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Sample records for a-i dmpc small

  1. Formation of HDL-like complexes from apolipoprotein A-I(M) and DMPC.

    PubMed

    Suurkuusk, M; Singh, S K

    2000-01-20

    Conditions for the preparation of reconstituted high density lipoproteins (HDLs) by incubation of the synthetic lipid dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and recombinant apolipoprotein A-I(M) have been investigated as a function of ratio of incubation lipid to protein, incubation temperature and the lipid form (multilamellar (MLV) or small unilamellar (SUV) vesicles). The size distributions of the resultant lipid-protein complex particles from various incubations have been evaluated by native gel electrophoresis. Structural changes of the protein after incorporation into these complex particles have been estimated by CD. Thermal characteristics of the particles has been examined by DSC and correlated with CD results. Titration calorimetry has been used to obtain interaction parameters based on a simplified binding model. It is hypothesized that the major enthalpic step in the production of rHDLs is the primary association step between protein and lipid vesicles. It has been shown that by raising the temperature and incubation ratio, the formation of rHDL particles can be directed towards smaller size and a narrower size distribution. The results have been described on the basis of a model where formation of discoidal particles requires prior saturation of vesicle surface area by adsorbed protein, thus explaining differences between particles formed from MLVs and SUVs.

  2. Electrochemical and PM-IRRAS Studies of the Effect of Cholesterol on the Structure of a DMPC Bilayer Supported at an Au (111) Electrode Surface, Part 1: Properties of the Acyl Chains

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Xiaomin; Horswell, Sarah L.; Lipkowski, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Charge density measurements and polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy were employed to investigate the spreading of small unilamellar vesicles of a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/cholesterol (7:3 molar ratio) mixture onto an Au (111) electrode surface. The electrochemical experiments demonstrated that vesicles fuse and spread onto the Au (111) electrode surface, forming a bilayer, at rational potentials −0.4 V < (E − Epzc) < 0.4 V or field strength <6×107 V m−1. Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy experiments provided information concerning the conformation and orientation of the acyl chains of DMPC molecules. Deuterated DMPC was used to subtract the contribution of C-H stretching bands of cholesterol and of the polar head region of DMPC from spectra in the C-H stretching region. The absorption spectra of the C-H stretch bands in the acyl chains were determined in this way. The properties of the DMPC/cholesterol bilayer have been compared with the properties of a pure DMPC bilayer. The presence of 30% cholesterol gives a thicker and more fluid bilayer characterized by a lower capacity and lower tilt angle of the acyl chains. PMID:15849259

  3. Cholesterol orientation and tilt modulus in DMPC bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Khelashvili, George; Pabst, Georg; Harries, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of hydrated bilayers containing mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and Cholesterol at various ratios, to study the effect of cholesterol concentration on its orientation, and to characterize the link between cholesterol tilt and overall phospholipid membrane organization. The simulations show a substantial probability for cholesterol molecules to transiently orient perpendicular to the bilayer normal, and suggest that cholesterol tilt may be an important factor for inducing membrane ordering. In particular, we find that as cholesterol concentration increases (1%–40% cholesterol) the average cholesterol orientation changes in a manner strongly (anti)correlated with the variation in membrane thickness. Furthermore, cholesterol orientation is found to be determined by the aligning force exerted by other cholesterol molecules. To quantify this aligning field, we analyzed cholesterol orientation using, to our knowledge, the first estimates of the cholesterol tilt modulus χ from MD simulations. Our calculations suggest that the aligning field that determines χ is indeed strongly linked to sterol composition. This empirical parameter (χ) should therefore become a useful quantitative measure to describe cholesterol interaction with other lipids in bilayers, particularly in various coarse-grained force fields. PMID:20518573

  4. How does ytterbium chloride interact with DMPC bilayers? A computational and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Miguel A; Barriga, Hanna M G; Richens, Joanna L; Law, Robert V; O'Shea, Paul; Bresme, Fernando

    2017-03-29

    Lanthanide salts have been studied for many years, primarily in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments of mixed lipid-protein systems and more recently to study lipid flip-flop in model membrane systems. It is well recognised that lanthanide salts can influence the behaviour of both lipid and protein systems, however a full molecular level description of lipid-lanthanide interactions is still outstanding. Here we present a study of lanthanide-bilayer interactions, using molecular dynamics computer simulations, fluorescence electrostatic potential experiments and nuclear magnetic resonance. Computer simulations reveal the microscopic structure of DMPC lipid bilayers in the presence of Yb 3+ , and a surprising ability of the membranes to adsorb significant concentrations of Yb 3+ without disrupting the overall membrane structure. At concentrations commonly used in NMR experiments, Yb 3+ ions bind strongly to 5 lipids, inducing a small decrease of the area per lipid and a slight increase of the ordering of the aliphatic chains and the bilayer thickness. The area compressibility modulus increases by a factor of two, with respect to the free-salt case, showing that Yb 3+ ions make the bilayer more rigid. These modifications of the bilayer properties should be taken into account in the interpretation of NMR experiments.

  5. Strong Static Magnetic Fields Increase the Gel Signal in Partially Hydrated DPPC/DMPC Membranes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jennifer; Alsop, Richard J; Schmalzl, Karin; Epand, Richard M; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2015-09-29

    NIt was recently reported that static magnetic fields increase lipid order in the hydrophobic membrane core of dehydrated native plant plasma membranes [Poinapen, Soft Matter 9:6804-6813, 2013]. As plasma membranes are multicomponent, highly complex structures, in order to elucidate the origin of this effect, we prepared model membranes consisting of a lipid species with low and high melting temperature. By controlling the temperature, bilayers coexisting of small gel and fluid domains were prepared as a basic model for the plasma membrane core. We studied molecular order in mixed lipid membranes made of dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) using neutron diffraction in the presence of strong static magnetic fields up to 3.5 T. The contribution of the hydrophobic membrane core was highlighted through deuterium labeling the lipid acyl chains. There was no observable effect on lipid organization in fluid or gel domains at high hydration of the membranes. However, lipid order was found to be enhanced at a reduced relative humidity of 43%: a magnetic field of 3.5 T led to an increase of the gel signal in the diffraction patterns of 5%. While all biological materials have weak diamagnetic properties, the corresponding energy is too small to compete against thermal disorder or viscous effects in the case of lipid molecules. We tentatively propose that the interaction between the fatty acid chains' electric moment and the external magnetic field is driving the lipid tails in the hydrophobic membrane core into a better ordered state.

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of two-component bilayers: DMPC/DSPC mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Sugár, I P; Thompson, T E; Biltonen, R L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a relatively simple lattice model of a two-component, two-state phospholipid bilayer. Application of Monte Carlo methods to this model permits simulation of the observed excess heat capacity versus temperature curves of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC)/distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC) mixtures as well as the lateral distributions of the components and properties related to these distributions. The analysis of the bilayer energy distribution functions reveals that the gel-fluid transition is a continuous transition for DMPC, DSPC, and all DMPC/DSPC mixtures. A comparison of the thermodynamic properties of DMPC/DSPC mixtures with the configurational properties shows that the temperatures characteristics of the configurational properties correlate well with the maxima in the excess heat capacity curves rather than with the onset and completion temperatures of the gel-fluid transition. In the gel-fluid coexistence region, we also found excellent agreement between the threshold temperatures at different system compositions detected in fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments and the temperatures at which the percolation probability of the gel clusters is 0.36. At every composition, the calculated mole fraction of gel state molecules at the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching threshold is 0.34 and, at the percolation threshold of gel clusters, it is 0.24. The percolation threshold mole fraction of gel or fluid lipid depends on the packing geometry of the molecules and the interchain interactions. However, it is independent of temperature, system composition, and state of the percolating cluster. PMID:10096905

  7. Understanding the interaction of block copolymers with DMPC lipid bilayer using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Hezaveh, Samira; Samanta, Susruta; De Nicola, Antonio; Milano, Giuseppe; Roccatano, Danilo

    2012-12-13

    In this paper, we present a computational model of the adsorption and percolation mechanism of poloxamers (poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO) triblock copolymers) across a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer. A coarse-grained model was used to cope with the long time scale of the percolation process. The simulations have provided details of the interaction mechanism of Pluronics with lipid bilayer. In particular, the results have shown that polymer chains containing a PPO block with a length comparable to the DMPC bilayer thickness, such as P85, tends to percolate across the lipid bilayer. On the contrary, Pluronics with a shorter PPO chain, such as L64 and F38, insert partially into the membrane with the PPO block part while the PEO blocks remain in water on one side of the lipid bilayer. The percolation of the polymers into the lipid tail groups reduces the membrane thickness and increases the area per lipid. These effects are more evident for P85 than L64 or F38. Our findings are qualitatively in good agreement with published small-angle X-ray scattering experiments that have evidenced a thinning effect of Pluronics on the lipid bilayer as well as the role of the length of the PPO block on the permeation process of the polymer through the lipid bilayer. Our theoretical results complement the experimental data with a detailed structural and dynamic model of poloxamers at the interface and inside the lipid bilayer.

  8. Use of DMPC and DSPC lipids for verapamil and naproxen permeability studies by PAMPA.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Figueroa, M J; Contreras-Garrido, B C; Soto-Arriaza, M A

    2015-04-01

    Verapamil and naproxen Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) permeability was studied using lipids not yet reported for this model in order to facilitate the quantification of drug permeability. These lipids are 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and an equimolar mixture of DMPC/DSPC, both in the absence and in the presence of 33.3 mol% of cholesterol. PAMPA drug permeability using the lipids mentioned above was compared with lecithin-PC. The results show that verapamil permeability depends on the kind of lipid used, in the order DMPC > DMPC/DSPC > DSPC. The permeability of the drugs was between 1.3 and 3.5-times larger than those obtained in lecithin-PC for all the concentrations of the drug used. Naproxen shows similar permeability than verapamil; however, the permeability increased with respect to lecithin-PC only when DMPC and DMPC/DSPC were used. This behavior could be explained by a difference between the drug net charge at pH 7.4. On the other hand, in the presence of cholesterol, verapamil permeability increases in all lipid systems; however, the relative verapamil permeability respect to lecithin-PC did not show any significant increase. This result is likely due to the promoting effect of cholesterol, which is not able to compensate for the large increase in verapamil permeability observed in lecithin-PC. With respect to naproxen, its permeability value and relative permeability respect lecithin-PC not always increased in the presence of cholesterol. This result is probably attributed to the negative charge of naproxen rather than its molecular weight. The lipid systems studied have an advantage in drug permeability quantification, which is mainly related to the charge of the molecule and not to its molecular weight or to cholesterol used as an absorption promoter.

  9. Thermal structural evolutions of DMPC-water biomimetic systems investigated by Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fasanella, A; Cosentino, K; Beneduci, A; Chidichimo, G; Cazzanelli, E; Barberi, R C; Castriota, M

    2018-06-01

    Many cell membranes of living organisms can be represented as phospholipid bilayers immersed into a water environment. The physical-chemical interactions at the membranes/water interface are responsible for the stabilization of the membranes. In addition, the drug efficiency, the pharmaceutical mechanism and the improvement of the drug design can be addressed to the interactions between the membranes-water interface with the drug and to the membrane-drug interface. In this framework, it is important to find membranes models able to simulate and simultaneously simplify the biological systems to better understand both physical and chemical interactions at the interface level. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) is a synthetic phospholipid used in order to make Multilamellar Vesicle (MLV), Large Unilamellar Vesicle (LUV) and Giant Unilamellar Vesicle (GUV). In order to understand the mechanisms of vesicle formation, we have analyzed mixtures of DMPC and water by micro-Raman spectroscopy at different temperatures in the range between 10 and 35 °C. Particularly, we analyzed the temperature dependence of the CN vibrational frequency, which appears well correlated to the order degree of the various phases. These investigations, beyond the determination of phospholipid hydrocarbon chains order, provide information about the conformation of the lipid membranes. We have identified the mixture of DMPC/water that is best suited for Raman studies and can be used as an in-vitro model for biological systems. A peculiar frequency shift across the transition gel-ripple-liquid crystalline phases has been proposed as a useful diagnostic marker to detect the "order degree" and subsequently the phases of biomimetic membranes made by DMPC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interfacial behavior of Myristic acid in mixtures with DMPC and Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattari, Z.; Sayyed, M. I.; Qashou, S. I.; Fasfous, I.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Maghrabi, M.

    2017-06-01

    Binary mixture monolayers of Myristic acid (MA) with the same length of saturated acyl chain lipid viz 1,2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and Cholesterol (Chol), were investigated under different experimental conditions using Langmuir monolayers (LMs). The interfacial pressure-area (π-A) isotherms, excess molecular area, excess free energy and fluorescence microscopy (FM) images were recorded at the air/water interface. Monolayers of both systems (e.g. MA/DMPC, MA/Chol) reach the closest acyl hydrophobic chain packing in the range 0.20 < xMA < 0.70. Thermodynamic analysis indicates miscibility of the binary mixtures when spread at the air/water interface with negative deviation from the ideal behavior. Morphological features of MA/DMPC systems were found to depend strongly on MA mole fraction and pressures by showing two extreme minima in Gibbs free energy of mixing, while MA/Chol systems showed only an effective condensing effect at xMA = 0.90. In the whole range of compositions studied here, the liquid-expanded (LE) to liquid-condensed (LC) phase transition occurs at increasing xAM as it accomplished by a huge increase in the inverse compressibility modulus. FM observations confirmed the phase-transition and condensing effects of both mixture monolayers as evidenced by Gibbs free energy of mixing in a limited range of compositions.

  11. Lateral Diffusion in a DMPC:DMPE-EO Binary Monolayer at the Air/Water Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adalsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Porter, Ryan; Yu, Hyuk

    2002-03-01

    Polyethylene glycol tethered phospholipids (lipo-polymers) have recently attracted attention for improving the stability of liposomes and other bilayer delivery systems. Here, we report a study of surface pressure measurement and diffusion measurements of a probe lipid (NBD-DMPC) in a binary monolayer of DMPC and DMPE-EO at the Air/Water interface. Our findings are that the DMPE-EO lipo-polymer desorbs from the interface at intermediate surface pressures if the EO tail is sufficiently large (i.e. EO_45) and does not interfere with the diffusion of the probe thereafter. In the case where the EO tail is short (i.e. EO_17) the lipo-polymer retards the diffusion of the probe, but as the surface pressure increases, the diffusion behavior approaches that of pure DMPC monolayer independent of lipo-polymer. Thus, we conclude that the surface pressure and EO molar mass dependent desorption of the lipo-polymer modulates the probe diffusion retardation.

  12. Synthesis and interaction of sterol-uridine conjugate with DMPC liposomes studied by differential scanning calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Jhon Fernando Berrío; Restrepo, Manuel Humberto Pastrana; Fernández, Diana Margarita Márquez; Martínez, Alejandro Martínez; Giordani, Cristiano; Castelli, Francesco; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia

    2018-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermoanalytical technique which provides information on the interaction between drugs and models of cell membranes. Studies on the calorimetric behavior of hydrated phospholipids within liposomes are employed to shed light on the changes in the physico-chemical properties when interacting with drugs. In this report, new potential anti-cancer drugs such as uridine and uridine derivatives (acetonide and its succinate), 3β-5α,8α-endoperoxide-cholestan-6-en-3-ol (5,8-epidioxicholesterol) and conjugate (uridine acetonide-epidioxicholesterol succinate) have been synthesized. Steglich esterification method using coupling agents allowed to obtain the uridine acetonide-sterol conjugate. The study on the interaction between the drugs and dimiristoyl-phophatidilcholine (DMPC) liposomes has been conducted by the use of DSC. The analysis of the DSC curves indicated that the uridine and derivatives (acetonide and its succinate) present a very soft interaction with the DMPC liposomes, whereas the 5,8-epidioxicholesterol and the conjugate showed a strong effect on the thermotropic behavior. Our results suggested that the lipophilic character of uridine acetonide-sterol conjugate improves the affinity with the DMPC liposomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. What Makes a Team? The Composition of Small Groups for C.A.I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellows, B. P.

    This study examined the task performance and social interaction of young children who used a computer to learn map skills. Specifically, ability and sex were examined in relation to students' achievement on a social studies task and in relation to student interaction in small groups. Subjects were 66 second grade students in 3 different…

  14. Anesthetics mechanism on a DMPC lipid membrane model: Insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, Marzieh; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Jalili, Seifollah

    2017-07-01

    To provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of local anesthetic action, we have carried out an extensive investigation of two amide type local anesthetics, lidocaine and articaine in both charged and uncharged forms, interacting with DMPC lipid membrane. We have applied both standard molecular dynamics simulations and metadynamics simulations to provide a detailed description of the free energy landscape of anesthetics embedded in the lipid bilayer. The global minimum of the free energy surface (equilibrium position of anesthetics in the lipid membrane) occurred around 1nm of the bilayer center. The uncharged anesthetics show more affinity to bind to this region compared to the charged drugs. The binding free energy of uncharged lidocaine in the membrane (-30.3kJ/mol) is higher than uncharged articaine (-24.0kJ/mol), which is in good agreement with higher lipid solubility of lidocaine relative to the articaine. The octanol/water partition coefficient of uncharged drugs was also investigated using expanded ensemble simulations. In addition, complementary standard MD simulations were carried out to study the partitioning behavior of multiple anesthetics inside the lipid bilayer. The results obtained here are in line with previously reported simulations and suggest that the different forms of anesthetics induce different structural modifications in the lipid bilayer, which can provide new insights into their complex membrane translocation phenomena. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Small Molecule Therapeutics for Sickle Cell Disease: Nitric Oxide, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrite, and Apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    A hemolysis-linked subphenotype of sickle cell disease (SCD), characterized by pulmonary hypertension, stroke, priapism and leg ulcers, is associated with decreased nitric oxide bioavailability and vasculopathy. Vasculopathy appears to have a multifactorial etiology, including mechanisms primarily that involve deficient nitric oxide (NO) signaling, but also involving altered function of NO synthase related to substrate availability and cooperating factors such as apolipoproteins. Improved understanding of the vascular pathophysiology of SCD has led to new vascular targets for translational research in SCD. This growing vascular therapeutics field in SCD is complementary to the ongoing efforts to reduce the morbidity of vaso-occlusive pain crisis. This presentation will review the current biology and translational clinical development of novel small molecules targeting sickle cell vasculopathy. Strategies targeting the heme-oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway, the arginine-NO synthase-cGMP-phosphodiesterase 5 pathway, the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, and the apolipoprotein A-I pathways will be reviewed. In this context, current clinical trials of inhaled NO, CO, nitrite, sildenafil and apoA-I mimetics will be discussed. PMID:19074079

  16. Direct comparison of elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments with molecular dynamics simulations of DMPC phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Bachir; Pellegrini, Eric; Trapp, Marcus; Natali, Francesca; Cantù, Laura; Brocca, Paola; Gerelli, Yuri; Demé, Bruno; Marek Koza, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Peters, Judith

    2016-04-01

    Neutron scattering techniques have been employed to investigate 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) membranes in the form of multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) and deposited, stacked multilamellar-bilayers (MLBs), covering transitions from the gel to the liquid phase. Neutron diffraction was used to characterise the samples in terms of transition temperatures, whereas elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) demonstrates that the dynamics on the sub-macromolecular length-scale and pico- to nano-second time-scale are correlated with the structural transitions through a discontinuity in the observed elastic intensities and the derived mean square displacements. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in parallel focussing on the length-, time- and temperature-scales of the neutron experiments. They correctly reproduce the structural features of the main gel-liquid phase transition. Particular emphasis is placed on the dynamical amplitudes derived from experiment and simulations. Two methods are used to analyse the experimental data and mean square displacements. They agree within a factor of 2 irrespective of the probed time-scale, i.e. the instrument utilized. Mean square displacements computed from simulations show a comparable level of agreement with the experimental values, albeit, the best match with the two methods varies for the two instruments. Consequently, experiments and simulations together give a consistent picture of the structural and dynamical aspects of the main lipid transition and provide a basis for future, theoretical modelling of dynamics and phase behaviour in membranes. The need for more detailed analytical models is pointed out by the remaining variation of the dynamical amplitudes derived in two different ways from experiments on the one hand and simulations on the other.

  17. Measurement of the membrane dipole electric field in DMPC vesicles using vibrational shifts of p-cyanophenylalanine and molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Rebika; Cardenas, Alfredo E; Elber, Ron; Webb, Lauren J

    2015-02-19

    The magnitude of the membrane dipole field was measured using vibrational Stark effect (VSE) shifts of nitrile oscillators placed on the unnatural amino acid p-cyanophenylalanine (p-CN-Phe) added to a peptide sequence at four unique positions. These peptides, which were based on a repeating alanine-leucine motif, intercalated into small unilamellar DMPC vesicles which formed an α-helix as confirmed by circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-intercalated helix containing two of the nitrile probes, one near the headgroup region of the lipid (αLAX(25)) and one buried in the interior of the bilayer (αLAX(16)), were used to examine the structure of the nitrile with respect to the membrane normal, the assumed direction of the dipole field, by quantifying both a small tilt of the helix in the bilayer and conformational rotation of the p-CN-Phe side chain at steady state. Vibrational absorption energies of the nitrile oscillator at each position showed a systematic blue shift as the nitrile was stepped toward the membrane interior; for several different concentrations of peptide, the absorption energy of the nitrile located in the middle of the bilayer was ∼3 cm(-1) greater than that of the nitrile closest to the surface of the membrane. Taken together, the measured VSE shifts and nitrile orientations within the membrane resulted in an absolute magnitude of 8-11 MV/cm for the dipole field, at the high end of the range of possible values that have been accumulated from a variety of indirect measurements. Implications for this are discussed.

  18. Measurement of the Membrane Dipole Electric Field in DMPC Vesicles Using Vibrational Shifts of p-Cyanophenylalanine and Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Rebika; Cardenas, Alfredo E.; Elber, Ron; Webb, Lauren J.

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the membrane dipole field was measured using vibrational Stark effect (VSE) shifts of nitrile oscillators placed on the unnatural amino acid p-cyanophenylalanine (p-CN-Phe) added to a peptide sequence at four unique positions. These peptides, which were based on a repeating alanine-leucine motif, intercalated into small unilamellar DMPC vesicles which formed an α-helix as confirmed by circular dichroic (CD) spectroscopy. Molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-intercalated helix containing two of the nitrile probes, one near the head-group region of the lipid (αLAX(25)) and one buried in the interior of the bilayer (αLAX(16)), were used to examine the structure of the nitrile with respect to the membrane normal, the assumed direction the dipole field, by quantifying both a small tilt of the helix in the bilayer and conformational rotation of the p-CN-Phe side chain at steady-state. Vibrational absorption energies of the nitrile oscillator at each position showed a systematic blue shift as the nitrile was stepped towards the membrane interior; for several different concentrations of peptide, the absorption energy of the nitrile located in the middle of the bilayer was ~3 cm−1 greater than that of the nitrile closest to the surface of the membrane. Taken together, the measured VSE shifts and nitrile orientations within the membrane resulted in a value of 8 – 11 MV/cm for the dipole field, at the high end of the range of possible values that have been accumulated from a variety of indirect measurements. Implications for this are discussed. PMID:25602635

  19. Charge Equilibration Force Fields for Lipid Environments: Applications to Fully Hydrated DPPC Bilayers and DMPC-Embedded Gramicidin A

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Joseph E.; Patel, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Polarizable force fields for lipid and solvent environments are used for molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer and gramicidin A (gA) dimer embedded in a dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer. The lipid bilayer is modelled using the CHARMM charge equilibration (CHEQ) polarizable force field for lipids and the TIP4P-FQ force field to represent solvent. For the DPPC bilayer system, results are compared to the same system simulated using the nonpolarizable CHARMM27r (C27r) force field and TIP3P water. Calculated atomic and electron density profiles, headgroup orientations as measured by the phosphorus-nitrogen vector orientation, and deuterium order parameters are found to be consistent with previous simulations and with experiment. The CHEQ model exhibits greater water penetration into the bilayer interior, as demonstrated by the potential of mean force calculated from the water density profile. This is a result of the variation of the water molecular dipole from 2.55 D in the bulk to 1.88 D in the interior. We discuss this finding in the context of previous studies (both simulation and experiment) that have investigated the extent of penetration of water into DPPC bilayers. We also discuss the effects of including explicit polarization on the water dipole moment variation as a function of distance from the bilayer. We show distributions of atomic charges over the course of the simulation, since the CHEQ model allows the charges to fluctuate. We have calculated the interfacial dipole potential, which the CHEQ model predicts to be 0.95 V compared to 0.86 V as predicted by the C27r model. We also discuss dielectric permittivity profiles and the differences arising between the two models. We obtain bulk values of 72.77 for the CHEQ model (TIP4P-FQ water) and 91.22 for C27r (TIP3P), and values approaching unity in the membrane interior. Finally, we present results of simulations of gA embedded in a DMPC

  20. Synthetic polymers and biomembranes. How do they interact? Atomistic molecular dynamics simulation study of PEO in contact with a DMPC lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sandeep; Milano, Giuseppe; Roccatano, Danilo

    2006-12-28

    The understanding of interactions of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with biological interfaces has important technological application in industry and in medicine. In this paper, structural and dynamical properties of PEO at the dimyristoylphospatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer/water interface have been investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. The structural properties of a PEO chain in bulk water, at the water/vacuum interface, and in the presence of the membrane were compared with available experimental data. The presence of a barrier for the PEO penetration into the DMPC bilayer has been found. A qualitative estimation of the barrier provided a value equal to approximately 19 kJ/mol, that is, 7 times the value of kT at 310 K.

