffold. Functionalized collagen may offer new and improved applications for collagen-based biomaterials. But passively adsorbed molecules readily diffuse out from collagen matrix, and conventional chemical reactions on collagen are difficult to control and may compromise the biochemical feature of natural collagen. Hence, the aim of this dissertation is to develop a new physical collagen modification method through the non-covalent immobilization of collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) and CMP derivatives on collagen scaffolds, thereby evading the drawbacks of passive and chemical modifications. Most of the research on CMPs over the past three decades has focused on synthesizing CMPs and understanding the effects of amino acid sequence on the peptide structural stability. Although few attempts have been made to develop biomaterials based on pure CMP, CMP has never used in complex with natural collagen. We demonstrate that CMPs with varying chain lengths have strong propensity to associate with natural 2-D and 3-D collagen substrates. We also show that CMPs can recognize and bind to reconstituted type I collagen fibers as well as collagens of ex vivo human liver tissue. The practical use of CMPs conjugated with linear and multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol)s allows to control cell organization in 2-D collagen substrates. Our cell adhesion studies suggest that under certain conditions (e.g. high incubation temperature, small CMP size), the bound CMP derivatives can be released from the collagen matrix, which may provide new opportunities for manipulating cell behavior especially by dynamically controlling the amount of signaling molecules in the collagen matrix. Polyanionic charged CMP was synthesized to modulate tubulogenesis of endothelial cells by attracting VEGF with 3-D collagen gel and a new PEG hydrogel using bifunctional CMP conjugates was synthesized as physico-chemical crosslinkers for

  10. Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low

  11. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use and the maintenance of Müllerian mimetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Willmott, Keith; Elias, Marianne

    2011-07-21

    Müllerian mimicry, where groups of chemically defended species display a common warning color pattern and thereby share the cost of educating predators, is one of the most striking examples of ecological adaptation. Classic models of Müllerian mimicry predict that all unpalatable species of a similar size and form within a community should converge on a single mimetic pattern, but instead communities of unpalatable species often display a remarkable diversity of mimetic patterns (e.g. neotropical ithomiine butterflies). It has been suggested that this apparent paradox may be explained if different suites of predators and species belonging to different mimicry groups utilize different micro-habitats within the community. We developed a stochastic individual-based model for a community of unpalatable mimetic prey species and their predators to evaluate this hypothesis and to examine the effect of predator heterogeneity on prey micro-habitat use. We found that community-level mimetic diversity was higher in simulations with heterogeneous predator micro-habitat use than in simulations with homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. Regardless of the form of predation, mimicry pattern-based assortative mating caused community-level mimetic diversity to persist. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use led to an increased association between mimicry pattern and prey micro-habitat use relative to homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. This increased association was driven, at least in part, by evolutionary convergence of prey micro-habitat use when predators displayed heterogeneous micro-habitat use. These findings provide a theoretical explanation for an important question in evolutionary biology: how is community-level Müllerian mimetic diversity maintained in the face of selection against rare phenotypes?

  12. Plant-Mimetic Heat Pipes for Operation with Large Inertial and Gravitational Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    roots Managing tension Managing tension – autonomic functions T cnutri;  water g -P P a tm P xy l < < P a tm cavitation 2. recovery after...Plant-mimetic heat pipes for operation with large inertial and gravitational stresses AFOSR - #FA9550-09-1-0188 (B.L. Lee, PM) Abraham...00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Plant-mimetic heat pipes for operation with large inertial and gravitational stresses 5a. CONTRACT

  13. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Functional Sialyl LewisX Mimetics with a Heteroaromatic Core

    PubMed Central

    Schlemmer, Claudine; Wiebe, Christine; Ferenc, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Wedepohl, Stefanie; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; Dernedde, Jens; Opatz, Till

    2014-01-01

    Functional mimetics of the sialyl LewisX tetrasaccharide were prepared by the enzymatic sialylation of a 1,3-diglycosylated indole and a glycosyl azide, which was subsequently transformed into a 1,4-diglycosylated 1,2,3-triazole, by using the trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi. These compounds inhibited the binding of E-, L-, and P-selectin-coated nanoparticles to polyacrylamide-bound sialyl-LewisX-containing neighboring sulfated tyrosine residues (sTyr/sLeX-PAA) at low or sub-millimolar concentrations. Except for E-selectin, the mimetics showed higher activities than the natural tetrasaccharide. PMID:24888318

  14. Protein Surface Mimetics: Understanding How Ruthenium Tris(Bipyridines) Interact with Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Sarah H.; Filby, Maria H.; Hayes, Ed; Kuhn, Lars T.; Kalverda, Arnout P.; Webb, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protein surface mimetics achieve high‐affinity binding by exploiting a scaffold to project binding groups over a large area of solvent‐exposed protein surface to make multiple cooperative noncovalent interactions. Such recognition is a prerequisite for competitive/orthosteric inhibition of protein–protein interactions (PPIs). This paper describes biophysical and structural studies on ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) surface mimetics that recognize cytochrome (cyt) c and inhibit the cyt c/cyt c peroxidase (CCP) PPI. Binding is electrostatically driven, with enhanced affinity achieved through enthalpic contributions thought to arise from the ability of the surface mimetics to make a greater number of noncovalent interactions than CCP with surface‐exposed basic residues on cyt c. High‐field natural abundance 1H,15N HSQC NMR experiments are consistent with surface mimetics binding to cyt c in similar manner to CCP. This provides a framework for understanding recognition of proteins by supramolecular receptors and informing the design of ligands superior to the protein partners upon which they are inspired. PMID:27860106

  15. Novel thrombopoietin mimetic peptides bind c-Mpl receptor: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaquan; Tian, Fang; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Haiqing; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) acts in promoting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and by initiating specific maturation events in megakaryocytes. Now, TPO-mimetic peptides with amino acid sequences unrelated to TPO are of considerable pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, four new TPO mimetic peptides that bind and activate c-Mpl receptor have been identified, synthesized and tested by Dual-Luciferase reporter gene assay for biological activities. The molecular modeling research was also approached to understand key molecular mechanisms and structural features responsible for peptide binding with c-Mpl receptor. The results presented that three of four mimetic peptides showed significant activities. In addition, the molecular modeling approaches proved hydrophobic interactions were the driven positive forces for binding behavior between peptides and c-Mpl receptor. TPO peptide residues in P7, P13 and P7' positions were identified by the analysis of hydrogen bonds and energy decompositions as the key ones for benefiting better biological activities. Our data suggested the synthesized peptides have considerable potential for the future development of stable and highly active TPO mimetic peptides.

  16. Student-Driven Design of Peptide Mimetics: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Peptoid Oligomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Yoo, Barney; Schulz, Nathan; Zea, Corbin J.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Schwarz, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory is described in which peptide mimetic oligomers called "peptoids" are built stepwise on a solid-phase resin. Students employ two modern strategies to facilitate rapid multistep syntheses: solid-phase techniques to obviate the need for intermediate purifications and microwave irradiation to…

  17. Aspects of late-time evolution in mimetic F(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate how to describe in an unified way early and late-time acceleration in the context of mimetic F(R) gravity. As we show, an exponential F(R) gravity model has appealing features, with regard to unification and we perform an analysis of the late-time evolution. The resulting picture is interesting since in the mimetic case, certain pathologies of some ordinary F(R) models are remedied in a consistent way, owing to the presence of the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier. We quantify the late-time evolution analysis by studying the scaled dark energy density, the dark energy equation of state and the total effective equation of state, and as we show the late-time evolution is crucially affected by the functional form of the F(R) gravity. It is intriguing that the most appealing case corresponds to the exponential F(R) gravity which unifies late- and early-time acceleration. Finally, we study the behavior of the effective gravitational constant and the growth factor, and as we show, significant differences between the mimetic and ordinary F(R) exponential model are spotted in the growth factor.

  18. The first MCL-1-selective BH3 mimetics have therapeutic potential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Samaher; Pocard, Marc; Mirshahi, Massoud; Billard, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Small-molecule BH3 mimetics are designed to mimic the BH3 domain of BH3-only BCL-2 family members which are antagonists of the prosurvival members (such as BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1). The BH3 mimetics are intended to bind with high affinity to prosurvival proteins, in order to inhibit their functional activity and hence to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Both navitoclax (BCL-2/BCL-XL antagonist) and ABT-199/venetoclax (BCL-2-selective inhibitor) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy especially in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, these BH3 mimetics cannot antagonize the prosurvival protein MCL-1 that is overexpressed and involved in therapeutic resistance in CLL. Furthermore, until now, none of the reported small-molecule MCL-1 inhibitors bound to their target with high affinity. The first MCL-1-selective BH3 mimetics capable of high-affinity binding and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells through an on-target mechanism have just been identified. This discovery should advance the translational research to implement novel drugs in treating CLL.

  19. Solving Navier-Stokes' equation using Castillo-Grone's mimetic difference operators on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouali, Mohammad; Castillo, Jose

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses the performance and the accuracy of Castillo-Grone's (CG) mimetic difference operator in solving the Navier-Stokes' equation in order to simulate oceanic and atmospheric flows. The implementation is further adapted to harness the power of the many computing cores available on the Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the speedup is discussed.

  20. A Case of Mimetic Isomorphism: A Short-Cut to Increasing Loyalty to Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the process of shortening career path to leadership positions in academia that could serve as an example of mimetic isomorphism, where university tries to apply business-like quick result-oriented strategies. This strategy incentivizes young faculty to stay in universities and keep loyalty to academia. This process could also…

  1. Comparative Allometric Growth of the Mimetic Ephippid Reef Fishes Chaetodipterus faber and Platax orbicularis

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Breno; Sakai, Yoichi; Pereira, Pedro H. C.; Gasset, Eric; Buchet, Vincent; Maamaatuaiahutapu, Moana; Ready, Jonathan S.; Oliveira, Yrlan; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Mimesis is a relatively widespread phenomenon among reef fish, but the ontogenetic processes relevant for mimetic associations in fish are still poorly understood. In the present study, the allometric growth of two allopatric leaf-mimetic species of ephippid fishes, Chaetodipterus faber from the Atlantic and Platax orbicularis from the Indo-Pacific, was analyzed using ten morphological variables. The development of fins was considered owing to the importance of these structures for mimetic behaviors during early life stages. Despite the anatomical and behavioral similarities in both juvenile and adult stages, C. faber and P. orbicularis showed distinct patterns of growth. The overall shape of C. faber transforms from a rounded-shape in mimetic juveniles to a lengthened profile in adults, while in P. orbicularis, juveniles present an oblong profile including dorsal and anal fins, with relative fin size diminishing while the overall profile grows rounder in adults. Although the two species are closely-related, the present results suggest that growth patterns in C. faber and P. orbicularis are different, and are probably independent events in ephippids that have resulted from similar selective processes. PMID:26630347

  2. Tunable elastin-mimetic multiblock hybrid copolymers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieshaber, Sarah Elizabeth

    Elastin-mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) have been developed to capture the multiblock molecular architecture of tropoelastin, allowing tunability in chemical, structural, biological, and mechanical properties. Multiblock EMHPs containing flexible synthetic segments were first synthesized via step growth polymerization of diazido-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and alkyne-terminated AKA3KA (K = lysine, A = alanine) (AK2) peptide employing copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC, or orthogonal click chemistry). Covalent crosslinking of the EMHPs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) through the lysine residues in the peptide domain afforded an elastomeric hydrogel (xEMHP) with a compressive modulus of 0.12 +/- 0.018 MPa when hydrated. xEMHPs exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to primary porcine vocal fold fibroblasts. The modular nature of the synthesis allowed facile adjustment of the peptide sequence to modulate the structural and the biological properties of EMHPs. Thus, EMHPs containing integrin-binding peptides were constructed using di-azido-PEG and an alkyne-terminated AK2 peptide with a terminal, integrin-binding GRGDSP domain via the step growth click coupling reaction. Hydrogels formed by covalent crosslinking of the RGD-containing EMHPs had a compressive modulus of 1.06 +/- 0.1MPa when hydrated. Neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were able to adhere to the hydrogels within 1 h, and to spread and develop F-actin filaments 24 h post seeding. NHDF proliferation was only observed on hydrogels containing RGD domains, demonstrating the importance of integrin engagement for cell growth and the potential use of these EMHPs as tissue engineering scaffolds. The tunability of the EMHP system was further investigated by development of self-assembling, pH-responsive multiblock polymers composed of alternating domains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and a peptide derived from the hydrophobic domains of elastin with the sequence (VPGVG)2 (VG2). The

  3. Photochemical solar energy conversion utilizing semiconductors localized in membrane-mimetic systems. Performance report, April 1, 1989--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1991-08-31

    Extending the frontiers of colloidal photochemistry and colloidal electrochemistry to solar photochemistry research had been the main objective of this research. More specific objectives of this proposal include the examination of semiconductor-particle-mediated photoelectron transfer and photoelectric effects in different membrane mimetic systems. Emphasis had been placed on developing bilayer lipid membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett films as new membrane-mimetic systems, as well as on the characterization and utilization of these systems.

  4. What kind of signals do mimetic tiger moths send? A phylogenetic test of wasp mimicry systems (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Euchromiini).

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rebecca B; Weller, Susan J

    2002-05-22

    Mimicry has been examined in field and laboratory studies of butterflies and its evolutionary dynamics have been explored in computer simulations. Phylogenetic studies examining the evolution of mimicry, however, are rare. Here, the phylogeny of wasp-mimicking tiger moths, the Sphecosoma group, was used to test evolutionary predictions of computer simulations of conventional Müllerian mimicry and quasi-Batesian mimicry dynamics. We examined whether mimetic traits evolved individually, or as suites of characters, using concentrated change tests. The phylogeny of these moth mimics revealed that individual mimetic characters were conserved, as are the three mimetic wasp forms: yellow Polybia, black Polybia and Parachartergus mimetic types. This finding was consistent with a 'supergene' control of linked loci and the Nicholson two-step model of mimicry evolution. We also used a modified permutation-tail probability approach to examine the rate of mimetic-type evolution. The observed topology, hypothetical Müllerian and Batesian scenarios, and 1000 random trees were compared using Kishino-Hasegawa tests. The observed phylogeny was more consistent with the predicted Müllerian distribution of mimetic traits than with that of a quasi-Batesian scenario. We suggest that the range of discriminatory abilities of the predator community plays a key role in shaping mimicry dynamics.

  5. Structurally homogeneous nanosheets from self-assembly of a collagen-mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Chunfu; Zuo, Xiaobing; Conticello, Vincent P

    2014-08-04

    A collagen-mimetic peptide, NSIII, has been designed with three sequential blocks having positive, neutral, and negative charges, respectively. The non-canonical imino acid, (2S,4S)-4-aminoproline (amp), was used to specify the positive charges at the Xaa positions of (Xaa-Yaa-Gly) triads in the N-terminal domain of NSIII. Peptide NSIII underwent self-assembly from aqueous solution to form a highly homogeneous population of nanosheets. Two-dimensional crystalline sheets formed in which the length of the peptide defined the height of the sheets. These results contrasted with prior results on a similar multi-domain collagen-mimetic polypeptides in which the sheets had highly polydisperse distribution of sizes in the (x/y)- and (z)-dimensions. The structural differences between the two nanosheet assemblies were interpreted in terms of the relative stereoelectronic effects of the different aminoproline derivatives on the local triple helical conformation of the peptides.

  6. Tunable cell membrane mimetic surfaces prepared with a novel phospholipid polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Ming; Yang, Shan; Ma, Jia-ni; Zhang, Shi-ping; Winnik, Françoise M.; Gong, Yong-kuan

    2008-11-01

    A novel method to fabricate and tune cell membrane mimetic surfaces was developed based on the use of an amphiphilic random copolymer bearing phosphorylcholine (PC), stearyl and crosslinkable trimethoxysilylpropyl groups synthesized by free radical copolymerization. The polymer was coated on glass coverslips by dip-coating. The coated films were treated in water allowing reorganization of the surface groups to mimic the structure of cell outer membranes. This structure was fixed by crosslinking of the trimethoxysilylpropyl groups linked to the copolymer chains, as ascertained by dynamic contact angle (DCA) and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) measurements. Our results indicate that the surface structure can be tuned to a great extent to obtain a stable outer membrane mimetic surface/interface.

  7. Orthogonally Protected Furanoid Sugar Diamino Acids for Solid-Phase Synthesis of Oligosaccharide Mimetics.

    PubMed

    John, Franklin; Wittmann, Valentin

    2015-08-07

    Sugar diamino acids (SDAs), which differ from the widely used sugar amino acids in the presence of a second amino group connected to the carbohydrate core, share structural features of both amino acids and carbohydrates. They can be used for the preparation of linear and branched amide-linked oligosaccharide mimetics. Such oligomers carry free amino groups, which are positively charged at neutral pH, in a spatially defined way and, thus, represent a potential class of aminoglycoside mimetics. We report here the first examples of orthogonally protected furanoid SDAs and their use in solid-phase synthesis. Starting from d-glucose, we developed a divergent synthetic route to three derivatives of 3,5-diamino-3,5-dideoxy-d-ribofuranose. These building blocks are compatible with solid-phase peptide synthesis following the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) strategy, which we demonstrate by the synthesis of an SDA tetramer.

  8. Mimetic Theory for Cell-Centered Lagrangian Finite Volume Formulation on General Unstructured Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Sambasivan, Shiv Kumar; Shashkov, Mikhail J.; Burton, Donald E.; Christon, Mark A.

    2012-07-19

    A finite volume cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for solving large deformation problems is constructed based on the hypo-elastic model and using the mimetic theory. Rigorous analysis in the context of gas and solid dynamics, and arbitrary polygonal meshes, is presented to demonstrate the ability of cell-centered schemes in mimicking the continuum properties and principles at the discrete level. A new mimetic formulation based gradient evaluation technique and physics-based, frame independent and symmetry preserving slope limiters are proposed. Furthermore, a physically consistent dissipation model is employed which is both robust and inexpensive to implement. The cell-centered scheme along with these additional new features are applied to solve solids undergoing elasto-plastic deformation.

  9. Plant-Mimetic Heat Pipes for Operation with Large Inertial and Gravitation Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-16

    bulk liquid water in the liquid path (Figure 2B); 2) local structure along the liquid path that allows for cavitation events that do occur to be...in cavitated vessels reaches the magnitude required to recruit water from adjacent vessels under tension when stress is relieved but not eliminated in...RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 16-08-2012 Final 01-03-2008 - 28-02-2012 PLANT-MIMETIC HEAT PIPES FOR OPERATION WITH

  10. Differential effects of superoxide dismutase and superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics on human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manisha H; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Thompson, Erik W; Dusting, Gregory J; Peshavariya, Hitesh M

    2015-04-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been implicated in development and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic MnTmPyP and the SOD/catalase mimetic EUK 134 on superoxide and H2O2 formation as well as proliferation, adhesion, and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Superoxide and H2O2 production was examined using dihydroethidium and Amplex red assays, respectively. Cell viability and adhesion were measured using a tetrazolium-based MTT assay. Cell proliferation was determined using trypan blue assay. Cell cycle progression was analyzed using flow cytometry. Clonal expansion of a single cell was performed using a colony formation assay. Cell migration was measured using transwell migration assay. Dual luciferase assay was used to determine NF-κB reporter activity. EUK 134 effectively reduced both superoxide and H2O2, whereas MnTmPyP removed superoxide but enhanced H2O2 formation. EUK 134 effectively attenuated viability, proliferation, clonal expansion, adhesion, and migration of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In contrast, MnTmPyP only reduced clonal expansion of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells but had no effect on adhesion and cell cycle progression. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced NF-κB activity was reduced by EUK 134, whereas MnTmPyP enhanced this activity. These data indicate that the SOD mimetic MnTmPyP and the SOD/catalase mimetic EUK 134 exert differential effects on breast cancer cell growth. Inhibition of H2O2 signaling using EUK 134-like compound might be a promising approach to breast cancer therapy.

  11. Development of Novel p16INK4a Mimetics as Anticancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    targeted therapy with the potential for fewer side effects and higher efficacy. 2. Key words peptide mesothelioma cell cycle cyclin-dependent...phosphorylation in vitro. (Months 19- 21) 90% accomplished d. Evaluation of efficacy of p16ink4a mimetics to prevent cell cycle progression into S-phase...proliferation assays, for effects on Rb phosphorylation and cell cycle arrest. Stabilizing peptides were demonstrated to be a viable option for

  12. Supramolecular assembly of multifunctional maspin-mimetic nanostructures as a potent peptide-based angiogenesis inhibitor

    DOE PAGES

    Zha, R. Helen; Sur, Shantanu; Boekhoven, Job; ...

    2014-11-08

    Aberrant angiogenesis plays a large role in pathologies ranging from tumor growth to macular degeneration. Anti-angiogenic proteins have thus come under scrutiny as versatile, potent therapeutics but face problems with purification and tissue retention. We report here on the synthesis of supramolecular nanostructures that mimic the anti-angiogenic activity of maspin, a class II tumor suppressor protein. These maspin-mimetic nanostructures are formed via self-assembly of small peptide amphiphiles containing the g-helix motif of maspin. Using tubulogenesis assays with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we demonstrate that maspin-mimetic nanostructures show anti-angiogenic activity at concentrations that are significantly lower than those necessary formore » the g-helix peptide. Furthermore, in vivo assays in the chick chorioallantoic membrane show maspin-mimetic nanostructures to be effective over controls at inhibiting angiogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, the nanostructures investigated here offer an attractive alternative to the use of anti-angiogenic recombinant proteins in the treatment of cancer or other diseases involving abnormal blood vessel formation.« less

  13. USP11-dependent selective cIAP2 deubiquitylation and stabilization determine sensitivity to Smac mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, E-W; Seong, D; Seo, J; Jeong, M; Lee, H-K; Song, J

    2015-01-01

    Given their crucial role in apoptosis suppression, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) have recently become attractive targets for cancer therapy. Here, we report that cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) is specifically stabilized in several cancer cell lines, leading to resistance to Smac mimetics, such as BV6 and birinapant. In particular, our results showed that cIAP2 depletion, but not cIAP1 depletion, sensitized cancer cells to Smac mimetic-induced apoptosis. Ubiquitin-specific protease 11 (USP11) is a deubiquitylase that directly stabilizes cIAP2. USP11 overexpression is frequently found in colorectal cancer and melanoma and is correlated with poor survival. In our study, cancer cell lines expressing high levels of USP11 exhibited strong resistance to Smac mimetic-induced cIAP2 degradation. Furthermore, USP11 downregulation sensitized these cells to apoptosis induced by TRAIL and BV6 and suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. Finally, the TNFα/JNK pathway induced USP11 expression and maintained cIAP2 stability, suggesting an alternative TNFα-dependent cell survival pathway. Collectively, our data suggest that USP11-stabilized cIAP2 may serve as a barrier against IAP-targeted clinical approaches. PMID:25613375

  14. Evaluating strategies to enhance the anti-tumor immune response to a carbohydrate mimetic peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Jousheghany, Fariba; Artaud, Cecile; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Carbohydrate mimetic peptides of tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are T-cell-dependent antigens and, therefore, immunization with these surrogates is predicted to overcome the low immunogenicity of carbohydrate antigens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that among the potential immune cells involved, peptide immunization led to an increase in T-cell populations. While peptide mimetics may also function as TLR binding ligands, we did not observe evidence of involvement of NK cells. Examining tumor challenged animals, we observed that peptide immunization and not tumor cells rendered IL-12 responsiveness to T-cells, as T-cells from peptide-immunized mice produced IFN-gamma upon stimulation with IL-12. Cyclophosphamide administration enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the vaccine, which was achieved by enhancing T-cell responses with no effect on NK cell population. Prophylactic immunization of mice with a DNA construct encoding carbohydrate mimetic peptides indicated a specific role for the mimotope vaccine in anti-tumor immune responses. These data suggest a role for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells induced by mimotopes of TACA in protective immunity against tumor cells.

  15. From antidepressant drugs to beta-mimetics: preclinical insights on potential new treatments for neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Barrot, Michel; Yalcin, Ipek; Choucair-Jaafar, Nada; Benbouzid, Malika; Freund-Mercier, Marie-José

    2009-11-01

    The market for pain treatment is a major segment of nervous system pathologies. Despite this dynamism, the management of some pain conditions remains a clinical challenge. Neuropathic pain arises as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system. It is generally a chronic and disabling condition which is difficult to treat. Antidepressant drugs are recommended as one of the first line treatments, but they display noticeable side effects and are not effective on all patients. Using a murine model of neuropathy, we demonstrated that the stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors (beta2-AR) is not only necessary for antidepressant drugs to exert their antiallodynic action but that it is in fact sufficient to alleviate neuropathic allodynia. Chronic, but not acute, treatment with beta-mimetics such as terbutaline, salbutamol, fenoterol, salmeterol, ritodrine, isoprenaline (isoproterenol), metaproterenol (orciprenaline), procaterol, formoterol, clenbuterol or bambuterol, relieves allodynia. Agonists of beta2-ARs, and more generally any molecule stimulating beta2-ARs such as beta-mimetics, are thus proposed as potential new treatments for neuropathic pain. Clinical studies are now in preparation to confirm this potential in patients with neuropathic pain. This article reviews the findings leading to propose beta-mimetics for neuropathic pain treatment and other recent patents on the topic.

  16. Glycosaminoglycan mimetic improves enrichment and cell functions of human endothelial progenitor cell colonies.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Fabien; Lavergne, Mélanie; Negroni, Elisa; Ferratge, Ségolène; Carpentier, Gilles; Gilbert-Sirieix, Marie; Siñeriz, Fernando; Uzan, Georges; Albanese, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Human circulating endothelial progenitor cells isolated from peripheral blood generate in culture cells with features of endothelial cells named late-outgrowth endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC). In adult blood, ECFC display a constant quantitative and qualitative decline during life span. Even after expansion, it is difficult to reach the cell dose required for cell therapy of vascular diseases, thus limiting the clinical use of these cells. Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) are components from the extracellular matrix (ECM) that are able to interact and potentiate heparin binding growth factor (HBGF) activities. According to these relevant biological properties of GAG, we designed a GAG mimetic having the capacity to increase the yield of ECFC production from blood and to improve functionality of their endothelial outgrowth. We demonstrate that the addition of [OTR(4131)] mimetic during the isolation process of ECFC from Cord Blood induces a 3 fold increase in the number of colonies. Moreover, addition of [OTR(4131)] to cell culture media improves adhesion, proliferation, migration and self-renewal of ECFC. We provide evidence showing that GAG mimetics may have great interest for cell therapy applied to vascular regeneration therapy and represent an alternative to exogenous growth factor treatments to optimize potential therapeutic properties of ECFC.

  17. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of an alpha-helix mimetic library targeting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Shaginian, Alex; Whitby, Landon R; Hong, Sukwon; Hwang, Inkyu; Farooqi, Bilal; Searcey, Mark; Chen, Jiandong; Vogt, Peter K; Boger, Dale L

    2009-04-22

    The design and solution-phase synthesis of an alpha-helix mimetic library as an integral component of a small-molecule library targeting protein-protein interactions are described. The iterative design, synthesis, and evaluation of the candidate alpha-helix mimetic was initiated from a precedented triaryl template and refined by screening the designs for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding. Upon identifying a chemically and biologically satisfactory design and consistent with the screening capabilities of academic collaborators, the corresponding complete library was assembled as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds (20 x 20 x 20-mix), where the added subunits are designed to mimic all possible permutations of the naturally occurring i, i + 4, i + 7 amino acid side chains of an alpha-helix. The library (8000 compounds) was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol enlisting acid/base liquid-liquid extractions for purification on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening of the library for inhibition of MDM2/p53 binding not only identified the lead alpha-helix mimetic upon which the library was based, but also suggests that a digestion of the initial screening results that accompany the use of such a comprehensive library can provide insights into the nature of the interaction (e.g., an alpha-helix mediated protein-protein interaction) and define the key residues and their characteristics responsible for recognition.

  18. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  19. Amylin structure-function relationships and receptor pharmacology: implications for amylin mimetic drug development.

    PubMed

    Bower, Rebekah L; Hay, Debbie L

    2016-06-01

    Amylin is an important, but poorly understood, 37 amino acid glucoregulatory hormone with great potential to target metabolic diseases. A working example that the amylin system is one worth developing is the FDA-approved drug used in insulin-requiring diabetic patients, pramlintide. However, certain characteristics of pramlintide pharmacokinetics and formulation leave considerable room for further development of amylin-mimetic compounds. Given that amylin-mimetic drug design and development is an active area of research, surprisingly little is known about the structure/function relationships of amylin. This is largely due to the unfavourable aggregative and solubility properties of the native peptide sequence, which are further complicated by the composition of amylin receptors. These are complexes of the calcitonin receptor with receptor activity-modifying proteins. This review explores what is known of the structure-function relationships of amylin and provides insights that can be drawn from the closely related peptide, CGRP. We also describe how this information is aiding the development of more potent and stable amylin mimetics, including peptide hybrids.

  20. Role of phosphate on stability and catalase mimetic activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ragini; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) have been recently shown to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in different experimental model systems. CeNPs (3+) and CeNPs (4+) have been shown to exhibit superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase mimetic activity, respectively. Due to their nanoscale dimension, CeNPs are expected to interact with the components of biologically relevant buffers and medium, which could alter their catalytic properties. We have demonstrated earlier that CeNPs (3+) interact with phosphate and lose the SOD activity. However, very little is known about the interaction of CeNPs (4+) with the phosphate and other anions, predominantly present in biological buffers and their effects on the catalase mimetic-activity of these nanoparticles. In this study, we report that catalase mimetic-activity of CeNPs (4+) is resistant to the phosphate anions, pH changes and composition of cell culture media. Given the abundance of phosphate anions in the biological system, it is likely that internalized CeNPs would be influenced by cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic concentration of phosphate.

  1. An Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic Stimulates Axonal Regeneration and Remyelination after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Kenneth A.; Neil, Jessica E.; Colton, Carol A.; Vitek, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis within crushed sciatic nerves advocates that apoE could benefit axonal repair and reconstruction of axonal and myelin membranes. We created an apoE-mimetic peptide, COG112 (acetyl-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKKCLRVRLASHLRKLRKRLL-amide), and found that postinjury treatment with COG112 significantly improved recovery of motor and sensory function following sciatic nerve crush in C57BL/6 mice. Morphometric analysis of injured sciatic nerves revealed that COG112 promoted axonal regrowth after 2 weeks of treatment. More strikingly, the thickness of myelin sheaths was increased by COG112 treatment. Consistent with these histological findings, COG112 potently elevated growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and peripheral myelin protein zero (P0), which are markers of axon regeneration and remyelination, respectively. Electron microscopic examination further suggested that the apoE-mimetic COG112 may increase clearance of myelin debris. Schwann cell uptake of cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein particles was selectively enhanced by COG112 treatment in a Schwann cell line S16. Moreover, COG112 significantly promoted axon elongation in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures from rat pups. Considering that cholesterol and lipids are needed for reconstructing myelin sheaths and axon extension, these data support a hypothesis where supplementation with exogenous apoE-mimetics such as COG112 may be a promising strategy for restoring lost functional and structural elements following nerve injury. PMID:20406857

  2. An apolipoprotein E-mimetic stimulates axonal regeneration and remyelination after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Fowler, Kenneth A; Neil, Jessica E; Colton, Carol A; Vitek, Michael P

    2010-07-01

    Elevated apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis within crushed sciatic nerves advocates that apoE could benefit axonal repair and reconstruction of axonal and myelin membranes. We created an apoE-mimetic peptide, COG112 (acetyl-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKKCLRVRLASHLRKLRKRLL-amide), and found that postinjury treatment with COG112 significantly improved recovery of motor and sensory function following sciatic nerve crush in C57BL/6 mice. Morphometric analysis of injured sciatic nerves revealed that COG112 promoted axonal regrowth after 2 weeks of treatment. More strikingly, the thickness of myelin sheaths was increased by COG112 treatment. Consistent with these histological findings, COG112 potently elevated growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and peripheral myelin protein zero (P0), which are markers of axon regeneration and remyelination, respectively. Electron microscopic examination further suggested that the apoE-mimetic COG112 may increase clearance of myelin debris. Schwann cell uptake of cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein particles was selectively enhanced by COG112 treatment in a Schwann cell line S16. Moreover, COG112 significantly promoted axon elongation in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures from rat pups. Considering that cholesterol and lipids are needed for reconstructing myelin sheaths and axon extension, these data support a hypothesis where supplementation with exogenous apoE-mimetics such as COG112 may be a promising strategy for restoring lost functional and structural elements following nerve injury.

  3. Folate Receptor-Targeting Gold Nanoclusters as Fluorescence Enzyme Mimetic Nanoprobes for Tumor Molecular Colocalization Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dehong; Sheng, Zonghai; Fang, Shengtao; Wang, Yanan; Gao, Duyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Gong, Ping; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2014-01-01

    Nanoprobes with enzyme-like properties attracted a growing interest in early screening and diagnosis of cancer. To achieve high accuracy and specificity of tumor detection, the design and preparation of enzyme mimetic nanoprobes with high enzyme activity, tumor targeting and excellent luminescence property is highly desirable. Herein, we described a novel kind of fluorescence enzyme mimetic nanoprobe based on folate receptor-targeting Au nanoclusters. The nanoprobes exhibited excellent stability, low cytotoxicity, high fluorescence and enzyme activity. We demonstrated that the nanoprobes could be used for tumor tissues fluorescence/visualizing detection. For the same tumor tissue slice, the nanoprobes peroxidase staining and fluorescent staining were obtained simultaneously, and the results were mutually complementary. Therefore, the fluorescence enzyme mimetic nanoprobes could provide a molecular colocalization diagnosis strategy, efficiently avoid false-positive and false-negative results, and further improve the accuracy and specificity of cancer diagnoses. By examining different clinical samples, we demonstrated that the nanoprobes could distinguish efficiently cancerous cells from normal cells, and exhibit a clinical potential for cancer diagnosis. PMID:24465272

  4. On the selectivity of superoxide dismutase mimetics and its importance in pharmacological studies

    PubMed Central

    Muscoli, Carolina; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Riley, Dennis P; Zweier, Jay L; Thiemermann, Christoph; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Salvemini, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    The list of pathophysiological conditions associated with the overproduction of superoxide expands every day. Much of the knowledge compiled on the role of this radical in disease has been gathered using the native superoxide dismutase enzyme and, more recently, by the use of superoxide dismutase knockout models or transgenic models that overexpress the various isoforms of the enzyme. Although the native enzyme has shown promising anti-inflammatory properties in both preclinical and clinical studies, there were drawbacks and issues associated with its use as a therapeutic agent and pharmacological tool. Based on the concept that removal of superoxide modulates the course of inflammation, synthetic, low-molecular-weight mimetics of the superoxide dismutase enzymes that could overcome some of the limitations associated with the use of the native enzyme have been designed. In this review, we will discuss the advances made using various superoxide dismutase mimetics that led to the proposal that superoxide (and/or the product of its interaction with nitric oxide, peroxynitrite) is an important mediator of inflammation, and to the conclusion that superoxide dismutase mimetics can be utilized as therapeutic agents in diseases of various etiologies. The importance of the selectivity of such compounds in pharmacological studies will be discussed. PMID:14522841

  5. Supramolecular assembly of multifunctional maspin-mimetic nanostructures as a potent peptide-based angiogenesis inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, R. Helen; Sur, Shantanu; Boekhoven, Job; Shi, Heidi Y.; Zhang, Ming; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2014-11-08

    Aberrant angiogenesis plays a large role in pathologies ranging from tumor growth to macular degeneration. Anti-angiogenic proteins have thus come under scrutiny as versatile, potent therapeutics but face problems with purification and tissue retention. We report here on the synthesis of supramolecular nanostructures that mimic the anti-angiogenic activity of maspin, a class II tumor suppressor protein. These maspin-mimetic nanostructures are formed via self-assembly of small peptide amphiphiles containing the g-helix motif of maspin. Using tubulogenesis assays with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we demonstrate that maspin-mimetic nanostructures show anti-angiogenic activity at concentrations that are significantly lower than those necessary for the g-helix peptide. Furthermore, in vivo assays in the chick chorioallantoic membrane show maspin-mimetic nanostructures to be effective over controls at inhibiting angiogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, the nanostructures investigated here offer an attractive alternative to the use of anti-angiogenic recombinant proteins in the treatment of cancer or other diseases involving abnormal blood vessel formation.

  6. Alkaloid defenses of co-mimics in a putative Müllerian mimetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Polytypism in aposematic species is unlikely according to theory, but commonly seen in nature. Ranitomeya imitator is a poison frog species exhibiting polytypic mimicry of three congeneric model species (R. fantastica, R. summersi, and two morphs of R. variabilis) across four allopatric populations (a "mimetic radiation"). In order to investigate chemical defenses in this system, a key prediction of Müllerian mimicry, we analyzed the alkaloids of both models and mimics from four allopatric populations. Results In this study we demonstrate distinct differences in alkaloid profiles between co-mimetic species within allopatric populations. We further demonstrate that R. imitator has a greater number of distinct alkaloid types than the model species and more total alkaloids in all but one population. Conclusions Given that R. imitator is the more abundant species in these populations, R. imitator is likely driving the majority of predator-learned avoidance in these complexes. The success of Ranitomeya imitator as a putative advergent mimic may be a direct result of differences in alkaloid sequestration. Furthermore, we propose that automimicry within co-mimetic species is an important avenue of research. PMID:24707851

  7. Expression and purification of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Zaragoza (L144R) and formation of reconstituted HDL particles.

    PubMed

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Pocoví, Miguel; García-Otín, Angel-Luis

    2011-11-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I Zaragoza (L144R) (apo A-I Z), has been associated with severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia and an enhanced effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) reverse cholesterol transport. In order to perform further studies with this protein we have optimized an expression and purification method of recombinant wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z and produced mimetic HDL particles with each protein. An pET-45 expression system was used to produce N-terminal His-tagged apo A-I, wild-type or mutant, in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which was subsequently purified by affinity chromatography in non-denaturing conditions. HDL particles were generated via a modified sodium cholate method. Expression and purification of both proteins was verified by SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and immunochemical procedures. Yield was 30mg of purified protein (94% purity) per liter of culture. The reconstituted HDL particles checked via non-denaturing PAGE showed high homogeneity in their size when reconstituted both with wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z. An optimized system for the expression and purification of wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z with high yield and purity grade has been achieved, in addition to their use in reconstituted HDL particles, as a basis for further studies.

  8. Connexin43 mimetic peptide reduces vascular leak and retinal ganglion cell death following retinal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kerr, Nathan M; Zhang, Jie; Eady, Elizabeth K; O'Carroll, Simon J; Nicholson, Louise F B; Johnson, Cameron S; Green, Colin R

    2012-02-01

    Connexin43 gap junction protein is expressed in astrocytes and the vascular endothelium in the central nervous system. It is upregulated following central nervous system injury and is recognized as playing an important role in modulating the extent of damage. Studies that have transiently blocked connexin43 in spinal cord injury and central nervous system epileptic models have reported neuronal rescue. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuronal rescue following retinal ischaemia-reperfusion by transiently blocking connexin43 activity using a connexin43 mimetic peptide. A further aim was to evaluate the effect of transiently blocking connexin43 on vascular permeability as this is known to increase following central nervous system ischaemia. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 60 min of retinal ischaemia. Treatment groups consisted of no treatment, connexin43 mimetic peptide and scrambled peptide. Retinas were then evaluated at 1-2, 4, 8 and 24 h, and 7 and 21 days post-ischaemia. Evans blue dye leak from retinal blood vessels was used to assess vascular leakage. Blood vessel integrity was examined using isolectin-B4 labelling. Connexin43 levels and astrocyte activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein) were assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Retinal whole mounts and retinal ganglion cell counts were used to quantify neurodegeneration. An in vitro cell culture model of endothelial cell ischaemia was used to assess the effect of connexin43 mimetic peptide on endothelial cell survival and connexin43 hemichannel opening using propidium iodide dye uptake. We found that retinal ischaemia-reperfusion induced significant vascular leakage and disruption at 1-2, 4 and 24 h following injury with a peak at 4 h. Connexin43 immunoreactivity was significantly increased at 1-2, 4, 8 and 24 h post ischaemia-reperfusion injury co-localizing with activated astrocytes, Muller cells and vascular endothelial cells. Connexin43 mimetic peptide

  9. Design, solid-phase synthesis, and evaluation of a phenyl-piperazine-triazine scaffold as α-helix mimetics.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heejo; Lee, Woo Sirl; Oh, Misook; Lee, Huisun; Lee, Ji Hoon; Im, Wonpil; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2014-12-08

    α-Helices play a critical role in mediating many protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as recognition motifs. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in developing small molecules that can mimic helical peptide segments to modulate α-helix-mediated PPIs. Due to the relatively low aqueous solubility and synthetic difficulty of most current α-helix mimetic small molecules, one important goal in this area is to develop small molecules with favorable physicochemical properties and ease of synthesis. Here we designed phenyl-piperazine-triazine-based α-helix mimetics that possess improved water solubility and excellent synthetic accessibility. We developed a facile solid-phase synthetic route that allows for rapid creation of a large, diverse combinatorial library of α-helix mimetics. Further, we identified a selective inhibitor of the Mcl-1/BH3 interaction by screening a focused library of phenyl-piperazine-triazines, demonstrating that the scaffold is able to serve as functional mimetics of α-helical peptides. We believe that our phenyl-piperazine-triazine-based α-helix mimetics, along with the facile and divergent solid-phase synthetic method, have great potential as powerful tools for discovering potent inhibitors of given α-helix-mediated PPIs.

  10. Mimetic Relation as Matching-to-Sample Observing Response and the Emergence of Speaker Relations in Children with and without Hearing Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Nassim Chamel; Goyos, Celso

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of matching-to-sample and mimetic-relations teaching on the emergence of signed tact and textual repertoire through a multiple-baseline design, across three groups of three words in children with and without hearing impairments and with no reading repertoire. Following mimetic-relations teaching and the…

  11. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Zoe E.; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  12. A framework for developing a mimetic tensor artificial viscosity for Lagrangian hydrocodes on arbitrary polygonal and polyhedral meshes (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2011-01-11

    We construct a new mimetic tensor artificial viscosity on general polygonal and polyhedral meshes. The tensor artificial viscosity is based on a mimetic discretization of coordinate invariant operators, divergence of a tensor and gradient of a vector. The focus of this paper is on the symmetric form, div ({mu},{var_epsilon}(u)), of the tensor artificial viscosity where {var_epsilon}(u) is the symmetrized gradient of u and {mu}, is a tensor. The mimetic discretizations of this operator is derived for the case of a full tensor coefficient {mu}, that may reflect a shock direction. We demonstrate performance of the new viscosity for the Noh implosion, Sedov explosion and Saltzman piston problems in both Cartesian and axisymmetric coordinate systems.

  13. Differential role of RIP1 in Smac mimetic-mediated chemosensitization of neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Czaplinski, Sebastian; Abhari, Behnaz Ahangarian; Torkov, Alica; SeggewiΔ, Dominik; Hugle, Manuela; Fulda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We explored the potential of Smac mimetics, which antagonize Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, for chemosensitization of neuroblastoma (NB). Here, we report that Smac mimetics, e.g. BV6, prime NB cells for chemotherapeutics including the topoisomerase II inhibitor doxorubicin (DOX) and vinca alkaloids such as Vincristine (VCR), Vinblastine (VBL) and Vinorelbine (VNR). Additionally, BV6 acts in concert with DOX or VCR to suppress long-term clonogenic growth. While BV6 causes rapid downregulation of cellular IAP (cIAP)1 protein and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation, DOX/BV6- or VCR/BV6-induced apoptosis occurs independently of NF-κB or TNFα signaling, since overexpression of dominant-negative IκBα superrepressor or the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α-blocking antibody Enbrel fail to block cell death. Mechanistic studies reveal that Receptor-interacting protein (RIP)1 is required for DOX/BV6-, but not for VCR/BV6-induced apoptosis, since transient or stable knockdown of RIP1 or the pharmacological RIP1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 significantly reduce apoptosis. By comparison, VCR/BV6-mediated apoptosis critically depends on the mitochondrial pathway. VCR/BV6 cotreatment causes phosphorylation of BCL-2 during mitotic arrest, enhanced activation of BAX and BAK and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Additionally, overexpression of BCL-2 profoundly suppresses VCR/BV6-induced apoptosis. Thus, BV6 sensitizes NB cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis via distinct initial signaling mechanisms depending on the chemotherapeutic drug. These findings provide novel mechanistic insights into Smac mimetic-mediated chemosensitization of NB. PMID:26575016

  14. A human apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide reduces atherosclerosis in aged apolipoprotein E null mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanyong; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Mengting; Li, Feifei; Liu, Liangchen; Du, Fen; Fan, Daping; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known as an antiatherogenic protein via regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation. We previously reported that a human apoE mimetic peptide, EpK, reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null (apoE-/-) mice through reducing inflammation without affecting plasma lipid levels. Here, we construct another human apoE mimetic peptide, named hEp, and investigate whether expression of hEp can reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in aged female apoE-/- mice with pre-existing lesions. We found that chemically synthesized hEp significantly decreased cholesterol accumulation induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein and the expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages. In an in vivo study, Lv-hEp-GFP lentiviruses were intravenously injected into 9 month-old apoE-/- mice. Mice were then fed a chow diet for 18 weeks. Results showed that in comparison to the Lv-GFP lentivirus injection (Lv-GFP) group, Lv-hEp-GFP lentivirus injection achieved hepatic hEp expression and secretion in apoE-/- mice. It was observed that hEp expression significantly reduced plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased aortic atherosclerotic lesions. This was accompanied by an increase of LDL receptor expression and a reduction of TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels in the liver. Moreover, expression of hEp increased plasma paraoxonase-1 activity and decreased plasma myeloperoxidase activity and serum amyloid A levels. Our study provides evidence that hEp may be developed as a promising therapeutic apoE mimetic peptide for atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases through its induction of plasma VLDL/LDL cholesterol clearance as well as its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27648138

  15. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S.; Taube, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential. PMID:26629902

  16. Functional Mimetics of the HIV-1 CCR5 Co-Receptor Displayed on the Surface of Magnetic Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Alona; Vaknin, Karin; Gdalevsky, Garik; Vyazmensky, Maria; Marks, Robert S; Taube, Ran; Engel, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine G protein coupled receptors, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, function as co-receptors for HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T cells. Initial binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp120 subunit to the host CD4 receptor induces a cascade of structural conformational changes that lead to the formation of a high-affinity co-receptor-binding site on gp120. Interaction between gp120 and the co-receptor leads to the exposure of epitopes on the viral gp41 that mediates fusion between viral and cell membranes. Soluble CD4 (sCD4) mimetics can act as an activation-based inhibitor of HIV-1 entry in vitro, as it induces similar structural changes in gp120, leading to increased virus infectivity in the short term but to virus Env inactivation in the long term. Despite promising clinical implications, sCD4 displays low efficiency in vivo, and in multiple HIV strains, it does not inhibit viral infection. This has been attributed to the slow kinetics of the sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and to the failure to obtain sufficient sCD4 mimetic levels in the serum. Here we present uniquely structured CCR5 co-receptor mimetics. We hypothesized that such mimetics will enhance sCD4-induced HIV Env inactivation and inhibition of HIV entry. Co-receptor mimetics were derived from CCR5 gp120-binding epitopes and functionalized with a palmitoyl group, which mediated their display on the surface of lipid-coated magnetic beads. CCR5-peptidoliposome mimetics bound to soluble gp120 and inhibited HIV-1 infectivity in a sCD4-dependent manner. We concluded that CCR5-peptidoliposomes increase the efficiency of sCD4 to inhibit HIV infection by acting as bait for sCD4-primed virus, catalyzing the premature discharge of its fusion potential.

  17. Accelerating cosmologies and the phase structure of F (R ) gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraints: A mimetic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    We study mimetic F (R ) gravity with a potential and Lagrange multiplier constraint. In the context of these theories, we introduce a reconstruction technique which enables us to realize arbitrary cosmologies, given the Hubble rate and an arbitrarily chosen F (R ) gravity. We exemplify our method by realizing cosmologies that are in concordance with current observations (Planck data) and also well-known bouncing cosmologies. The attribute of our method is that the F (R ) gravity can be arbitrarily chosen, so we can have the appealing features of the mimetic approach combined with the known features of some F (R ) gravities, which unify early-time with late-time acceleration. Moreover, we study the existence and the stability of de Sitter points in the context of mimetic F (R ) gravity. In the case of unstable de Sitter points, it is demonstrated that graceful exit from inflation occurs. We also study the Einstein-frame counterpart theory of the Jordan-frame mimetic F (R ) gravity, and we discuss the general properties of the theory and exemplify our analysis by studying a quite interesting (from a phenomenological point of view) model with two scalar fields. We also calculate the observational indices of the two-scalar-field model, by using the two-scalar-field formalism. Furthermore, we extensively study the dynamical system that corresponds to the mimetic F (R ) gravity, by finding the fixed points and studying their stability. Finally, we modify our reconstruction method to function in the inverse way and thus yield which F (R ) gravity can realize a specific cosmological evolution, given the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier.

  18. Characterization of Potent SMAC Mimetics that Sensitize Cancer Cells to TNF Family-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Kate; Milutinovic, Snezana; Ardecky, Robert J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Marcos; Ganji, Santhi Reddy; Finlay, Darren; Riedl, Stefan; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Pinilla, Clemencia; Houghten, Richard; Vuori, Kristiina; Reed, John C.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Inhibitor of APoptosis (IAP) protein family suppress apoptosis within tumor cells, particularly in the context of immune cell-mediated killing by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily cytokines. Most IAPs are opposed endogenously by the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (SMAC), which binds to selected baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains of IAPs to displace interacting proteins. The development of SMAC mimetics as novel anticancer drugs has gained impetus, with several agents now in human clinical trials. To further understand the cellular mechanisms of SMAC mimetics, we focused on IAP family members cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are recruited to TNF receptor complexes where they support cell survival through NF-κB activation while suppressing apoptosis by preventing caspase activation. We established fluorescence polarization (FP) assays for the BIR2 and BIR3 domains of human cIAP1 and cIAP2 using fluorochrome-conjugated SMAC peptides as ligands. A library of SMAC mimetics was profiled using the FP assays to provide a unique structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis compared to previous assessments of binding to XIAP. Potent compounds displayed mean inhibitory binding constants (Ki) of 9 to 27 nM against the BIR3 domains of cIAP1 and cIAP2, respectively. Selected compounds were then characterized using cytotoxicity assays in which a cytokine-resistant human tumor cell line was sensitized to either TNF or lymphotoxin-α (LT-α). Cytotoxicity correlated closely with cIAP1 and cIAP2 BIR3 binding activity with the most potent compounds able to reduce cell viability by 50%. Further testing demonstrated that active compounds also inhibit RIP1 binding to BIR3 of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in vitro and reduce steady-state cIAP1 protein levels in cells. Altogether, these data inform the SAR for our SMAC mimetics with respect to cIAP1 and cIAP2, suggesting that these IAP family members play an important role in tumor cell resistance to cytotoxicity

  19. The Mimetic Finite Element Method and the Virtual Element Method for elliptic problems with arbitrary regularity.

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco

    2012-07-13

    We develop and analyze a new family of virtual element methods on unstructured polygonal meshes for the diffusion problem in primal form, that use arbitrarily regular discrete spaces V{sub h} {contained_in} C{sup {alpha}} {element_of} N. The degrees of freedom are (a) solution and derivative values of various degree at suitable nodes and (b) solution moments inside polygons. The convergence of the method is proven theoretically and an optimal error estimate is derived. The connection with the Mimetic Finite Difference method is also discussed. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence rate that is expected from the theory.

  20. Discovery of HIV fusion inhibitors targeting gp41 using a comprehensive α-helix mimetic library

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, Landon R.; Boyle, Kristopher E.; Cai, Lifeng; Yu, Xiaoqian; Gochin, Miriam; Boger, Dale L.

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of a comprehensive α-helix mimetic library for binding the gp41 NHR hydrophobic pocket recognizing an intramolecular CHR α-helix provided a detailed depiction of structural features required for binding and led to the discovery of small molecule inhibitors (Ki 0.6–1.3 µM) that not only match or exceed the potency of those disclosed over the past decade, but that also exhibit effective activity in a cell–cell fusion assay (IC50 5–8 µM). PMID:22424973

  1. Molecular design, structures, and activity of antimicrobial peptide-mimetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Haruko; Palermo, Edmund F; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Caputo, Gregory A; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics which are effective against drug-resistant bacteria without contributing to resistance development. We have designed and developed antimicrobial copolymers with cationic amphiphilic structures based on the mimicry of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. These copolymers exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with no adverse hemolytic activity. Notably, these polymers also did not result in any measurable resistance development in E. coli. The peptide-mimetic design principle offers significant flexibility and diversity in the creation of new antimicrobial materials and their potential biomedical applications.

  2. Prostacyclin receptor-independent inhibition of phospholipase C activity by non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Kevin B S; Wong, Yung H; Wise, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transiently transfected with the mouse prostacyclin (mIP) receptor to examine IP agonist-mediated stimulation of [3H]-cyclic AMP and [3H]-inositol phosphate production.The prostacyclin analogues, cicaprost, iloprost, carbacyclin and prostaglandin E1, stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity with EC50 values of 5, 6, 25 and 95 nM, respectively. These IP agonists also stimulated the phospholipase C pathway with 10 – 40 fold lower potency than stimulation of adenylyl cyclase.The non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics, octimibate, BMY 42393 and BMY 45778, also stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity, with EC50 values of 219, 166 and 398 nM, respectively, but failed to stimulate [3H]-inositol phosphate production.Octimibate, BMY 42393 and BMY 45778 inhibited iloprost-stimulated [3H]-inositol phosphate production in a non-competitive manner.Activation of the endogenously-expressed P2 purinergic receptor by ATP led to an increase in [3H]-inositol phosphate production which was inhibited by the non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics in non-transfected CHO cells. Prostacyclin analogues and other prostanoid receptor ligands failed to inhibit ATP-stimulated [3H]-inositol phosphate production.A comparison between the IP receptor-specific non-prostanoid ONO-1310 and the structurally-related EP3 receptor-specific agonist ONO-AP-324, indicated that the inhibitory effect of non-prostanoids was specific for those compounds known to activate IP receptors.The non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics also inhibited phospholipase C activity when stimulated by constitutively-active mutant GαqRC, Gα14RC and Gα16QL transiently expressed in CHO cells. These drugs did not inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity when stimulated by the constitutively-active mutant GαsQL.These results suggest that non-prostanoid prostacyclin mimetics can specifically inhibit [3H]-inositol phosphate production by targeting Gq/11 and/or phospholipase C in CHO cells, and

  3. Efficient synthesis of a multi-substituted diphenylmethane skeleton as a steroid mimetic.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Takashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Demizu, Yosuke; Kurihara, Masaaki

    2017-03-24

    Steroids are important components of cell membranes and are involved in several physiological functions. A diphenylmethane (DPM) skeleton has recently been suggested to act as a mimetic of the steroid skeleton. However, difficulties are associated with efficiently introducing different substituents between two phenyl rings of the DPM skeleton, and, thus, further structural development based on the DPM skeleton has been limited. We herein developed an efficient synthetic method for introducing different substituents into two phenyl rings of the DPM skeleton. We also synthesized DPM-based estrogen receptor (ER) modulators using our synthetic method and evaluated their ER transcriptional activities.

  4. Arbitrary Order Mixed Mimetic Finite Differences Method with Nodal Degrees of Freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Iaroshenko, Oleksandr; Gyrya, Vitaliy; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-09-01

    In this work we consider a modification to an arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method (MFD) for a diffusion equation on general polygonal meshes [1]. The modification is based on moving some degrees of freedom (DoF) for a flux variable from edges to vertices. We showed that for a non-degenerate element this transformation is locally equivalent, i.e. there is a one-to-one map between the new and the old DoF. Globally, on the other hand, this transformation leads to a reduction of the total number of degrees of freedom (by up to 40%) and additional continuity of the discrete flux.

  5. Mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory and link invariants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Bartolo, Cayetano; Grau, Javier; Leal, Lorenzo

    2013-12-15

    A mimetic discretization of the Abelian Chern-Simons theory is presented. The study relies on the formulation of a theory of differential forms in the lattice, including a consistent definition of the Hodge duality operation. Explicit expressions for the Gauss Linking Number in the lattice, which correspond to their continuum counterparts are given. A discussion of the discretization of metric structures in the space of transverse vector densities is presented. The study of these metrics could serve to obtain explicit formulae for knot an link invariants in the lattice.

  6. Toward quartz and cristobalite: spontaneous resolution, structures, and characterization of chiral silica-mimetic silver(I)-organic materials.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tzuoo-Tsair; Liu, Yen-Hsiang; Chan, Chun-Chieh; Huang, Sheng-Ming; Chang, Bor-Chen; Lu, Yi-Long; Lee, Gene-Hsiang; Peng, Shih-Ming; Wang, Ju-Chun; Lu, Kuang-Lieh

    2007-11-26

    An alpha-quartz-mimetic chiral coordination network of [Ag(L1)(CF3SO3)]n (L1=5,5'-bipyrimidine), after treatment with PF6- anions, undergoes a solution-state structural transformation toward [Ag(L1)(PF6)]n with a cristobalite-mimetic chiral structures. This structural transformation is accompanied by substantial enhancement in the fluorescent intensity and in the second-harmonic-generation response. The results also demonstrate an effective design strategy based on the spontaneous resolution route for the preparation of chiral architectures.

  7. Synthesis of modular dipeptide mimetics on the basis of diazabicycloalkanes and derivatives thereof with sulphur containing side chains.

    PubMed

    Grohs, D C; Maison, W

    2005-08-01

    We present the synthesis of new modular dipeptide mimetics based on diazabicycloalkane backbones. These diazabicycloalkanes are ligands for the prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a well known tumor marker. Our previously described synthetic route to enantiomerically pure diazabicycloalkanes is extended to yield polyfunctional diazabicycloalkanes with a modular character using a new ring closing methodology. This, finally, allows us to attach linker moieties to different positions of the diazabicycloalkane scaffold providing conjugation sites to other functional molecules such as markers or cytostatic compounds. Furthermore, successful synthesis of sulphur-containing dipeptide analogues as for example CysX(AA)- or HCysX(AA)-mimetics on the basis of diazabicycloalkanes is described.

  8. Stick–slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of gecko ‘frictional-adhesion’ adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick–slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick–slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick–slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems. PMID:25589569

  9. A biologically effective fullerene (C60) derivative with superoxide dismutase mimetic properties.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sameh S; Hardt, Joshua I; Quick, Kevin L; Kim-Han, Jeong Sook; Erlanger, Bernard F; Huang, Ting-Ting; Epstein, Charles J; Dugan, Laura L

    2004-10-15

    Superoxide, a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism, may contribute to tissue injury in many types of human disease. Here we show that a tris-malonic acid derivative of the fullerene C60 molecule (C3) is capable of removing the biologically important superoxide radical with a rate constant (k(C3)) of 2 x 10(6) mol(-1) s(-1), approximately 100-fold slower than the superoxide dismutases (SOD), a family of enzymes responsible for endogenous dismutation of superoxide. This rate constant is within the range of values reported for several manganese-containing SOD mimetic compounds. The reaction between C3 and superoxide was not via stoichiometric "scavenging," as expected, but through catalytic dismutation of superoxide, indicated by lack of structural modifications to C3, regeneration of oxygen, production of hydrogen peroxide, and absence of EPR-active (paramagnetic) products, all consistent with a catalytic mechanism. A model is proposed in which electron-deficient regions on the C60 sphere work in concert with malonyl groups attached to C3 to electrostatically guide and stabilize superoxide, promoting dismutation. We also found that C3 treatment of Sod2(-/-) mice, which lack expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), increased their life span by 300%. These data, coupled with evidence that C3 localizes to mitochondria, suggest that C3 functionally replaces MnSOD, acting as a biologically effective SOD mimetic.

  10. Heparin-mimetic polyurethane hydrogels with anticoagulant, tunable mechanical property and controllable drug releasing behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Yonghui; Zhao, Weifeng; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, novel heparin-mimetic polyurethane hydrogels were prepared by introducing chemical crosslinked sulfated konjac glucomannan (SKGM). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that the introduction of SKGM and the increase of the molecular weight of diol segments could enlarge the pore sizes of the hydrogels. The swelling behavior corresponded with the SEM results, and the hydrogels could absorb more water after the modification. The modification also led to an improvement in the mechanical property. Meanwhile, the SKGM and the modified polyurethane hydrogels showed excellent hemocompatibility. The thromboplastin time of SKGM could reach up to 182.9s. Gentamycin sulfate (GS) was used as a model drug to be loaded into the hydrogels, and the loading amount was increased ca. 50% after the introduction of SKGM, thus resulting in high bactericidal efficiency. The results indicated that the introduction of SKGM and the alternation in the diol's molecular weight bestowed polyurethane hydrogels with promising properties of integrated blood-compatibility, mechanical properties and drug loading-releasing behavior. Therefore, the heparin-mimetic multifunctional polyurethane hydrogels have great potential to be used in biomedical applications.

  11. Viable mimetic completion of unified inflation-dark energy evolution in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that a unified description of early and late-time acceleration is possible in the context of mimetic F (R ) gravity. We study the inflationary era in detail and demonstrate that it can be realized even in mimetic F (R ) gravity where traditional F (R ) gravity fails to describe the inflation. By using standard methods we calculated the spectral index of primordial curvature perturbations and the scalar-to-tensor ratio. We use two F (R ) gravity models and as it turns out, for both the models under study the observational indices are compatible with both the latest Planck and the BICEP2/Keck array data. However, this is only true under some model-dependent fine-tuning, which constrains the models we study. Finally, the graceful exit from inflation issue is addressed, and as we show, the curvature perturbations may trigger the graceful exit from inflation when the slow-roll era ends. However, fine-tuning is needed in order to produce enough inflation by the end of the slow-roll era.

  12. Protein and DNA oxidation in different anatomic regions of rat brain in a mimetic ageing model.

    PubMed

    Yanar, Karolin; Aydın, Seval; Cakatay, Ufuk; Mengi, Murat; Buyukpınarbaşılı, Nur; Atukeren, Pınar; Sitar, Mustafa E; Sönmez, Aslı; Uslu, Ezel

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that d-galactose administration causes an increase in oxidative and osmotic stresses in several tissues of rodents. In this study, we established a brain ageing model by using d-galactose and investigated the concentrations of oxidative stress markers on the hippocampus, parietal and frontal lobes of male Sprague-Dawley rats. A mimetic ageing model was established by injecting d-galactose (60 mg/kg/day/i.p.) in the experimental group for 42 days. At the end of this period, we tested spatial memory using the Morris water maze test. To investigate the magnitude of oxidative damage in proteins, lipids and DNA, we studied the concentrations of various oxidative stress parameters in the hippocampus, parietal and frontal lobes of the brain. Glial and neuronal cell oxidative damage was observed in each of the three anatomic regions. It was found that protein carbonyl groups and advanced oxidation product concentrations in the d-galactose applied group were significantly high in each of the three brain lobes compared with the control group. Thiol concentration was found to be decreased in the parietal lobe. A concurrent increase in lipid hydroperoxides was also observed in this lobe. On the other hand, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was significantly increased in the hippocampal lobe of rats in the experimental group when compared with the controls. The results obtained from the mimetic ageing model rats showed that various anatomical regions of brain have different susceptibility to oxidative damage of proteins, lipids and DNA.

  13. Inhibition of Antiapoptotic BCL-XL, BCL-2, and MCL-1 Proteins by Small Molecule Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Dalafave, D.S.; Prisco, G.

    2010-01-01

    Informatics and computational design methods were used to create new molecules that could potentially bind antiapoptotic proteins, thus promoting death of cancer cells. Apoptosis is a cellular process that leads to the death of damaged cells. Its malfunction can cause cancer and poor response to conventional chemotherapy. After being activated by cellular stress signals, proapoptotic proteins bind antiapoptotic proteins, thus allowing apoptosis to go forward. An excess of antiapoptotic proteins can prevent apoptosis. Designed molecules that mimic the roles of proapoptotic proteins can promote the death of cancer cells. The goal of our study was to create new putative mimetics that could simultaneously bind several antiapoptotic proteins. Five new small molecules were designed that formed stable complexes with BCL-2, BCL-XL, and MCL-1 antiapoptotic proteins. These results are novel because, to our knowledge, there are not many, if any, small molecules known to bind all three proteins. Drug-likeness studies performed on the designed molecules, as well as previous experimental and preclinical studies on similar agents, strongly suggest that the designed molecules may indeed be promising drug candidates. All five molecules showed “drug-like” properties and had overall drug-likeness scores between 81% and 96%. A single drug based on these mimetics should cost less and cause fewer side effects than a combination of drugs each aimed at a single protein. Computer-based molecular design promises to accelerate drug research by predicting potential effectiveness of designed molecules prior to laborious experiments and costly preclinical trials. PMID:20838611

  14. Nacre-mimetic bulk lamellar composites reinforced with high aspect ratio glass flakes.

    PubMed

    Guner, Selen N Gurbuz; Dericioglu, Arcan F

    2016-12-05

    Nacre-mimetic epoxy matrix composites reinforced with readily available micron-sized high aspect ratio C-glass flakes were fabricated by a relatively simple, single-step, scalable, time, cost and man-power effective processing strategy: hot-press assisted slip casting (HASC). HASC enables the fabrication of preferentially oriented two-dimensional inorganic reinforcement-polymer matrix bulk lamellar composites with a micro-scale structure resembling the brick-and-mortar architecture of nacre. By applying the micro-scale design guideline found in nacre and optimizing the relative volume fractions of the reinforcement and the matrix as well as by anchoring the brick-and-mortar architecture, and tailoring the interface between reinforcements and the matrix via silane coupling agents, strong, stiff and tough bio-inspired nacre-mimetic bulk composites were fabricated. As a result of high shear stress transfer lengths and effective stress transfer at the interface achieved through surface functionalization of the reinforcements, fabricated bulk composites exhibited enhanced mechanical performance as compared to neat epoxy. Furthermore, governed flake pull-out mode along with a highly torturous crack path, which resulted from extensive deflection and meandering of the advancing crack around well-aligned high aspect ratio C-glass flakes, have led to high work-of-fracture values similar to nacre.

  15. Platelet-mimetic strategies for modulating the wound environment and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Platelets closely interface with the immune system to fight pathogens, target wound sites, and regulate tissue repair. Natural platelet levels within the body can be depleted for a variety of reasons, including excessive bleeding following traumatic injury, or diseases such as cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Platelet transfusions are commonly used to improve platelet count and hemostatic function in these cases, but transfusions can be complicated by the contamination risks and short storage life of donated platelets. Lyophilized platelets that can be freeze-dried and stored for longer periods of time and synthetic platelet-mimetic technologies that can enhance or replace the functions of natural platelets, while minimizing adverse immune responses have been explored as alternatives to transfusion. Synthetic platelets typically comprise nanoparticles surface-decorated with peptides or ligands to recreate specific biological characteristics of platelets, including targeting of wound and disease sites and facilitating platelet aggregation. Recent efforts in synthetic platelet design have additionally focused on matching platelet shape and mechanics to recreate the marginalization and clot contraction capabilities of natural platelets. The ability to specifically tune the properties of synthetic platelet-mimetic materials has shown utility in a variety of applications including hemostasis, drug delivery, and targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics. PMID:27190260

  16. Modeling anisotropic flow and heat transport by using mimetic finite differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Clauser, Christoph; Marquart, Gabriele; Willbrand, Karen; Büsing, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Modeling anisotropic flow in porous or fractured rock often assumes that the permeability tensor is diagonal, which means that its principle directions are always aligned with the coordinate axes. However, the permeability of a heterogeneous anisotropic medium usually is a full tensor. For overcoming this shortcoming, we use the mimetic finite difference method (mFD) for discretizing the flow equation in a hydrothermal reservoir simulation code, SHEMAT-Suite, which couples this equation with the heat transport equation. We verify SHEMAT-Suite-mFD against analytical solutions of pumping tests, using both diagonal and full permeability tensors. We compare results from three benchmarks for testing the capability of SHEMAT-Suite-mFD to handle anisotropic flow in porous and fractured media. The benchmarks include coupled flow and heat transport problems, three-dimensional problems and flow through a fractured porous medium with full equivalent permeability tensor. It shows firstly that the mimetic finite difference method can model anisotropic flow both in porous and in fractured media accurately and its results are better than those obtained by the multi-point flux approximation method in highly anisotropic models, secondly that the asymmetric permeability tensor can be included and leads to improved results compared the symmetric permeability tensor in the equivalent fracture models, and thirdly that the method can be easily implemented in existing finite volume or finite difference codes, which has been demonstrated successfully for SHEMAT-Suite.

  17. Prussian blue nanoparticles as peroxidase mimetics for sensitive colorimetric detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Diao; Du, Jianxiu

    2014-03-01

    Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) exhibits an intrinsic peroxidase-like catalytic activity towards the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated oxidation of classical peroxidase substrate 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt to produce a colored product. The catalysis follows Michaelis-Menen kinetics and shows strong affinity for H2O2. Using PB NPs as a peroxidase mimetics, a colorimetric method was developed for the detection of 0.05-50.0 μM H2O2, with a detection limit of 0.031 μM. When the catalytic reaction of PB NPs was coupled with the reaction of glucose oxidation catalyzed by glucose oxidase, a sensitive and selective colorimetric method for the detection of glucose was realized. The limit of detection for glucose was determined to be as low as 0.03 μM and the linear range was from 0.1 μM to 50.0 μM. The method was successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human serum. Compared with other nanomaterials-based peroxidase mimetics, PB NPs provides 10-100 times higher sensitivity toward the detection of H2O2 and glucose. The detection platform developed showed great potential applications in varieties of physiological importance substances when merged with appropriate H2O2-producing oxidases.

  18. Aggrecan-mimetic, glycosaminoglycan-containing nanoparticles for growth factor stabilization and delivery.

    PubMed

    Place, Laura W; Sekyi, Maria; Kipper, Matt J

    2014-02-10

    The direct delivery of growth factors to sites of tissue healing is complicated by their relative instability. In many tissues, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans like aggrecan stabilize growth factors in the pericellular and extracellular space, creating a local reservoir that can be accessed during a wound healing response. GAGs also regulate growth factor-receptor interactions at the cell surface. Here we report the development of nanoparticles for growth factor delivery that mimic the size, GAG composition, and growth factor binding and stabilization of aggrecan. The aggrecan-mimetic nanoparticles are easy to assemble, and their structure and composition can be readily tuned to alter their physical and biological properties. We use basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) as a model heparin-binding growth factor, demonstrating that aggrecan-mimetic nanoparticles can preserve its activity for more than three weeks. We evaluate FGF-2 activity by measuring both the proliferation and metabolic activity of bone marrow stromal cells to demonstrate that chondroitin sulfate-based aggrecan mimics are as effective as aggrecan, and heparin-based aggrecan mimics are superior to aggrecan as delivery vehicles for FGF-2.

  19. Stick-slip friction of gecko-mimetic flaps on smooth and rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Das, Saurabh; Cadirov, Nicholas; Chary, Sathya; Kaufman, Yair; Hogan, Jack; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2015-03-06

    The discovery and understanding of gecko 'frictional-adhesion' adhering and climbing mechanism has allowed researchers to mimic and create gecko-inspired adhesives. A few experimental and theoretical approaches have been taken to understand the effect of surface roughness on synthetic adhesive performance, and the implications of stick-slip friction during shearing. This work extends previous studies by using a modified surface forces apparatus to quantitatively measure and model frictional forces between arrays of polydimethylsiloxane gecko footpad-mimetic tilted microflaps against smooth and rough glass surfaces. Constant attachments and detachments occur between the surfaces during shearing, as described by an avalanche model. These detachments ultimately result in failure of the adhesion interface and have been characterized in this study. Stick-slip friction disappears with increasing velocity when the flaps are sheared against a smooth silica surface; however, stick-slip was always present at all velocities and loads tested when shearing the flaps against rough glass surfaces. These results demonstrate the significance of pre-load, shearing velocity, shearing distances, commensurability and shearing direction of gecko-mimetic adhesives and provide us a simple model for analysing and/or designing such systems.

  20. The polysialic acid mimetics 5-nonyloxytryptamine and vinorelbine facilitate nervous system repair

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Vedangana; Lutz, David; Kataria, Hardeep; Kaur, Gurcharan; Schachner, Melitta; Loers, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Polysialic acid (PSA) is a large negatively charged glycan mainly attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Several studies have shown that it is important for correct formation of brain circuitries during development and for synaptic plasticity, learning and memory in the adult. PSA also plays a major role in nervous system regeneration following injury. As a next step for clinical translation of PSA based therapeutics, we have previously identified the small organic compounds 5-nonyloxytryptamine and vinorelbine as PSA mimetics. Activity of 5-nonyloxytryptamine and vinorelbine had been confirmed in assays with neural cells from the central and peripheral nervous system in vitro and shown to be independent of their function as serotonin receptor 5-HT1B/1D agonist or cytostatic drug, respectively. As we show here in an in vivo paradigm for spinal cord injury in mice, 5-nonyloxytryptamine and vinorelbine enhance regain of motor functions, axonal regrowth, motor neuron survival and remyelination. These data indicate that 5-nonyloxytryptamine and vinorelbine may be re-tasked from their current usage as a 5-HT1B/1D agonist or cytostatic drug to act as mimetics for PSA to stimulate regeneration after injury in the mammalian nervous system. PMID:27324620

  1. A mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem with elected edge bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, K; Berirao, L

    2009-01-01

    A new mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem is proposed and analyzed. The unstable P{sub 1}-P{sub 0} discretization is stabilized by adding a small number of bubble functions to selected mesh edges. A simple strategy for selecting such edges is proposed and verified with numerical experiments. The discretizations schemes for Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations must satisfy the celebrated inf-sup (or the LBB) stability condition. The stability condition implies a balance between discrete spaces for velocity and pressure. In finite elements, this balance is frequently achieved by adding bubble functions to the velocity space. The goal of this article is to show that the stabilizing edge bubble functions can be added only to a small set of mesh edges. This results in a smaller algebraic system and potentially in a faster calculations. We employ the mimetic finite difference (MFD) discretization technique that works for general polyhedral meshes and can accomodate non-uniform distribution of stabilizing bubbles.

  2. Cosmological viable mimetic f(R) and f(R, T) theories via Noether symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R.; Güdekli, E.

    2015-07-01

    Extended f(R) theories of gravity have been investigated from the symmetry point of view. We briefly has been investigated Noether symmetry of two types of extended f(R) theories: f(R, T) theory, in which curvature is coupled non-minimally to the trace of energy-momentum tensor Tμν and mimetic f(R) gravity, a theory with a scalar field degree of freedom, but ghost-free and with internal conformal symmetry. In both cases we write point-like Lagrangian for flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological background in the presence of ordinary matter. We have been shown that some classes of models existed with Noether symmetry in these viable extensions of f(R) gravity. As a motivated idea, we have been investigating the stability of the solutions and the bouncing and ΛCDM models using the Noether symmetries. We have been shown that in mimetic f(R) gravity bouncing and ΛCDM solutions are possible. Also a class of solutions with future singularities has been investigated.

  3. Functional and pharmacological characterization of a VEGF mimetic peptide on reparative angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Federica; Basile, Anna; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Di Stasi, Rossella; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Caterina Maria; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2012-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Low molecular weight molecules able to stimulate angiogenesis have interesting medical application for example in regenerative medicine, but at present none has reached the clinic. We reported that a VEGF mimetic helical peptide, QK, designed on the VEGF helix sequence 17-25, is able to bind and activate the VEGF receptors, producing angiogenesis. In this study we evaluate the pharmacological properties of peptide QK with the aim to propose it as a VEGF-mimetic drug to be employed in reparative angiogenesis. We show that the peptide QK is able to recapitulate all the biological activities of VEGF in vivo and on endothelial cells. In experiments evaluating sprouting from aortic ring and vessel formation in an in vivo angiogenesis model, the peptide QK showed biological effects comparable with VEGF. At endothelial level, the peptide up-regulates VEGF receptor expression, activates intracellular pathways depending on VEGFR2, and consistently it induces endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. When added to angiogenic factors (VEGF and/or FGF-2), QK produces an improved biological action, which resulted in reduced apoptosis and accelerated in vitro wound healing. The VEGF-like activity of the short peptide QK, characterized by lower cost of production and easier handling compared to the native glycoprotein, suggests that it is an attractive candidate to be further developed for application in therapeutic angiogenesis.

  4. Plaque-hyaluronidase-responsive high-density-lipoprotein-mimetic nanoparticles for multistage intimal-macrophage-targeted drug delivery and enhanced anti-atherosclerotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mengyuan; He, Jianhua; Jiang, Cuiping; Zhang, Wenli; Yang, Yun; Wang, Zhiyu; Liu, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has highlighted the pivotal role that intimal macrophage (iMΦ) plays in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaques, which represents an attractive target for atherosclerosis treatment. In this work, to address the insufficient specificity of conventional reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) for iMΦ and its limited cholesterol efflux ability, we designed a hyaluronan (HA)-anchored core–shell rHDL. This nanoparticle achieved efficient iMΦ-targeted drug delivery via a multistage-targeting approach, and excellent cellular cholesterol removal. It contained a biodegradable poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) core within a lipid bilayer, and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) absorbing on the lipid bilayer was covalently decorated with HA. The covalent HA coating with superior stability and greater shielding was favorable for not only minimizing the liver uptake but also facilitating the accumulation of nanoparticles at leaky endothelium overexpressing CD44 receptors in atherosclerotic plaques. The ultimate iMΦ homing was achieved via apoA-I after HA coating degraded by hyaluronidase (HAase) (abundant in atherosclerotic plaque). The multistage-targeting mechanism was revealed on the established injured endothelium–macrophage co-culture dynamic system. Upon treatment with HAase in vitro, the nanoparticle HA-(C)-PLGA-rHDL exhibited a greater cholesterol efflux capacity compared with conventional rHDL (2.43-fold). Better targeting efficiency toward iMΦ and attenuated liver accumulation were further proved by results from ex vivo imaging and iMΦ-specific fluorescence localization. Ultimately, HA-(C)-PLGA-rHDL loaded with simvastatin realized the most potent anti-atherogenic efficacies in model animals over other preparations. Thus, the HAase-responsive HDL-mimetic nanoparticle was shown in this study to be a promising nanocarrier for anti-atherogenic therapy, in the light of efficient iMΦ-targeted drug delivery and excellent function of

  5. Bcl-xL-inhibitory BH3 mimetics can induce a transient thrombocytopathy that undermines the hemostatic function of platelets.

    PubMed

    Schoenwaelder, Simone M; Jarman, Kate E; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Hua, My; Qiao, Jianlin; White, Michael J; Josefsson, Emma C; Alwis, Imala; Ono, Akiko; Willcox, Abbey; Andrews, Robert K; Mason, Kylie D; Salem, Hatem H; Huang, David C S; Kile, Benjamin T; Roberts, Andrew W; Jackson, Shaun P

    2011-08-11

    BH3 mimetics are a new class of proapo-ptotic anticancer agents that have shown considerable promise in preclinical animal models and early-stage human trials. These agents act by inhibiting the pro-survival function of one or more Bcl-2-related proteins. Agents that inhibit Bcl-x(L) induce rapid platelet death that leads to thrombocytopenia; however, their impact on the function of residual circulating platelets remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that the BH3 mimetics, ABT-737 or ABT-263, induce a time- and dose-dependent decrease in platelet adhesive function that correlates with ectodomain shedding of the major platelet adhesion receptors, glycoprotein Ibα and glycoprotein VI, and functional down-regulation of integrin α(IIb)β(3). Analysis of platelets from mice treated with higher doses of BH3 mimetics revealed the presence of a subpopulation of circulating platelets undergoing cell death that have impaired activation responses to soluble agonists. Functional analysis of platelets by intravital microscopy revealed a time-dependent defect in platelet aggregation at sites of vascular injury that correlated with an increase in tail bleeding time. Overall, these studies demonstrate that Bcl-x(L)-inhibitory BH3 mimetics not only induce thrombocytopenia but also a transient thrombocytopathy that can undermine the hemostatic function of platelets.

  6. L-Eye to Me: The Combined Role of Need for Cognition and Facial Trustworthiness in Mimetic Desires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treinen, Evelyne; Corneille, Olivier; Luypaert, Gaylord

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies showed that stimuli are evaluated more favourably when they are perceived to capture others' attention, an effect coined "mimetic desire". The aim of the present research was to examine the combined role of Need for Cognition and target's facial trustworthiness in this effect. Participants saw movie excerpts of trustworthy and…

  7. Synthesis of 1,5-benzothiazepine dipeptide mimetics via two CuI-catalyzed cross coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jiangang; Ma, Dawei

    2009-07-02

    CuI-catalyzed coupling of 4-methylphenyl bromide with amino acids gives N-aryl amino acids, which are converted into linear dipeptides via iodination and condensation with L-cysteine derived acyl chloride. Cyclization is achieved via a CuI/N,N-dimethylglycine catalyzed intramolecular coupling of aryl iodides with the liberated thiol to afford 1,5-benzothiazepine dipeptide mimetics.

  8. Eltrombopag, a thrombopoietin mimetic, crosses the blood-brain barrier and impairs iron-dependent hippocampal neuron dendrite development.

    PubMed

    Bastian, T W; Duck, K A; Michalopoulos, G C; Chen, M J; Liu, Z-J; Connor, J R; Lanier, L M; Sola-Visner, M C; Georgieff, M K

    2017-03-01

    Essentials Potential neurodevelopmental side effects of thrombopoietin mimetics need to be considered. The effects of eltrombopag (ELT) on neuronal iron status and dendrite development were assessed. ELT crosses the blood-brain barrier and causes iron deficiency in developing neurons. ELT blunts dendrite maturation, indicating a need for more safety studies before neonatal use.

  9. The spread of adenoviral vectors to central nervous system through pathway of cochlea in mimetic aging and young rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhao, X; Hu, Y; Lan, F; Sun, H; Fan, G; Sun, Y; Wu, J; Kong, W; Kong, W

    2015-11-01

    There is no definitive conclusion concerning the spread of viral vectors to the brain after a cochlear inoculation. In addition, some studies have reported different distribution profiles of viral vectors in the central auditory system after a cochlear inoculation. Thus, rats were grouped into either a mimetic aging group or a young group and transfected with adenoviral vectors (AdVs) by round window membrane injection. The distribution of AdV in central nervous system (CNS) was demonstrated in the two groups with transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. We found that the AdV could disseminate into the CNS and that the neuronal damage and stress-induced GRP78 expression were reduced after transfection with PGC-1α, as compared with the control vectors, especially in the mimetic aging group. We also found that the host immune response was degraded in CNS in the mimetic aging group after transduction through the cochlea, as compared with the young group. These results demonstrate that viral vectors can disseminate into the CNS through the cochlea. Moreover, mimetic aging induced by D-galactose could facilitate the spread of viral vectors into the CNS from the cochlea. These findings may indicate a new potential approach for gene therapy against age-related diseases in the CNS.

  10. Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles conjugated with a conformationally blocked α-Tn antigen mimetic for macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manuelli, Massimo; Fallarini, Silvia; Lombardi, Grazia; Sangregorio, Claudio; Nativi, Cristina; Richichi, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent carriers. MNPs, largely exploited for supporting and carrying biomolecules, like antibodies, drugs or antigens, consent to combine in the same nanometric system the main features of an inorganic magnetic core with a bioactive organic coating. The superparamagnetic glyconanoparticles obtained, named GMNPs, are indeed biocompatible and immunoactive, and they preserve suitable characteristics for use as heat mediators in the magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) treatment of tumors. All together these properties make GMNPs attracting devices for innovative tumor treatment.Among new therapies to fight tumors, immunotherapy is still one of the most promising and intriguing. Thanks to the ongoing structural elucidation of several tumor antigens and the development of innovative antigen carriers, immunotherapy is in constant evolution and it is largely used either alone or in synergy with chemotherapy/radiotherapy. With the aim to develop fully synthetic immunostimulants we have recently developed a mimetic of the α-Tn mucin antigen, a relevant tumor antigen. The 4C1 blocked mimetic 1, unique example of an α-Tn mimetic antigen, was functionalized with an ω-phosphonate linker and used to decorate iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), employed as multivalent

  11. RSL3 and Erastin differentially regulate redox signaling to promote Smac mimetic-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dächert, Jasmin; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Rohde, Katharina; Fulda, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Redox mechanisms play an important role in the control of various signaling pathways. Here, we report that Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic-induced cell death is regulated by redox signaling. We show that RSL3, a glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPX) 4 inhibitor, or Erastin, an inhibitor of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, cooperate with the Smac mimetic BV6 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Addition of the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) fails to rescue ROS-induced cell death, demonstrating that RSL3/BV6- or Erastin/BV6-induced cell death occurs in a caspase-independent manner. Interestingly, the iron chelator Deferoxamine (DFO) significantly inhibits RSL3/BV6-induced cell death, whereas it is unable to rescue cell death by Erastin/BV6, showing that RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-mediated cell death depends on iron. ROS production is required for both RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, since the ROS scavenger α-tocopherol (α-Toc) rescues RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. By comparison, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of lipid peroxidation by GPX4 overexpression or ferrostatin (Fer)-1 significantly decreases RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, despite inhibition of lipid peroxidation upon exposure to RSL3/BV6 or Erastin/BV6. Of note, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Fer-1 protects from RSL3/BV6-, but not from Erastin/BV6-stimulated ROS production, indicating that other forms of ROS besides lipophilic ROS occur during Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. Taken together, RSL3/BV6 and Erastin/BV6 differentially regulate redox signaling and cell death in ALL cells. While RSL3/BV6 cotreatment induces ferroptotic cell death, Erastin/BV6 stimulates oxidative cell death independently of iron. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic targeting of redox signaling to

  12. Inter-species extrapolation of pharmacokinetic data of three prostacyclin-mimetics.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, M

    1994-11-01

    Cica-, eptalo- and iloprost are chemically and metabolically stabilized derivatives of prostacyclin which maintain the pharmacodynamic profile of the endogenous precursor. While iloprost is still subject to beta-oxidative degradation of the upper side chain, cicaprost is highly metabolically stable. Eptaloprost was synthesized to realize the pro-drug concept in PGI2-mimetics and was designed to be activated to cicaprost by single beta-oxidation. All three prostacyclin-mimetics were studied in various animal species (mouse, rat, rabbit, monkey, dog and pig) and in man to determine their pharmacokinetic profiles. Based upon this data, it was of interest whether an inter-species extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters can be performed to show the predictive value of animal experimentation. Allometric inter-species extrapolation is performed by modelling pharmacokinetic data (Y) as exponential functions (x) of species characteristics (e.g. body weight, W) as: Y = .aWx. For total clearance and volumes of distribution at steady state, a clear-cut correlation with x-values of 0.6-0.8 and 1.0-1.1 could be shown for all three compounds. For cicaprost, which was excreted unchanged in several species, renal and non-renal clearance was also mathematically scalable. Due to the use of different compartment models to describe plasma disposition, different sets of half-life data were obtained and could not be extrapolated reasonably. However, mean residence time showed a dependency on body weight with 0.25 as power function. In case of cicaprost, only the dog, which extensively metabolizes the compound, could not be enrolled in inter-species extrapolation. Excretion half-lives or residence times did not show a significant correlation to body weight or maximum life time potential. The present inter-species extrapolation showed a dependency from species body weight for model-independent pharmacokinetic data, e.g. clearance, volume of distribution at steady state and

  13. Human dendritic cell activation induced by a permannosylated dendron containing an antigenic GM3-lactone mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Javier; Ballerini, Clara; Comito, Giuseppina; Nativi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Summary Vaccination strategies based on dendritic cells (DCs) armed with specific tumor antigens have been widely exploited due the properties of these immune cells in coordinating an innate and adaptive response. Here, we describe the convergent synthesis of the bifunctional multivalent glycodendron 5, which contains nine residues of mannose for DC targeting and one residue of an immunogenic mimetic of a carbohydrate melanoma associated antigen. The immunological assays demonstrated that the glycodendron 5 is able to induce human immature DC activation in terms of a phenotype expression of co-stimulatory molecules expression and MHCII. Furthermore, DCs activated by the glycodendron 5 stimulate T lymphocytes to proliferate in a mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR). PMID:24991284

  14. An investigation of the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional Pd-based nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingping; Chen, Xiaolan; Shi, Saige; Mo, Shiguang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-12-07

    In this work, we investigated the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional (2D) Pd-based nanostructures (e.g. Pd nanosheets, Pd@Au and Pd@Pt nanoplates) and found that they possess intrinsic peroxidase-, oxidase- and catalase-like activities. These nanostructures were able to activate hydrogen peroxide or dissolved oxygen for catalyzing the oxidation of organic substrates, and decompose hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen. More systematic investigations revealed that the peroxidase-like activities of these Pd-based nanomaterials were highly structure- and composition-dependent. Among them, Pd@Pt nanoplates displayed the highest peroxidase-like activity. Based on these findings, Pd-based nanostructures were applied for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose, and also the electro-catalytic reduction of H2O2. This work offers a promising prospect for the application of 2D noble metal nanostructures in biocatalysis.

  15. Synthetic mimetics of the endogenous gastrointestinal nanomineral: Silent constructs that trap macromolecules for intracellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Pele, Laetitia C; Haas, Carolin T; Hewitt, Rachel E; Robertson, Jack; Skepper, Jeremy; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Faria, Nuno; Chappell, Helen; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-02-01

    Amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate (AMCP) nanoparticles (75-150nm) form constitutively in large numbers in the mammalian gut. Collective evidence indicates that they trap and deliver luminal macromolecules to mucosal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and facilitate gut immune homeostasis. Here, we report on a synthetic mimetic of the endogenous AMCP and show that it has marked capacity to trap macromolecules during formation. Macromolecular capture into AMCP involved incorporation as shown by STEM tomography of the synthetic AMCP particle with 5nm ultra-fine iron (III) oxohydroxide. In vitro, organic cargo-loaded synthetic AMCP was taken up by APCs and tracked to lysosomal compartments. The AMCP itself did not regulate any gene, or modify any gene regulation by its cargo, based upon whole genome transcriptomic analyses. We conclude that synthetic AMCP can efficiently trap macromolecules and deliver them to APCs in a silent fashion, and may thus represent a new platform for antigen delivery.

  16. Three-dimensional growth mechanism of cosmo-mimetic carbon microcoils obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motojima, Seiji; Chen, Quiqin

    1999-04-01

    Cosmo-mimetic carbon microcoils with a three-dimensional helical/spiral structure similar to deoxynucleic acid, having coil diameters of 3-6 μm and coil lengths of 5-8 mm could be obtained by the catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene. A three-dimensional growth model of the carbon coils, based on the anisotropy for the carbon deposition among three crystal faces, is proposed. The microcoiling morphology is formed by the rotation of a Ni catalyst grain, from which six fibers grow and coalesce with each other, followed by the formation of two fibers, and these two fibers entwine in the same direction and at the same speed of about one cycle per second around the coil axis.

  17. Elastin-Mimetic Protein Polymers Capable of Physical and Chemical Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Sallach, Rory E.; Cui, Wanxing; Wen, Jing; Martinez, Adam; Conticello, Vincent P.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2008-01-01

    We report the synthesis of a new class of recombinant elastin-mimetic triblock copolymer capable of both physical and chemical crosslinking. These investigations were motivated by a desire to capture features unique to both physical and chemical crosslinking schemes so as to exert optimal control over a wide range of potential properties afforded by protein-based mutiblock materials. We postulated that by chemically locking a multiblock protein assembly in place, functional responses that are linked to specific domain structures and morphologies may be preserved over a broader range of loading conditions that would otherwise disrupt microphase structure solely stabilized by physical crosslinking. Specifically, elastic modulus was enhanced and creep strain reduced through the addition of chemical crosslinking sites. Additionally, we have demonstrated excellent in vivo biocompatibility of glutaraldehyde treated multiblock systems. PMID:18954902

  18. Angiogenic Effects of Dimeric Dipeptide Mimetic of Loop 4 of Nerve Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskii, S A; Antipova, T A; Tsorin, I B; Pekeldina, E S; Stolyaruk, V N; Nikolaev, S V; Sorokina, A V; Gudasheva, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2016-08-01

    Angiogenic action of compound GK-2, a dimeric dipeptide mimetic of loop 4 of nerve growth factor (NGF), was studied in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Experiments on human endothelial cell culture HUVEC showed that compound GK-2 significantly (p<0.05) stimulated the initial stage of angiogenesis, and its angiogenic activity was not inferior to the reference neurotrophin NGF. In experiments with hindlimb ischemia modeled in rats, GK-2 (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days) significantly increased the total length of capillary vessels (p<0.003) and the number of vessels per 1 mm2 ischemic tissue (p<0.001) in comparison with the control. Our findings indicate that under experimental conditions compound GK-2 exhibits not only angiogenic, but also anti-ischemic activity.

  19. Virus-mimetic nanovesicles as a versatile antigen-delivery system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Chen, Yixin; Zeng, Yun; Shen, Chenguang; Li, Rui; Guo, Zhide; Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Qingbing; Chu, Chengchao; Wang, Zhantong; Zheng, Zizheng; Tian, Rui; Ge, Shengxiang; Zhang, Xianzhong; Xia, Ning-Shao; Liu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    It is a critically important challenge to rapidly design effective vaccines to reduce the morbidity and mortality of unexpected pandemics. Inspired from the way that most enveloped viruses hijack a host cell membrane and subsequently release by a budding process that requires cell membrane scission, we genetically engineered viral antigen to harbor into cell membrane, then form uniform spherical virus-mimetic nanovesicles (VMVs) that resemble natural virus in size, shape, and specific immunogenicity with the help of surfactants. Incubation of major cell membrane vesicles with surfactants generates a large amount of nano-sized uniform VMVs displaying the native conformational epitopes. With the diverse display of epitopes and viral envelope glycoproteins that can be functionally anchored onto VMVs, we demonstrate VMVs to be straightforward, robust and tunable nanobiotechnology platforms for fabricating antigen delivery systems against a wide range of enveloped viruses. PMID:26504197

  20. The mimetic finite difference method for the Landau–Lifshitz equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eugenia Hail; Lipnikov, Konstantin Nikolayevich

    2017-01-01

    The Landau–Lifshitz equation describes the dynamics of the magnetization inside ferromagnetic materials. This equation is highly nonlinear and has a non-convex constraint (the magnitude of the magnetization is constant) which poses interesting challenges in developing numerical methods. We develop and analyze explicit and implicit mimetic finite difference schemes for this equation. These schemes work on general polytopal meshes which provide enormous flexibility to model magnetic devices with various shapes. A projection on the unit sphere is used to preserve the magnitude of the magnetization. We also provide a proof that shows the exchange energy is decreasing in certain conditions. The developed schemes are tested on general meshes that include distorted and randomized meshes. As a result, the numerical experiments include a test proposed by the National Institute of Standard and Technology and a test showing formation of domain wall structures in a thin film.

  1. The mimetic finite difference method for the Landau–Lifshitz equation

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Eugenia Hail; Lipnikov, Konstantin Nikolayevich

    2017-01-01

    The Landau–Lifshitz equation describes the dynamics of the magnetization inside ferromagnetic materials. This equation is highly nonlinear and has a non-convex constraint (the magnitude of the magnetization is constant) which poses interesting challenges in developing numerical methods. We develop and analyze explicit and implicit mimetic finite difference schemes for this equation. These schemes work on general polytopal meshes which provide enormous flexibility to model magnetic devices with various shapes. A projection on the unit sphere is used to preserve the magnitude of the magnetization. We also provide a proof that shows the exchange energy is decreasing in certain conditions. Themore » developed schemes are tested on general meshes that include distorted and randomized meshes. As a result, the numerical experiments include a test proposed by the National Institute of Standard and Technology and a test showing formation of domain wall structures in a thin film.« less

  2. Microfluidic strategies for understanding the mechanics of cells and cell-mimetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Joanna B.; Lin, Jung-Ming G.; Muller, Susan J.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic systems are attracting increasing interest for the high-throughput measurement of cellular biophysical properties and for the creation of engineered cellular microenvironments. Here we review recent applications of microfluidic technologies to the mechanics of living cells and synthetic cell-mimetic systems. We begin by discussing the use of microfluidic devices to dissect the mechanics of cellular mimics such as capsules and vesicles. We then explore applications to circulating cells, including erythrocytes and other normal blood cells, and rare populations with potential disease diagnostic value, such as circulating tumor cells. We conclude by discussing how microfluidic devices have been used to investigate the mechanics, chemotaxis, and invasive migration of adherent cells. In these ways, microfluidic technologies represent an increasingly important toolbox for investigating cellular mechanics and motility at high throughput and in a format that lends itself to clinical translation. PMID:26134738

  3. Synthesis of a sulfonic acid mimetic of the sulfated Lewis A pentasaccharide.

    PubMed

    Jakab, Zsolt; Fekete, Anikó; Csávás, Magdolna; Borbás, Anikó; Lipták, András; Antus, Sándor

    2012-03-01

    The first sulfonic acid mimetic of the sulfated Lewis A pentasaccharide in which the natural L-fucose unit is replaced by a D-arabinose ring was synthesized. Formation of the sulfonic acid moiety at a pentasaccharide level could be successfully achieved by means of introduction of an acetylthio moiety into the terminal D-galactose residue and subsequent oxidation. The equatorial arrangement of the acetylthio group linked to C-3 of the galactose ring could be obtained by double nucleophilic substitutions; efficient formation of the gulo-triflate derivatives required low-power microwave (MW) activation. Oxidation of the acetylthio group was carried out using Oxone in the presence of acetic acid.

  4. Synthetic mimetics of actin-binding macrolides: rational design of actin-targeted drugs.

    PubMed

    Perrins, Richard D; Cecere, Giuseppe; Paterson, Ian; Marriott, Gerard

    2008-03-01

    Actin polymerization and dynamics are involved in a wide range of cellular processes such as cell division and migration of tumor cells. At sites of cell lysis, such as those occurring during a stroke or inflammatory lung diseases, actin is released into the serum where it polymerizes, leading to problems with clot dissolution and sputum viscosity. Therefore, drugs that target these actin-mediated processes may provide one mechanism to treat these conditions. Marine-organism-derived macrolides, such as reidispongiolide A, can bind to, sever, and inhibit polymerization of actin. Our studies show that the function of these complex macrolides resides in their tail region, whereas the head group stabilizes the actin-drug complex. Synthetic compounds derived from this tail region could therefore be used as a mimetic of the natural product, providing a range of designer compounds to treat actin-associated diseases or as probes to study actin polymerization.

  5. Design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of ω-conotoxin GVIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baell, Jonathan B.; Forsyth, Stewart A.; Gable, Robert W.; Norton, Raymond S.; Mulder, Roger J.

    2001-12-01

    Our interest lies in the rational design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of protein and polypeptide structure and function. Our approach involves interactive design of conformationally defined molecular scaffolds that project certain functional groups in a way that mimics the projection of important binding residues as determined in the parent structure. These design principles are discussed and applied to the structurally defined polypeptide, ω-conotoxin GVIA, which blocks voltage-gated, neuronal N-type calcium channels. These ion channels represent therapeutic targets for the development of new analgesics that can treat chronic pain. It is shown how a discontinuous, 3-residue pharmacophore of GVIA can be mimicked by different molecular scaffolds. It is illustrated how such 1st generation leads must necessarily be weak and that optimisability must therefore be built-in during the design process.

  6. Sialic Acid Mimetics to Target the Sialic Acid-Siglec Axis.

    PubMed

    Büll, Christian; Heise, Torben; Adema, Gosse J; Boltje, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Sialic acid sugars are vital regulators of the immune system through binding to immunosuppressive sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglec) receptors on immune cells. Aberrant sialic acid-Siglec interactions are associated with an increasing number of pathologies including infection, autoimmunity, and cancer. Therefore, the sialic acid-Siglec axis is an emerging target to prevent or affect the course of several diseases. Chemical modifications of the natural sialic acid ligands have led to sialic acid mimetics (SAMs) with improved binding affinity and selectivity towards Siglecs. Recent progress in glycobiotechnology allows the presentation of these SAMs on nanoparticles, polymers, and living cells via bioorthogonal synthesis. These developments now enable the detailed study of the sialic acid-Siglec axis including its therapeutic potential as an immune modulator.

  7. Virtual ligand screening of α-glucosidase: Identification of a novel potent noncarbohydrate mimetic inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hakamata, Wataru; Ishikawa, Ryosuke; Ushijima, Yoriko; Tsukagoshi, Takumi; Tamura, Saori; Hirano, Takako; Nishio, Toshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    5-Thiazoleacetamide derivatives of AR122 and AR125 were screened as α-glucosidase inhibitors by in silico high-throughput screening from commercial drug-like small compound libraries. Inhibition of α-glucosidase with AR122 and AR125 is time dependent: with no preincubation, AR122 and AR125 are relatively moderate inhibitors, but interestingly, after a 120 min incubation, they were 50-fold more potent (AR122: IC(50)=2.47 μM and AR125: IC(50)=27.1 μM). Plots of ln [residual α-glucosidase activity %] versus preincubation time show a pseudo-first order kinetics for both inhibitors. Through dialysis of enzyme-inhibitor complexes, no activity recovery was shown. These results suggest that AR122 and AR125 constitute a new class of noncarbohydrate mimetic inhibitor with an irreversible mechanism.

  8. Mucoadhesion and mucosa-mimetic materials--A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Cook, Michael T; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2015-11-30

    Mucoadhesion describes an attractive interaction between dosage form and mucosal membrane. The evaluation of mucoadhesive excipients often requires the use of ex vivo mucosal tissues taken from laboratory animals. These can be difficult to source, highly heterogeneous, and require the use of animal products. Thus, from both a user-convenience and ethical point-of-view, it is desirable to produce a synthetic alternative to these tissues-a mucosa-mimetic material. In this mini-review, the use of alternative materials to test the performance of mucoadhesives is reviewed and discussed. There is a surprising prevalence of the use of mucosa-mimics in the literature, which hitherto has not been compiled and compared.

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Combination Therapy Using a BH3 Mimetic and a Synthetic Tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Bridget A; Dash, Rupesh; Sarkar, Siddik; Azab, Belal; Bhoopathi, Praveen; Das, Swadesh K; Emdad, Luni; Wei, Jun; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2015-06-01

    Improved treatments for pancreatic cancer remain a clinical imperative. Sabutoclax, a small-molecule BH3 mimetic, inhibits the function of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Minocycline, a synthetic tetracycline, displays antitumor activity. Here, we offer evidence of the combinatorial antitumor potency of these agents in several preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. Sabutoclax induced growth arrest and apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells and synergized with minocycline to yield a robust mitochondria-mediated caspase-dependent cytotoxicity. This combinatorial property relied upon loss of phosphorylated Stat3 insofar as reintroduction of activated Stat3-rescued cells from toxicity. Tumor growth was inhibited potently in both immune-deficient and immune-competent models with evidence of extended survival. Overall, our results showed that the combination of sabutoclax and minocycline was highly cytotoxic to pancreatic cancer cells and safely efficacious in vivo.

  10. Probing the Catalytic Charge-Relay System in Alanine Racemase with Genetically Encoded Histidine Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vangmayee; Wang, Yane-Shih; Liu, Wenshe R

    2016-12-16

    Histidine is a unique amino acid with an imidazole side chain in which both of the nitrogen atoms are capable of serving as a proton donor and proton acceptor in hydrogen bonding interactions. In order to probe the functional role of histidine involved in hydrogen bonding networks, fine-tuning the hydrogen bonding potential of the imidazole side chain is required but not feasible through traditional mutagenesis methods. Here, we show that two close mimetics of histidine, 3-methyl-histidine and thiazole alanine, can be genetically encoded using engineered pyrrolysine incorporation machinery. Replacement of the three histidine residues predicted to be involved in an extended charge-relay system in alanine racemase with 3-methyl-histidine or thiazole alanine shows a dramatic loss in the enzyme's catalytic efficiency, implying the role of this extended charge-relay system in activating the active site residue Y265, a general acid/base catalyst in the enzyme.

  11. Asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted azapolycyclic compounds via 2-alkenyl sulfoximines: potential scaffolds for peptide mimetics.

    PubMed

    Reggelin, Michael; Junker, Bernd; Heinrich, Timo; Slavik, Stefan; Bühle, Philipp

    2006-03-29

    The application of metalated, enantiomerically pure acyclic and cyclic 2-alkenyl sulfoximines for the synthesis of highly substituted aza(poly)cyclic ring systems is described. The method relies on a one-pot combination of a reagent-controlled allyl transfer reaction to alpha- or beta-amino aldehydes, followed by a Michael-type cyclization of the intermediate vinyl sulfoximines generated in the first step. The sulfur-free target compounds are preferentially obtained by samarium iodide treatment of the sulfonimidoyl substituted heterocycles. In addition to this methodological work, initial results on the biological activity of selected examples are reported. Furthermore, a concept for the transformation of peptidic lead structures into non-peptide mimetics is described, and the relevance of the new approach to highly substituted azaheterocycles in this context is discussed.

  12. The mimetic finite difference method for the Landau-Lifshitz equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugenia; Lipnikov, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The Landau-Lifshitz equation describes the dynamics of the magnetization inside ferromagnetic materials. This equation is highly nonlinear and has a non-convex constraint (the magnitude of the magnetization is constant) which poses interesting challenges in developing numerical methods. We develop and analyze explicit and implicit mimetic finite difference schemes for this equation. These schemes work on general polytopal meshes which provide enormous flexibility to model magnetic devices with various shapes. A projection on the unit sphere is used to preserve the magnitude of the magnetization. We also provide a proof that shows the exchange energy is decreasing in certain conditions. The developed schemes are tested on general meshes that include distorted and randomized meshes. The numerical experiments include a test proposed by the National Institute of Standard and Technology and a test showing formation of domain wall structures in a thin film.

  13. Inhibition of Salmonella enterica biofilm formation using small-molecule adenosine mimetics.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob A; Marshall, Joanna M; Bhatiya, Aditi; Eguale, Tadesse; Kwiek, Jesse J; Gunn, John S

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms have been widely implicated in chronic infections and environmental persistence of Salmonella enterica, facilitating enhanced colonization of surfaces and increasing the ability of the bacteria to be transmitted to new hosts. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi biofilm formation on gallstones from humans and mice enhances gallbladder colonization and bacterial shedding, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilms facilitate long-term persistence in a number of environments important to food, medical, and farming industries. Salmonella regulates expression of many virulence- and biofilm-related processes using kinase-driven pathways. Kinases play pivotal roles in phosphorylation and energy transfer in cellular processes and possess an ATP-binding pocket required for their functions. Many other cellular proteins also require ATP for their activity. Here we test the hypothesis that pharmacological interference with ATP-requiring enzymes utilizing adenosine mimetic compounds would decrease or inhibit bacterial biofilm formation. Through the screening of a 3,000-member ATP mimetic library, we identified a single compound (compound 7955004) capable of significantly reducing biofilm formation by S. Typhimurium and S. Typhi. The compound was not bactericidal or bacteriostatic toward S. Typhimurium or cytotoxic to mammalian cells. An ATP-Sepharose affinity matrix technique was used to discover potential protein-binding targets of the compound and identified GroEL and DeoD. Compound 7955004 was screened against other known biofilm-forming bacterial species and was found to potently inhibit biofilms of Acinetobacter baumannii as well. The identification of a lead compound with biofilm-inhibiting capabilities toward Salmonella provides a potential new avenue of therapeutic intervention against Salmonella biofilm formation, with applicability to biofilms of other bacterial pathogens.

  14. The characterization of decellularized human skeletal muscle as a blueprint for mimetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Klaire; Terlouw, Abby; Roberts, Kevin; Wolchok, Jeffrey C

    2016-08-01

    The use of decellularized skeletal muscle (DSM) as a cell substrate and scaffold for the repair of volumetric muscle loss injuries has shown therapeutic promise. The performance of DSM materials motivated our interest in exploring the chemical and physical properties of this promising material. We suggest that these properties could serve as a blueprint for the development of next generation engineered materials with DSM mimetic properties. In this study, whole human lower limb rectus femoris (n = 10) and upper limb supraspinatus muscle samples (n = 10) were collected from both male and female tissue donors. Skeletal muscle samples were decellularized and nine property values, capturing key compositional, architectural, and mechanical properties, were measured and statistically analyzed. Mean values for each property were determined across muscle types and sexes. Additionally, the influence of muscle type (upper vs lower limb) and donor sex (male vs female) on each of the DSM material properties was examined. The data suggests that DSM materials prepared from lower limb rectus femoris samples have an increased modulus and contain a higher collagen content then upper limb supraspinatus muscles. Specifically, lower limb rectus femoris DSM material modulus and collagen content was approximately twice that of lower limb supraspinatus DSM samples. While muscle type did show some influence on material properties, we did not find significant trends related to sex. The material properties reported herein may be used as a blueprint for the data-driven design of next generation engineered scaffolds with muscle mimetic properties, as well as inputs for computational and physical models of skeletal muscle.

  15. Covariant Hořava-like and mimetic Horndeski gravity: cosmological solutions and perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cognola, Guido; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio

    2016-11-01

    We consider a variant of the Nojiri-Odintsov covariant Hořava-like gravitational model, where diffeomorphism invariance is broken dynamically via a non-standard coupling to a perfect fluid. The theory allows one to address some of the potential instability problems present in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity due to explicit diffeomorphism invariance breaking. The fluid is instead constructed from a scalar field constrained by a Lagrange multiplier. In fact, the Lagrange multiplier construction allows for an extension of the Hořava-like model to include the scalar field of mimetic gravity, an extension which we thoroughly explore. By adding a potential for the scalar field, we show how one can reproduce a number of interesting cosmological scenarios. We then turn to the study of perturbations around a flat FLRW background, showing that the fluid in question behaves as an irrotational fluid, with zero sound speed. To address this problem, we consider a modified version of the theory, adding higher derivative terms in a way which brings us beyond the Horndeski framework. We compute the sound speed in this modified higher order mimetic Hořava-like model and show that it is non-zero, which means that perturbations therein can be sensibly defined. Caveats to our analysis, as well as comparisons to projectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity, are also discussed. In conclusion, we present a theory of gravity which preserves diffeomorphism invariance at the level of the action but breaks it dynamically in the UV, reduces to General Relativity (GR) in the IR, allows the realization of a number of interesting cosmological scenarios, is well defined when considering perturbations around a flat FLRW background, and features cosmological dark matter emerging as an integration constant.

  16. Cholesterol depletion blocks redistribution of lipid raft components and insulin-mimetic signaling by glimepiride and phosphoinositolglycans in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Gunter; Hanekop, Nils; Wied, Susanne; Frick, Wendelin

    2002-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored plasma membrane (GPI) proteins, such as Gce1, the dually acylated nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs), such as pp59(Lyn), and the membrane protein, caveolin, together with cholesterol are typical components of detergent/carbonate-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (DIGs) in the plasma membrane of most eucaryotes. Previous studies demonstrated the dissociation from caveolin and concomitant redistribution from DIGs of Gce1 and pp59(Lyn) in rat adipocytes in response to four different insulin-mimetic stimuli, glimepiride, phosphoinositolglycans, caveolin-binding domain peptide, and trypsin/NaCl-treatment. We now characterized the structural basis for this dynamic of DIG components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Carbonate extracts from purified plasma membranes of basal and stimulated adipocytes were analyzed by high-resolution sucrose gradient centrifugation. RESULTS: This process revealed the existence of two distinct species of detergent/carbonate-insoluble complexes floating at higher buoyant density and harboring lower amounts of cholesterol, caveolin, GPI proteins, and NRTKs (lcDIGs) compared to typical DIGs of high cholesterol content (hcDIGs). The four insulin-mimetic stimuli decreased by 40-70% and increased by 2.5- to 5-fold the amounts of GPI proteins and NRTKs at hcDIGs and lcDIGs, respectively. Cholesterol depletion of adipocytes per se by incubation with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or cholesterol oxidase also caused translocation of GPI proteins and NRTKs from hcDIGs to lcDIGs and their release from caveolin in reversible fashion without concomitant induction of insulin-mimetic signaling. Cholesterol depletion, however, reduced by 50-60% the stimulus-induced translocation as well as dissociation from hcDIGs-associated caveolin of GPI proteins and NRTKs, activation of NRTKs as well as insulin-mimetic signaling and metabolic action. In contrast, insulin-mimetic signaling induced by vanadium compounds was not

  17. Enzyme-mimetic model compounds: conformational analysis and far-IR study of Cu(TAAB)2+.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, P; Schamschule, R; Parusel, A B; Köhler, G; Linert, W

    2000-04-01

    Many enzymes occurring in nature like superoxide dismutase are systems rather too big to be accessible for vibrational and quantum chemical investigations. Thus, enzyme-mimetic model compounds consisting of a biological active metal centre surrounded by a macrocyclic ligand are used to shed light on binding properties of the active metal centre. Far- and mid-range IR spectroscopic investigations and a conformational analysis with the semi-empirical ZINDO/1 method of superoxide dismutase-mimetic complex Cu[TAAB]2+ are performed (TAAB = [b,f,j,n][1,5,9,13]tetra-aza-cyclohexadecine (tetra-anhydroamino benzaldehyde)). A distorted tetrahedral copper(II) centre with slightly twisted phenyl subunits is determined as the most stable conformation. Calculated mid- and far-IR spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data and confirm the proposed structure. A harmonic normal-coordinate analysis is used to assign the vibrational modes of the observed spectra.

  18. Hierarchical Assembly of Model Cell Surfaces: Synthesis of Mucin Mimetic Polymers and their Display on Supported Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rabuka, David; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Lee, Goo Soo; Chen, Xing; Groves, Jay T.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular level analysis of cell surface phenomena could benefit from model systems comprising structurally-defined components. Here we present the first step toward bottom-up assembly of model cell surfaces – the synthesis of mucin mimetics and their incorporation into artificial membranes. Natural mucins are densely glycosylated O-linked glycoproteins that serve numerous functions on cell surfaces. Their large size and extensive glycosylation makes the synthesis of these biopolymers impractical. We designed synthetically tractable glycosylated polymers that possess rod-like extended conformations similar to natural mucins. The glycosylated polymers were end-functionalized with lipid groups and embedded into supported lipid bilayers where they interact with protein receptors in a structure-dependent manner. Furthermore, their dynamic behavior in synthetic membranes mirrored that of natural biomolecules. This system provides a unique framework with which to study the behavior of mucin-like macromolecules in a controlled, cell surface-mimetic environment. PMID:17425309

  19. A designed P1 cysteine mimetic for covalent and non-covalent inhibitors of HCV NS3 protease.

    PubMed

    Narjes, Frank; Koehler, Konrad F; Koch, Uwe; Gerlach, Benjamin; Colarusso, Stefania; Steinkühler, Christian; Brunetti, Mirko; Altamura, Sergio; De Francesco, Raffaele; Matassa, Victor G

    2002-02-25

    The difluoromethyl group was designed by computational chemistry methods as a mimetic of the canonical P1 cysteine thiol for inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3 protease. This modification led to the development of competitive, non-covalent inhibitor 4 (K(i) 30 nM) and reversible covalent inhibitors (6, K(i) 0.5 nM; and 8 K*(i) 10 pM).

  20. Bioinspired Hydroxyapatite/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Composite with a Nacre-Mimetic Architecture by a Bidirectional Freezing Method.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hao; Walsh, Flynn; Gludovatz, Bernd; Delattre, Benjamin; Huang, Caili; Chen, Yuan; Tomsia, Antoni P; Ritchie, Robert O

    2016-01-06

    Using a bidirectional freezing technique, combined with uniaxial pressing and in situ polymerization, "nacre-mimetic" hydroxyapatite/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) composites are developed by processing large-scale aligned lamellar ceramic scaffolds. Structural and mechanical characterization shows "brick-and-mortar" structures, akin to nacre, with interesting combinations of strength, stiffness, and work of fracture, which provide a pathway to making strong and tough lightweight materials.

  1. Targeting of apoptotic pathways by SMAC or BH3 mimetics distinctly sensitizes paclitaxel-resistant triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Panayotopoulou, Effrosini G; Müller, Anna-Katharina; Börries, Melanie; Busch, Hauke; Hu, Guohong; Lev, Sima

    2017-02-06

    Standard chemotherapy is the only systemic treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), and despite the good initial response, resistance remains a major therapeutic obstacle. Here, we employed a High-Throughput Screen to identify targeted therapies that overcome chemoresistance in TNBC. We applied short-term paclitaxel treatment and screened 320 small-molecule inhibitors of known targets to identify drugs that preferentially and efficiently target paclitaxel-treated TNBC cells. Among these compounds the SMAC mimetics (BV6, Birinapant) and BH3-mimetics (ABT-737/263) were recognized as potent targeted therapy for multiple paclitaxel-residual TNBC cell lines. However, acquired paclitaxel resistance through repeated paclitaxel pulses result in desensitization to BV6, but not to ABT-263, suggesting that short- and long-term paclitaxel resistance are mediated by distinct mechanisms. Gene expression profiling of paclitaxel-residual, -resistant and naïve MDA-MB-231 cells demonstrated that paclitaxel-residual, as opposed to -resistant cells, were characterized by an apoptotic signature, with downregulation of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC5), induction of apoptosis inducers (IL24, PDCD4), and enrichment of TNFα/NF-κB pathway, including upregulation of TNFSF15, coupled with cell-cycle arrest. BIRC5 and FOXM1 downregulation and IL24 induction was also evident in breast cancer patient datasets following taxane treatment. Exposure of naïve or paclitaxel-resistant cells to supernatants of paclitaxel-residual cells sensitized them to BV6, and treatment with TNFα enhanced BV6 potency, suggesting that sensitization to BV6 is mediated, at least partially, by secreted factor(s). Our results suggest that administration of SMAC or BH3 mimetics following short-term paclitaxel treatment could be an effective therapeutic strategy for TNBC, while only BH3-mimetics could effectively overcome long-term paclitaxel resistance.