  1. Structural features and functional properties of water in model DMPC membranes: thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridelli, M. G.; Capelletti, R.; Mora, C.

    2013-12-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDCs) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies were employed to investigate the state of water incorporated in a model DMPC (dimyristoyl-phosphatidylcholine) membrane. The lipid multilayers, highly inhomogeneous from the dielectric point of view, originate complex TSDC spectra critically dependent on the sample water content and thermal history. Different temperature ranges were chosen to polarize the sample, i.e. 100-300 K (type I) and 100-285 K (type II). The purpose of the latter choice was to avoid any sample heating above the DMPC phase transition temperature (295 K) along the sample polarization. According to the results, water in a fully hydrated system (aw = 0.92) (1) is ordered around the hydrophilic head molecular groups, (2) is layered in the interbilayer space and (3) penetrates among the hydrocarbon chains. It can assume different local structural configurations depending on the lipid packing. Irreversible conformational transitions in the lipid array system were monitored as a consequence of different dehydration treatments. FTIR absorption measurements were performed to study the water sorption kinetics into a DMPC thin film. The water related OH band was decomposed into three components, describing three water states, with different propensity to the H-bond formation. The changes of the lipid characteristic groups (CH2/CH3, PO_{2}^{-} and C=O) absorption bands as a function of increasing hydration level were monitored and discussed.

  2. Structure of single-supported DMPC lipid bilayer membranes as a function of hydration level studied by neutron reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskowiec, A.; Schnase, P.; Bai, M.; Taub, H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Dubey, M.; Singh, S.; Majewski, J.

    2012-02-01

    We have recently been investigating the diffusion of water on single-supported DMPC lipid bilayer membranes at different levels of hydration, using high-resolution quasielastic neutron scattering (QNS). To aid in the interpretation of these QNS studies, we have conducted neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements on SPEAR at LANSCE to characterize the structure of similarly prepared samples. Protonated DMPC membranes were deposited onto SiO2-coated Si(100) substrates and characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) at different levels of hydration. We find reasonable agreement between the membrane thickness determined by NR and AFM at room temperature. We also find consistency between the scattering length density (SLD) profile in the vicinity of the upper leaflet of the supported DMPC membrane and that found in a molecular dynamics simulation of a freestanding membrane at 303 K. However, the fit to the reflectivity curve can be improved by modifying the SLD profile near the leaflet closest to the SiO2 surface.

  3. Investigation of the structure of unilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles in aqueous sucrose solutions by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, M. A., E-mail: elena@jinr.ru; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Zhabitskaya, E. I.

    2015-01-15

    The structure of a polydispersed population of unilamellar dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles in sucrose solutions has been investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Calculations within the model of separated form factors (SFF) show that the structure of the vesicle system depends strongly on the sucrose concentration.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Influence of Sugars Sucrose, Trehalose, and Maltose on the Hydration and Diffusion of DMPC Lipid Bilayer at Complete Hydration: Investigation of Structural and Spectroscopic Aspect of Lipid-Sugar Interaction.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arpita; Dutta, Rupam; Kundu, Niloy; Banik, Debasis; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2016-05-24

    It is well-known that sugars protect membrane structures against fusion and leakage. Here, we have investigated the interaction between different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, and maltose) and phospholipid membrane of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phoshpocholine (DMPC) using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and other various spectroscopic techniques. DLS measurement reveals that the addition of sugar molecule results a significant increase of the average diameter of DMPC membrane. We have also noticed that in the presence of different sugars the rotational relaxation and solvation time of coumarin 480 (C480) and coumarin 153 (C153) surrounding DMPC membrane increases, suggesting a marked reduction of the hydration behavior at the surface of phospholipid membrane. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of sugar molecules on the lateral mobility of phospholipids. Interestingly, the relative increase in rotational, solvation and lateral diffusion is more prominent for C480 than that of C153 because of their different location in lipid bilayer. It is because of preferential location of comparatively hydrophilic probe C480 in the interfacial region of the lipid bilayer. Sugars intercalate with the phospholipid headgroup through hydrogen bonding and replace smaller sized water molecules from the membrane surface. Therefore, overall, we have monitored a comparative analysis regarding the interaction of different sugar molecules (sucrose, trehalose, and maltose) with the DMPC membrane through DLS, TEM, solvation dynamics, time-resolved anisotropy, and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements to explore the structural and spectroscopic aspect of lipid-sugar interaction.

  5. Reconciling Structural and Thermodynamic Predictions Using All-Atom and Coarse-Grain Force Fields: The Case of Charged Oligo-Arginine Translocation into DMPC Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using the translocation of short, charged cationic oligo-arginine peptides (mono-, di-, and triarginine) from bulk aqueous solution into model DMPC bilayers, we explore the question of the similarity of thermodynamic and structural predictions obtained from molecular dynamics simulations using all-atom and Martini coarse-grain force fields. Specifically, we estimate potentials of mean force associated with translocation using standard all-atom (CHARMM36 lipid) and polarizable and nonpolarizable Martini force fields, as well as a series of modified Martini-based parameter sets. We find that we are able to reproduce qualitative features of potentials of mean force of single amino acid side chain analogues into model bilayers. In particular, modifications of peptide–water and peptide–membrane interactions allow prediction of free energy minima at the bilayer–water interface as obtained with all-atom force fields. In the case of oligo-arginine peptides, the modified parameter sets predict interfacial free energy minima as well as free energy barriers in almost quantitative agreement with all-atom force field based simulations. Interfacial free energy minima predicted by a modified coarse-grained parameter set are −2.51, −4.28, and −5.42 for mono-, di-, and triarginine; corresponding values from all-atom simulations are −0.83, −3.33, and −3.29, respectively, all in units of kcal/mol. We found that a stronger interaction between oligo-arginine and the membrane components and a weaker interaction between oligo-arginine and water are crucial for producing such minima in PMFs using the polarizable CG model. The difference between bulk aqueous and bilayer center states predicted by the modified coarse-grain force field are 11.71, 14.14, and 16.53 kcal/mol, and those by the all-atom model are 6.94, 8.64, and 12.80 kcal/mol; those are of almost the same order of magnitude. Our simulations also demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the structural aspects of

  6. Reconciling structural and thermodynamic predictions using all-atom and coarse-grain force fields: the case of charged oligo-arginine translocation into DMPC bilayers.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-10-16

    Using the translocation of short, charged cationic oligo-arginine peptides (mono-, di-, and triarginine) from bulk aqueous solution into model DMPC bilayers, we explore the question of the similarity of thermodynamic and structural predictions obtained from molecular dynamics simulations using all-atom and Martini coarse-grain force fields. Specifically, we estimate potentials of mean force associated with translocation using standard all-atom (CHARMM36 lipid) and polarizable and nonpolarizable Martini force fields, as well as a series of modified Martini-based parameter sets. We find that we are able to reproduce qualitative features of potentials of mean force of single amino acid side chain analogues into model bilayers. In particular, modifications of peptide-water and peptide-membrane interactions allow prediction of free energy minima at the bilayer-water interface as obtained with all-atom force fields. In the case of oligo-arginine peptides, the modified parameter sets predict interfacial free energy minima as well as free energy barriers in almost quantitative agreement with all-atom force field based simulations. Interfacial free energy minima predicted by a modified coarse-grained parameter set are -2.51, -4.28, and -5.42 for mono-, di-, and triarginine; corresponding values from all-atom simulations are -0.83, -3.33, and -3.29, respectively, all in units of kcal/mol. We found that a stronger interaction between oligo-arginine and the membrane components and a weaker interaction between oligo-arginine and water are crucial for producing such minima in PMFs using the polarizable CG model. The difference between bulk aqueous and bilayer center states predicted by the modified coarse-grain force field are 11.71, 14.14, and 16.53 kcal/mol, and those by the all-atom model are 6.94, 8.64, and 12.80 kcal/mol; those are of almost the same order of magnitude. Our simulations also demonstrate a remarkable similarity in the structural aspects of the ensemble of

  7. Effect of phloretin on the binding of 1-anilino-8-naphtalene sulfonate (ANS) to 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocoline (DMPC) vesicles in the gel and liquid-crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Cutró, Andrea C; Montich, Guillermo; Roveri, Oscar A

    2015-02-01

    Phloretin is a known modifier of the internal dipole potential of lipid membranes. We studied the interaction of phloretin with model lipid membranes and how it influences the membrane dipole organization using ANS as fluorescent probe. The fluorescence increase observed when ANS binds to DMPC liposomes in gel phase (13 °C) was 2.5 times larger in the presence of phloretin. This effect was due to an increase in ANS affinity, which can be related to the known capability of phloretin in decreasing the dipole potential. Conversely, when the experiments were carried out at 33 °C (liquid crystalline phase), phloretin completely inhibited the increase in ANS fluorescence. In addition, phloretin only affected the electrical properties of the membrane in the gel phase, whereas it modifies structural ones in the liquid-crystalline state. We postulate that phloretin was bound only to the DMPC interface in the gel phase decreasing the surface negative charge density without modifying the structural properties of the ANS binding sites. In the liquid-crystalline phase instead, it increased the accessibility of water to the ANS binding sites decreasing the intrinsic affinity and the fluorescence quantum yield of ANS.

  8. Myeloperoxidase-mediated Methionine Oxidation Promotes an Amyloidogenic Outcome for Apolipoprotein A-I*

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Gary K. L.; Witkowski, Andrzej; Gantz, Donald L.; Zhang, Tianqi O.; Zanni, Martin T.; Jayaraman, Shobini; Cavigiolio, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    High plasma levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) correlate with cardiovascular health, whereas dysfunctional apoA-I is a cause of atherosclerosis. In the atherosclerotic plaques, amyloid deposition increases with aging. Notably, apoA-I is the main component of these amyloids. Recent studies identified high levels of oxidized lipid-free apoA-I in atherosclerotic plaques. Likely, myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by activated macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions is the promoter of such apoA-I oxidation. We hypothesized that apoA-I oxidation by MPO levels similar to those present in the artery walls in atherosclerosis can promote apoA-I structural changes and amyloid fibril formation. ApoA-I was exposed to exhaustive chemical (H2O2) oxidation or physiological levels of enzymatic (MPO) oxidation and incubated at 37 °C and pH 6.0 to induce fibril formation. Both chemically and enzymatically oxidized apoA-I produced fibrillar amyloids after a few hours of incubation. The amyloid fibrils were composed of full-length apoA-I with differential oxidation of the three methionines. Met to Leu apoA-I variants were used to establish the predominant role of oxidation of Met-86 and Met-148 in the fibril formation process. Importantly, a small amount of preformed apoA-I fibrils was able to seed amyloid formation in oxidized apoA-I at pH 7.0. In contrast to hereditary amyloidosis, wherein specific mutations of apoA-I cause protein destabilization and amyloid deposition, oxidative conditions similar to those promoted by local inflammation in atherosclerosis are sufficient to transform full-length wild-type apoA-I into an amyloidogenic protein. Thus, MPO-mediated oxidation may be implicated in the mechanism that leads to amyloid deposition in the atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. PMID:25759391

  9. Small game

    Treesearch

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    Although small game currently is not harvested on the Savannah river Site(SRS) soutside of the Crackerneck Wildlife Management area and logical Reserve (CWMA), several species of small game occur on SRS. these include snipe (Gallinago gallinago), American woodcock (Scolopax minor), morning dove (Zenaida macroura...

  10. Metric Issues for Small Business.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    time, it seems that small business is meeting the problens (f ()ijutarv, metric conversion within its own resources ( manager ",a1, t, ,’bral, an...AD-AI07 861 UNITED STATES METRIC BOARD ARLINGTON VA FIG 5/3 METRIC ISSUES FOR SMALL BUSINESS . (U) UNCASIF AUG a I EHEHEi-17i i/ll/l///i//,° i MENNEN...METRIC ISSUES FOR SMALL BUSINESS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY DTIC ifELECT A This o@~ant )u enapo.I fW pu~~w Z. Ias ,!W% si~ts La-i UNITED STATES METRIC BOARD

  11. Small World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Laura Christion

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice for small alumni offices on how to sponsor an alumni travel program, focusing on booking a travel agent, deciding where to go, using faculty as tour guides or lecturers, making time for alumni office staff to go along, remembering special touches, visiting local alumni, avoiding overt fund raising, and being prepared for problems.…

  12. Small satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.; Dermott, S.

    1986-01-01

    Satellites smaller than Mimas (r = 195 km) are distinguished by irregular overall shapes and by rough limb topography. Material properties and impact cratering dominate the shaping of these objects. Long fragmentation histories can produce a variety of internal structures, but so far there is no direct evidence that any small satellite is an equilibrium ellipsoid made up of noncohesive gravitationally bound rubble. One many bodies that orbit close to their primary the tidal and rotational components of surface gravity strongly affect the directions of local g and thereby affect the redistribution of regolith by mass wasting. Downslope movement of regolith is extensive on Deimos, and is probably effective on many other small satellites. It is shown that in some cases observed patterns of downslope mass wasting cold produce useful constraints on the satellite's mean density. The diversity of features seen in the few high-resolution images of small satellites currently available suggests that these objects have undergone complex histories of cratering, fragmentation, and regolith evolution.

  13. Deceptively Small

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-02

    Tiny Epimetheus is dwarfed by adjacent slivers of the A and F rings. But is it really? Looks can be deceiving! There is approximately 10 to 20 times more mass in that tiny dot than in the piece of the A ring visible in this image! In total, Saturn's rings have about as much mass as a few times the mass of the moon Mimas. (This mass estimate comes from measuring the waves raised in the rings by moons like Epimetheus.) The rings look physically larger than any moon because the individual ring particles are very small, giving them a large surface area for a given mass. Epimetheus (70 miles or 113 kilometers across), on the other hand, has a small surface area per mass compared to the rings, making it look deceptively small. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 19 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Dec. 5, 2014. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.2 million miles (2 million kilometers) from Epimetheus and at a Sun-Epimetheus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 40 degrees. Image scale is 7 miles (12 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA18302

  14. Small Wonders

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-28

    This montage of views from NASA's Cassini spacecraft shows three of Saturn's small ring moons: Atlas, Daphnis and Pan at the same scale for ease of comparison. Two differences between Atlas and Pan are obvious in this montage. Pan's equatorial band is much thinner and more sharply defined, and the central mass of Atlas (the part underneath the smooth equatorial band) appears to be smaller than that of Pan. Images of Atlas and Pan taken using infrared, green and ultraviolet spectral filters were combined to create enhanced-color views, which highlight subtle color differences across the moons' surfaces at wavelengths not visible to human eyes. (The Daphnis image was colored using the same green filter image for all three color channels, adjusted to have a realistic appearance next to the other two moons.) All of these images were taken using the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera. The images of Atlas were acquired on April 12, 2017, at a distance of 10,000 miles (16,000 kilometers) and at a sun-moon-spacecraft angle (or phase angle) of 37 degrees. The images of Pan were taken on March 7, 2017, at a distance of 16,000 miles (26,000 kilometers) and a phase angle of 21 degrees. The Daphnis image was obtained on Jan. 16, 2017, at a distance of 17,000 miles (28,000 kilometers) and at a phase angle of 71 degrees. All images are oriented so that north is up. A monochrome version is available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21449

  15. High-Density Lipoprotein-Targeted Therapy and Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yoshinari; Chiesa, Giulia; Saku, Keijiro

    2015-01-01

    Numerous randomized clinical trials have established statins as the major standard therapy for atherosclerotic diseases because these molecules decrease the plasma level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and moderately increase that of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The reverse cholesterol transport pathway, mediated by HDL particles, has a relevant antiatherogenic potential. An important approach to HDL-targeted therapy is optimization of the HDL-cholesterol level and enhanced removal of plasma cholesterol, together with the prevention and mitigation of inflammation related to atherosclerosis. Small-molecule inhibitors of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) increase the HDL-cholesterol level in subjects with normal or low HDL-cholesterol. However, CETP inhibitors do not seem to reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases. HDL therapies using reconstituted HDL, including apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I Milano, ApoA-I mimetics, or full-length ApoA-I, are dramatically effective in animal models. Of those, the ApoA-I-mimetic peptide called FAMP effectively removes cholesterol via the ABCA1 transporter and acts as an antiatherosclerotic agent by enhancing the biological functions of HDL without elevating the HDL-cholesterol level. Our review of the literature leads us to conclude that HDL-targeted therapies have significant atheroprotective potential and thus may effectively treat patients with cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    Intestinal necrosis; Ischemic bowel - small intestine; Dead bowel - small intestine; Dead gut - small intestine; Infarcted bowel - small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine

  17. Effect of apolipoprotein A-I deficiency on lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activation in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Parks, J S; Li, H; Gebre, A K; Smith, T L; Maeda, N

    1995-02-01

    Plasma cholesteryl ester (CE) synthesis by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is activated by apolipoprotein (apo)A-I. We studied the effect of plasma apoA-I concentration on LCAT activation, using normal, heterozygous or homozygous apoA-I-deficient mice made by gene targeting. Plasma esterified cholesterol concentrations of mice fed chow diets were ordered (mean +/- SEM): 105 +/- 7 (normal) > 70 +/- 5 (heterozygotes) > 26 +/- 2 (homozygotes) mg/dl. Plasma free cholesterol concentrations were similar among the three genotypes. Endogenous LCAT activity, measured as the decrease in plasma free cholesterol after a 1 h incubation at 37 degrees C, was ordered: 44 +/- 3 (normal) > 21 +/- 2 (heterozygotes) > 5 +/- 1 (homozygotes) nmol CE formed/h per ml plasma. Using a recombinant exogenous substrate consisting of egg yolk phospholipid, [14C]cholesterol, and apoA-I, CE formation of normals and heterozygotes was similar (27.4 +/- 0.6 and 28.8 +/- 1.3 nmol/h per ml plasma, respectively), but was significantly less for homozygotes (19.2 +/- 1.7 nmol/h per ml plasma). However, using a small unilamellar vesicle substrate particle containing phospholipid and [14C]cholesterol, CE formation was ordered: 1.6 +/- 0.1 (normal) = 1.6 +/- 0.1 (heterozygotes) > 0.6 +/- 0.1 (homozygotes) nmol/h per ml plasma; addition of apoA-I to the plasma of homozygous animals restored CE formation to normal levels (1.6 +/- 0.1). CE fatty acid analysis demonstrated that plasma from homozygous mice contained significantly more saturated and monounsaturated and fewer polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to normal and heterozygous mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Genome-wide screen for modulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) secretion.

    PubMed

    Miles, Rebecca R; Perry, William; Haas, Joseph V; Mosior, Marian K; N'Cho, Mathias; Wang, Jian W J; Yu, Peng; Calley, John; Yue, Yong; Carter, Quincy; Han, Bomie; Foxworthy, Patricia; Kowala, Mark C; Ryan, Timothy P; Solenberg, Patricia J; Michael, Laura F

    2013-03-01

    Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue-specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; 40 genes were confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. The genes of interest include known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, G-protein-coupled receptors, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters, and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor manumycin A caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets.

  19. Are Subject Small Clauses Really Small Clauses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubo, Miori

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the ongoing debate over small clauses concerning the structure of the verb phrase in "I consider Bill smart." It is demonstrated that the subject constituent in question is not a small clause, but a Noun Phrase (NP), following Noun (N). It is shown that some peculiar phenomena under the small clause analysis are…

  20. Polyadenylation site prediction using PolyA-iEP method.

    PubMed

    Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Tzanis, George; Vlahavas, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a method called PolyA-iEP that has been developed for the prediction of polyadenylation sites. More precisely, PolyA-iEP is a method that recognizes mRNA 3'ends which contain polyadenylation sites. It is a modular system which consists of two main components. The first exploits the advantages of emerging patterns and the second is a distance-based scoring method. The outputs of the two components are finally combined by a classifier. The final results reach very high scores of sensitivity and specificity.

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I interactions with insulin secretion and production.

    PubMed

    Rye, Kerry-Anne; Barter, Philip J; Cochran, Blake J

    2016-02-01

    Human population studies have established that an elevated plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level is associated with a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. In addition to having several potentially cardioprotective functions, HDLs and apolipoprotein (apo)A-I, the main HDL apolipoprotein, also have antidiabetic properties. Interventions that elevate plasma HDL-C and apoA-I levels improve glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus by enhancing pancreatic β-cell function and increasing insulin sensitivity. This review is concerned with recent advances in understanding the mechanisms by which HDLs and apoA-I improve pancreatic β-cell function. HDLs and apoA-I increase insulin synthesis and secretion in pancreatic β cells. The underlying mechanism of this effect is similar to what has been reported for intestinally derived incretins, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, which both increase β-cell insulin secretion under high glucose conditions. This involves the activation of a heterotrimeric G protein Gαs subunit on the β-cell surface that leads to induction of a transmembrane adenylyl cyclase, increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and Ca levels, and activation of protein kinase A. Protein kinase A increases insulin synthesis by excluding FoxO1 from the β-cell nucleus and derepressing transcription of the insulin gene.

  2. A novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy[S

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Gao, Feng; Meriwether, David; Grijalva, Victor; Springstead, James R.; Palgnachari, Mayakonda N.; Namiri-Kalantari, Ryan; Su, Feng; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Wagner, Alan C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants were constructed with an empty vector (EV) or a vector expressing an apoA-I mimetic peptide, 6F. EV or 6F tomatoes were harvested, lyophilized, ground into powder, added to Western diet (WD) at 2.2% by weight, and fed to LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) mice at 45 mg/kg/day 6F. After 13 weeks, the percent of the aorta with lesions was 4.1 ± 4%, 3.3 ± 2.4%, and 1.9 ± 1.4% for WD, WD + EV, and WD + 6F, respectively (WD + 6F vs. WD, P = 0.0134; WD + 6F vs. WD + EV, P = 0.0386; WD + EV vs. WD, not significant). While body weight did not differ, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels were less in WD + 6F mice; P < 0.0295. HDL cholesterol and paroxonase-1 activity (PON) were higher in WD + 6F mice (P = 0.0055 and P = 0.0254, respectively), but not in WD + EV mice. Plasma SAA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LPA, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) levels positively correlated with lesions (P < 0.0001); HDL cholesterol and PON were inversely correlated (P < 0.0001). After feeding WD + 6F: i) intact 6F was detected in small intestine (but not in plasma); ii) small intestine LPA was decreased compared with WD + EV (P < 0.0469); and iii) small intestine LPA 18:2 positively correlated with the percent of the aorta with lesions (P < 0.0179). These data suggest that 6F acts in the small intestine and provides a novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy. PMID:23378594

  3. Lung cancer - small cell

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  4. Small bowel bacterial overgrowth

    MedlinePlus

    Overgrowth - intestinal bacteria; Bacterial overgrowth - intestine; Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth; SIBO ... intestine does not have a high number of bacteria. Excess bacteria in the small intestine may use ...

  5. Small Claims Court.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKitric, Eloise; Davis, Janet

    The study examined individuals and companies who used small claims courts and the results of decisions reached in small claims cases. A review of studies including an empirical study of two Ohio small claims courts monitored for 12 months made it clear that small claims courts need to be examined to determine if utilization and accessibility to…

  6. National Small Business Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-02

    Untitled Document 2005 National Small Business Conference.html[8/30/2016 1:07:10 PM] National Small Business Conference “Opening New Frontiers...Through Effective Partnering” Los Angeles, CA 31 May - 2 June 2005 AGENDA Wednesday, 23 March 2005 Small Business and the Defense Industrial Base, Mr...Frank Ramos, Director, Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, DoD The Hill: How It Can Help Your Small Business , Mr. Ron Perlman

  7. Small Business Specialists.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    located throughout the United States. Each service and agency has an Office of the Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization. They also...have small business specialists at each of their procurement and contract management offices to assist small businesses , small disadvantaged businesses ...and women-owned small businesses firms in marketing their products and services with the DoD. These specialists provide information and guidance on (1

  8. Small bowel resection - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100039.htm Small bowel resection - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The small intestine absorbs much of the liquid from foods. ...

  9. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your small intestine is the longest part of your digestive system - about twenty feet long! It connects your stomach ... many times to fit inside your abdomen. Your small intestine does most of the digesting of the ...

  10. Small bowel resection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the small intestine from conditions such as Crohn disease Cancer Carcinoid tumor Injuries to the small intestine ... a long-term (chronic) condition, such as cancer, Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis, you may need ongoing medical ...