  2. Of mice, monkeys, and men: Physiological and morphological evidence for evolutionary divergence of function in mimetic musculature

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M.; Durham, Emily L.; Matthews, Lea C.; Smith, Timothy D.; Parr, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Facial expression is a universal means of visual communication in humans and many other primates. Humans have the most complex facial display repertoire among primates but gross morphological studies have not found greater complexity in human mimetic musculature. The present study examines microanatomical aspects of mimetic musculature in order to test hypotheses related to human mimetic musculature physiology, function, and evolutionary morphology. Samples from the orbicularis oris (OOM) and the zygomaticus major muscles (ZM) in laboratory mice (N=3), rhesus macaques (N=3) and humans (N=3) were collected. Fiber type proportions (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), fiber cross-sectional area, diameter, and length were calculated and means were statistically compared among groups. Results showed that macaques had the greatest percentage of fast fibers in both muscles (followed by humans) and humans had the greatest percentage of slow fibers in both muscles. Macaques and humans typically did not differ from one another in morphometrics except for fiber length where humans had longer fibers. While sample sizes are low, results from the present study may indicate that the rhesus macaque OOM and ZM are specialized primarily to assist with maintenance of the rigid dominance hierarchy via rapid facial displays of submission and aggression while human musculature may have evolved not only under pressure to work in facial expressions but also in development of speech. PMID:24706483

  3. Highly stable and self-repairing membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials assembled from lipid-like peptoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Haibao; Jiao, Fang; Daily, Michael D.; Chen, Yulin; Yan, Feng; Ding, Yan-Huai; Zhang, Xin; Robertson, Ellen J.; Baer, Marcel D.; Chen, Chun-Long

    2016-07-01

    An ability to develop sequence-defined synthetic polymers that both mimic lipid amphiphilicity for self-assembly of highly stable membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials and exhibit protein-like functionality would revolutionize the development of biomimetic membranes. Here we report the assembly of lipid-like peptoids into highly stable, crystalline, free-standing and self-repairing membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials through a facile crystallization process. Both experimental and molecular dynamics simulation results show that peptoids assemble into membranes through an anisotropic formation process. We further demonstrated the use of peptoid membranes as a robust platform to incorporate and pattern functional objects through large side-chain diversity and/or co-crystallization approaches. Similar to lipid membranes, peptoid membranes exhibit changes in thickness upon exposure to external stimuli; they can coat surfaces in single layers and self-repair. We anticipate that this new class of membrane-mimetic 2D nanomaterials will provide a robust matrix for development of biomimetic membranes tailored to specific applications.

  4. Systematic Computation of Nonlinear Cellular and Molecular Dynamics with Low-Power CytoMimetic Circuits: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Stan, Guy-Bart V.; Drakakis, Emmanuel M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the systematic implementation of low-power microelectronic circuits aimed at computing nonlinear cellular and molecular dynamics. The method proposed is based on the Nonlinear Bernoulli Cell Formalism (NBCF), an advanced mathematical framework stemming from the Bernoulli Cell Formalism (BCF) originally exploited for the modular synthesis and analysis of linear, time-invariant, high dynamic range, logarithmic filters. Our approach identifies and exploits the striking similarities existing between the NBCF and coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) typically appearing in models of naturally encountered biochemical systems. The resulting continuous-time, continuous-value, low-power CytoMimetic electronic circuits succeed in simulating fast and with good accuracy cellular and molecular dynamics. The application of the method is illustrated by synthesising for the first time microelectronic CytoMimetic topologies which simulate successfully: 1) a nonlinear intracellular calcium oscillations model for several Hill coefficient values and 2) a gene-protein regulatory system model. The dynamic behaviours generated by the proposed CytoMimetic circuits are compared and found to be in very good agreement with their biological counterparts. The circuits exploit the exponential law codifying the low-power subthreshold operation regime and have been simulated with realistic parameters from a commercially available CMOS process. They occupy an area of a fraction of a square-millimetre, while consuming between 1 and 12 microwatts of power. Simulations of fabrication-related variability results are also presented. PMID:23393550

  5. Systematic computation of nonlinear cellular and molecular dynamics with low-power CytoMimetic circuits: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I; Stan, Guy-Bart V; Drakakis, Emmanuel M

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the systematic implementation of low-power microelectronic circuits aimed at computing nonlinear cellular and molecular dynamics. The method proposed is based on the Nonlinear Bernoulli Cell Formalism (NBCF), an advanced mathematical framework stemming from the Bernoulli Cell Formalism (BCF) originally exploited for the modular synthesis and analysis of linear, time-invariant, high dynamic range, logarithmic filters. Our approach identifies and exploits the striking similarities existing between the NBCF and coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) typically appearing in models of naturally encountered biochemical systems. The resulting continuous-time, continuous-value, low-power CytoMimetic electronic circuits succeed in simulating fast and with good accuracy cellular and molecular dynamics. The application of the method is illustrated by synthesising for the first time microelectronic CytoMimetic topologies which simulate successfully: 1) a nonlinear intracellular calcium oscillations model for several Hill coefficient values and 2) a gene-protein regulatory system model. The dynamic behaviours generated by the proposed CytoMimetic circuits are compared and found to be in very good agreement with their biological counterparts. The circuits exploit the exponential law codifying the low-power subthreshold operation regime and have been simulated with realistic parameters from a commercially available CMOS process. They occupy an area of a fraction of a square-millimetre, while consuming between 1 and 12 microwatts of power. Simulations of fabrication-related variability results are also presented.

  6. Impact of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic AEOL 10150 on the Endothelin System of Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Devi; Kumarathasan, Prem; Thomson, Errol M.; St-Germain, Carly; Blais, Erica; Crapo, James; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic peptide involved in the regulation of vasomotor tone and maintenance of blood pressure. Oxidative stress activates the endothelin system, and is implicated in pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutase mimetics designed with the aim of treating diseases that involve reactive oxygen species in their pathophysiology may exert a hypotensive effect, but effects on the endothelin system are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effect of the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 on the basal endothelin system in vivo. Male Fischer-344 rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight of AEOL 10150 in saline. Plasma oxidative stress markers and endothelins (bigET-1, ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) as well as lung and heart endothelin/nitric oxide system gene expressions were measured using HPLC-Coularray, HPLC-Fluorescence and RT-PCR respectively. AEOL 10150 reduced (p<0.05) the circulating levels of isoprostane (-25%) and 3-nitrotyrosine (-50%) measured in plasma 2h and 24h after treatment, confirming delivery of a physiologically-relevant dose and the potent antioxidant activity of the drug. The reduction in markers of oxidative stress coincided with sustained 24h decrease (p<0.05) of plasma levels of ET-1 (-50%) and ET-3 (-10%). Expression of preproET-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 mRNA were not altered significantly in the lungs. However preproET-1 (not significant) and ECE-1 mRNA (p<0.05) were increased (10–25%) in the heart. Changes in the lungs included decrease (p<0.05) of mRNA for the ET-1 clearance receptor ETB and the vasoconstriction-signaling ETA receptor (-30%), and an early surge of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression followed by sustained decrease (-40% after 24 hours). The results indicate that interception of the endogenous physiological flux of reactive nitrogen species and reactive

  7. Collagen-binding VEGF mimetic peptide: Structure, matrix interaction, and endothelial cell activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tania R.

    Long term survival of artificial tissue constructs depends greatly on proper vascularization. In nature, differentiation of endothelial cells and formation of vasculature are directed by dynamic spatio-temporal cues in the extracellular matrix that are difficult to reproduce in vitro. In this dissertation, we present a novel bifunctional peptide that mimics matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can be used to encode spatially controlled angiogenic signals in collagen-based scaffolds. The peptide, QKCMP, contains a collagen mimetic domain (CMP) that binds to type I collagen by a unique triple helix hybridization mechanism and a VEGF mimetic domain (QK) with pro-angiogenic activity. We demonstrate QKCMP's ability to hybridize with native and heat denatured collagens through a series of binding studies on collagen and gelatin substrates. Circular dichroism experiments show that the peptide retains the triple helical structure vital for collagen binding, and surface plasmon resonance study confirms the molecular interaction between the peptide and collagen strands. Cell culture studies demonstrate QKCMP's ability to induce endothelial cell morphogenesis and network formation as a matrix-bound factor in 2D and 3D collagen scaffolds. We also show that the peptide can be used to spatially modify collagen-based substrates to promote localized endothelial cell activation and network formation. To probe the biological events that govern these angiogenic cellular responses, we investigated the cell signaling pathways activated by collagen-bound QKCMP and determined short and long-term endothelial cell response profiles for p38, ERK1/2, and Akt signal transduction cascades. Finally, we present our efforts to translate the peptide's in vitro bioactivity to an in vivo burn injury animal model. When implanted at the wound site, QKCMP functionalized biodegradable hydrogels induce enhanced neovascularization in the granulation tissue. The results show QKCMP

  8. A Bak-dependent mitochondrial amplification step contributes to Smac mimetic/glucocorticoid-induced necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Katharina; Kleinesudeik, Lara; Roesler, Stefanie; Löwe, Oliver; Heidler, Juliana; Schröder, Katrin; Wittig, Ilka; Dröse, Stefan; Fulda, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that critically depends on RIP3 and MLKL. However, the contribution of mitochondria to necroptosis is still poorly understood. In the present study, we discovered that mitochondrial perturbations play a critical role in Smac mimetic/Dexamethasone (Dexa)-induced necroptosis independently of death receptor ligands. We demonstrate that the Smac mimetic BV6 and Dexa cooperate to trigger necroptotic cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells that are deficient in caspase activation due to absent caspase-8 expression or pharmacological inhibition by the caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk, since genetic silencing or pharmacological inhibition of RIP3 or MLKL significantly rescue BV6/Dexa-induced necroptosis. In addition, RIP3 or MLKL knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are protected from BV6/Dexa/zVAD.fmk-induced cell death. In contrast, antagonistic antibodies against the death receptor ligands TNFα, TRAIL or CD95 ligand fail to rescue BV6/Dexa-triggered cell death. Kinetic studies revealed that prior to cell death BV6/Dexa treatment causes hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) followed by loss of MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, Bak activation and disruption of mitochondrial respiration. Importantly, knockdown of Bak significantly reduces BV6/Dexa-induced loss of MMP and delays cell death, but not ROS production, whereas ROS scavengers attenuate Bak activation, indicating that ROS production occurs upstream of BV6/Dexa-mediated Bak activation. Consistently, BV6/Dexa treatment causes oxidative thiol modifications of Bak protein. Intriguingly, knockdown or knockout of RIP3 or MLKL protect ALL cells or MEFs from BV6/Dexa-induced ROS production, Bak activation, drop of MMP and disruption of mitochondrial respiration, demonstrating that these mitochondrial events depend on RIP3 and MLKL. Thus, mitochondria might serve as an amplification step in BV6/Dexa-induced necroptosis

  9. Revisiting catechol derivatives as robust chromogenic hydrogen donors working in alkaline media for peroxidase mimetics.

    PubMed

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Pytlos, Jakub; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2016-12-15

    Colloidal noble metal-based nanoparticles are able to catalyze oxidation of chromogenic substrates by H2O2, similarly to peroxidases, even in basic media. However, lack of robust chromogens, which work in high pH impedes their real applications. Herein we demonstrate the applicability of selected catechol derivatives: bromopyrogallol red (BPR) and pyrogallol (PG) as chromogenic substrates for peroxidase-like activity assays, which are capable of working over wide range of pH, covering also basic values. Hyperbranched polyglycidol-stabilized gold nanoparticles (HBPG@AuNPs) were used as model enzyme mimetics. Efficiency of several methods of improving stability of substrates in alkaline media by means of selective suppression of their autoxidation by molecular oxygen was evaluated. In a framework of presented studies the impact of borate anion, applied as complexing agent for PG and BPR, on their stability and reactivity towards oxidation mediated by catalytic AuNPs was investigated. The key role of high concentration of hydrogen peroxide in elimination of non-catalytic oxidation of PG and improvement of optical properties of BPR in alkaline media containing borate was underlined. Described methods of peroxidase-like activity characterization with the use of BPR and PG can become universal tools for characterization of nanozymes, which gain various applications, among others, they are used as catalytic labels in bioassays and biosensors.

  10. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. PMID:24213131

  11. Structural Basis of GD2 Ganglioside and Mimetic Peptide Recognition by 14G2a Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Horwacik, Irena; Golik, Przemyslaw; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Kolinski, Michal; Zdzalik, Michal; Rokita, Hanna; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 ganglioside (GD2) have recently been approved for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma and are extensively evaluated in clinics in other indications. This study illustrates how a therapeutic antibody distinguishes between different types of gangliosides present on normal and cancer cells and informs how synthetic peptides can imitate ganglioside in its binding to the antibody. Using high resolution crystal structures we demonstrate that the ganglioside recognition by a model antibody (14G2a) is based primarily on an extended network of direct and water molecule mediated hydrogen bonds. Comparison of the GD2-Fab structure with that of a ligand free antibody reveals an induced fit mechanism of ligand binding. These conclusions are validated by directed mutagenesis and allowed structure guided generation of antibody variant with improved affinity toward GD2. Contrary to the carbohydrate, both evaluated mimetic peptides utilize a “key and lock” interaction mechanism complementing the surface of the antibody binding groove exactly as found in the empty structure. The interaction of both peptides with the Fab relies considerably on hydrophobic contacts however, the detailed connections differ significantly between the peptides. As such, the evaluated peptide carbohydrate mimicry is defined primarily in a functional and not in structural manner. PMID:26179345

  12. Population genomics of parallel hybrid zones in the mimetic butterflies, H. melpomene and H. erato

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Mayté; Salazar, Patricio; Counterman, Brian; Medina, Jose Alejandro; Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto; Morrison, Anna; Papa, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid zones can be valuable tools for studying evolution and identifying genomic regions responsible for adaptive divergence and underlying phenotypic variation. Hybrid zones between subspecies of Heliconius butterflies can be very narrow and are maintained by strong selection acting on color pattern. The comimetic species, H. erato and H. melpomene, have parallel hybrid zones in which both species undergo a change from one color pattern form to another. We use restriction-associated DNA sequencing to obtain several thousand genome-wide sequence markers and use these to analyze patterns of population divergence across two pairs of parallel hybrid zones in Peru and Ecuador. We compare two approaches for analysis of this type of data—alignment to a reference genome and de novo assembly—and find that alignment gives the best results for species both closely (H. melpomene) and distantly (H. erato, ∼15% divergent) related to the reference sequence. Our results confirm that the color pattern controlling loci account for the majority of divergent regions across the genome, but we also detect other divergent regions apparently unlinked to color pattern differences. We also use association mapping to identify previously unmapped color pattern loci, in particular the Ro locus. Finally, we identify a new cryptic population of H. timareta in Ecuador, which occurs at relatively low altitude and is mimetic with H. melpomene malleti. PMID:24823669

  13. Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic COG1410 Reduces Acute Vasogenic Edema following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fang; Wu, Yue; Zhong, Jianjun; Liu, Jieshi; Qin, Xinghu; Chen, Ligang; Vitek, Michael P.; Li, Fengqiao; Xu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The degree of post-traumatic brain edema and dysfunction of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) influences the neurofunctional outcome after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of apolipoprotein E-mimetic peptide COG1410 reduces the brain water content after subarachnoid hemorrhage, intra-cerebral hemorrhage, and focal brain ischemia. However, the effects of COG1410 on vasogenic edema following TBI are not known. The current study evaluated the effects of 1 mg/kg daily COG1410 versus saline administered intravenously after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury on BBB dysfunction and vasogenic edema at an acute stage in mice. The results demonstrated that treatment with COG1410 suppressed the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9, reduced the disruption of the BBB and Evans Blue dye extravasation, reduced the TBI lesion volume and vasogenic edema, and decreased the functional deficits compared with mice treated with vehicle, at an acute stage after CCI. These findings suggest that COG1410 is a promising preclinical therapeutic agent for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. PMID:26192010

  14. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: I. Activity against biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Yamarthy, R; Felsenstein, S; Scott, R W; Markowitz, K; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides hold promise as therapeutic agents against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans but numerous difficulties have slowed their development. Synthetic, non-peptidic analogs that mimic the properties of these peptides have many advantages and exhibit potent, selective antimicrobial activity. Several series of mimetics (with molecular weight < 1000) were developed and screened against oral Candida strains as a proof-of-principle for their antifungal properties. One phenylalkyne and several arylamide compounds with reduced mammalian cytotoxicities were found to be active against C. albicans. These compounds demonstrated rapid fungicidal activity in liquid culture even in the presence of saliva, and demonstrated synergy with standard antifungal agents. When assayed against biofilms grown on denture acrylic, the compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Repeated passages in sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels did not lead to resistant Candida, in contrast to fluconazole. Our results demonstrate the proof-of principle for the use of these compounds as anti-Candida agents, and their further testing is warranted as novel anti-Candida therapies.

  15. SOCS1 Mimetics and Antagonists: A Complementary Approach to Positive and Negative Regulation of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Chulbul M. I.; Larkin, Joseph; Johnson, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are inducible intracellular proteins that play essential regulatory roles in both immune and non-immune function. Of the eight known members, SOCS1 and SOCS3 in conjunction with regulatory T cells play key roles in regulation of the immune system. Molecular tools such as gene transfections and siRNA have played a major role in our functional understanding of the SOCS proteins where a key functional domain of 12-amino acid residues called the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) has been identified on SOCS1 and SOCS3. KIR plays a key role in inhibition of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase, which in turn plays a key role in cytokine signaling. A peptide corresponding to KIR (SOCS1-KIR) bound to the activation loop of JAK2 and inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1α transcription factor by JAK2. Cell internalized SOCS1-KIR is a potent therapeutic in the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis and showed promise in a psoriasis model and a model of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. By contrast, a peptide, pJAK2(1001–1013), that corresponds to the activation loop of JAK2 is a SOCS1 antagonist. The antagonist enhanced innate and adaptive immune response against a broad range of viruses including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and an EMC picornavirus. SOCS mimetics and antagonists are thus potential therapeutics for negative and positive regulation of the immune system. PMID:25954276

  16. CHARMM-GUI HMMM Builder for Membrane Simulations with the Highly Mobile Membrane-Mimetic Model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yifei; Cheng, Xi; Lee, Jumin; Vermaas, Josh V; Pogorelov, Taras V; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Park, Soohyung; Klauda, Jeffery B; Im, Wonpil

    2015-11-17

    Slow diffusion of the lipids in conventional all-atom simulations of membrane systems makes it difficult to sample large rearrangements of lipids and protein-lipid interactions. Recently, Tajkhorshid and co-workers developed the highly mobile membrane-mimetic (HMMM) model with accelerated lipid motion by replacing the lipid tails with small organic molecules. The HMMM model provides accelerated lipid diffusion by one to two orders of magnitude, and is particularly useful in studying membrane-protein associations. However, building an HMMM simulation system is not easy, as it requires sophisticated treatment of the lipid tails. In this study, we have developed CHARMM-GUI HMMM Builder (http://www.charmm-gui.org/input/hmmm) to provide users with ready-to-go input files for simulating HMMM membrane systems with/without proteins. Various lipid-only and protein-lipid systems are simulated to validate the qualities of the systems generated by HMMM Builder with focus on the basic properties and advantages of the HMMM model. HMMM Builder supports all lipid types available in CHARMM-GUI and also provides a module to convert back and forth between an HMMM membrane and a full-length membrane. We expect HMMM Builder to be a useful tool in studying membrane systems with enhanced lipid diffusion.

  17. Population genomics of parallel hybrid zones in the mimetic butterflies, H. melpomene and H. erato.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Nicola J; Ruiz, Mayté; Salazar, Patricio; Counterman, Brian; Medina, Jose Alejandro; Ortiz-Zuazaga, Humberto; Morrison, Anna; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D; Papa, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Hybrid zones can be valuable tools for studying evolution and identifying genomic regions responsible for adaptive divergence and underlying phenotypic variation. Hybrid zones between subspecies of Heliconius butterflies can be very narrow and are maintained by strong selection acting on color pattern. The comimetic species, H. erato and H. melpomene, have parallel hybrid zones in which both species undergo a change from one color pattern form to another. We use restriction-associated DNA sequencing to obtain several thousand genome-wide sequence markers and use these to analyze patterns of population divergence across two pairs of parallel hybrid zones in Peru and Ecuador. We compare two approaches for analysis of this type of data-alignment to a reference genome and de novo assembly-and find that alignment gives the best results for species both closely (H. melpomene) and distantly (H. erato, ∼15% divergent) related to the reference sequence. Our results confirm that the color pattern controlling loci account for the majority of divergent regions across the genome, but we also detect other divergent regions apparently unlinked to color pattern differences. We also use association mapping to identify previously unmapped color pattern loci, in particular the Ro locus. Finally, we identify a new cryptic population of H. timareta in Ecuador, which occurs at relatively low altitude and is mimetic with H. melpomene malleti.

  18. Smac mimetics synergize with immune checkpoint inhibitors to promote tumour immunity against glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Beug, Shawn T; Beauregard, Caroline E; Healy, Cristin; Sanda, Tarun; St-Jean, Martine; Chabot, Janelle; Walker, Danielle E; Mohan, Aditya; Earl, Nathalie; Lun, Xueqing; Senger, Donna L; Robbins, Stephen M; Staeheli, Peter; Forsyth, Peter A; Alain, Tommy; LaCasse, Eric C; Korneluk, Robert G

    2017-02-15

    Small-molecule inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists, called Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs), sensitize tumours to TNF-α-induced killing while simultaneously blocking TNF-α growth-promoting activities. SMCs also regulate several immunomodulatory properties within immune cells. We report that SMCs synergize with innate immune stimulants and immune checkpoint inhibitor biologics to produce durable cures in mouse models of glioblastoma in which single agent therapy is ineffective. The complementation of activities between these classes of therapeutics is dependent on cytotoxic T-cell activity and is associated with a reduction in immunosuppressive T-cells. Notably, the synergistic effect is dependent on type I IFN and TNF-α signalling. Furthermore, our results implicate an important role for TNF-α-producing cytotoxic T-cells in mediating the anti-cancer effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors when combined with SMCs. Overall, this combinatorial approach could be highly effective in clinical application as it allows for cooperative and complimentary mechanisms in the immune cell-mediated death of cancer cells.

  19. Tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel using low density lipoprotein-mimetic solid lipid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Youngwook; Bae, Ki Hyun; Park, Tae Gwan; Lee, Jung Hee; Park, Keunchil

    2015-04-06

    Water-insoluble anticancer drugs, including paclitaxel, present severe clinical side effects when administered to patients, primarily associated with the toxicity of reagents used to solubilize the drugs. In efforts to develop alternative formulations of water-insoluble anticancer drugs suitable for intravenous administration, we developed biocompatible anticancer therapeutic solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), mimicking the structure and composition of natural particles, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), for tumor-targeted delivery of paclitaxel. These therapeutic nanoparticles contained water-insoluble paclitaxel in the core with tumor-targeting ligand covalently conjugated on the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified surface (targeted PtSLNs). In preclinical human cancer xenograft mouse model studies, the paclitaxel-containing tumor-targeting SLNs exhibited pronounced in vivo stability and enhanced biocompatibility. Furthermore, these SLNs had superior antitumor activity to in-class nanoparticular therapeutics in clinical use (Taxol and Genexol-PM) and yielded long-term complete responses. The in vivo targeted antitumor activities of the SLN formulations in a mouse tumor model suggest that LDL-mimetic SLN formulations can be utilized as a biocompatible, tumor-targeting platform for the delivery of various anticancer therapeutics.

  20. Possible modulating impact of glutathione disulfide mimetic on physiological changes in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Salama, S F; Montaser, S A

    2015-04-01

    Glutathione disulfide mimetic (NOV-002) is a complex of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) formulated with cisplatin at approximately 1000:1 molar ratio. Cisplatin serves to stabilize GSSG but does not assert any therapeutic effect. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of NOV-002 on hematological suppression, excessive free radical damage and DNA fragmentation in splenocytes, and metabolite disorders in whole-body γ-irradiated rats. The obtained data revealed that rats treated with 25 mg kg(-1) NOV-002 injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 days after whole-body γ-irradiation (IR) at 6.5 Gy attenuated the decrease of red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells, absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, hematocrit value, and hemoglobin content. NOV-002 treatment inhibits serum advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde concentrations as well as cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and creatinine levels, while enhances glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity and improves DNA fragmentation in splenocytes. These findings provide a better understanding of the NOV-002 modulating impact in whole-body γ-rays-induced hematological toxicities, oxidative stress, and biological disturbances in γ-irradiated rats and could enhance the tolerance to high doses of ionizing IR utilized in radiotherapy.

  1. Mimetic finite difference method for the Stokes problem on polygonal meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beirão da Veiga, L.; Gyrya, V.; Lipnikov, K.; Manzini, G.

    2009-10-01

    Various approaches to extend finite element methods to non-traditional elements (general polygons, pyramids, polyhedra, etc.) have been developed over the last decade. The construction of basis functions for such elements is a challenging task and may require extensive geometrical analysis. The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method works on general polygonal meshes and has many similarities with low-order finite element methods. Both schemes try to preserve the fundamental properties of the underlying physical and mathematical models. The essential difference between the two schemes is that the MFD method uses only the surface representation of discrete unknowns to build the stiffness and mass matrices. Since no extension of basis functions inside the mesh elements is required, practical implementation of the MFD method is simple for polygonal meshes that may include degenerate and non-convex elements. In this article, we present a new MFD method for the Stokes problem on arbitrary polygonal meshes and analyze its stability. The method is developed for the general case of tensor coefficients, which allows us to apply it to a linear elasticity problem, as well. Numerical experiments show, for the velocity variable, second-order convergence in a discrete L2 norm and first-order convergence in a discrete H1 norm. For the pressure variable, first-order convergence is shown in the L2 norm.

  2. Species limits in polymorphic mimetic Eniclases net-winged beetles from New Guinean mountains (Coleoptera, Lycidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550

  3. [Study of collagen mimetic peptide's triple-helix structure and its thermostability by circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bao; Wang, Jing-Jie; Chen, Hui-Juan; Xiong, Qing-Qing; Liu, Ling-Rong; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the authors explore the triple-helix conformation and thermal stability of collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) as a function of peptide sequence and/or chain length by circular dichroism(CD). Five CMPs were designed and synthetized varying the number of POG triplets or incorporating an integrin alpha2beta1 binding motif Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu-Arg (GFOGER). CD spectroscopy from 260 to 190 nm was recorded to confirm the existence of triple-helix conformation at room temperature, while thermal melting and thermal annealing of triple-helix (thermal unfolding and refolding of triple-helix, respectively) was characterized by monitoring ellipticity at 225 nm as a function of temperature. The results demonstrated that all the CMPs adopted triple-helix conformation, and the thermal stability of the CMPs was enhanced with increasing the number of POG triplets. In contrast to natural collagen, the thermal denaturation processes of CMPs were reversible, i. e. the triple-helix unfolded upon heating while refolded upon cooling. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of "hysteresis" was observed by comparing melting and thermal curves. These findings add new insights to the mechanisms of collagen and CMPs assembly, as well as provide an alternative approach to the fabrication of artificial collagen-likes biomaterials.

  4. Partial Complementarity of the Mimetic Yellow Bar Phenotype in Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Maroja, Luana S.; Alschuler, Rebecca; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic change. Here we document surprising diversity in the genetic control of a common phenotype. Two disjunct H. erato populations have each recruited the Cr and/or Sd loci that control similar yellow hindwing patterns, but the alleles involved partially complement one another indicating either multiple origins for the patterning alleles or developmental drift in genetic control of similar patterns. We show that in these H. erato populations cr and sd are epistatically interacting and that the parental origin of alleles can explain phenotypes of backcross individuals. In contrast, mimetic H. melpomene populations with identical phenotypes (H. m. rosina and H. m. amaryllis) do not show genetic complementation (F1s and F2s are phenotypically identical to parentals). Finally, we report hybrid female inviability in H. m. melpomene × H. m. rosina crosses (previously only female infertility had been reported) and presence of standing genetic variation for alternative color alleles at the Yb locus in true breeding H. melpomene melpomene populations (expressed when in a different genomic background) that could be an important source of variation for the evolution of novel phenotypes or a result of developmental drift. Although recent work has emphasized the simple genetic control of wing pattern in Heliconius, we show there is underlying complexity in the allelic variation and epistatic interactions between major patterning loci. PMID:23119074

  5. Partial complementarity of the mimetic yellow bar phenotype in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Maroja, Luana S; Alschuler, Rebecca; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    Heliconius butterflies are an excellent system for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic change. Here we document surprising diversity in the genetic control of a common phenotype. Two disjunct H. erato populations have each recruited the Cr and/or Sd loci that control similar yellow hindwing patterns, but the alleles involved partially complement one another indicating either multiple origins for the patterning alleles or developmental drift in genetic control of similar patterns. We show that in these H. erato populations cr and sd are epistatically interacting and that the parental origin of alleles can explain phenotypes of backcross individuals. In contrast, mimetic H. melpomene populations with identical phenotypes (H. m. rosina and H. m. amaryllis) do not show genetic complementation (F(1)s and F(2)s are phenotypically identical to parentals). Finally, we report hybrid female inviability in H. m. melpomene × H. m. rosina crosses (previously only female infertility had been reported) and presence of standing genetic variation for alternative color alleles at the Yb locus in true breeding H. melpomene melpomene populations (expressed when in a different genomic background) that could be an important source of variation for the evolution of novel phenotypes or a result of developmental drift. Although recent work has emphasized the simple genetic control of wing pattern in Heliconius, we show there is underlying complexity in the allelic variation and epistatic interactions between major patterning loci.

  6. Gene Transcriptional and Metabolic Profile Changes in Mimetic Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue-Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Mu, Chang-Kao; Wang, Chun-Lin; Song, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    D-galactose injection has been shown to induce many changes in mice that represent accelerated aging. This mouse model has been widely used for pharmacological studies of anti-aging agents. The underlying mechanism of D-galactose induced aging remains unclear, however, it appears to relate to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders. Currently, there has yet to be a study that focuses on investigating gene expression changes in D-galactose aging mice. In this study, integrated analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomics and gene expression profiles was used to investigate the changes in transcriptional and metabolic profiles in mimetic aging mice injected with D-galactose. Our findings demonstrated that 48 mRNAs were differentially expressed between control and D-galactose mice, and 51 potential biomarkers were identified at the metabolic level. The effects of D-galactose on aging could be attributed to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders, oxidative damage, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reduction in abnormal substance elimination, cell apoptosis, and insulin resistance. PMID:26176541

  7. Protective effects of a glutathione disulfide mimetic (NOV-002) against cisplatin induced kidney toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Jenderny, Sara; Lin, He; Garrett, Tracy; Tew, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Danyelle M.

    2012-01-01

    NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic with chemoprotective activity. Previous and ongoing clinical studies demonstrate a significantly improved 1-year survival and decreased tumor progression rates in non-small cell lung (NSCLC) and ovarian cancer patients when NOV-002 was included in cisplatin containing regimens. In order to understand this chemoprotective property, we employed as an animal model of kidney toxicity, 8-week-old Bl6 mice that were treated with a single nephrotoxic dose of cisplatin (15 mg/kg, ip) and sacrificed on Day 5. One group of animals was treated with NOV-002 (15 mg/kg, im) daily. NOV-002-treated mice had significantly lower levels of plasma creatinine compared to mice treated with cisplatin alone (4.7 vs 2.9 mg/dL, respectively). Moreover, NOV-002 protected the kidneys from cisplatin mediated proximal tubule damage, including dilation of tubules and the presence of protein casts. Since cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity can be mediated by a glutathione-platinum conjugate catalyzed by γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and glutathione is an endogenous substrate of GGT, the protective effect of NOV-002 in the kidney may be attributed to its ability to act as a competitive substrate for the enzyme. PMID:19896793

  8. Heparan sulfate mimetic PG545-mediated antilymphoma effects require TLR9-dependent NK cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Todd V.; Lin, Liwen; Brandstadter, Joshua D.; Rendell, Victoria R.; Dredge, Keith; Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a barrier to tumor invasion and metastasis. Heparanase promotes tumor growth by cleaving HS chains of proteoglycan and releasing HS-bound angiogenic growth factors and facilitates tumor invasion and metastasis by degrading the ECM. HS mimetics, such as PG545, have been developed as antitumor agents and are designed to suppress angiogenesis and metastasis by inhibiting heparanase and competing for the HS-binding domain of angiogenic growth factors. However, how PG545 exerts its antitumor effect remains incompletely defined. Here, using murine models of lymphoma, we determined that the antitumor effects of PG545 are critically dependent on NK cell activation and that NK cell activation by PG545 requires TLR9. We demonstrate that PG545 does not activate TLR9 directly but instead enhances TLR9 activation through the elevation of the TLR9 ligand CpG in DCs. Specifically, PG545 treatment resulted in CpG accumulation in the lysosomal compartment of DCs, leading to enhanced production of IL-12, which is essential for PG545-mediated NK cell activation. Overall, these results reveal that PG545 activates NK cells and that this activation is critical for the antitumor effect of PG545. Moreover, our findings may have important implications for improving NK cell–based antitumor therapies. PMID:26649979

  9. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs

    PubMed Central

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4+ cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals’ endocrine system. PMID:27775083

  10. Proteins in membrane mimetic systems. Insertion of myelin basic protein into microemulsion droplets.

    PubMed Central

    Chatenay, D; Urbach, W; Cazabat, A M; Vacher, M; Waks, M

    1985-01-01

    The insertion of myelin basic protein into microemulsion droplets of sodium bis (2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) has been studied by quasi-elastic light scattering. Measurements were made at both low and high molar ratios of water to surfactant, as a function of protein occupancy. The hydrodynamic radii of filled and empty droplets were experimentally evaluated. These were compared to values calculated using a water shell model of protein encapsulation, and excellent agreement was obtained. At low molar ratio of water to surfactant (w0 = 5.6), the hydrodynamic radius of filled droplets is significantly larger than the radius of empty ones. Under these conditions, about three empty (water-filled) droplets are required to build up a droplet of sufficient size to accommodate a single protein molecule. At maximum solubilization, which occurs at w0 = 5.6, a small fraction of droplets are found containing protein aggregates. In contrast, results at high values of w0 (22.4) reveal radii for empty and occupied droplets of comparable dimension, and the absence of aggregates. The results are discussed in terms of the model and the mechanism of interaction of this protein with the aqueous interfaces provided by these membrane-mimetic systems. PMID:2418890

  11. Activity of an antimicrobial peptide mimetic against planktonic and biofilm cultures of oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beckloff, Nicholas; Laube, Danielle; Castro, Tammy; Furgang, David; Park, Steven; Perlin, David; Clements, Dylan; Tang, Haizhong; Scott, Richard W; Tew, Gregory N; Diamond, Gill

    2007-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that have recently been examined for their utility as therapeutic antibiotics. Unfortunately, they are expensive to produce and are often sensitive to protease digestion. To address this problem, we have examined the activity of a peptide mimetic whose design was based on the structure of magainin, exhibiting its amphiphilic structure. We demonstrate that this compound, meta-phenylene ethynylene (mPE), exhibits antimicrobial activity at nanomolar concentrations against a variety of bacterial and Candida species found in oral infections. Since Streptococcus mutans, an etiological agent of dental caries, colonizes the tooth surface and forms a biofilm, we quantified the activity of this compound against S. mutans growing under conditions that favor biofilm formation. Our results indicate that mPE can prevent the formation of a biofilm at nanomolar concentrations. Incubation with 5 nM mPE prevents further growth of the biofilm, and 100 nM mPE reduces viable bacteria in the biofilm by 3 logs. Structure-function analyses suggest that mPE inhibits the bioactivity of lipopolysaccharide and binds DNA at equimolar ratios, suggesting that it may act both as a membrane-active molecule, similar to magainin, and as an intracellular antibiotic, similar to other AMPs. We conclude that mPE and similar molecules display great potential for development as therapeutic antimicrobials.

  12. Rapid chromatography for evaluating adsorption characteristics of cellulase binding domain mimetics.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Nathan S; Wilker, Jonathan J; Ladisch, Michael R

    2004-06-30

    The cost of cellulolytic enzymes is one barrier to the economic production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass for the production of fuels and chemicals. One functional characteristic of cellulolytic enzymes that improves reaction kinetics over mineral acids is a cellulose binding domain that concentrates the catalytic domain to the substrate surface. We have identified maleic acid as an attractive catalytic domain with pK(a) and dicarboxylic acid structure properties that hydrolyze cellulose while producing minimal degradation of the glucose formed. In this study we report results of a rapid chromatographic method to assess the binding characteristics of potential cellulose binding domains for the construction of a synthetic cellulase over a wide range of temperatures (20 degrees to 120 degrees C). Aromatic, planar chemical structures appear to be key indicators of cellulose adsorption. Indole, the side-chain of the amino acid tryptophan, has been shown to reversibly adsorb to cellulose at temperatures between 30 degrees and 120 degrees C. Trypan blue, a polyaromatic, planar molecule, was shown to be irreversibly adsorbed to cotton cellulose at temperatures of <120 degrees C on the time scale of the experiments. These results confirm the importance of hydrophobic cellulose and the cellulose-binding component of cellulolytic enzymes and cellulolytic enzyme mimetics.

  13. Dipeptide Mimetic of the Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Prevents Impairments of Neurogenesis in Stressed Mice.

    PubMed

    Gudasheva, T A; Povarnina, P Yu; Seredenin, S B

    2017-02-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays the central role in the mechanisms of regulation of neurogenesis and neuroplasticity. Impairment of these mechanisms is considered as one of the main etiological factors of depression. Dimeric dipeptide mimetic of BDNF loop 4 bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-seryl-l-lysine) hexamethylenediamide (GSB-106) was synthesized at the V. V. Zakusov Research Institute of Pharmacology. In vivo experiments revealed significant antidepressant properties of GSB-106 in doses of 0.1-10 mg/kg (intraperitoneally and orally). Effects of GSB-106 on hippocampal neurogenesis were studied in mice subjected to chronic predator stress. Proliferative activity in the subgranular zone of the dental gyrus was assessed immunohistochemically by Ki-67 expression (a marker of dividing cells). It was found that GSB-106 (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 5 days) completely prevents neurogenesis disturbances in stressed mice. These findings suggest that GSB-106 is a promising candidate for the development of antidepressant agents with BDNF-like mechanism of action.

  14. Deoxyguanosine phosphate mediated sacrificial bonds promote synergistic mechanical properties in nacre-mimetic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Martikainen, Lahja; Walther, Andreas; Seitsonen, Jani; Berglund, Lars; Ikkala, Olli

    2013-08-12

    We show that functionalizing polymer-coated colloidal nanoplatelets with guanosine groups allows synergistic increase of mechanical properties in nacre-mimetic lamellar self-assemblies. Anionic montmorillonite (MTM) was first coated using cationic poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) to prepare core-shell colloidal platelets, and subsequently the remaining chloride counterions allowed exchange to functional anionic 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate (dGMP) counterions, containing hydrogen bonding donors and acceptors. The compositions were studied using elemental analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray scattering, and tensile testing. The lamellar spacing between the clays increases from 1.85 to 2.14 nm upon addition of the dGMP. Adding dGMP increases the elastic modulus, tensile strength, and strain 33.0%, 40.9%, and 5.6%, respectively, to 13.5 GPa, 67 MPa, and 1.24%, at 50% relative humidity. This leads to an improved toughness seen as a ca. 50% increase of the work-to-failure. This is noteworthy, as previously it has been observed that connecting the core-shell nanoclay platelets covalently or ionically leads to increase of the stiffness but to reduced strain. We suggest that the dynamic supramolecular bonds allow slippage and sacrificial bonds between the self-assembling nanoplatelets, thus promoting toughness, still providing dynamic interactions between the platelets.

  15. Gene Transcriptional and Metabolic Profile Changes in Mimetic Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue-Yue; Ji, Xiong-Fei; Fu, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Juan; Li, Rong-Hua; Mu, Chang-Kao; Wang, Chun-Lin; Song, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    D-galactose injection has been shown to induce many changes in mice that represent accelerated aging. This mouse model has been widely used for pharmacological studies of anti-aging agents. The underlying mechanism of D-galactose induced aging remains unclear, however, it appears to relate to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders. Currently, there has yet to be a study that focuses on investigating gene expression changes in D-galactose aging mice. In this study, integrated analysis of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomics and gene expression profiles was used to investigate the changes in transcriptional and metabolic profiles in mimetic aging mice injected with D-galactose. Our findings demonstrated that 48 mRNAs were differentially expressed between control and D-galactose mice, and 51 potential biomarkers were identified at the metabolic level. The effects of D-galactose on aging could be attributed to glucose and 1ipid metabolic disorders, oxidative damage, accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), reduction in abnormal substance elimination, cell apoptosis, and insulin resistance.

  16. Ferroportin mediates the intestinal absorption of iron from a nanoparticulate ferritin core mimetic in mice.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Mohamad F; Frazer, David M; Faria, Nuno; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Wilkins, Sarah J; Mirciov, Cornel; Powell, Jonathan J; Anderson, Greg J; Pereira, Dora I A

    2014-08-01

    The ferritin core is composed of fine nanoparticulate Fe(3+) oxohydroxide, and we have developed a synthetic mimetic, nanoparticulate Fe(3+) polyoxohydroxide (nanoFe(3+)). The aim of this study was to determine how dietary iron derived in this fashion is absorbed in the duodenum. Following a 4 wk run-in on an Fe-deficient diet, mice with intestinal-specific disruption of the Fpn-1 gene (Fpn-KO), or littermate wild-type (WT) controls, were supplemented with Fe(2+) sulfate (FeSO4), nanoFe(3+), or no added Fe for a further 4 wk. A control group was Fe sufficient throughout. Direct intestinal absorption of nanoFe(3+) was investigated using isolated duodenal loops. Our data show that FeSO4 and nanoFe(3+) are equally bioavailable in WT mice, and at wk 8 the mean ± SEM hemoglobin increase was 18 ± 7 g/L in the FeSO4 group and 30 ± 5 g/L in the nanoFe(3+) group. Oral iron failed to be utilized by Fpn-KO mice and was retained in enterocytes, irrespective of the iron source. In summary, although nanoFe(3+) is taken up directly by the duodenum its homeostasis is under the normal regulatory control of dietary iron absorption, namely via ferroportin-dependent efflux from enterocytes, and thus offers potential as a novel oral iron supplement.

  17. Modulation of CD14 and TLR4.MD-2 activities by a synthetic lipid A mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Cighetti, Roberto; Ciaramelli, Carlotta; Sestito, Stefania Enza; Zanoni, Ivan; Kubik, Łukasz; Ardá-Freire, Ana; Calabrese, Valentina; Granucci, Francesca; Jerala, Roman; Martín-Santamaría, Sonsoles; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    Monosaccharide lipid A mimetics composed by a glucosamine core linked to two fatty acid chains and bearing one or two phosphates have been synthesized. While compounds 1 and 2, with one phosphate group, were practically inactive in inhibiting LPS-induced TLR4 signaling and cytokine production in HEK-blue™ cells and murine macrophages, compound 3 with two phosphates was found to be active in efficiently inhibiting TLR4 signal in both cell types. The direct interaction of molecule 3 with MD-2 co-receptor has been investigated by means of NMR and molecular modeling/docking analysis. This compound also interacts directly with CD14 receptor, stimulating its internalization by endocytosis. Experiments on macrophages show that the effect on CD14 reinforces the activity on MD-2.TLR4, because compound 3 activity is higher when CD14 is important for TLR4 signaling i,e, at low LPS concentration. The dual MD-2 and CD14 targeting, accompanied by good solubility in water and lack of toxicity, suggests the use of monosaccharide 3 as a lead compound to develop drugs directed against TLR4-related syndromes. PMID:24339336

  18. Graphene-Based Nanomaterials as Efficient Peroxidase Mimetic Catalysts for Biosensing Applications: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Garg, Bhaskar; Bisht, Tanuja; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2015-08-04

    "Artificial enzymes", a term coined by Breslow for enzyme mimics is an exciting and promising branch of biomimetic chemistry aiming to imitate the general and essential principles of natural enzymes using a variety of alternative materials including heterogeneous catalysts. Peroxidase enzymes represent a large family of oxidoreductases that typically catalyze biological reactions with high substrate affinity and specificity under relatively mild conditions and thus offer a wide range of practical applications in many areas of science. The increasing understanding of general principles as well as intrinsic drawbacks such as low operational stability, high cost, difficulty in purification and storage, and sensitivity of catalytic activity towards atmospheric conditions of peroxidases has triggered a dynamic field in nanotechnology, biochemical, and material science that aims at joining the better of three worlds by combining the concept adapted from nature with the processability of catalytically active graphene-based nanomaterials (G-NMs) as excellent peroxidase mimetic catalysts. This comprehensive review discusses an up-to-date synthesis, kinetics, mechanisms, and biosensing applications of a variety of G-NMs that have been explored as promising catalysts to mimic natural peroxidases.

  19. Self-Assembled, Iridescent, Crustacean-Mimetic Nanocomposites with Tailored Periodicity and Layered Cuticular Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baochun; Walther, Andreas

    2015-11-24

    Natural high-performance materials inspire the pursuit of ordered hard/soft nanocomposite structures at high fractions of reinforcements and with balanced molecular interactions. Herein, we develop a facile, waterborne self-assembly pathway to mimic the multiscale cuticle structure of the crustacean armor by combining hard reinforcing cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with soft poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). We show iridescent CNC nanocomposites with cholesteric liquid-crystal structure, in which different helical pitches and photonic band gaps can be realized by varying the CNC/PVA ratio. We further show that multilayered crustacean-mimetic materials with tailored periodicity and layered cuticular structure can be obtained by sequential preparation pathways. The transition from a cholesteric to a disordered structure occurs for a critical polymer concentration. Correspondingly, we find a transition from stiff and strong mechanical behavior to materials with increasing ductility. Crack propagation studies using scanning electron microscopy visualize the different crack growth and toughening mechanisms inside cholesteric nanocomposites as a function of the interstitial polymer content for the first time. Different extents of crack deflection, layered delamination, ligament bridging, and constrained microcracking can be observed. Drawing of highly plasticized films sheds light on the mechanistic details of the transition from a cholesteric/chiral nematic to a nematic structure. The study demonstrates how self-assembly of biobased CNCs in combination with suitable polymers can be used to replicate a hierarchical biological structure and how future design of these ordered multifunctional nanocomposites can be optimized by understanding mechanistic details of deformation and fracture.

  20. Smac mimetics synergize with immune checkpoint inhibitors to promote tumour immunity against glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Beug, Shawn T.; Beauregard, Caroline E.; Healy, Cristin; Sanda, Tarun; St-Jean, Martine; Chabot, Janelle; Walker, Danielle E.; Mohan, Aditya; Earl, Nathalie; Lun, Xueqing; Senger, Donna L.; Robbins, Stephen M.; Staeheli, Peter; Forsyth, Peter A.; Alain, Tommy; LaCasse, Eric C.; Korneluk, Robert G.

    2017-01-01

    Small-molecule inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) antagonists, called Smac mimetic compounds (SMCs), sensitize tumours to TNF-α-induced killing while simultaneously blocking TNF-α growth-promoting activities. SMCs also regulate several immunomodulatory properties within immune cells. We report that SMCs synergize with innate immune stimulants and immune checkpoint inhibitor biologics to produce durable cures in mouse models of glioblastoma in which single agent therapy is ineffective. The complementation of activities between these classes of therapeutics is dependent on cytotoxic T-cell activity and is associated with a reduction in immunosuppressive T-cells. Notably, the synergistic effect is dependent on type I IFN and TNF-α signalling. Furthermore, our results implicate an important role for TNF-α-producing cytotoxic T-cells in mediating the anti-cancer effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors when combined with SMCs. Overall, this combinatorial approach could be highly effective in clinical application as it allows for cooperative and complimentary mechanisms in the immune cell-mediated death of cancer cells. PMID:28198370

  1. An anti-TNF-α antibody mimetic to treat ocular inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Hanieh; Lee, Richard W.; Khaw, Peng T.; Brocchini, Steve; Dick, Andrew D.; Copland, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Infliximab is an antibody that neutralizes TNF-α and is used principally by systemic administration to treat many inflammatory disorders. We prepared the antibody mimetic Fab-PEG-Fab (FpFinfliximab) for direct intravitreal injection to assess whether such formulations have biological activity and potential utility for ocular use. FpFinfliximab was designed to address side effects caused by antibody degradation and the presence of the Fc region. Surface plasmon resonance analysis indicated that infliximab and FpFinfliximab maintained binding affinity for both human and murine recombinant TNF-α. No Fc mediated RPE cellular uptake was observed for FpFinfliximab. Both Infliximab and FpFinfliximab suppressed ocular inflammation by reducing the number of CD45+ infiltrate cells in the EAU mice after a single intravitreal injection at the onset of peak disease. These results offer an opportunity to develop and formulate for ocular use, FpF molecules designed for single and potentially multiple targets using bi-specific FpFs. PMID:27874029

  2. Fabrication of cell outer membrane mimetic polymer brush on polysulfone surface via RAFT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Jiang; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2012-10-01

    Cell membrane mimetic antifouling polymer brush was grown on polysulfone (PSF) membrane by surface-induced reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The RAFT agent immobilized PSF substrate was prepared by successive chloromethylation, amination with ethylenediamine (EDA) and amidation of the amine group of grafted EDA with the carboxylic group of 4-cyanopentanoic acid dithiobenzoate (CPAD). The surface RAFT polymerization of MPC was initiated in aqueous solution by 4,4‧-azobis-4-cyanopentanoic acid (ACPA). The formation of PMPC brush coating is evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and water contact angle measurements. The degree of polymerization of PMPC and the polymer grafting density were calculated from the high resolution XPS spectra. The platelet adhesion and protein adsorption results showed that the PMPC-grafted PSF surface has excellent antifouling ability to resist platelet adhesion completely and suppress protein adsorption significantly. This biomimetic and bio-friendly surface RAFT polymerization strategy could be promising for a variety of biomedical applications.

  3. Interfacial cavity filling to optimize CD4-mimetic miniprotein interactions with the HIV-1 surface protein

    PubMed Central

    Morellato-Castillo, Laurence; Acharya, Priyamvada; Combes, Olivier; Michiels, Johan; Descours, Anne; Ramos, Oscar H. P.; Yang, Yongping; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.; Kwong, Peter D.; Martin, Loïc; Kessler, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Ligand affinities can be optimized by interfacial cavity filling. A hollow (Phe43 cavity) between HIV-1 surface protein (gp120) and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) receptor, extends beyond residue phenylalanine 43 of CD4 and cannot be fully accessed by natural amino acids. To increase HIV-1 gp120 affinity for a family of CD4-mimetic miniproteins (miniCD4s), we targeted the gp120 Phe43 cavity with eleven non-natural phenylalanine derivatives, introduced into a miniCD4 named M48 (1). The best derivative named M48U12 (13) binds HIV-1 YU2 gp120 with 8 pM affinity, and shows potent HIV-1 neutralization. It contained a methylcyclohexyl derivative of 4-aminophenylalanine and its co-crystal structure with gp120 revealed the cyclohexane ring buried within the gp120 hydrophobic core but able to assume multiple orientations in the binding pocket, and an aniline nitrogen potentially providing a focus for further improvement. Altogether, the results provide a framework for filling the interfacial Phe43 cavity to enhance miniCD4 affinity. PMID:23710622

  4. Non-Covalent Photo-Patterning of Gelatin Matrices Using Caged Collagen Mimetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Hoa San, Boi; L. Kessler, Julian; Hwan Kim, Jin; Xu, Qingguo; Hanes, Justin; Yu, Seungju Michael

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in photolithography have enabled us to spatially encode biochemical cues in biocompatible platforms such as synthetic hydrogels. Conventional patterning works through photo-activated chemical reactions on inert polymer networks. However, these techniques cannot be directly applied to protein hydrogels without chemically altering the protein scaffolds. To this end, we developed a non-covalent photo-patterning strategy for gelatin (denatured collagen) hydrogels utilizing a caged collagen mimetic peptide (caged CMP) which binds to gelatin strands through UV activated, triple helix hybridization. Here we present 2D and 3D photo-patterning of gelatin hydrogels enabled by the caged CMPs as well as creation of concentration gradients of CMPs. We show that photo-patterning of PEG-conjugated caged CMPs can be used to spatially control cell adhesion on gelatin films. CMP’s specificity for binding to gelatin allows patterning of almost any synthetic or natural gelatin-containing matrix, such as zymograms, gelatin-methacrylate hydrogels, and even a corneal tissue. Since the CMP is a chemically and biologically inert peptide which is proven to be an ideal carrier for bioactive molecules, our patterning method provides a radically new tool for immobilizing drugs to natural tissues and for functionalizing scaffolds for complex tissue formation. PMID:25476588

  5. Interfacial Cavity Filling To Optimize CD4-Mimetic Miniprotein Interactions with HIV-1 Surface Glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Morellato-Castillo, Laurence; Acharya, Priyamvada; Combes, Olivier; Michiels, Johan; Descours, Anne; Ramos, Oscar H.P.; Yang, Yongping; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.; Kwong, Peter D.; Martin, Loïc; Kessler, Pascal

    2013-08-05

    Ligand affinities can be optimized by interfacial cavity filling. A hollow (Phe43 cavity) between HIV-1 surface glycoprotein (gp120) and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) receptor extends beyond residue phenylalanine 43 of CD4 and cannot be fully accessed by natural amino acids. To increase HIV-1 gp120 affinity for a family of CD4-mimetic miniproteins (miniCD4s), we targeted the gp120 Phe43 cavity with 11 non-natural phenylalanine derivatives, introduced into a miniCD4 named M48 (1). The best derivative, named M48U12 (13), bound HIV-1 YU2 gp120 with 8 pM affinity and showed potent HIV-1 neutralization. It contained a methylcyclohexyl derivative of 4-aminophenylalanine, and its cocrystal structure with gp120 revealed the cyclohexane ring buried within the gp120 hydrophobic core but able to assume multiple orientations in the binding pocket, and the aniline nitrogen potentially providing a focus for further improvement. Altogether, the results provide a framework for filling the interfacial Phe43 cavity to enhance miniCD4 affinity.

  6. Hypoxia-mimetic effects in the secretome of human preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Rosenow, Anja; Noben, Jean-Paul; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Renes, Johan

    2013-12-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) regulates energy metabolism by secretion of proteins with endocrine and paracrine effects. Dysregulation of the secretome of obesity-associated enlarged WAT may lead to obesity-related disorders. This can be caused by hypoxia as a result of poorly vascularized WAT. The effect of hypoxia on the secretome of human (pre)adipocytes is largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of CoCl2, a hypoxia mimetic, on the secretome of human SGBS (pre)adipocytes by a proteomics approach combined with bioinformatic analysis. In addition, regulation of protein secretion was examined by protein turnover experiments. As such, secretome changes were particularly associated with protein down-regulation and extracellular matrix protein dysregulation. The observed up-regulation of collagens in adipocytes may be essential for cell survival while down-regulation of collagens in preadipocytes may indicate a disturbed differentiation process. These CoCl2-induced changes reflect WAT dysfunction that ultimately may lead to obesity-associated complications. In addition, 9 novel adipocyte secreted proteins were identified from which 6 were regulated by CoCl2. Mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000162.

  7. Empirical Estimation of Local Dielectric Constants: Toward Atomistic Design of Collagen Mimetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Douglas H.; Nanda, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    One of the key challenges in modeling protein energetics is the treatment of solvent interactions. This is particularly important in the case of peptides, where much of the molecule is highly exposed to solvent due to its small size. In this study, we develop an empirical method for estimating the local dielectric constant based on an additive model of atomic polarizabilities. Calculated values match reported apparent dielectric constants for a series of Staphylococcus aureus nuclease mutants. Calculated constants are used to determine screening effects on Coulombic interactions and to determine solvation contributions based on a modified Generalized Born model. These terms are incorporated into the protein modeling platform protCAD, and benchmarked on a data set of collagen mimetic peptides for which experimentally determined stabilities are available. Computing local dielectric constants using atomistic protein models and the assumption of additive atomic polarizabilities is a rapid and potentially useful method for improving electrostatics and solvation calculations that can be applied in the computational design of peptides. PMID:25784456

  8. Bcl-2/MDM2 Dual Inhibitors Based on Universal Pyramid-Like α-Helical Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqian; Song, Ting; Feng, Yingang; Guo, Zongwei; Fan, Yudan; Xu, Wenjie; Liu, Lu; Wang, Anhui; Zhang, Zhichao

    2016-04-14

    No α-helical mimetic that exhibits Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition has been rationally designed due to the different helicities of the α-helixes at their binding interfaces. Herein, we extracted a one-turn α-helix-mimicking ortho-triarene unit from o-phenylene foldamers. Linking benzamide substrates with a rotatable C-N bond, we constructed a novel semirigid pyramid-like scaffold that could support its two-turn α-helix mimicry without aromatic stacking interactions and could adopt the different dihedral angles of the key residues of p53 and BH3-only peptides. On the basis of this universal scaffold, a series of substituent groups were installed to capture the key residues of both p53TAD and BimBH3 and balance the differences of the bulks between them. Identified by FP, ITC, and NMR spectroscopy, a compound 6e (zq-1) that directly binds to Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and MDM2 with balanced submicromolar affinities was obtained. Cell-based experiments demonstrated its antitumor ability through Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition simultaneously.

  9. Template-Tethered Collagen Mimetic Peptides for Studying Heterotrimeric Triple-Helical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Mo, Xiao; Kim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) have been used to elucidate the structure and stability of the triple helical conformation of collagen molecules. Although CMP homotrimers have been widely studied, very little work has been reported regarding CMP heterotrimers because of synthetic difficulties. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of homotrimers and ABB type heterotrimers comprising natural and synthetic CMP sequences that are covalently tethered to a template, a tris(2-aminoethyl) amine (TREN) succinic acid derivative. Various tethered heterotrimers comprising synthetic CMPs [(ProHypGly)6, (ProProGly)6] and CMPs representing specific domains of type I collagen were synthesized and characterized in terms of triple helical structure, thermal melting behavior and refolding kinetics. The results indicated that CMPs derived from natural type I collagen sequence can form stable heterotrimeric helical complexes with artificial CMPs and that the thermal stability and the folding rate increase with the increasing number of helical stabilizing amino acids (e.g. Hyp) in the peptide chains. Covalent tethering enhanced the thermal stability and refolding kinetics of all CMPs; however their relative values were not affected suggesting that the tethered system can be used for comparative study of heterotrimeric CMP's folding behavior in regards to chain composition and for characterization of thermally unstable CMPs. PMID:20740489

  10. Fusion protein of CDR mimetic peptide with Fc inhibit TNF-alpha induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Beifen

    2006-02-01

    The variable regions of antibodies play central roles in the binding with antigens. Based on the model of a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (named as Z12) with TNF-alpha, heavy chain CDR2 (HCDR2) and light chain CDR3 (LCDR3) of Z12 were found to be the most responsible to bind with TNF-alpha. A mimetic peptide (PT) was designed based on the sequence derived from HCDR2 and LCDR3. Fusion protein PT-Fc was constructed by linking PT with Fc of human IgG1 through a flexible linker (GGGGGS). The primary structural characteristics of Fc and PT-Fc were analyzed, including the flexibility, hydrophilicity and epitopes. It was demonstrated that PT and Fc in the fusion protein possessed bio-function properly and non-interfering with each other. Furthermore, PT-Fc was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with thioredoxin (Trx). After trx-PT-Fc was cleaved with recombinant enterokinase, PT-Fc was obtained. The results of in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that both PT and PT-Fc could efficiently inhibit TNF-alpha induced apoptosis on L929 cells. At the same micromole concentration, the inhibition activity of PT-Fc was significantly higher than PT.