  11. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... small bowel. X-rays are taken at different times as the barium travels through the upper GI tract and small bowel. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, ...

  12. Natural human apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN alter HDL structure and functionality and promote atherosclerosis development in mice.

    PubMed

    Tiniakou, Ioanna; Kanaki, Zoi; Georgopoulos, Spiros; Chroni, Angeliki; Van Eck, Miranda; Fotakis, Panagiotis; Zannis, Vassilis I; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are associated with low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and pathological conditions such as premature atherosclerosis and amyloidosis. In this study we functionally characterized two natural human apoA-I mutations, L141RPisa and L159RFIN, in vivo. We generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type (WT) or the two mutant forms of human apoA-I on a mouse apoA-I(-/-) background and analyzed for abnormalities in their lipid and lipoprotein profiles. HDL structure and functionality, as well as atherosclerosis development following a 14-week high-fat diet were assessed in these mice. The expression of either apoA-I mutant was associated with markedly reduced serum apoA-I (<10% of WT apoA-I), total and HDL-cholesterol levels (∼20% and ∼7% of WT apoA-I, respectively) and the formation of few small size HDL particles with preβ2 and α3, α4 electrophoretic mobility. HDL particles containing either of the two apoA-I mutants exhibited attenuated anti-oxidative properties as indicated by their inability to prevent low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and by decreased activities of paraoxonase-1 and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. However, the apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN-containing HDL particles demonstrated increased capacity to promote ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Expression of apoA-I(L141R)Pisa or apoA-I(L159R)FIN mutations in mice was associated with increased diet-induced atherosclerosis compared to either WT apoA-I transgenic or apoA-I(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that natural apoA-I mutations L141RPisa and L159RFIN affect the biogenesis and the functionality of HDL in vivo and predispose to diet-induced atherosclerosis in the absence of any other genetic defect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ASC Small Business Office

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-23

    Aeronautical Systems Center Dominant Air Power: Design For Tomorrow…Deliver Today ASC Small Business Office 23 May 2006 Teresa Rendon ASC/BC...1. REPORT DATE 23 MAY 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ASC Small Business Office 5a...Limitation on Subcontracting • Teaming • Source Selection of Small Business Participation • Role of the Small Business Office • Questions 3 Dominant Air

  14. Small Business Pedagogic Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billett, Stephen; Hernon-Tinning, Barnie; Ehrich, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Understanding how learning for small businesses should best proceed constitutes a worthwhile, yet challenging, pedagogic project. In order to maintain their viability, small businesses need to be able to respond to new practices and tasks. Yet small businesses seem neither attracted to nor to value the kinds of taught courses that are the standard…

  15. Small Colleges, Big Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, W. A., Jr., Ed.

    This monograph by the members of the American Association of Community Colleges' Commission on Small and/or Rural Community Colleges shares small and rural community college experiences. In "Leaders through Community Service," Jacqueline D. Taylor provides a model for how small and rural community colleges can be involved in building leaders…

  16. Chairing a Small Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Lee H.; Lynch, David M.

    Ten management problems for chairs of small departments in small colleges are discussed, along with problem-solving strategies for these administrators. Serious disagreements within a small and intimate department may create a country club culture in which differences are smoothed over and the personal idiosyncrasies of individual members are…

  17. Type 1 Deiodinase Regulates ApoA-I Gene Expression and ApoA-I Synthesis Independent of Thyroid Hormone Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Graham, Mark J.; Galton, Valerie Anne; Ginsberg, Henry N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are reduced in individuals with defective insulin signaling. Initial studies using liver-specific insulin receptor (InsR) knockout mice (LIRKO) identified reduced expression of Type 1 Deiodinase (Dio1) as a potentially novel link between defective hepatic insulin signaling and reduced expression of the ApoA-I gene. Our objective was to examine the regulation of ApoA-I expression by Dio1. Approach and Results Acute inactivation of InsR by adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase to InsR floxed mice reduced HDLC and expression of both ApoA-I and Dio1. Overexpression of Dio1 in LIRKO restored HDLC and ApoA-I levels and increased the expression of ApoA-I. Dio1 knockout (D1KO) mice had very low expression of ApoA-I and reduced serum levels of HDLC and ApoA-I. Treatment of C57BL/6J mice with anti-sense to Dio1 reduced ApoA-I mRNA, HDLC, and serum ApoA-I. Hepatic 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) content was normal or elevated in LIRKO or D1KO mice. Knockdown of either InsR or Dio1 by siRNA in HepG2 cells decreased expression of ApoA-I as well as ApoA-I synthesis and secretion. siRNA knockdown of InsR or Dio1 decreased activity of a region of the ApoA-I promoter lacking thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) (Region B). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that reduced Dio1 expression decreased the binding of nuclear proteins to Region B. Conclusions Reductions in Dio1 expression reduce expression of ApoA-I in a T3/TRE independent manner. PMID:27150392

  18. Small Business Procurement Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    Small Business Procurement Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Department of the Navy,Office of Small Business Programs,720 Kennon...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast Small Business Procurement Event, 12-13 Aug 2014, San Diego, CA. 14. ABSTRACT

  19. Structure of gel phase DMPC determined by X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Liu, Yufeng; Legleiter, Justin; Nagle, John F

    2002-01-01

    The structure of fully hydrated gel phase dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers was obtained at 10 degrees C. Oriented lipid multilayers were used to obtain high signal-to-noise intensity data. The chain tilt angle and an estimate of the methylene electron density were obtained from wide angle reflections. The chain tilt angle is measured to be 32.3 +/- 0.6 degrees near full hydration, and it does not change as the sample is mildly dehydrated from a repeat spacing of D = 59.9 A to D = 56.5 A. Low angle diffraction peaks were obtained up to the tenth order for 17 samples with variable D and prepared by three different methods with different geometries. In addition to the usual Fourier reconstructions of the electron density profiles, model electron density profiles were fit to all the low angle data simultaneously while constraining the model to include the wide-angle data and the measured lipid volume. Results are obtained for area/lipid (A = 47.2 +/- 0.5 A(2)), the compressibility modulus (K(A) = 500 +/- 100 dyn/cm), various thicknesses, such as the hydrocarbon thickness (2D(C) = 30.3 +/- 0.2 A), and the head-to-head spacing (D(HH) = 40.1 +/- 0.1 A). PMID:12496100

  20. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  1. NASA's Small Explorer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. Vernon; Rasch, Nickolus O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a new component of the NASA's Explorer Program, the Small Explorer program, initiated for the purpose of providing research opportunities characterized by quick and frequent small turn-around space missions. The objective of the Small Explorer program is to launch one to two payloads per year, depending on the mission cost and the availability of funds and launch vehicles. In the order of tentative launch date, the flight missions considered by the Small Explorer program are the Solar, Anomalous, and Magnetospheric Explorer; the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite; the Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer; and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer.

  2. Small Business Awards Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-12

    Department of Defense - ’ ’> INSTRUCTION SAD-A269 980 o493 04199’ J3anuary 12, 1987 NUMBIPR 13 !•.SD (A) SUBJECT: Small Business Awards Program...References: (a) DoD Directive 4205.1, "DoD Small Business and Small Disadvantaged Business Utilization Programs," June 21, 1984 (b) DoD Federal Acquisition...the Department of Defense who have made significant contribution to the Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization Program. 2. Prescribes

  3. Reconciling Differences between Lipid Transfer in Free-Standing and Solid Supported Membranes: A Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study.

    PubMed

    Wah, Benny; Breidigan, Jeffrey M; Adams, Joseph; Horbal, Piotr; Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Perez-Salas, Ursula

    2017-04-11

    Maintaining compositional lipid gradients across membranes in animal cells is essential to biological function, but what is the energetic cost to maintain these differences? It has long been recognized that studying the passive movement of lipids in membranes can provide insight into this toll. Confusingly the reported values of inter- and, particularly, intra-lipid transport rates of lipids in membranes show significant differences. To overcome this difficulty, biases introduced by experimental approaches have to be identified. The present study addresses the difference in the reported intramembrane transport rates of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) on flat solid supports (fast flipping) and in curved free-standing membranes (slow flipping). Two possible scenarios are potentially at play: one is the difference in curvature of the membranes studied and the other the presence (or not) of the support. Using DMPC vesicles and DMPC supported membranes on silica nanoparticles of different radii, we found that an increase in curvature (from a diameter of 30 nm to a diameter of 100 nm) does not change the rates significantly, differing only by factors of order ∼1. Additionally, we found that the exchange rates of DMPC in supported membranes are similar to the ones in vesicles. And as previously reported, we found that the activation energies for exchange on free-standing and supported membranes are similar (84 and 78 kJ/mol, respectively). However, DMPC's flip-flop rates increase significantly when in a supported membrane, surpassing the exchange rates and no longer limiting the exchange process. Although the presence of holes or cracks in supported membranes explains the occurrence of fast lipid flip-flop in many studies, in defect-free supported membranes we find that fast flip-flop is driven by the surface's induced disorder of the bilayer's acyl chain packing as evidenced from their broad melting temperature behavior.

  4. Reconciling Differences between Lipid Transfer in Free-Standing and Solid Supported Membranes: A Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Benny; Breidigan, Jeffrey M.; Adams, Joseph

    Maintaining compositional lipid gradients across membranes in animal cells is essential to biological function, but what is the energetic cost to maintain these differences? It has long been recognized that studying the passive movement of lipids in membranes can provide insight into this toll. Confusingly the reported values of inter- and, particularly, intra-lipid transport rates of lipids in membranes show significant differences. To overcome this difficulty, biases introduced by experimental approaches have to be identified. The present study addresses the difference in the reported intramembrane transport rates of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) on flat solid supports (fast flipping) and in curved free-standingmore » membranes (slow flipping). Two possible scenarios are potentially at play: one is the difference in curvature of the membranes studied and the other the presence (or not) of the support. Using DMPC vesides and DMPC supported membranes on silica nanoparticles of different radii, we found that an increase in curvature (from a diameter of 30 nm to a diameter of 100 nm) does not change the rates significantly, differing only by factors of order I. Additionally, we found that the exchange rates of DMPC in supported membranes are similar to the ones in vesicles. And as previously reported, we found that the activation energies for exchange on free-standing and supported membranes are similar (84 and 78 kJ/mol, respectively). However, DMPC's flip-flop rates increase significantly when in a supported membrane, surpassing the exchange rates and no longer limiting the exchange process. Although the presence of holes or cracks in supported membranes explains the occurrence of fast lipid flip-flop in many studies, in defect-free supported membranes we find that fast flip-flop is driven by the surface's induced disorder of the bilayer's acyl chain packing as evidenced from their broad melting temperature behavior.« less

  5. Small Schools, Big Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Historically, small schools have played a very important role in the provision of schooling in Australia. Numerically, using an enrollment of 200 or less, small schools represent approximately 45% of the schools in Australia. Population growth and the consequences of this, in particular for food production, water and energy, mean that the…

  6. Sensitive Small Area Photometer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, M. D.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a simple photometer capable of measuring small light intensities over small areas. The inexpensive, easy-to- construct instrument is intended for use in a student laboratory to measure the light intensities in a diffraction experiment from single or multiple slits. Typical experimental results are presented along with the theoretical…

  7. Small Animal Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Dennis W.; Fong, Stephen

    This small animal care course guide is designed for students who will be seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, grooming shops, pet shops, and small-animal laboratories. The guide begins with an introductory section that gives the educational philosophy of the course, job categories and opportunities, units of instruction required…

  8. Veterans in Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    These materials provide information on conducting small business training seminars for veterans. First, a discussion is presented of the development of the guide based on 1983 field testing of the seminar and evaluations conducted by Small Business Administration (SBA) officials, the seminar contracts, and trainers. The next sections deal with the…

  9. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  10. Big Project, Small Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Jennifer A.; Eitel, Karla B.; Bingaman, Deirdre; Miller, Brant G.; Rittenburg, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Donnelly, Idaho, is a small town surrounded by private ranches and Forest Service property. Through the center of Donnelly runs Boulder Creek, a small tributary feeding into Cascade Lake Reservoir. Boulder Creek originates from a mountain lake north of Donnelly. Since 1994 it has been listed as "impaired" by the Environmental Protection…

  11. Small and Young

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-20

    Small graben, narrow linear troughs, have been found associated with small scarps (bottom left, white arrows) on Mercury and the Moon. These graben (bottom right, white arrows) likely resulted from the bending and extension of the upper crust in response to scarp formation (bottom illustration) and are only tens of meters wide. On the basis of the rate of degradation and infilling of small troughs on the Moon by continuous meteoroid bombardment, small lunar graben and their associated scarps are less than 50 Myr old! It is likely that Mercury's small graben and their associated scarps are younger still, because the cratering rate on Mercury is greater than on the Moon. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19254

  12. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  13. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  14. ApoA-I/A-II-HDL positively associates with apoB-lipoproteins as a potential atherogenic indicator.

    PubMed

    Kido, Toshimi; Kondo, Kazuo; Kurata, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoko; Urata, Takeyoshi; Itakura, Hiroshige; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2017-11-29

    We recently reported distinct nature of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) subgroup particles with apolipoprotein (apo) A-I but not apoA-II (LpAI) and HDL having both (LpAI:AII) based on the data from 314 Japanese. While plasma HDL level almost exclusively depends on concentration of LpAI having 3 to 4 apoA-I molecules, LpAI:AII appeared with almost constant concentration regardless of plasma HDL levels having stable structure with two apoA-I and one disulfide-dimeric apoA-II molecules (Sci. Rep. 6; 31,532, 2016). The aim of this study is further characterization of LpAI:AII with respect to its role in atherogenesis. Association of LpAI, LpAI:AII and other HDL parameters with apoB-lipoprotein parameters was analyzed among the cohort data above. ApoA-I in LpAI negatively correlated with the apoB-lipoprotein parameters such as apoB, triglyceride, nonHDL-cholesterol, and nonHDL-cholesterol + triglyceride, which are apparently reflected in the relations of the total HDL parameters to apoB-lipoproteins. In contrast, apoA-I in LpAI:AII and apoA-II positively correlated to the apoB-lipoprotein parameters even within their small range of variation. These relationships are independent of sex, but may slightly be influenced by the activity-related CETP mutations. The study suggested that LpAI:AII is an atherogenic indicator rather than antiatherogenic. These sub-fractions of HDL are to be evaluated separately for estimating atherogenic risk of the patients.

  15. Small satellite product assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontlivault, J.; Cadelec, Jacques

    1993-01-01

    In order to increase the interest in small satellites, their cost must be reduced; reducing product assurance costs induced by quality requirements is a major objective. For a logical approach, small satellites are classified in three main categories: satellites for experimental operations with a short lifetime, operational satellites manufactured in small mass with long lifetime requirements, operational satellites (long lifetime required), of which only a few models are produced. The various requirements as regards the product assurance are examined for each satellite category: general requirements for space approach, reliability, electronic components, materials and processes, quality assurance, documentation, tests, and management. Ideal product assurance system integrates quality teams and engineering teams.

  16. Small-Gap Flows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    I TV N 4 NAVAL ARCIETUR & OFFSHORE ENGINEERING SMALL- GAP FLOWSti E 0.TUCK01 REPORT NO- M!AOL 34-1 CONTRACT NJU1-𔃾-K-0026 APRIL 1984 let.? UNIVERSMn...34’OF CALIFORNIA# BERKELEY, CA 5.1720 ft (45 642-141 SMALL- GAP FLOWS BY E. 0. TUCK REPORT No. NAUE 84-1 CONTRACT N00014-84-K-OU26 APRIL i984...34small- gap " theme.Chapters 1-4 were originally presented in the form of a lecture series in the Department of Naval Architecture and Offshore

  17. Type 1 Deiodinase Regulates ApoA-I Gene Expression and ApoA-I Synthesis Independent of Thyroid Hormone Signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Graham, Mark J; Galton, Valerie Anne; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2016-07-01

    Plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are reduced in individuals with defective insulin signaling. Initial studies using liver-specific insulin receptor (InsR) knockout mice identified reduced expression of type 1 deiodinase (Dio1) as a potentially novel link between defective hepatic insulin signaling and reduced expression of the ApoA-I gene. Our objective was to examine the regulation of ApoA-I expression by Dio1. Acute inactivation of InsR by adenoviral delivery of Cre recombinase to InsR floxed mice reduced HDL-C and expression of both ApoA-I and Dio1. Overexpression of Dio1 in InsR knockout mice restored HDL-C and ApoA-I levels and increased the expression of ApoA-I. Dio1 knockout mice had low expression of ApoA-I and reduced serum levels of HDL-C and ApoA-I. Treatment of C57BL/6J mice with antisense to Dio1 reduced ApoA-I mRNA, HDL-C, and serum ApoA-I. Hepatic 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine content was normal or elevated in InsR knockout mice or Dio1 knockout mice. Knockdown of either InsR or Dio1 by siRNA in HepG2 cells decreased the expression of ApoA-I and ApoA-I synthesis and secretion. siRNA knockdown of InsR or Dio1 decreased activity of a region of the ApoA-I promoter lacking thyroid hormone response elements (region B). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that reduced Dio1 expression decreased the binding of nuclear proteins to region B. Reductions in Dio1 expression reduce the expression of ApoA-I in a 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine-/thyroid hormone response element-independent manner. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Bioinformatic Analysis of Plasma Apolipoproteins A-I and A-II Revealed Unique Features of A-I/A-II HDL Particles in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kido, Toshimi; Kurata, Hideaki; Kondo, Kazuo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Urata, Takeyoshi; Yokoyama, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Plasma concentration of apoA-I, apoA-II and apoA-II-unassociated apoA-I was analyzed in 314 Japanese subjects (177 males and 137 females), including one (male) homozygote and 37 (20 males and 17 females) heterozygotes of genetic CETP deficiency. ApoA-I unassociated with apoA-II markedly and linearly increased with HDL-cholesterol, while apoA-II increased only very slightly and the ratio of apoA-II-associated apoA-I to apoA-II stayed constant at 2 in molar ratio throughout the increase of HDL-cholesterol, among the wild type and heterozygous CETP deficiency. Thus, overall HDL concentration almost exclusively depends on HDL with apoA-I without apoA-II (LpAI) while concentration of HDL containing apoA-I and apoA-II (LpAI:AII) is constant having a fixed molar ratio of 2 : 1 regardless of total HDL and apoA-I concentration. Distribution of apoA-I between LpAI and LpAI:AII is consistent with a model of statistical partitioning regardless of sex and CETP genotype. The analysis also indicated that LpA-I accommodates on average 4 apoA-I molecules and has a clearance rate indistinguishable from LpAI:AII. Independent evidence indicated LpAI:A-II has a diameter 20% smaller than LpAI, consistent with a model having two apoA-I and one apoA-II. The functional contribution of these particles is to be investigated. PMID:27526664

  19. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  20. Big Obscures Small

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-17

    NASA Cassini spacecraft captures a mutual event between Titan and Mimas in front of a backdrop of the planet rings. This image was snapped shortly before Saturn largest moon passed in front of and occulted the small moon Mimas.

  1. Small Business Commitment | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Development Agreements and Strategic Partnership Projects agreements to build a better understanding of the technology maturation and commercialization. NREL's commitment to small business makes it possible to build

  2. Small Transit Vehicle Survey

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1975-06-01

    Small transit vehicles, defined as those vehicles seating 7-25 passengers and intended for public transportation use, are available in a variety of makes and models with markedly different characteristics affecting both operators and users. This repo...

  3. Small Bus Manufacturing Industry

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1985-01-01

    This report is an examination of the small bus manufacturing industry with the objectives of: (1) providing a systematic understanding of the diversity of vehicle types and manufacturers and (2) identifying important economic trends in the industry t...

  4. [Small renal mass].

    PubMed

    Prokofiev, D; Kreutzer, N; Kress, A; Wissing, F; Pfeifer, H; Stolzenburg, J-U; Dietel, A; Schwalenberg, T; Do, M; Truß, M C

    2012-10-01

    The frequent application of ultrasound and radiological imaging for non-urological indications in recent years has resulted in an increase in the diagnosis of small renal masses. The treatment options for patients with a small renal mass include active surveillance, surgery (both open and minimally invasive) as well as ablative techniques. As there is a risk for metastatic spread even in small renal masses surgical extirpation remains the treatment of choice in most patients. Ablative procedures, such as cryoablation and radiofrequency ablation are appropriate for old and multi-morbid patients who require active treatment of a small renal mass. Active surveillance is an alternative for high-risk patients. Meticulous patient selection by the urologist and patient preference will determine the choice of treatment option in the future.

  5. Small Bowel Prolapse (Enterocele)

    MedlinePlus

    ... heavy lifting Being overweight or obese Pregnancy and childbirth Pregnancy and childbirth are the most common causes of pelvic organ ... of developing small bowel prolapse include: Pregnancy and childbirth. Vaginal delivery of one or more children contributes ...

  6. Small Satellite Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Roger M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Curran, Francis M.; Schneider, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    Advanced chemical and low power electric propulsion offer attractive options for small satellite propulsion. Applications include orbit raising, orbit maintenance, attitude control, repositioning, and deorbit of both Earth-space and planetary spacecraft. Potential propulsion technologies for these functions include high pressure Ir/Re bipropellant engines, very low power arcjets, Hall thrusters, and pulsed plasma thrusters, all of which have been shown to operate in manners consistent with currently planned small satellites. Mission analyses show that insertion of advanced propulsion technologies enables and/or greatly enhances many planned small satellite missions. Examples of commercial, DoD, and NASA missions are provided to illustrate the potential benefits of using advanced propulsion options on small satellites.

  7. Small-x physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, A.H.

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  8. Small woodland ownership management

    Treesearch

    Albert J. Childs

    1977-01-01

    Small woodlot ownerships are a commodity on the real estate market which have cycled through a supply and demand curve on a somewhat irregular basis. In order to have some understanding of what it is we are talking about, it is necessary to define what a small woodlot is, and where it may be found. In size these parcels can range from ten acres to fifteen acres on up...

  9. [HDL-C/apoA-I]: A multivessel cardiometabolic risk marker in women with T2DM.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Michel P; Valensi, Paul; Ahn, Sylvie A; Rousseau, Michel F

    2018-01-01

    Although women have higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) than have men, their HDL particles are also prone to become small, dense, and dysfunctional in case of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To assess the vascular risk related to HDLs of different sizes/densities without direct measurement, we adjusted HDL-C to its main apolipoprotein (apoA-I) as [HDL-C/apoA-I]. This ratio estimates HDL sizes and provides indices as to their number, cholesterol load, and density. We stratified 280 Caucasian T2DM women according to [HDL-C/apoA-I] quartiles (Q) to determine how they are segregated according to cardiometabolic risk, β-cell function, glycaemic control, and vascular complications. Five parameters were derived from combined determination of HDL-C and apoA-I: HDL size, HDL number, cholesterol load per particle (pP), apoA-I pP, and HDL density. An adverse cardiometabolic profile characterized QI and QII patients whose HDLs were denser and depleted in apoA-I, whereas QIII patients had HDLs with characteristics closer to those of controls. QIV patients had HDLs of supernormal size/composition and a more favourable phenotype in terms of fat distribution; insulin sensitivity (64% vs 41%), metabolic syndrome, and β-cell function (32% vs 23%); exogenous insulin (44 vs 89 U·d -1 ); and glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin, 56 vs 61 mmol·mol -1 ), associated with lower prevalence of microvascular/macrovascular complications: all-cause microangiopathy 47% vs 61%; retinopathy 22% vs 34%; all-cause macroangiopathy 19% vs 31%; and coronary artery disease 6% vs 24% (P < .05). [HDL-C/apoA-I] can stratify T2DM women according to metabolic phenotype, macrovascular and coronary damage, β-cell function, microangiopathic risk, and retinopathy. This ratio is a versatile and readily available marker of cardiometabolic status and vascular complications in T2DM women. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 22 CFR 224.39 - Appeal to A.I.D. Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., whichever applies. (3) The A.I.D. Administrator may extend the initial 30 day period for an additional 30 days if the defendant files with the A.I.D. Administrator a request for an extension within the initial... within 60 days after the date on which the A.I.D. Administrator serves the defendant with a copy of his...