  11. Mimetic finite difference method for the stokes problem on polygonal meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, K; Beirao Da Veiga, L; Gyrya, V; Manzini, G

    2009-01-01

    Various approaches to extend the finite element methods to non-traditional elements (pyramids, polyhedra, etc.) have been developed over the last decade. Building of basis functions for such elements is a challenging task and may require extensive geometry analysis. The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method has many similarities with low-order finite element methods. Both methods try to preserve fundamental properties of physical and mathematical models. The essential difference is that the MFD method uses only the surface representation of discrete unknowns to build stiffness and mass matrices. Since no extension inside the mesh element is required, practical implementation of the MFD method is simple for polygonal meshes that may include degenerate and non-convex elements. In this article, we develop a MFD method for the Stokes problem on arbitrary polygonal meshes. The method is constructed for tensor coefficients, which will allow to apply it to the linear elasticity problem. The numerical experiments show the second-order convergence for the velocity variable and the first-order for the pressure.

  12. The mimetic transition: a simulation study of the evolution of learning by imitation.

    PubMed

    Higgs, P G

    2000-07-07

    Culturally transmitted ideas or memes must have had a large effect on the survival and fecundity of early humans. Those with better techniques of obtaining food and making tools, clothing and shelters would have had a substantial advantage. It has been proposed that memes can explain why our species has an unusually large brain and high cognitive ability: the brain evolved because of selection for the ability to imitate. This article presents an evolutionary model of a population in which culturally transmitted memes can have both positive and negative effects on the fitness of individuals. It is found that genes for increased imitative ability are selectively favoured. The model predicts that imitative ability increases slowly until a mimetic transition occurs where memes become able to spread like an epidemic. At this point there is a dramatic increase in the imitative ability, the number of memes known per individual and the mean fitness of the population. Selection for increased imitative ability is able to overcome substantial selection against increased brain size in some cases.

  13. A mimetic spectral element solver for the Grad-Shafranov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palha, A.; Koren, B.; Felici, F.

    2016-07-01

    In this work we present a robust and accurate arbitrary order solver for the fixed-boundary plasma equilibria in toroidally axisymmetric geometries. To achieve this we apply the mimetic spectral element formulation presented in [56] to the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation. This approach combines a finite volume discretization with the mixed finite element method. In this way the discrete differential operators (∇, ∇×, ∇ṡ) can be represented exactly and metric and all approximation errors are present in the constitutive relations. The result of this formulation is an arbitrary order method even on highly curved meshes. Additionally, the integral of the toroidal current Jϕ is exactly equal to the boundary integral of the poloidal field over the plasma boundary. This property can play an important role in the coupling between equilibrium and transport solvers. The proposed solver is tested on a varied set of plasma cross sections (smooth and with an X-point) and also for a wide range of pressure and toroidal magnetic flux profiles. Equilibria accurate up to machine precision are obtained. Optimal algebraic convergence rates of order p + 1 and geometric convergence rates are shown for Soloviev solutions (including high Shafranov shifts), field-reversed configuration (FRC) solutions and spheromak analytical solutions. The robustness of the method is demonstrated for non-linear test cases, in particular on an equilibrium solution with a pressure pedestal.

  14. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-10-24

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4(+) cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals' endocrine system.

  15. Defensive Chemistry of Lycid Beetles and of Mimetic Cerambycid Beetles that Feed on Them

    PubMed Central

    Eisner, Thomas; Schroeder, Frank C.; Snyder, Noel; Grant, Jacqualine B.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Utterback, David; Meinwald, Jerrold; Eisner, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary Beetles of the family Lycidae have long been known to be chemically protected. We present evidence that North American species of the lycid genera Calopteron and Lycus are rejected by thrushes, wolf spiders, and orb-weaving spiders, and that they contain a systemic compound that could account, at least in part, for this unacceptability. This compound, a novel acetylenic acid that we named lycidic acid, proved actively deterrent in feeding tests with wolf spiders and coccinellid beetles. Species of Lycus commonly figure as models of mimetic associations. Among their mimics are species of the cerambycid beetle genus Elytroleptus, remarkable because they prey upon the model lycids. We postulated that by doing so Elytroleptus might incorporate the lycidic acid from their prey for their own defense. However, judging from analytical data, the beetles practice no such sequestration, explaining why they remain relatively palatable (in tests with wolf spiders) even after having fed on lycids. Chemical analyses also showed the lycids to contain pyrazines, such as were already known from other Lycidae, potent odorants that could serve in an aposematic capacity to forestall predatory attacks. PMID:18698369

  16. Design and synthesis of collagen mimetic peptide derivatives for studying triple helix assembly and collagen mimetic peptide-collagen binding interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xiao

    2008-10-01

    Collagen is the principal tensile clement of the extra-cellular matrix in mammals and is the basic scaffold for cells and tissues. Collagen molecules are comprised of homo-trimeric helices (e.g. collagen type II and type III), ABB type hetero-trimeric helices (e.g. collagen type I, type IV, and type V), or ABC type hetero-trimeric helices (e.g. type V). Mimicry of collagen structures can help elucidate collagen triple helical conformation and provide insights into making novel collagen-like biomaterials. Our group previously reported a new physical collagen modification method, which was based on non-covalent interaction between collagen mimetic peptide (CMP: -(Pro-Hyp-Gly) x-) and natural collagen. We hypothesized that CMP binds to collagen through a process involving both strand invasion and triple helix assembly. The aim of this dissertation is to study structural formation and stability of collagen triple helix, and to investigate CMP-collagen binding interactions using two types of CMP derivatives: covalently templated CMP trimer and CMP-nanoparticle conjugates. We demonstrated that covalently templated ABB type CMP hetero-trimers could be prepared by a versatile synthetic strategy involving both solid phase and solution peptide coupling. Our thermal melting studies showed that the templated CMP hetero-trimers formed collagen-like triple helices and their folding kinetics correlated with the amino acid compositions of the individual CMP strands. We also studied the thermal melting behavior and folding kinetics of a templated hetero-trimer complex comprised of CMP and a peptide derived from collagen. This synthetic strategy can be readily extended to synthesize other ABB type hetero-trimers to investigate their local melting behavior and biological activity. We also prepared colloidally stable CMP functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-CMPs) as a TEM marker for investigating the CMP-collagen interaction. Au-CMP showed preferential binding to collagen fiber's gap

  17. An investigation of the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional Pd-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jingping; Chen, Xiaolan; Shi, Saige; Mo, Shiguang; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we investigated the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional (2D) Pd-based nanostructures (e.g. Pd nanosheets, Pd@Au and Pd@Pt nanoplates) and found that they possess intrinsic peroxidase-, oxidase- and catalase-like activities. These nanostructures were able to activate hydrogen peroxide or dissolved oxygen for catalyzing the oxidation of organic substrates, and decompose hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen. More systematic investigations revealed that the peroxidase-like activities of these Pd-based nanomaterials were highly structure- and composition-dependent. Among them, Pd@Pt nanoplates displayed the highest peroxidase-like activity. Based on these findings, Pd-based nanostructures were applied for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose, and also the electro-catalytic reduction of H2O2. This work offers a promising prospect for the application of 2D noble metal nanostructures in biocatalysis.In this work, we investigated the mimetic enzyme activity of two-dimensional (2D) Pd-based nanostructures (e.g. Pd nanosheets, Pd@Au and Pd@Pt nanoplates) and found that they possess intrinsic peroxidase-, oxidase- and catalase-like activities. These nanostructures were able to activate hydrogen peroxide or dissolved oxygen for catalyzing the oxidation of organic substrates, and decompose hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen. More systematic investigations revealed that the peroxidase-like activities of these Pd-based nanomaterials were highly structure- and composition-dependent. Among them, Pd@Pt nanoplates displayed the highest peroxidase-like activity. Based on these findings, Pd-based nanostructures were applied for the colorimetric detection of H2O2 and glucose, and also the electro-catalytic reduction of H2O2. This work offers a promising prospect for the application of 2D noble metal nanostructures in biocatalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, EDX and dispersion stability of Pd-based nanomaterials

  18. Tempol, a super oxide dismutase mimetic, prevents cerebral vessel remodeling in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Paulo Wagner; Deutsch, Christian; McClain, Jonathon Lee; Rogers, Curt Thomas; Dorrance, Anne McLaren

    2010-01-01

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension and stroke. The effects of ROS on cerebral vessels from hypertensive rats have not been studied. We hypothesized that tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, would prevent middle cerebral artery (MCA) remodeling in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). Six-week-old male SHRSP were treated with tempol (1mM) for six weeks. The MCA was then removed and mounted in a pressure myograph to study tone generation, vessel reactivity and passive vessel structure. Data are shown as mean±SEM, tempol vs control. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were decreased by tempol treatment (14.15±1.46 vs 20.55±1.25, p=0.008 nM of malondialdehyde [MDA]/ml). Maximum serotonin induced constriction was increased by tempol treatment, without changes in dilation to adenosine diphosphate or tone generation. At an intralumenal pressure of 80 mmHg, tempol caused a dramatic increase in the MCA lumen diameter (246±5 vs 207±3μm, p<0.001), outer diameter (281±5 vs 241±3μm, p<0.001), lumen cross-sectional area and vessel cross-sectional area. Collagen IV mRNA expression were increased by 2.4-fold after tempol treatment. These results suggest that ROS are involved in the remodeling of the cerebral vasculature of SHRSP and that ROS scavenging can attenuate this process. PMID:20600163

  19. Molecular weight effects upon the adhesive bonding of a mussel mimetic polymer.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Courtney L; Meredith, Heather J; Wilker, Jonathan J

    2013-06-12

    Characterization of marine biological adhesives are teaching us how nature makes materials and providing new ideas for synthetic systems. One of the most widely studied adhering animals is the marine mussel. This mollusk bonds to wet rocks by producing an adhesive from cross-linked proteins. Several laboratories are now making synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins, with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) or similar molecules pendant from polymer chains. In select cases, appreciable bulk bonding results, with strengths as high as commercial glues. Polymer molecular weight is amongst several parameters that need to be examined in order to both understand biomimetic adhesion as well as to maximize performance. Experiments presented here explore how the bulk adhesion of a mussel mimetic polymer varies as a function of molecular weight. Systematic structure-function studies were carried out both with and without the presence of an oxidative cross-linker. Without cross-linking, higher molecular weights generally afforded higher adhesion. When a [N(C4H9)4](IO4) cross-linker was added, adhesion peaked at molecular weights of ~50,000-65,000 g/mol. These data help to illustrate how changes to the balance of cohesion versus adhesion influence bulk bonding. Mussel adhesive plaques achieve this balance by incorporating several proteins with molecular weights ranging from 6000 to 110,000 g/mol. To mimic these varied proteins we made a blend of polymers containing a range of molecular weights. Interestingly, this blend adhered more strongly than any of the individual polymers when cross-linked with [N(C4H9)4](IO4). These results are helping us to both understand the origins of biological materials as well as design high performance polymers.

  20. A bio-mimetic zinc/tau protein as an artificial catalase.

    PubMed

    Asadollahi, Kazem; Jasemi, Neda Sadat Kazemein; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Katuli, Fatemeh Hedayati; Yazdani, Fahimeh; Sartipnia, Nasrin; Moosavi, Mohammad Amin; Rahimi, Arash; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the catalase-like activity of monomeric tau protein was reported in the presence of of zinc (Zn(II)) ions at low pH value. Monomeric tau protein contains two SH groups that are a target of disulfide bond formation. However these SH groups are able to interact with Zn(II) ion at pH 7.2 which creates a thiol bond as a mimetic model of chloroperoxidase active site which performs catalase like activity at low pH. Zn(II)/tau protein complex decomposed H2O2 with a high rate (Vm) as well as an efficient turn oven number (kcat) at pH 3. This remarkable catalase like activity is may be attributed to the conformational reorientation of protein at low pH. Circular dichroism (CD) studies did not demonstrate any secondary structural changes of tau protein after addition of Zn(II) ions at pH 7.2. In addition, tau protein shows identical CD bands at pH 7.2 and 3. Moreover, fluorescence quenching of tau by Zn(II) at pH 7.2 was initiated by complex formation rather than by dynamic collision. A significant red shift (6nm) was observed in the emission maximum of the fluorescence spectra when the protein was dissolved at pH 3 compared to pH 7.2. This conformational change can provide information regarding the rearrangements of the protein structure and exposure of Cys-Zn(II) group to the solvent which induces easy access of active site to H2O2 molecules and corresponding enhanced catalytic activity of Zn(II)/tau protein complex. This study introduces tau protein as a bio-inspired high performing scaffold for transition metal encapsulation and introducing an engineered apoprotein-induced biomimetic enzyme.

  1. The effect of superoxide dismutase mimetic and catalase on the quality of postthawed goat semen.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Mojtaba; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

    2015-05-01

    Manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent which can convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Supplementation of MnTE to a commercial semen extender can protect sperm from superoxide but not H2O2. Therefore, we proposed that addition of catalase (0.0, 200, or 400 IU/mL) in combination with MnTE (0.1 μM) may further improve the cryopreservation efficiency of goat semen in commercially optimized freezing media such as Andromed. Therefore, ejaculates were obtained from three adult bucks twice a week during the breeding season and diluted with Andromed supplemented with or without MnTE and catalase and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species contents were evaluated 2 hours after dilution (before freezing) and after freezing/thawing. The results revealed that all the treatments significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity after freezing and reduced reactive oxygen species content compared with the control group, but maximum improvement was obtained in MnTE + 400 IU/mL catalase. In addition, supplementation with these antioxidants significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increases the cleavage rate after IVF. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that addition of antioxidant MnTE or catalase to commercial optimized media, such as Andromed, improves total motility, membrane integrity, and viability of goat semen samples after thawing. But the degree of improvement for these parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher when MnTE and catalase were simultaneously added to the cryopreservation media.

  2. A model for population dynamics of the mimetic butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Sekimura, Toshio; Fujihashi, Yuta; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-21

    We present a mathematical model for population dynamics of the mimetic swallowtail butterfly Papilio polytes in the Sakishima Islands, Japan. The model includes four major variables, that is, population densities of three kinds of butterflies (two female forms f. cyrus, f. polytes and the unpalatable butterfly Pachliopta aristolochiae) and their predator. It is well-known that the non-mimic f. cyrus resembles and attracts the male most, and the mimic f. polytes mimics the model butterfly P. aristolochiae. Based on experimental evidence, we assume that two forms f. cyrus and f. polytes interact under intraspecific competition for resources including the male, and the growth rate of f. cyrus is higher than that of f. polytes. We further assume that both the benefit of mimicry for the mimic f. polytes and the cost for the model are dependent on their relative frequencies, i.e. the motality of the mimic by predation decreases with increase in frequency of the model, while the motality of the model increases as the frequency of the mimic increases. Taking the density-dependent effect through carrying capacity into account, we set up a model system consisting of three ordinary differential equations (ODEs), analyze it mathematically and provide computer simulations that confirm the analytical results. Our results reproduce field records on population dynamics of P. polytes in the Miyako-jima Island. They also explain the positive dependence of the relative abundance (RA) of the mimic on the advantage index (AI) of the mimicry in the Sakishima Islands defined in Section 2.

  3. An ultrasensitive and universal photoelectrochemical immunoassay based on enzyme mimetics enhanced signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Li; Shu, Jun-Xian; Dong, Yu-Ming; Wu, Xiu-Ming; Li, Zai-Jun

    2015-04-15

    An ultrasensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunoassay based on signal amplification by enzyme mimetics was fabricated for the detection of mouse IgG (as a model protein). The PEC immunosensor was constructed by a layer-by-layer assembly of poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), CdS quantum dots (QDs), primary antibody (Ab1, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG), and the antigen (Ag, mouse IgG) on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrode. Then, the secondary antibody (Ab2, polyclonal goat antimouse IgG) combined to a bio-bar-coded Pt nanoparticle(NP)-G-quadruplex/hemin probe was used for signal amplification. The bio-bar-coded Pt NP-G-quadruplex/hemin probe could catalyze the oxidation of hydroquinone (HQ) using H2O2 as an oxidant, demonstrating its intrinsic enzyme-like activity. High sensitivity for the target Ag was achieved by using the bio-bar-coded probe as signal amplifier due to its high catalytic activity, a competitive nonproductive absorption of hemin and the steric hindrance caused by the polymeric oxidation products of HQ. For most important, the oxidation product of HQ acted as an efficient electron acceptor of the illuminated CdS QDs. The target Ag could be detected from 0.01pg/mL to 1.0ng/mL with a low detection limit of 6.0fg/mL. The as-obtained immunosensor exhibited high sensitivity, good stability and acceptable reproducibility. This method might be attractive for clinical and biomedical applications.

  4. Influence of heparin mimetics on assembly of the FGF.FGFR4 signaling complex.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Krishna; Schieborr, Ulrich; Anderka, Oliver; Duchardt-Ferner, Elke; Elshorst, Bettina; Gande, Santosh Lakshmi; Janzon, Julia; Kudlinzki, Denis; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Dreyer, Matthias K; Wendt, K Ulrich; Herbert, Corentin; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Bianciotto, Marc; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Lassalle, Gilbert; Savi, Pierre; Mohammadi, Moosa; Bono, Françoise; Schwalbe, Harald

    2010-08-20

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates mammalian development and metabolism, and its dysregulation is implicated in many inherited and acquired diseases, including cancer. Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) are essential for FGF signaling as they promote FGF.FGF receptor (FGFR) binding and dimerization. Using novel organic synthesis protocols to prepare homogeneously sulfated heparin mimetics (HM), including hexasaccharide (HM(6)), octasaccharide (HM(8)), and decasaccharide (HM(10)), we tested the ability of these HM to support FGF1 and FGF2 signaling through FGFR4. Biological assays show that both HM(8) and HM(10) are significantly more potent than HM(6) in promoting FGF2-mediated FGFR4 signaling. In contrast, all three HM have comparable activity in promoting FGF1.FGFR4 signaling. To understand the molecular basis for these differential activities in FGF1/2.FGFR4 signaling, we used NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and size-exclusion chromatography to characterize binding interactions of FGF1/2 with the isolated Ig-domain 2 (D2) of FGFR4 in the presence of HM, and binary interactions of FGFs and D2 with HM. Our data confirm the existence of both a secondary FGF1.FGFR4 interaction site and a direct FGFR4.FGFR4 interaction site thus supporting the formation of the symmetric mode of FGF.FGFR dimerization in solution. Moreover, our results show that the observed higher activity of HM(8) relative to HM(6) in stimulating FGF2.FGFR4 signaling correlates with the higher affinity of HM(8) to bind and dimerize FGF2. Notably FGF2.HM(8) exhibits pronounced positive binding cooperativity. Based on our findings we propose a refined symmetric FGF.FGFR dimerization model, which incorporates the differential ability of HM to dimerize FGFs.

  5. Allosteric inhibition of factor XIa. Sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics as promising anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Rami A; Gailani, David; Desai, Umesh R

    2015-08-01

    Recent development of sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics, especially sulfated pentagalloyl glucopyranoside (SPGG), as potent inhibitors of factor XIa (FXIa) (J. Med. Chem. 2013; 56:867-878 and J. Med. Chem. 2014; 57:4805-4818) has led to a strong possibility of developing a new line of factor XIa-based anticoagulants. In fact, SPGG represents the first synthetic, small molecule inhibitor that appears to bind in site remote from the active site. Considering that allosteric inhibition of FXIa is a new mechanism for developing a distinct line of anticoagulants, we have studied SPGG's interaction with FXIa with a goal of evaluating its pre-clinical relevance. Comparative inhibition studies with several glycosaminoglycans revealed the importance of SPGG's non-saccharide backbone. SPGG did not affect the activity of plasma kallikrein, activated protein C and factor XIIIa suggesting that SPGG-based anticoagulation is unlikely to affect other pathways connected with coagulation factors. SPGG's effect on APTT of citrated human plasma was also not dependent on antithrombin or heparin cofactor II. Interestingly, SPGG's anticoagulant potential was diminished by serum albumin as well as factor XI, while it could be reversed by protamine or polybrene, which implies possible avenues for developing antidote strategy. Studies with FXIa mutants indicated that SPGG engages Lys529, Arg530 and Arg532, but not Arg250, Lys252, Lys253 and Lys255. Finally, SPGG competes with unfractionated heparin, but not with polyphosphates and/or glycoprotein Ibα, for binding to FXIa. These studies enhance understanding on the first allosteric inhibitor of FXIa and highlight its value as a promising anticoagulant.

  6. An Independent Evaluation of a Novel Peptide Mimetic, Brilacidin (PMX30063), for Ocular Anti-Infective

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Mah, Francis S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Brilacidin (BRI), a novel defensin mimetic, was evaluated as an ocular anti-infective. Methods: In vitro: Potency based on MIC90s was compared for 50 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), and 25 each of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Streptococcus viridans (SV), Moraxella (MS), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Serratia marcescens (SM). In vivo: Using established methods, ocular toxicity was graded with Draize testing. For efficacy testing, both corneas of 24 rabbits were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas the corneal epithelium was removed in the left eye. After 4 h, 21 topical drops over 5 h were administered to 4 groups: BRI 0.5%, vancomycin (VAN) 5%, saline, and no treatment. The eyes were clinically graded and the corneas were harvested for colony counts. Results: In vitro: Both SA and SE had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations among the bacterial groups. The MIC90s to BRI for SP, SV, MS, HI, PA, and SM were 4, 32, 256, 32, 16, and 128-fold higher, respectively, than SA and SE. In vivo: Draize testing determined BRI 0.5% to be minimally irritating. For abraded corneas, BRI was not statistically different from VAN for reducing MRSA. BRI was bactericidal. For intact corneas, VAN reduced more CFU than BRI. BRI reduced CFU in abraded corneas more than intact corneas suggesting poor corneal penetration. Conclusions: BRI has Gram-positive in vitro activity; topical BRI 0.5% was minimally irritating; and BRI 0.5% was equally efficacious as VAN in a MRSA keratitis model when the corneal epithelium was removed. PMID:26501484

  7. Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation-Learning Experience and Key-Challenges.

    PubMed

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2013-03-19

    Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake event. The final product, however, of any energy turnover is heat. Satellite based infrared measurements have indeed identified significant thermal anomalies before major earthquakes. One of these cases, occurring during the 2001 Bhuj earthquake in Gujarat, India, is analyzed together with parallel animal anomalies observed in the Gir national park. It is suggested that the time window is identical and that both phenomena have the same geophysical origin. It therefore remains to be demonstrated that energy can be released locally before major earthquake events. It is shown that by considering appropriate geophysical feedback processes, this is

  8. Annexin A1 mimetic peptide controls the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of silica particles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, P G; Ferreira, T P T; Arantes, A C S; Ciambarella, B T; Cordeiro, R S B; Flower, R J; Perretti, M; Martins, M A; Silva, P M R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endogenous glucocorticoids are pro-resolving mediators, an example of which is the endogenous glucocorticoid-regulated protein annexin A1 (ANXA1). Because silicosis is an occupational lung disease characterized by unabated inflammation and fibrosis, in this study we tested the therapeutic properties of the N-terminal ANXA1-derived peptide annexin 1-(2-26) (Ac2-26) on experimental silicosis. Experimental Approach Swiss-Webster mice were administered silica particles intranasally and were subsequently treated with intranasal peptide Ac2-26 (200 μg per mouse) or dexamethasone (25 μg per mouse) for 7 days, starting 6 h post-challenge. Ac2-26 abolished the leukocyte infiltration, collagen deposition, granuloma formation and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines evoked by silica; these variables were only partially inhibited by dexamethasone. Key Results A clear exacerbation of the silica-induced pathological changes was observed in ANXA1 knockout mice as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Incubation of lung fibroblasts from WT mice with Ac2-26 in vitro reduced IL-13 or TGF-β-induced production of CCL2 (MCP-1) and collagen, but this peptide did not affect the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) by stimulated fibroblasts from formyl peptide receptor type 1 (FPR1) knockout mice. Ac2-26 also inhibited the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) from fibroblasts of FPR2 knockout mice. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, our findings reveal novel protective properties of the ANXA1 derived peptide Ac2-26 on the inflammatory and fibrotic responses induced by silica, and suggest that ANXA1 mimetic agents might be a promising strategy as innovative anti-fibrotic approaches for the treatment of silicosis. PMID:25659822

  9. Noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled exosome-mimetic nanovesicle using 99mTc-HMPAO

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Do Won; Choi, Hongyoon; Jang, Su Chul; Yoo, Min Young; Park, Ji Yong; Choi, Na Eun; Oh, Hyun Jeong; Ha, Seunggyun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Gho, Yong Song; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes known as nano-sized extracellular vesicles attracted recent interests due to their potential usefulness in drug delivery. Amid remarkable advances in biomedical applications of exosomes, it is crucial to understand in vivo distribution and behavior of exosomes. Here, we developed a simple method for radiolabeling of macrophage-derived exosome-mimetic nanovesicles (ENVs) with 99mTc-HMPAO under physiologic conditions and monitored in vivo distribution of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs using SPECT/CT in living mice. ENVs were produced from the mouse RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO for 1 hr incubation, followed by removal of free 99mTc-HMPAO. SPECT/CT images were serially acquired after intravenous injection to BALB/c mouse. When ENVs were labeled with 99mTc-HMPAO, the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs was higher than 90% and the expression of exosome specific protein (CD63) did not change in 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs. 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs showed high serum stability (90%) which was similar to that in phosphate buffered saline until 5 hr. SPECT/CT images of the mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO-ENVs exhibited higher uptake in liver and no uptake in brain, whereas mice injected with 99mTc-HMPAO showed high brain uptake until 5 hr. Our noninvasive imaging of radiolabeled-ENVs promises better understanding of the in vivo behavior of exosomes for upcoming biomedical application. PMID:26497063

  10. Dramatic nano-fluidic properties of carbon nanotube membranes as a platform for protein channel mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes have three key attributes that make them of great interest for novel membrane applications: 1) atomically flat graphite surface allows for ideal fluid slip boundary conditions and extremely fast flow rates 2) the cutting process to open CNTs inherently places functional chemistry at CNT core entrance for chemical selectivity and 3) CNT are electrically conductive allowing for electrochemical reactions and application of electric fields gradients at CNT tips. Pressure driven flux of a variety of solvents (H2O, hexane, decane ethanol, methanol) are 4-5 orders of magnitude higher than conventional Newtonian flow [Nature 2005, 438, 44] due to atomically flat graphite planes inducing nearly ideal slip conditions. However this is eliminated with selective chemical functionalization [ACS Nano 2011 5(5) 3867-3877] needed to give chemical selectivity. These unique properties allow us to explore the hypothesis of producing ``Gatekeeper'' membranes that mimic natural protein channels to actively pump through rapid nm-scale channels. With anionic tip functionality strong electroosmotic flow is induced by unimpeded cation flow with similar 10,000 fold enhancements [Nature Nano 2012 7(2) 133-39]. With enhanced power efficiency, carbon nanotube membranes were employed as the active element of a switchable transdermal drug delivery device that can facilitate more effective treatments of drug abuse and addiction. Recently methods to deposit Pt monolayers on CNT surface have been developed making for highly efficient catalytic platforms. Discussed are other applications of CNT protein channel mimetics, for large area robust engineering platforms, including water purification, flow battery energy storage, and biochemical/biomass separations. DOE EPSCoR (DE-FG02-07ER46375) and DARPA, W911NF-09-1-0267

  11. Stable Incretin Mimetics Counter Rapid Deterioration of Bone Quality in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Sity Aishah; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Bouvard, Béatrice; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Irwin, Nigel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk for bone fractures. Although bone mass is reduced, bone quality is also dramatically altered in this disorder. However, recent evidences suggest a beneficial effect of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathways on bone quality. The aims of the present study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of bone strength at the organ and tissue level; and to ascertain whether enzyme resistant GIP or GLP-1 mimetic could be beneficial in preventing bone fragility in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-treated mice were used as a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated for 21 days with an enzymatic-resistant GIP peptide ([D-Ala(2) ]GIP) or with liraglutide (each at 25 nmol/kg bw, ip). Bone quality was assessed at the organ and tissue level by microCT, qXRI, 3-point bending, qBEI, nanoindentation, and Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. [D-Ala2]GIP and liraglutide treatment did prevent loss of whole bone strength and cortical microstructure in the STZ-injected mice. However, tissue material properties were significantly improved in STZ-injected animals following treatment with [D-Ala2]GIP or liraglutide. Treatment of STZ-diabetic mice with [D-Ala(2) ]GIP or liraglutide was capable of significantly preventing deterioration of the quality of the bone matrix. Further studies are required to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved and to validate whether these findings can be translated to human patients.

  12. Strategy To Fabricate Naked-Eye Readout Ultrasensitive Plasmonic Nanosensor Based on Enzyme Mimetic Gold Nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Huang, Haowen; Zhang, Lingyang; Wang, Linqian; Zeng, Yunlong; Xia, Xiaodong; Liu, Fengping; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-19

    It is broadly interesting but remains a big challenge to explore nanomaterials-based methods to enable naked-eye observation and determination of ultratrace biomarkers and drugs. In this study, we developed a straightforward and extendable plasmonic nanosensor to enable visually quantitative determination of ultratrace target molecules through combining the use of enzyme-mimetic gold nanoclusters (AuNCs). Starting from sandwiched antibody-antigen (i.e., an analyte)-antibody structure, we conjugated AuNCs on the outer layer antibody to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide used to reduce HAuCl4 into gold nanopartilces (AuNPs) for naked eye readout. This strategy is in theory applicable to all immunoreactions available and the protocol proposed to attach AuNCs onto an antibody is suitable to all proteins. The applicability of this type of nanosensor was validated by the determination of various ultratrace analytes such as protein avidin, breast cancer antigen, thyroid hormone, and even methamphetamine (MA), giving a naked-eye-readout limit of detection (LOD), down to 1.0 × 10(-20) M protein avidin, 7.52 × 10(-14) U/mL breast cancer antigen 15-3, 2.0 × 10(-15) mg/mL 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine and 2.3 × 10(-18) mg/mL MA. This strategy is thus considered an ultrasensitive way to fabricate plasmonic nanosensors, having wide and invaluable application potential in clinical, biological, and environmental studies, and in food quality control.

  13. Fluoroolefins as peptide mimetics. 2. A computational study of the conformational ramifications of peptide bond replacement.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brian E; Urban, Joseph J

    2010-01-21

    The design of peptide mimetic compounds is greatly facilitated by the identification of functionalities that can act as peptide replacements. The fluoroalkene moiety has recently been employed for that purpose. The purpose of this work is to examine the conformational ramifications of replacing peptide bonds with fluoroalkene moieties, thus generating peptidomimetics. The alanine dipeptide analogue (ADA) was chosen as a model compound. Three peptidomimetic systems were investigated including one generated by replacement of both peptide bonds of ADA, designated as DFA, and those generated by the single replacement of the C-terminal peptide bond and N-terminal peptide bond, designated as CFA and NFA, respectively. Conformations for all three systems were generated by exhaustive Monte Carlo searching. Relative conformational energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ/MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ (for DFA), MP2/-aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311+G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d), and MMFF levels of theory. Aqueous phase conformational preferences were determined through calculations making use of continuum hydration models. The results indicate that replacement of both peptide bonds of ADA generates a peptidomimetic with conformational preferences where extended conformations are favored and the conformational profile is relatively insensitive to the nature of the surrounding medium. This is in contrast to ADA where the conformational preferences depend highly on the surrounding medium and where folded conformations with intramolecular hydrogen bonds are important in the absence of an interacting solvent. CFA and NFA are found to exhibit conformational preferences that do in some ways more closely resemble those of the alanine dipeptide analogue. This is particularly true in the case of NFA where interactions between the NH and CF groups are reminiscent of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding possible in ADA.

  14. Fluoroolefins as peptide mimetics: a computational study of structure, charge distribution, hydration, and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Urban, Joseph J; Tillman, Brendon G; Cronin, William Andrew

    2006-09-28

    The design of peptide mimetic compounds is greatly facilitated by the identification of functionalities that can act as peptide replacements. The fluoroalkene moiety has recently been employed for that purpose. The purpose of this work is to characterize prototypical fluoroalkenes (fluoroethylene and 2-fluoro-2-butene) with respect to key properties of peptides (amides) including structure, charge distribution, hydration, and hydrogen bonding. The results are compared to those obtained for model peptides (formamide, N-methylacetamide). Calculations have been carried out at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with the 6-311++G(2d,p) and 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis sets. The results suggest that the fluoroalkene is similar in steric requirements to a peptide bond but that there is less charge separation. Calculations of the hydration free energies with the PCM bulk continuum solvent model indicate that the fluoroalkene has much smaller hydration free energies than an amide but that the difference in solvation free energy for cis and trans isomers is comparable. In studies of complexes with water molecules, the fluoroalkene is found to engage in interactions that are analogous to backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions that govern many properties of natural peptides and proteins but with smaller interaction energies. In addition, key structural differences are noted when the fluoroalkene is playing the role of hydrogen-bond acceptor which may have implications in binding, aggregation, and conformational preferences in fluoroalkene peptidomimetics. The issue of cooperativity in hydrogen-bonding interactions in complexes with multiple waters has also been investigated. The fluoroalkene is found to exhibit cooperative effects that mirror those of the peptide but are smaller in magnitude. Thus, pairwise addivitity of interactions appears to more adequately describe the fluoroalkenes than the peptides they are intended to mimic.

  15. Chronic delivery of a thrombospondin-1 mimetic decreases skeletal muscle capillarity in mice.

    PubMed

    Audet, Gerald N; Fulks, Daniel; Stricker, Janelle C; Olfert, I Mark

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process for normal skeletal muscle function. There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent antiangiogenic protein in tumorigenesis, is an important regulator of both physiological and pathological skeletal muscle angiogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to a TSP-1 mimetic (ABT-510), which targets the CD36 TSP-1 receptor, would decrease skeletal muscle capillarity as well as alter the balance between positive and negative angiogenic proteins under basal conditions. Osmotic minipumps with either ABT-510 or vehicle (5% dextrose) were implanted subcutaneously in the subscapular region of C57/BL6 mice for 14 days. When compared to the vehicle treated mice, the ABT-510 group had a 20% decrease in capillarity in the superficial region of the gastrocnemius (GA), 11% decrease in the plantaris (PLT), and a 35% decrease in the soleus (SOL). ABT-510 also decreased muscle protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in both the GA (-140%) and SOL (-62%); however there was no change in VEGF in the PLT. Serum VEGF was not altered in ABT-510 treated animals. Endogenous TSP-1 protein expression in all muscles remained unaltered. Tunnel staining revealed no difference in muscle apoptosis between ABT-510 and vehicle treated groups. These data provide evidence that the anti-angiogenic effects of TSP-1 are mediated, at least in part, via the CD36 receptor. It also suggests that under physiologic conditions the TSP-1/CD36 axis plays a role in regulating basal skeletal muscle microvessel density.

  16. Structure of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor in complex with a peptide mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aaron A.; Liu, Wei; Chun, Eugene; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wu, Huixian; Vardy, Eyal; Huang, Xi-Ping; Trapella, Claudio; Guerrini, Remo; Calo, Girolamo; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2012-07-11

    Members of the opioid receptor family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system, where they have key roles in nociception and analgesia. Unlike the 'classical' opioid receptors, {delta}, {kappa} and {mu} ({delta}-OR, {kappa}-OR and {mu}-OR), which were delineated by pharmacological criteria in the 1970s and 1980s, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (NOP, also known as ORL-1) was discovered relatively recently by molecular cloning and characterization of an orphan GPCR. Although it shares high sequence similarity with classical opioid GPCR subtypes ({approx}60%), NOP has a markedly distinct pharmacology, featuring activation by the endogenous peptide N/OFQ, and unique selectivity for exogenous ligands. Here we report the crystal structure of human NOP, solved in complex with the peptide mimetic antagonist compound-24 (C-24) (ref. 4), revealing atomic details of ligand-receptor recognition and selectivity. Compound-24 mimics the first four amino-terminal residues of the NOP-selective peptide antagonist UFP-101, a close derivative of N/OFQ, and provides important clues to the binding of these peptides. The X-ray structure also shows substantial conformational differences in the pocket regions between NOP and the classical opioid receptors {kappa} (ref. 5) and {mu} (ref. 6), and these are probably due to a small number of residues that vary between these receptors. The NOP-compound-24 structure explains the divergent selectivity profile of NOP and provides a new structural template for the design of NOP ligands.

  17. Smac mimetics induce inflammation and necrotic tumour cell death by modulating macrophage activity

    PubMed Central

    Lecis, D; De Cesare, M; Perego, P; Conti, A; Corna, E; Drago, C; Seneci, P; Walczak, H; Colombo, M P; Delia, D; Sangaletti, S

    2013-01-01

    Smac mimetics (SMs) comprise a class of small molecules that target members of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of pro-survival proteins, whose expression in cancer cells hinders the action of conventional chemotherapeutics. Herein, we describe the activity of SM83, a newly synthesised dimeric SM, in two cancer ascites models: athymic nude mice injected intraperitoneally with IGROV-1 human ovarian carcinoma cells and immunocompetent BALB/c mice injected with murine Meth A sarcoma cells. SM83 rapidly killed ascitic IGROV-1 and Meth A cells in vivo (prolonging mouse survival), but was ineffective against the same cells in vitro. IGROV-1 cells in nude mice were killed within the ascites by a non-apoptotic, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-dependent mechanism. SM83 administration triggered a rapid inflammatory event characterised by host secretion of TNF, interleukin-1β and interferon-γ. This inflammatory response was associated with the reversion of the phenotype of tumour-associated macrophages from a pro-tumoural M2- to a pro-inflammatory M1-like state. SM83 treatment was also associated with a massive recruitment of neutrophils that, however, was not essential for the antitumoural activity of this compound. In BALB/c mice bearing Meth A ascites, SM83 treatment was in some cases curative, and these mice became resistant to a second injection of cancer cells, suggesting that they had developed an adaptive immune response. Altogether, these results indicate that, in vivo, SM83 modulates the immune system within the tumour microenvironment and, through its pro-inflammatory action, leads cancer cells to die by necrosis with the release of high-mobility group box-1. In conclusion, our work provides evidence that SMs could be more therapeutically active than expected by stimulating the immune system. PMID:24232096

  18. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Scott, R W; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 μg ml(-1) mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues.

  19. Antibodies Elicited by Multiple Envelope Glycoprotein Immunogens in Primates Neutralize Primary Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV-1) Sensitized by CD4-Mimetic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Navid; Princiotto, Amy M.; Easterhoff, David; Bradley, Todd; Luo, Kan; Williams, Wilton B.; Liao, Hua-Xin; Moody, M. Anthony; Phad, Ganesh E.; Vázquez Bernat, Néstor; Melillo, Bruno; Santra, Sampa; Smith, Amos B.; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; Haynes, Barton

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) mediate virus entry through a series of complex conformational changes triggered by binding to the receptors CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4. Broadly neutralizing antibodies that recognize conserved Env epitopes are thought to be an important component of a protective immune response. However, to date, HIV-1 Env immunogens that elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies have not been identified, creating hurdles for vaccine development. Small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds engage the CD4-binding pocket on the gp120 exterior Env and induce Env conformations that are highly sensitive to neutralization by antibodies, including antibodies directed against the conserved Env region that interacts with CCR5/CXCR4. Here, we show that CD4-mimetic compounds sensitize primary HIV-1 to neutralization by antibodies that can be elicited in monkeys and humans within 6 months by several Env vaccine candidates, including gp120 monomers. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the gp120 V2 and V3 variable regions were isolated from the immunized monkeys and humans; these monoclonal antibodies neutralized a primary HIV-1 only when the virus was sensitized by a CD4-mimetic compound. Thus, in addition to their direct antiviral effect, CD4-mimetic compounds dramatically enhance the HIV-1-neutralizing activity of antibodies that can be elicited with currently available immunogens. Used as components of microbicides, the CD4-mimetic compounds might increase the protective efficacy of HIV-1 vaccines. IMPORTANCE Preventing HIV-1 transmission is a high priority for global health. Eliciting antibodies that can neutralize transmitted strains of HIV-1 is difficult, creating problems for the development of an effective vaccine. We found that small-molecule CD4-mimetic compounds sensitize HIV-1 to antibodies that can be elicited in vaccinated humans and monkeys. These results suggest an approach to prevent HIV-1 sexual transmission in

  20. Smac Mimetic SM-164 Potentiates APO2L/TRAIL- and Doxorubicin-Mediated Anticancer Activity in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuijun; Li, Gongquan; Zhao, Yongfu; Liu, Guangzhi; Wang, Yu; Ma, Xiuxian; Li, Dexu; Wu, Yang; Lu, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background The members of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) family are key negative regulators of apoptosis. Overexpression of IAPs are found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and can contribute to chemotherapy resistance and recurrence of HCC. Small-molecule Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetics have recently emerged as novel anticancer drugs through targeting IAPs. The specific aims of this study were to 1) examine the anticancer activity of Smac mimetics as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in HCC cells, and 2) investigate the mechanism of anticancer action of Smac mimetics. Methods Four HCC cell lines, including SMMC-7721, BEL-7402, HepG2 and Hep3B, and 12 primary HCC cells were used in this study. Smac mimetic SM-164 was used to treat HCC cells. Cell viability, cell death induction and clonal formation assays were used to evaluate the anticancer activity. Western blotting analysis and a pancaspase inhibitor were used to investigate the mechanisms. Results Although SM-164 induced complete cIAP-1 degradation, it displayed weak inhibitory effects on the viability of HCC cells. Nevertheless, SM-164 considerably potentiated Apo2 ligand or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (APO2L/TRAIL)- and Doxorubicin-mediated anticancer activity in HCC cells. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that SM-164 in combination with chemotherapeutic agents resulted in enhanced activation of caspases-9, -3 and cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), and also led to decreased AKT activation. Conclusions Smac mimetics can enhance chemotherapeutic-mediated anticancer activity by enhancing apoptosis signaling and suppressing survival signaling in HCC cells. This study suggests Smac mimetics are potential therapeutic agents for HCC. PMID:23240027

  1. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics mediated neuroregeneration and synaptic repair: emerging therapeutic modality for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Iqbal, Khalid

    2016-07-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable and debilitating chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. AD is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder, histopathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of Aβ peptides and abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively. Independent of the various etiopathogenic mechanisms, neurodegeneration is a final common outcome of AD neuropathology. Synaptic loss is a better correlate of cognitive impairment in AD than Aβ or tau pathologies. Thus a highly promising therapeutic strategy for AD is to shift the balance from neurodegeneration to neuroregeneration and synaptic repair. Neurotrophic factors, by virtue of their neurogenic and neurotrophic activities, have potential for the treatment of AD. However, the clinical therapeutic usage of recombinant neurotrophic factors is limited because of the insurmountable hurdles of unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and severe adverse effects. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics, in this context, represent a potential strategy to overcome these short comings, and have shown promise in preclinical studies. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics have been the focus of intense research in recent years for AD drug development. Here, we review the relevant literature regarding the therapeutic beneficial effect of neurotrophic factors in AD, and then discuss the recent status of research regarding the neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics as therapeutic candidates for AD. Lastly, we summarize the preclinical studies with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021). P021 is a neurogenic and neurotrophic compound which enhances dentate gyrus neurogenesis and memory processes via inhibiting leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling pathway and increasing

  2. [Investigation of neuroprotective activity of apolipoprotein E peptide mimetic Cog1410 in transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Latypova, E M; Timoshenko, S I; Kislik, G A; Vitek, M; Shvartsman, A L; Sarantseva, S V

    2014-01-01

    The neuroprotective activity of apolipoprotein E (apoE) peptide mimetic Cog1410, containing amino acid sequence of the receptor-binding domain apoE, has been investigated in transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster expressing human APP and beta-secretase. Expression of two transgenes caused neuropathological processes attributed to Alzheimer's disease: neurodegeneration, cognitive abnormality and amyloid deposits formation in brain. It was shown that Cog 1410 reduces neurodegeneration in brain of transgenic flies and improves cognitive functions (odor recognition). These data suggest that Cog1410 is a potential neuroprotector that can be used in AD treatment.

  3. Study on distribution of terminal branches of the facial nerve in mimetic muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle).

    PubMed

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Shiozawa, Kei; Satoh, Kaneshige

    2014-01-01

    There have been many anatomical reports to date regarding the course of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. However, reports are relatively scarce on the detailed distribution of the terminal branches of the facial nerve to the mimetic muscles. In this study, we performed detailed examination of the terminal facial nerve branches to the mimetic muscles, particularly the branches terminating in the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. Examination was performed on 25 Japanese adult autopsy cases, involving 25 hemifaces. The mean age was 87.4 years (range, 60-102 years). There were 12 men and 13 women (12 left hemifaces and 13 right hemifaces). In each case, the facial nerve was exposed through a preauricular skin incision. The main trunk of the facial nerve was dissected from the stylomastoid foramen. A microscope was used to dissect the terminal branches to the periphery and observe them. The course and distribution were examined for all terminal branches of the facial nerve. However, focus was placed on the course and distribution of the zygomatic branch, buccal branch, and mandibular branch to the orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle. The temporal branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases and the marginal mandibular branch was distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in all cases. The zygomatic branch was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in all cases, but it was also distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 10 of 25 cases. The buccal branch was not distributed to the orbicularis oris muscle in 3 of 25 cases, and it was distributed to the orbicularis oculi muscle in 8 cases. There was no significant difference in the variations. The orbicularis oculi muscle and orbicularis oris muscle perform particularly important movements among the facial mimetic muscles. According to textbooks, the temporal branch and zygomatic branch innervate the orbicularis oculi muscle, and the buccal branch

  4. Effect of Vanadyl Rosiglitazone, a New Insulin-Mimetic Vanadium Complexes, on Glucose Homeostasis of Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pingzhe; Dong, Zhen; Ma, Baicheng; Ni, Zaizhong; Duan, Huikun; Li, Xiaodan; Wang, Bin; Ma, Xiaofeng; Wei, Qian; Ji, Xiangzhen; Li, Minggang

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes has been cited as the most challenging health problem in the twenty-first century. Accordingly, it is urgent to develop a new type of efficient and low-toxic antidiabetic medication. Since vanadium compounds have insulin-mimetic and potential hypoglycemic activities for type 1 and type 2 diabetes, a new trend has been developed using vanadium and organic ligands to form a new compound in order to increase the intestinal absorption and reduce the toxicity of vanadium compound. In the current investigation, a new organic vanadium compounds, vanadyl rosiglitazone, was synthesized and determined by infrared spectra. Vanadyl rosiglitazone and three other organic vanadium compounds were administered to the diabetic mice through oral administration for 5 weeks. The results of mouse model test indicated that vanadyl rosiglitazone could regulate the blood glucose level and relieve the symptoms of polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, and weight loss without side effects and was more effective than the other three organic vanadium compounds including vanadyl trehalose, vanadyl metformin, and vanadyl quercetin. The study indicated that vanadyl rosiglitazone presents insulin-mimetic activities, and it will be a good potential candidate for the development of a new type of oral drug for type 2 diabetes.

  5. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol).

    PubMed

    Congdon, Thomas R; Notman, Rebecca; Gibson, Matthew I

    2016-09-12

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications-from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action.

  6. Porphyrin-encapsulated metal-organic frameworks as mimetic catalysts for electrochemical DNA sensing via allosteric switch of hairpin DNA.

    PubMed

    Ling, Pinghua; Lei, Jianping; Zhang, Lei; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-04-07

    A sensitive electrochemical sensor is designed for DNA detection based on mimetic catalysis of metal-organic framework (MOF) and allosteric switch of hairpin DNA. The functional MOFs are synthesized as signal probes by a one-pot encapsulation of iron(III) meso-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin chloride (FeTCPP) into a prototypal MOF, HKUST-1(Cu), and sequentially conjugated with streptavidin (SA) as a recognition element. The resulting FeTCPP@MOF composites can mimetically catalyze the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (o-PD) to 2,2'-diaminoazobenzene, which is a good electrochemical indicator for signal readout. The presence of target DNA introduces the allosteric switch of hairpin DNA to form SA aptamer, and thus, FeTCPP@MOF-SA probe is brought on the electrode surface via the specific recognition between SA and the corresponding aptamer, resulting in the enhancement of electrochemical signal. The "signal-on" electrochemical sensor can detect target DNA down to 0.48 fM with the linear range of 10 fM to 10 nM. Moreover, the MOF-based electrochemical sensor exhibits acceptable selectivity against even a single mismatched DNA and good feasibility in complex serum matrixes. This strategy opens up a new direction of porphyrin-functionalized MOF for signal transduction in electrochemical biosensing.

  7. SMAC mimetic Debio 1143 synergizes with taxanes, topoisomerase inhibitors and bromodomain inhibitors to impede growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Held, Matthew A.; Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; Iyidogan, Pinar; Theodosakis, Nicholas; Platt, James T.; Levy, Frederic; Vuagniaux, Gregoire; Wang, Shaomeng; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Stern, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting anti-apoptotic proteins can sensitize tumor cells to conventional chemotherapies or other targeted agents. Antagonizing the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) with mimetics of the pro-apoptotic protein SMAC is one such approach. We used sensitization compound screening to uncover possible agents with the potential to further sensitize lung adenocarcinoma cells to the SMAC mimetic Debio 1143. Several compounds in combination with Debio 1143, including taxanes, topoisomerase inhibitors, and bromodomain inhibitors, super-additively inhibited growth and clonogenicity of lung adenocarcinoma cells. Co-treatment with Debio 1143 and the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 suppresses the expression of c-IAP1, c-IAP2, and XIAP. Non-canonical NF-κB signaling is also activated following Debio 1143 treatment, and Debio 1143 induces the formation of the ripoptosome in Debio 1143-sensitive cell lines. Sensitivity to Debio 1143 and JQ1 co-treatment was associated with baseline caspase-8 expression. In vivo treatment of lung adenocarcinoma xenografts with Debio 1143 in combination with JQ1 or docetaxel reduced tumor volume more than either single agent alone. As Debio 1143-containing combinations effectively inhibited both in vitro and in vivo growth of lung adenocarcinoma cells, these data provide a rationale for Debio 1143 combinations currently being evaluated in ongoing clinical trials and suggest potential utility of other combinations identified here. PMID:26485762

  8. A spectral mimetic least-squares method for the Stokes equations with no-slip boundary condition

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsma, Marc; Bochev, Pavel

    2016-03-22

    Formulation of locally conservative least-squares finite element methods (LSFEMs) for the Stokes equations with the no-slip boundary condition has been a long standing problem. Existing LSFEMs that yield exactly divergence free velocities require non-standard boundary conditions (Bochev and Gunzburger, 2009 [3]), while methods that admit the no-slip condition satisfy the incompressibility equation only approximately (Bochev and Gunzburger, 2009 [4, Chapter 7]). Here we address this problem by proving a new non-standard stability bound for the velocity–vorticity–pressure Stokes system augmented with a no-slip boundary condition. This bound gives rise to a norm-equivalent least-squares functional in which the velocity can be approximated by div-conforming finite element spaces, thereby enabling a locally-conservative approximations of this variable. Here, we also provide a practical realization of the new LSFEM using high-order spectral mimetic finite element spaces (Kreeft et al., 2011) and report several numerical tests, which confirm its mimetic properties.

  9. Influence of Block Copolymerization on the Antifreeze Protein Mimetic Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco) proteins are produced by many cold-acclimatized species to enable them to survive subzero temperatures. These proteins have multiple macroscopic effects on ice crystal growth which makes them appealing for low-temperature applications—from cellular cryopreservation to food storage. Poly(vinyl alcohol) has remarkable ice recrystallization inhibition activity, but its mode of action is uncertain as is the extent at which it can be incorporated into other high-order structures. Here the synthesis and characterization of well-defined block copolymers containing poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by RAFT/MADIX polymerization is reported, as new antifreeze protein mimetics. The effect of adding a large second hydrophilic block is studied across a range of compositions, and it is found to be a passive component in ice recrystallization inhibition assays, enabling retention of all activity. In the extreme case, a block copolymer with only 10% poly(vinyl alcohol) was found to retain all activity, where statistical copolymers of PVA lose all activity with very minor changes to composition. These findings present a new method to increase the complexity of antifreeze protein mimetic materials, while retaining activity, and also to help understand the underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:27476873

  10. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Avdic, Vanja; Zhang, Pamela; Lanouette, Sylvain; Voronova, Anastassia; Skerjanc, Ilona; Couture, Jean-Francois

    2011-08-24

    The SET1 family of methyltransferases carries out the bulk of histone H3 Lys-4 methylation in vivo. One of the common features of this family is the regulation of their methyltransferase activity by a tripartite complex composed of WDR5, RbBP5, and Ash2L. To selectively probe the role of the SET1 family of methyltransferases, we have developed a library of histone H3 peptide mimetics and report herein the characterization of an N{alpha} acetylated form of histone H3 peptide (N{alpha}H3). Binding and inhibition studies reveal that the addition of an acetyl moiety to the N terminus of histone H3 significantly enhances its binding to WDR5 and prevents the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by the WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L complex. The crystal structure of N{alpha}H3 in complex with WDR5 reveals that a high-affinity hydrophobic pocket accommodates the binding of the acetyl moiety. These results provide the structural basis to control WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L-MLL1 activity and a tool to manipulate stem cell differentiation programs.-Avdic, V., Zhang, P., Lanouette, S., Voronova, A., Skerjanc, I., Couture, J.-F. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic.