  11. A Consensus Model of Human Apolipoprotein A-I in its Monomeric and Lipid-free State

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, John T.; Walker, Ryan G.; Cooke, Allison L.; Morris, Jamie; Castleberry, Mark; Thompson, Thomas B.; Jones, Martin K.; Song, Hyun D.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Oda, Mike N.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Thomas, Michael J.; Heinecke, Jay W.; Mei, Xiaohu; Atkinson, David; Segrest, Jere P.; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C.; Davidson, W. Sean

    2017-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I is an organizing scaffold protein that is critical to high density lipoprotein (HDL) structure and metabolism, likely mediating many of its cardioprotective properties. However, HDL biogenesis is poorly understood as lipid-free apoA-I has been notoriously resistant to high resolution structural study. Published models from low resolution techniques share certain features but vary considerably in shape and secondary structure. To tackle this central issue in lipoprotein biology, we assembled an unprecedented team of lipoprotein structural biologists and set out to build a consensus model of monomeric lipid-free human apoA-I. Combining novel and published cross-link constraints, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-DX) and crystallography data, we propose a time averaged model consistent with much of the experimental data published over the last 40 years. The model provides a long sought platform for understanding and testing details of HDL biogenesis, structure and function. PMID:29131142

  12. MINERVA: Small Planets from Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Johnson, John Asher; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Swift, Jonathan; Bottom, Michael; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed; Muirhead, Philip S.; Herzig, Erich; Myles, Justin; Blake, Cullen H.; Eastman, Jason; Beatty, Thomas G.; Lin, Brian; Zhao, Ming; Gardner, Paul; Falco, Emilio; Criswell, Stephen; Nava, Chantanelle; Robinson, Connor; Hedrick, Richard; Ivarsen, Kevin; Hjelstrom, Annie; de Vera, Jon; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that small planets are extremely common. It is likely that nearly every star in the sky hosts at least one rocky planet. We just need to look hard enough-but this requires vast amounts of telescope time. MINERVA (MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array) is a dedicated exoplanet observatory with the primary goal of discovering rocky, Earth-like planets orbiting in the habitable zone of bright, nearby stars. The MINERVA team is a collaboration among UNSW Australia, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Penn State University, University of Montana, and the California Institute of Technology. The four-telescope MINERVA array will be sited at the F.L. Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins in Arizona, USA. Full science operations will begin in mid-2015 with all four telescopes and a stabilised spectrograph capable of high-precision Doppler velocity measurements. We will observe ~100 of the nearest, brightest, Sun-like stars every night for at least five years. Detailed simulations of the target list and survey strategy lead us to expect new low-mass planets.

  13. A Small as Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Scott

    2003-01-01

    This story begins with a bit of serendipity: I was on a trip to see a Shuttle launch and I happened to sit next to a guy who was in charge of batteries for Space Systems/Loral. He told me that they needed to create a new battery bypass switch, the device that takes a battery out of commission if it goes bad. After discussing the conversation back at my company, we decided that we could create the switch. We contacted the folks at Loral and they said, 'Okay, let s see what you can come up with. We need it as small as possible.' We asked, 'How small?' They said, 'We need it as small as you can possibly make it.'

  14. Small Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections.

  15. Small Animal Retinal Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, WooJhon; Drexler, Wolfgang; Fujimoto, James G.

    Developing and validating new techniques and methods for small animal imaging is an important research area because there are many small animal models of retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma [1-6]. Because the retina is a multilayered structure with distinct abnormalities occurring in different intraretinal layers at different stages of disease progression, there is a need for imaging techniques that enable visualization of these layers individually at different time points. Although postmortem histology and ultrastructural analysis can be performed for investigating microscopic changes in the retina in small animal models, this requires sacrificing animals, which makes repeated assessment of the same animal at different time points impossible and increases the number of animals required. Furthermore, some retinal processes such as neurovascular coupling cannot be fully characterized postmortem.

  16. Using spin-label W-band EPR to study membrane fluidity profiles in samples of small volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainali, Laxman; Hyde, James S.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional and saturation-recovery (SR) EPR at W-band (94 GHz) using phosphatidylcholine spin labels (labeled at the alkyl chain [n-PC] and headgroup [T-PC]) to obtain profiles of membrane fluidity has been demonstrated. Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes with and without 50 mol% cholesterol have been studied, and the results have been compared with similar studies at X-band (9.4 GHz) (L. Mainali, J.B. Feix, J.S. Hyde, W.K. Subczynski, J. Magn. Reson. 212 (2011) 418-425). Profiles of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (T1-1) obtained from SR EPR measurements for n-PCs and T-PC were used as a convenient quantitative measure of membrane fluidity. Additionally, spectral analysis using Freed's MOMD (microscopic-order macroscopic-disorder) model (E. Meirovitch, J.H. Freed J. Phys. Chem. 88 (1984) 4995-5004) provided rotational diffusion coefficients (R⊥ and R||) and order parameters (S0). Spectral analysis at X-band provided one rotational diffusion coefficient, R⊥. T1-1, R⊥, and R|| profiles reflect local membrane dynamics of the lipid alkyl chain, while the order parameter shows only the amplitude of the wobbling motion of the lipid alkyl chain. Using these dynamic parameters, namely T1-1, R⊥, and R||, one can discriminate the different effects of cholesterol at different depths, showing that cholesterol has a rigidifying effect on alkyl chains to the depth occupied by the rigid steroid ring structure and a fluidizing effect at deeper locations. The nondynamic parameter, S0, shows that cholesterol has an ordering effect on alkyl chains at all depths. Conventional and SR EPR measurements with T-PC indicate that cholesterol has a fluidizing effect on phospholipid headgroups. EPR at W-band provides more detailed information about the depth-dependent dynamic organization of the membrane compared with information obtained at X-band. EPR at W-band has the potential to be a powerful tool for studying membrane fluidity in samples of small volume, ˜30 n

  17. Tracking Small Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James C.; Klette, Reinhard; Chen, Chia-Yen

    Tracks of small animals are important in environmental surveillance, where pattern recognition algorithms allow species identification of the individuals creating tracks. These individuals can also be seen as artists, presented in their natural environments with a canvas upon which they can make prints. We present tracks of small mammals and reptiles which have been collected for identification purposes, and re-interpret them from an esthetic point of view. We re-classify these tracks not by their geometric qualities as pattern recognition algorithms would, but through interpreting the 'artist', their brush strokes and intensity. We describe the algorithms used to enhance and present the work of the 'artists'.

  18. One Small Flare

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-15

    The sun's only visible active region sputtered and spurted and eventually unleashed a small (C-class) flare (Feb. 7, 2018). The flare appears as a brief, bright flash about mid-way through the half-day clip. Normally, we do not pay much attention to flares this small, but it was just about the only real solar activity over the past week as the sun is slowly approaching its quiet period of the 11-year solar cycle. These images were taken in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22244

  19. Small Bowel Transplant

    PubMed Central

    2003-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of small bowel transplant in the treatment of intestinal failure. Small Bowel Transplantation Intestinal failure is the loss of absorptive capacity of the small intestine that results in an inability to meet the nutrient and fluid requirements of the body via the enteral route. Patients with intestinal failure usually receive nutrients intravenously, a procedure known as parenteral nutrition. However, long-term parenteral nutrition is associated with complications including liver failure and loss of venous access due to recurrent infections. Small bowel transplant is the transplantation of a cadaveric intestinal allograft for the purpose of restoring intestinal function in patients with irreversible intestinal failure. The transplant may involve the small intestine alone (isolated small bowel ISB), the small intestine and the liver (SB-L) when there is irreversible liver failure, or multiple organs including the small bowel (multivisceral MV or cluster). Although living related donor transplant is being investigated at a limited number of centres, cadaveric donors have been used in most small bowel transplants. The actual transplant procedure takes approximately 12-18 hours. After intestinal transplant, the patient is generally placed on prophylactic antibiotic medication and immunosuppressive regimen that, in the majority of cases, would include tacrolimus, corticosteroids and an induction agent. Close monitoring for infection and rejection are essential for early treatment. Medical Advisory Secretariat Review The Medical Advisory Secretariat undertook a review of 35 reports from 9 case series and 1 international registry. Sample size of the individual studies ranged from 9 to 155. As of May 2001, 651 patients had received small bowel transplant procedures worldwide. According to information from the Canadian Organ Replacement

  20. Analysis of apolipoprotein A-I as a substrate for matrix metalloproteinase-14

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun Hyoung; Park, Sung-Min; Park, Ki-Hoon

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} MMP-14 degrades apoA-I more efficiently than other tested MMPs. {yields} Lipid-free apoA-I is more susceptible to MMPs than lipid-bound apoA-I. {yields} MMP-14 cleavage sites on apoA-I have been determined. {yields} Cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-14 impairs its ability to form HDL. -- Abstract: Substrates for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 were previously identified in human plasma using proteomic techniques. One putative MMP-14 substrate was apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In vitro cleavage assays showed that lipid-free apoA-I is a more accessible substrate for MMP-14 compared to lipid-bound apoA-I, and that MMP-14 is more prone tomore » digest apoA-I than MMP-3. The 28-kDa apoA-I was cleaved into smaller fragments of 27, 26, 25, 22, and 14-kDa by MMP-14. ApoA-I sites cleaved by MMP-14 were determined by isotope labeling of C-termini derived from the cleavage and analysis of the labeled peptides by mass spectrometry, along with N-terminal sequencing of the fragments. Cleavage of apoA-I by MMP-14 resulted in a loss of ability to form HDL. Our results suggest that cleavage of lipid-free apoA-I by MMP-14 may contribute to reduced HDL formation, and this may be occurring during the development of various vascular diseases as lipid metabolism is disrupted.« less

  1. Automating Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James

    1996-01-01

    Presents a four-phase plan for small libraries strategizing for automation: inventory and weeding, data conversion, implementation, and enhancements. Other topics include selecting a system, MARC records, compatibility, ease of use, industry standards, searching capabilities, support services, system security, screen displays, circulation modules,…

  2. Small Can Be Beautiful.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Betsy

    1984-01-01

    Grant proposals are most likely to succeed when they are based on solid, well-conceived ideas. Long-range planning is the best way to come up with workable ideas that will convince small foundations of a project's merits. Planning helps identify an institution's top priorities and achieve a consensus. (MLW)

  3. Small Business Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Wendell, Ed.

    Intended as a resource for both experienced businesspeople and those new to business, this annotated bibliography provides a list of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videotapes of value in solving specific business problems. The bibliography begins with a list of resources recommended for the library of every small business and a survey of…

  4. Small Public Library Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlmutter, Jane; Nelson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Anyone at the helm of a small public library knows that every little detail counts. But juggling the responsibilities that are part and parcel of the job is far from easy. Finally, here's a handbook that includes everything administrators need to keep a handle on library operations, freeing them up to streamline and improve how the organization…

  5. A Small Human School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Hugh C.

    1977-01-01

    Three attributes considered indispensable to a successful independent school are small size, extracurricular activities and a concern for ethical values. Shows how these attributes contribute to the academic progress of students, their development of self-discipline and their maturity. (Author/RK)

  6. 15 Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Rosalyn

    This report details findings from visits to 15 small schools associated with Human Scale Education. These schools are all different, reflecting the priorities of their founders. But there are features common to all of them--parental involvement, democratic processes, environmentally sustainable values, spiritual values, links with the local…

  7. Small Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  8. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    A Small Business panel discussion was held during Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo held at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. Seated at the table, from left, are Ileana Serrano, data dissemination specialist, U.S. Census Bureau; Margot Dorfman, chief executive officer, U.S. Women's Chamber of Commerce; Valerie Muck, Small Business director; U.S. Air Force; Andrew Harold, co-founder and board chairman, Florida 8(a) Alliance; and Eduardo Ramos, senior area manager, U.S. Small Business Administration. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  9. Measuring Small Leak Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, D. E.; Stephenson, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    Hole sizes deduced from pressure measurements. Measuring apparatus consists of pitot tube attached to water-filled manometer. Compartment tested is pressurized with air. Pitot probe placed at known distance from leak. Dynamic pressure of jet measured at that point and static pressure measured in compartment. Useful in situations in which small leaks are tolerable but large leaks are not.

  10. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  11. Small Scale Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rural Development Detwork Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Innovative programs for the promotion of small-scale enterprise are being conducted by a variety of organizations, including universities, government agencies, international research institutes, and voluntary assistance agencies. Their activities encompass basic extension services, management of cooperatives, community action programs, and…

  12. Small Business Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EASTCONN Regional Educational Services Center, North Windham, CT.

    This curriculum guide provides materials for an elective course for 11th- or 12th-grade students in small business development. It is intended to meet three times each week for 18 weeks. Introductory materials include instructor objectives; anticipated student outcomes; and correlations with Connecticut's common core of learning. Each of the eight…

  13. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  14. Small School Distributive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bill

    Information on an atypical 1966-67 Distributive Education pilot program in New Mexico was given. The program was unique since one instructor conducted this program in two schools which were in separate rural districts (Dexter and Hagerman). Since both communities were primarily agricultural, with small student populations, the cost of such a…

  15. Small Wonders Close Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kniseley, MacGregor; Capraro, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces students to the world of digital microscopy. Looking at small objects through a digital microscope is like traveling through a foreign country for the first time. The experience is new, engaging, and exciting. A handheld digital microscope is an essential tool in a 21st century teacher's toolkit and the perfect tool to…

  16. Small Schools, Real Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Patricia A.; Lear, Richard J.

    2001-01-01

    Small school size (fewer than 400 students) makes possible success-enhancing structures and practices: strong, ongoing student/adult and home/school relationships; flat organizational structure; concentration on a few goals; ongoing, site-specific professional development; a respectful culture; and community engagement. Implementation barriers are…

  17. Small Gas Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Instructional materials are provided for a small gas engine course. A list of objectives appears first, followed by a list of internal parts and skills/competencies related to those parts for engine work, ignition and electrical systems, fuel system, crankcase lubrication system, arc welding skills, and gas welding skills. Outlines are provided…

  18. Small Town Renewal Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Peter

    Over the last 2 decades, the loss of population and businesses in many small, inland, and remote Australian rural communities has intensified, largely because of the stress and uncertainty of volatile world commodity markets. This manual presents a range of survival and revival strategies that some communities have used to build resilient…

  19. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    Attendees speak to representatives from NASA's Office of Small Business Programs during Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo held at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  20. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  1. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  2. Small Unit Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-29

    regardless of size; therefore very small systems may have JA ~ 0.5, whereas bigger systems may have to be buried , making /^ < 1. It would be desirable to...OATn PaQ {^xfRcTjPRF /D\\ 4 SNR= MrTO U) =32dB’ «"> It is worth noting here the capabilities of the SAR in transmitting and in receiving messages

  3. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  4. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of QASE RT is to enable system analysts and software engineers to evaluate performance and reliability implications of design alternatives. The program resulted from two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. After receiving a description of the system architecture and workload from the user, QASE RT translates the system description into simulation models and executes them. Simulation provides detailed performance evaluation. The results of the evaluations are service and response times, offered load and device utilizations and functional availability.

  5. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  6. Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins having cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Oda, Michael N [Benicia, CA; Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA

    2007-05-29

    Functional Apolipoprotein A-I mutant proteins, having one or more cysteine substitutions and polynucleotides encoding same, can be used to modulate paraoxonase's arylesterase activity. These ApoA-I mutant proteins can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, acute phase response and other inflammatory related diseases. The invention also includes modifications and optimizations of the ApoA-I nucleotide sequence for purposes of increasing protein expression and optimization.

  7. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  8. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  9. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  10. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  11. 22 CFR 221.24 - Subrogation of A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subrogation of A.I.D. 221.24 Section 221.24 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.24 Subrogation of A.I.D. In the event of payment by A.I.D. to a...

  12. Acid lipase inhibitor in chicken plasma identified as apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Fujii, M; Higuchi, T; Mukai, S; Yonekura, M; Yano, T; Kawaguchi, H; Nonaka, K; Fukunaga, T; Sugimoto, Y; Yamada, S

    1996-10-01

    We have reported a inhibitor of acid lipases in liver lysosomes and erythrocytes from chickens [M. Fujii et al., Int. J. Biochem., 22, 895-898 (1990)]. In this paper, the properties of the inhibitor were described in comparison with those of apo A-I of chicken. The purified inhibitor migrated with the same mobility on SDS-PAGE as apo A-I, and had a molecular weight of 27,000. The peptide map from the lipase inhibitor was similar to that of apo A-I. Antibodies to the acid lipase inhibitor also reacted with apo A-I. Apo A-I inhibited the acid lipase activities of liver lysosomes and erythrocytes from chickens as strongly as the lipase inhibitor. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of lipase inhibitor was identical to that of apo A-I as far as residue 20. The amino acid sequence of peptides obtained from the inhibitor by cleavage with CNBr corresponded to internal sequence of apo A-I, and so the CNBr-peptides were derived by cleavage after the methionine residues in apo A-I. The findings showed that the inhibitor of the acid lipases in liver lysosomes and erythrocytes from chickens was identical to apo A-I.

  13. SMALL BUSINESS: Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    Management and Budget. We will also make copies available to others on request.Page 13 GAO-01-273 Small Business If you have questions regarding this...GAO United States General Accounting OfficeReport to Congressional RequestersJanuary 2001 SMALL BUSINESS Status of Small Disadvantaged Business ...34) Title and Subtitle SMALL BUSINESS Status of Small Disadvantaged Business Certifications Contract or Grant Number Program Element Number Authors

  14. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-11-03

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification.

  15. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  16. The Small Mars System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  17. Small Landslide in Kasei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    21 February 2004 The finger-shaped lobe just right of center in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is the deposit of a small landslide that came down a dark, layered slope. Landslides are common on Mars in areas of steep topography; this one is located in the Kasei Valles region near 23.9oN, 67.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left; the picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  18. Three small deployed satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009282 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. Earth’s horizon and the blackness of space provide the backdrop for the scene.

  19. Small Cube Satellite Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    ISS038-E-003874 (19 Nov. 2013) --- Three nanosatellites, known as Cubesats, are deployed from a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD) attached to the Kibo laboratory's robotic arm at 7:10 a.m. (EST) on Nov. 19, 2013. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, monitored the satellite deployment while operating the Japanese robotic arm from inside Kibo. The Cubesats were delivered to the International Space Station Aug. 9, aboard Japan's fourth H-II Transfer Vehicle, Kounotori-4.

  20. Small Cube Satellite Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    ISS038-E-003870 (19 Nov. 2013) --- Three nanosatellites, known as Cubesats, are deployed from a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD) attached to the Kibo laboratory’s robotic arm at 7:10 a.m. (EST) on Nov. 19, 2013. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, monitored the satellite deployment while operating the Japanese robotic arm from inside Kibo. The Cubesats were delivered to the International Space Station Aug. 9, aboard Japan’s fourth H-II Transfer Vehicle, Kounotori-4.

  1. Small Cube Satellite Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    ISS038-E-003876 (19 Nov. 2013) --- Three nanosatellites, known as Cubesats, are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module's robotic arm on Nov. 19, 2013. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, flight engineer, monitored the satellite deployment while operating the Japanese robotic arm from inside Kibo. The Cubesats were delivered to the International Space Station Aug. 9, aboard Japan’s fourth H-II Transfer Vehicle, Kounotori-4.

  2. Small Cube Satellite Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    ISS038-E-003869 (19 Nov. 2013) --- Three nanosatellites, known as Cubesats, are deployed from a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD) attached to the Kibo laboratory’s robotic arm at 7:10 a.m. (EST) on Nov. 19, 2013. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, monitored the satellite deployment while operating the Japanese robotic arm from inside Kibo. The Cubesats were delivered to the International Space Station Aug. 9, aboard Japan’s fourth H-II Transfer Vehicle, Kounotori-4.

  3. Small Cube Satellite Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    ISS038-E-003871 (19 Nov. 2013) --- Three nanosatellites, known as Cubesats, are deployed from a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD) attached to the Kibo laboratory’s robotic arm at 7:10 a.m. (EST) on Nov. 19, 2013. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, monitored the satellite deployment while operating the Japanese robotic arm from inside Kibo. The Cubesats were delivered to the International Space Station Aug. 9, aboard Japan’s fourth H-II Transfer Vehicle, Kounotori-4.

  4. Small Cube Satellite Deploy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-19

    ISS038-E-003872 (19 Nov. 2013) --- Three nanosatellites, known as Cubesats, are deployed from a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD) attached to the Kibo laboratory’s robotic arm at 7:10 a.m. (EST) on Nov. 19, 2013. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Koichi Wakata, Expedition 38 flight engineer, monitored the satellite deployment while operating the Japanese robotic arm from inside Kibo. The Cubesats were delivered to the International Space Station Aug. 9, aboard Japan’s fourth H-II Transfer Vehicle, Kounotori-4.

  5. Data: Big and Small.

    PubMed

    Jones-Schenk, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Big data is a big topic in all leadership circles. Leaders in professional development must develop an understanding of what data are available across the organization that can inform effective planning for forecasting. Collaborating with others to integrate data sets can increase the power of prediction. Big data alone is insufficient to make big decisions. Leaders must find ways to access small data and triangulate multiple types of data to ensure the best decision making. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(2):60-61. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Small Twisting Prominence

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-01-12

    A small prominence rose up above the sun, appeared to twist around for several hours, and then began to send some streams of plasma back into the sun (Jan. 3-4, 2018). The action, observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light, lasted just about one day. Prominences like this one are quite common. In fact, there were several over the past few days. For a sense of scale, the prominence reached up more than several times the size of Earth. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22198

  7. Small Tharsis Volcano

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small volcano located southwest of the giant volcano, Pavonis Mons, near 2.5oS, 109.4oW. Lava flows can be seen to have emanated from the summit region, which today is an irregularly-shaped collapse pit, or caldera. A blanket of dust mantles this volcano. Dust covers most martian volcanoes, none of which are young or active today. This picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  8. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  9. [Small vessel cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Cardona Portela, P; Escrig Avellaneda, A

    2018-05-09

    Small vessel vascular disease is a spectrum of different conditions that includes lacunar infarction, alteration of deep white matter, or microbleeds. Hypertension is the main risk factor, although the atherothrombotic lesion may be present, particularly in large-sized lacunar infarctions along with other vascular risk factors. MRI findings are characteristic and the lesions authentic biomarkers that allow differentiating the value of risk factors and defining their prognostic value. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  11. Small satellite space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, Keith

    1994-01-01

    CTA Space Systems has played a premier role in the development of the 'lightsat' programs of the 80's and 90's. The high costs and development times associated with conventional LEO satellite design, fabrication, launch, and operations continue to motivate the development of new methodologies, techniques, and generally low cost and less stringently regulated satellites. These spacecraft employ low power 'lightsat' communications (versus TDRSS for NASA's LEO's) and typically fly missions with payload/experiment suites that can succeed, for example, without heavily redundant backup systems and large infrastructures of personnel and ground support systems. Such small yet adaptable satellites are also typified by their very short contract-to-launch times (often one to two years). This paper reflects several of the methodologies and perspectives of our successful involvement in these innovative programs and suggests how they might relieve NASA's mounting pressures to reduce the cost of both the spacecraft and their companion mission operations. It focuses on the use of adaptable, sufficiently powerful yet inexpensive PC-based ground systems for wide ranging user terminal (UT) applications and master control facilities for mission operations. These systems proved themselves in successfully controlling more than two dozen USAF, USN, and ARPA satellites at CTA/SS. UT versions have linked with both GEO and LEO satellites and functioned autonomously in relay roles often in remote parts of the world. LEO applications particularly illustrate the efficacy of these concepts since a user can easily mount a lightweight antenna, usually an omni or helix with light duty rotors and PC-based drivers. A few feet of coax connected to a small transceiver module (the size of a small PC) and a serial line to an associated PC establishes a communications link and together with the PC constitute a viable ground station. Applications included geomagnetic mapping; spaceborne solid state

  12. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  13. Small engine technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Described here is the small engine technology program being sponsored at the Lewis Research Center. Small gas turbine research is aimed at general aviation, commuter aircraft, rotorcraft, and cruise missile applications. The Rotary Engine program is aimed at supplying fuel flexible, fuel efficient technology to the general aviation industry, but also has applications to other missions. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) and Heavy-Duty Diesel Transport Technology (HDTT) programs are sponsored by DOE. The Compound Cycle Engine program is sponsored by the Army. All of the programs are aimed towards highly efficient engine cycles, very efficient components, and the use of high temperature structural ceramics. This research tends to be generic in nature and has broad applications. The HDTT, rotary technology, and the compound cycle programs are all examining approaches to minimum heat rejection, or 'adiabatic' systems employing advanced materials. The AGT program is also directed towards ceramics application to gas turbine hot section components. Turbomachinery advances in the gas turbine programs will benefit advanced turbochargers and turbocompounders for the intermittent combustion systems, and the fundamental understandings and analytical codes developed in the research and technology programs will be directly applicable to the system projects.

  14. Small engine technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Small engine technology programs being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center are described. Small gas turbine research is aimed at general aviation, commutercraft, rotorcraft, and cruise missile applications. The Rotary Engine Program is aimed at supplying fuel flexible, fuel efficient technology to the general aviation industry, but also has applications to other missions. There is a strong element of synergism between the various programs in several respects. All of the programs are aimed towards highly efficient engine cycles, very efficient components, and the use of high temperature structural ceramics. This research tends to be generic in nature and has broad applications. The Heavy Duty Diesel Transport (HDTT), rotary technology, and the compound cycle programs are all examining approached to minimum heat rejection, or adiabatic systems employing advanced materials. The Automotive Gas Turbine (AGT) program is also directed towards ceramics application to gas turbine hot section components. Turbomachinery advances in the gas turbines will benefit advanced turbochargers and turbocompounders for the intermittent combustion systems, and the fundamental understandings and analytical codes developed in the research and technology programs will be directly applicable to the system projects.