  11. A spectral mimetic least-squares method for the Stokes equations with no-slip boundary condition

    DOE PAGES

    Gerritsma, Marc; Bochev, Pavel

    2016-03-22

    Formulation of locally conservative least-squares finite element methods (LSFEMs) for the Stokes equations with the no-slip boundary condition has been a long standing problem. Existing LSFEMs that yield exactly divergence free velocities require non-standard boundary conditions (Bochev and Gunzburger, 2009 [3]), while methods that admit the no-slip condition satisfy the incompressibility equation only approximately (Bochev and Gunzburger, 2009 [4, Chapter 7]). Here we address this problem by proving a new non-standard stability bound for the velocity–vorticity–pressure Stokes system augmented with a no-slip boundary condition. This bound gives rise to a norm-equivalent least-squares functional in which the velocity can be approximatedmore » by div-conforming finite element spaces, thereby enabling a locally-conservative approximations of this variable. Here, we also provide a practical realization of the new LSFEM using high-order spectral mimetic finite element spaces (Kreeft et al., 2011) and report several numerical tests, which confirm its mimetic properties.« less

  12. Development of electrospun bone-mimetic matrices for bone regenerative applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Matthew Christopher

    Although bone has a dramatic capacity for regeneration, certain injuries and procedures present defects that are unable to heal properly, requiring surgical intervention to induce and support osteoregeneration. Our research group has hypothesized that the development of a biodegradable material that mimics the natural composition and architecture of bone extracellular matrix has the potential to provide therapeutic benefit to these patients. Utilizing a process known as electrospinning, our lab has developed a bone-mimetic matrix (BMM) consisting of composite nanofibers of the mechanically sta-ble polymer polycaprolactone (PCL), and the natural bone matrix molecules type-I colla-gen and hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (HA). We herein show that BMMs supported great-er adhesion, proliferation, and integrin activation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the multipotent bone-progenitor cells within bone marrow and the periosteum, in comparison to electrospun PCL alone. These cellular responses, which are essential early steps in the process of bone regeneration, highlight the benefits of presenting cells with natural bone molecules. Subsequently, evaluation of new bone formation in a rat cortical tibia defect showed that BMMs are highly osteoconductive. However, these studies also revealed the inability of endogenous cells to migrate within electrospun matrices due to the inherently small pore sizes. To address this limitation, which will negatively impact the rate of scaf-fold-to-bone turnover and inhibit vascularization, sacrificial fibers were added to the ma-trix. The removal of these fibers after fabrication resulted in BMMs with larger pores, leading to increased infiltration of MSCs and endogenous bone cells. Lastly, we evaluat-ed the potential of our matrices to stimulate the recruitment of MSCs, a vital step in bone healing, through the sustained delivery of platelet derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB). BMMs were found to adsorb and subsequently release greater

  13. CARP-1 functional mimetics are novel inhibitors of drug-resistant triple negative breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Vino T.; Muthu, Magesh; Patel, Ketan; Sekhar, Sreeja; Rajeswaran, Walajapet; Larsen, Scott D.; Polin, Lisa; Levi, Edi; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin and Cisplatin are the frontline therapeutics for treatment of the triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). Emergence of drug-resistance often contributes to failure of drugs and poor prognosis, and thus necessitates development of new and improved modalities to treat TNBCs. We generated and characterized chemotherapy-resistant TNBC cells following their culture in chronic presence of Doxorubicin or Cisplatin, and tested whether their viabilities were inhibited by a novel class of CARP- 1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds. Analogs of parent compound CFM-4 were obtained through structure-activity based medicinal chemistry studies. CFM-4.16, a novel analog of CFM-4, caused superior inhibition of viability of TNBC cells when used in combination with doxorubicin. Doxorubicin and cisplatin inhibited viabilities of parental cells with GI50 dose of 0.02–0.1 μM and 1.65 μM, respectively. The GI50 dose of doxorubicin for doxorubicin-resistant TNBC cells was ≥ 10.0 μM. For Cisplatin-resistant cells, the GI50 dose of Cisplatin was ≥ 6–15.0 μM for MDA-MB-468 sublines and ≥ 150.0 μM for MDA-MB-231 sublines. CFM-4.16 inhibited viability of chemotherapy-resistant TNBC cells, in part by inhibiting oncogenic cMet activation and expression, stimulating CARP-1 expression, caspase-8 cleavage and apoptosis. CFM-4.16 pretreatment enhanced anti-TNBC efficacies of inhibitors of cMET (Tevatinib) or cSrc (Dasatinib). CFM-4.16 suppressed growth of resistant TNBC cells in soft agar as well as in three-dimensional suspension cultures derived from enriched, stem-like cells. Finally, a nanolipid formulation of CFM-4.16 in combination with doxorubicin had superior efficacy in inhibiting TNBC xenograft growth. Our findings collectively demonstrate therapeutic potential of CFM-4.16 for parental and drug-resistant TNBCs. PMID:27687593

  14. Single-spanning membrane protein insertion in membrane mimetic systems: role and localization of aromatic residues.

    PubMed

    Coïc, Yves-Marie; Vincent, Michel; Gallay, Jacques; Baleux, Françoise; Mousson, Florence; Beswick, Veronica; Neumann, Jean-Michel; de Foresta, Béatrice

    2005-12-01

    Membrane protein insertion in the lipid bilayer is determining for their activity and is governed by various factors such as specific sequence motifs or key amino-acids. A detailed fluorescence study of such factors is exemplified with PMP1, a small (38 residues) single-membrane span protein that regulates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in yeast and specifically interacts with phosphatidylserines. Such interactions may stabilize raft domains that have been shown to contain H(+)-ATPase. Previous NMR studies of various fragments have focused on the critical role of interfacial residues in the PMP1 structure and intermolecular interactions. The C-terminal domain contains a terminal Phe (F38), a single Trp (W28) and a single Tyr (Y25) that may act together to anchor the protein in the membrane. In order to describe the location and dynamics of W28 and the influence of Y25 on protein insertion within membrane, we carried out a detailed steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence study of the synthetic G13-F38 fragment and its Tyr-less mutant, Y25L in various membrane mimetic systems. Detergent micelles are conveniently used for this purpose. We used dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) in order to compare with and complement previous NMR results. In addition, dodecylmaltoside (DM) was used so that we could apply our recently described new quenching method by two brominated analogs of DM (de Foresta et al. 2002, Eur. Biophys. J. 31:185-97). In both systems, and in the presence and absence of Y25, W28 was shown to be located below but close to the polar headgroup region, as shown by its maximum emission wavelengths (lambda(max)), curves for the quenching of Trp by the brominated analogs of DM and bimolecular constants for quenching (k(q)) by acrylamide. Results were interpreted by comparison with calibration data obtained with fluorescent model peptides. Time-resolved anisotropy measurements were consistent with PMP1 fragment immobilization within peptide-detergent complexes. We

  15. Encoding physico-chemical cues in synthetic hydrogels by triple helix assembly of collagen mimetic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Patrick

    The ECM is a complex natural system evolved to promote proliferation and differentiation of cells during tissue development. In order to create synthetic biomaterials for studying cell-scaffold interactions and ultimately for engineering tissues, scientists strive to recapitulate many characteristics of ECM by developing hydrogels that contain mechanical cues and biochemical signals such as adhesion moieties and cell growth factors. While synthetic hydrogels bypass limitations of naturally-derived materials (e.g. transfer of pathogens), nature provides inspiration to enhance the functionality of synthetic hydrogels through biomimetic approaches. The collagen triple helix is the basis for the supramolecular structure of collagen in the ECM, and its adaptation in collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) has provided hybridization mechanisms that can be employed in the formation and functionalization of synthetic hydrogels. The aim of this dissertation is to develop novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels that employ CMP triple helix assembly as a non-covalent yet target-specific tool to encode physical and chemical cues into the hydrogel with spatial control. We demonstrate that multi-arm PEG functionalized with CMPs form hydrogels supported by physical crosslinks mediated by CMP triple helix. Particle tracking microrheology shows that these physical crosslinks are sensitive to temperature as well as addition of exogenous CMPs that can disrupt crosslinks by competing for triple helix formation. This physical crosslink disruption enables the modulation of bulk hydrogel elasticity and the introduction of local stiffness gradients in PEG-CMP hydrogels. We also present photopolymerized PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels displaying CMPs that can be further conjugated to CMPs with bioactive moieties via triple helix hybridization. Encoding these hydrogels with cell-adhesive CMPs induces cell spreading and proliferation. We further demonstrate generation of gradients and

  16. Signalling pathways of an insulin-mimetic phosphoinositolglycan-peptide in muscle and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, A; Müller, G; Wied, S; Crecelius, A; Eckel, J

    1998-01-01

    A novel phosphoinositolglycan-peptide (PIG-P) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae potently mimicks insulin action on glucose transport and metabolism in rat muscle and adipose tissue. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cellular signalling pathways of this insulin-mimetic compound. Rapid onset and reversibility of PIG-P action on glucose transport were observed in isolated adipocytes with a half-time of transport stimulation of 6-8 min (insulin less than 5 min). Combined treatment with PIG-P and insulin indicated additive stimulation of glucose transport at submaximal concentrations and non-additive action of both agents at maximal doses. The tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was markedly increased in response to PIG-P in rat cardiomyocytes without any effect on the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit. PIG-P action in these cells was accompanied by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of several proteins with molecular masses of 15-30 kDa, a response not detected with insulin. Downstream signalling of IRS-1 was then analysed by monitoring IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in cardiomyocytes. A stable (2 and 15 min incubation with PIG-P) 7-fold stimulation corresponding to about 50% of insulin action could be detected. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and enhanced PI 3-kinase activity in response to PIG-P independent of the insulin receptor was also observed in isolated adipocytes. Involvement of PI 3-kinase in PIG-P action was subsequently confirmed by the dose-dependent inhibition of PIG-P-activated glucose transport in rat diaphragm and adipocytes by the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. These data suggest divergent upstream signalling by insulin and PIG-P involving phosphoproteins not affected by insulin. However, PIG-P and insulin action converge at the level of IRS-1 inducing insulin-independent PI 3-kinase-mediated signalling to

  17. Potentiation of tubuloglomerular feedback in the rat by thromboxane mimetic. Role of macula densa.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, W J; Wilcox, C S

    1992-01-01

    Because endogenous thromboxane A2 (TXA2) potentiates the tubuloglomerular feedback response (TGF), we studied the mechanism of action of TXA2 by using a stable TXA2/prostaglandin (PG) H2 mimetic, U-46,619. Intravenous infusion of U-46,619 at 100 ng.kg-1.min-1 reduced the GFR and the single-nephron (SN)GFR measured from the distal tubule (macula densa function intact), whereas the SNGFR measured from the proximal tubule (macula densa function interrupted) was not changed consistently. 10-100-fold higher rates of infusion of U-46,619 were required to raise blood pressure or femoral vascular resistance. The regulation of glomerular capillary pressure (PGC) by TGF was assessed in anesthetized rats from changes in proximal stop flow pressure (PSF) and/or SNGFR during perfusion of the loop of Henle (LH) with artificial tubular fluid (ATF). Orthograde loop perfusion and retrograde perfusion of U-46,619 into the macula densa segment reduced PSF. Responses to luminal U-46,619 were blunted by a TXA2-PGH2 receptor antagonist. Orthograde loop perfusions with luminal U-46,619 increased net Cl absorption, whereas coperfusion with furosemide (10(-4) M) blunted the response to U-46,619 by 68%. These data indicated that the luminal U-46,619 might increase the signal for TGF activation by increasing Cl reabsorption in macula densa cells. However, since 80 +/- 4% of [3H]U-46,619 perfused via the LH was reabsorbed peritubular capillaries (PTC) were perfused with U-46,619 to test additional extra-luminal actions. PTC perfusion with U-46,619 again increased TGF by reducing PSF selectively only while macula densa function was intact during perfusion of the LH with ATF. Conclusions: (a) TGF is potentiated by U-46,619 given systematically, via the lumen of the LH by orthograde or retrograde perfusions or via the PTC; (b) at the lower doses tested, reduction of PGC and SNGFR by U-46,619 depends on tubular fluid delivery and reabsorption by the macula densa; (c) potentiation of TGF by U-46

  18. Mechanisms of Neuroblastoma Cell Growth Inhibition by CARP-1 Functional Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Cheriyan, Vino T.; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Frank, John; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroblastomas (NBs) are a clinically heterogeneous group of extra cranial pediatric tumors. Patients with high-risk, metastatic NBs have a long-term survival rate of below 40%, and are often resistant to current therapeutic modalities. Due to toxic side effects associated with radiation and chemotherapies, development of new agents is warranted to overcome resistance and effectively treat this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are an emerging class of small molecule compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated NB inhibitory potential of CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited NB cell growth, in vitro, independent of their p53 and MYCN status. CFM-4 and -5 induced apoptosis in NB cells in part by activating pro-apoptotic stress-activated kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, stimulating CARP-1 expression and cleavage of PARP1, while promoting loss of the oncogenes C and N-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of NB cells with CFM-4 or -5 also resulted in loss of Inhibitory κB (IκB) α and β proteins. Micro-RNA profiling revealed upregulation of XIAP-targeting miR513a-3p in CFM-4-treated NB, mesothelioma, and breast cancer cells. Moreover, exposure of NB and breast cancer cells to CFM-4 or -5 resulted in diminished expression of anti-apoptotic XIAP1, cIAP1, and Survivin proteins. Expression of anti-miR513a-5p or miR513a-5p mimic, however, interfered with or enhanced, respectively, the breast cancer cell growth inhibition by CFM-4. CFMs also impacted biological properties of the NB cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Our studies indicate anti-NB properties of CFM-4 and 5, and suggest that these CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-NB agents. PMID:25033461

  19. BST-2 Expression Modulates Small CD4 Mimetic Sensitization of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jonathan; Prévost, Jérémie; von Bredow, Benjamin; Ding, Shilei; Brassard, Nathalie; Medjahed, Halima; Coutu, Mathieu; Melillo, Bruno; Bibollet-Ruche, Frédéric; Hahn, Beatrice H; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Smith, Amos B; Sodroski, Joseph; Sauter, Daniel; Kirchhoff, Frank; Gee, Katrina; Neil, Stuart J; Evans, David T; Finzi, Andrés

    2017-03-22

    Antibodies recognizing conserved CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 Env and able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) have been shown to be present in sera from most HIV-1-infected individuals. These antibodies preferentially recognize Env in its CD4-bound conformation. CD4 downregulation by Nef and Vpu dramatically reduces exposure of CD4i HIV-1 Env epitopes and therefore reduce the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. Importantly, this mechanism of immune evasion can be circumvented with small-molecule CD4-mimetics (CD4mc) which are able to transition Env into the CD4-bound conformation and sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC mediated by HIV+ sera. However, HIV-1 developed additional mechanisms to avoid ADCC including Vpu-mediated BST-2 antagonism, which decreases the overall amount of Env present at the cell surface. Accordingly, BST-2 up-regulation in response to IFN-α was shown to increase the susceptibility of HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC despite the activity of Vpu. Here we show that BST-2 upregulation by IFN-β and IL-27 also increases the surface expression of Env and thus boosts the ability of CD4mc to sensitize HIV-1-infected cells to ADCC by sera from HIV-1-infected individuals.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 evolved sophisticated strategies to conceal Env epitopes from ADCC-mediating antibodies present in HIV+ sera. Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation was shown to decrease ADCC responses by limiting the amount of Env present at the cell surface. This effect of Vpu was shown to be attenuated by IFN-α treatment. Here we show that in addition to IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-27 also affect Vpu-mediated BST-2 downregulation and greatly enhance ADCC responses against HIV-1-infected cells in the presence of CD4mc. These findings may inform strategies aimed at HIV prevention and eradication.

  20. Combinational Spinal GAD65 Gene Delivery and Systemic GABA-Mimetic Treatment for Modulation of Spasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kakinohana, Osamu; Hefferan, Michael P.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Nejime, Tetsuya; Marsala, Silvia; Juhas, Stefan; Juhasova, Jana; Motlik, Jan; Kucharova, Karolina; Strnadel, Jan; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Lazar, Peter; Galik, Jan; Vinay, Laurent; Marsala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of GABA-mediated pre-synaptic inhibition after spinal injury plays a key role in the progressive increase in spinal reflexes and the appearance of spasticity. Clinical studies show that the use of baclofen (GABAB receptor agonist), while effective in modulating spasticity is associated with major side effects such as general sedation and progressive tolerance development. The goal of the present study was to assess if a combined therapy composed of spinal segment-specific upregulation of GAD65 (glutamate decarboxylase) gene once combined with systemic treatment with tiagabine (GABA uptake inhibitor) will lead to an antispasticity effect and whether such an effect will only be present in GAD65 gene over-expressing spinal segments. Methods/Principal Findings Adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to transient spinal ischemia (10 min) to induce muscle spasticity. Animals then received lumbar injection of HIV1-CMV-GAD65 lentivirus (LVs) targeting ventral α-motoneuronal pools. At 2–3 weeks after lentivirus delivery animals were treated systemically with tiagabine (4, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg or vehicle) and the degree of spasticity response measured. In a separate experiment the expression of GAD65 gene after spinal parenchymal delivery of GAD65-lentivirus in naive minipigs was studied. Spastic SD rats receiving spinal injections of the GAD65 gene and treated with systemic tiagabine showed potent and tiagabine-dose-dependent alleviation of spasticity. Neither treatment alone (i.e., GAD65-LVs injection only or tiagabine treatment only) had any significant antispasticity effect nor had any detectable side effect. Measured antispasticity effect correlated with increase in spinal parenchymal GABA synthesis and was restricted to spinal segments overexpressing GAD65 gene. Conclusions/Significance These data show that treatment with orally bioavailable GABA-mimetic drugs if combined with spinal-segment-specific GAD65 gene overexpression can represent a novel

  1. Thioredoxin-Mimetic-Peptides Protect Cognitive Function after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    PubMed Central

    Baratz-Goldstein, Renana; Deselms, Hanna; Heim, Leore Raphael; Khomski, Lena; Hoffer, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is recognized as a common injury among children, sportsmen, and elderly population. mTBI lacks visible objective structural brain damage but patients frequently suffer from long-lasting cognitive, behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with biochemical and cellular changes. Currently there is no effective treatment for patients with mTBI. The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin pathway (TrxR/Trx1) has both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. If the system is compromised, Trx1 remains oxidized and triggers cell death via an ASK1-Trx1 signal transduction mechanism. We previously showed tri and tetra peptides which were derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site, called thioredoxin mimetic (TXM) peptides, reversed inflammatory and oxidative stress damage mimicking Trx1 activity. Here, TXM-peptides were examined for protecting cognitive function following weight drop closed-head injury in a mouse model of mTBI. TXM-CB3 (AcCys-Pro-CysNH2), TXM-CB13 (DY-70; AcCys-Met-Lys-CysNH2) or AD4 (ACysNH2) were administered at 50 mg/kg, 60 min after injury and cognitive performance was monitored by the novel-object-recognition and Y-maze tests. Behavioral deficits subsequent to mTBI injury were reversed by a single dose of TXM-CB3, TXM-CB13 and, to a lesser extent, by AD4. TXM-CB13 similar to TXM-CB3 and AD4 reversed oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinases, p38MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, (JNK) in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We conclude that significantly improved cognitive behavior post mTBI by the TXM-peptides could result from anti-apoptotic, and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Future preclinical studies are required to establish the TXM-peptides as potential therapeutic drugs for brain injuries. PMID:27285176

  2. Bio-Mimetics of Disaster Anticipation—Learning Experience and Key-Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Starting from 1700 B.C. in the old world and up to recent times in China there is evidence of earthquake prediction based on unusual metrological phenomena and animal behavior. The review tries to explore the credibility and to pin down the nature of geophysical phenomena involved. It appears that the concept of ancient Greek philosophers in that a dry gas, pneuma is correlated with earthquakes, is relevant. It is not the cause of earthquakes, as originally thought, but may be an accompanying phenomenon and occasional precursor. This would explain unusual animal behavior as well as thermal anomalies detected from satellites. Abstract Anomalies in animal behavior and meteorological phenomena before major earthquakes have been reported throughout history. Bio-mimetics or bionics aims at learning disaster anticipation from animals. Since modern science is reluctant to address this problem an effort has been made to track down the knowledge available to ancient natural philosophers. Starting with an archaeologically documented human sacrifice around 1700 B.C. during the Minoan civilization immediately before a large earthquake, which killed the participants, earthquake prediction knowledge throughout antiquity is evaluated. Major practical experience with this phenomenon has been gained from a Chinese earthquake prediction initiative nearly half a century ago. Some quakes, like that of Haicheng, were recognized in advance. However, the destructive Tangshan earthquake was not predicted, which was interpreted as an inherent failure of prediction based on animal phenomena. This is contradicted on the basis of reliable Chinese documentation provided by the responsible earthquake study commission. The Tangshan earthquake was preceded by more than 2,000 reported animal anomalies, some of which were of very dramatic nature. They are discussed here. Any physical phenomenon, which may cause animal unrest, must involve energy turnover before the main earthquake

  3. Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp mimetics and soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor as therapeutic modalities for concanavalin A induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, R; Shirin, H; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Kenet, G; Aeed, H; Matas, Z; Zaidel, L; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown that synthetic non-peptidic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp, a major cell adhesive ligand of extracellular matrix, prevented an increase in serum aminotransferase activity, as a manifestation of concanavalin A induced liver damage in mice. This study examined the effects of an Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic on liver histology and cytokine release in response to concanavalin A administration, and the efficacy of soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in preventing hepatitis in this model of liver injury. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with either the Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic SF-6,5 or recombinant soluble receptor of TNF alpha before their inoculation with 10 mg/kg concanavalin A. Liver enzymes, histology, and the serum values of TNF alpha and interleukin (IL)6 were examined. RESULTS: The histopathological damage in the liver, and the concanavalin A induced release of TNF alpha and IL6 were significantly inhibited by the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic (p < 0.001). Liver injury, manifested by the increase in serum aminotransferase and cytokines, as well as by histological manifestations of hepatic damage, was effectively prevented by pretreatment of the mice with the soluble TNF receptor (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy of a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic and soluble TNF receptor in the prevention of immune mediated liver damage in mice. Images PMID:9155591

  4. Effect of fat level on the perception of five flavor chemicals in ice cream with or without fat mimetics by using a descriptive test.

    PubMed

    Liou, B K; Grün, I U

    2007-10-01

    Fat mimetics are commonly used in the manufacture of low-fat and fat-free ice creams. However, the use of fat mimetics affects flavor and texture characteristics of ice cream, which results in decreased overall acceptability by consumers. The initial objective of this study was to investigate the release behavior of 5 strawberry flavor compounds in ice creams with Simplesse((R)), Litesse((R)), and Litesse((R))/Simplesse((R)) mixes using descriptive analysis. Fat mimetics and flavor formulation significantly influenced the perception of Furaneoltrade mark (cooked sugar flavor), alpha-ionone (violet flavor), and gamma-undecalactone (peach flavor), but there was no interaction between ice cream type and flavor formulation for the 3 flavors. Furaneol and ethyl-3-methyl-3-phenylglycidate (candy flavor) were perceived more strongly in full-fat ice cream, while cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy flavor), alpha-ionone, and gamma-undecalactone were perceived more strongly in low-fat ice cream. Ice creams with Simplesse and full-fat ice cream had similar sensory characteristics, while ice creams with Litesse were similar to low-fat ice creams in flavor characteristics, and ice creams with Litesse/Simplesse mixes were closer in flavor profile to low-fat ice cream but had similar texture properties to those of full-fat ice cream. Simplesse was found to be a better fat mimetic for duplicating the flavor profiles and mouthfeel of full-fat ice cream.

  5. Davalintide (AC2307), a Novel Amylin Mimetic Peptide: Enhanced Pharmacological Properties over Native Amylin to Reduce Food Intake and Body Weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: These studies describe the in vivo metabolic actions of the novel amylin mimetic peptide davalintide (AC2307) in rodents, and compare these effects to those of the native peptide. Research Design and Methods: The anti-obesity effects of davalintide were examined following intraperitoneal ...

  6. Novel therapeutics for type 2 diabetes: incretin hormone mimetics (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Verspohl, E J

    2009-10-01

    Known treatments of type 2 diabetes mellitus have limitations such as weight gain, and hypoglycaemias. A new perspective is the use of incretin hormones and incretin enhancers. Incretins are defined as being responsible for the higher insulin release after an oral glucose load compared to an intravenous glucose load. The delicate balance of glucose homeostasis, in which incretin hormones are involved, is disturbed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incretin GLP-1 helps to maintain glucose homeostasis through stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon release in a glucose-dependent manner. This is associated with reductions in body weight, and no risk of hypoglycaemias. When classical oral agents have failed to maintain adequate glycaemic control, incretin mimetics may be of particular value for obese patients and those who have little control over meal sizes. Exenatide was marketed as a GLP-1 analogue and longer acting incretin mimetics such as liraglutide, albiglutide and others have the same pharmacological profile. In addition to incretin mimetics incretin enhancers which inhibit/delay degradation of incretins were developed: so-called DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin are approved in Europe. Their differences from incretin mimetics include: oral bioavailability, less side effects with overdose, no direct CNS effects (nausea and vomiting) and no effect on weight. In rodent models of diabetes, but not yet in humans, GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors increase islet mass and preserve beta-cell function. Incretin mimetics and enhancers expand type 2 diabetes treatment, are still not first line therapy and it is discussed if they are to be prophylactically used.

  7. Smac mimetic induces cell death in a large proportion of primary acute myeloid leukemia samples, which correlates with defined molecular markers

    PubMed Central

    Lueck, Sonja C.; Russ, Annika C.; Botzenhardt, Ursula; Schlenk, Richard F.; Zobel, Kerry; Deshayes, Kurt; Vucic, Domagoj; Döhner, Hartmut; Döhner, Konstanze

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is deregulated in most, if not all, cancers, including hematological malignancies. Smac mimetics that antagonize Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins have so far largely been investigated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines; however, little is yet known on the therapeutic potential of Smac mimetics in primary AML samples. In this study, we therefore investigated the antileukemic activity of the Smac mimetic BV6 in diagnostic samples of 67 adult AML patients and correlated the response to clinical, cytogenetic and molecular markers and gene expression profiles. Treatment with cytarabine (ara-C) was used as a standard chemotherapeutic agent. Interestingly, about half (51%) of primary AML samples are sensitive to BV6 and 21% intermediate responsive, while 28% are resistant. Notably, 69% of ara-C-resistant samples show a good to fair response to BV6. Furthermore, combination treatment with ara-C and BV6 exerts additive effects in most samples. Whole-genome gene expression profiling identifies cell death, TNFR1 and NF-κB signaling among the top pathways that are activated by BV6 in BV6-sensitive, but not in BV6-resistant cases. Furthermore, sensitivity of primary AML blasts to BV6 correlates with significantly elevated expression levels of TNF and lower levels of XIAP in diagnostic samples, as well as with NPM1 mutation. In a large set of primary AML samples, these data provide novel insights into factors regulating Smac mimetic response in AML and have important implications for the development of Smac mimetic-based therapies and related diagnostics in AML. PMID:27385100

  8. Conformational assembly and biological properties of collagen mimetic peptides and their thermally responsive polymer conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Ohm Divyam

    2011-12-01

    Collagens are one of the most abundant proteins found in body tissues and organs, endowing structural integrity, mechanical strength, and multiple biological functions. Destabilized collagen inside human body leads to various degenerative diseases (ex. osteoarthritis) and ageing. This has continued to motivate the design of synthetic peptides and bio-synthetic polypeptides to closely mimic the native collagens in terms of triple helix structure and stability, potential for higher order assembly, and biological properties. However, the widespread application of de novo collagens has been limited in part by the need for hydroxylated proline in the formation of stable triple helical structures. To address this continued need, a hydroxyproline-free, thermally stable collagen-mimetic peptide (CLP-Cys) was rationally designed via the incorporation of electrostatically stabilized amino acid triplets. CLP-Cys was synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis. The formation and stability of the triple helical structure were indicated via circular dichroism (CD) experiments and confirmed via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. CLP-Cys also self-assembled into nano-rods and micro-fibrils, as evidenced via a combination of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Given the high thermal stability and its propensity for higher-order assembly, CLP-Cys was further functionalized at both the ends with a thermally responsive polymer, poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate), (PDEGMEMA) to synthesize a biohybrid triblock copolymer. The CD results indicated that the triple helical form is retained, the thermal unfolding is sustained and helix to coil transition is reversible in the triblock hybrid context. The LCST of PDEGMEMA homopolymer (26 °C) is increased (to 35 °C) upon conjugation to the hydrophilic collagen peptide domain. Further, a combination of static light scattering, Cryo-SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy elucidated that the

  9. Hierarchical Nacre Mimetics with Synergistic Mechanical Properties by Control of Molecular Interactions in Self-Healing Polymers.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baolei; Jasinski, Nils; Benitez, Alejandro; Noack, Manuel; Park, Daesung; Goldmann, Anja S; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Walther, Andreas

    2015-07-20

    Designing the reversible interactions of biopolymers remains a grand challenge for an integral mimicry of mechanically superior biological composites. Yet, they are the key to synergistic combinations of stiffness and toughness by providing sacrificial bonds with hidden length scales. To address this challenge, dynamic polymers were designed with low glass-transition temperature T(g) and bonded by quadruple hydrogen-bonding motifs, and subsequently assembled with high-aspect-ratio synthetic nanoclays to generate nacre-mimetic films. The high dynamics and self-healing of the polymers render transparent films with a near-perfectly aligned structure. Varying the polymer composition allows molecular control over the mechanical properties up to very stiff and very strong films (E≈45 GPa, σ(UTS)≈270 MPa). Stable crack propagation and multiple toughening mechanisms occur in situations of balanced dynamics, enabling synergistic combinations of stiffness and toughness. Excellent gas barrier properties complement the multifunctional property profile.

  10. Preparation of Co3O4/crumpled graphene microsphere as peroxidase mimetic for colorimetric assay of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Fan, Sisi; Zhao, Minggang; Ding, Longjiang; Li, Hui; Chen, Shougang

    2017-03-15

    The well-dispersed Co3O4 nanoparticles-decorated crumpled graphene microsphere (CGM) was successfully prepared by aerosol-assisted frying self-assembly and annealing process. It is found that the obtained Co3O4/CGM nanohybrid possessed enhanced intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and could catalytically oxidize 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine by H2O2 to produce a typical blue product. But the presence of ascorbic acid could induce the reduction of oxTMB to TMB, resulting in a significant blue color fading. Therefore, a simple, sensitive and selective colorimetric method to detect ascorbic acid was established with a good linear relationship (30-140μM) and a low detection limit of 0.19μM. Meanwhile, the selectivity, stability and repeatability were acceptable. It is also a facile route to fabricate nanoparticles/CGM as high-performance enzyme mimetic for colorimetric biosensing.

  11. TREN (Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine): an effective scaffold for the assembly of triple helical collagen mimetic structures.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Juliann; De Capua, Antonia; Locardi, Elsa; Goodman, Murray

    2002-11-27

    A new scaffold, TREN-(suc-OH)(3) where TREN is tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and suc is the succinic acid spacers, was incorporated to assemble triple helices composed of Gly-Nleu-Pro sequences (Nleu denotes N-isobutylglycine). Extensive biophysical studies which include denaturation studies, CD and NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling demonstrated that TREN-[suc-(Gly-Nleu-Pro)(n)-NH(2)](3) (n = 5 and 6) form stable triple helical structures in solution. A comparative analysis of TREN-assembled and KTA-assembled collagen mimetics (KTA denotes Kemp triacid, 1,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) indicates that the flexibility of the TREN scaffold is superior to the KTA scaffold in inducing triple helicity. This effect most likely arises from the flexibility of the TREN scaffold which allows the three peptide chains to adjust their register for a tighter triple helical packing.

  12. Isotropic solutions of phospholipid bicelles: a new membrane mimetic for high-resolution NMR studies of polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Vold, R R; Prosser, R S; Deese, A J

    1997-04-01

    In order to illustrate the utility of phospholipid bicelles [Sanders, C.R. and Schwonek, J.P. (1992) Biochemistry, 31, 8898-8905] as a membrane mimetic for high-resolution NMR studies, we have recorded two-dimensional 1H NMR spectra of the tetradecameric peptide mastoparan Vespula lewisii in an isotropic aqueous solution of dimyristoyl and dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine. Mastoparan is largely unstructured in water, but assumes a well-defined helical conformation in association with the bilayers. A pronounced periodicity of the sequential NH chemical shifts provides strong evidence that the helix axis of this short peptide is parallel, rather than perpendicular, to the bilayer plane. The bicellar solutions still require in-depth morphological characterization, but they appear to be ideal media for NMR determination of the mode of binding and the structure of membrane-associated peptides and proteins.

  13. A novel insulin mimetic vanadium-flavonol complex: synthesis, characterization and in vivo evaluation in STZ-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Subramanian Iyyam; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai; Kandaswamy, Muthusamy

    2013-05-01

    Since 1985, when Heyliger et al., first demonstrated a serendipitous discovery that oral administration of 0.8 mg/ml of sodium orthovanadate in drinking water to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats resulted in normoglycemia, numerous extensive studies have been pursued on the anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic actions of vanadium. The acceptance of vanadium compounds as promising therapeutic antidiabetic agents has been slowed due to the concern for chronic toxicity associated with vanadium accumulation. In order to circumvent the toxic effects of vanadium, we have taken up a combinational approach wherein a novel vanadium-flavonol complex was synthesized, characterized and its toxic as well as insulin mimetic potential was evaluated in STZ-induced experimental diabetes in rats. The results indicate that the complex is non-toxic and possess anti-diabetic activity.

  14. A primal-dual mimetic finite element scheme for the rotating shallow water equations on polygonal spherical meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuburn, John; Cotter, Colin J.

    2015-06-01

    A new numerical method is presented for solving the shallow water equations on a rotating sphere using quasi-uniform polygonal meshes. The method uses special families of finite element function spaces to mimic key mathematical properties of the continuous equations and thereby capture several desirable physical properties related to balance and conservation. The method relies on two novel features. The first is the use of compound finite elements to provide suitable finite element spaces on general polygonal meshes. The second is the use of dual finite element spaces on the dual of the original mesh, along with suitably defined discrete Hodge star operators to map between the primal and dual meshes, enabling the use of a finite volume scheme on the dual mesh to compute potential vorticity fluxes. The resulting method has the same mimetic properties as a finite volume method presented previously, but is more accurate on a number of standard test cases.

  15. TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) WITH THE GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 MIMETIC EXENATIDE.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James G; Langan, Jennifer N; Gilor, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0.13 mg/kg subcutaneously once per month. Following treatment with exenatide, the persistent glycosuria resolved, the animal maintained normal blood glucose concentrations, and had lower serum fructosamine concentrations compared to pretreatment levels. Based on these findings, extended-release exenatide could be considered as a therapeutic option in nonhuman primates with diabetes mellitus that do not respond to oral antihyperglycemics and in which daily subcutaneous insulin is not feasible.

  16. Thrombospondin-1 Mimetic Agonist Peptides Induce Selective Death in Tumor Cells: Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies.

    PubMed

    Denèfle, Thomas; Boullet, Héloise; Herbi, Linda; Newton, Clara; Martinez-Torres, Ana-Carolina; Guez, Alexandre; Pramil, Elodie; Quiney, Claire; Pourcelot, Marilyne; Levasseur, Mikail D; Lardé, Eva; Moumné, Roba; Ogi, François-Xavier; Grondin, Pascal; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Lequin, Olivier; Susin, Santos A; Karoyan, Philippe

    2016-09-22

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a glycoprotein considered as a key actor within the tumor microenvironment. Its binding to CD47, a cell surface receptor, triggers programmed cell death. Previous studies allowed the identification of 4N1K decapeptide derived from the TSP-1/CD47 binding epitope. Here, we demonstrate that this peptide is able to induce selective apoptosis of various cancer cell lines while sparing normal cells. A structure-activity relationship study led to the design of the first serum stable TSP-1 mimetic agonist peptide able to trigger selective programmed cell death (PCD) of at least lung, breast, and colorectal cancer cells. Altogether, these results will be of valuable interest for further investigation in the design of potent CD47 agonist peptides, opening new perspectives for the development of original anticancer therapies.

  17. Molecular design of glycoprotein mimetics: glycoblotting by engineered proteins with an oxylamino-functionalized amino acid residue.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Naoki; Oiwa, Kei; Hohsaka, Takahiro; Sadamoto, Reiko; Niikura, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Norio; Takimoto, Akio; Kondo, Hirosato; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2005-11-18

    The general and efficient method for the site-directed glycosylation of proteins is a key step in order to understand the biological importance of the carbohydrate chains of proteins and to control functional roles of the engineered glycoproteins in terms of the development of improved glycoprotein therapeutics. We have developed a novel method for site-directed glycosylation of proteins based on chemoselective blotting of common reducing sugars by genetically encoded proteins. The oxylamino-functionalized L-homoserine residues, 2-amino-4-O-(N-methylaminooxy) butanoic acid and 2-amino-4-aminooxy butanoic acid, were efficiently incorporated into proteins by using the four-base codon/anticodon pair strategy in Escherichia coli in vitro translation. Direct and chemoselective coupling between unmodified simple sugars and N-methylaminooxy group displayed on the engineered streptavidin allowed for the combinatorial synthesis of novel glycoprotein mimetics.

  18. Dissection of LPS-induced signaling pathways in murine macrophages using LPS analogs, LPS mimetics, and agents unrelated to LPS.

    PubMed

    Vogel, S N; Manthey, C L; Perera, P Y; Li, Z Y; Henricson, B E

    1995-01-01

    The model in Figure 3 summarizes the data presented above. Using the induction of the select panel of LPS-inducible genes and the phosphorylation on tyrosine of specific MAP kinases, we have been able to dissociate three signaling pathways shared by LPS and its analogs and mimetics: a pathway that leads to tyrosine phosphorylation, one that leads to the induction of a gene subset including TNF alpha, TNFR-2, and IL-1 beta, and a pathway that results in induction of IP-10, D3, and D8 gene expression. It is still unclear if macrophage activation by non-LPS products occurs entirely through distinct yet redundant pathways or if other signaling receptors ultimately tie into the same intermediate pathways. This approach may identify particular stimuli as tools to induce specific pathways leading to select gene subsets and/or tyrosine kinase activation and, perhaps, identify a pathway deficient in C3H/HeJ macrophages.

  19. Crosstalk between diabetes and brain: glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics as a promising therapy against neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A I; Candeias, E; Correia, S C; Santos, R X; Carvalho, C; Cardoso, S; Plácido, A; Santos, M S; Oliveira, C R; Moreira, P I

    2013-04-01

    According to World Health Organization estimates, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an epidemic (particularly in under development countries) and a socio-economic challenge. This is even more relevant since increasing evidence points T2D as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), supporting the hypothesis that AD is a "type 3 diabetes" or "brain insulin resistant state". Despite the limited knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and the etiological complexity of both pathologies, evidence suggests that neurodegeneration/death underlying cognitive dysfunction (and ultimately dementia) upon long-term T2D may arise from a complex interplay between T2D and brain aging. Additionally, decreased brain insulin levels/signaling and glucose metabolism in both pathologies further suggests that an effective treatment strategy for one disorder may be also beneficial in the other. In this regard, one such promising strategy is a novel successful anti-T2D class of drugs, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics (e.g. exendin-4 or liraglutide), whose potential neuroprotective effects have been increasingly shown in the last years. In fact, several studies showed that, besides improving peripheral (and probably brain) insulin signaling, GLP-1 analogs minimize cell loss and possibly rescue cognitive decline in models of AD, Parkinson's (PD) or Huntington's disease. Interestingly, exendin-4 is undergoing clinical trials to test its potential as an anti-PD therapy. Herewith, we aim to integrate the available data on the metabolic and neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 mimetics in the central nervous system (CNS) with the complex crosstalk between T2D-AD, as well as their potential therapeutic value against T2D-associated cognitive dysfunction.

  20. TDP6, a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-based trkB peptide mimetic, promotes oligodendrocyte myelination.

    PubMed

    Wong, Agnes W; Giuffrida, Lauren; Wood, Rhiannon; Peckham, Haley; Gonsalvez, David; Murray, Simon S; Hughes, Richard A; Xiao, Junhua

    2014-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in the development and maintenance of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). BDNF exerts its biological effects via tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). We have recently identified that BDNF promotes CNS myelination via oligodendroglial TrkB receptors. In order to selectively target TrkB to promote CNS myelination, we have used a putative TrkB agonist, a small multicyclic peptide (tricyclic dimeric peptide 6, TDP6) previously described by us that structurally mimics a region of BDNF that binds TrkB. We confirmed that TDP6 acts as a TrkB agonist as it provoked autophosphorylation of TrkB and its downstream signalling effector extracellular related-kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in primary oligodendrocytes. Using an in vitro myelination assay, we show that TDP6 significantly promotes myelination by oligodendrocytes in vitro, as evidenced by enhanced myelin protein expression and an increased number of myelinated axonal segments. In contrast, a second, structurally distinct BDNF mimetic (cyclo-dPAKKR) that targets p75NTR had no effect upon oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro, despite the fact that cyclo-dPAKKR is a very effective promoter of peripheral (Schwann cell) myelination. The selectivity of TDP6 was further verified by using TrkB-deficient oligodendrocytes, in which TDP6 failed to promote myelination, indicating that the pro-myelinating effect of TDP6 is oligodendroglial TrkB-dependent. Together, our results demonstrate that TDP6 is a novel BDNF mimetic that promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro via targeting TrkB.

  1. A Phase I Study of the SMAC-Mimetic Birinapant in Adults with Refractory Solid Tumors or Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Amaravadi, Ravi K; Schilder, Russell J; Martin, Lainie P; Levin, Myron; Graham, Martin A; Weng, David E; Adjei, Alex A

    2015-11-01

    The inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family of antiapoptotic proteins has been identified as a target for small molecule inhibitors in cancer. Second mitochondrial-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) efficiently and naturally antagonizes IAPs, and preclinical studies have determined that SMAC mimetics have potent anticancer properties. Here, we report a first-in-human trial designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) of birinapant, a novel SMAC mimetic. Patients with advanced solid tumors or lymphoma were enrolled in a 3+3 dose escalation design with birinapant administered intravenously from 0.18 to 63 mg/m(2) once weekly every 3 of 4 weeks. Fifty patients were enrolled to 12 dose cohorts. Birinapant 47 mg/m(2) was determined to be the MTD. At 63 mg/m(2), dose-limiting toxicities included headache, nausea, and vomiting. Two cases of Bell's palsy (grade 2) also occurred at 63 mg/m(2). Birinapant had a plasma half-life of 30 to 35 hours and accumulated in tumor tissue. Birinapant suppressed cIAP1 and increased apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor tissue. Prolonged stable disease was observed in 3 patients: non-small cell lung cancer (5 months), colorectal cancer (5 months), and liposarcoma (9 months). Two patients with colorectal cancer had radiographic evidence of tumor shrinkage. In conclusion, birinapant was well tolerated with an MTD of 47 mg/m(2) and exhibited favorable PK and PD properties. Several patients demonstrated stable disease and evidence of antitumor activity. These results support the ongoing clinical trials of birinapant in patients with cancer.

  2. Discovering the enzyme mimetic activity of metal-organic framework (MOF) for label-free and colorimetric sensing of biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhu, Yingjing; Binyam, Atsebeha; Liu, Misha; Wu, Yinan; Li, Fengting

    2016-12-15

    A label-free sensing strategy based on the enzyme-mimicking activity of MOF was demonstrated for colorimetric detection of biomolecules. Firstly obvious blue color was observed due to the high efficiency of peroxidase-like catalytic activity of Fe-MIL-88A (an ion-based MOF material) toward 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB). Then in the presence of target biomolecule and corresponding aptamer, the mimetic activity of Fe-MIL-88A can be strongly inhibited and used directly to realize the colorimetric detection. On the basis of the interesting findings, we designed a straightforward, label-free and sensitive colorimetric method for biomolecule detection by using the enzyme mimetic property of MOF coupling with molecular recognition element. Compared with the existed publications, our work breaks the routine way by setting up an inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer hybrid platform for colorimetric determination of biomolecules, expanding the targets scope from H2O2 or glucose to biomolecules. As a proof of concept, thrombin and thrombin aptamer was used as a model analyte. The limit of detection of 10nM can be achieved with naked eyes and ultrahigh selectivity of thrombin toward numerous interfering substances with 10-fold concentration was demonstrated significantly. Of note, the method was further applied for the detection of thrombin in human serum samples, showing the results in agreement with those values obtained in an immobilization buffer by the colorimetric method. This inorganic-organic MOF-aptamer sensing strategy may in principle be universally applicable for the detection of a range of environmental or biomedical molecules of interests.

  3. Therapy of prostate cancer using a novel cancer terminator virus and a small molecule BH-3 mimetic.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Siddik; Quinn, Bridget A; Shen, Xue-Ning; Dash, Rupesh; Das, Swadesh K; Emdad, Luni; Klibanov, Alexander L; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2015-05-10

    Despite recent advances, treatment options for advanced prostate cancer (CaP) remain limited. We are pioneering approaches to treat advanced CaP that employ conditionally replication-competent oncolytic adenoviruses that simultaneously produce a systemically active cancer-specific therapeutic cytokine, mda-7/IL-24, Cancer Terminator Viruses (CTV). A truncated version of the CCN1/CYR61 gene promoter, tCCN1-Prom, was more active than progression elevated gene-3 promoter (PEG-Prom) in regulating transformation-selective transgene expression in CaP and oncogene-transformed rat embryo cells. Accordingly, we developed a new CTV, Ad.tCCN1-CTV-m7, which displayed dose-dependent killing of CaP without harming normal prostate epithelial cells in vitro with significant anti-cancer activity in vivo in both nude mouse CaP xenograft and transgenic Hi-Myc mice (using ultrasound-targeted microbubble (MB)-destruction, UTMD, with decorated MBs). Resistance to mda-7/IL-24-induced cell death correlated with overexpression of Bcl-2 family proteins. Inhibiting Mcl-1 using an enhanced BH3 mimetic, BI-97D6, sensitized CaP cell lines to mda-7/IL-24-induced apoptosis. Combining BI-97D6 with Ads expressing mda-7/IL-24 promoted ER stress, decreased anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 expression and enhanced mda-7/IL-24 expression through mRNA stabilization selectively in CaP cells. In Hi-myc mice, the combination induced enhanced apoptosis and tumor growth suppression. These studies highlight therapeutic efficacy of combining a BH3 mimetic with a novel CTV, supporting potential clinical applications for treating advanced CaP.

  4. Functional disparities among BCL-2 members in tonsillar and leukemic B-cell subsets assessed by BH3-mimetic profiling

    PubMed Central

    Peperzak, Victor; Slinger, Erik; Ter Burg, Johanna; Eldering, Eric

    2017-01-01

    For successful treatment of malignant B-cells it is crucial to understand intrinsic survival requirements in relation to their normal progenitors. Long-lived humoral immunity as well as most B-cell malignancies, originate in the germinal center (GC). Murine GC B-cells depend on pro-survival protein MCL-1, but not BCL-XL. In contrast, naive and memory B-cells depend on BCL-2, but not BCL-XL or MCL-1. For human B-cell subsets, the functional relationships among BCL-2 members are unclear, and also if and how they shift after malignant transformation. We here dissect these aspects in human tonsil and primary leukemia (CLL) cells by single and combined treatment with novel, highly specific BH3-mimetics. We found that MCL-1 expression in GC B-cells is regulated post-translationally and its importance is highlighted by preferential binding to pro-apoptotic BIM. In contrast, BCL-XL is transcriptionally induced and binds solely to weak sensitizer BIK, potentially explaining why BCL-XL is not required for GC B-cell survival. Using novel BH3-mimetics, we found that naive and memory B-cells depend on BCL-2, GC cells predominantly on MCL-1, whereas plasma cells need both BCL-XL and MCL-1 for survival. CLL cells switch from highly sensitive for BCL-2 inhibition to resistant after CD40-stimulation. However, combined inhibition of BCL-2, plus BCL-XL or MCL-1 effectively kills these cells, thus exposing a weakness that may be therapeutically useful. These general principles offer important clues for designing treatment strategies for B-cell malignancies. PMID:27689871

  5. Inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression in glioblastomas and their in vitro and in vivo targeting by SMAC mimetic GDC-0152

    PubMed Central

    Tchoghandjian, A; Soubéran, A; Tabouret, E; Colin, C; Denicolaï, E; Jiguet-Jiglaire, C; El-Battari, A; Villard, C; Baeza-Kallee, N; Figarella-Branger, D

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most aggressive primary brain tumors in adult and remain a therapeutic challenge. Targeting key apoptosis regulators with the ultimate aim to restore apoptosis in tumor cells could be an interesting therapeutic strategy. The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are regulators of cell death and represent attractive targets, especially because they can be antagonized by SMAC mimetics. In this study, we first investigated the expression of cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP and ML-IAP in human GBM samples and in four different cell lines. We showed that all GBM samples and GBM cell lines expressed all these IAPs, although the expression of each IAP varied from one case to another. We then showed that high level of ML-IAP predicted worse progression-free survival and overall survival in both univariate and multivariate analyses in two independent cohorts of 58 and 43 primary human GBMs. We then used GDC-0152, a SMAC mimetic that antagonizes these IAPs and confirmed that GDC-0152 treatment in vitro decreased IAPs in all the cell lines studied. It affected cell line viability and triggered apoptosis, although the effect was higher in U87MG and GL261 than in GBM6 and GBM9 cell lines. In vivo, GDC-0152 effect on U87MG orthotopic xenografts was dose dependent; it postponed tumor formation and slowed down tumor growth, significantly improving survival of GBM-bearing mice. This study revealed for the first time that ML-IAP protein expression correlates with GBM patient survival and that its antagonist GDC-0152 improves outcome in xenografted mouse. PMID:27490930

  6. Bim-BH3 mimetic therapy is effective at suppressing inflammatory arthritis through the activation of myeloid cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Scatizzi, John C.; Hutcheson, Jack; Pope, Richard M.; Firestein, Gary S.; Koch, Alisa E.; Mavers, Melissa; Smason, Avraham; Agrawal, Hemant; Haines, G. Kenneth; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Perlman, Harris

    2010-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a destructive autoimmune disease characterized by an increased inflammation in the joint. Therapies which activate the apoptotic cascade may have potential as a future therapy for RA, however few therapeutics fit this category. Recently, therapies that mimic the action of Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain-only proteins such as Bim have shown success in preclinical studies of cancer but their potential in autoimmune disease is unknown. Methods Synovial tissue from RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients were analyzed for expression of Bim and CD68 using immunohistochemistry. Macrophages from mice lacking (Bim−/−) were examined for response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using flow cytometry, real time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblot analysis. Bim−/− mice were stimulated with thioglycollate or LPS and examined for macrophage activation and cytokine production. Experimental arthritis was induced using the K/BxN serum-transfer model. A mimetic peptide corresponding to the BH3 domain of Bim (TAT-BH3) was administered as a prophylactic and as a therapeutic. Edema of the ankles and histopathogical analysis of ankle sections were used to determine severity of arthritis, cellular composition, and apoptosis. Results The expression of Bim was reduced in RA synovial tissue as compared to controls, particularly in macrophages. Bim−/− macrophages displayed elevated expression of markers of inflammation and secreted more IL-1β following stimulation with LPS or thioglycollate. TAT-BH3 ameliorated arthritis development, reduced the number of myeloid cells in the joint, and enhanced apoptosis without inducing cytotoxicity. Conclusion These data demonstrate that BH3 mimetic therapy may have significant potential for RA treatment. PMID:20112357

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I modulates regulatory T cells in autoimmune LDLr-/-, ApoA-I-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Ashley J; Zabalawi, Manal; Owen, John S; Shah, Dharika; Grayson, Jason M; Major, Amy S; Bhat, Shaila; Gibbs, Dwayne P; Thomas, Michael J; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G

    2010-11-12

    The immune system is complex, with multiple layers of regulation that serve to prevent the production of self-antigens. One layer of regulation involves regulatory T cells (Tregs) that play an essential role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance. Patients with autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis have decreased levels of HDL, suggesting that apoA-I concentrations may be important in preventing autoimmunity and the loss of self-tolerance. In published studies, hypercholesterolemic mice lacking HDL apoA-I or LDLr(-/-), apoA-I(-/-) (DKO), exhibit characteristics of autoimmunity in response to an atherogenic diet. This phenotype is characterized by enlarged cholesterol-enriched lymph nodes (LNs), as well as increased T cell activation, proliferation, and the production of autoantibodies in plasma. In this study, we investigated whether treatment of mice with lipid-free apoA-I could attenuate the autoimmune phenotype. To do this, DKO mice were first fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.1% cholesterol, 10% fat for 6 weeks, after which treatment with apoA-I was begun. Subcutaneous injections of 500 μg of lipid-free apoA-I was administered every 48 h during the treatment phase. These and control mice were maintained for an additional 6 weeks on the diet. At the end of the 12-week study, DKO mice showed decreased numbers of LN immune cells, whereas Tregs were proportionately increased. Accompanying this increase in Tregs was a decrease in the percentage of effector/effector memory T cells. Furthermore, lipid accumulation in LN and skin was reduced. These results suggest that treatment with apoA-I reduces inflammation in DKO mice by augmenting the effectiveness of the LN Treg response.

  8. Metallosurfactant Ionogels in Imidazolium and Protic Ionic Liquids as Precursors To Synthesize Nanoceria as Catalase Mimetics for the Catalytic Decomposition of H2 O2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Qiao; Cao, Yixue; Hao, Haibin; Zhou, Junhan; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-12-05

    The gelation behavior of cationic surfactants with different counterions, Br(-) , [FeCl3 Br](-) , and [CeCl3 Br](-) , in imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) and protic ethylammonium nitrate was investigated. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements and freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy observations revealed the lamellar phases of metallosurfactant ionogels. The characteristics of imidazolium ILs, including the size and type, have effects on metallosurfactant ionogel properties, such as transformation temperatures, interlayer spacing, and mechanical strength. Cubic fluorite structured cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) were produced by using metallosurfactant ionogels as precursors. Cubic fluorite CeO2 exhibited good catalase mimetic activity toward H2 O2 to generate O2 , providing more multiple mimetic enzyme activities of CeO2 NPs for H2 O2 .

  9. Inhibition of CD4+ T lymphocyte binding to fibronectin and immune-cell accumulation in inflammatory sites by non-peptidic mimetics of Arg-Gly-Asp.

    PubMed Central

    Hershkoviz, R; Greenspoon, N; Mekori, Y A; Hadari, R; Alon, R; Kapustina, G; Lider, O

    1994-01-01

    The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell adhesion motif has been demonstrated in various studies to play a pivotal role in leucocyte and platelet interactions with plasma and extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins. The recognition of the RGD sequence is mediated by heterodimeric receptors designated integrins of the beta 1 subfamily, expressed on distinct cell types, including T lymphocytes. We have recently shown that flexible non-peptidic mimetics of RGD, in which the two ionic side groups were separated by a linear spacer of 11 atoms, bound specifically to the platelet integrin alpha 11b beta 3, and inhibited T cell-mediated immune responses. The present study was designed to (i) further characterize the structural requirements for RGD interactions with CD4+ T cells, and (ii) examine the mechanisms by which the RGD mimetics interfere with immune cell reactivity in vivo. We now report that freezing the conformational degrees of freedom in the spacer chain, which fixes the relative orientation of the guanidinium and carboxylate side groups in a favourable manner, results in a higher level of inhibition of T cell binding to immobilized fibronectin, an RGD-containing ECM glycoprotein. In vivo, treatment of mice with relatively low doses of the RGD mimetics, but not the RGD peptide, inhibited the elicitation of an adoptively transferred DTH reaction. This inhibition was achieved by direct impairment of the ability of antigen-primed lymph node cells to migrate and accumulate in inflammatory sites. Hence, we suggest that the design and production of non-peptidic mimetics of RGD offers a novel approach to study defined parameters related to the structure-function requirements of small adhesion epitopes. Furthermore, this approach could be used therapeutically to inhibit pathological processes which depend on RGD recognition. PMID:7905794

  10. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. {yields} N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. {yields} These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  11. The SMAC mimetic birinapant attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation in Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongxiang; Liao, Rui; He, Kun; Zhu, Xiwen; Li, Peizhi; Gong, Jianping

    2017-03-09

    It was demonstrated that second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic inhibites tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) degradation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. However, the effect of Smac mimetic in vivo is not clear. The present study was to investigate the role of Smac mimetic in LPS-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanism. An animal model of LPS-induced liver injury was established by intraperitoneally injecting mice with 10mg/kg LPS pretreatment with or without Smac mimetic birinapant (30mg/kg body weight). Birinapant significantly improved the survival rate of endotoxemic mice (P<0.05) and attenuated LPS-induced liver pathologic damage and inflammatory response. IL-1 and TNF-α levels in the serum were markedly decreased in birinapant pretreatment mice compared with control mice (P<0.05).The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) expression in liver resident macrophage (Kupffer cells, KCs) was significantly decreased in the Birinapant group compared to the Vehicle group (P<0.05). At the same time, total TRAF3 protein abundance in KCs rapidly declined after LPS stimulation in the Vehicle group. However, it remained constant in the Birinapant group. Moreover, K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 in KCs was markedly impressed in the birinapant group compared with the control group. At last, the JNK and p38 MAPK activation in KCs was significantly inhibited by birinapant pretreatment (P<0.05). These results suggested that birinapant attenuated liver injury and improved survival rates in endotoxemic mice by inhibited the expression of cIAP1, degradation of TRAF3 and aviation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  12. Distinct regulatory mechanisms of the human ferritin gene by hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bo-Wen; Miyazawa, Masaki; Tsuji, Yoshiaki

    2014-12-01

    Cobalt chloride has been used as a hypoxia mimetic because it stabilizes hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1-α) and activates gene transcription through a hypoxia responsive element (HRE). However, differences between hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride in gene regulation remain elusive. Expression of ferritin, the major iron storage protein, is regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels through DNA and RNA regulatory elements. Here we demonstrate that hypoxia and cobalt chloride regulate ferritin heavy chain (ferritin H) expression by two distinct mechanisms. Both hypoxia and cobalt chloride increased HIF1-α but a putative HRE in the human ferritin H gene was not activated. Instead, cobalt chloride but not hypoxia activated ferritin H transcription through an antioxidant responsive element (ARE), to which Nrf2 was recruited. Intriguingly, cobalt chloride downregulated ferritin H protein expression while it upregulated other ARE-regulated antioxidant genes in K562 cells. Further characterization demonstrated that cobalt chloride increased interaction between iron regulatory proteins (IRP1 and IRP2) and iron responsive element (IRE) in the 5'UTR of ferritin H mRNA, resulting in translational block of the accumulated ferritin H mRNA. In contrast, hypoxia had marginal effect on ferritin H transcription but increased its translation through decreased IRP1-IRE interaction. These results suggest that hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride employ distinct regulatory mechanisms through the interplay between DNA and mRNA elements at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  13. Co-targeting of Bcl-2 and mTOR pathway triggers synergistic apoptosis in BH3 mimetics resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Matteo; Mirabilii, Simone; Licchetta, Roberto; Bergamo, Paola; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Zeuner, Ann; Foà, Robin; Milella, Michele; McCubrey, James A.; Martelli, Alberto M.; Tafuri, Agostino

    2015-01-01

    Several chemo-resistance mechanisms including the Bcl-2 protein family overexpression and constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling have been documented in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), encouraging targeted approaches to circumvent this clinical problem. Here we analyzed the activity of the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 in ALL, exploring the synergistic effects with the mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 on ABT-737 resistant cells. We showed that a low Mcl-1/Bcl-2 plus Bcl-xL protein ratio determined ABT-737 responsiveness. ABT-737 exposure further decreased Mcl-1, inducing apoptosis on sensitive models and primary samples, while not affecting resistant cells. Co-inhibition of Bcl-2 and the mTOR pathway resulted cytotoxic on ABT-737 resistant models, by downregulating mTORC1 activity and Mcl-1 in a proteasome-independent manner. Although Mcl-1 seemed to be critical, ectopic modulation did not correlate with apoptosis changes. Importantly, dual targeting proved effective on ABT-737 resistant samples, showing additive/synergistic effects. Together, our results show the efficacy of BH3 mimetics as single agent in the majority of the ALL samples and demonstrate that resistance to ABT-737 mostly correlated with Mcl-1 overexpression. Co-targeting of the Bcl-2 protein family and mTOR pathway enhanced drug-induced cytotoxicity by suppressing Mcl-1, providing a novel therapeutic approach to overcome BH3 mimetics resistance in ALL. PMID:26392332

  14. SMAC mimetic (JP1201) sensitizes non-small cell lung cancers to multiple chemotherapy agents in an IAP dependent but TNFα independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Rachel M.; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill E.; Girard, Luc; Xie, Yang; Gazdar, Adi; Harran, Patrick; Wang, Lai; Brekken, Rolf A.; Wang, Xiaodong; Minna, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are key regulators of apoptosis and are inhibited by the second mitocondrial activator of caspases (SMAC). Previously, a small subset of TNFα-expressing non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) was found to be sensitive to SMAC mimetics alone. In this study we determined if a SMAC mimetic (JP1201) could sensitize non-responsive NSCLC cell lines to standard chemotherapy. We found that JP1201 sensitized NSCLCs to doxorubicin, erlotinib, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, and the combination of carboplatin with paclitaxel in a synergistic manner at clinically achievable drug concentrations. Sensitization did not occur with platinum alone. Furthermore, sensitization was specific for tumor compared to normal lung epithelial cells, increased in NSCLCs harvested after chemotherapy treatment, and did not induce TNFα secretion. Sensitization also was enhanced in vivo with increased tumor inhibition and increased survival of mice carrying xenografts. These effects were accompanied by caspase 3, 4, and 9 activation, indicating that both mitochondrial and ER stress-induced apoptotic pathways are activated by the combination of vinorelbine and JP1201. Chemotherapies that induce cell death through the mitochondrial pathway required only inhibition of XIAP for sensitization, while chemotherapies that induce cell death through multiple apoptotic pathways required inhibition of cIAP1, cIAP2, and XIAP. Therefore, the data suggest that IAP-targeted therapy using a SMAC mimetic provides a new therapeutic strategy for synergistic sensitization of NSCLCs to standard chemotherapy agents, which appears to occur independently of TNFα secretion. PMID:22049529

  15. EPOR-Based Purification and Analysis of Erythropoietin Mimetic Peptides from Human Urine by Cys-Specific Cleavage and LC/MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Matthias; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-09-01

    The development of a new class of erythropoietin mimetic agents (EMA) for treating anemic conditions has been initiated with the discovery of oligopeptides capable of dimerizing the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and thus stimulating erythropoiesis. The most promising amino acid sequences have been mounted on various different polymeric structures or carrier molecules to obtain highly active EPO-like drugs exhibiting beneficial and desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. Concomitant with creating new therapeutic options, erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP)-based drug candidates represent means to artificially enhance endurance performance and necessitate coverage by sports drug testing methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a strategy for the comprehensive detection of EMPs in doping controls, which can be used complementary to existing protocols. Three model EMPs were used to provide proof-of-concept data. Following EPO receptor-facilitated purification of target analytes from human urine, the common presence of the cysteine-flanked core structure of EMPs was exploited to generate diagnostic peptides with the aid of a nonenzymatic cleavage procedure. Sensitive detection was accomplished by targeted-SIM/data-dependent MS2 analysis. Method characterization was conducted for the EMP-based drug peginesatide concerning specificity, linearity, precision, recovery, stability, ion suppression/enhancement, and limit of detection (LOD, 0.25 ng/mL). Additionally, first data for the identification of the erythropoietin mimetic peptides EMP1 and BB68 were generated, demonstrating the multi-analyte testing capability of the presented approach.