  15. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  16. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  17. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  18. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  19. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  20. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  1. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Termination and Renewal of Advisory Committees § 214.22 Responsibilities within A.I.D. Responsibilities within...

  2. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  3. 22 CFR 204.22 - Right of A.I.D. to cure default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Right of A.I.D. to cure default. 204.22 Section 204.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 204.22 Right of A.I.D. to cure default. Within sixty (60...

  4. 22 CFR 214.13 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 214.13 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... committee to the satisfaction of the A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer, the A.I.D. Administrator, and the OMB Secretariat. (2) Prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and the...

  5. 22 CFR 214.3 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. 214.3 Section 214.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT General § 214.3 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Management Officer. The Advisory Committee Management...

  6. Dietary Strategies and Novel Pharmaceutical Approaches Targeting Serum ApoA-I Metabolism: A Systematic Overview

    PubMed Central

    Smolders, Lotte; Plat, Jogchum

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of CHD is still increasing, which underscores the need for new preventive and therapeutic approaches to decrease CHD risk. In this respect, increasing apoA-I concentrations may be a promising approach, especially through increasing apoA-I synthesis. This review first provides insight into current knowledge on apoA-I production, clearance, and degradation, followed by a systematic review of dietary and novel pharmacological approaches to target apoA-I metabolism. For this, a systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled intervention studies that examined effects of whole foods and (non)nutrients on apoA-I metabolism. In addition, novel pharmacological approaches were searched for, which were specifically developed to target apoA-I metabolism. We conclude that both dietary components and pharmacological approaches can be used to increase apoA-I concentrations or functionality. For the dietary components in particular, more knowledge about the underlying mechanisms is necessary, as increasing apoA-I per se does not necessarily translate into a reduced CHD risk. PMID:28695008

  7. Characterization of high density lipoprotein particles in familial apolipoprotein A-I deficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our aim was to characterize HDL subspecies and fat-soluble vitamin levels in a kindred with familial apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) deficiency. Sequencing of the APOA1 gene revealed a nonsense mutation at codon 22, Q[22]X, with two documented homozygotes, eight heterozygotes, and two normal subjects in...

  8. Human Apolipoprotein A-I Natural Variants: Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Amyloidogenic Propensity

    PubMed Central

    Ramella, Nahuel A.; Schinella, Guillermo R.; Ferreira, Sergio T.; Prieto, Eduardo D.; Vela, María E.; Ríos, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)-derived amyloidosis can present with either wild-type (Wt) protein deposits in atherosclerotic plaques or as a hereditary form in which apoA-I variants deposit causing multiple organ failure. More than 15 single amino acid replacement amyloidogenic apoA-I variants have been described, but the molecular mechanisms involved in amyloid-associated pathology remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated by fluorescence and biochemical approaches the stabilities and propensities to aggregate of two disease-associated apoA-I variants, apoA-IGly26Arg, associated with polyneuropathy and kidney dysfunction, and apoA-ILys107-0, implicated in amyloidosis in severe atherosclerosis. Results showed that both variants share common structural properties including decreased stability compared to Wt apoA-I and a more flexible structure that gives rise to formation of partially folded states. Interestingly, however, distinct features appear to determine their pathogenic mechanisms. ApoA-ILys107-0 has an increased propensity to aggregate at physiological pH and in a pro-inflammatory microenvironment than Wt apoA-I, whereas apoA-IGly26Arg elicited macrophage activation, thus stimulating local chronic inflammation. Our results strongly suggest that some natural mutations in apoA-I variants elicit protein tendency to aggregate, but in addition the specific interaction of different variants with macrophages may contribute to cellular stress and toxicity in hereditary amyloidosis. PMID:22952757

  9. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    Attendees visit exhibitor booths at Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo held at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  10. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    John Murray, chief executive officer of the Canaveral Port Authority, welcomes participants to the Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  11. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Kennedy Space Center, EIC Laboratories invented a Raman Spectrograph with fiber optic sampling for space applications such as sensing hazardous fuel vapors and making on-board rapid analyses of chemicals and minerals. Raman spectroscopy is a laser-based measurement technique that provides through a unique vibrational spectrum a molecular 'fingerprint,' and can function in aqueous environments. EIC combined optical fiber technology with Raman methods to develop sensors that can be operated at a distance from the spectrographic analysis instruments and the laser excitation source. EIC refined and commercialized the technology to create the Fiber Optic Raman Spectrograph and the RamanProbe. Commercial applications range from process control to monitoring hazardous materials.

  12. Small FDIRC designs

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, B.; Ratcliff, B.; Va’vra, J.

    2017-02-16

    In this article, we explore the angular resolution limits attainable in small FDIRC designs taking advantage of the new highly pixelated detectors that are now available. Since the basic FDIRC design concept attains its particle separation performance mostly in the angular domain as measured by two-dimensional pixels, this paper relies primarily on a pixel-based analysis, with additional chromatic corrections using the time domain, requiring single photon timing resolution at a level of 100–200 ps only. This approach differs from other modern DIRC design concepts such as TOP or TORCH detectors, whose separation performances rely more strongly on time-dependent analyses. Inmore » conclusion, we find excellent single photon resolution with a geometry where individual bars are coupled to a single plate, which is coupled in turn to a cylindrical lens focusing camera.« less

  13. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    Exhibitors answer questions at Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo held at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  14. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    Information from NASA's Tech Transfer Office is on display at Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo held at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  15. KSC Small Business Expo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-24

    An exhibitor answers questions at Kennedy Space Center's 27th Business Opportunities Expo held at Cruise Terminal 5 at Port Canaveral in Florida. The event featured more than 180 businesses, large and small, and government exhibitors from throughout the Space Coast and the nation. The Business Opportunities Expo is sponsored by the NASA KSC Prime Contractor Board, KSC Industry Assistance Office, 45th Space Wing and Canaveral Port Authority. Exhibitors included vendors from a variety of product and service areas, such as computer technology, engineering services, communication equipment and services, and construction and safety products, to name a few. Representatives from the 45th Space Wing, KSC prime contractors, NASA and many more agencies and organizations were on hand to provide information and answer questions.

  16. Three small deployed satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009286 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. A portion of the station’s solar array panels and a blue and white part of Earth provide the backdrop for the scene.

  17. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  18. Small caliber guided projectile

    DOEpatents

    Jones, James F [Albuquerque, NM; Kast, Brian A [Albuquerque, NM; Kniskern, Marc W [Albuquerque, NM; Rose, Scott E [Albuquerque, NM; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Woods, James W [Albuquerque, NM; Greene, Ronald W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-24

    A non-spinning projectile that is self-guided to a laser designated target and is configured to be fired from a small caliber smooth bore gun barrel has an optical sensor mounted in the nose of the projectile, a counterbalancing mass portion near the fore end of the projectile and a hollow tapered body mounted aft of the counterbalancing mass. Stabilizing strakes are mounted to and extend outward from the tapered body with control fins located at the aft end of the strakes. Guidance and control electronics and electromagnetic actuators for operating the control fins are located within the tapered body section. Output from the optical sensor is processed by the guidance and control electronics to produce command signals for the electromagnetic actuators. A guidance control algorithm incorporating non-proportional, "bang-bang" control is used to steer the projectile to the target.

  19. Small FDIRC designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, B.; Ratcliff, B.; Va’vra, J.

    In this article, we explore the angular resolution limits attainable in small FDIRC designs taking advantage of the new highly pixelated detectors that are now available. Since the basic FDIRC design concept attains its particle separation performance mostly in the angular domain as measured by two-dimensional pixels, this paper relies primarily on a pixel-based analysis, with additional chromatic corrections using the time domain, requiring single photon timing resolution at a level of 100–200 ps only. This approach differs from other modern DIRC design concepts such as TOP or TORCH detectors, whose separation performances rely more strongly on time-dependent analyses. Inmore » conclusion, we find excellent single photon resolution with a geometry where individual bars are coupled to a single plate, which is coupled in turn to a cylindrical lens focusing camera.« less

  20. Small Impact Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a small impact crater with a 'butterfly' ejecta pattern. The butterfly pattern results from an oblique impact. Not all oblique impacts result in an elliptical crater, but they can result in a non-radial pattern of ejecta distribution. The two-toned nature of the ejecta -- with dark material near the crater and brighter material further away -- might indicate the nature of subsurface materials. Below the surface, there may be a layer of lighter-toned material, underlain by a layer of darker material. The impact throws these materials out in a pattern that reflects the nature of the underlying layers.

    Location near: 3.7oN, 348.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  1. Three small deployed satellites

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009285 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. A portion of the station’s solar array panels and a blue and white part of Earth provide the backdrop for the scene.

  2. Very Small Interstellar Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peck, Mason A.

    2007-02-01

    This paper considers lower limits of length scale in spacecraft: interstellar vehicles consisting of little more material than found in a typical integrated-circuit chip. Some fundamental scaling principles are introduced to show how the dynamics of the very small can be used to realize interstellar travel with minimal advancements in technology. Our recent study for the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts provides an example: the use of the Lorentz force that acts on electrically charged spacecraft traveling through planetary and stellar magnetospheres. Schaffer and Burns, among others, have used Cassini and Voyager imagery to show that this interaction is responsible for some of the resonances in the orbital dynamics of dust in Jupiter's and Saturn's rings. The Lorentz force turns out to vary in inverse proportion to the square of this characteristic length scale, making it a more effective means of propelling tiny spacecraft than solar sailing. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. We might envision a large number of such satellites with intermittent, bursty communications set up as a one-dimensional network to relay signals across great distances using only the power likely from such small spacecraft. Conveying imagery in this fashion may require a long time because of limited power, but the prospect of imaging another star system close-up ought to be worth the wait.

  3. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  4. Women in Development: A.I.D.'s Experience, 1973-1985. Vol. 1 Synthesis Paper. A.I.D. Program Evaluation Report No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carloni, Alice Stewart

    Based on desk reviews and/or field studies of 102 projects related to women, this report synthesizes the results of A.I.D. experience since 1973 in targeting women in development (WID) activities. The major finding is that mainstream projects that ensure women's participation in accordance with their roles within the project's baseline situation…

  5. Going Small: Progress & Challenges of Philadelphia's Small High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Tracey; Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Evans, Shani Adia; Haxton, Clarisse; Maluk, Holly; Neild, Ruth Curran

    2009-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2007, and without significant outside funding, the School District of Philadelphia created 25 new small high schools. This study, begun by Research for Action in 2006, follows the start-up and early implementation of these small high schools in Philadelphia. The study found that parents and students are interested in small high…

  6. A model of lipid-free Apolipoprotein A-I revealed by iterative molecular dynamics simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xing; Lei, Dongsheng; Zhang, Lei; ...

    2015-03-20

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein, has been proven inversely correlated to cardiovascular risk in past decades. The lipid-free state of apo A-I is the initial stage which binds to lipids forming high-density lipoprotein. Molecular models of lipid-free apo A-I have been reported by methods like X-ray crystallography and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry (CCL/MS). Through structural analysis we found that those current models had limited consistency with other experimental results, such as those from hydrogen exchange with mass spectrometry. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we also found those models could not reach a stable equilibrium state. Therefore,more » by integrating various experimental results, we proposed a new structural model for lipidfree apo A-I, which contains a bundled four-helix N-terminal domain (1–192) that forms a variable hydrophobic groove and a mobile short hairpin C-terminal domain (193–243). This model exhibits an equilibrium state through molecular dynamics simulation and is consistent with most of the experimental results known from CCL/MS on lysine pairs, fluorescence resonance energy transfer and hydrogen exchange. This solution-state lipid-free apo A-I model may elucidate the possible conformational transitions of apo A-I binding with lipids in high-density lipoprotein formation.« less

  7. Small for gestational age (SGA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002302.htm Small for gestational age (SGA) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small for gestational age means that a fetus or ...

  8. Disorders of the Small Intestine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of ... Esophagus Disorders of the Stomach Disorders of the Small Intestine Disorders of the Large Intestine Disorders of ...

  9. Small Drinking Water System Variances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small system variances allow a small system to install and maintain technology that can remove a contaminant to the maximum extent that is affordable and protective of public health in lieu of technology that can achieve compliance with the regulation.

  10. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... small bowel. X-rays are taken at different times as the barium travels through the upper GI tract and small bowel. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, ...

  11. Small rover exploration capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc; Laithier, Corentin; Machut, Benoit; Marie, Aurélien; Bruneau, Audrey; Grömer, Gernot; Foing, Bernard H.

    2015-05-01

    For a human mission to the Moon or Mars, an important question is to determine the best strategy for the choice of surface vehicles. Recent studies suggest that the first missions to Mars will be strongly constrained and that only small unpressurized vehicles will be available. We analyze the exploration capabilities and limitations of small surface vehicles from the user perspective. Following the “human centered design” paradigm, the team focused on human systems interactions and conducted the following experiments: - Another member of our team participated in the ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2013 simulation at the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah during the same period of time. Although the possible traverses were restricted, a similar study with analog space suits and quads has been carried out. - Other experiments have been conducted in an old rock quarry close to Bordeaux, France. An expert in the use of quads for all types of terrains performed a demonstration and helped us to characterize the difficulties, the risks and advantages and drawbacks of different vehicles and tools. The vehicles that will be used on the surface of Mars have not been defined yet. Nevertheless, the results of our project already show that using a light and unpressurized vehicle (in the order of 150 kg) for the mobility on the Martian surface can be a true advantage. Part of the study was dedicated to the search for appropriate tools that could be used to make

  12. Contract Financing for Small Business

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    problem. Small business contractors devote considerable management attention to operating capital and cash flow. Small business contractors are keenly...CONTRACT FINANCING 0FOR SMALL BUSINESS November 1981 -s Paul R. McClenon Prepared pursuant to Department of Defense Contract No. MDA903-81-C-0166...34 i 12 17046 DistIbufios Unlimted !I CONTRACT FINANCING FOR SMALL BUSINESS EXECUTIVE SUMMHARY To perform effectively on a contract, a firm needs

  13. THE COMPUTER AND SMALL BUSINESS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The place of the computer in small business is investigated with respect to what type of problems it can solve for small business and how the small...firm can acquire time on one. The decision-making process and the importance of information is discussed in relation to small business . Several...applications of computers are examined to show how the firm can use the computer in day-to-day business operations. The capabilities of a digital computer

  14. Apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E are independently distributed among intracellular and newly secreted HDL of human hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Lin, Hu-Yu Alice; Massey, John B.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2009-01-01

    Whereas hepatocytes secrete the major human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL)-protein, apo A-I, as lipid-free and lipidated species, the biogenic itineraries of apo A-II and apo E are unknown. Human plasma and HepG2 cell-derived apo A-II and apo E occur as monomers, homodimers and heterodimers. Dimerization of apo A-II, which is more lipophilic than apo A-I, is catalyzed by lipid surfaces. Thus, we hypothesized that lipidation of intracellular and secreted apo A-II exceeds that of apo A-I, and once lipidated, apo A-II dimerizes. Fractionation of HepG2 cell lysate and media by size exclusion chromatography showed that intracellular apo A-II and apo E are fully lipidated and occur on nascent HDL and VLDL respectively, while only 45% of intracellular apo A-I is lipidated. Secreted apo A-II and apo E occur on small HDL and on LDL and large HDL respectively. HDL particles containing both apo A-II and apo A-I form only after secretion from both HepG2 and Huh7 hepatoma cells. Apo A-II dimerizes intracellularly while intracellular apo E is monomeric but after secretion associates with HDL and subsequently dimerizes. Thus, HDL apolipoproteins A-I, A-II and E have distinct intracellular and post-secretory pathways of hepatic lipidation and dimerization in the process of HDL formation. These early forms of HDL are expected to follow different apolipoprotein-specific pathways through plasma remodeling and reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:19635584

  15. The ideology of small family.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, H D

    1991-01-01

    Data are obtained and analyzed from 4232 rural families of handloom weavers in Karnataka state, India. 60.20% families are small families with 6 or fewer family members, of whom 25% have 3 members. 96.78% of small families have only one occupation. 30.50% of large families and 12.42% of medium sized families have more than one occupation. About 74% of families have income under the poverty line (under Rs 3500/year). 83% of small families are under the poverty line. The dependency ratio of small families is 1:2. 33% of all dependents are found among small families which are below the poverty line. 82% of dependents in small families are in small families under the poverty line. Almost 50% of dependents belong to small families. Small families are found to have slightly lower levels of education, although average level of education is very similar regardless of family size. The findings are used as evidence that small families do not necessarily augment the economy and that economic, educational, and cultural thresholds may be necessary before small family size affects economic development and improves the general well-being of family members. The social system that the small family is operating in is considered an important factor affecting the quality of life of the family.

  16. The Small College Administrative Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzza, Bonnie Wilson

    Environmental differences for speech departments at large and small colleges are not simply of scale; there are qualitative as well as quantitative differences. At small colleges, faculty are hired as teachers, rather than as researchers. Because speech teachers at small colleges must be generalists, and because it is often difficult to replace…

  17. Small Business Management. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide, which is designed to assist teachers in providing instruction and technical support to small business owners and managers, contains 17 competency-based units of instruction on the following areas that both small business instructors and small business owners have deemed critical to the success of any business:…

  18. Introduction to Small Group Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Dan Pyle

    To bring educational research into focus with tested classroom practice, this booklet provides an introduction to small group discussion. The theory and research section discusses the importance of small group discussion, characteristics of small group discussions, group attraction based on Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs, group decision…

  19. All Shops Great and Small.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Bernard R.

    1994-01-01

    The functions of public relations offices are described for four small colleges and one small private school: Spelman College (Georgia); North Harris County College (Texas); Scripps College (California); Lafayette College (Pennsylvania); and Maumee Valley Country Day School (Ohio). Focus is on creative and effective use of a small staff and…

  20. Small and remarkable

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo Lattarulo; Carvalho, Rogério Falleiros; Benedito, Vagner Augusto

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are molecules involved in virtually every step of plant development and studies in this field have been shaping plant physiology for more than a century. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, long used as a tool to study plant hormones, lacks significant important developmental traits, such as fleshy climacteric fruit, compound leaf and multicellular trichomes, suggesting the necessity for alternative plant models. An attractive option often used is tomato, a species also of major economic importance, being ideal to bring together basic and applied plant sciences. The tomato Micro-Tom (MT) cultivar makes it possible to combine the direct benefits of studying a crop species with the fast life cycle and small size required for a suitable biological model. However, few obscure questions are constantly addressed to MT, creating a process herein called “MT mystification”. In this work we present evidence clarifying these questions and show the potential of MT, aiming to demystify it. To corroborate our ideas we showed that, by making use of MT, our laboratory demonstrated straightforwardly new hormonal functions and also characterized a novel antagonistic hormonal interaction between jasmonates and brassinosteroids in the formation of anti-herbivory traits in tomato. PMID:20037476

  1. 10. Photographed 19131914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographed 1913-1914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by Mr. Leisenring 1959 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  2. 11. Photographed 19131914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographed 1913-1914 by L. M. Leisenring, F.A.I.A. Presented by Mr. Leisenring 1959 - Dr. David Ross House, Annapolis Road (moved to Preservation Hill, Western Run Road, Cockeysville), Bladensburg, Prince George's County, MD

  3. 48 CFR 970.1907 - Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business Concerns. 970.1907 Section 970.1907... MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Small, Small Disadvantaged and Women-Owned Small Business Concerns 970.1907 Subcontracting with Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business and Woman-Owned Small Business...

  4. Small 'l' leadership.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jenni

    2009-05-01

    Recently I attended the RACGP Leadership Masterclass in Sydney. When I enrolled, I thought, 'Yes... sounds interesting...good speakers... I need to learn something about leadership...'As the time drew closer I started to get a bit anxious about the whole thing. I realised that the title, 'Masterclass', probably implied that the attendees were expected to already know something about leadership and its theories, if not have considerable expertise and experience in leadership. I also wondered how the workshop sessions were going to go and I started to feel a bit sorry for the facilitators. Imagine trying to facilitate a group of 10 aspiring leaders... a bit like trying to herd cats. A few days later I received a call from the organisers,saying they were a bit short of facilitators and could I help out if necessary. Great... better do a crash course in cat herding! Then there was the first 'predisposing activity'. Step 1: think of leaders you admire. Easy enough. Leaders of social justice and social change on a world stage, people who have shown great courage of their convictions and great orators popped into my head... Ghandi, Martin Luther King, Mandela, JFK. Step 2:describe the ways in which you are like these leaders. Whoa!Never going to measure up here. I wondered if there was going to be sessions on 'leadership for introverts', or 'leadership of small things', or 'leaders without grand vision or fabulous oratory skills', or perhaps 'leadership for people who are deeply suspicious of the corrupting influence of power'.

  5. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  6. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2010-01-08

    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 degrees C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca(2+) signals, fast recovery of basal Ca(2+) levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  7. Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Peter L.; Vincent, Mark A.

    1989-01-01

    The accuracy of solar system tests of gravitational theory could be very much improved by range and Doppler measurements to a Small Mercury Relativity Orbiter. A nearly circular orbit at roughly 2400 km altitude is assumed in order to minimize problems with orbit determination and thermal radiation from the surface. The spacecraft is spin-stabilized and has a 30 cm diameter de-spun antenna. With K-band and X-band ranging systems using a 50 MHz offset sidetone at K-band, a range accuracy of 3 cm appears to be realistically achievable. The estimated spacecraft mass is 50 kg. A consider-covariance analysis was performed to determine how well the Earth-Mercury distance as a function of time could be determined with such a Relativity Orbiter. The minimum data set is assumed to be 40 independent 8-hour arcs of tracking data at selected times during a two year period. The gravity field of Mercury up through degree and order 10 is solved for, along with the initial conditions for each arc and the Earth-Mercury distance at the center of each arc. The considered parameters include the gravity field parameters of degree 11 and 12 plus the tracking station coordinates, the tropospheric delay, and two parameters in a crude radiation pressure model. The conclusion is that the Earth-Mercury distance can be determined to 6 cm accuracy or better. From a modified worst-case analysis, this would lead to roughly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in the knowledge of the precession of perihelion, the relativistic time delay, and the possible change in the gravitational constant with time.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I Limits the Negative Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor on Lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bisoendial, Radjesh; Tabet, Fatiha; Tak, Paul P; Petrides, Francine; Cuesta Torres, Luisa F; Hou, Liming; Cook, Adam; Barter, Philip J; Weninger, Wolfgang; Rye, Kerry-Anne

    2015-11-01

    Lymphatic endothelial dysfunction underlies the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory disorders. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known for its role in disrupting the function of the lymphatic vasculature. This study investigates the ability of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the principal apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins, to preserve the normal function of lymphatic endothelial cells treated with TNF. TNF decreased the ability of lymphatic endothelial cells to form tube-like structures. Preincubation of lymphatic endothelial cells with apoA-I attenuated the TNF-mediated inhibition of tube formation in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, apoA-I reversed the TNF-mediated suppression of lymphatic endothelial cell migration and lymphatic outgrowth in thoracic duct rings. ApoA-I also abrogated the negative effect of TNF on lymphatic neovascularization in an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent manner. At the molecular level, this involved downregulation of TNF receptor-1 and the conservation of prospero-related homeobox gene-1 expression, a master regulator of lymphangiogenesis. ApoA-I also re-established the normal phenotype of the lymphatic network in the diaphragms of human TNF transgenic mice. ApoA-I restores the neovascularization capacity of the lymphatic system during TNF-mediated inflammation. This study provides a proof-of-concept that high-density lipoprotein-based therapeutic strategies may attenuate chronic inflammation via its action on lymphatic vasculature. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn; Jasper, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR)/Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs fund the research, development, and demonstration of innovative technologies that fulfill NASA's needs as described in the annual Solicitations and have significant potential for successful commercialization. The only eligible participants are small business concern (SBC) with 500 or fewer employees or a nonprofit research institute such as a university or a research laboratory with ties to an SBC. These programs are potential sources of seed funding for the development of small business innovations.

  10. Adult small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark R; Lalani, Nadim

    2013-06-01

    Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a clinical condition that is often initially diagnosed and managed in the emergency department (ED). The high rates of potential complications that are associated with an SBO make it essential for the emergency physician (EP) to make a timely and accurate diagnosis. The primary objective was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the history, physical examination, and imaging modalities associated with the diagnosis of SBO. The secondary objectives were to identify the prevalence of SBO in prospective ED-based studies of adult abdominal pain and to apply Pauker and Kassirer's threshold approach to clinical decision-making to the diagnosis and management of SBO. MEDLINE, EMBASE, major emergency medicine (EM) textbooks, and the bibliographies of selected articles were scanned for studies that assessed one or more components of the history, physical examination, or diagnostic imaging modalities used for the diagnosis of SBO. The selected articles underwent a quality assessment by two of the authors using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool. Data used to compile sensitivities and specificities were obtained from these studies and a meta-analysis was performed on those that examined the same historical component, physical examination technique, or diagnostic test. Separate information on the prevalence and management of SBO was used in conjunction with the meta-analysis findings of computed tomography (CT) to determine the test and treatment threshold. The prevalence of SBO in the ED was determined to be approximately 2% of all patients who present with abdominal pain. Having a previous history of abdominal surgery, constipation, abnormal bowel sounds, and/or abdominal distention on examination were the best history and physical examination predictors of SBO. X-ray was determined to be the least useful imaging modality for the diagnosis of SBO, with a pooled positive likelihood ratio (+LR

  11. Small white matter lesion detection in cerebral small vessel disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoorian, Mohsen; Karssemeijer, Nico; van Uden, Inge; de Leeuw, Frank E.; Heskes, Tom; Marchiori, Elena; Platel, Bram

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common finding on magnetic resonance images of elderly people. White matter lesions (WML) are important markers for not only the small vessel disease, but also neuro-degenerative diseases including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Volumetric measurements such as the "total lesion load", have been studied and related to these diseases. With respect to SVD we conjecture that small lesions are important, as they have been observed to grow over time and they form the majority of lesions in number. To study these small lesions they need to be annotated, which is a complex and time-consuming task. Existing (semi) automatic methods have been aimed at volumetric measurements and large lesions, and are not suitable for the detection of small lesions. In this research we established a supervised voxel classification CAD system, optimized and trained to exclusively detect small WMLs. To achieve this, several preprocessing steps were taken, which included a robust standardization of subject intensities to reduce inter-subject intensity variability as much as possible. A number of features that were found to be well identifying small lesions were calculated including multimodal intensities, tissue probabilities, several features for accurate location description, a number of second order derivative features as well as multi-scale annular filter for blobness detection. Only small lesions were used to learn the target concept via Adaboost using random forests as its basic classifiers. Finally the results were evaluated using Free-response receiver operating characteristic.

  12. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  13. Small Scarp Close-up

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-16

    Images obtained after lowering MESSENGER's altitude have revealed a population of small fault scarps (white arrows) that can be more than an order of magnitude smaller in size than their larger counterparts, like Enterprise Rupes. These small scarps are less than 10 km in length and have only tens of meters of relief. They are comparable in size and morphology to small fault scarps imaged on the Moon by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, suggesting that these small scarps are relatively young, and raising the possibility that some are even active today. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19245

  14. Small Business at EPA Bulletin

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A list of monthly bulletins that highlight information on Agency activities, rulemakings, and to share information about ongoing initiatives from the State Small Business Environmental Assistance Programs.

  15. In situ AFM imaging of apolipoprotein A-I directly derived from plasma HDL.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chaoye; Wang, Zhexuan; Chen, Yong

    2017-04-01

    The major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins play vital roles in the structural integrity and physiological functions of lipoproteins. More than ten structural models of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), have been developed successively. In these models, apoA-I was supposed to organize in a ring-shaped form. To date, however, there is no direct evidence under physiological condition. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to in situ visualize the organization of apoA-I, which was exposed via depletion of the lipid component of plasma HDL pre-immobilized on functionalized mica sheets. For the first time, the ring-shaped coarse structure and three detailed structures (crescent-shaped, gapped "O"-shaped, and parentheses-shaped structures, respectively) of apoA-I in plasma HDL, which have the ability of binding scavenger receptors, were directly observed and quantitatively measured by AFM. The three detailed structures probably represent the different extents to which the lipid component of HDL was depleted. Data on lipid depletion of HDL may provide clues to understand lipid insertion of HDL. These data provide important information for the understanding of the structure/maturation of plasma HDL. Moreover, they suggest a powerful method for directly visualizing the major apolipoproteins of plasma lipoproteins or the protein component of lipoprotein-like lipid-protein complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High serum apolipoprotein E determines hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias, coronary disease and apoA-I dysfunctionality.

    PubMed

    Onat, Altan; Can, Günay; Ornek, Ender; Ayhan, Erkan; Erginel-Ünaltuna, Nihan; Murat, Sani N

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of serum apolipoprotein E (apoE) levels to two hypertriglyceridemic dyslipidemias has not been clarified. We explored, in a cross-sectional (and short-term prospective) evaluation, the independent relationship of serum apoE to the atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia with elevated apoB (HtgB) and to apoA-I dysfunctionality, previously shown in Turkish adults to be independent of apoE genotype. Serum apoE concentrations were measured by immunonephelometry in 1,127 middle-aged adults. In multivariable regression analysis, apoE concentrations showed log-linear associations with apoB and apoA-I levels, waist circumference, independent of C-reactive protein (CRP), homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index and other confounders. The likelihood of atherogenic dyslipidemia and of HtgB roughly tripled per 1-SD increment in apoE concentrations, additively to apoE genotype, HOMA, apoA-I, CRP concentrations and waist circumference; yet apoA-I, protective against atherogenic dyslipidemia, appeared to promote HtgB, a finding consistent with apoA-I dysfunctionality in this setting. Each 1-SD increment in the apoE level was moreover, associated in both genders with MetS (at OR 1.5), after adjustment for sex, age, apoB, apoA-I and CRP, or for apoE genotypes. Circulating apoE predicted in both genders age-adjusted prevalent and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), independent of apoE genotype and CRP (OR 1.32 [95 % CI 1.11; 1.58]). To conclude, in a general population prone to MetS, elevated apoE concentrations are strongly linked to HtgB and atherogenic dyslipidemia, irrespective of apoE genotype, are associated with MetS and CHD. Excess apoE reflects pro-inflammatory state and likely autoimmune activation.

  17. 78 FR 48537 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Small Business Administration (SBA) is publishing the Small Business...

  18. How Small Is a Billionth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, John

    2007-01-01

    Children's natural curiosity about numbers, big and small can lead to exploring place-value ideas. But how can these abstract concepts be experienced more concretely? This article presents some practical approaches for conceptualising very small numbers using linear models, area models, volume models, and diagrams.

  19. Resourcing Change in Small Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Michelle; White, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is the challenge that school leaders face in creating the conditions for learning in small schools. We draw on the concepts of "social capital" and "social entrepreneurship" to identify tensions and possibilities for school leaders in a case study of a small rural school as they seek to find resources…

  20. New Mexico Small Business Assistance

    Science.gov Websites

    expertise Technical Assistance Individual Assistance Individual Assistance Request Form Leveraged Projects Assistance (NMSBA) Program allows New Mexico small businesses facing a technical challenge to access the business, small businesses with a technical challenge can seek assistance from lab scientists or engineers

  1. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Treesearch

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  2. Small Moon Makes Big Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-31

    Saturn small moon Daphnis is caught in the act of raising waves on the edges of the Keeler gap, which is the thin dark band in the left half of the image. Waves like these allow scientists to locate small moons in gaps and measure their masses.

  3. Financial management for small companies

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hansen; Jeff Palmer; Jeff Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The wood-products industry is characterized by many small manufacturers that lack the staff to compile and analyze information on their operations and investments. Two computer programs, FRAN and JEFFI, have been developed by the USDA Forest Service at Princeton, West Virginia,to help small companies better analyze and monitor current performance, and better evaluate...

  4. Standard Deviation for Small Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.

    2006-01-01

    Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…

  5. Small Engine Repair Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeClouet, Fred

    Small engines as referred to here are engines used on lawn mowers, chain saws, power plants, outboards, and cycles. It does not include engines used on automobiles. The course outlined is intended to show how small two-cycle and four-cycle gas engines are constructed, how they operate, what goes wrong, and how to service and repair them. It is…

  6. Mechanisms of small intestinal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A P; Thompson, R P

    1994-01-01

    Luminal nutrition, hormonal factors and pancreaticobiliary secretions are probably the major mediators of small intestinal adaptation. Their actions, as discussed in this paper, are likely to be interrelated. Direct local enterotrophic effects cannot account for all the actions of luminal nutrients. Additionally, hormonal factors have been shown to contribute to indirect effects of luminal nutrients and enteroglucagon is a likely mediator of adaptive responses. Furthermore, epidermal growth factor is a peptide for which there is convincing evidence of an enterotrophic action. Attention is drawn to the fact that pancreaticobiliary secretions may have a physiological role in stimulating small intestinal mucosal proliferation. Other factors may also influence small intestinal mucosal proliferation (e.g. prostaglandins, neurovascular mechanisms, bacteria). Additionally, polyamines are crucial in initiating cell division in the small intestine, but the detailed mechanisms of their action require further clarification. Finally, a number of therapeutic applications of small intestinal epithelial cell proliferation are discussed.

  7. 77 FR 30227 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... 19, 2012, in Austin, TX. These Roundtable Meetings will be conducted by SBA's Office of Advocacy. For... p.m. EST. Austin, TX June 19, 2012, 10 a.m.-2 p.m. EST June 14, 2012, 11:59 p.m. EST. III... Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small Business Technology...

  8. 22 CFR 214.31 - A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.31 A.I.D. Advisory Committee Representative. (a) For each... with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and the General Counsel for decisions by the... Advisory Committee Management Officer. (5) Assuring that open meetings are accessible to the public; (6) As...

  9. 22 CFR 214.22 - Responsibilities within A.I.D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Responsibilities within A.I.D. 214.22 Section 214.22 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT... the advisory committee reports: prepares, clears with the Advisory Committee Management Officer and...

  10. Influence of temperature, anions and size distribution on the zeta potential of DMPC, DPPC and DMPE lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Morini, M A; Sierra, M B; Pedroni, V I; Alarcon, L M; Appignanesi, G A; Disalvo, E A

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to compare the influence of the multilamellarity, phase state, lipid head groups and ionic media on the origin of the surface potential of lipid membranes. With this aim, we present a new analysis of the zeta potential of multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles composed by phosphatidylcholines (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamines (PE) dispersed in water and ionic solutions of polarizable anions, at temperatures below and above the phase transition. In general, the adsorption of anions seems to explain the origin of the zeta potential in vesicles only above the transition temperature (Tc). In this case, the sign of the surface potential is ascribed to a partial orientation of head group moiety toward the aqueous phase. This is noticeable in PC head groups but not in PEs, due to the strong lateral interaction between PO and NH group in PE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sidedness of interfacial arginine residues and anti-atherogenicity of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Nayyar, Gaurav; Mishra, Vinod K.; Handattu, Shaila P.; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N.; Shin, Ronald; McPherson, David T.; Deivanayagam, Champion C. S.; Garber, David W.; Segrest, Jere P.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that sidedness of interfacial arginine (Arg) in apoA-I mimetic peptides, similar to that observed in apoA-I (Bashtovyy, D. et al. 2011. Sequence conservation of apolipoprotein A-I affords novel insights into HDL structure-function. J. Lipid Res. 52: 435–450.), may be important for biological activity, we compared properties of 4F and analogs, [K4,15>R]4F and [K9,13>R]4F, with Lys>Arg substitutions on the right and left side, respectively, of the 4F amphipathic helix. Intraperitoneal administration of these peptides into female apoE null mice (n = 13 in each group) reduced en face lesions significantly compared with controls; 4F and [K4,15>R]4F were equally effective whereas [K9,13>R]4F was less effective. Turnover experiments indicated that [K4,15>R]4F reached the highest, whereas [K9,13>R]4F had the lowest, plasma peak levels with a similar half life as the [K4,15>R]4F analog. The half life of 4F was two times longer than the other two peptides. The order in their abilities to associate with HDL in human plasma, generation of apoA-I particles with pre-β mobility from isolated HDL, lipid associating ability, and sensitivity of lipid complexes to trypsin digestion was: 4F>[K4,15,>R]4F>[K9,13>R]4F. These studies support our hypothesis that the sidedness of interfacial Arg residues in the polar face of apoA-I mimetics results in differential biological properties. PMID:22377531

  12. Transcriptome-wide identification of A > I RNA editing sites by inosine specific cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Taft, Ryan J.; Westhof, Eric; Mattick, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A > I) RNA editing, which is catalyzed by the ADAR family of proteins, is one of the fundamental mechanisms by which transcriptomic diversity is generated. Indeed, a number of genome-wide analyses have shown that A > I editing is not limited to a few mRNAs, as originally thought, but occurs widely across the transcriptome, especially in the brain. Importantly, there is increasing evidence that A > I editing is essential for animal development and nervous system function. To more efficiently characterize the complete catalog of ADAR events in the mammalian transcriptome we developed a high-throughput protocol to identify A > I editing sites, which exploits the capacity of glyoxal to protect guanosine, but not inosine, from RNAse T1 treatment, thus facilitating extraction of RNA fragments with inosine bases at their termini for high-throughput sequencing. Using this method we identified 665 editing sites in mouse brain RNA, including most known sites and suite of novel sites that include nonsynonymous changes to protein-coding genes, hyperediting of genes known to regulate p53, and alterations to non-protein-coding RNAs. This method is applicable to any biological system for the de novo discovery of A > I editing sites, and avoids the complicated informatic and practical issues associated with editing site identification using traditional RNA sequencing data. This approach has the potential to substantially increase our understanding of the extent and function of RNA editing, and thereby to shed light on the role of transcriptional plasticity in evolution, development, and cognition. PMID:23264566

  13. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru; Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg; Mogilenko, Denis A.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters inmore » TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.« less

  14. Environmental Justice Small Grants Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Justice Small Grants Program provides financial assistance to eligible organizations to build collaborative partnerships, to identify the local environmental and/or public health issues, and to envision solutions and empower the community

  15. Small Airplane Certification Compliance Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-02

    This advisory circular (AC) provides a compilation of historically acceptable means of compliance to specifically selected sections of Part 23 of the Federal Aviation Regulations that have become burdensome for small low performance airplanes to show...

  16. Unsteady swimming of small organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiyan; Ardekani, Arezoo

    2012-11-01

    Small planktonic organisms ubiquitously display unsteady or impulsive motion to attack a prey or escape a predator in natural environments. Despite this, the role of unsteady hydrodynamic forces such as history and added mass forces on the low Reynolds number propulsion of small organisms is poorly understood. In this paper, we derive the fundamental equation of motion for an organism swimming by the means of surface distortion in a nonuniform flow at a low Reynolds number regime. We show that the history and added mass forces, that where traditionally neglected in the literature for small swimming organisms, cannot be neglected as the Stokes number increases above unity. For example, these unsteady inertial forces are of the same order as quasi-steady Stokes forces for Paramecium. Finally, we quantify the effects of convective inertial forces in the limit of small, but nonzero, Reynolds number regime. This work is supported by NSF grant CBET-1066545.

  17. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  18. Small Systems Monthly Webinar Series

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Schedule for EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water's monthly webinar series: challenges and treatment solutions for small drinking water systems. One continuing education contact hour is offered for each webinar.

  19. Matrix Theory of Small Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavda, L. K.

    1978-01-01

    A complete matrix formulation of the theory of small oscillations is presented. Simple analytic solutions involving matrix functions are found which clearly exhibit the transients, the damping factors, the Breit-Wigner form for resonances, etc. (BB)

  20. Small Airframe Manufacturer's Icing Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppins, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the icing effects, risk mitigation practices, and icing certifications for various Cessna small aircraft models. NASA's role in the development of simulation tools for icing certifications is also discussed.

  1. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  2. Urban Waters Small Grants 101

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    General information on Urban Waters Small Grants is provided in this document. Grantees are listed by themes, including Environmental Justice, Water Quality, Job Training and Creation, and Green Infrastructure.

  3. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  4. Future of small scale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F.; Carman, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The first international conference on the future of small scale mining was sponsored by The United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) and The Consejo de Recursos Minerales and Secretaria de Patrimonio y Fomento Industrial (SEPAFIN) of the Government of Mexico and held 26 November-5 December 1978, at Jurica, Queretaro, Mexico. Six papers have been entered individually into EDB. The papers mainly concern small metal mining operations and only those concerning coal, uranium, and oil shales have been entered. (LTN)

  5. Chartering Launchers for Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The question of how to launch small satellites has been solved over the years by the larger launchers offering small satellites the possibility of piggy-backing. Specific fixtures have been developed and commercialized: Arianespace developed the ASAP interface, the USAF studied ESPA, NASA has promoted Shuttle launch possibilities, Russian authorities and companies have been able to find solutions with many different launchers... It is fair to say that most launcher suppliers have worked hard and finally often been able to find solutions to launch most small satellites into orbit. It is also true, however, that most of these small satellites were technology demonstration missions capable of accepting a wide range of orbit and launch characteristics: orbit altitude and inclination, launch date, etc. In some cases the small satellite missions required a well-defined type of orbit and have therefore been obliged to hire a small launcher on which they were the prime passenger. In our paper we would like to propose an additional solution to all these possibilities: launchers could plan well in advance (for example about 3 years), trips to precisely defined orbits to allow potential passengers to organize themselves and be ready on the D-Day. On the scheduled date the chartered launcher goes to the stated orbit while on another date, another chartered launcher goes to another orbit. The idea is to organize departures for space like trains or airplanes leaving on known schedules for known destinations.

  6. Small group discussion: Students perspectives.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Nachal; Manivel, Rajajeyakumar; Palanisamy, Rajendran

    2015-08-01

    Various alternative methods are being used in many medical colleges to reinforce didactic lectures in physiology. Small group teaching can take on a variety of different tasks such as problem-solving, role play, discussions, brainstorming, and debate. Research has demonstrated that group discussion promotes greater synthesis and retention of materials. The aims of this study were to adopt a problem-solving approach by relating basic sciences with the clinical scenario through self-learning. To develop soft skills, to understand principles of group dynamics, and adopt a new teaching learning methodology. Experimental study design was conducted in Phase I 1(st) year medical students of 2014-2015 batch (n = 120). On the day of the session, the students were grouped into small groups (15 each). The session started with the facilitator starting off the discussion. Feedback forms from five students in each group was taken (n = 40). A five point Likert scale was used ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp. Our results show that 70% of the students opined that small group discussion were interactive, friendly, innovative, built interaction between teacher and student. Small group discussion increased their thought process and helped them in better communication. The small group discussion was interactive, friendly, and bridged the gap between the teacher and student. The student's communication skills are also improved. In conclusion, small group discussion is more effective than the traditional teaching methods.

  7. Small

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Joseph

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energymore » conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.« less

  8. Comparative Effects of Diet-Induced Lipid Lowering Versus Lipid Lowering Along With Apo A-I Milano Gene Therapy on Regression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Tian, Fang; Arias, Ana; Yang, Mingjie; Sharifi, Behrooz G; Shah, Prediman K

    2016-05-01

    Apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I) Milano, a naturally occurring Arg173to Cys mutant of Apo A-1, has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models and in a small phase 2 human trial. We have shown the superior atheroprotective effects of Apo A-I Milano (Apo A-IM) gene compared to wild-type Apo A-I gene using transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. In this study, we compared the effect of dietary lipid lowering versus lipid lowering plus Apo A-IM gene transfer using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) 8 as vectors on atherosclerosis regression in Apo A-I/Apo E null mice. All mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet from age of 6 weeks until week 20, and at 20 weeks, 10 mice were euthanized to determine the extent of atherosclerosis. After 20 weeks, an additional 20 mice were placed on either a low-cholesterol diet plus empty rAAV (n = 10) to serve as controls or low-cholesterol diet plus 1 single intravenous injection of 1.2 × 10(12)vector genomes of adeno-associated virus (AAV) 8 vectors expressing Apo A-IM (n = 10). At the 40 week time point, intravenous AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients showed a significant regression of atherosclerosis in the whole aorta (P< .01), aortic sinuses (P< .05), and brachiocephalic arteries (P< .05) compared to 20-week-old mice, whereas low-cholesterol diet plus empty vector control group showed no significant regression in lesion size. Immunostaining showed that compared to the 20-week-old mice, there was a significantly reduced macrophage content in the brachiocephalic (P< .05) and aortic sinus plaques (P< .05) of AAV8 Apo A-IM recipients. These data show that although dietary-mediated cholesterol lowering halts progression of atherosclerosis, it does not induce regression, whereas combination of low-cholesterol diet and AAV8 mediated Apo A-I Milano gene therapy induces rapid and significant regression of atherosclerosis in mice. These data provide support for the potential feasibility of this

  9. 77 FR 76215 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... overall goal of simplification and maximization of benefits for small businesses, SBA proposed amendments... franchisee. F. Section 121.704--When SBA Determines Size and Eligibility SBA's proposed regulations for the...

  10. 78 FR 59410 - Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket Number: 2013-0008] Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer Programs Commercialization Benchmark AGENCY: Small Business... Business Administration (SBA) is reopening the comment period for the Small Business Innovation Research...

  11. Commutability of control materials for external quality assessment of serum apolipoprotein A-I measurement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jie; Qi, Tianqi; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Tianjiao; Zhou, Weiyan; Zhao, Haijian; Ma, Rong; Zhang, Jiangtao; Yan, Ying; Dong, Jun; Zhang, Chuanbao; Chen, Wenxiang

    2018-04-25

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the commutability of commercial control materials and human serum pools and to investigate the suitability of the materials for the external quality assessment (EQA) of serum apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) measurement. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP14-A3 protocol was used for the commutability study. Apo A-I concentrations in two levels of commercial control materials used in EQA program, two fresh-frozen human serum pools (FSPs) and two frozen human serum pools prepared from residual clinical specimens (RSPs) were measured along with 50 individual samples using nine commercial assays. Measurement results of the 50 individual samples obtained with different assays were pairwise analyzed by Deming regression, and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) were calculated. The commutability of the processed materials was evaluated by comparing the measurement results of the materials with the limits of the PIs. The FSP-1 was commutable for all the 36 assay pairs, and FSP-2 was commutable for 30 pairs; RSP-1 and RSP-2 showed commutability for 27/36 and 22/36 assay pairs, respectively, whereas the two EQA materials were commutable only for 4/36 and 5/36 assay pairs, respectively. Non-commutability of the tested EQA materials has been observed among current apo A-I assays. EQA programs need either to take into account the commutability-related biases in the interpretation of the EQA results or to use more commutable materials. Frozen human serum pools were commutable for most of the assays.

  12. Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Busseuil, D; Shi, Y; Mecteau, M; Brand, G; Kernaleguen, A-E; Thorin, E; Latour, J-G; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and standard curative therapy remains open heart surgical valve replacement. The aim of our experimental study was to determine if apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide infusions could induce regression of AVS. Experimental approach: Fifteen New Zealand White male rabbits received a cholesterol-enriched diet and vitamin D2 until significant AVS was detected by echocardiography. The enriched diet was then stopped to mimic cholesterol-lowering therapy and animals were allocated randomly to receive saline (control group, n=8) or an ApoA-I mimetic peptide (treated group, n=7), three times per week for 2 weeks. Serial echocardiograms and post mortem valve histology were performed. Key results: Aortic valve area increased significantly by 25% in the treated group after 14 days of treatment (P=0.012). Likewise, aortic valve thickness decreased by 21% in the treated group, whereas it was unchanged in controls (P=0.0006). Histological analysis revealed that the extent of lesions at the base of valve leaflets and sinuses of Valsalva was smaller in the treated group compared with controls (P=0.032). The treatment also reduced calcification, as revealed by the loss of the positive relationship observed in the control group (r=0.87, P=0.004) between calcification area and aortic valve thickness. Conclusions and implications: Infusions of ApoA-I mimetic peptide lead to regression of experimental AVS. These positive results justify the further testing of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-based therapies in patients with valvular aortic stenosis. Regression of aortic stenosis, if achieved safely, could transform the clinical treatment of this disease. PMID:18414386

  13. Maybe Small Is Too Small a Term: Introduction to Advancing Small Sample Prevention Science.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Allen, James

    2015-10-01

    Prevention research addressing health disparities often involves work with small population groups experiencing such disparities. The goals of this special section are to (1) address the question of what constitutes a small sample; (2) identify some of the key research design and analytic issues that arise in prevention research with small samples; (3) develop applied, problem-oriented, and methodologically innovative solutions to these design and analytic issues; and (4) evaluate the potential role of these innovative solutions in describing phenomena, testing theory, and evaluating interventions in prevention research. Through these efforts, we hope to promote broader application of these methodological innovations. We also seek whenever possible, to explore their implications in more general problems that appear in research with small samples but concern all areas of prevention research. This special section includes two sections. The first section aims to provide input for researchers at the design phase, while the second focuses on analysis. Each article describes an innovative solution to one or more challenges posed by the analysis of small samples, with special emphasis on testing for intervention effects in prevention research. A concluding article summarizes some of their broader implications, along with conclusions regarding future directions in research with small samples in prevention science. Finally, a commentary provides the perspective of the federal agencies that sponsored the conference that gave rise to this special section.