  16. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    PubMed

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  17. Purification and characterization of insulin-mimetic inositol phosphoglycan-like molecules from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Pañeda, C.; Villar, A. V.; Alonso, A.; Goñi, F. M.; Varela, F.; Brodbeck, U.; León, Y.; Varela-Nieto, I.; Jones, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Signal transduction through the hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) leading to the release of the water-soluble inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) molecules has been demonstrated to be important for mediating some of the actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, GPI from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds has been purified and partially characterized on the basis of its chromatographic properties and its compositional analysis. RESULTS: The results indicate that it shows similarities to GPI previously isolated from other sources such as rat liver. IPG was generated from L. sativus seed GPI by hydrolysis with a GPI-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD). This IPG inhibited protein kinase A (PKA) in an in vitro assay, caused cell proliferation in explanted cochleovestibular ganglia (CVG), and decreased 8-Br-cAMP-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression in cultured hepatoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that L. sativus seed IPG possess insulin-mimetic activities. This may explain why L. sativus seeds have been used in some traditional medicines to ameliorate diabetic symptoms. PMID:11683370

  18. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for a mimetic radiation in Peruvian poison frogs supports a Müllerian mimicry hypothesis.

    PubMed Central

    Symula, R; Schulte, R; Summers, K

    2001-01-01

    Examples of Müllerian mimicry, in which resemblance between unpalatable species confers mutual benefit, are rare in vertebrates. Strong comparative evidence for mimicry is found when the colour and pattern of a single species closely resemble several different model species simultaneously in different geographical regions. Todemonstrate this, it is necessary to provide compelling evidence that the putative mimics do, in fact, form a monophyletic group. We present molecular phylogenetic evidence that the poison frog Dendrobates imitator mimics three different poison frogs in different geographical regions in Peru. DNA sequences from four different mitochondrial gene regions in putative members of a single species are analysed using parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods. The resulting hypotheses of phylogenetic relationships demonstrate that the different populations of D.imitator form a monophyletic group. To our knowledge, these results provide the first evidence for a Müllerian mimetic radiation in amphibians in which a single species mimics different sympatric species in different geographical regions. PMID:11747559

  19. Metabolic preconditioning of mammalian cells: mimetic agents for hypoxia lack fidelity in promoting phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Borcar, Apurva; Menze, Michael A; Toner, Mehmet; Hand, Steven C

    2013-01-01

    Induction of HIF-1α by oxygen limitation promotes increased phosphorylation and catalytic depression of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and an enhanced glycolytic poise in cells. Cobalt chloride and desferrioxamine are widely used as mimics for hypoxia because they increase the levels of HIF-1α. We evaluated the ability of these agents to elicit selected physiological responses to hypoxia as a means to metabolically precondition mammalian cells, but without the detrimental effects of hypoxia. We show that, while CoCl(2) does increase HIF-1α in a dose-dependent manner, it unexpectedly and strikingly decreases PDH phosphorylation at E1α sites 1, 2, and 3 (Ser(293), Ser(300), and Ser(232), respectively) in HepG2 cells. This same effect is also observed for site 1 in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and J774 macrophages. CoCl(2) unexpectedly decreases the mRNA expression for PDH kinase-2 in HepG2 cells, which likely explains the dephosphorylation of PDH observed. And nor does desferrioxamine promote the expected increase in PDH phosphorylation. Dimethyloxaloylglycine (a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor) performs better in this regard, but failed to promote the stronger effects seen with hypoxia. Consequently, CoCl(2) and desferrioxamine are unreliable mimics of hypoxia for physiological events downstream of HIF-1α stabilization. Our study demonstrates that mimetic chemicals must be chosen with caution and evaluated thoroughly if bona fide cellular outcomes are to be promoted with fidelity.

  20. SOD/catalase mimetic platinum nanoparticles inhibit heat-induced apoptosis in human lymphoma U937 and HH cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshihisa, Yoko; Zhao, Qing-Li; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Wei, Zhang-Li; Furuichi, Megumi; Miyamoto, Yusei; Kondo, Takashi; Shimizu, Tadamichi

    2011-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs) are known to possess anti-tumouric activity and the ability to scavenge superoxides and peroxides indicating that they can act as superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetics. These potentials seem useful in the protection and/or amelioration of oxidative stress-associated pathologies, but, when they are combined with a therapeutic modality that depends upon the mediation of reactive oxygen species in cell killing induction, the effect of Pt-NPs might be questionable. Here, the effects of polyacrylic acid-capped Pt-NPs (nano-Pts) on hyperthermia (HT)-induced apoptosis and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated in human myelomonocytic lymphoma U937 and human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma HH cells. The results showed that the pre-treatment with nano-Pts significantly inhibited HT-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Superoxide, but not peroxides, was suppressed to varying extents. All pathways involved in apoptosis execution were also negatively affected. The results reveal that the combination of nano-Pts and HT could result in HT-desensitization.

  1. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin

    PubMed Central

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Elvin, Christopher M.; Hill, Anita J.; Choudhury, Namita R.; Dutta, Naba K.

    2015-01-01

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution. PMID:26042819

  2. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin.

    PubMed

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P; Elvin, Christopher M; Hill, Anita J; Choudhury, Namita R; Dutta, Naba K

    2015-06-04

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution.

  3. Collagen-Gelatin Mixtures as Wound Model, and Substrates for VEGF-Mimetic Peptide Binding and Endothelial Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tania R.; Stahl, Patrick J.; Li, Yang; Yu, S. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In humans, high level of collagen remodeling is seen during normal physiological events such as bone renewal, as well as in pathological conditions, such as arthritis, tumor growth and other chronic wounds. Our lab recently discovered that collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) is able to hybridize with denatured collagens at these collagen remodeling sites with high affinity. Here, we show that the CMP's high binding affinity to denatured collagens can be utilized to deliver angiogenic signals to scaffolds composed of heat-denatured collagens (gelatins). We first demonstrate hybridization between denatured collagens and QKCMP, a CMP with pro-angiogenic QK domain. We show that high levels of QKCMP can be immobilized to a new artificial matrix containing both fibrous type I collagen and heat denatured collagen through triple helix hybridization, and that the QKCMP is able to stimulate early angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs). We also show that the QKCMP can bind to excised tissues from burn injuries in cutaneous mouse model, suggesting its potential for promoting neovascularization of burn wounds. PMID:25584990

  4. Structural characterization of the GSK-3beta active site using selective and non-selective ATP-mimetic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J A; Thieffine, S; Vulpetti, A; Cristiani, C; Valsasina, B; Knapp, S; Kalisz, H M; Flocco, M

    2003-10-17

    GSK-3beta is a regulatory serine/threonine kinase with a plethora of cellular targets. Consequently, selective small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3beta may have a variety of therapeutic uses including the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, type II diabetes and cancer. In order to characterize the active site of GSK-3beta, we determined crystal structures of unphosphorylated GSK-3beta in complex with selective and non-selective ATP-mimetic inhibitors. Analysis of the inhibitors' interactions with GSK-3beta in the structures reveals how the enzyme can accommodate a number of diverse molecular scaffolds. In addition, a conserved water molecule near Thr138 is identified that can serve a functional role in inhibitor binding. Finally, a comparison of the interactions made by selective and non-selective inhibitors highlights residues on the edge of the ATP binding-site that can be used to obtain inhibitor selectivity. Information gained from these structures provides a promising route for the design of second-generation GSK-3beta inhibitors.

  5. Biologically and mechanically driven design of an RGD-mimetic macroporous foam for adipose tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Eleonora; Gerges, Irini; Tocchio, Alessandro; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Aprile, Paola; Recordati, Camilla; Martello, Federico; Martin, Ivan; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina

    2016-10-01

    Despite clinical treatments for adipose tissue defects, in particular breast tissue reconstruction, have certain grades of efficacy, many drawbacks are still affecting the long-term survival of new formed fat tissue. To overcome this problem, in the last decades, several scaffolding materials have been investigated in the field of adipose tissue engineering. However, a strategy able to recapitulate a suitable environment for adipose tissue reconstruction and maintenance is still missing. To address this need, we adopted a biologically and mechanically driven design to fabricate an RGD-mimetic poly(amidoamine) oligomer macroporous foam (OPAAF) for adipose tissue reconstruction. The scaffold was designed to fulfil three fundamental criteria: capability to induce cell adhesion and proliferation, support of in vivo vascularization and match of native tissue mechanical properties. Poly(amidoamine) oligomers were formed into soft scaffolds with hierarchical porosity through a combined free radical polymerization and foaming reaction. OPAAF is characterized by a high water uptake capacity, progressive degradation kinetics and ideal mechanical properties for adipose tissue reconstruction. OPAAF's ability to support cell adhesion, proliferation and adipogenesis was assessed in vitro using epithelial, fibroblast and endothelial cells (MDCK, 3T3L1 and HUVEC respectively). In addition, in vivo subcutaneous implantation in murine model highlighted OPAAF potential to support both adipogenesis and vessels infiltration. Overall, the reported results support the use of OPAAF as a scaffold for engineered adipose tissue construct.

  6. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  7. Perturbation of the c-Myc-Max protein-protein interaction via synthetic α-helix mimetics.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwan-Young; Wang, Huabo; Teriete, Peter; Yap, Jeremy L; Chen, Lijia; Lanning, Maryanna E; Hu, Angela; Lambert, Lester J; Holien, Toril; Sundan, Anders; Cosford, Nicholas D P; Prochownik, Edward V; Fletcher, Steven

    2015-04-09

    The rational design of inhibitors of the bHLH-ZIP oncoprotein c-Myc is hampered by a lack of structure in its monomeric state. We describe herein the design of novel, low-molecular-weight, synthetic α-helix mimetics that recognize helical c-Myc in its transcriptionally active coiled-coil structure in association with its obligate bHLH-ZIP partner Max. These compounds perturb the heterodimer's binding to its canonical E-box DNA sequence without causing protein-protein dissociation, heralding a new mechanistic class of "direct" c-Myc inhibitors. In addition to electrophoretic mobility shift assays, this model was corroborated by further biophysical methods, including NMR spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance. Several compounds demonstrated a 2-fold or greater selectivity for c-Myc-Max heterodimers over Max-Max homodimers with IC50 values as low as 5.6 μM. Finally, these compounds inhibited the proliferation of c-Myc-expressing cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner that correlated with the loss of expression of a c-Myc-dependent reporter plasmid despite the fact that c-Myc-Max heterodimers remained intact.

  8. Rapid Endolysosomal Escape and Controlled Intracellular Trafficking of Cell Surface Mimetic Quantum-Dots-Anchored Peptides and Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Tan, Roger S; Naruchi, Kentaro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-09-18

    A novel strategy for the development of a high performance nanoparticules platform was established by means of cell surface mimetic quantum-dots (QDs)-anchored peptides/glycopeptides, which was developed as a model system for nanoparticle-based drug delivery (NDD) vehicles with defined functions helping the specific intracellular trafficking after initial endocytosis. In this paper, we proposed a standardized protocol for the preparation of multifunctional QDs that allows for efficient cellular uptake and rapid escaping from the endolysosomal system and subsequent cytoplasmic molecular delivery to the target cellular compartment. Chemoselective ligation of the ketone-functionalized hexahistidine derivative facilitated both efficient endocytic entry and rapid endolysosomal escape of the aminooxy/phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayer-coated QDs (AO/PCSAM-QDs) to the cytosol in various cell lines such as human normal and cancer cells, while modifications of these QDs with cell-penetrating arginine-rich peptides showed poor cellular uptake and induced self-aggregation of AO/PCSAM-QDs. Combined use of hexahistidylated AO/PCSAM-QDs with serglycine-like glycopeptides, namely synthetic proteoglycan initiators (PGIs), elicited the entry and controlled intracellular trafficking, Golgi localization, and also excretion of these nanoparticles, which suggested that the present approach would provide an ideal platform for the design of high performance NDD systems.

  9. Rational Structure-Based Rescaffolding Approach to De Novo Design of Interleukin 10 (IL-10) Receptor-1 Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Jenny; Künze, Georg; Wodtke, Robert; Löser, Reik; Fahmy, Karim; Pisabarro, M. Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Tackling protein interfaces with small molecules capable of modulating protein-protein interactions remains a challenge in structure-based ligand design. Particularly arduous are cases in which the epitopes involved in molecular recognition have a non-structured and discontinuous nature. Here, the basic strategy of translating continuous binding epitopes into mimetic scaffolds cannot be applied, and other innovative approaches are therefore required. We present a structure-based rational approach involving the use of a regular expression syntax inspired in the well established PROSITE to define minimal descriptors of geometric and functional constraints signifying relevant functionalities for recognition in protein interfaces of non-continuous and unstructured nature. These descriptors feed a search engine that explores the currently available three-dimensional chemical space of the Protein Data Bank (PDB) in order to identify in a straightforward manner regular architectures containing the desired functionalities, which could be used as templates to guide the rational design of small natural-like scaffolds mimicking the targeted recognition site. The application of this rescaffolding strategy to the discovery of natural scaffolds incorporating a selection of functionalities of interleukin-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1), which are relevant for its interaction with interleukin-10 (IL-10) has resulted in the de novo design of a new class of potent IL-10 peptidomimetic ligands. PMID:27123592

  10. Mitochondrial DNA common deletion increases susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in a mimetic aging rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jintao; Wang, Yanjun; Liu, Peng; Li, Qingyu; Sun, Yu; Kong, Weijia

    2014-10-24

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is an important occupational health hazard. However, susceptibility to NIHL remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA common deletion (CD) increases the susceptibility of individuals to NIHL. A mimetic aging rat model harboring increased CD in the inner ear was established by chronic d-galactose administration, and the synergic effect of CD and noise on hearing sensitivity was assessed. We determined that although developed the same magnitude of temporary threshold shifts and hair cell loss, the d-galactose treated rats with increased CD in the inner ear exhibited a longer hearing recovery process and experienced higher permanent hearing threshold shifts at high frequencies than the saline-treated control rats. Greater supporting cell damage and stria vascularis ultrastructural changes were observed in d-galactose treated rats three weeks after recovery. The results suggested that the elevated CD in the inner ear could increase an individual's susceptibility to NIHL, which likely through a reduction in the self-repairing capability within the cochlea after acoustic injury.

  11. Nanoscopic substructures of raft-mimetic liquid-ordered membrane domains revealed by high-speed single-particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsiao-Mei; Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Yen, Tzu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2016-02-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane nanodomains that facilitate important cell functions. Despite recent advances in identifying the biological significance of rafts, nature and regulation mechanism of rafts are largely unknown due to the difficulty of resolving dynamic molecular interaction of rafts at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate organization and single-molecule dynamics of rafts by monitoring lateral diffusion of single molecules in raft-containing reconstituted membranes supported on mica substrates. Using high-speed interferometric scattering (iSCAT) optical microscopy and small gold nanoparticles as labels, motion of single lipids is recorded via single-particle tracking (SPT) with nanometer spatial precision and microsecond temporal resolution. Processes of single molecules partitioning into and escaping from the raft-mimetic liquid-ordered (Lo) domains are directly visualized in a continuous manner with unprecedented clarity. Importantly, we observe subdiffusion of saturated lipids in the Lo domain in microsecond timescale, indicating the nanoscopic heterogeneous molecular arrangement of the Lo domain. Further analysis of the diffusion trajectory shows the presence of nano-subdomains of the Lo phase, as small as 10 nm, which transiently trap the lipids. Our results provide the first experimental evidence of non-uniform molecular organization of the Lo phase, giving a new view of how rafts recruit and confine molecules in cell membranes.

  12. Structural ensembles reveal intrinsic disorder for the multi-stimuli responsive bio-mimetic protein Rec1-resilin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Rajkamal; Knott, Robert; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Elvin, Christopher M.; Hill, Anita J.; Choudhury, Namita R.; Dutta, Naba K.

    2015-06-01

    Rec1-resilin is the first recombinant resilin-mimetic protein polymer, synthesized from exon-1 of the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG15920 that has demonstrated unusual multi-stimuli responsiveness in aqueous solution. Crosslinked hydrogels of Rec1-resilin have also displayed remarkable mechanical properties including near-perfect rubber-like elasticity. The structural basis of these extraordinary properties is not clearly understood. Here we combine a computational and experimental investigation to examine structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solution. The structure of Rec1-resilin in aqueous solutions is investigated experimentally using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both bench-top and synchrotron SAXS are employed to extract structural data sets of Rec1-resilin and to confirm their validity. Computational approaches have been applied to these experimental data sets in order to extract quantitative information about structural ensembles including radius of gyration, pair-distance distribution function, and the fractal dimension. The present work confirms that Rec1-resilin is an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) that displays equilibrium structural qualities between those of a structured globular protein and a denatured protein. The ensemble optimization method (EOM) analysis reveals a single conformational population with partial compactness. This work provides new insight into the structural ensembles of Rec1-resilin in solution.

  13. Prevention of cognitive deficits and brain oxidative stress with superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Aaron; Doctrow, Susan; Baudry, Michel

    2010-03-01

    Continuous decline in cognitive performance accompanies the natural aging process in humans, and multiple studies in both humans and animal models have indicated that this decrease in cognitive function is associated with an age-related increase in oxidative stress. Treating aging mammals with exogenous free radical scavengers has generally been shown to attenuate age-related cognitive decline and oxidative stress. The present study assessed the effectiveness of the superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetics EUK-189 and EUK-207 on age-related decline in cognitive function and increase in oxidative stress. C57/BL6 mice received continuous treatment via osmotic minipumps with either EUK-189 or EUK-207 for 6 months starting at 17 months of age. At the end of treatment, markers for oxidative stress were evaluated by analyzing levels of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and oxidized nucleic acids in brain tissue. In addition, cognitive performance was assessed after 3 and 6 months of treatment with fear conditioning. Both EUK-189 and EUK-207 treatments resulted in significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, nucleic acid oxidation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In addition, the treatments also significantly improved age-related decline in performance in the fear-conditioning task. Our results thus confirm a critical role for oxidative stress in age-related decline in learning and memory and strongly suggest a potential usefulness for salen-manganese complexes in reversing age-related declines in cognitive function and oxidative load.

  14. Selective Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase-2 (NTPDase2) Inhibitors: Nucleotide Mimetics Derived from Uridine-5′-carboxamide†

    PubMed Central

    Brunschweiger, Andreas; Iqbal, Jamshed; Umbach, Frank; Scheiff, Anja B.; Munkonda, Mercedes N.; Sévigny, Jean; Knowles, Aileen F.; Müller, Christa E

    2016-01-01

    Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases, subtypes 1, 2, 3, 8 of NTPDases) dephosphorylate nucleoside tri- and diphosphates to the corresponding di- and monophosphates. In the present study we synthesized adenine and uracil nucleotide mimetics, in which the phosphate residues were replaced by phosphonic acid esters attached to the nucleoside at the 5′-position by amide linkers. Among the synthesized uridine derivatives, we identified the first potent and selective inhibitors of human NTPDase2. The most potent compound was 19a (PSB-6426), which was a competitive inhibitor of NTPDase2 exhibiting a Ki value of 8.2 μM and selectivity versus other NTPDases. It was inactive toward uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y2, P2Y4, and P2Y6 receptor subtypes. Compound 19a was chemically and metabolically highly stable. In contrast to the few known (unselective) NTPDase inhibitors, 19a is an uncharged molecule and may be perorally bioavailable. NTPDase2 inhibitors have potential as novel cardioprotective drugs for the treatment of stroke and for cancer therapy. PMID:18630897

  15. Smac mimetic LCL161 overcomes protective ER stress induced by obatoclax, synergistically causing cell death in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Vivek; Kimlinger, Teresa; Painuly, Utkarsh; Mukhopadhyay, Bedabrata; Haug, Jessica; Bi, Lintao; Rajkumar, S. Vincent; Kumar, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    Bcl2 and IAP families are anti-apoptotic proteins deregulated in multiple myeloma (MM) cells. Pharmacological inhibition of each of these families has shown significant activity only in subgroups of MM patients. Here, we have examined a broad-spectrum Bcl2 family inhibitor Obatoclax (OBX) in combination with a Smac mimetic LCL161 in MM cell lines and patient cells. LCL161/OBX combination induced synergistic cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative effects on a broad range of human MM cell lines. The cytotoxicity was mediated through inhibition of the IAPs, activation of caspases and up regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bid, Bim, Puma and Noxa by the drug combination. In addition, we observed that OBX caused ER stress and activated the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) leading to drug resistance. LCL161, however inhibited spliced Xbp-1, a pro-survival factor. In addition, we observed that OBX increased GRP78 localization to the cell surface, which then induced PI3K dependent Akt activation and resistance to cell death. LCL161 was able to block OBX induced Akt activation contributing to synergistic cell death. Our results support clinical evaluation of this combination strategy in relapsed refractory MM patients. PMID:27494845

  16. Nanoscopic substructures of raft-mimetic liquid-ordered membrane domains revealed by high-speed single-particle tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsiao-Mei; Lin, Ying-Hsiu; Yen, Tzu-Chi; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane nanodomains that facilitate important cell functions. Despite recent advances in identifying the biological significance of rafts, nature and regulation mechanism of rafts are largely unknown due to the difficulty of resolving dynamic molecular interaction of rafts at the nanoscale. Here, we investigate organization and single-molecule dynamics of rafts by monitoring lateral diffusion of single molecules in raft-containing reconstituted membranes supported on mica substrates. Using high-speed interferometric scattering (iSCAT) optical microscopy and small gold nanoparticles as labels, motion of single lipids is recorded via single-particle tracking (SPT) with nanometer spatial precision and microsecond temporal resolution. Processes of single molecules partitioning into and escaping from the raft-mimetic liquid-ordered (Lo) domains are directly visualized in a continuous manner with unprecedented clarity. Importantly, we observe subdiffusion of saturated lipids in the Lo domain in microsecond timescale, indicating the nanoscopic heterogeneous molecular arrangement of the Lo domain. Further analysis of the diffusion trajectory shows the presence of nano-subdomains of the Lo phase, as small as 10 nm, which transiently trap the lipids. Our results provide the first experimental evidence of non-uniform molecular organization of the Lo phase, giving a new view of how rafts recruit and confine molecules in cell membranes. PMID:26861908

  17. The protective effect of M40401, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, on post-ischemic brain damage in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Iannone, Michelangelo; Muscoli, Carolina; Palma, Ernesto; Granato, Teresa; Modesti, Andrea; Nisticò, Robert; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Salvemini, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radical species has been shown to occur in brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, most of free radical scavengers known to antagonize oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase), are unable to protect against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury when given in vivo, an effect mainly due to their difficulty to gain access to brain tissues. Here we studied the effect of a low molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetic (M40401) in brain damage subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion injury in Mongolian gerbils. Results In animals undergoing ischemia-reperfusion injury, neuropathological and ultrastructural changes were monitored for 1–7 days either in the presence or in the absence of M40401 after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCO). Administration of M40401 (1–40 mg/kg, given i.p. 1 h after BCCO) protected against post-ischemic, ultrastructural and neuropathological changes occurring within the hippocampal CA1 area. The protective effect of M40401 was associated with a significant reduction of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in ischemic brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion Taken together, these results demonstrate that M40401 provides protective effects when given early after the induction of ischemia-reperfusion of brain tissues and suggest the possible use of such compounds in the treatment of neurological dysfunction subsequent to cerebral flow disturbances. PMID:12809567

  18. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health.

    PubMed

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-15

    Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture ( Gypaetus barbatus ), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture's habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in hospitals.

  19. Virus-mimetic polyplex particles for systemic and inflammation-specific targeted delivery of large genetic contents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S; Lu, K; Leelawattanachai, J; Hu, X; Park, S; Park, T; Min, I M; Jin, M M

    2013-11-01

    Systemic and target-specific delivery of large genetic contents has been difficult to achieve. Although viruses effortlessly deliver kilobase-long genome into cells, its clinical use has been hindered by serious safety concerns and the mismatch between native tropisms and desired targets. Nonviral vectors, in contrast, are limited by low gene transfer efficiency and inherent cytotoxicity. Here we devised virus-mimetic polyplex particles (VMPs) based on electrostatic self-assembly among polyanionic peptide (PAP), cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) and nucleic acids. We fused PAP to the engineered ligand-binding domain of integrin αLβ2 to target intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible marker of inflammation. Fully assembled VMPs packaged large genetic contents, bound specifically to target molecules, elicited receptor-mediated endocytosis and escaped endosomal pathway, resembling intracellular delivery processes of viruses. Unlike conventional PEI-mediated transfection, molecular interaction-dependent gene delivery of VMPs was unaffected by the presence of serum and achieved higher efficiency without toxicity. By targeting overexpressed ICAM-1, VMPs delivered genes specifically to inflamed endothelial cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Simplicity and versatility of the platform and inflammation-specific delivery may open up opportunities for multifaceted gene therapy that can be translated into the clinic and treat a broad range of debilitating immune and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  1. Structural Characterization of an LPA1 Second Extracellular Loop Mimetic with a Self-Assembling Coiled-Coil Folding Constraint.

    PubMed

    Young, John K; Clayton, Benjamin T; Kikonyogo, Alexandra; Pham, Truc-Chi T; Parrill, Abby L

    2013-01-29

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures are of interest as a means to understand biological signal transduction and as tools for therapeutic discovery. The growing number of GPCR crystal structures demonstrates that the extracellular loops (EL) connecting the membrane-spanning helices show tremendous structural variability relative to the more structurally-conserved seven transmembrane α-helical domains. The EL of the LPA(1) receptor have not yet been conclusively resolved, and bear limited sequence identity to known structures. This study involved development of a peptide to characterize the intrinsic structure of the LPA(1) GPCR second EL. The loop was embedded between two helices that assemble into a coiled-coil, which served as a receptor-mimetic folding constraint (LPA(1)-CC-EL2 peptide). The ensemble of structures from multi-dimensional NMR experiments demonstrated that a robust coiled-coil formed without noticeable deformation due to the EL2 sequence. In contrast, the EL2 sequence showed well-defined structure only near its C-terminal residues. The NMR ensemble was combined with a computational model of the LPA(1) receptor that had previously been validated. The resulting hybrid models were evaluated using docking. Nine different hybrid models interacted with LPA 18:1 as expected, based on prior mutagenesis studies, and one was additionally consistent with antagonist affinity trends.

  2. Furoxans (1,2,5-Oxadiazole-N-Oxides) as Novel NO Mimetic Neuroprotective and Procognitive Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefer, Isaac T.; VandeVrede, Lawren; Fa; , Mauro; Arancio, Ottavio; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2012-08-31

    Furoxans (1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxides) are thiol-bioactivated NO-mimetics that have not hitherto been studied in the CNS. Incorporation of varied substituents adjacent to the furoxan ring system led to modulation of reactivity toward bioactivation, studied by HPLC-MS/MS analysis of reaction products. Attenuated reactivity unmasked the cytoprotective actions of NO in contrast to the cytotoxic actions of higher NO fluxes reported previously for furoxans. Neuroprotection was observed in primary neuronal cell cultures following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Neuroprotective activity was observed to correlate with thiol-dependent bioactivation to produce NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but not with depletion of free thiol itself. Neuroprotection was abrogated upon cotreatment with a sGC inhibitor, ODQ, thus supporting activation of the NO/sGC/CREB signaling cascade by furoxans. Long-term potentiation (LTP), essential for learning and memory, has been shown to be potentiated by NO signaling, therefore, a peptidomimetic furoxan was tested in hippocampal slices treated with oligomeric amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) and was shown to restore synaptic function. The novel observation of furoxan activity of potential therapeutic use in the CNS warrants further studies.

  3. Structural basis of activation-dependent binding of ligand-mimetic antibody AL-57 to integrin LFA-1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongmin; Liu, Jin-huan; Yang, Wei; Springer, Timothy; Shimaoka, Motomu; Wang, Jia-huai

    2010-09-21

    The activity of integrin LFA-1 ({alpha}{sub L}{beta}{sub 2}) to its ligand ICAM-1 is regulated through the conformational changes of its ligand-binding domain, the I domain of {alpha}{sub L} chain, from an inactive, low-affinity closed form (LA), to an intermediate-affinity form (IA), and then finally, to a high-affinity open form (HA). A ligand-mimetic human monoclonal antibody AL-57 (activated LFA-1 clone 57) was identified by phage display to specifically recognize the affinity-upregulated I domain. Here, we describe the crystal structures of the Fab fragment of AL-57 in complex with IA, as well as in its unligated form. We discuss the structural features conferring AL-57's strong selectivity for the high affinity, open conformation of the I domain. The AL-57-binding site overlaps the ICAM-1 binding site on the I domain. Furthermore, an antibody Asp mimics an ICAM Glu by forming a coordination to the metal-ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS). The structure also reveals better shape complementarity and a more hydrophobic interacting interface in AL-57 binding than in ICAM-1 binding. The results explain AL-57's antagonistic mimicry of LFA-1's natural ligands, the ICAM molecules.

  4. Treatment with a BH3 mimetic overcomes the resistance of latency III EBV (+) cells to p53-mediated apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pujals, A; Renouf, B; Robert, A; Chelouah, S; Hollville, É; Wiels, J

    2011-01-01

    P53 inactivation is often observed in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells due to mutations in the p53 gene or overexpression of its negative regulator, murine double minute-2 (MDM2). This event is now considered an essential part of the oncogenic process. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is strongly associated with BL and is a cofactor in its development. We previously showed that nutlin-3, an antagonist of MDM2, activates the p53 pathway in BL cell lines harboring wild-type p53. However, nutlin-3 strongly induced apoptosis in EBV (−) or latency I EBV (+) cells, whereas latency III EBV (+) cells were much more resistant. We show here that this resistance to apoptosis is also observed in latency III EBV (+) lymphoblastoid cell lines. We also show that, in latency III EBV (+) cells, B-cell lymphona 2 (Bcl-2) is selectively overproduced and interacts with Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), preventing its activation. The treatment of these cells with the Bcl-2-homology domain 3 mimetic ABT-737 disrupts Bax/Bcl-2 interaction and allows Bax activation by nutlin-3. Furthermore, treatment with these two compounds strongly induces apoptosis. Thus, a combination of Mdm2 and Bcl-2 inhibitors might be a useful anti-cancer strategy for diseases linked to EBV infection. PMID:21796156

  5. Treatment with a BH3 mimetic overcomes the resistance of latency III EBV (+) cells to p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Pujals, A; Renouf, B; Robert, A; Chelouah, S; Hollville, E; Wiels, J

    2011-07-28

    P53 inactivation is often observed in Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells due to mutations in the p53 gene or overexpression of its negative regulator, murine double minute-2 (MDM2). This event is now considered an essential part of the oncogenic process. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is strongly associated with BL and is a cofactor in its development. We previously showed that nutlin-3, an antagonist of MDM2, activates the p53 pathway in BL cell lines harboring wild-type p53. However, nutlin-3 strongly induced apoptosis in EBV (-) or latency I EBV (+) cells, whereas latency III EBV (+) cells were much more resistant. We show here that this resistance to apoptosis is also observed in latency III EBV (+) lymphoblastoid cell lines. We also show that, in latency III EBV (+) cells, B-cell lymphona 2 (Bcl-2) is selectively overproduced and interacts with Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), preventing its activation. The treatment of these cells with the Bcl-2-homology domain 3 mimetic ABT-737 disrupts Bax/Bcl-2 interaction and allows Bax activation by nutlin-3. Furthermore, treatment with these two compounds strongly induces apoptosis. Thus, a combination of Mdm2 and Bcl-2 inhibitors might be a useful anti-cancer strategy for diseases linked to EBV infection.

  6. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-mimetic M40403 Is Protective in Cell and Fly Models of Paraquat Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Filograna, Roberta; Godena, Vinay K.; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Ferrari, Emanuele; Casella, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Whitworth, Alexander J.; Bisaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a debilitating and incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting ∼1–2% of people over 65 years of age. Oxidative damage is considered to play a central role in the progression of Parkinson disease and strong evidence links chronic exposure to the pesticide paraquat with the incidence of the disease, most probably through the generation of oxidative damage. In this work, we demonstrated in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells the beneficial role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes against paraquat-induced toxicity, as well as the therapeutic potential of the SOD-mimetic compound M40403. Having verified the beneficial effects of superoxide dismutation in cells, we then evaluated the effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Besides protecting against the oxidative damage induced by paraquat treatment, our data demonstrated that in Drosophila M40403 was able to compensate for the loss of endogenous SOD enzymes, acting both at a cytosolic and mitochondrial level. Because previous clinical trials have indicated that the M40403 molecule is well tolerated in humans, this study may have important implication for the treatment of Parkinson disease. PMID:26953346

  7. Spontaneous Packaging and Hypothermic Storage of Mammalian Cells with a Cell-Membrane-Mimetic Polymer Hydrogel in a Microchip.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Mawatari, Kazuma; Konno, Tomohiro; Kitamori, Takehiko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-10-21

    Currently, continuous culture/passage and cryopreservation are two major, well-established methods to provide cultivated mammalian cells for experiments in laboratories. Due to the lack of flexibility, however, both laboratory-oriented methods are unable to meet the need for rapidly growing cell-based applications, which require cell supply in a variety of occasions outside of laboratories. Herein, we report spontaneous packaging and hypothermic storage of mammalian cells under refrigerated (4 °C) and ambient conditions (25 °C) using a cell-membrane-mimetic methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer hydrogel incorporated within a glass microchip. Its capability for hypothermic storage of cells was comparatively evaluated over 16 days. The results reveal that the cytocompatible MPC polymer hydrogel, in combination with the microchip structure, enabled hypothermic storage of cells with quite high viability, high intracellular esterase activity, maintained cell membrane integrity, and small morphological change for more than 1 week at 4 °C and at least 4 days at 25 °C. Furthermore, the stored cells could be released from the hydrogel and exhibited the ability to adhere to a surface and achieve confluence under standard cell culture conditions. Both hypothermic storage conditions are ordinary flexible conditions which can be easily established in places outside of laboratories. Therefore, cell packaging and storage using the hydrogel incorporated within the microchip would be a promising miniature and portable solution for flexible supply and delivery of small amounts of cells from bench to bedside.

  8. Prevention of diabetes-promoted colorectal cancer by (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and (n-3) PUFA mimetic.

    PubMed

    Algamas-Dimantov, Anna; Yehuda-Shnaidman, Einav; Hertz, Rachel; Peri, Irena; Bar-Tana, Jacob; Schwartz, Betty

    2014-10-30

    The global obesity / diabetes epidemic has resulted in robust increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological, animal and human studies have indicated efficacy of (n-3) PUFA in chemoprevention of sporadic and genetic-driven CRC. However, diabetes-promoted CRC presents a treatment challenge that surpasses that of sporadic CRC. This report analyzes the efficacy of (n-3) PUFA generated by the fat-1 transgene that encodes an (n-6) to (n-3) PUFA desaturase, and of synthetic (n-3) PUFA mimetic (MEDICA analog), to suppress CRC development in carcinogen-induced diabetes-promoted animal model. Carcinogen-induced CRC is shown here to be promoted by the diabetes context, in terms of increased aberrant crypt foci (ACF) load, cell proliferation and epithelial dedifferentiation, being accompanied by increase in the expression of HNF4α, β-catenin, and β-catenin-responsive genes. Incorporating the fat-1 transgene in the diabetes context, or oral MEDICA treatment, resulted in ameliorating the diabetic phenotype and in abrogating CRC, with decrease in ACF load, cell proliferation and the expression of HNF-4α, β-catenin, and β-catenin-responsive genes. The specificity of (n-3) PUFA in abrogating CRC development, as contrasted with enhancing CRC by (n-6) PUFA, was similarly verified in CRC cell lines. These findings may indicate prospective therapeutic potential of (n-3) PUFA or MEDICA in the management of CRC, in particular diabetes-promoted CRC.

  9. Superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134 prevents diaphragm muscle weakness in monocrotalin-induced pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tatebayashi, Daisuke; Lee, Jaesik; Westerblad, Håkan; Lanner, Johanna T.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) suffer from inspiratory insufficiency, which has been associated with intrinsic contractile dysfunction in diaphragm muscle. Here, we examined the role of redox stress in PH-induced diaphragm weakness by using the novel antioxidant, EUK-134. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (CNT), CNT + EUK-134 (CNT + EUK), monocrotaline-induced PH (PH), and PH + EUK groups. PH was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg body weight). EUK-134 (3 mg/kg body weight/day), a cell permeable mimetic of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, was daily intraperitoneally administered starting one day after induction of PH. After four weeks, diaphragm muscles were excised for mechanical and biochemical analyses. There was a decrease in specific tetanic force in diaphragm bundles from the PH group, which was accompanied by increases in: protein expression of NADPH oxidase 2/gp91phox, SOD2, and catalase; 3-nitrotyrosine content and aggregation of actin; glutathione oxidation. Treatment with EUK-134 prevented the force decrease and the actin modifications in PH diaphragm bundles. These data show that redox stress plays a pivotal role in PH-induced diaphragm weakness. Thus, antioxidant treatment can be a promising strategy for PH patients with inspiratory failure. PMID:28152009

  10. Ionic supramolecular bonds preserve mechanical properties and enable synergetic performance at high humidity in water-borne, self-assembled nacre-mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Paramita; Walther, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Although tremendous effort has been focused on enhancing the mechanical properties of nacre-mimetic materials, conservation of high stiffness and strength against hydration-induced decay of mechanical properties at high humidity remains a fundamental challenge in such water-borne high-performance materials. Herein, we demonstrate that ionic supramolecular bonds, introduced by infiltration of divalent Cu2+ ions, allow efficient stabilization of the mechanical properties of self-assembled water-borne nacre-mimetics based on sustainable sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na+CMC) and natural sodium montmorillonite nanoclay (Na+MTM) against high humidity (95% RH). The mechanical properties in the highly hydrated state (Young's modulus up to 13.5 GPa and tensile strength up to 125 MPa) are in fact comparable to a range of non-crosslinked nacre-mimetic materials in the dry state. Moreover, the Cu2+-treated nacre-inspired materials display synergetic mechanical properties as found in a simultaneous improvement of stiffness, strength and toughness, as compared to the pristine material. Significant inelastic deformation takes place considering the highly reinforced state. This contrasts the typical behaviour of tight, covalent crosslinks and is suggested to originate from a sacrificial, dynamic breakage and rebinding of transient supramolecular ionic bonds. Considering easy access to a large range of ionic interactions and alteration of counter-ion charge via external stimuli, we foresee responsive and adaptive mechanical properties in highly reinforced and stiff bio-inspired bulk nanocomposites and in other bio-inspired materials, e.g. nanocellulose papers and peptide-based materials.Although tremendous effort has been focused on enhancing the mechanical properties of nacre-mimetic materials, conservation of high stiffness and strength against hydration-induced decay of mechanical properties at high humidity remains a fundamental challenge in such water-borne high

  11. Bio-mimetic drug delivery systems designed to help the senior population reconstruct melatonin plasma profiles similar to those of the healthy younger population.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Wang, Liuyi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xueju; Li, Xue; Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiyan; York, Peter; Gui, Shuangying; Zhang, Jiwen

    2014-02-01

    The secretion of melatonin (MT) is obviously different in the younger and the senior sectors of the population, and the maximum plasma concentration of seniors is only half of that in the younger population group. If exogenous MT can be supplied to senior citizens based on the secretion rate and amount of endogenous MT in the younger population by a bio-mimetic drug delivery system (DDS), an improved therapeutic effect and reduced side effects can be expected. Based upon this hypothesis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of MT, namely, the absorption rate constant (k a), the elimination rate constant (k e), and the ratio of absorption rate (F) to the apparent volume of distribution (V) were obtained by a residual method depending on the plasma concentration curve of immediate release preparations in the healthy younger population. The dose-division method was applied to calculate the cumulative release profiles of MT achieved by oral administration of a controlled release drug delivery system (DDS) to generate plasma MT profiles similar to the physiological level-time profiles. The in vivo release of MT deduced from the healthy younger population physiological MT profiles as the pharmacokinetic output of the bio-mimetic DDS showed a two-phase profile with two different zero order release rates, namely, 4.919 μg/h during 0-4 h (r=0.9992), and 11.097 μg/h during 4-12 h (r=0.9886), respectively. Since the osmotic pump type of DDS generally exhibits a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro release behaviors, an osmotic pump controlled delivery system was designed in combination with dry coating technology targeting on the cumulative release characteristics to mimic the physiological MT profiles in the healthy younger population. The high similarity between the experimental drug release profiles and the theoretical profiles (similarity factor f 2>50) and the high correlation between the predicted plasma concentration profiles and the theoretical plasma

  12. Bio-mimetic drug delivery systems designed to help the senior population reconstruct melatonin plasma profiles similar to those of the healthy younger population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Wang, Liuyi; Wu, Li; Zhang, Xueju; Li, Xue; Guo, Zhen; Li, Haiyan; York, Peter; Gui, Shuangying; Zhang, Jiwen

    2014-01-01

    The secretion of melatonin (MT) is obviously different in the younger and the senior sectors of the population, and the maximum plasma concentration of seniors is only half of that in the younger population group. If exogenous MT can be supplied to senior citizens based on the secretion rate and amount of endogenous MT in the younger population by a bio-mimetic drug delivery system (DDS), an improved therapeutic effect and reduced side effects can be expected. Based upon this hypothesis, the pharmacokinetic parameters of MT, namely, the absorption rate constant (ka), the elimination rate constant (ke), and the ratio of absorption rate (F) to the apparent volume of distribution (V) were obtained by a residual method depending on the plasma concentration curve of immediate release preparations in the healthy younger population. The dose-division method was applied to calculate the cumulative release profiles of MT achieved by oral administration of a controlled release drug delivery system (DDS) to generate plasma MT profiles similar to the physiological level-time profiles. The in vivo release of MT deduced from the healthy younger population physiological MT profiles as the pharmacokinetic output of the bio-mimetic DDS showed a two-phase profile with two different zero order release rates, namely, 4.919 μg/h during 0–4 h (r=0.9992), and 11.097 μg/h during 4–12 h (r=0.9886), respectively. Since the osmotic pump type of DDS generally exhibits a good correlation between in vivo and in vitro release behaviors, an osmotic pump controlled delivery system was designed in combination with dry coating technology targeting on the cumulative release characteristics to mimic the physiological MT profiles in the healthy younger population. The high similarity between the experimental drug release profiles and the theoretical profiles (similarity factor f2>50) and the high correlation between the predicted plasma concentration profiles and the theoretical plasma

  13. Effects of an Oral Ghrelin Mimetic on Body Composition and Clinical Outcomes in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nass, Ralf; Pezzoli, Suzan S.; Oliveri, Mary Clancy; Patrie, James T.; Harrell, Frank E.; Clasey, Jody L.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Bach, Mark A.; Lee Vance, Mary; Thorner, Michael O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Growth hormone (GH) secretion and muscle mass decline from mid-puberty throughout life culminating in sarcopenia, frailty, decreased function and loss of independence. Objective Determine if an oral ghrelin mimetic (MK-677) would enhance GH secretion into the young adult range without serious adverse effects, prevent the decline of fat-free mass (FFM), and decrease abdominal visceral fat (AVF) in healthy older adults. Design Two-year, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, modified-crossover clinical trial. Setting General Clinical Research Center study performed at a University Hospital. Participants Sixty-five healthy men and women (on or off hormone replacement therapy) ages 60-81. Intervention Oral administration of MK-677 (25 mg) or placebo once daily. Measurements Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I); FFM and AVF were the primary endpoints after one year of treatment. Other endpoints: weight, fat mass, insulin sensitivity, lipid and cortisol levels, bone mineral density, limb lean and fat mass, isokinetic strength, function and quality of life; all endpoints were assessed at baseline and every 6 months. Limitations Study design (duration and subject number) not sufficient to evaluate functional endpoints in healthy elderly Results Daily MK-677 significantly increased GH and IGF-I levels to those of healthy young adults without serious adverse effects. With placebo, mean (95% Cl) FFM decreased -0.5 (-1.1 to 0.2) kg, however, FFM increased 1.1 (0.7 to 1.5) kg with MK-677 (P<0.001, MK-677 vs. placebo); body cell mass as reflected by intracellular water decreased -1.0 (-2.1 to 0.2) kg with placebo, but increased 0.8 (-0.1 to 1.6) kg with MK-677 (P=0.021). There were no significant differences in AVF or total fat mass. However, the average increase in limb fat in the MK-677 group (1.1 kg) was greater than with placebo (0.24 kg); P=0.001. Body weight increased 0.8 (-0.3 to 1.8) kg with placebo and 2.7 (2.0 to 3.5) kg with MK-677

  14. Tempol, a Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Agent, Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity through Alleviation of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A.; Shehata, Nagwa I.; Abdelkader, Noha F.; Khattab, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial dysfunction is a crucial mechanism by which cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, causes nephrotoxicity where mitochondrial electron transport complexes are shifted mostly toward imbalanced reactive oxygen species versus energy production. In the present study, the protective role of tempol, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent, was evaluated on mitochondrial dysfunction and the subsequent damage induced by cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice. Methods and Findings Nephrotoxicity was assessed 72 h after a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (25 mg/kg) with or without oral administration of tempol (100 mg/kg/day). Serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria were evaluated. Both kidneys were isolated for estimation of oxidative stress markers, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity, complexes I–IV activities and mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase (mNOS) protein expression were measured along with histological examinations of renal tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Tempol was effective against cisplatin-induced elevation of serum creatinine and urea as well as glucosuria and proteinuria. Moreover, pretreatment with tempol notably inhibited cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and disruption of mitochondrial function by restoring mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, complexes I and III activities, mNOS protein expression and ATP content. Tempol also provided significant protection against apoptosis, tubular damage and mitochondrial ultrastructural changes. Interestingly, tempol did not interfere with the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin against the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma. Conclusion This study highlights the potential role of tempol in inhibiting cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity without affecting its antitumor activity via amelioration of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction

  15. Integration of growth factor gene delivery with collagen‐triggered wound repair cascades using collagen‐mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Urello, Morgan A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Growth factors (GFs) play vital roles in wound repair. Many GF therapies have reached clinical trials, but success has been hindered by safety concerns and a lack of efficacy. Previously, we presented an approach to produce protein factors in wound beds through localized gene delivery mediated by biomimetic peptides. Modification of polyethylenimine (PEI) DNA polyplexes with collagen‐mimetic peptides (CMPs) enabled tailoring of polyplex release/retention and improved gene transfer activity in a cell‐responsive manner. In this work, CMP‐mediated delivery from collagen was shown to improve expression of platelet‐derived growth factor–BB (PDGF‐BB) and promote a diverse range of cellular processes associated with wound healing, including proliferation, extracellular matrix production, and chemotaxis. Collagens were pre‐exposed to physiologically‐simulating conditions (complete media, 37°C) for days to weeks prior to cell seeding to simulate the environment within typical wound dressings. In cell proliferation studies, significant increases in cell counts were demonstrated in collagen gels containing CMP‐modified polyplex versus unmodified polyplex, and these effects became most pronounced following prolonged preincubation periods of greater than a week. Collagen containing CMP‐modified polyplexes also induced a twofold increase in gel contraction as well as enhanced directionality and migratory activity in response to cell‐secreted PDGF‐BB gradients. While these PDGF‐BB‐triggered behaviors were observed in collagens containing unmodified polyplexes, the responses withstood much longer preincubation periods in CMP‐modified polyplex samples (10 days vs. <5 days). Furthermore, enhanced closure rates in an in vitro wound model suggested that CMP‐based PDGF‐BB delivery may have utility in actual wound repair and other regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27981245

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Elastin-Mimetic Hybrid Polymers with Multiblock, Alternating Molecular Architecture and Elastomeric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Grieshaber, Sarah E.; Farran, Alexandra J. E.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Kiick, Kristi L.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in developing elastin–mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) that capture the multiblock molecular architecture of tropoelastin as well as the remarkable elasticity of mature elastin. In this study, multiblock EMHPs containing flexible synthetic segments based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) alternating with alanine-rich, lysine-containing peptides were synthesized by step-growth polymerization using α,ω-azido-PEG and alkyne-terminated AKA3KA (K = lysine, A = alanine) peptide, employing orthogonal click chemistry. The resulting EMHPs contain an estimated three to five repeats of PEG and AKA3KA and have an average molecular weight of 34 kDa. While the peptide alone exhibited α-helical structures at high pH, the fractional helicity for EMHPs was reduced. Covalent cross-linking of EMHPs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) through the lysine residue in the peptide domain afforded an elastomeric hydrogel (xEMHP) with a compressive modulus of 0.12 MPa when hydrated. The mechanical properties of xEMHP are comparable to a commercial polyurethane elastomer (Tecoflex SG80A) under the same conditions. In vitro toxicity studies showed that while the soluble EMHPs inhibited the growth of primary porcine vocal fold fibroblasts (PVFFs) at concentrations ≥0.2 mg/mL, the cross-linked hybrid elastomers did not leach out any toxic reagents and allowed PVFFs to grow and proliferate normally. The hybrid and modular approach provides a new strategy for developing elastomeric scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:19763157

  17. Effect of connexin 43 inhibition by the mimetic peptide Gap27 on corneal wound healing, inflammation and neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Pierfrancesco; Xeroudaki, Maria; Parekh, Mohit; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Cagini, Carlo; Ponzin, Diego; Lagali, Neil; Ferrari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The connexin 43 (Cx43) mimetic peptide Gap27 was designed to transiently block the function of this gap junction. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Gap27 on corneal healing, inflammation and neovascularization. Experimental Approach The effect of Gap27 on wound healing, inflammation and vascularization was assessed in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) in vitro and whole human corneas ex vivo, and in an in vivo rat wound healing model. Key Results Gap27 enhanced the wound closure of HCEC in vitro and accelerated wound closure and stratification of epithelium in human corneas ex vivo, but did not suppress the corneal release of inflammatory mediators IL‐6 or TNF‐α in vivo. In human corneas ex vivo, F4/80 positive macrophages were observed around the wound site. In vivo, topical Gap27 treatment enhanced the speed and density of early granulocyte infiltration into rat corneas. After 7 days, the expressions of TNF‐α and TGFβ1 were elevated and correlated with inflammatory cell accumulation in the tissue. Additionally, Gap27 did not suppress VEGF release in organotypic culture, nor did it suppress early or late VEGFA expression or neovascularization in vivo. Conclusions and Implications Gap27 can be effective in promoting the healing of superficial epithelial wounds, but in deep stromal wounds it has the potential to promote inflammatory cell migration and accumulation in the tissue and does not suppress the subsequent neovascularization response. These results support the proposal that Gap27 acts as a healing agent in the transient, early stages of corneal epithelial wounding. PMID:27472295

  18. Rediscovering Chemical Gardens: Self-Assembling Cytocompatible Protein-Intercalated Silicate-Phosphate Sponge-Mimetic Tubules.

    PubMed

    Punia, Kamia; Bucaro, Michael; Mancuso, Andrew; Cuttitta, Christina; Marsillo, Alexandra; Bykov, Alexey; L'Amoreaux, William; Raja, Krishnaswami S

    2016-08-30

    The classic chemical garden experiment is reconstructed to produce protein-intercalated silicate-phosphate tubules that resemble tubular sponges. The constructs were synthesized by seeding calcium chloride into a solution of sodium silicate-potassium phosphate and gelatin. Sponge-mimetic tubules were fabricated with varying percentages of gelatin (0-15% w/v), in diameters ranging from 200 μm to 2 mm, characterized morphologically and compositionally, functionalized with biomolecules for cell adhesion, and evaluated for cytocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDS) experiments showed that the external surface of the tubules was relatively more amorphous in texture and carbon/protein-rich in comparison to the interior surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate a network composed of gelatin incorporated into the inorganic scaffold. The presence of gelatin in the constructs was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify inorganic crystalline phases in the scaffolds that are mainly composed of Ca(OH)2, NaCl, and Ca2SiO4 along with a band corresponding to amorphous gelatin. Bioconjugation and coating protocols were developed to program the scaffolds with cues for cell adhesion, and the resulting constructs were employed for 3D cell culture of marine (Pyrocystis lunula) and mammalian (HeLa and H9C2) cell lines. The cytocompatibility of the constructs was demonstrated by live cell assays. We have successfully shown that these biomimetic materials can indeed support life; they serve as scaffolds that facilitate the attachment and assembly of individual cells to form multicellular entities, thereby revisiting the 350-year-old effort to link chemical gardens with the origins of life. Hybrid chemical garden biomaterials are programmable, readily fabricated and could be employed in tissue engineering, biomolecular materials development, 3D mammalian

  19. Allosteric Inhibition of Factor XIIIa. Non-Saccharide Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics, but Not Glycosaminoglycans, Exhibit Promising Inhibition Profile

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Rami A.; Karuturi, Rajesh; Lee, Michael; Afosah, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) is a transglutaminase that catalyzes the last step in the coagulation process. Orthostery is the only approach that has been exploited to design FXIIIa inhibitors. Yet, allosteric inhibition of FXIIIa is a paradigm that may offer a key advantage of controlled inhibition over orthosteric inhibition. Such an approach is likely to lead to novel FXIIIa inhibitors that do not carry bleeding risks. We reasoned that targeting a collection of basic amino acid residues distant from FXIIIa’s active site by using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or non-saccharide GAG mimetics (NSGMs) would lead to the discovery of the first allosteric FXIIIa inhibitors. We tested a library of 22 variably sulfated GAGs and NSGMs against human FXIIIa to discover promising hits. Interestingly, although some GAGs bound to FXIIIa better than NSGMs, no GAG displayed any inhibition. An undecasulfated quercetin analog was found to inhibit FXIIIa with reasonable potency (efficacy of 98%). Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Fluorescence studies confirmed close correspondence between binding affinity and inhibition potency, as expected for an allosteric process. The inhibitor was reversible and at least 9-fold- and 26-fold selective over two GAG-binding proteins factor Xa (efficacy of 71%) and thrombin, respectively, and at least 27-fold selective over a cysteine protease papain. The inhibitor also inhibited the FXIIIa-mediated polymerization of fibrin in vitro. Overall, our work presents the proof-of-principle that FXIIIa can be allosterically modulated by sulfated non-saccharide agents much smaller than GAGs, which should enable the design of selective and safe anticoagulants. PMID:27467511

  20. CARP-1 Functional Mimetics Are a Novel Class of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Magesh; Munie, Sara; Levi, Edi; Ashour, Abdelkader E.; Pass, Harvey I.; Wali, Anil; Singh, Mandip; Rishi, Arun K.

    2014-01-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an asbestos-related thoracic malignancy that is characterized by late metastases, and resistance to therapeutic modalities. The toxic side-effects of MPM therapies often limit their clinical effectiveness, thus necessitating development of new agents to effectively treat and manage this disease in clinic. CARP-1 functional mimetics (CFMs) are a novel class of compounds that inhibit growth of diverse cancer cell types. Here we investigated MPM cell growth suppression by the CFMs and the molecular mechanisms involved. CFM-1, -4, and -5 inhibited MPM cell growth, in vitro, in part by stimulating apoptosis. Apoptosis by CFM-4 involved activation of pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) p38 and JNK, elevated CARP-1 expression, cleavage of PARP1, and loss of the oncogene c-myc as well as mitotic cyclin B1. Treatments of MPM cells with CFM-4 resulted in depletion of NF-κB signaling inhibitor ABIN1 and Inhibitory κB (IκB)α and β, while increasing expression of pro-apoptotic death receptor (DR) 4 protein. CFM-4 enhanced expression of serine-phosphorylated podoplanin and cleavage of vimetin. CFMs also attenuated biological properties of the MPM cells by blocking their abilities to migrate, form colonies in suspension, and invade through the matrix-coated membranes. Both podoplanin and vimentin regulate processes of cell motility and invasion, and their expression often correlates with metastatic disease, and poor prognosis. The fact that phosphorylation of serines in the cytoplasmic domain of podoplanin interferes with processes of cellular motility, CFM-4-dependent elevated phosphorylated podoplanin and cleavage of vimentin underscore a metastasis inhibitory property of these compounds, and suggest that CFMs and/or their future analogs have potential as anti-MPM agents. PMID:24598827

  1. Allosteric activation of protein phosphatase 2C by D-chiro-inositol-galactosamine, a putative mediator mimetic of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Brautigan, D L; Brown, M; Grindrod, S; Chinigo, G; Kruszewski, A; Lukasik, S M; Bushweller, J H; Horal, M; Keller, S; Tamura, S; Heimark, D B; Price, J; Larner, A N; Larner, J

    2005-08-23

    Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle proceeds predominantly through a nonoxidative pathway with glycogen synthase as a rate-limiting enzyme, yet the mechanisms for insulin activation of glycogen synthase are not understood despite years of investigation. Isolation of putative insulin second messengers from beef liver yielded a pseudo-disaccharide consisting of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) beta-1,4 linked to galactosamine chelated with Mn(2+) (called INS2). Here we show that chemically synthesized INS2 has biological activity that significantly enhances insulin reduction of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin diabetic rats. We used computer modeling to dock INS2 onto the known three-dimensional crystal structure of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Modeling and FlexX/CScore energy minimization predicted a unique favorable site on PP2C for INS2 in a surface cleft adjacent to the catalytic center. Binding of INS2 is predicted to involve formation of multiple H-bonds, including one with residue Asp163. Wild-type PP2C activity assayed with a phosphopeptide substrate was potently stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by INS2. In contrast, the D163A mutant of PP2C was not activated by INS2. The D163A mutant and wild-type PP2C in the absence of INS2 had the same Mn(2+)-dependent phosphatase activity with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate, showing that this mutation did not disrupt the catalytic site. We propose that INS2 allosterically activates PP2C, fulfilling the role of a putative mediator mimetic of insulin signaling to promote protein dephosphorylation and metabolic responses.

  2. In vitro permeation and disposition of niacinamide in silicone and porcine skin of skin barrier-mimetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Haque, Tasnuva; Lane, Majella E; Sil, Bruno C; Crowther, Jonathan M; Moore, David J

    2017-03-30

    Niacinamide (NIA) is an amide form of vitamin B3 which is used in cosmetic formulations to improve various skin conditions and it has also been shown to increase stratum corneum thickness following repeated application. In this study, three doses (5, 20 and 50μL per cm(2)) of two NIA containing oil-in-water skin barrier-mimetic formulations were evaluated in silicone membrane and porcine ear skin and compared with a commercial control formulation. Permeation studies were conducted over 24h in Franz cells and at the end of the experiment membranes were washed and niacinamide was extracted. For the three doses, retention or deposition of NIA was generally higher in porcine skin compared with silicone membrane, consistent with the hydrophilic nature of the active. Despite the control containing a higher amount of active, comparable amounts of NIA were deposited in skin for all formulations for all doses; total skin absorption values (permeation and retention) of NIA were also comparable across all formulations. For infinite (50μL) and finite (5μL) doses the absolute permeation of NIA from the control formulation was significantly higher in porcine skin compared with both test formulations. This likely reflects differences in formulation components and/or presence of skin penetration enhancers in the formulations. Higher permeation for the 50 and 20μL dose was also evident in porcine skin compared with silicone membrane but the opposite is the case for the finite dose. The findings point to the critical importance of dose and occlusion when evaluating topical formulations in vitro and also the likelihood of exaggerated effects of excipients on permeation at infinite and pseudo-finite dose applications.