  14. Small gas turbine engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedzwiecki, Richard W.; Meitner, Peter L.

    1988-01-01

    Performance of small gas turbine engines in the 250 to 1,000 horsepower size range is significantly lower than that of large engines. Engines of this size are typically used in rotorcraft, commutercraft, general aviation, and cruise missile applications. Principal reasons for the lower efficiencies of a smaller engine are well known: component efficients are lower by as much as 8 to 10 percentage points because of size effects. Small engines are designed for lower cycle pressures and temperatures because of smaller blading and cooling limitations. The highly developed analytical and manufacturing techniques evolved for large engines are not directly transferrable to small engines. Thus, it was recognized that a focused effort addressing technologies for small engies was needed and could significantly impact their performance. Recently, in-house and contract studies were undertaken at the NASA Lewis Research Center to identify advanced engine cycle and component requirements for substantial performance improvement of small gas turbines for projected year 2000 applications. The results of both in-house research and contract studies are presented. In summary, projected fuel savings of 22 to 42 percent could be obtained. Accompanying direct operating cost reductions of 11 to 17 percent, depending on fuel cost, were also estimated. High payoff technologies are identified for all engine applications, and recent results of experimental research to evolve the high payoff technologies are described.

  15. Energy Conservation in Small Schools. Small Schools Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardener, Clark

    Information concerning methods and available materials for conserving energy is needed by small, rural schools to offset continued increasing energy costs and lack of financial support and technical assistance. The first step in developing an energy conservation policy is to obtain school board commitment and to establish an energy saving policy.…

  16. Socioeconomic Indicators for Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Prepared to help small towns assess community population and economic trends, this publication provides a step-by-step guide for establishing an on-going local data collection system, which is based on four local indicators and will provide accurate, up-to-date estimates of population, family income, and gross sales within a town's trade area. The…

  17. Small but Pristine--Lessons for Small Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Russell; Robertson, Dane

    1990-01-01

    Compares the more positive library automation experiences of a small public library with those of a large research library. Topics addressed include collection size; computer size and the need for outside control of a data processing center; staff size; selection process for hardware and software; and accountability. (LRW)

  18. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  19. Health Promotion in Small Business

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Kira; Stinson, Kaylan; Scott, Kenneth; Tenney, Liliana; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the evidence regarding the adoption and efficacy of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs) in small businesses. Methods Peer-reviewed research articles were identified from a database search. Included articles were published before July 2013, described a study that used an experimental or quasiexperimental design and either assessed adoption of WHPPs or conducted interventions in businesses with fewer than 500 employees. A review team scored the study’s rigor using the WHO-adapted GRADEprofiler “quality of evidence” criteria. Results Of the 84 retrieved articles, 19 met study inclusion criteria. Of these, only two met criteria for high rigor. Conclusions Fewer small businesses adopt WHPPs compared with large businesses. Two high-rigor studies found that employees were healthier postintervention. Higher quality research is needed to better understand why small businesses rarely adopt wellness programs and to demonstrate the value of such programs. PMID:24905421

  20. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    PubMed

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  1. Orbit Mechanics about Small Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheeres, D. J.

    2007-01-01

    Space missions to small solar system bodies must deal with multiple perturbations acting on the spacecraft. These include strong perturbations from the gravity field and solar tide, but for small bodies the most important perturbations may arise from solar radiation pressure (SRP) acting on the spacecraft. Previous research has generally investigated the effect of the gravity field, solar tide, and SRP acting on a spacecraft trajectory about an asteroid in isolation and has not considered their joint effect. In this paper a more general theoretical discussion of the joint effects of these forces is given.

  2. 76 FR 61626 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121 and 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Small Business... Business Jobs Act of 2010, which pertain to small business subcontracting. SBA is proposing to amend its...

  3. 40 CFR 80.1622 - Approval for small refiner and small volume refinery status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... appropriate data to correct the record when the company submits its application. (ii) Foreign small refiners... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval for small refiner and small... Approval for small refiner and small volume refinery status. (a) Applications for small refiner or small...

  4. Metrics for Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Gloria S., Ed.; Magisos, Joel H., Ed.

    Designed to meet the job-related metric measurement needs of small engine repair students, this instructional package is one of four for the transportation occupations cluster, part of a set of 55 packages for metric instruction in different occupations. The package is intended for students who already know the occupational terminology,…

  5. Small-College Software Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Anthony D.

    1986-01-01

    Computers have a great number of potential uses at the small college. A survey of the role of software in the effective use of computers is described. Hardware characteristics, spreadsheets, purchasing or developing software, and software information are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  6. Big Trouble for Small Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jon; Preston, Kim

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the proposed changes to Nebraska's school finance formula and school structure shows that many of Nebraska's rural schools could suffer from imposition of a "small by choice" factor. Research has consistently shown that smaller schools have some advantages over their larger counterparts. The 2005 session of the Nebraska…

  7. Big Ideas and Small Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Small solutions solve discrete, well-bounded problems and can be pieces of larger solutions. They can move things forward by mixing and matching available components in new and previously unimagined ways. A number of innovations, which at first glance are completely unrelated, can come together and create important synergics. This article…

  8. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  9. DESIGNS FOR SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NIMNICHT, GLENDON P.; PARTRIDGE, ARTHUR R.

    BY MULTIPLE-CLASS TEACHING AND FLEXIBLE SCHEDULING, SMALL HIGH SCHOOLS CAN OFFER EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS COMPARABLE TO THOSE OFFERED BY LARGE HIGH SCHOOLS. WITH ATTENTION TO FACILITY DESIGN, NOT ONLY CAN SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, FOREIGN LANGUAGE, ART, BUSINESS, INDUSTRIAL ARTS, HOMEMAKING, ENGLISH, AND SOCIAL STUDIES BE OFFERED TO TWO OR MORE GROUPS OF…

  10. USDA Potato Small RNA Database

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are now understood to be involved in gene regulation, function and development. High throughput sequencing (HTS) of sRNAs generates large data sets for analyzing the abundance, source and roles for specific sRNAs. These sRNAs result from transcript degradation as well as specific ...

  11. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  12. Seasoning small quantities of lumber

    Treesearch

    E.F. Rasmussen

    1965-01-01

    The owner of a small quantity of green lumber or logs is often confronted with seasoning it to a state of dryness suitable for use in furniture, wood carving, or other handiwork. He cannot follow the practice of commercial mills, which employ dry kilns for the purpose. because kilns are too costly. On the other hand, air seasoning outdoors usually does not dry lumber...

  13. Small-Town Rock Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robarge, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an eighth grade rock exchange project in which small groups of students researched, then wrote letters to schools throughout the United States requesting samples of local rocks and minerals. Provides experience in use of the atlas and letter writing. (CS)

  14. Facilities Planning for Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Joseph P.; And Others

    This second publication in a three-part series called "Alternative Futures" is essentially a workbook that, followed step by step, allows a college to see how its use of space has changed over time. Especially designed for small colleges, the kit makes use of the information that is routinely collected, such as annual financial statements and…

  15. Experience of the Small Grower

    Treesearch

    Emmett Jordon

    2002-01-01

    The small grower cannot afford costly facilities, equipment, or containers. The grower usually does about everything by hand and gets help from family members and friends to get started. I describe the approach I use to produce longleaf pine container stock.

  16. Small Private Colleges Can Survive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Michele

    2017-01-01

    With high school populations declining throughout New England and in several other regions of the country, it's only natural to be concerned about the fiscal challenges confronting the nation's private colleges and universities. Forecasts by prominent higher education experts increasingly suggest that many, if not most, small private institutions…

  17. Small Business Incubator Resource Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    This kit consists of a set of resources to assist those interested in the start-up and management (incubation) of a new business. A guide to starting and managing a small business incubator (SBI) is provided. Included in the guide are the following: a discussion of the role and characteristics of the SBI concept; guidelines for carrying out the…

  18. Managing a Small Business Incubator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Charles, Ed.

    An increasingly popular economic development tool to improve the success rate of new firms is the small business incubator. These are buildings in which a number of new or growing businesses can locate and operate at a much lower overhead cost than in conventional space where market rates prevail. Incubator facilities are characterized by access…

  19. Small Business Information Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Melissa, Ed.; And Others

    This annotated bibliography lists a wide variety of print materials that may be helpful to small business owners in acquiring the knowledge necessary to manage their businesses. The bibliography is arranged in chapters by main functional topics. In each chapter, subcategories of interest are then listed, and entries are arranged alphabetically…

  20. Small Business. Lesson Plan Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicke, Thomas S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan that requires students to use their research and analytical skills in studying the social and economic importance of small business. Activities include interviewing local business owners and producing a written summary, developing a survey showing and explaining area land use, and researching opposition to Wal-Mart stores.…

  1. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  2. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  3. Biological productivity in small impoundments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most ponds and small impoundments are built or used with a principal use in mind. That use may be recreational fishing, commercial aquaculture, waterfowl hunting, potable water storage, irrigation water supply, livestock watering, stormwater retention, landscaping, swimming, or others. In practice, ...

  4. Social Planning for Small Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, James

    Derived mainly from publications by the League of California Cities, this guide to social planning for small cities presents the following: (1) social planning definitions; (2) a checklist of social planning concerns (provision for: adequate income and economic opportunity; optimal environmental conditions for basic material needs; optimal health…

  5. Small Schools' Ripple Effects Debated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    Major initiatives in New York City and Chicago to close unsuccessful schools and create small schools in their wake are stirring criticism from some community activists, local politicians, and others. Critics charge that the growing scale of the efforts is producing negative ripple effects on other schools in these cities. In Chicago, the chief…

  6. ADA Guide for Small Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Civil Rights Div.

    This guide presents an informal overview of some basic Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requirements for small businesses that provide goods or services to the public. References to key sections of the regulations or other information are included. The first section describes the ADA briefly. Section two lists the 12 categories of public…

  7. SMALL CRAFT OPERATION AND NAVIGATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    THIS REFERENCE TEXTBOOK WAS PREPARED FOR USE IN THE FIRST PART OF A TWO-PART COURSE IN MARINE NAVIGATION AND SMALL CRAFT OPERATION ON INLAND AND INTERNATIONAL WATERS. THE MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR FOR USE IN TRADE SCHOOL PREPARATORY AND EXTENSION CLASSES FOR MALE ADULTS WHO PLAN TO OPERATE BOATS. IT IS MAINLY CONCERNED WITH…

  8. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  9. Netbooks: Small but Powerful Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Don E.

    2009-01-01

    Netbooks, sometimes called "mini-notebooks," are lightweight, small, and low-priced computers. Some writers ridicule them by calling them "one of the hottest tech toys of the year" (Saltzman, 2008). Others enthusiastically embrace them as "my perfect new travel companion" (Grossman, 2009). Netbooks are not toys. They are honest-to-goodness real…

  10. UV Treatment for Small Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Environmental Education, Conservation and Research (CECIA) at InterAmerican University of Puerto Rico (IAUPR) has organized the 10th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico. This presentation on UV Treatment for Small Systems will be ...

  11. Modeling Interactions in Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heise, David R.

    2013-01-01

    A new theory of interaction within small groups posits that group members initiate actions when tension mounts between the affective meanings of their situational identities and impressions produced by recent events. Actors choose partners and behaviors so as to reduce the tensions. A computer model based on this theory, incorporating reciprocal…

  12. SBA - Dynamic Small Business Search

    Science.gov Websites

    Mobile View Print Exit Help DSBS Quick Market Search TM OnLine DSBS Welcome to the Dynamic Small Business have "tooltips" with data format information. Search Guidance New! NEW FEATURES FOR MOBILE USERS: Phone number hotlinks can be used to dial the number on mobile phones. Address hotlinks can be

  13. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Treesearch

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  14. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  15. 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daelemans, Gerard (Editor); Mosier, Frances L. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The 1999 Shuttle Small Payloads Symposium is a combined symposia of the Get Away Special (GAS), Space Experiment Module (SEM), and Hitchhiker programs, and is proposed to continue as an annual conference. The focus of this conference is to educate potential Space Shuttle Payload Bay users as to the types of carrier systems provided and for current users to share experiment concepts.

  16. Revolution in the Small Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heger, Herbert K.

    1982-01-01

    Small and medium-sized institutions are seen as likely to experience major organizational change during the next few years in three areas: contracting out, academic franchising, and reacting to declining instruction. Colleges need to explore interinstitutional cooperation, new educational media, structural innovation, productivity improvement, and…

  17. Calculator. Owning a Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Seven activities are presented in this student workbook designed for an exploration of small business ownership and the use of the calculator in this career. Included are simulated situations in which students must use a calculator to compute property taxes; estimate payroll taxes and franchise taxes; compute pricing, approximate salaries,…

  18. Disability Management in Small Firms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, David

    1991-01-01

    Notes that American research has paid relatively little attention to prospects for adapting disability management practices to financial and management environment of smaller employers. Compares large and small firms in terms of employer disability practices and characteristics of disabled workers; discusses barriers to rehabilitation and…

  19. Small-diameter success stories

    Treesearch

    Jean Livingston

    2004-01-01

    Public and private forests are in critical need of restoration by thinning small-diameter timber. If economical and value-added uses for this thinned material can be found, forest restoration costs could be offset and catastrophic wildfires would be minimized. At the same time, forestry- dependent rural communities?faced with diminishing timber supplies, loss of jobs,...

  20. Electrochemistry at Very Small Electrodes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    Reticulated Vitreous Carbon ", N. Sleazynaki, J. G. Osterycung end -’ M. Carter, October, 1983. *15’ * "Increased Electrochemical Window in Ambient...and R.A. Osteryoung, J. Electrochem. Soc., 130, 1965 (1983). 15. "Arrays of Very Small Electrodes Based on Reticulated Vitreous Carbon ", N. Sleszynski

  1. Negotiations in Small School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freers, Ann M.

    Four paradigms of labor-management relations are found in American small schools: paternalism, collective bargaining, collegial problem solving, and community problem solving. Examination of the conditions under which each is likely to exist and their unique characteristics, reveals the circumstance which will enhance the effectiveness of each.…

  2. Small Business Location and Layout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small Business Administration, Washington, DC.

    As an approach to teaching small-business location and layout, this publication contains material for teaching one session of a basic course. The sections of the publication are as follows: (1) The Lesson Plan--an outline of the material covered, which may be used as a teaching guide, presented in two columns: an outline of the presentation, and a…

  3. Final Barrier: Small System Compliance

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will discuss the use of point-of-use (POU) technology for small drinking water systems. Information will be provided on the USEPA regulations that allow the use of POU for compliance and the technologies that are listed as SSCT for radium and arsenic. Listing o...

  4. Expression and purification of recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Zaragoza (L144R) and formation of reconstituted HDL particles.

    PubMed

    Fiddyment, Sarah; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Pocoví, Miguel; García-Otín, Angel-Luis

    2011-11-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I Zaragoza (L144R) (apo A-I Z), has been associated with severe hypoalphalipoproteinemia and an enhanced effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) reverse cholesterol transport. In order to perform further studies with this protein we have optimized an expression and purification method of recombinant wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z and produced mimetic HDL particles with each protein. An pET-45 expression system was used to produce N-terminal His-tagged apo A-I, wild-type or mutant, in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which was subsequently purified by affinity chromatography in non-denaturing conditions. HDL particles were generated via a modified sodium cholate method. Expression and purification of both proteins was verified by SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and immunochemical procedures. Yield was 30mg of purified protein (94% purity) per liter of culture. The reconstituted HDL particles checked via non-denaturing PAGE showed high homogeneity in their size when reconstituted both with wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z. An optimized system for the expression and purification of wild-type apo A-I and apo A-I Z with high yield and purity grade has been achieved, in addition to their use in reconstituted HDL particles, as a basis for further studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Small rocket research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven; Biaglow, James

    1993-01-01

    Small chemical rockets are used on nearly all space missions. The small rocket program provides propulsion technology for civil and government space systems. Small rocket concepts are developed for systems which encompass reaction control for launch and orbit transfer systems, as well as on-board propulsion for large space systems and earth orbit and planetary spacecraft. Major roles for on-board propulsion include apogee kick, delta-V, de-orbit, drag makeup, final insertions, north-south stationkeeping, orbit change/trim, perigee kick, and reboost. The program encompasses efforts on earth-storable, space storable, and cryogenic propellants. The earth-storable propellants include nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) as an oxidizer with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) or anhydrous hydrazine (AH) as fuels. The space storable propellants include liquid oxygen (LOX) as an oxidizer with hydrazine or hydrocarbons such as liquid methane, ethane, and ethanol as fuels. Cryogenic propellants are LOX or gaseous oxygen (GOX) as oxidizers and liquid or gaseous hydrogen as fuels. Improved performance and lifetime for small chemical rockets are sought through the development of new predictive tools to understand the combustion and flow physics, the introduction of high temperature materials to eliminate fuel film cooling and its associated combustion inefficiency, and improved component designs to optimize performance. Improved predictive technology is sought through the comparison of both local and global predictions with experimental data. Results indicate that modeling of the injector and combustion process in small rockets needs improvement. High temperature materials require the development of fabrication processes, a durability data base in both laboratory and rocket environments, and basic engineering property data such as strength, creep, fatigue, and work hardening properties at both room and elevated temperature. Promising materials under development include iridium-coated rhenium and a

  6. [Screening and identification of apolipoprotein A-I as a potential marker for hepatoblastoma in children].

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Qian; Fan, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Jia-Xiang

    2016-12-01

    To screen and identify serum biomarkers for childhood hepatoblastoma (HB). The serum samples from 30 children with hepatoblastoma (HB), 20 children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and 20 normal children were treated with magnetic bead-based weak cation exchange chromatography. The platform of surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to eliminate the interference of inflammatory factors and to screen out the differentially expressed proteins in serum between tumor group and normal group. After the purification and separation of target proteins were performed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry was used to determine their amino acid sequences. The SwissProt database was searched for matched proteins. Finally, real-time PCR and ELISA were used to verify and measure the expression of target proteins. After SELDI-TOF-MS was used for screening and elimination of the interference of inflammatory factors, a differentially expression protein with a mass-to-charge ratio of 9 348 Da was found in serum between HB group and normal group, and the HB group had significantly lower expression of this protein than the normal group (p<0.05). This protein was identified as apolipoprotein A-1 (Apo A-I). Real-time PCR and ELISA verified the low mRNA and protein expression of Apo A-I in serum in the HB group and high expression in serum in the normal group. Apo A-I can be used as a non-inflammatory protein marker for HB and has a certain value in the early diagnosis of HB.

  7. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  8. 78 FR 77352 - Small Business Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Associate Administrator for the Office of Small Business Programs shall nominate a qualified individual in... Small Business Programs shall assign a Small Business Technical Advisor to each contracting activity...

  9. Teaching Small Business Ownership and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Topics discussed include integrating small business ownership with existing programs; establishing awareness, exploration, and orientation activities; and preparation for small business ownership. A curriculum guide developed for teaching small business ownership and management is also described. (TA)

  10. Small Intestine Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of small intestine cancer. Other types of small intestine cancer are sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on small intestine cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  11. 77 FR 28520 - Small Business Size Regulations, Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... proposed rules provide a clear set of guidelines for small businesses to understand and a bright-line test..., bright-line test for SBIR and STTR applicants to apply when determining eligibility with respect to size... owns 33% or more of the company) in order to create a bright-line test for applicants; (2) find...

  12. Endotoxin Contamination of Apolipoprotein A-I: Effect on Macrophage Proliferation – A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S.

    2015-01-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation >90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25778625

  13. Endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein A-I: effect on macrophage proliferation--a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Xu, Qing; Champion, Keith; Kruth, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    This technical report addresses the problem of endotoxin contamination of apolipoprotein reagents. Using a bromodeoxyuridine incorporation cell proliferation assay, we observed that human plasma ApoA-I as low as 1 μg/ml resulted in a >90% inhibition in macrophage proliferation. However, not all ApoA-I from different sources showed this effect. We considered the possibility that endotoxin contamination of the apolipoproteins contributed to the differential inhibition of macrophage cell proliferation. Endotoxin alone very potently inhibited macrophage proliferation (0.1 ng/ml inhibited macrophage proliferation>90%). Measurement of endotoxin levels in the apolipoprotein products, including an analysis of free versus total endotoxin, the latter which included endotoxin that was masked due to binding to protein, suggested that free endotoxin mediated inhibition of macrophage proliferation. Despite the use of an advanced endotoxin removal procedure and agents commonly used to inhibit endotoxin action, the potency of endotoxin precluded successful elimination of endotoxin effect. Our findings show that endotoxin contamination can significantly influence apparent apolipoprotein-mediated cell effects (or effects of any other biological products), especially when these products are tested on highly endotoxin-sensitive cells, such as macrophages. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Assessment of A. I. D. environmental programs: Energy conservation in Pakistan. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Church, P.; Kumar, K.; Sowers, F.

    1993-09-01

    This report highlights a model of environmental management that appears to work in the current political and economic context of Pakistan. The model focuses on energy conservation. This evaluation examines how the U.S. Agency for International Development (A.I.D.) has assisted Pakistan in using market forces to promote the adoption of energy conservation practices and technologies. The central operating hypothesis of the evaluation is that the adoption of energy conservation practices and technologies responds to market incentives. The field study concludes that the Pakistani program of energy conservation activities, set in motion with A.I.D. support, cannot easily be reversed. With changesmore » in political and economic policies toward the environment in Pakistan, greater and more sustainable impact is possible. The experience of Pakistan energy conservation program raises three issues that merit careful examination both in the contexts of Pakistan's future program implementation and in other countries: The role of program subsidies; The role of nonproject assistance; and The involvement of nongovernmental organizations.« less

  15. Iowa Mutant Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-IIowa) Fibrils Target Lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Kameyama, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mikawa, Shiho; Uchimura, Kenji; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Saito, Hiroyuki; Sakashita, Naomi

    2016-07-28

    The single amino acid mutation G26R in human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-IIowa) is the first mutation that was associated with familial AApoA1 amyloidosis. The N-terminal fragments (amino acid residues 1-83) of apoA-I containing this mutation deposit as amyloid fibrils in patients' tissues and organs, but the mechanisms of cellular degradation and cytotoxicity have not yet been clarified. In this study, we demonstrated degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils via the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. ApoA-IIowa fibrils induced an increase in lysosomal pH and the cytosolic release of the toxic lysosomal protease cathepsin B. The mitochondrial dysfunction caused by apoA-IIowa fibrils depended on cathepsin B and was ameliorated by increasing the degradation of apoA-IIowa fibrils. Thus, although apoA-IIowa fibril transport to lysosomes and fibril degradation in lysosomes may have occurred, the presence of an excess number of apoA-IIowa fibrils, more than the lysosomes could degrade, may be detrimental to cells. Our results thus provide evidence that the target of apoA-IIowa fibrils is lysosomes, and we thereby gained a novel insight into the mechanism of AApoA1 amyloidosis.

  16. Avionics for a Small Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry; Jochim, David; Schuler, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a small. seven and a half (7.5) inch diameter. satellite that NASA-JSC is developing as a technology demonstrator for an astronaut assistant free flyer. The Free Flyer is designed to off load flight crew work load by performing inspections of the exterior of Space Shuttle or International Space Station. The Free Flyer is designed to be operated by the flight crew thereby reducing the number of Extra Vehicle Activities (EVA) or by an astronaut on the ground further reducing crew work load. The paper focuses on the design constraint of a small satellite and the technology approach used to achieve the set of high performance requirements specified for the Free Flyer. Particular attention is paid to the processor card as it is the heart and system integration point of the Free Flyer.

  17. Pu'a i ka 'Olelo, Ola ka 'Ohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.; Housman, Alohalani Kaluhiokalani; Alencastre, Makalapua

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1980s, the Hawaiian language had reached its low point with fewer than 50 native speakers of Hawaiian under the age of 18. Outside of the Ni'ihau community, a small group of families in Honolulu and Hilo were raising their children through Hawaiian. This article shares the perspectives of three pioneering families of the Hawaiian…

  18. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  19. Small Business Innovations (Fiber Optics)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Foster-Miller, Inc. Waltham, MA developed the In-Situ Fiber Optic Polymer Reaction Monitor which could lead to higher yields and lower costs in complex composite manufacturing. The monitor, developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center, uses an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. It is the first analytical system capable of directly measuring the chemistry of advanced composite materials.

  20. Small Business Innovations (Integrated Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Because of the diversity of NASA's information systems, it was necessary to develop DAVID as a central database management system. Under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Ken Wanderman and Associates, Inc. designed software tools enabling scientists to interface with DAVID and commercial database management systems, as well as artificial intelligence programs. The software has been installed at a number of data centers and is commercially available.

  1. Small but Dynamic Active Region

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-20

    The sun featured just one, rather small active region over the past few days, but it developed rapidly and sported a lot of magnetic activity in just one day (Apr. 11-12, 2018). The activity was observed in a wavelength of extreme ultraviolet light. The loops and twisting arches above it are evidence of magnetic forces tangling with each other. The video clip was produced using Helioviewer software. Movies are available at https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA06676

  2. Small Business Innovations (Robotic Wrist)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. Minneapolis, MN, developed the Omni-Wrist actuator, which has a 25-pound capacity, 180 degrees of pitch/yaw, and 360 degrees of roll. Company literature calls it "the first successful singularity-free high-precision (robotic) wrist." Applications include spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, welding and a variety of nuclear industry, aerospace and military uses.