  3. Molecular determinants of Smac mimetic induced degradation of cIAP1 and cIAP2.

    PubMed

    Darding, M; Feltham, R; Tenev, T; Bianchi, K; Benetatos, C; Silke, J; Meier, P

    2011-08-01

    The inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins cIAP1 and cIAP2 have recently emerged as key ubiquitin-E3 ligases regulating innate immunity and cell survival. Much of our knowledge of these IAPs stems from studies using pharmacological inhibitors of IAPs, dubbed Smac mimetics (SMs). Although SMs stimulate auto-ubiquitylation and degradation of cIAPs, little is known about the molecular determinants through which SMs activate the E3 activities of cIAPs. In this study, we find that SM-induced rapid degradation of cIAPs requires binding to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). Moreover, our data reveal an unexpected difference between cIAP1 and cIAP2. Although SM-induced degradation of cIAP1 does not require cIAP2, degradation of cIAP2 critically depends on the presence of cIAP1. In addition, degradation of cIAP2 also requires the ability of the cIAP2 RING finger to dimerise and to bind to E2s. This has important implications because SM-mediated degradation of cIAP1 causes non-canonical activation of NF-κB, which results in the induction of cIAP2 gene expression. In the absence of cIAP1, de novo synthesised cIAP2 is resistant to the SM and suppresses TNFα killing. Furthermore, the cIAP2-MALT1 oncogene, which lacks cIAP2's RING, is resistant to SM treatment. The identification of mechanisms through which cancer cells resist SM treatment will help to improve combination therapies aimed at enhancing treatment response.

  4. Regional Variation in Use of a New Class of Antidiabetic Medication Among Medicare Beneficiaries: The Case of Incretin Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Marcum, Zachary A.; Driessen, Julia; Thorpe, Carolyn T.; Donohue, Julie M.; Gellad, Walid F.

    2016-01-01

    Background When incretin mimetic (IM) medications were introduced in 2005, their effectiveness compared other less-expensive second-line diabetes therapies was unknown, especially for older adults. Physicians likely had uncertainty about the role of IMs in the diabetes treatment armamentarium. Regional variation in uptake of IMs may be marker of such uncertainty. Objective To investigate the extent of regional variation in the use of IMs among beneficiaries and estimate the cost implications for Medicare. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2009–2010 claims from a nationally representative sample of 238 499 Medicare Part D beneficiaries aged ≥65 years, who were continuously enrolled in fee-for-service Medicare and Part D and filled ≥1 antidiabetic prescription. Beneficiaries were assigned to 1 306 hospital-referral regions (HRRs) using ZIP codes. The main outcome was adjusted proportion of antidiabetic users an HRR receiving an IM. Results Overall, 29 933 beneficiaries (12.6%) filled an IM prescription, including 26 939 (11. for sitagliptin or saxagliptin and 3718 (1.6%) for exenatide or liraglutide. The adjusted proportion of beneficiaries using varied more than 3-fold across HRRs, from 5th and 95th percentiles of 5.2% to 17.0%. Compared with non-IM users, users faced a 155% higher annual Part D plan ($1067 vs $418) and 144% higher patient ($369 vs $151) costs for antidiabetic prescriptions. Conclusion Among older Part D beneficiaries using antidiabetic drugs, substantial regional variation in the use of IMs, not accounted for by sociodemographics and health status. IM use was associated with substantially greater costs for Part D plans and beneficiaries. PMID:25515869

  5. Thrombogenic collagen-mimetic peptides: Self-assembly of triple helix-based fibrils driven by hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Cejas, Mabel A; Kinney, William A; Chen, Cailin; Vinter, Jeremy G; Almond, Harold R; Balss, Karin M; Maryanoff, Cynthia A; Schmidt, Ute; Breslav, Michael; Mahan, Andrew; Lacy, Eilyn; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2008-06-24

    Collagens are integral structural proteins in animal tissues and play key functional roles in cellular modulation. We sought to discover collagen model peptides (CMPs) that would form triple helices and self-assemble into supramolecular fibrils exhibiting collagen-like biological activity without preorganizing the peptide chains by covalent linkages. This challenging objective was accomplished by placing aromatic groups on the ends of a representative 30-mer CMP, (GPO)(10), as with l-phenylalanine and l-pentafluorophenylalanine in 32-mer 1a. Computational studies on homologous 29-mers 1a'-d' (one less GPO), as pairs of triple helices interacting head-to-tail, yielded stabilization energies in the order 1a' > 1b' > 1c' > 1d', supporting the hypothesis that hydrophobic aromatic groups can drive CMP self-assembly. Peptides 1a-d were studied comparatively relative to structural properties and ability to stimulate human platelets. Although each 32-mer formed stable triple helices (CD) spectroscopy, only 1a and 1b self-assembled into micrometer-scale fibrils. Light microscopy images for 1a depicted long collagen-like fibrils, whereas images for 1d did not. Atomic force microscopy topographical images indicated that 1a and 1b self-organize into microfibrillar species, whereas 1c and 1d do not. Peptides 1a and 1b induced the aggregation of human blood platelets with a potency similar to type I collagen, whereas 1c was much less effective, and 1d was inactive (EC(50) potency: 1a/1b > 1c > 1d). Thus, 1a and 1b spontaneously self-assemble into thrombogenic collagen-mimetic materials because of hydrophobic aromatic interactions provided by the special end-groups. These findings have important implications for the design of biofunctional CMPs.

  6. The selective Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax, a BH3 mimetic, does not dysregulate intracellular Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Vervloessem, Tamara; Ivanova, Hristina; Luyten, Tomas; Parys, Jan B; Bultynck, Geert

    2016-11-30

    Anti-apoptotic B cell-lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) proteins are emerging as therapeutic targets in a variety of cancers for precision medicines, like the BH3-mimetic drug venetoclax (ABT-199), which antagonizes the hydrophobic cleft of Bcl-2. However, the impact of venetoclax on intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics in cell systems has not been characterized in detail. Here, we show that venetoclax did not affect Ca(2+)-transport systems from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in permeabilized cell systems. Venetoclax (1μM) did neither trigger Ca(2+) release by itself nor affect agonist-induced Ca(2+) release in a variety of intact cell models. Among the different cell types, we also studied two Bcl-2-dependent cancer cell models with a varying sensitivity towards venetoclax, namely SU-DHL-4 and OCI-LY-1, both diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cell lines. Acute application of venetoclax did also not dysregulate Ca(2+) signaling in these Bcl-2-dependent cancer cells. Moreover, venetoclax-induced cell death was independent of intracellular Ca(2+) overload, since Ca(2+) buffering using BAPTA-AM did not suppress venetoclax-induced cell death. This study therefore shows that venetoclax does not dysregulate the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis in a variety of cell types, which may underlie its limited toxicity in human patients. Furthermore, venetoclax-induced cell death in Bcl-2-dependent cancer cells is not mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) overload. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech.

  7. Protective effects of a superoxide dismutase mimetic and peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts in endotoxin-induced intestinal damage

    PubMed Central

    Salvemini, Daniela; Riley, Dennis P; Lennon, Patrick J; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Currie, Mark G; Macarthur, Heather; Misko, Thomas P

    1999-01-01

    The relative contributions of superoxide anion (O2−) and peroxynitrite (PN) were evaluated in the pathogenesis of intestinal microvascular damage caused by the intravenous injection of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in rats. The superoxide dismutase mimetic (SODm) SC-55858 and the active peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-disulphonatophenyl)-porphyrinato iron (III) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(N-methyl-4′-pyridyl)-porphyrinato iron (III) (FeTMPS, FeTMPyP respectively) were used to assess the roles of O2− and PN respectively. The intravenous injection of LPS elicited an inflammatory response that was characterized by a time-dependent infiltration of neutrophils, lipid peroxidation, microvascular leakage (indicative of microvascular damage), and epithelial cell injury in both the duodenum and jejunum. Administration of the SODm SC-55858, FeTMPS or FeTMPyP at 3 h post LPS reduced the subsequent increase in microvascular leakage, lipid peroxidation and epithelial cell injury. Inactive peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts exhibited no protective effects. Only, SC-55858 inhibited neutrophil infiltration. Our results suggest that O2− and peroxynitrite play a significant role in the pathogenesis of duodenal and intestinal injury during endotoxaemia and that their removal by SODm and peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts offers a novel approach to the treatment of septic shock or clinical conditions of gastrointestinal inflammation. Furthermore, the remarkable protection of the intestinal epithelium by these agents suggests their use during chemo- and radiation therapy, cancer treatments characterized by gastrointestinal damage. Potential mechanisms through which these radicals evoke damage are discussed. PMID:10401559

  8. Ochre Bathing of the Bearded Vulture: A Bio-Mimetic Model for Early Humans towards Smell Prevention and Health

    PubMed Central

    Tributsch, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary The once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus) has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide-ochre-tainted water puddles. Primitive man may have tried to find out why: ochre is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. There is consequently a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud and this explains why prehistoric people included ochre use into their habits and rituals. Abstract Since primordial times, vultures have been competing with man for animal carcasses. One of these vultures, the once widespread bearded vulture (Gypaetus barbatus), has the habit of bathing its polluted feathers and skin in red iron oxide - ochre - tainted water puddles. Why? Primitive man may have tried to find out and may have discovered its advantages. Red ochre, which has accompanied human rituals and everyday life for more than 100,000 years, is not just a simple red paint for decoration or a symbol for blood. As modern experiments demonstrate, it is active in sunlight producing aggressive chemical species. They can kill viruses and bacteria and convert smelly organic substances into volatile neutral carbon dioxide gas. In this way, ochre can in sunlight sterilize and clean the skin to provide health and comfort and make it scentless, a definitive advantage for nomadic meat hunters. This research thus also demonstrates a sanitary reason for the vulture’s habit of bathing in red ochre mud. Prehistoric people have therefore included ochre use into their rituals, especially into those in relation to birth and death. Significant ritual impulses during evolution of man may thus have developed bio-mimetically, inspired from the habits of a vulture. It is discussed how this health strategy could be developed to a modern standard helping to fight antibiotics-resistant bacteria in

  9. In vitro anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activities of transition state mimetic HIV protease inhibitors containing allophenylnorstatine.

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, S; Mimoto, T; Murakawa, Y; Nomizu, M; Ford, H; Shirasaka, T; Gulnik, S; Erickson, J; Takada, K; Hayashi, H

    1993-01-01

    Transition state mimetic tripeptide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors containing allophenylnorstatine [(2S,3S)-3-amino-2-hydroxy-4-phenylbutyric acid] were synthesized and tested for activity against HIV in vitro. Two compounds, KNI-227 and KNI-272, which were highly potent against HIV protease with little inhibition of other aspartic proteases, showed the most potent activity against the infectivity and cytopathic effect of a wide spectrum of HIV strains. As tested in target CD4+ ATH8 cells, the 50% inhibitory concentrations of KNI-227 against HIV type 1 LAI (HIV-1LAI), HIV-1RF, HIV-1MN, and HIV-2ROD were 0.1, 0.02, 0.03, and 0.1 microM, respectively, while those of KNI-272 were 0.1, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.1 microM, respectively. Both agents completely blocked the replication of 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine-sensitive and -insensitive clinical HIV-1 isolates at 0.08 microM as tested in target phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The ratios of 50% cytotoxic concentrations to 50% inhibitory concentrations for KNI-227 and KNI-272 were approximately 2,500 and > 4,000, respectively, as assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both compounds blocked the posttranslational cleavage of the p55 precursor protein to generate the mature p24 Gag protein in stably HIV-1-infected cells. The n-octanol-water partition coefficients of KNI-227 and KNI-272 were high, with log Po/w values of 3.79 and 3.56, respectively. Degradation of KNI-227 and KNI-272 in the presence of pepsin (1 mg/ml, pH 2.2) at 37 degrees C for 24 h was negligible. Current data warrant further careful investigations toward possible clinical application of these two novel compounds. Images PMID:8494379

  10. Applying the Fe(III) binding property of a chemical transferrin mimetic to Ti(IV) anticancer drug design.

    PubMed

    Parks, Timothy B; Cruz, Yahaira M; Tinoco, Arthur D

    2014-02-03

    As an endogenous serum protein binder of Ti(IV), transferrin (Tf) serves as an excellent vehicle to stabilize the hydrolysis prone metal ion and successfully transport it into cells. This transporting role is thought to be central to Ti(IV)'s anticancer function, but efforts to synthesize Ti(IV) compounds targeting transferrin have not produced a drug. Nonetheless, the Ti(IV) transferrin complex (Ti2Tf) greatly informs on a new Ti(IV)-based anticancer drug design strategy. Ti2Tf interferes with cellular uptake of Fe(III), which is particularly detrimental to cancer cells because of their higher requirement for iron. Ti(IV) compounds of chemical transferrin mimetic (cTfm) ligands were designed to facilitate Ti(IV) activity by attenuating Fe(III) intracellular levels. In having a higher affinity for Fe(III) than Ti(IV), these ligands feature the appropriate balance between stability and lability to effectively transport Ti(IV) into cancer cells, release Ti(IV) via displacement by Fe(III), and deplete the intracellular Fe(III) levels. The cTfm ligand N,N'-di(o-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (HBED) was selected to explore the feasibility of the design strategy. Kinetic studies on the Fe(III) displacement process revealed that Ti(IV) can be transported and released into cells by HBED on a physiologically relevant time scale. Cell viability studies using A549 cancerous and MRC5 normal human lung cells and testing the cytotoxicity of HBED and its Ti(IV), Fe(III), and Ga(III) compounds demonstrate the importance of Fe(III) depletion in the proposed drug design strategy and the specificity of the strategy for Ti(IV) activity. The readily derivatized cTfm ligands demonstrate great promise for improved Ti(IV) anticancer drugs.

  11. The FKBP-rapamycin binding domain of human TOR undergoes strong conformational changes in the presence of membrane mimetics with and without the regulator phosphatidic acid.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Camargo, Diana C; Link, Nina M; Dames, Sonja A

    2012-06-19

    The Ser/Thr kinase target of rapamycin (TOR) is a central controller of cellular growth and metabolism. Misregulation of TOR signaling is involved in metabolic and neurological disorders and tumor formation. TOR can be inhibited by association of a complex of rapamycin and FKBP12 to the FKBP12-rapamycin binding (FRB) domain. This domain was further proposed to interact with phosphatidic acid (PA), a lipid second messenger present in cellular membranes. Because mammalian TOR has been localized at various cellular membranes and in the nucleus, the output of TOR signaling may depend on its localization, which is expected to be influenced by the interaction with complex partners and regulators in response to cellular signals. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the interaction of the FRB domain with PA and how it is influenced by the surrounding membrane environment. On the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance- and circular dichroism-monitored binding studies using different neutral and negatively charged lipids as well as different membrane mimetics (micelles, bicelles, and liposomes), the FRB domain may function as a conditional peripheral membrane protein. However, the data for the isolated domain just indicate an increased affinity for negatively charged lipids and membrane patches but no specific preference for PA or PA-enriched regions. The membrane-mimetic environment induces strong conformational changes that largely maintain the α-helical secondary structure content but presumably disperse the helices in the lipidic environment. Consistent with overlapping binding surfaces for different lipids and the FKBP12-rapamycin complex, binding of the inhibitor complex protects the FRB domain from interactions with membrane mimetics at lower lipid concentrations.

  12. Peptide Mimetic of the S100A4 Protein Modulates Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Attenuates the Progression of Neuropathy in Myelin Protein P0 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Mihai; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Fugleholm, Kåre; Klingelhofer, Jorg; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir; Krarup, Christian; Kiryushko, Darya

    2013-01-01

    We recently found that S100A4, a member of the multifunctional S100 protein family, protects neurons in the injured brain and identified two sequence motifs in S100A4 mediating its neurotrophic effect. Synthetic peptides encompassing these motifs stimulated neuritogenesis and survival in vitro and mimicked the S100A4-induced neuroprotection in brain trauma. Here, we investigated a possible function of S100A4 and its mimetics in the pathologies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We found that S100A4 was expressed in the injured PNS and that its peptide mimetic (H3) affected the regeneration and survival of myelinated axons. H3 accelerated electrophysiological, behavioral and morphological recovery after sciatic nerve crush while transiently delaying regeneration after sciatic nerve transection and repair. On the basis of the finding that both S100A4 and H3 increased neurite branching in vitro, these effects were attributed to the modulatory effect of H3 on initial axonal sprouting. In contrast to the modest effect of H3 on the time course of regeneration, H3 had a long-term neuroprotective effect in the myelin protein P0 null mice, a model of dysmyelinating neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease), where the peptide attenuated the deterioration of nerve conduction, demyelination and axonal loss. From these results, S100A4 mimetics emerge as a possible means to enhance axonal sprouting and survival, especially in the context of demyelinating neuropathies with secondary axonal loss, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease. Moreover, our data suggest that S100A4 is a neuroprotectant in PNS and that other S100 proteins, sharing high homology in the H3 motif, may have important functions in PNS pathologies. PMID:23508572

  13. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis and Testing of Non-Peptide, Cell-Permeable, Potent Small Molecule Smac Mimetics as a New Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Jianfeng Lu+, Jennifer L. Meagher∃, Chao -Yie Yang+, Su Qiu+, York Tomita¶, Yumi Ueda¶, Sheng Jiang#, Krzysztof Krajewski#, Peter P. Roller#, Jeanne A...in the presence of puromycin from EMD Biosciences (2 µg/ml). Cell growth assay The effect of Smac mimetics on HL-60 cell growth was evaluated by a...BIR3 Domains in XIAP Haiying Sun+, Zaneta Nikolovska-Coleska+, Jianfeng Lu+, Jennifer L. Meagher∃, Chao -Yie Yang+, Su Qiu+, York Tomita¶, Yumi

  14. Reaction kinetics and targeting to cellular glutathione S-transferase of the glutathione peroxidase mimetic PhSeZnCl and its D,L-polylactide microparticle formulation.

    PubMed

    Bartolini, D; Piroddi, M; Tidei, C; Giovagnoli, S; Pietrella, D; Manevich, Y; Tew, K D; Giustarini, D; Rossi, R; Townsend, D M; Santi, C; Galli, F

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic properties and cellular effects of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-mimetic compound PhSeZnCl or its d,l-lactide polymer microencapsulation form (M-PhSeZnCl) were investigated and compared with the prototypical Se-organic compounds ebselen and diselenide (PhSe)2. PhSeZnCl was confirmed to catalyze the ping-pong reaction of GPx with higher Vmax than ebselen and (PhSe)2, but the catalytic efficiency calculated for the cosubstrates glutathione (GSH) and H2O2, and particularly the high reactivity against thiols (lowest KM for GSH in the series of test molecules), suggested poor biological applicability of PhSeZnCl as a GPx mimetic. Cytotoxicity of PhSeZnCl was demonstrated in various cancer cell lines via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, depletion of intracellular thiols, and induction of apoptosis. Experiments carried out in GSH S-transferase P (GSTP)-overexpressing K562 human erythroleukemia cells and in GSTP1-1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated that this cytosolic enzyme represents a preferential target of the redox disturbances produced by this Se-compound with a key role in controlling H2O2 generation and the perturbation of stress/survival kinase signaling. Microencapsulation was adopted as a strategy to control the thiol reactivity and oxidative stress effects of PhSeZnCl, then assessing applications alternative to anticancer. The uptake of this "depowered" GPx-mimetic formulation, which occurred through an endocytosis-like mechanism, resulted in a marked reduction of cytotoxicity. In MCF-7 cells transfected with different allelic variants of GSTP, M-PhSeZnCl lowered the burst of cellular ROS induced by the exposure to extracellular H2O2, and the extent of this effect changed between the GSTP variants. Microencapsulation is a straightforward strategy to mitigate the toxicity of thiol-reactive Se-organic drugs that enhanced the antioxidant and cellular protective effects of PhSeZnCl. A mechanistic linkage of

  15. Age-related decline of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit expression in the auditory cortex of the mimetic aging rat model associated with the common deletion.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yi; Hu, Yujuan; Peng, Wei; Sun, Yu; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xueyan; Huang, Xiang; Zhang, Honglian; Kong, Weijia

    2012-12-01

    The age-related deterioration in the central auditory system is well known to impair the abilities of sound localization and speech perception. However, the mechanisms involved in the age-related central auditory deficiency remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions accumulated with age in the auditory system. Also, a cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) deficiency has been proposed to be a causal factor in the age-related decline in mitochondrial respiratory activity. This study was designed to explore the changes of CcO activity and to investigate the possible relationship between the mtDNA common deletion (CD) and CcO activity as well as the mRNA expression of CcO subunits in the auditory cortex of D-galactose (D-gal)-induced mimetic aging rats at different ages. Moreover, we explored whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) were involved in the changes of nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded CcO subunits in the auditory cortex during aging. Our data demonstrated that d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats exhibited an accelerated accumulation of the CD and a gradual decline in the CcO activity in the auditory cortex during the aging process. The reduction in the CcO activity was correlated with the level of CD load in the auditory cortex. The mRNA expression of CcO subunit III was reduced significantly with age in the d-gal-induced mimetic aging rats. In contrast, the decline in the mRNA expression of subunits I and IV was relatively minor. Additionally, significant increases in the mRNA and protein levels of PGC-1α, NRF-1 and TFAM were observed in the auditory cortex of D-gal-induced mimetic aging rats with aging. These findings suggested that the accelerated accumulation of the CD in the auditory cortex may induce a substantial decline in CcO subunit III and lead to a significant decline in the Cc

  16. A mass, energy, enstrophy and vorticity conserving (MEEVC) mimetic spectral element discretization for the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palha, A.; Gerritsma, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present a mimetic spectral element discretization for the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that in the limit of vanishing dissipation exactly preserves mass, kinetic energy, enstrophy and total vorticity on unstructured triangular grids. The essential ingredients to achieve this are: (i) a velocity-vorticity formulation in rotational form, (ii) a sequence of function spaces capable of exactly satisfying the divergence free nature of the velocity field, and (iii) a conserving time integrator. Proofs for the exact discrete conservation properties are presented together with numerical test cases on highly irregular triangular grids.

  17. Substrate-Independent Robust and Heparin-Mimetic Hydrogel Thin Film Coating via Combined LbL Self-Assembly and Mussel-Inspired Post-Cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lang; Cheng, Chong; He, Chao; Nie, Chuanxiong; Deng, Jie; Sun, Shudong; Zhao, Changsheng

    2015-12-02

    In this work, we designed a robust and heparin-mimetic hydrogel thin film coating via combined layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly and mussel-inspired post-cross-linking. Dopamine-grafted heparin-like/-mimetic polymers (DA-g-HepLP) with abundant carboxylic and sulfonic groups were synthesized by the conjugation of adhesive molecule, DA, which exhibited substrate-independent adhesive affinity to various solid surfaces because of the formation of irreversible covalent bonds. The hydrogel thin film coated substrates were prepared by a three-step reaction: First, the substrates were coated with DA-g-HepLP to generate negatively charged surfaces. Then, multilayers were obtained via LbL coating of chitosan and the DA-g-HepLP. Finally, the noncovalent multilayers were oxidatively cross-linked by NaIO4. Surface ATR-FTIR and XPS spectra confirmed the successful fabrication of the hydrogel thin film coatings onto membrane substrates; SEM images revealed that the substrate-independent coatings owned 3D porous morphology. The soaking tests in highly alkaline, acid, and concentrated salt solutions indicated that the cross-linked hydrogel thin film coatings owned high chemical resistance. In comparison, the soaking tests in physiological solution indicated that the cross-linked hydrogel coatings owned excellent long-term stability. The live/dead cell staining and morphology observations of the adhered cells revealed that the heparin-mimetic hydrogel thin film coated substrates had low cell toxicity and high promotion ability for cell proliferation. Furthermore, systematic in vitro investigations of protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, blood clotting, and blood-related complement activation confirmed that the hydrogel film coated substrates showed excellent hemocompatibility. Both the results of inhibition zone and bactericidal activity indicated that the gentamycin sulfate loaded hydrogel thin films had significant inhibition capability toward both Escherichia coli and

  18. Reaction kinetics and targeting to cellular glutathione S-transferase of the glutathione peroxidase mimetic PhSeZnCl and its d,l-polylactide microparticle formulation

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, D.; Piroddi, M.; Tidei, C.; Giovagnoli, S.; Pietrella, D.; Manevich, Y.; Tew, K.D.; Giustarini, D.; Rossi, R.; Townsend, D.M.; Santi, C.; Galli, F.

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic properties and cellular effects of the glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-mimetic compound PhSeZnCl or its d,l-lactide polymer microencapsulation form (M-PhSeZnCl) were investigated and compared with the prototypical Se-organic compounds ebselen and diselenide (PhSe)2. PhSeZnCl was confirmed to catalyze the ping-pong reaction of GPx with higher Vmax than ebselen and (PhSe)2, but the catalytic efficiency calculated for the cosubstrates glutathione (GSH) and H2O2, and particularly the high reactivity against thiols (lowest KM for GSH in the series of test molecules), suggested poor biological applicability of PhSeZnCl as a GPx mimetic. Cytotoxicity of PhSeZnCl was demonstrated in various cancer cell lines via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, depletion of intracellular thiols, and induction of apoptosis. Experiments carried out in GSH S-transferase P (GSTP)-overexpressing K562 human erythroleukemia cells and in GSTP1-1-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated that this cytosolic enzyme represents a preferential target of the redox disturbances produced by this Se-compound with a key role in controlling H2O2 generation and the perturbation of stress/survival kinase signaling. Microencapsulation was adopted as a strategy to control the thiol reactivity and oxidative stress effects of PhSeZnCl, then assessing applications alternative to anticancer. The uptake of this “depowered” GPx-mimetic formulation, which occurred through an endocytosis-like mechanism, resulted in a marked reduction of cytotoxicity. In MCF-7 cells transfected with different allelic variants of GSTP, M-PhSeZnCl lowered the burst of cellular ROS induced by the exposure to extracellular H2O2, and the extent of this effect changed between the GSTP variants. Microencapsulation is a straightforward strategy to mitigate the toxicity of thiol-reactive Se-organic drugs that enhanced the antioxidant and cellular protective effects of PhSeZnCl. A mechanistic linkage

  19. A screening strategy for the discovery of drugs that reduce C/EBPβ-LIP translation with potential calorie restriction mimetic properties

    PubMed Central

    Zaini, Mohamad A.; Müller, Christine; Ackermann, Tobias; Reinshagen, Jeanette; Kortman, Gertrud; Pless, Ole; Calkhoven, Cornelis F.

    2017-01-01

    An important part of the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) on healthspan and lifespan is mediated through regulation of protein synthesis that is under control of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). As one of its activities, mTORC1 stimulates translation into the metabolic transcription factor CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein β (C/EBPβ) isoform Liver-specific Inhibitory Protein (LIP). Regulation of LIP expression strictly depends on a translation re-initiation event that requires a conserved cis-regulatory upstream open reading frame (uORF) in the C/EBPβ-mRNA. We showed before that suppression of LIP in mice, reflecting reduced mTORC1-signaling at the C/EBPβ level, results in CR-type of metabolic improvements. Hence, we aim to find possibilities to pharmacologically down-regulate LIP in order to induce CR-mimetic effects. We engineered a luciferase-based cellular reporter system that acts as a surrogate for C/EBPβ-mRNA translation, emulating uORF-dependent C/EBPβ-LIP expression under different translational conditions. By using the reporter system in a high-throughput screening (HTS) strategy we identified drugs that reduce LIP. The drug Adefovir Dipivoxil passed all counter assays and increases fatty acid β-oxidation in a hepatoma cell line in a LIP-dependent manner. Therefore, these drugs that suppress translation into LIP potentially exhibit CR-mimetic properties. PMID:28198412

  20. Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle peroxidase mimetic-based colorimetric assay for the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticide and nerve agent.

    PubMed

    Liang, Minmin; Fan, Kelong; Pan, Yong; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Fei; Yang, Dongling; Lu, Di; Feng, Jing; Zhao, Jianjun; Yang, Liu; Yan, Xiyun

    2013-01-02

    Rapid and sensitive detection methods are in urgent demand for the screening of extensively used organophosphorus pesticides and highly toxic nerve agents for their neurotoxicity. In this study, we developed a novel Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) peroxidase mimetic-based colorimetric method for the rapid detection of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. The detection assay is composed of MNPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and choline oxidase (CHO). The enzymes AChE and CHO catalyze the formation of H(2)O(2) in the presence of acetylcholine, which then activates MNPs to catalyze the oxidation of colorimetric substrates to produce a color reaction. After incubation with the organophosphorus neurotoxins, the enzymatic activity of AChE was inhibited and produced less H(2)O(2), resulting in a decreased catalytic oxidation of colorimetric substrates over MNP peroxidase mimetics, accompanied by a drop in color intensity. Three organophosphorus compounds were tested on the assay: acephate and methyl-paraoxon as representative organophosphorus pesticides and the nerve agent Sarin. The novel assay displayed substantial color change after incubation in organophosphorus neurotoxins in a concentration-dependent manner. As low as 1 nM Sarin, 10 nM methyl-paraoxon, and 5 μM acephate are easily detected by the novel assay. In conclusion, by employing the peroxidase-mimicking activity of MNPs, the developed colorimetric assay has the potential of becoming a screening tool for the rapid and sensitive assessment of the neurotoxicity of an overwhelming number of organophosphate compounds.

  1. Treatment of B-RAF mutant human tumor cells with a MEK inhibitor requires Bim and is enhanced by a BH3 mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Cragg, Mark S.; Jansen, Elisa S.; Cook, Michele; Harris, Claire; Strasser, Andreas; Scott, Clare L.

    2008-01-01

    B-RAF is frequently mutated in solid tumors, resulting in activation of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and ultimately tumor cell growth and survival. MEK inhibition in these cells results in cell cycle arrest and cytostasis. Here, we have shown that MEK inhibition also triggers limited apoptosis of human tumor cell lines with B-RAF mutations and that this effect was dependent on upregulation and dephosphorylation of the proapoptotic, Bcl-2 homology 3–only (BH3-only) Bcl-2 family member Bim. However, upregulation of Bim was insufficient for extensive apoptosis and was countered by overexpression of Bcl-2. To overcome apoptotic resistance, we treated the B-RAF mutant cells both with MEK inhibitors and with the BH3 mimetic ABT-737, resulting in profound synergism and extensive tumor cell death. This treatment was successful because of both efficient antagonism of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1 by Bim and inhibition of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL by ABT-737. Critically, addition of ABT-737 converted the predominantly cytostatic effect of MEK inhibition to a cytotoxic effect, causing long-term tumor regression in mice xenografted with human tumor cell lines. Thus, the therapeutic efficacy of MEK inhibition requires concurrent unleashing of apoptosis by a BH3 mimetic and represents a potent combination treatment for tumors harboring B-RAF mutations. PMID:18949058

  2. Morphometric comparisons of plant-mimetic juvenile fish associated with plant debris observed in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, southern Japan.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, Alexya Cunha; Sakai, Yoichi; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Barros, Breno

    2016-01-01

    The general morphological shape of plant-resembling fish and plant parts were compared using a geometric morphometrics approach. Three plant-mimetic fish species, Lobotes surinamensis (Lobotidae), Platax orbicularis (Ephippidae) and Canthidermis maculata (Balistidae), were compared during their early developmental stages with accompanying plant debris (i.e., leaves of several taxa) in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, closely facing the Kuroshio Current. The degree of similarity shared between the plant parts and co-occurring fish species was quantified, however fish remained morphologically distinct from their plant models. Such similarities were corroborated by analysis of covariance and linear discriminant analysis, in which relative body areas of fish were strongly related to plant models. Our results strengthen the paradigm that morphological clues can lead to ecological evidence to allow predictions of behavioural and habitat choice by mimetic fish, according to the degree of similarity shared with their respective models. The resemblance to plant parts detected in the three fish species may provide fitness advantages via convergent evolutionary effects.

  3. Morphometric comparisons of plant-mimetic juvenile fish associated with plant debris observed in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, southern Japan

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The general morphological shape of plant-resembling fish and plant parts were compared using a geometric morphometrics approach. Three plant-mimetic fish species, Lobotes surinamensis (Lobotidae), Platax orbicularis (Ephippidae) and Canthidermis maculata (Balistidae), were compared during their early developmental stages with accompanying plant debris (i.e., leaves of several taxa) in the coastal subtropical waters around Kuchierabu-jima Island, closely facing the Kuroshio Current. The degree of similarity shared between the plant parts and co-occurring fish species was quantified, however fish remained morphologically distinct from their plant models. Such similarities were corroborated by analysis of covariance and linear discriminant analysis, in which relative body areas of fish were strongly related to plant models. Our results strengthen the paradigm that morphological clues can lead to ecological evidence to allow predictions of behavioural and habitat choice by mimetic fish, according to the degree of similarity shared with their respective models. The resemblance to plant parts detected in the three fish species may provide fitness advantages via convergent evolutionary effects. PMID:27547571

  4. Insight into the mechanism revealing the peroxidase mimetic catalytic activity of quaternary CuZnFeS nanocrystals: colorimetric biosensing of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.

    PubMed

    Dalui, Amit; Pradhan, Bapi; Thupakula, Umamahesh; Khan, Ali Hossain; Kumar, Gundam Sandeep; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Acharya, Somobrata

    2015-05-21

    Artificial enzyme mimetics have attracted immense interest recently because natural enzymes undergo easy denaturation under environmental conditions restricting practical usefulness. We report for the first time chalcopyrite CuZnFeS (CZIS) alloyed nanocrystals (NCs) as novel biomimetic catalysts with efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Novel peroxidase activities of CZIS NCs have been evaluated by catalytic oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). CZIS NCs demonstrate the synergistic effect of elemental composition and photoactivity towards peroxidase-like activity. The quaternary CZIS NCs show enhanced intrinsic peroxidase-like activity compared to the binary NCs with the same constituent elements. Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity has been correlated with the energy band position of CZIS NCs extracted using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Kinetic analyses indicate Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model catalytic behavior describing the rate of the enzymatic reaction by correlating the reaction rate with substrate concentration. Typical color reactions arising from the catalytic oxidation of TMB over CZIS NCs with H2O2 have been utilized to establish a simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for detection of H2O2 and glucose. CZIS NCs are recyclable catalysts showing high efficiency in multiple uses. Our study may open up the possibility of designing new photoactive multi-component alloyed NCs as enzyme mimetics in biotechnology applications.

  5. 3-Substituted Indazoles as Configurationally Locked 4EGI-1 Mimetic and Inhibitors of eIF4E/eIF4G Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yefidoff-Freedman, Revital; Chen, Ting; Sahoo, Rupam; Chen, Limo; Wagner, Gerhard; Halperin, Jose A.; Aktas, Bertal H.; Chorev, Michael

    2014-01-01

    4EGI-1, the prototypic inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction, was identified in a high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries using a fluorescence polarization assay that measures inhibition of binding of an eIF4G-derived peptide to recombinant eIF4E. As such, the molecular probe 4EGI-1 holds a potential for studying molecular mechanisms involved in human disorders characterized by loss of physiologic restrains on translation initiation. A hit-to-lead optimization campaign was carried out to overcome the liability of the configurational instability in 4EGI-1, which stems from the (E)-to-(Z) isomerization of the hydrazone function. We identified compound 1a, in which the labile hydrazone was incorporated into a rigid indazole scaffold as a promising rigidified 4EGI-1 mimetic lead. In a structure-activity relationship study aimed at probing the structural latitude of this new chemotype as an inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and translation initiation we identified 1d, an indazole-based 4EGI-1 mimetic, as a new and improved lead inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and a promising molecular probe candidate for elucidating the role of cap-dependent translation initiation in a host of pathophysiological states. PMID:24458973

  6. Ultratrace Naked-Eye Colorimetric Detection of Hg(2+) in Wastewater and Serum Utilizing Mercury-Stimulated Peroxidase Mimetic Activity of Reduced Graphene Oxide-PEI-Pd Nanohybrids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shouting; Zhang, Dongxu; Zhang, Xuehong; Shang, Denghui; Xue, Zhonghua; Shan, Duoliang; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2017-03-21

    Herein, we developed a general strategy for rapid, highly selective, and ultratrace naked-eye colorimetric detection of Hg(2+) in aqueous solutions. Two dimensional rGO/PEI/Pd nanohybrids, where rGO, PEI, and Pd were referred to as reduced graphene oxide, polyethylenimine, and Pd nanoparticles, respectively, were synthesized and used as mimetic peroxidase for selective and ultrasensitive detection of Hg(2+) in water and human serum samples. In the presence of mercury ions, the peroxidase mimetic activity of rGO/PEI/Pd nanohybrids was found to be stimulated and enhanced significantly, which promoted the effective oxidation and color change of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in solution to dark blue that was detected by the naked-eye and the absorption spectroscopic method. The proposed sensing strategy coupled with spectroscopic detection method showed an ultralow detection limit of 0.39 nM for Hg(2+) in ddH2O and ∼1 nM in wastewater as well as serum samples, respectively. On the basis of the colorimetric assay, a minimum concentration of ∼10 nM for Hg(2+) in wastewater and human serum can be detected with the naked-eye. The naked-eye-based colorimetric assay for sensitive and selective detection of mercury is expected to hold huge potentials in applications such as environmental monitoring, clinical diagnosis, and pharmaceutical analysis.

  7. 3-substituted indazoles as configurationally locked 4EGI-1 mimetics and inhibitors of the eIF4E/eIF4G interaction.

    PubMed

    Yefidoff-Freedman, Revital; Chen, Ting; Sahoo, Rupam; Chen, Limo; Wagner, Gerhard; Halperin, Jose A; Aktas, Bertal H; Chorev, Michael

    2014-03-03

    4EGI-1, the prototypic inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction, was identified in a high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries with the aid of a fluorescence polarization assay that measures inhibition of binding of an eIF4G-derived peptide to recombinant eIF4E. As such, the molecular probe 4EGI-1 has potential for the study of molecular mechanisms involved in human disorders characterized by loss of physiological restraints on translation initiation. A hit-to-lead optimization campaign was carried out to overcome the configurational instability in 4EGI-1, which stems from the E-to-Z isomerization of the hydrazone function. We identified compound 1 a, in which the labile hydrazone was incorporated into a rigid indazole scaffold, as a promising rigidified 4EGI-1 mimetic lead. In a structure-activity relationship study directed towards probing the structural latitude of this new chemotype as an inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and translation initiation we identified 1 d, an indazole-based 4EGI-1 mimetic, as a new and improved lead inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and a promising molecular probe candidate for elucidation of the role of cap-dependent translation initiation in a host of pathophysiological states.

  8. Significant In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pytren4Q-Mn a Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Mimetic Scorpiand-Like Mn (II) Complex

    PubMed Central

    Serena, Carolina; Calvo, Enrique; Clares, Mari Paz; Diaz, María Luisa; Chicote, Javier U.; Beltrán-Debon, Raúl; Fontova, Ramón; Rodriguez, Alejandro; García-España, Enrique; García-España, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical use of purified SOD enzymes has strong limitations due to their large molecular size, high production cost and immunogenicity. These limitations could be compensated by using instead synthetic SOD mimetic compounds of low molecular weight. Background/Methodology We have recently reported that two SOD mimetic compounds, the MnII complexes of the polyamines Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q, displayed high antioxidant activity in bacteria and yeast. Since frequently molecules with antioxidant properties or free-radical scavengers also have anti-inflammatory properties we have assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q MnII complexes, in cultured macrophages and in a murine model of inflammation, by measuring the degree of protection they could provide against the cellular injury produced by lipopolisacharide, a bacterial endotoxin. Principal Findings In this report we show that the MnII complex of Pytren4Q but not that of Pytren2Q effectively protected human cultured THP-1 macrophages and whole mice from the inflammatory effects produced by LPS. These results obtained with two molecules that are isomers highlight the importance of gathering experimental data from animal models of disease in assessing the potential of candidate molecules. Conclusion/Significance The effective anti-inflammatory activity of the MnII complex of Pytren4Q in addition to its low toxicity, water solubility and ease of production would suggest it is worth taking into consideration for future pharmacological studies. PMID:25742129

  9. Opposite regulation of human versus mouse apolipoprotein A-I by fibrates in human apolipoprotein A-I transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Berthou, L; Duverger, N; Emmanuel, F; Langouët, S; Auwerx, J; Guillouzo, A; Fruchart, J C; Rubin, E; Denèfle, P; Staels, B; Branellec, D

    1996-01-01

    The regulation of liver apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene expression by fibrates was studied in human apo A-I transgenic mice containing a human genomic DNA fragment driving apo A-I expression in liver. Treatment with fenofibrate (0.5% wt/wt) for 7 d increased plasma human apo A-I levels up to 750% and HDL-cholesterol levels up to 200% with a shift to larger particles. The increase in human apo A-I plasma levels was time and dose dependent and was already evident after 3 d at the highest dose (0.5% wt/wt) of fenofibrate. In contrast, plasma mouse apo A-I concentration was decreased after fenofibrate in nontransgenic mice. The increase in plasma human apo A-I levels after fenofibrate treatment was associated with a 97% increase in hepatic human apo A-I mRNA, whereas mouse apo A-I mRNA levels decreased to 51%. In nontransgenic mice, a similar down-regulation of hepatic apo A-I mRNA levels was observed. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that the increase in human apo A-I and the decrease in mouse apo A-I gene expression after fenofibrate occurred at the transcriptional level. Since part of the effects of fibrates are mediated through the nuclear receptor PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), the expression of the acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) gene was measured as a control of PPAR activation. Both in transgenic and nontransgenic mice, fenofibrate induced ACO mRNA levels up to sixfold. When transgenic mice were treated with gemfibrozil (0.5% wt/wt) plasma human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels increased 32 and 73%, respectively, above control levels. The weaker effect of this compound on human apo A-I and HDL-cholesterol levels correlated with a less pronounced impact on ACO mRNA levels (a threefold increase) suggesting that the level of induction of human apo A-I gene is related to the PPAR activating potency of the fibrate used. Treatment of human primary hepatocytes with fenofibric acid (500 microM) provoked an 83 and 50% increase in apo A-I secretion and

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Validation of a β-Turn Mimetic Library Targeting Protein–Protein and Peptide–Receptor Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Whitby, Landon R.; Ando, Yoshio; Setola, Vincent; Vogt, Peter K.; Roth, Bryan L.; Boger, Dale L.

    2011-01-01

    The design and synthesis of a β-turn mimetic library as a key component of a small molecule library targeting the major recognition motifs involved in protein–protein interactions is described. Analysis of a geometric characterization of 10,245 β-turns in the protein data bank (PDB) suggested that trans-pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxamide could serve as an effective and synthetically accessible library template. This was confirmed by initially screening select compounds against a series of peptide-activated GPCRs that recognize a β-turn structure in their endogenous ligands. This validation study was highlighted by identification of both nonbasic and basic small molecules with high affinities (Ki = 390 nM and 23 nM, respectively) for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Consistent with the screening capabilities of collaborators and following the design validation, the complete library was assembled as 210 mixtures of 20 compounds, providing a total of 4,200 compounds designed to mimic all possible permutations of 3 of the 4 residues in a naturally occurring β-turn. Unique to the design and because of the C2 symmetry of the template, a typical 20 × 20 × 20-mix (8,000 compounds prepared as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds) needed to represent 20 variations in the side chains of three amino acid residues reduces to a 210 × 20-mix, thereby simplifying the library synthesis and subsequent screening. The library was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol with liquid–liquid or liquid–solid extractions for purification and conducted on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening the library against the human opioid receptors (KOR, MOR, and DOR) identified not only the activity of library members expected to mimic the opioid receptor peptide ligands, but also additional side chain combinations that provided enhanced receptor binding selectivities (>100-fold) and affinities (as low as Ki = 80 nM for KOR). A key insight to

  11. Design, synthesis, and validation of a β-turn mimetic library targeting protein-protein and peptide-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Landon R; Ando, Yoshio; Setola, Vincent; Vogt, Peter K; Roth, Bryan L; Boger, Dale L

    2011-07-06

    The design and synthesis of a β-turn mimetic library as a key component of a small-molecule library targeting the major recognition motifs involved in protein-protein interactions is described. Analysis of a geometric characterization of 10,245 β-turns in the protein data bank (PDB) suggested that trans-pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxamide could serve as an effective and synthetically accessible library template. This was confirmed by initially screening select compounds against a series of peptide-activated GPCRs that recognize a β-turn structure in their endogenous ligands. This validation study was highlighted by identification of both nonbasic and basic small molecules with high affinities (K(i) = 390 and 23 nM, respectively) for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Consistent with the screening capabilities of collaborators and following the design validation, the complete library was assembled as 210 mixtures of 20 compounds, providing a total of 4200 compounds designed to mimic all possible permutations of 3 of the 4 residues in a naturally occurring β-turn. Unique to the design and because of the C(2) symmetry of the template, a typical 20 × 20 × 20-mix (8000 compounds prepared as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds) needed to represent 20 variations in the side chains of three amino acid residues reduces to a 210 × 20-mix, thereby simplifying the library synthesis and subsequent screening. The library was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol with liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions for purification and conducted on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening the library against the human opioid receptors (KOR, MOR, and DOR) identified not only the activity of library members expected to mimic the opioid receptor peptide ligands but also additional side-chain combinations that provided enhanced receptor binding selectivities (>100-fold) and affinities (as low as K(i) = 80 nM for KOR). A key insight to emerge from

  12. Apolipoprotein A-I Q[-2]X causing isolated apolipoprotein A-I deficiency in a family with analphalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, D S; Leiter, L A; Vezina, C; Connelly, P W; Hegele, R A

    1994-01-01

    We report a Canadian kindred with a novel mutation in the apolipoprotein (apo) A-I gene causing analphalipoproteinemia. The 34-yr-old proband, product of a consanguineous marriage, had bilateral retinopathy, bilateral cataracts, spinocerebellar ataxia, and tendon xanthomata. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was < 0.1 mM and apoA-I was undetectable. Genomic DNA sequencing of the proband's apoA-I gene identified a nonsense mutation at codon [-2], which we designate as Q[-2]X. This mutation causes a loss of endonuclease digestion sites for both BbvI and Fnu4HI. Genotyping identified four additional homozygotes, four heterozygotes, and two unaffected subjects among the first-degree relatives. Q[-2]X homozygosity causes a selective failure to produce any portion of mature apoA-I, resulting in very low plasma level of HDL. Heterozygosity results in approximately half-normal apoA-I and HDL. Gradient gel electrophoresis and differential electroimmunodiffusion assay revealed that the HDL particles of the homozygotes had peak Stokes diameter of 7.9 nm and contained apoA-II without apoA-I (Lp-AII). Heterozygotes had an additional fraction of HDL3-like particles. Two of the proband's affected sisters had documented premature coronary heart disease. This kindred, the third reported apoA-I gene mutation causing isolated complete apoA-I deficiency, appears to be at significantly increased risk for atherosclerosis. Images PMID:8282791

  13. [Affect and mimetic behavior].

    PubMed

    Zepf, S; Ullrich, B; Hartmann, S

    1998-05-01

    The relationship between facial expression and experienced affect presents many problems. The two diametrically opposed positions proposing solutions to this problem are exemplified using the conceptions of Mandler u. Izard. The underlying premises of both conceptions still prevail in various forms. The authors reject the concepts according to which facial expression is merely correlated to the affects (see Mandler 1975) as well as the view that facial expression controls the affects (see Izard 1977). The relationship between affect and facial expression is reexamined, subjecting it to a semiotic, essentially semantic analysis similar to the Ogden and Richards' language and meaning approach. This analysis involves a critical discussion of Scherer's attempt of a purely communicational interpretation using Bühler's organon model. In the author's approach, facial expression is seen not simply as a system of signals, but as a system of representative signs which signify the affects and refer to the emotive meaning of things for the subject. The authors develop the thesis that human beings are not born simply with the ability to speak, but also with the abstract possibility of performing facial expressions. This ability develops by way of coordinating patterns of expressions, which are presumably phylogenetically determined, with affects that take on a socially determined individual form, similar to language acquisition during socialisation. The authors discuss the methodological implications arising for studies investigating the affective meaning of facial expressions.

  14. Membrane mimetic chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Surfactant bilayer vesicles have been used to interact with, and to transport substrates. Hydrophobic molecules can be distributed among vesicle bilayers or can be anchored by a long chain terminating in a polar head group. Polar molecules, particularly those that are electrostatically repelled from the inner surface, move freely in water pools trapped within vesicles. Once large substrates are trapped, they remain within the vesicles for days to weeks. Small ions either can diffuse across the bilayers or be transported through the bilayers with the aid of pores or carriers. Surfactant vesicles lack long range stabilities and controllable permeabilities. Recognizing the need for these properties led to the synthesis of polymerized vesicles. Attention is focused here on vesicles prepared from styrene containing surfactants and from mixtures of dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline DPPC, and a surfactant; of dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride, DODAC, and a surfactant; of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide, DODAB, and surfactant; and of surfactant and vinylbenzoic acid. Kinetics and mechanism of vesicle photopolymerization, catalyst semiconductor and magnetic particle stabilization and utilization are highlighted. 30 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Structure-function relations of heparin-mimetic sulfated xylan oligosaccharides: inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infectivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stone, A L; Melton, D J; Lewis, M S

    1998-07-01

    Heparins/heparan sulfates modulate the function of proteins and cell membranes in numerous biological systems including normal and disease processes in humans. Heparin has been used for many years as an anticoagulant, and anticoagulant heparin-mimetics were developed several decades ago by chemical sulfation of non-mammalian polysaccharides, e.g., an antithrombotic sulfated xylan. This pharmaceutical, which comprises a mixture of sulfated oligoxylans, also mimics most other biological actions of natural heparins in vitro, including inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus, but the molecular basis for these actions has been unclear. Here, numerous Components of the sulfated oligoxylan mixture were isolated and when bioassayed in the case of anti-HIV-1 infectivity revealed that a structural specificity underlines the capacity of sulfated xylan to inhibit HIV-1, rather than a non-specific mechanism. Components were isolated by chromatographic fractionation through Bio-Gel P10 in 0.5 M ammonium bicarbonate. This fractionation revealed an elution range associated with apparent molecular weights of approximately 22000 to <1500 relative to standard heparin and heparan sulfates and newly prepared sulfated oligosaccharide standards. Components were characterized by metachromatic absorption spectroscopy, ultracentrifugation, GlcA analysis, and potency against HIV-1 infectivity, both in the tetrazolium cytotoxicity assay and in syncytium-forming assays, in CD4-lymphocytes. Structural specificity was indicated by the differential potencies exhibited by the Components: Highest activity (cytotoxicity) was exhibited by Components in the chromatographic region > or = approximately 5500 in mass (50% effective (inhibitory) concentration = 0.5-0.7 microg ml(-1) in the first fractionation series, and 0.1-0.5 microg ml(-1) in a second series). The potency declined sharply below approximately 5400 in mass, but with an exception; a second structure exhibiting relatively high

  16. Kinetics of protein physicochemical changes induced by heating in meat using mimetic models: (2) effects of fibre type, peroxides and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Promeyrat, A; Daudin, J D; Astruc, T; Danon, J; Gatellier, P

    2013-06-15

    Heating-induced changes in meat proteins were investigated using models made of aqueous suspensions of myofibrils according to muscle fibre types and cellular compounds (oxidants and antioxidants). These changes were evaluated by measurements of carbonyl groups and protein surface hydrophobicity. Model results were compared to trial results obtained on pork meat (M. Longissimus dorsi) heated under the same conditions (45 and 75°C, from 5 to 120 min). Myofibrillar proteins from α-white fibres were more sensitive to oxidation and thermal denaturation than those from β-red fibres. At 45°C, there were negligible differences due to peroxide or antioxidant types. At 75°C, organic peroxides (ROOH) were less oxidative than hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and antioxidant enzymes were less efficient than vitamin E and carnosine at protecting proteins against oxidation. Protein oxidation observed in meat is lower than in the mimetic models and the increase in hydrophobicity remained limited in meat.

  17. Insight into the mechanism revealing the peroxidase mimetic catalytic activity of quaternary CuZnFeS nanocrystals: colorimetric biosensing of hydrogen peroxide and glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalui, Amit; Pradhan, Bapi; Thupakula, Umamahesh; Khan, Ali Hossain; Kumar, Gundam Sandeep; Ghosh, Tanmay; Satpati, Biswarup; Acharya, Somobrata

    2015-05-01

    Artificial enzyme mimetics have attracted immense interest recently because natural enzymes undergo easy denaturation under environmental conditions restricting practical usefulness. We report for the first time chalcopyrite CuZnFeS (CZIS) alloyed nanocrystals (NCs) as novel biomimetic catalysts with efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Novel peroxidase activities of CZIS NCs have been evaluated by catalytic oxidation of the peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). CZIS NCs demonstrate the synergistic effect of elemental composition and photoactivity towards peroxidase-like activity. The quaternary CZIS NCs show enhanced intrinsic peroxidase-like activity compared to the binary NCs with the same constituent elements. Intrinsic peroxidase-like activity has been correlated with the energy band position of CZIS NCs extracted using scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Kinetic analyses indicate Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic model catalytic behavior describing the rate of the enzymatic reaction by correlating the reaction rate with substrate concentration. Typical color reactions arising from the catalytic oxidation of TMB over CZIS NCs with H2O2 have been utilized to establish a simple and sensitive colorimetric assay for detection of H2O2 and glucose. CZIS NCs are recyclable catalysts showing high efficiency in multiple uses. Our study may open up the possibility of designing new photoactive multi-component alloyed NCs as enzyme mimetics in biotechnology applications.Artificial enzyme mimetics have attracted immense interest recently because natural enzymes undergo easy denaturation under environmental conditions restricting practical usefulness. We report for the first time chalcopyrite CuZnFeS (CZIS) alloyed nanocrystals (NCs) as novel biomimetic catalysts with efficient intrinsic peroxidase-like activity. Novel peroxidase activities of CZIS NCs have been

  18. TRPM8, but not TRPA1, is required for neural and behavioral responses to acute noxious cold temperatures and cold-mimetics in vivo.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Wendy M; Bifolck-Fisher, Amber; Bautista, Diana M; McKemy, David D

    2010-08-01

    Somatosensory neurons detect environmental stimuli, converting external cues into neural activity that is relayed first to second-order neurons in the spinal cord. The detection of cold is proposed to be mediated by the ion channels TRPM8 and TRPA1. However, there is significant debate regarding the role of each channel in cold-evoked pain, complicating their potential as drug targets for conditions such as cold allodynia and hyperalgesia. To address this debate, we generated mice lacking functional copies of both channels and examined behaviors and neural activity in response to painful cold and noxious cooling compounds. Whereas normal mice display a robust preference for warmth over cold, both TRPM8-null (TRPM8(-/-)) and TRPM8/TRPA1 double-knockout mice (DKO) display no preference until temperatures reach the extreme noxious range. Additionally, in contrast to wildtype mice that avoid touching cold surfaces, mice lacking TRPM8 channels display no such avoidance and explore noxious cold surfaces, even at 5 degrees C. Furthermore, nocifensive behaviors to the cold-mimetic icilin are absent in TRPM8(-/-) and DKO mice, but are retained in TRPA1-nulls (TRPA1(-/-)). Finally, neural activity, measured by expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos, evoked by hindpaw stimulation with noxious cold, menthol, or icilin is reduced in TRPM8(-/-) and DKO mice, but not in TRPA1(-/-) animals. Thus our results show that noxious cold signaling is exclusive to TRPM8, mediating neural and behavioral responses to cold and cold-mimetics, and that TRPA1 is not required for acute cold pain in mammals.

  19. Clinical profiling of BCL-2 family members in the setting of BRAF inhibition offers a rationale for targeting de novo resistance using BH3 mimetics.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Dennie T; Salas Fragomeni, Roberto A; Schalck, Aislyn; Ferreiro-Neira, Isabel; Hoff, Taylor; Cooper, Zachary A; Haq, Rizwan; Panka, David J; Kwong, Lawrence N; Davies, Michael A; Cusack, James C; Flaherty, Keith T; Fisher, David E; Mier, James W; Wargo, Jennifer A; Sullivan, Ryan J

    2014-01-01

    While response rates to BRAF inhibitiors (BRAFi) are high, disease progression emerges quickly. One strategy to delay the onset of resistance is to target anti-apoptotic proteins such as BCL-2, known to be associated with a poor prognosis. We analyzed BCL-2 family member expression levels of 34 samples from 17 patients collected before and 10 to 14 days after treatment initiation with either vemurafenib or dabrafenib/trametinib combination. The observed changes in mRNA and protein levels with BRAFi treatment led us to hypothesize that combining BRAFi with a BCL-2 inhibitor (the BH3-mimetic navitoclax) would improve outcome. We tested this hypothesis in cell lines and in mice. Pretreatment mRNA levels of BCL-2 negatively correlated with maximal tumor regression. Early increases in mRNA levels were seen in BIM, BCL-XL, BID and BCL2-W, as were decreases in MCL-1 and BCL2A. No significant changes were observed with BCL-2. Using reverse phase protein array (RPPA), significant increases in protein levels were found in BIM and BID. No changes in mRNA or protein correlated with response. Concurrent BRAF (PLX4720) and BCL2 (navitoclax) inhibition synergistically reduced viability in BRAF mutant cell lines and correlated with down-modulation of MCL-1 and BIM induction after PLX4720 treatment. In xenograft models, navitoclax enhanced the efficacy of PLX4720. The combination of a selective BRAF inhibitor with a BH3-mimetic promises to be an important therapeutic strategy capable of enhancing the clinical efficacy of BRAF inhibition in many patients that might otherwise succumb quickly to de novo resistance. Trial registrations: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01006980; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01107418; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01264380; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248936; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00949702; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01072175.

  20. Hypoxia and hypoxia mimetic cooperate to counteract tumor cell resistance to glucose starvation preferentially in tumor cells with mutant p53.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Perez, Valery A; Strasberg-Rieber, Mary; Rieber, Manuel

    2014-01-03

    We demonstrated that exogenous pyruvate promotes survival under glucose depletion in aerobic mutant p53 (R175H) human melanoma cells. Others subsequently indicated that mutant p53 tumor cells undergo p53 degradation and cell death under aerobic glucose-free conditions. Since glucose starvation occurs in hypoxic gradients of poorly vascularized tumors, we investigated the role of p53 siRNA under hypoxia in wt p53 C8161 melanoma using glucose starvation or 5mM physiological glucose. p53 Silencing decreased survival of glucose-starved C8161 melanoma with pyruvate supplementation under hypoxia (≤1% oxygen), but increased resistance to glycolytic inhibitors oxamate and 2-deoxyglucose in 5mM glucose, preferentially under normoxia. Aiming to counteract hypoxic tumor cell survival irrespective of p53 status, genetically-matched human C8161 melanoma harboring wt p53 or mutant p53 (R175H) were used combining true hypoxia (≤1% oxygen) and hypoxia mimetic CoCl2. No significant decrease in metabolic activity was evidenced in C8161 melanoma irrespective of p53 status in 2.5mM glucose after 48h of physical hypoxia. However, combining the latter with 100μM CoCl2 was preferentially toxic for mutant p53 C8161 melanoma, and was enhanced by catalase in wt p53 C8161 cells. Downregulation of MnSOD and LDHA accompanied the toxicity induced by hypoxia and CoCl2 in 5mM glucose, and these changes were enhanced by oxamate or 2-deoxyglucose. Our results show for the first time that survival of malignant cells in a hypoxic microenvironment can be counteracted by hypoxia mimetic co-treatment in a p53 dependent manner.

  1. Absorption, transport and insulin-mimetic properties of bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats by integrated mass spectrometric techniques.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-González, T; Sánchez-González, C; Montes-Bayón, M; Llopis-González, J; Sanz-Medel, A

    2012-01-01

    The use of V(IV) complexes as insulin-enhancing agents has been increasing during the last decade. Among them, 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-4-pyrone and 2-ethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyrone (maltol and ethyl maltol, respectively) have proven to be especially suitable as ligands for vanadyl ions. In fact, they have passed phase I and phase II clinical trials, respectively. However, the mechanism through which those drugs exert their insulin-mimetic properties is still not fully understood. Thus, the aim of this study is to obtain an integrated picture of the absorption, biodistribution and insulin-mimetic properties of the bis(maltolato)oxovanadium (IV) (BMOV) in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats. For this purpose, BMOV hypoglycaemic properties were evaluated by monitoring both the circulating glucose and the glycohemoglobin, biomarkers of diabetes mellitus. In both cases, the results were drug concentration dependent. Using doses of vanadium at 3 mg/day, it was possible to reduce the glycaemia of the diabetic rats to almost control levels. BMOV absorption experiments have been conducted by intestinal perfusion revealing that approximately 35% of V is absorbed by the intestinal cells. Additionally, the transport of the absorbed vanadium (IV) by serum proteins was studied. For this purpose, a speciation strategy using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled serum mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, for detection has been employed. The obtained HPLC-ICP-MS results, confirmed by MALDI-MS data, showed evidence that V, administered orally, is uniquely bound to transferrin in rat serum.

  2. The role of ultraviolet colour in the assessment of mimetic accuracy between Batesian mimics and their models: a case study using ant-mimicking spiders.

    PubMed

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Herberstein, Marie E; Pekár, Stano

    2016-12-01

    The use of ultraviolet (UV) cues for intra- and inter-specific communication is common in many animal species. Still, the role of UV signals under some predator-prey contexts, such as Batesian mimicry, is not clear. Batesian mimicry is a defensive strategy by which a palatable species (the mimic) resembles an unpalatable or noxious species (the model) to avoid predation. This strategy has evolved independently in many different taxa that are predated by species capable of UV perception. Moreover, there is considerable variation in how accurately Batesian mimics resemble their models across species. Our aim was to investigate how UV colour contributed to mimetic accuracy using several ant-mimicking spider species as a case study. We measured the reflectance spectrum (300-700 nm) for several species of mimics and models, and we tested whether they differ in visible and UV colour. We modelled whether two different predators could discriminate between mimics and models using colour information. We found that generally, ant-mimicking spiders differed significantly from their ant models in UV colour and that information from the visible range of light cannot be extrapolated into the UV. Our modelling suggested that wasps should be able to discriminate between mimics and models combining information from visible and the UV light, whereas birds may not discriminate between them. Thus, we show that UV colour can influence mimic accuracy and we discuss its potential role in Batesian mimicry. We conclude that colour, especially in the UV range, should be taken into account when measuring mimetic accuracy.

  3. Urchin-like (gold core)@(platinum shell) nanohybrids: A highly efficient peroxidase-mimetic system for in situ amplified colorimetric immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhuangqiang; Xu, Mingdi; Lu, Minghua; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-08-15

    The development of signal-amplified colorimetric immunoassay relies on the design of highly efficient signal-transduction tags. One promising route is to exploit a novel enzyme mimetic system as the signal label. Herein, we report that urchin-like (gold core)@(platinum shell) nanohybrids (Au@PtNHs) can be utilized as a highly efficient peroxidase mimetic system for in situ amplified colorimetric immunoassay of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, one kind of tumor marker). Initially, urchin-like Au@PtNHs were discovered to outperform horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by a vast margin in terms of the turnover number toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) system and the stability against high temperatures and HRP inhibitors. Based on this discovery, the assay was simply carried out on a capture antibody-immobilized microplate by using the Au@PtNH-labeled detection antibody as a signal-transduction tag with a sandwich-type assay mode. The colorimetric signal stemmed from the labeled Au@PtNHs toward catalytic oxidation of TMB-H2O2 system. Experimental results indicated that the Au@PtNH-based colorimetric immunoassay could display a good colorimetric response toward PSA in the dynamic working range of 5-500 pg mL(-1) with a low detection limit of 2.9 pg mL(-1). Meanwhile, the developed immunoassay exhibited good precision and reproducibility, high specificity and acceptable accuracy for the detection of clinical serum samples. These results open up a new horizon for the development of highly sensitive, highly stable and inexpensive non-enzyme immunoassay platforms as an alternative to conventional enzyme-based immunoassay platforms.

  4. The role of ultraviolet colour in the assessment of mimetic accuracy between Batesian mimics and their models: a case study using ant-mimicking spiders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcobado, Guadalupe; Herberstein, Marie E.; Pekár, Stano

    2016-12-01

    The use of ultraviolet (UV) cues for intra- and inter-specific communication is common in many animal species. Still, the role of UV signals under some predator-prey contexts, such as Batesian mimicry, is not clear. Batesian mimicry is a defensive strategy by which a palatable species (the mimic) resembles an unpalatable or noxious species (the model) to avoid predation. This strategy has evolved independently in many different taxa that are predated by species capable of UV perception. Moreover, there is considerable variation in how accurately Batesian mimics resemble their models across species. Our aim was to investigate how UV colour contributed to mimetic accuracy using several ant-mimicking spider species as a case study. We measured the reflectance spectrum (300-700 nm) for several species of mimics and models, and we tested whether they differ in visible and UV colour. We modelled whether two different predators could discriminate between mimics and models using colour information. We found that generally, ant-mimicking spiders differed significantly from their ant models in UV colour and that information from the visible range of light cannot be extrapolated into the UV. Our modelling suggested that wasps should be able to discriminate between mimics and models combining information from visible and the UV light, whereas birds may not discriminate between them. Thus, we show that UV colour can influence mimic accuracy and we discuss its potential role in Batesian mimicry. We conclude that colour, especially in the UV range, should be taken into account when measuring mimetic accuracy.

  5. Regulation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose transport, lactate metabolism, and MMP-2 secretion by the hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride in articular chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Mobasheri, Ali; Platt, Nicola; Thorpe, Colin; Shakibaei, Mehdi

    2006-12-01

    Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with significantly reduced levels of oxygen and nutrients compared to plasma and synovial fluid. Therefore, chondrocyte survival and cartilage homeostasis require effective mechanisms for oxygen and nutrient signaling. To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for oxygen and nutrient sensing in chondrocytes, we investigated the effects of hypoxic stimulation induced by cobalt chloride treatment (a hypoxia-mimetic) on glucose uptake and lactate production in chondrocytes. We also studied the effects of cobalt chloride and glucose deprivation on the expression and secretion of active MMP-2. Primary cultures of articular chondrocytes were either maintained in 20% O(2) (normoxia) or exposed to the hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride for up to 24 h at the following concentrations: 15 microM, 37.5 microM, and 75 microM. Glucose transport was determined by measuring the net uptake of nonmetabolizable 2-deoxy-D-[2, 6-(3)H] glucose into chondrocytes. Active MMP-2 secretion was assayed by gelatin zymography. Lactic acid production was assayed using a lactate kit. Exposure to cobalt chloride significantly increased the uptake of 2-deoxy-D-[2, 6-(3)H] glucose and the production of lactate. Glucose deprivation and cobalt chloride treatment increased levels of active MMP-2 in the culture medium. Our results suggest that these metabolic alterations are important events during adaptation to hypoxia. Upregulation of MMP-2 and the build-up of lactic acid will have detrimental effects on the extracellular matrix and may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of osteoarthritis (OA).

  6. Real-time examination of aminoglycoside activity towards bacterial mimetic membranes using Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tanmaya; Voo, Zhi Xiang; Graham, Bim; Spiccia, Leone; Martin, Lisandra L

    2015-02-01

    The rapid increase in multi-drug resistant bacteria has resulted in previously discontinued treatments being revisited. Aminoglycosides are effective "old" antibacterial agents that fall within this category. Despite extensive usage and understanding of their intracellular targets, there is limited mechanistic knowledge regarding how aminoglycosides penetrate bacterial membranes. Thus, the activity of two well-known aminoglycosides, kanamycin A and neomycin B, towards a bacterial mimetic membrane (DMPC:DMPG (4:1)) was examined using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). The macroscopic effect of increasing the aminoglycoside concentration showed that kanamycin A exerts a threshold response, switching from binding to the membrane to disruption of the surface. Neomycin B, however, disrupted the membrane at all concentrations examined. At concentrations above the threshold value observed for kanamycin A, both aminoglycosides revealed similar mechanistic details. That is, they both inserted into the bacterial mimetic lipid bilayer, prior to disruption via loss of materials, presumably aminoglycoside-membrane composites. Depth profile analysis of this membrane interaction was achieved using the overtones of the quartz crystal sensor. The measured data is consistent with a two-stage process in which insertion of the aminoglycoside precedes the 'detergent-like' removal of membranes from the sensor. The results of this study contribute to the insight required for aminoglycosides to be reconsidered as active antimicrobial agents/co-agents by providing details of activity at the bacterial membrane. Kanamycin and neomycin still offer potential as antimicrobial therapeutics for the future and the QCM-D method illustrates great promise for screening new antibacterial or antiviral drug candidates.

  7. Genome-wide screen for modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) secretion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rebecca R; Perry, William; Haas, Joseph V; Mosior, Marian K; N'Cho, Mathias; Wang, Jian W J; Yu, Peng; Calley, John; Yue, Yong; Carter, Quincy; Han, Bomie; Foxworthy, Patricia; Kowala, Mark C; Ryan, Timothy P; Solenberg, Patricia J; Michael, Laura F

    2013-03-01

    Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue-specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; 40 genes were confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. The genes of interest include known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, G-protein-coupled receptors, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters, and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor manumycin A caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets.

  8. Beta-Blockers: An Abstracted Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-04

    HDL - cholesterol , ApoA -I, and A- II levels . Propranolol produced an increase in adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity and a decrease in serum...Nilsson-Ehle procedure. FINDINGS: All three drugs increased serum triglyceride and VLDL- cholesterol levels . 1vropranolol produced consistent decreases in...of plasma cortisol level to sibmax- imal exercise. There was no change in urinary free cortisol or 17-OIICS during exercise. The increase of serum

  9. Try P.R.A.I.S.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollam, Scott A.

    1979-01-01

    P.R.A.I.S.E. (Positive Reinforcement and Individualized Systematic Economics) is a multifaceted money system which utilizes positive and negative reinforcement and, at the same time, incorporates peer pressure and reinforcement for behavior modification. The system motivates, relates closely to life situations, and can be applied to all areas of…

  10. Structure-based design, synthesis and validation of CD4-mimetic small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry: conversion of a viral entry agonist to an antagonist.

    PubMed

    Courter, Joel R; Madani, Navid; Sodroski, Joseph; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Kwong, Peter D; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Chaiken, Irwin M; LaLonde, Judith M; Smith, Amos B

    2014-04-15

    This Account provides an overview of a multidisciplinary consortium focused on structure-based strategies to devise small molecule antagonists of HIV-1 entry into human T-cells, which if successful would hold considerable promise for the development of prophylactic modalities to prevent HIV transmission and thereby alter the course of the AIDS pandemic. Entry of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into target T-cells entails an interaction between CD4 on the host T-cell and gp120, a component of the trimeric envelope glycoprotein spike on the virion surface. The resultant interaction initiates a series of conformational changes within the envelope spike that permits binding to a chemokine receptor, formation of the gp41 fusion complex, and cell entry. A hydrophobic cavity at the CD4-gp120 interface, defined by X-ray crystallography, provided an initial site for small molecule antagonist design. This site however has evolved to facilitate viral entry. As such, the binding of prospective small molecule inhibitors within this gp120 cavity can inadvertently trigger an allosteric entry signal. Structural characterization of the CD4-gp120 interface, which provided the foundation for small molecule structure-based inhibitor design, will be presented first. An integrated approach combining biochemical, virological, structural, computational, and synthetic studies, along with a detailed analysis of ligand binding energetics, revealed that modestly active small molecule inhibitors of HIV entry can also promote viral entry into cells lacking the CD4 receptor protein; these competitive inhibitors were termed small molecule CD4 mimetics. Related congeners were subsequently identified with both improved binding affinity and more potent viral entry inhibition. Further assessment of the affinity-enhanced small molecule CD4 mimetics demonstrated that premature initiation of conformational change within the viral envelope spike, prior to cell encounter, can lead to irreversible

  11. Multi-Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Collagen Mimetic Peptides into AAB Type Heterotrimers, Nanofibers and Hydrogels Driven by Charged Pair Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Lesley Russell

    2011-12-01

    Replicating the multi-hierarchical self-assembly of collagen (peptide chain to triple helix to nanofiber and, finally, to a hydrogel) has long attracted scientists, both from the fundamental science perspective of supramolecular chemistry and for the potential biomedical applications perceived in tissue engineering. In terms of triple helical formation, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body with at least 28 types, yet research involving collagen mimetic systems has only recently began to consider the innate ability of collagen to control helix composition and register. Collagen triple helices can be homotrimeric or heterotrimeric and while some types of natural collagen form only one specific composition of helix, others can form multiple. It is critical to fully understand and, if possible, reproduce the control that native collagen has on helix composition and register. In terms of nanofiber formation, many approaches to drive the self-assembly of synthetic systems through the same steps as natural collagen have been partially successful, but none have simultaneously demonstrated all levels of structural assembly. In this work, advancements in the ability to control helix composition and replicate the multi-hierarchical assembly of collagen are described. Both positive and negative design for the assembly of AAB type collagen heterotrimers were utilized by promoting heterotrimer formation though the use of charged amino acids to form intra-helix electrostatic interactions, while simultaneously discouraging homotrimers, resulting in the identification of multiple peptide systems with full control over the composition of the resulting triple helix. Similar salt-bridged hydrogen bonds between charged residues were incorporated into nanofiber forming peptides, one of which successfully assembled into sticky-ended triple helices, nanofibers with characteristic triple helical packing visible in the solution state, and strong hydrogels that are

  12. Complexes of neutralizing and non-neutralizing affinity matured Fabs with a mimetic of the internal trimeric coiled-coil of HIV-1 gp41.

    PubMed

    Gustchina, Elena; Li, Mi; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Schuck, Peter; Louis, John M; Pierson, Jason; Rao, Prashant; Subramaniam, Sriram; Gustchina, Alla; Clore, G Marius; Wlodawer, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    A series of mini-antibodies (monovalent and bivalent Fabs) targeting the conserved internal trimeric coiled-coil of the N-heptad repeat (N-HR) of HIV-1 gp41 has been previously constructed and reported. Crystal structures of two closely related monovalent Fabs, one (Fab 8066) broadly neutralizing across a wide panel of HIV-1 subtype B and C viruses, and the other (Fab 8062) non-neutralizing, representing the extremes of this series, were previously solved as complexes with 5-Helix, a gp41 pre-hairpin intermediate mimetic. Binding of these Fabs to covalently stabilized chimeric trimers of N-peptides of HIV-1 gp41 (named (CCIZN36)3 or 3-H) has now been investigated using X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy, and a variety of biophysical methods. Crystal structures of the complexes between 3-H and Fab 8066 and Fab 8062 were determined at 2.8 and 3.0 Å resolution, respectively. Although the structures of the complexes with the neutralizing Fab 8066 and its non-neutralizing counterpart Fab 8062 were generally similar, small differences between them could be correlated with the biological properties of these antibodies. The conformations of the corresponding CDRs of each antibody in the complexes with 3-H and 5-Helix are very similar. The adaptation to a different target upon complex formation is predominantly achieved by changes in the structure of the trimer of N-HR helices, as well as by adjustment of the orientation of the Fab molecule relative to the N-HR in the complex, via rigid-body movement. The structural data presented here indicate that binding of three Fabs 8062 with high affinity requires more significant changes in the structure of the N-HR trimer compared to binding of Fab 8066. A comparative analysis of the structures of Fabs complexed to different gp41 intermediate mimetics allows further evaluation of biological relevance for generation of neutralizing antibodies, as well as provides novel structural insights into immunogen design.

  13. Creation of Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) Mutant Mice and Correction of Their Hypertriglyceridemia with an ApoC-II Mimetic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Akiko; Vaisman, Boris L.; Amar, Marcelo J.; Liu, Chengyu; Gordon, Scott M.; Drake, Steven K.; Pryor, Milton; Sampson, Maureen L.; Yang, Ling; Freeman, Lita A.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, a plasma enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs). ApoC-II deficiency in humans results in hypertriglyceridemia. We used zinc finger nucleases to create Apoc2 mutant mice to investigate the use of C-II-a, a short apoC-II mimetic peptide, as a therapy for apoC-II deficiency. Mutant mice produced a form of apoC-II with an uncleaved signal peptide that preferentially binds high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) due to a 3-amino acid deletion at the signal peptide cleavage site. Homozygous Apoc2 mutant mice had increased plasma TG (757.5 ± 281.2 mg/dl) and low HDL cholesterol (31.4 ± 14.7 mg/dl) compared with wild-type mice (TG, 55.9 ± 13.3 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol, 55.9 ± 14.3 mg/dl). TGs were found in light (density < 1.063 g/ml) lipoproteins in the size range of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron remnants (40–200 nm). Intravenous injection of C-II-a (0.2, 1, and 5 μmol/kg) reduced plasma TG in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum decrease of 90% occurring 30 minutes after the high dose. Plasma TG did not return to baseline until 48 hours later. Similar results were found with subcutaneous or intramuscular injections. Plasma half-life of C-II-a is 1.33 ± 0.72 hours, indicating that C-II-a only acutely activates lipolysis, and the sustained TG reduction is due to the relatively slow rate of new TG-rich lipoprotein synthesis. In summary, we describe a novel mouse model of apoC-II deficiency and show that an apoC-II mimetic peptide can reverse the hypertriglyceridemia in these mice, and thus could be a potential new therapy for apoC-II deficiency. PMID:26574515

  14. A single molecule approach for measuring the transport properties and energetics of membrane proteins in heterogeneous planar bio-mimetic assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poudel, Kumud Raj

    The significance of transmembrane protein research is well documented. Numerous studies have clearly established the biological, biophysical and pharmaceutical importance that these membrane components serve. Communications through receptors regulate countless body functions and they also provide structural support to the cell. However, a lack of high-resolution structure data has limited our understanding of these proteins that make it necessary to study them in in-vitro platforms or 'bio-mimetic' assemblies. Albeit that an assortment of platforms have been suggested for in-vitro studies, the issues, however, remain the same. The lack of mobility of the proteins in artificial environments, the question of functionality that arises with mobility and the search in general for the best assembly, is still a work in progress. In this work, we have taken some of the most accepted platforms in the field and characterized them through the lens of single molecule spectroscopy. We have addressed the question of mobility by reducing it down to a single molecule and comparing it with the bulk. By utilizing the Serotonin Receptor 5HT3A we have shown that techniques such as passivation of the substrates in the assemblies by Bovine Serum Albumin has a significant effect at the molecular level. The larger size of the intracellular domain for the 5HT3A served as a great probe to understand and evaluate the interaction of a surface passivator with the integrated membrane protein. We have also taken this a step further by developing a novel, single cushion 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) assembly and added another degree of complexity- through a phase transition. We have utilized phase transition to get an insight into the local protein environment, activation energies, heterogeneity and diffusion characteristics by using Annexin V as our probe. The work presented here studies two completely different biological platforms using two entirely different transmembrane

  15. A BDNF loop-domain mimetic acutely reverses spontaneous apneas and respiratory abnormalities during behavioral arousal in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kron, Miriam; Lang, Min; Adams, Ian T.; Sceniak, Michael; Longo, Frank; Katz, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of Rett syndrome (RTT), a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). In Mecp2 mutant mice, BDNF deficits have been associated with breathing abnormalities, a core feature of RTT, as well as with synaptic hyperexcitability within the brainstem respiratory network. Application of BDNF can reverse hyperexcitability in acute brainstem slices from Mecp2-null mice, suggesting that therapies targeting BDNF or its receptor, TrkB, could be effective at acute reversal of respiratory abnormalities in RTT. Therefore, we examined the ability of LM22A-4, a small-molecule BDNF loop-domain mimetic and TrkB partial agonist, to modulate synaptic excitability within respiratory cell groups in the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS) and to acutely reverse abnormalities in breathing at rest and during behavioral arousal in Mecp2 mutants. Patch-clamp recordings in Mecp2-null brainstem slices demonstrated that LM22A-4 decreases excitability at primary afferent synapses in the nTS by reducing the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and the frequency of spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. In vivo, acute treatment of Mecp2-null and -heterozygous mutants with LM22A-4 completely eliminated spontaneous apneas in resting animals, without sedation. Moreover, we demonstrate that respiratory dysregulation during behavioral arousal, a feature of human RTT, is also reversed in Mecp2 mutants by acute treatment with LM22A-4. Together, these data support the hypothesis that reduced BDNF signaling and respiratory dysfunction in RTT are linked, and establish the proof-of-concept that treatment with a small-molecule structural mimetic of a BDNF loop domain and a TrkB partial agonist can acutely reverse abnormal breathing at rest and in response to behavioral arousal

  16. The Smac Mimetic BV6 Improves NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Simultaneously Targeting Tumor and Effector Cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kyra; Tognarelli, Sara; Roesler, Stefanie; Boedicker, Cathinka; Schubert, Ralf; Steinle, Alexander; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other. The SM-induced sensitization of RH30 cells toward NK cell-mediated killing is significantly reduced through blocking tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells prior to coculture. In addition, the presence of zVAD.fmk, a pancaspase inhibitor, rescues tumor cells from the increase in killing, indicating an apoptosis-dependent cell death. On the NK cell side, the presence of SM in addition to IL-2 during the ex vivo expansion leads to an increase in their cytotoxic activity against RH30 cells. This effect is mainly TNFα-dependent and partially mediated by NK cell activation, which is associated with transcriptional upregulation of NF-κB target genes such as IκBα and RelB. Taken together, our findings implicate that SM represent a novel double-hit strategy, sensitizing tumor and activating NK cells with one single drug.

  17. Increasing the pore sizes of bone-mimetic electrospun scaffolds comprised of polycaprolactone, collagen I and hydroxyapatite to enhance cell infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Matthew C.; Clem, William C.; Grunda, Jessica M.; Clines, Gregory A.; Bellis, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Bone-mimetic electrospun scaffolds consisting of polycaprolactone (PCL), collagen I and nanoparticulate hydroxyapatite (HA) have previously been shown to support the adhesion, integrin-related signaling and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), suggesting these matrices serve as promising degradable substrates for osteoregeneration. However, the small pore sizes in electrospun scaffolds hinder cell infiltration in vitro and tissue-ingrowth into the scaffold in vivo, limiting their clinical potential. In this study, three separate techniques were evaluated for their capability to increase the pore size of the PCL/col I/nanoHA scaffolds: limited protease digestion, decreasing the fiber packing density during electro-spinning, and inclusion of sacrificial fibers of the water-soluble polymer PEO. The PEO sacrificial fiber approach was found to be the most effective in increasing scaffold pore size. Furthermore, the use of sacrificial fibers promoted increased MSC infiltration into the scaffolds, as well as greater infiltration of endogenous cells within bone upon placement of scaffolds within calvarial organ cultures. These collective findings support the use of sacrificial PEO fibers as a means to increase the porosity of complex, bone-mimicking electrospun scaffolds, thereby enhancing tissue regenerative processes that depend upon cell infiltration, such as vascularization and replacement of the scaffold with native bone tissue. PMID:22014462

  18. Apolipoprotein C-II Adopts Distinct Structures in Complex with Micellar and Submicellar Forms of the Amyloid-Inhibiting Lipid-Mimetic Dodecylphosphocholine

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Timothy M.; Griffin, Michael D.W.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Knott, Robert B.; Wood, Kathleen; Masters, Colin L.; Kirby, Nigel; Curtain, Cyril C.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of amyloid deposits is a common feature of a broad range of diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. The basis and role of amyloid deposition in the pathogenesis of these diseases is still being defined, however an interesting feature of amyloidogenic proteins is that the majority of the pathologically associated proteins are involved in lipid homeostasis, be it in lipid transport, incorporation into membranes, or the regulation of lipid pathways. Thus, amyloid-forming proteins commonly bind lipids, and lipids are generally involved in the proper folding of these proteins. However, understanding of the basis for these lipid-related aspects of amyloidogenesis is lacking. Thus, we have used the apolipoprotein C-II amyloid model system in conjunction with x-ray and neutron scattering analyses to address this problem. Apolipoprotein C-II is a well-studied model system of systemic amyloid fibril formation, with a clear and well-defined pathway for fibril formation, where the effects of lipid interaction are characterized, particularly for the lipid mimetic dodecylphosphocholine. We show that the micellar state of an inhibitory lipid can have a very significant effect on protein conformation, with micelles stabilizing a particular α-helical structure, whereas submicellar lipids stabilize a very different dimeric, α-helical structure. These results indicate that lipids may have an important role in the development and progression of amyloid-related diseases. PMID:26745412

  19. A circulating ghrelin mimetic attenuates light-induced phase delay of mice and light-induced Fos expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Chun-Xia; Challet, Etienne; Pévet, Paul; Kalsbeek, Andries; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M

    2008-04-01

    Anatomical evidence suggests that the ventromedial arcuate nucleus (vmARC) is a route for circulating hormonal communications to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Whether this vmARC-SCN connection is involved in the modulation of circadian activity of the SCN is not yet known. We recently demonstrated, in rats, that intravenous (i.v.) injection of a ghrelin mimetic, GHRP-6, during the daytime activated neurons in the vmARC and reduced the normal endogenous daytime Fos expression in the SCN. In the present study we show that i.v. administration of GHRP-6 decreases light-induced Fos expression at ZT13 in the rat SCN by 50%, indicating that light-induced changes in the SCN Fos expression can also be reduced by GHRP-6. Because it is difficult to study light-induced phase changes in rats, we examined the functional effects of GHRP-6 on light-induced phase shifts in mice and demonstrated that peripherally injected GHRP-6 attenuates light-induced phase delays at ZT13 by 45%. However, light-induced Fos expression in the mice SCN was not blocked by GHRP-6. These results illustrate that acute stimulation of the ghrelinergic system may modulate SCN activity, but that its effect on light-induced phase shifts and Fos expression in the SCN might be species related.

  20. Three-layer microfibrous peripheral nerve guide conduit composed of elastin-laminin mimetic artificial protein and poly(L-lactic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Nakayama, Midori; Moritan, Toshiyuki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2014-07-01

    We developed a microfibrous poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) nerve conduit with a three-layered structure to simultaneously enhance nerve regeneration and prevent adhesion of surrounding tissue. The inner layer was composed of PLLA microfiber containing 25% elastin-laminin mimetic protein (AG73-(VPGIG)30) that promotes neurite outgrowth. The thickest middle layer was constructed of pure PLLA microfibers that impart the large mechanical stremgth to the conduit. A 10% poly(ethylene glycol) was added to the outer layer to prevent the adhesion with the surrounding tissue. The AG73-(VPGIG)30 composisting of an elastin-like repetitive sequence (VPGIG)30 and a laminin-derived sequence (RKRLQVQLSIRT: AG73) was biosynthesized using Escherichia coli. The PLLA microfibrous conduits were fabricated using an electrospinning procedure. AG73-(VPGIG)30 was successfully mixed in the PLLA microfibers, and the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers were stable under physiological conditions. The PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 microfibers enhanced adhesion and neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. The electrospun microfibrous conduit with a three-layered structure was implanted for bridging a 2.0-cm gap in the tibial nerve of a rabbit. Two months after implantation, no adhesion of surrounding tissue was observed, and the action potential was slightly improved in the nerve conduit with the PLLA/AG73-(VPGIG)30 inner layer.

  1. Beneficial effects of Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), a superoxide dismutase mimetic, in zymosan-induced shock

    PubMed Central

    Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Costantino, Giuseppina; Mazzon, Emanuela; De Sarro, Angela; Caputi, Achille P

    1999-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of Mn(III)tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP), a novel superoxide dismutase mimetic which scavenges peroxynitrite, was investigated in rats subjected to shock induced by peritoneal injection of zymosan.Our data show that MnTBAP (given at 1, 3 and 10 mg kg−1 intraperitoneally, 1 and 6 h after zymosan injection) significantly reduce in dose dependent manner the development of peritonitis (peritoneal exudation, high nitrate/nitrite and peroxynitrite plasma levels, leukocyte infiltration and histological examination).Furthermore, our data suggest that there is a reduction in the lung, small intestine and liver myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and lipid peroxidation activity from MnTBAP-treated rats.MnTBAP also reduced the appearance of nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the inflamed tissues.Furthermore, a significant reduction of suppression of mitochondrial respiration, DNA strand breakage and reduction of cellular levels of NAD+ was observed in ex vivo macrophages harvested from the peritoneal cavity of zymosan-treated rat.In vivo treatment with MnTBAP significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner peroxynitrite formation and prevented the appearance of DNA damage, the decrease in mitochondrial respiration and the loss of cellular levels of NAD+.In conclusion our results showed that MnTBAP was effective in preventing the development of zymosan-induced shock. PMID:10578138

  2. TIR/BB-loop mimetic AS-1 attenuates cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury via a caveolae and caveolin-3-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanping; Zhang, Meiling; Shen, Xin; Dai, Guoliang; Ren, Danyang; Que, Linli; Ha, Tuanzhu; Li, Chuanfu; Xu, Yong; Ju, Wenzheng; Li, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    AS-1, the TIR/BB loop mimetic, plays a protective role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The muscle specific caveolin3 (Cav-3) and the caveolae have been found to be critical for cardioprotection. This study aimed to evaluate our hypothesis that caveolae and Cav-3 are essential for AS-1-induced cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury. To address these issues, we analyzed the involvement of Cav-3 in AS-1 mediated cardioprotection both in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrate that AS-1 administration significantly decreased infarct size, improved cardiac function after myocardial I/R and modulated membrane caveolae and Cav-3 expression in the myocardium. For in vitro studies, AS-1 treatment prevented Cav-3 re-distribution induced by H/R injury. In contrast, disruption of caveolae by MCD treatment or Cav-3 knockdown abolished the protection against H/R-induced myocytes injury by AS-1. Our findings reveal that AS-1 attenuates myocardial I/R injury through caveolae and Cav-3 dependent mechanism. PMID:28291255

  3. Bone micro-fragility caused by the mimetic aging processes in α-klotho deficient mice: in situ nanoindentation assessment of dilatational bands.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Noriko; Shibata, Yo; Mochizuki, Ayako; Yamada, Atsushi; Maki, Koutaro; Inoue, Tomio; Kamijo, Ryutaro; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The nanoscale structure-function relationship is a key determinant of bone toughness or micro-fragility. The loss of bone toughness during the aging process has been accepted based on empirical evidence, but this concept has not yet been fully supported by evidence at the material level. Here, we demonstrate a reduction in bone toughening mechanism in mimetic aged cortical bone obtained from α-klotho deficient (α-klotho(-/-)) mice and assessed by in situ dynamic mechanical analysis. The strain-rate nanoindentation tests showed enhanced stiffening of the wild-type calvarial bone and a large dimensional recovery during rapid loading following the constant displacement test. Such strain-dependent stiffening was likely associated with nanoscale dilatational bands and subsequent strain-energy transfer to the superior wild-type cross-linked collagen matrix network. The absence of dilatational bands formed by hydroxyapatite crystals and non-collagenous proteins in the α-klotho(-/-) bone samples likely diminished the intrinsic bone toughening mechanisms almost independent of viscoelastic behaviors. Such nanoscale structural alternations that occur during aging processes lead to crack propagation and result in overall bone fractures under large external stresses. In addition, dynamic mechanical analysis using instrumented nanoindentation was useful for the evaluation of bone mechanical properties in this pathological model of a genetic knockout mouse.

  4. Gel-spinning of mimetic collagen and collagen/nano-carbon fibers: Understanding multi-scale influences on molecular ordering and fibril alignment.

    PubMed

    Green, Emily C; Zhang, Yiying; Li, Heng; Minus, Marilyn L

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic gel-spun collagen and collagen/nano-carbon fibers were found to exhibit structural mimicry comparable to native tendons. X-ray scattering and microscopy analyses are used to characterize the molecular and fibrillar alignment in the synthetic fibers, where D-banding is observed throughout the spun fibers - consistent with native collagen. For the composite collagen/nano-carbon fibers, the morphology and dispersion quality of the nano-carbons within was found to play a significant role in influencing collagen molecular ordering and fibril alignment. Fibrillar and molecular alignment was also better preserved during elongation of the composites as compared to the control collagen fibers. These results show the structural influence of a rigid inclusion on the collagen fibril structure. Both dry- and wet-state tensile testing were performed on the collagen fibers, and these results show behavior comparable to the native materials. Dry-state tests also reveal interfacial interaction between the nano-fillers and the collagen fibrils through theoretical analysis. Wet-state tensile testing indicates the structure-property behavior of the mimetic hierarchical structure within the synthetic fibers.

  5. Topical administration of a suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) mimetic peptide inhibits ocular inflammation and mitigates ocular pathology during mouse uveitis.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Sun, Lin; Mahdi, Rashid M; Larkin, Joseph; Egwuagu, Charles E

    2015-08-01

    Uveitis is a diverse group of potentially sight-threatening intraocular inflammatory diseases and pathology derives from sustained production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the optical axis. Although topical or systemic steroids are effective therapies, their adverse effects preclude prolonged usage and are impetus for seeking alternative immunosuppressive agents, particularly for patients with refractory uveitis. In this study, we synthesized a 16 amino acid membrane-penetrating lipophilic suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK/STAT signaling pathways and show that it suppresses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), the mouse model of human uveitis. Fundus images, histological and optical coherence tomography analysis of eyes showed significant suppression of clinical disease, with average clinical score of 0.5 compared to 2.0 observed in control mice treated with scrambled peptide. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection from ocular pathology by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the neuroretina during EAU. Dark-adapted scotopic and photopic electroretinograms further reveal that SOCS1-KIR prevented decrement of retinal function, underscoring potential neuroprotective effects of SOCS1-KIR in uveitis. Importantly, SOCS1-KIR is non-toxic, suggesting that topical administration of SOCS1-Mimetics can be exploited as a non-invasive treatment for uveitis and for limiting cytokine-mediated pathology in other ocular inflammatory diseases including scleritis.

  6. Thermal hysteresis in the backbone and side-chain dynamics of the elastin mimetic peptide [VPGVG]3 revealed by 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Sun, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxin; Boutis, Gregory S

    2012-01-12

    We report on experimental measurements of the backbone and side-chain dynamics of the elastin mimetic peptide [VPGVG](3) by (2)H NMR echo spectroscopy and 2D T(1)-T(2) correlation relaxometry. The T(1) and T(2) relaxation times of the Gly α-deuterons and Val α-, β-, and γ-deuterons of a hydrated sample reveal a thermal hysteresis when the temperature is raised from -10 to 45 °C and then subsequently cooled back to -10 °C. In addition, near 30 °C we observe a reduction in the slope of the T(1)(T) and T(2)(T) heating curves, indicating a structural change that appears to be correlated well to the known inverse temperature transition of this peptide. The thermal dependence of the correlation times of the Gly α-deuterons are well fit by an Arrhenius Law, from which we measured E(act) = (20.0 ± 3.1) kJ/mol when the sample is heated and E(act) = (10.9 ± 2.8) kJ/mol when cooled. Molecular dynamics simulations support the notion that the measured activation energy is determined largely by the extent of localized water, which is observed to decrease with increasing temperature from approximately 25 to 42 °C.

  7. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-mimetic M40403 Is Protective in Cell and Fly Models of Paraquat Toxicity: IMPLICATIONS FOR PARKINSON DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Filograna, Roberta; Godena, Vinay K; Sanchez-Martinez, Alvaro; Ferrari, Emanuele; Casella, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano; Bubacco, Luigi; Whitworth, Alexander J; Bisaglia, Marco

    2016-04-22

    Parkinson disease is a debilitating and incurable neurodegenerative disorder affecting ∼1-2% of people over 65 years of age. Oxidative damage is considered to play a central role in the progression of Parkinson disease and strong evidence links chronic exposure to the pesticide paraquat with the incidence of the disease, most probably through the generation of oxidative damage. In this work, we demonstrated in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells the beneficial role of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes against paraquat-induced toxicity, as well as the therapeutic potential of the SOD-mimetic compound M40403. Having verified the beneficial effects of superoxide dismutation in cells, we then evaluated the effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Besides protecting against the oxidative damage induced by paraquat treatment, our data demonstrated that in Drosophila M40403 was able to compensate for the loss of endogenous SOD enzymes, acting both at a cytosolic and mitochondrial level. Because previous clinical trials have indicated that the M40403 molecule is well tolerated in humans, this study may have important implication for the treatment of Parkinson disease.

  8. Apolipoprotein C-II Adopts Distinct Structures in Complex with Micellar and Submicellar Forms of the Amyloid-Inhibiting Lipid-Mimetic Dodecylphosphocholine.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Timothy M; Griffin, Michael D W; McGillivray, Duncan J; Knott, Robert B; Wood, Kathleen; Masters, Colin L; Kirby, Nigel; Curtain, Cyril C

    2016-01-05

    The formation of amyloid deposits is a common feature of a broad range of diseases, including atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. The basis and role of amyloid deposition in the pathogenesis of these diseases is still being defined, however an interesting feature of amyloidogenic proteins is that the majority of the pathologically associated proteins are involved in lipid homeostasis, be it in lipid transport, incorporation into membranes, or the regulation of lipid pathways. Thus, amyloid-forming proteins commonly bind lipids, and lipids are generally involved in the proper folding of these proteins. However, understanding of the basis for these lipid-related aspects of amyloidogenesis is lacking. Thus, we have used the apolipoprotein C-II amyloid model system in conjunction with x-ray and neutron scattering analyses to address this problem. Apolipoprotein C-II is a well-studied model system of systemic amyloid fibril formation, with a clear and well-defined pathway for fibril formation, where the effects of lipid interaction are characterized, particularly for the lipid mimetic dodecylphosphocholine. We show that the micellar state of an inhibitory lipid can have a very significant effect on protein conformation, with micelles stabilizing a particular α-helical structure, whereas submicellar lipids stabilize a very different dimeric, α-helical structure. These results indicate that lipids may have an important role in the development and progression of amyloid-related diseases.

  9. Hypoxia and Hypoxia Mimetics Decrease Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) Expression through Both Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and Proteasome-Mediated Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kawedia, Jitesh D.; Yang, Fan; Sartor, Maureen A.; Gozal, David; Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria; Menon, Anil G.

    2013-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium plays a central role in gas exchange and fluid transport, and is therefore critical for normal lung function. Since the bulk of water flux across this epithelium depends on the membrane water channel Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), we asked whether hypoxia had any effect on AQP5 expression. We show that hypoxia causes a significant (70%) decrease in AQP5 expression in the lungs of mice exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia and the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt, also caused similar decreases in AQP5 mRNA and protein expression in the mouse lung epithelial cell line MLE-12. The action of hypoxia and cobalt on AQP5 transcription was demonstrated by directly quantifying heternonuclear RNA by real-time PCR. Dominant negative mutants of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF-1α) and HIF-1α siRNA blocked the action of cobalt, showing that HIF-1α is a key component in this mechanism. The proteasome inhibitors, lactacystin or proteasome inhibitor-III completely abolished the effect of hypoxia and cobalt both at the protein and mRNA level indicating that the proteasome pathway is probably involved not only for the stability of HIF-1α protein, but for the stability of unidentified transcription factors that regulate AQP5 transcription. These studies reveal a potentially important physiological mechanism linking hypoxic stress and membrane water channels. PMID:23469202

  10. The effect of hypoxia mimetic cobalt chloride on the expression of EC-SOD in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Hara, Hirokazu; Inagaki, Naoki; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that adipose tissue is not only a passive reservoir for energy storage but also produces and secretes a variety of bioactive molecules called adipocytokines, including adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Recently, it has been reported that adipose tissue can suffer a chronic hypoxic condition during hypertrophy of adipocytes, and this condition leads to the dysregulation of adipocytokines. Further, hypoxic adipocytes are in an increased oxidative stress. Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an anti-inflammatory enzyme that protects cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) by scavenging superoxide anion. Previous reports showed that plasma EC-SOD levels in type 2 diabetes patients were significantly and inversely related to the body mass index, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index; however, the mechanisms of EC-SOD and adiponectin reductions during hypoxia remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a hypoxia mimetic, decreases EC-SOD and adiponectin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by intracellular ROS-independent, but TNF-alpha and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent mechanisms. From these results, it is possible that TNF-alpha is a key regulator of the reduction of EC-SOD and adiponectin in CoCl(2)-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and we speculated that the reduction of EC-SOD and adiponectin would lead to and/or promote metabolic disorders.

  11. Transferred NOESY NMR studies of biotin mimetic peptide (FSHPQNT) bound to streptavidin: A structural model for studies of peptide-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gizachew, Dawit; Dratz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions control signaling, specific adhesion and many other biological functions. The three dimensional structures of the interfaces and bound ligand can be approached with Tr-NOESY NMR, which can be applied to much larger proteins than conventional NMR and requires less concentrated protein. However, it is not clear how accurately the structures of protein-bound peptides can be determined by Tr-NOESY. We studied the structure of a biotin-mimetic peptide (FSHPQNT) bound to streptavidin, since the x-ray structure of the complex is available to 1.74Å resolution and we found that conditions could be adjusted so that the off-rates were fast enough for Tr-NOESY NMR. The off-rate was determined with 19F NMR, using a para-fluoro-phenylalanine analog of the peptide. A new criterion for a lower limit on kinetic off-rate was found, which allowed accurate structure determination at a slower off-rate. Non-specific binding of the peptide to streptavidin was not significant, since biotin blocked the peptide Tr-NOESY. Protein mediation for the long range peptide Tr-NOESY cross-peaks was corrected by a Tr-NOESY/ROESY averaging procedure. The protein-bound structure of the peptide was determined by Tr-NOESY constrained and simulated annealing. The structure deduced from the NMR was close to the x-ray structure. PMID:21294848

  12. Bio-mimetic nanostructure self-assembled from Au@Ag heterogeneous nanorods and phage fusion proteins for targeted tumor optical detection and photothermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Pei; Sun, Lin; Li, Cuncheng; Petrenko, Valery A; Liu, Aihua

    2014-10-28

    Nanomaterials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption have been widely studied in cancer detection and photothermal therapy (PTT), while it remains a great challenge in targeting tumor efficiently with minimal side effects. Herein we report a novel multifunctional phage-mimetic nanostructure, which was prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of Au@Ag heterogenous nanorods (NRs) with rhodamine 6G, and specific pVIII fusion proteins. Au@Ag NRs, first being applied for PTT, exhibited excellent stability, cost-effectivity, biocompatibility and tunable NIR absorption. The fusion proteins were isolated from phage DDAGNRQP specifically selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against colorectal cancer cells in a high-throughput way. Considering the definite charge distribution and low molecular weight, phage fusion proteins were assembled on the negatively charged NR core by electrostatic interactions, exposing the N-terminus fused with DDAGNRQP peptide on the surface. The fluorescent images showed that assembled phage fusion proteins can direct the nanostructure into cancer cells. The nanostructure was more efficient than gold nanorods and silver nanotriangle-based photothermal agents and was capable of specifically ablating SW620 cells after 10 min illumination with an 808 nm laser in the light intensity of 4 W/cm(2). The prepared nanostructure would become an ideal reagent for simutaneously targeted optical imaging and PTT of tumor.

  13. Bio-mimetic Nanostructure Self-assembled from Au@Ag Heterogeneous Nanorods and Phage Fusion Proteins for Targeted Tumor Optical Detection and Photothermal Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Pei; Sun, Lin; Li, Cuncheng; Petrenko, Valery A.; Liu, Aihua

    2014-10-01

    Nanomaterials with near-infrared (NIR) absorption have been widely studied in cancer detection and photothermal therapy (PTT), while it remains a great challenge in targeting tumor efficiently with minimal side effects. Herein we report a novel multifunctional phage-mimetic nanostructure, which was prepared by layer-by-layer self-assembly of Au@Ag heterogenous nanorods (NRs) with rhodamine 6G, and specific pVIII fusion proteins. Au@Ag NRs, first being applied for PTT, exhibited excellent stability, cost-effectivity, biocompatibility and tunable NIR absorption. The fusion proteins were isolated from phage DDAGNRQP specifically selected from f8/8 landscape phage library against colorectal cancer cells in a high-throughput way. Considering the definite charge distribution and low molecular weight, phage fusion proteins were assembled on the negatively charged NR core by electrostatic interactions, exposing the N-terminus fused with DDAGNRQP peptide on the surface. The fluorescent images showed that assembled phage fusion proteins can direct the nanostructure into cancer cells. The nanostructure was more efficient than gold nanorods and silver nanotriangle-based photothermal agents and was capable of specifically ablating SW620 cells after 10 min illumination with an 808 nm laser in the light intensity of 4 W/cm2. The prepared nanostructure would become an ideal reagent for simutaneously targeted optical imaging and PTT of tumor.

  14. Targeting BCL2 With BH3 Mimetics: Basic Science and Clinical Application of Venetoclax in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Related B Cell Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A W; Huang, Dcs

    2017-01-01

    The intracellular protein B-cell-lymphoma-2 (BCL2) has been considered an attractive target for cancer therapy since the discovery of its function as a major promoter of cell survival (an anti-apoptotic) in the late 1980s. However, the challenges of targeting a protein-protein interaction delayed the discovery of fit-for-purpose molecules until the mid-2000s. Since then, a series of high affinity small organic molecules that inhibits the interaction of BCL2 with the apoptotic machinery, the so-called BH3-mimetics, have been developed. Venetoclax (formerly ABT-199) is the first to achieve US Food and Drug Administration approval, with an indication for treatment of patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) bearing deletion of the long arm of chromosome 17. Here, we review key aspects of the science underpinning the clinical application of BCL2 inhibitors and explore both our current knowledge and unresolved questions about its clinical utility, both in CLL and in other B-cell malignancies that highly express BCL2.

  15. Effect of chronic antioxidant therapy with superoxide dismutase-mimetic drug, tempol, on progression of renal disease in rats with renal mass reduction.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Yasmir; Ferrebuz, Atilio; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in the progression of renal damage and antioxidants are potentially useful therapeutic options in chronic renal disease. We investigated if treatment with tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic that has beneficial effects in several experimental models of hypertension and acute kidney injury, ameliorates the chronic renal damage resulting in renal mass reduction. Rats with surgical 5/6 nephrectomy were randomly assigned to receive no treatment (CRF group, n = 10) or tempol, 1 mmol/l in the drinking water (CRF-tempol group, n = 10). Sham-operated rats (n = 10) served as controls. All rats were followed for 12 weeks post-nephrectomy. Tempol treatment reduced plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and halved the number of superoxide-positive cells in the remnant kidney; however, the number of hydrogen peroxide-positive cells increased and the overall renal oxidative stress (MDA and nitrotyrosine abundance) and inflammation (interstitial p65 NF-kappaB, macrophage and lymphocyte infiltration) were unchanged. Proteinuria, renal function and glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage in the remnant kidney were similar in the CRF and CRF-tempol groups. In conclusion, tempol administration, at the dose used in these studies, decreased plasma MDA and heightened superoxide dismutation in the kidney, but was incapable of reducing renal oxidative stress or improving renal function or structure in the remnant kidney model.

  16. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-03-02

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace /sup 3/H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting /sup 3/H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit /sup 3/H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Sono-enhanced degradation of dye pollutants with the use of H2O2 activated by Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles as peroxidase mimetic.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Zhu, Lihua; Wang, Mingqiong; Wang, Dali; Tang, Heqing

    2010-01-01

    Sono-enhanced degradation of a dye pollutant Rhodamine B (RhB) was investigated by using H(2)O(2) as a green oxidant and Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a peroxidase mimetic. It was found that Fe(3)O(4) MNPs could catalyze the break of H(2)O(2) to remove RhB in a wide pH range from 3.0 to 9.0 and its peroxidase-like activity was significantly enhanced by the ultrasound irradiation. At pH 5.0 and temperature 55 degrees C, the ultrasound-assisted H(2)O(2)-Fe(3)O(4) catalysis removed about 95% of RhB (0.02 mmol L(-1)) in 15 min with a apparent rate constant of 0.15 min(-1) for the degradation of RhB, being 6.5 and 37.6 folds of that in the simple catalytic H(2)O(2)-Fe(3)O(4) system, and the simple ultrasonic US-H(2)O(2) systems, respectively. The beneficial synergistic behavior between Fe(3)O(4) catalysis and ultrasonic was demonstrated to be dependent on Fe(3)O(4) dosage, H(2)O(2) concentration, pH value and temperature. As a tentative explanation, the observed significant synergistic effects was attributed to the positive interaction between cavitation effect accelerating the catalytic breakdown of H(2)O(2) over Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles, and the function of Fe(3)O(4) MNPs providing more nucleation sites for the cavitation inception.

  18. TURNOVER-DEPENDENT COVALENT INACTIVATION OF Staphylococcus aureus COENZYME A-DISULFIDE REDUCTASE BY COENZYME A-MIMETICS: MECHANISTIC AND STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bret D.; Edwards, Jonathan S.; Wallen, Jamie R.; Moolman, Wessel J.A.; van der Westhuyzen, Renier; Strauss, Erick; Redinbo, Matthew R.; Claiborne, Al

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the unusual thiol-based redox homeostasis mechanisms in Staphylococcus aureus represents a unique opportunity to identify new metabolic processes, and new targets for intervention. Targeting uncommon aspects of CoASH biosynthetic and redox functions in S. aureus, the antibiotic CJ-15,801 has recently been demonstrated to be an antimetabolite of the CoASH biosynthetic pathway in this organism; CoAS-mimetics containing α,β-unsaturated sulfone and carboxyl moieties have also been exploited as irreversible inhibitors of S. aureus coenzyme A-disulfide reductase (SaCoADR). In this work we have determined the crystal structures of three of these covalent SaCoADR-inhibitor complexes, prepared by inactivation of wild-type enzyme during turnover. The structures reveal the covalent linkage between the active-site Cys43-Sγ and Cβ of the vinyl sulfone or carboxyl moiety. The full occupancy of two inhibitor molecules per enzyme dimer, together with kinetic analyses of the wild-type/C43S heterodimer, indicates that half-sites-reactivity is not a factor during normal catalytic turnover. Further, we provide the structures of SaCoADR active-site mutants; in particular, Tyr419′-OH plays dramatic roles in directing intramolecular reduction of the Cys43-SSCoA redox center, in the redox asymmetry observed for the two FAD per dimer in NADPH titrations, and in catalysis. The two conformations observed for the Ser43 side chain in the C43S mutant structure lend support to a conformational switch for Cys43-Sγ during its catalytic Cys43-SSCoA/Cys43-SH redox cycle. Finally, the structures of the three inhibitor complexes provide a framework for design of more effective inhibitors with therapeutic potential against several major bacterial pathogens. PMID:22954034

  19. Experimental Shifts in Intraclutch Egg Color Variation Do Not Affect Egg Rejection in a Host of a Non-Egg-Mimetic Avian Brood Parasite

    PubMed Central

    Croston, Rebecca; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other birds, and impose the costs associated with rearing parasitic young onto these hosts. Many hosts of brood parasites defend against parasitism by removing foreign eggs from the nest. In systems where parasitic eggs mimic host eggs in coloration and patterning, extensive intraclutch variation in egg appearances may impair the host’s ability to recognize and reject parasitic eggs, but experimental investigation of this effect has produced conflicting results. The cognitive mechanism by which hosts recognize parasitic eggs may vary across brood parasite hosts, and this may explain variation in experimental outcome across studies investigating egg rejection in hosts of egg-mimicking brood parasites. In contrast, for hosts of non-egg-mimetic parasites, intraclutch egg color variation is not predicted to co-vary with foreign egg rejection, irrespective of cognitive mechanism. Here we tested for effects of intraclutch egg color variation in a host of nonmimetic brood parasite by manipulating egg color in American robins (Turdus migratorius), hosts of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). We recorded robins’ behavioral responses to simulated cowbird parasitism in nests where color variation was artificially enhanced or reduced. We also quantified egg color variation within and between unmanipulated robin clutches as perceived by robins themselves using spectrophotometric measures and avian visual modeling. In unmanipulated nests, egg color varied more between than within robin clutches. As predicted, however, manipulation of color variation did not affect rejection rates. Overall, our results best support the scenario wherein egg rejection is the outcome of selective pressure by a nonmimetic brood parasite, because robins are efficient rejecters of foreign eggs, irrespective of the color variation within their own clutch. PMID:25831051

  20. The Smac Mimetic BV6 Improves NK Cell-Mediated Killing of Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Simultaneously Targeting Tumor and Effector Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kyra; Tognarelli, Sara; Roesler, Stefanie; Boedicker, Cathinka; Schubert, Ralf; Steinle, Alexander; Klingebiel, Thomas; Bader, Peter; Fulda, Simone; Ullrich, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other. The SM-induced sensitization of RH30 cells toward NK cell-mediated killing is significantly reduced through blocking tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) on NK cells prior to coculture. In addition, the presence of zVAD.fmk, a pancaspase inhibitor, rescues tumor cells from the increase in killing, indicating an apoptosis-dependent cell death. On the NK cell side, the presence of SM in addition to IL-2 during the ex vivo expansion leads to an increase in their cytotoxic activity against RH30 cells. This effect is mainly TNFα-dependent and partially mediated by NK cell activation, which is associated with transcriptional upregulation of NF-κB target genes such as IκBα and RelB. Taken together, our findings implicate that SM represent a novel double-hit strategy, sensitizing tumor and activating NK cells with one single drug. PMID:28326081

  1. Neuroprotective effect of MnTMPyP, a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic in global cerebral ischemia is mediated through reduction of oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shyam S; Gupta, Sangeetha

    2007-04-30

    Excessive generation of free radicals and decreased levels of the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase have been observed after brain ischemic reperfusion injury. In the present study, we have investigated the neuroprotective potential of MnTMPyP (Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin pentachloride), a SOD/Catalase mimetic in bilateral carotid artery occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils. Five minutes of bilateral carotid artery occlusion produced global cerebral ischemia, which was evident from the neurological deficits, spontaneous motor activity and the decrease in the number of viable hippocampal CA1 neurons. Global ischemia was also associated with increased levels of malondialdehyde, decreased levels of SOD and catalase, and increased TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) positive cells, indicating oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Administration of a single dose of MnTMPyP, 1 mg/kg i.p. (30 min before occlusion), produced no significant neuroprotection; however, 3 mg/kg i.p. (30 min before to occlusion) produced significant reduction in neurological score, spontaneous motor activity and CA1 pyramidal neuronal damage. MnTMPyP also attenuated the increased levels of malondialdehyde and improved the levels of SOD and catalase, and inhibited DNA fragmentation in the ischemic animals. Multiple administration of MnTMPyP, 3 mg/kg i.p. (three times: 30 min before, 1 h and 3 h after occlusion), produced better neuroprotection as compared to single dose administration. This study demonstrates that the neuroprotective effect of MnTMPyP in global ischemia is mediated through reduction in oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation.

  2. Inhibition of GABA uptake potentiates the conductance increase produced by GABA-mimetic compounds on single neurones in isolated olfactory cortex slices of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A; Scholfield, C N

    1984-09-01

    Membrane potential and input conductance were recorded in single neurones in slices of guinea-pig olfactory cortex in vitro. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and GABA-mimetic compounds were applied by bath-perfusion. Potency was measured as the concentration required to double the input conductance. The potency of GABA was increased (i.e. the equi-effective concentrations were reduced) by 15.5 +/- 2.3 times (mean +/- s.e. mean) on reducing external [Na+] from 144 to 20 mmol l-1, by replacement with Mg2+. Corresponding potency changes for other agonists were + 10.8 +/- 2.5 for 3-aminopropanesulphonic acid (3-APS); 3.25 +/- 1.06 for isoguvacine and 2.43 +/- 0.69 for muscimol. Nipecotic acid (0.5 mM) produced the following increases in potency: GABA 2.68 +/- 0.02; 3-aminopropanesulphonic acid, 3.11 +/- 0.07; isoguvacine, 1.92 +/- 0.34; muscimol, 2.24 +/- 0.17. The concentration of GABA in the bathing fluid necessary to double input conductance increased with increasing depth of the recording site from the cut surface. The apparent potency fell 10 times for each 60 micron depth increment up to 150 micron. The recording depth also affected the apparent potency of muscimol and 3-APS but to a lesser extent. Reduction of external [Na+] reduced the depth-dependence of both GABA and 3-APS potency. No clear change in the duration of the recurrent inhibitory postsynaptic conductance could be detected in the presence of 0.5 mmol l-1 nipecotic acid. 6 It is suggested that agonist uptake by a Na+-dependent, nipecotic acid-sensitive mechanism severely attenuates the responses of olfactory neurones to exogenous GABA and to its analogues 3-APS, muscimol and isoguvacine, but has little immediate influence on the duration of the GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic conductance.

  3. CD4-mimetic sulfopeptide conjugates display sub-nanomolar anti-HIV-1 activity and protect macaques against a SHIV162P3 vaginal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ariën, Kevin K.; Baleux, Françoise; Desjardins, Delphine; Porrot, Françoise; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Michiels, Johan; Bouchemal, Kawthar; Bonnaffé, David; Bruel, Timothée; Schwartz, Olivier; Le Grand, Roger; Vanham, Guido; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    The CD4 and the cryptic coreceptor binding sites of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein are key to viral attachment and entry. We developed new molecules comprising a CD4 mimetic peptide linked to anionic compounds (mCD4.1-HS12 and mCD4.1-PS1), that block the CD4-gp120 interaction and simultaneously induce the exposure of the cryptic coreceptor binding site, rendering it accessible to HS12- or PS1- mediated inhibition. Using a cynomolgus macaque model of vaginal challenge with SHIV162P3, we report that mCD4.1-PS1, formulated into a hydroxyethyl-cellulose gel provides 83% protection (5/6 animals). We next engineered the mCD4 moiety of the compound, giving rise to mCD4.2 and mCD4.3 that, when conjugated to PS1, inhibited cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 with particularly low IC50, in the nM to pM range, including some viral strains that were resistant to the parent molecule mCD4.1. These chemically defined molecules, which target major sites of vulnerability of gp120, are stable for at least 48 hours in conditions replicating the vaginal milieu (37 °C, pH 4.5). They efficiently mimic several large gp120 ligands, including CD4, coreceptor or neutralizing antibodies, to which their efficacy compares very favorably, despite a molecular mass reduced to 5500 Da. Together, these results support the development of such molecules as potential microbicides. PMID:27721488

  4. Ex vivo investigation of ocular tissue distribution following intravitreal admi