  3. Big World of Small Neutrinos

    Science.gov Websites

    electron neutrino, muon neutrino, or tau neutrino. The three different neutrinos are complemented by anti of the neutrinos we detect will look different (have a different flavor) compared to the time they Big World of Small Neutrinos Neutrinos will find you! Fig 1: Hubble image of the deep field

  4. Small Scale Air Driven Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    the wire is wound around the stator, the more windings the higher the voltage as seen in equation two from [10], de N dt Φ = , (2) where N is...was a Maxwell BMOD0500 P016 B02 16 volt 500 farad capacitor shown in Figure 8. Typical uses for this particular model are in wind turbines ... turbine , in this case a turbocharger, provided a constant source of shaft power which was used to spin a small permanent magnet motor. With the

  5. Wastewater services for small communities.

    PubMed

    Gray, S; Booker, N

    2003-01-01

    Connection to centralised regional sewage systems has been too expensive for small-dispersed communities, and these townships have traditionally been serviced by on-site septic tank systems. The conventional on-site system in Australia has consisted of an anaerobic holding tank followed by adsorption trenches. This technique relies heavily on the uptake of nutrients by plants for effective removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the effluent, and is very seasonal in its efficiency. Hence, as these small communities have grown in size, the environmental effects of the septic tank discharges have become a problem. In locations throughout Australia, such as rural Victoria and along the Hawkesbury-Nepean River, septic tanks as being replaced with the transport of sewage to regional treatment plants. For some isolated communities, this can mean spending 20,000 dollars-40,000 dollars/household, as opposed to more common connection prices of 7,000 dollars/household. This paper explores some alternative options that might be suitable for these small communities, and attempts to identify solutions that provide acceptable environmental outcomes at lower cost. The types of alternative systems that are assessed in the paper include local treatment systems, separate blackwater and greywater collection and treatment systems both with and without non-potable water recycling, a small township scale treatment plant compared to either existing septic tank systems or pumping to a remote regional treatment facility. The work demonstrated the benefits of a scenario analysis approach for the assessment of a range of alternative systems. It demonstrated that some of the alternatives systems can achieve better than 90% reductions in the discharge of nutrients to the environment at significantly lower cost than removing the wastewater to a remote regional treatment plant. These concepts allow wastewater to be retained within a community allowing for local reuse of treated effluent.

  6. Proliferation of Small Nuclear Forces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-30

    character of conflict, arm control issues, conventional arms competition and U.S. forces; 3) Assess how new nuclear powers will behave and how their...neighbors 0and other nuclear powers will react; "--- 5) Identify the likely patterns and outcars of nuclear and other military interaction, including...Regional Nuclear Powers , 1990-2010 A small nuclear force (SNF) would comprise at a minimum from 5 to 10 deliverable and militarily serviceable fission

  7. OSHA Handbook for Small Businesses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    1 ) Consultation Program Kansas Department of Human Resources 512 South West 6th Street Topeka, KS 66603-3150 (913) 296-7476 Kentucky Division of...Health Office Puerto Rico Department of Labor and Human Resources 505 Munoz Rivera Avenue, Hato Rey, PR 00918 (809) 754-2188 58 Rhode Island Division...OSHA Handbook for Small Businesses Safety Management Series U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 2209 1996

  8. Implantable telemetry for small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A series of totally implantable telemetry devices for use in measuring deep body parameters in small animals were developed. Under a collaborative agreement with NASA, several of these systems; the continuous wave Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter, the multichannel telemetry system, and the inductively-powered dual channel cardiac pacer were evaluated in a series of ten mongrel dogs (15 to 20 kg.). These systems were used to measure ascending aortic and coronary blood flow, aortic pressure, and subcutaneous EKG.

  9. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  10. Dynamics of small unilamellar vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ingo; Hoffmann, Claudia; Farago, Bela; Prévost, Sylvain; Gradzielski, Michael

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of small unilamellar vesicles with the aid of neutron spin-echo spectroscopy. The purpose of this investigation is twofold. On the one hand, we investigate the influence of solubilised cosurfactant on the dynamics of the vesicle's surfactant bilayer. On the other hand, the small unilamellar vesicles used here have a size between larger vesicles, with dynamics being well described by the Zilman-Granek model and smaller microemulsion droplets which can be described by the Milner-Safran model. Therefore, we want to elucidate the question, which model is more suitable for the description of the membrane dynamics of small vesicles, where the finite curvature of the bilayer is felt by the contained amphiphilic molecules. This question is of substantial relevance for our understanding of membranes and how their dynamics is affected by curvature, a problem that is also of key importance in a number of biological questions. Our results indicate the even down to vesicle radii of 20 nm the Zilman-Granek model appears to be the more suitable one.

  11. Small Body Hopper Mobility Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Dave E.; Crues, E. Zack; Dexter, Dan E.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Chappell, Steve P.; Nguyen, Hung T.

    2015-01-01

    A propellant-saving hopper mobility system was studied that could help facilitate the exploration of small bodies such as Phobos for long-duration human missions. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has proposed a mission to the moons of Mars as a transitional step for eventual Mars surface exploration. While a Mars transit habitat would be parked in High-Mars Orbit (HMO), crew members would visit the surface of Phobos multiple times for up to 14 days duration (up to 50 days at a time with logistics support). This paper describes a small body surface mobility concept that is capable of transporting a small, two-person Pressurized Exploration Vehicle (PEV) cabin to various sites of interest in the low-gravity environment. Using stored kinetic energy between bounces, a propellant-saving hopper mobility system can release the energy to vector the vehicle away from the surface in a specified direction. Alternatively, the stored energy can be retained for later use while the vehicle is stationary in respect to the surface. The hopper actuation was modeled using a variety of launch velocities, and the hopper mobility was evaluated using NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) for transit between surface sites of interest. A hopper system with linear electromagnetic motors and mechanical spring actuators coupled with Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) for attitude control will use renewable electrical power, resulting in a significant propellant savings.

  12. Effect of curcumin on amyloid-like aggregates generated from methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I

    DOE PAGES

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Tavoosi, Narjes; Chan, Gary K. L.; ...

    2018-01-10

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. Here, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation. The impact of curcumin on the structure of the aggregating material was revealed by the lower amount of β-structure in ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates formed in the presence of curcumin, comparedmore » to aggregates formed without curcumin. However, the kinetics of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregate formation was not altered by the presence of curcumin. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis detected no discernable differences in amyloid morphology when ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates were formed in the presence or absence of curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin interacts with apoA-I and alters the structure of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates yet does not diminish the propensity of ox-apoA-I to form aggregates.« less

  13. Effect of curcumin on amyloid-like aggregates generated from methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Tavoosi, Narjes; Chan, Gary K. L.

    Curcumin is a polyphenolic phytonutrient that has antineurodegenerative properties. Here, we investigated the anti-amyloidogenic properties of curcumin. Following incubation with curcumin, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence emission of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I was strongly quenched. At the same time, curcumin fluorescence emission was enhanced. The fluorescence emission spectra of curcumin in the presence of amyloid-like aggregates formed by methionine-oxidized (ox) apoA-I varied, depending on whether curcumin was added before, or after, aggregate formation. The impact of curcumin on the structure of the aggregating material was revealed by the lower amount of β-structure in ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates formed in the presence of curcumin, comparedmore » to aggregates formed without curcumin. However, the kinetics of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregate formation was not altered by the presence of curcumin. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis detected no discernable differences in amyloid morphology when ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates were formed in the presence or absence of curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin interacts with apoA-I and alters the structure of ox-apoA-I amyloid-like aggregates yet does not diminish the propensity of ox-apoA-I to form aggregates.« less

  14. Effect of apoA-I Mutations in the Capacity of Reconstituted HDL to Promote ABCG1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux.

    PubMed

    Daniil, Georgios; Zannis, Vassilis I; Chroni, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    ATP binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) mediates the cholesterol transport from cells to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), but the role of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein constituent of HDL, in this process is not clear. To address this, we measured cholesterol efflux from HEK293 cells or J774 mouse macrophages overexpressing ABCG1 using as acceptors reconstituted HDL (rHDL) containing wild-type or various mutant apoA-I forms. It was found that ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux was severely reduced (by 89%) when using rHDL containing the carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant apoA-I[Δ(185-243)]. ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux was not affected or moderately decreased by rHDL containing amino-terminal deletion mutants and several mid-region deletion or point apoA-I mutants, and was restored to 69-99% of control by double deletion mutants apoA-I[Δ(1-41)Δ(185-243)] and apoA-I[Δ(1-59)Δ(185-243)]. These findings suggest that the central helices alone of apoA-I associated to rHDL can promote ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux. Further analysis showed that rHDL containing the carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant apoA-I[Δ(185-243)] only slightly reduced (by 22%) the ABCG1-mediated efflux of 7-ketocholesterol, indicating that depending on the sterol type, structural changes in rHDL-associated apoA-I affect differently the ABCG1-mediated efflux of cholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol. Overall, our findings demonstrate that rHDL-associated apoA-I structural changes affect the capacity of rHDL to accept cellular cholesterol by an ABCG1-mediated process. The structure-function relationship seen here between rHDL-associated apoA-I mutants and ABCG1-mediated cholesterol efflux closely resembles that seen before in lipid-free apoA-I mutants and ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux, suggesting that both processes depend on the same structural determinants of apoA-I.

  15. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  16. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  17. Terpecurcumins A-I from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa: absolute configuration and cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xionghao; Ji, Shuai; Li, Rui; Dong, Yinhui; Qiao, Xue; Hu, Hongbo; Yang, Wenzhi; Guo, Dean; Tu, Pengfei; Ye, Min

    2012-12-28

    Terpecurcumins A-I (1-9), together with three known analogues (10-12), were isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric). They were derived from the hybridization of curcuminoids and bisabolanes. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analysis, including NMR and electronic circular dichroism spectra. The configuration of 10 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. A plausible biogenetic relationship for 1-12 is proposed. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, and 11 showed higher cytotoxic activities (IC(50), 10.3-19.4 μM) than curcumin (IC(50), 31.3-49.2 μM) against human cancer cell lines (A549, HepG2, and MDA-MB-231).

  18. Apolipoprotein A-I/C-III gene cluster polymorphism in Saudi Arabians, Filipinos and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Johansen, K; Skotnicki, A; Tan, J C; Kwaasi, A A; Skotnicki, M

    1990-03-01

    We studied the polymorphic locus in the A-I/C-III gene cluster on the long arm of chromosome 11 in 147 Saudi Arabian, in 84 Filipino and in 69 Caucasian blood donors. Digestion of DNA yielded two fragments 4.2 kb and 3.2 kb long. The genotype distribution was the same in Arabs and Filipinos, but both were significantly different from Caucasians (p = 0.005 and 0.0005). The 3.2-kb allele occurred in 18% of the Saudi Arabians, in 23% of the Filipinos and in 4% of Caucasians. The frequency of the 3.2-kb allele was significantly higher in Arabs and Filipinos compared to Caucasians (p = 0.0005).

  19. 78 FR 59798 - Small Business Subcontracting: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 125 RIN 3245-AG22 Small Business Subcontracting: Correction AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Correcting amendments. SUMMARY: This document... business subcontracting to implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010. This correction...

  20. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

  1. Helicity Evolution at Small x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievert, Michael; Kovchegov, Yuri; Pitonyak, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We construct small- x evolution equations which can be used to calculate quark and anti-quark helicity TMDs and PDFs, along with the g1 structure function. These evolution equations resum powers of ln2(1 / x) in the polarization-dependent evolution along with the powers of ln(1 / x) in the unpolarized evolution which includes saturation effects. The equations are written in an operator form in terms of polarization-dependent Wilson line-like operators. While the equations do not close in general, they become closed and self-contained systems of non-linear equations in the large-Nc and large-Nc &Nf limits. After solving the large-Nc equations numerically we obtain the following small- x asymptotics for the flavor-singlet g1 structure function along with quarks hPDFs and helicity TMDs (in absence of saturation effects): g1S(x ,Q2) ΔqS(x ,Q2) g1L S(x ,kT2) (1/x) > αh (1/x) 2.31√{αsNc/2 π. We also give an estimate of how much of the proton's spin may be at small x and what impact this has on the so-called ``spin crisis.'' Work supported by the U.S. DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-SC0004286 (YK), the RIKEN BNL Research Center, and TMD Collaboration (DP), and DOE Contract No. DE-SC0012704 (MS).

  2. Small molecules targeting viral RNA.

    PubMed

    Hermann, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Highly conserved noncoding RNA (ncRNA) elements in viral genomes and transcripts offer new opportunities to expand the repertoire of drug targets for the development of antiinfective therapy. Ligands binding to ncRNA architectures are able to affect interactions, structural stability or conformational changes and thereby block processes essential for viral replication. Proof of concept for targeting functional RNA by small molecule inhibitors has been demonstrated for multiple viruses with RNA genomes. Strategies to identify antiviral compounds as inhibitors of ncRNA are increasingly emphasizing consideration of drug-like properties of candidate molecules emerging from screening and ligand design. Recent efforts of antiviral lead discovery for RNA targets have provided drug-like small molecules that inhibit viral replication and include inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV), and influenza A virus. While target selectivity remains a challenge for the discovery of useful RNA-binding compounds, a better understanding is emerging of properties that define RNA targets amenable for inhibition by small molecule ligands. Insight from successful approaches of targeting viral ncRNA in HIV, HCV, SARS CoV, and influenza A will provide a basis for the future exploration of RNA targets for therapeutic intervention in other viral pathogens which create urgent, unmet medical needs. Viruses for which targeting ncRNA components in the genome or transcripts may be promising include insect-borne flaviviruses (Dengue, Zika, and West Nile) and filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg). WIREs RNA 2016, 7:726-743. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1373 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Small lasers in flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William G

    2004-01-01

    Laser technology has made tremendous advances in recent years, particularly in the area of diode and diode-pumped solid state sources. Flow cytometry has been a direct beneficiary of these advances, as these small, low-maintenance, inexpensive lasers with reasonable power outputs are integrated into flow cytometers. In this chapter we review the contribution and potential of solid-state lasers to flow cytometry, and show several examples of these novel sources integrated into production flow cytometers. Technical details and critical parameters for successful application of these lasers for biomedical analysis are reviewed.

  4. Small-scale Starshade Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-09

    A test of a small-scale starshade model (58 cm), made from metal, in a dry lake bed in central Nevada's Smith Creek, took place from May to June 2014. Nineteen different versions of the miniaturized starshade were tested over five days. The tests revealed that a starshade, or external occulter, is capable of blocking starlight to a degree that reveals the relatively dim reflected light of a planet next to its brighter star. Like holding your hand up to block sunlight, the starshade works to block excessive starlight from the "eyes" of a space telescope like Hubble. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20902

  5. JEMRMS Small Satellite Deployment Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009334 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment.

  6. JEMRMS Small Satellite Deployment Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009315 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment. A blue and white part of Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  7. JEMRMS Small Satellite Deployment Observation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-04

    ISS033-E-009458 (4 Oct. 2012) --- Several tiny satellites are featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 33 crew member on the International Space Station. The satellites were released outside the Kibo laboratory using a Small Satellite Orbital Deployer attached to the Japanese module’s robotic arm on Oct. 4, 2012. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, flight engineer, set up the satellite deployment gear inside the lab and placed it in the Kibo airlock. The Japanese robotic arm then grappled the deployment system and its satellites from the airlock for deployment.

  8. Apparatus for blending small particles

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, R.A.; Reese, C.R.; Sease, J.D.

    1975-08-26

    An apparatus is described for blending small particles and uniformly loading the blended particles in a receptacle. Measured volumes of various particles are simultaneously fed into a funnel to accomplish radial blending and then directed onto the apex of a conical splitter which collects the blended particles in a multiplicity of equal subvolumes. Thereafter the apparatus sequentially discharges the subvolumes for loading in a receptacle. A system for blending nuclear fuel particles and loading them into fuel rod molds is described in a preferred embodiment. (auth)

  9. Ionene modified small polymeric beads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Linear ionene polyquaternary cationic polymeric segments are bonded by means of the Menshutkin reaction (quaternization) to biocompatible, extremely small, porous particles containing halide or tertiary amine sites which are centers for attachment of the segments. The modified beads in the form of emulsions or suspensions offer a large, positively-charged surface area capable of irreversibly binding polyanions such as heparin, DNA, RNA or bile acids to remove them from solution or of reversibly binding monoanions such as penicillin, pesticides, sex attractants and the like for slow release from the suspension.

  10. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano rapidly reverses aortic valve stenosis and decreases leaflet inflammation in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Speidl, Walter S; Cimmino, Giovanni; Ibanez, Borja; Elmariah, Sammy; Hutter, Randolph; Garcia, Mario J; Fuster, Valentin; Goldman, Martin E; Badimon, Juan J

    2010-08-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano (rApoA-I(M)) induces atherosclerotic plaque regression. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of rApoA-I(M) on experimental aortic valve degeneration and its mechanisms of action. New Zealand White rabbits (n = 20) were fed an atherogenic diet for 9 months and then randomized to either placebo or rApoA-I(M). Echocardiography was used to assess the effect of the treatments on AS. Porcine aortic valve myofibroblasts (PAVMF) treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein served to define the effects of rApoA-I(M) on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, and alkaline phosphatase (AP). Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano increased aortic valve area (AVA) by 32% (0.25 +/- 0.05 to 0.34 +/- 0.07 cm(2), P < 0.01); whereas AVA remained unchanged in the placebo group (0.24 +/- 0.05 to 0.26 +/- 0.04 cm(2), P = 0.58). Histopathological examination of aortic valves in the rApoA-I(M) animals showed significantly less leaflet thickening, inflammation, and calcification vs. the placebo group. In vitro, rApoA-I(M) significantly inhibited MCP-1, AP, and NF-kappaB and decreased intracellular cholesterol content in PAVMF. Recombinant apolipoprotein A-I Milano treatment reverses AS in this experimental rabbit model. The beneficial effects seem to be mediated by enhanced cholesterol removal and by reduced inflammation and calcification.

  11. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits chemotaxis, adhesion, activation of THP-1 cells and improves the plasma HDL inflammatory index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei-Zhong; Wu, Man-Ping

    2010-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are well described, however, such effects of Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are less studied. Building on our previous study, we further explored the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of ApoA-I, and focused especially on the interaction between monocyte and endothelial cells and plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits. Our results show that ApoA-I significantly decreased LPS-induced MCP-1 release from THP-1 cells and ox-LDL-induced THP-1 migration ratio (P<0.01, respectively). ApoA-I significantly decreased sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 release (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively) from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, ApoA-I significantly inhibited LPS-induced CD11b and VCAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). ApoA-I diminished LPS-induced mCD14 expression (P<0.01) and NFkappaB nuclear translocation in THP-1 cells. After single dose treatment of ApoA-I, the value of plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits was improved significantly (P<0.05). These results suggest that ApoA-I can inhibit chemotaxis, adhesion and activation of human monocytes and improve plasma HDL inflammatory index with presenting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemics in small world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telo da Gama, M. M.; Nunes, A.

    2006-03-01

    For many infectious diseases, a small-world network on an underlying regular lattice is a suitable simplified model for the contact structure of the host population. It is well known that the contact network, described in this setting by a single parameter, the small-world parameter p, plays an important role both in the short term and in the long term dynamics of epidemic spread. We have studied the effect of the network structure on models of immune for life diseases and found that in addition to the reduction of the effective transmission rate, through the screening of infectives, spatial correlations may strongly enhance the stochastic fluctuations. As a consequence, time series of unforced Susceptible-Exposed-Infected-Recovered (SEIR) models provide patterns of recurrent epidemics with realistic amplitudes, suggesting that these models together with complex networks of contacts are the key ingredients to describe the prevaccination dynamical patterns of diseases such as measles and pertussis. We have also studied the role of the host contact strucuture in pathogen antigenic variation, through its effect on the final outcome of an invasion by a viral strain of a population where a very similar virus is endemic. Similar viral strains are modelled by the same infection and reinfection parameters, and by a given degree of cross immunity that represents the antigenic distance between the competing strains. We have found, somewhat surprisingly, that clustering on the network decreases the potential to sustain pathogen diversity.

  13. Weighted small subdomain filtering technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Zhenhua; Zhang, Fengxu; Zhang, Fengqin; Zhang, Xingzhou; Hao, Mengcheng

    2017-09-01

    A high-resolution method to define the horizontal edges of gravity sources is presented by improving the three-directional small subdomain filtering (TDSSF). This proposed method is the weighted small subdomain filtering (WSSF). The WSSF uses a numerical difference instead of the phase conversion in the TDSSF to reduce the computational complexity. To make the WSSF more insensitive to noise, the numerical difference is combined with the average algorithm. Unlike the TDSSF, the WSSF uses a weighted sum to integrate the numerical difference results along four directions into one contour, for making its interpretation more convenient and accurate. The locations of tightened gradient belts are used to define the edges of sources in the WSSF result. This proposed method is tested on synthetic data. The test results show that the WSSF provides the horizontal edges of sources more clearly and correctly, even if the sources are interfered with one another and the data is corrupted with random noise. Finally, the WSSF and two other known methods are applied to a real data respectively. The detected edges by the WSSF are sharper and more accurate.

  14. Barium Peritonitis in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    KO, Jae Jin; MANN, F. A. (Tony)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Barium peritonitis is extremely rare, but is difficult to treat and may be life-threatening. Barium suspension leakage from the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity has a time-dependent and synergistically deleterious effect in patients who have generalized bacterial peritonitis. The severity of barium peritonitis is dependent on the quantity of barium in the abdominal cavity. Barium sulfate leakage results in hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia by worsening the exudation of extracellular fluid and albumin. Abdominal fluid analysis is a useful and efficient method to diagnose barium peritonitis. Serial radiographs may not be a reliable or timely diagnostic technique. Initial aggressive fluid resuscitation and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment should be instituted promptly, followed quickly by celiotomy. During exploratory surgical intervention, copious irrigation and direct wiping with gauze are employed to remove as much barium as possible. Omentectomy should be considered when needed to expedite barium removal. Despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments, postoperative prognosis is guarded to poor due to complications, such as acute vascular shock, sepsis, diffuse peritonitis, hypoproteninemia, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest, small bowel obstruction related to progression of granulomas and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, intensive postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to maximize chances for a positive outcome. For those that do survive, small bowel obstruction is a potential consequence due to progression of abdominal adhesions. PMID:24430662

  15. Small Satellites for Secondary Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zack, Kevin; Cominsky, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    Small Satellites for Secondary Students is a program funded by a three-year grant from NASA to bridge the gap in STEM education for secondary-school students. This is accomplished by creating the educational resources that are needed to support the development of a small scientific payload in alignment with scientific and technological education standards. The prototype payloads are flexible multi-experiment platforms designed to accommodate a wide range of student abilities with minimal resource requirements. The heart of each payload is an Arduino microcontroller which communicates with components that provide sensor data, Global Positioning System information, and which offer on-board data storage. The payload is built with off-the-shelf components and a pre-etched, custom-designed connector board. The platform also supports real-time telemetry updates through the use of Wi-Fi. To date, the prototype payloads have been tested on both high-powered rockets reaching over 3km and weather balloons tethered at 300m. Multiple successful rocket test runs reaching 1km have been conducted in partnership with amateur rocket clubs including the Association of Experimental Rocketry of the Pacific. From these flights, we are continuing to improve the payload design in order to increase the likelihood of student success.

  16. NIR small arms muzzle flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Joseph; Kennerly, Stephen; Rede, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Utilization of Near-Infrared (NIR) spectral features in a muzzle flash will allow for small arms detection using low cost silicon (Si)-based imagers. Detection of a small arms muzzle flash in a particular wavelength region is dependent on the intensity of that emission, the efficiency of source emission transmission through the atmosphere, and the relative intensity of the background scene. The NIR muzzle flash signature exists in the relatively large Si spectral response wavelength region of 300 nm-1100 nm, which allows for use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) Si-based detectors. The alkali metal origin of the NIR spectral features in the 7.62 × 39-mm round muzzle flash is discussed, and the basis for the spectral bandwidth is examined, using a calculated Voigt profile. This report will introduce a model of the 7.62 × 39-mm NIR muzzle flash signature based on predicted source characteristics. Atmospheric limitations based on NIR spectral regions are investigated in relation to the NIR muzzle flash signature. A simple signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) metric is used to predict sensor performance based on a model of radiance for the source and solar background and pixel registered image subtraction.

  17. The DSI small satellite launcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S.; Gibbons, D.; Wise, J.; Nguyen, D.

    1992-01-01

    A new launcher has been developed by DSI, that is compatible with the GAS canisters. It has the proven capability to deploy a satellite from an orbiting Shuttle that is 18 inches in diameter, 31 inches long, and weighing 190 pounds. These DSI Launchers were used aboard the Discovery (STS-39) in May 1991 as part of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS) to deploy three small satellites known as Chemical Release Observation (CRO) satellites A, B, and C. Because the satellites contained hazardous liquids (MMH, UDMH, and MON-10) and were launched from GAS Cylinders without motorized doors, the launchers were required to pass NASA Shuttle Payload safety and verification requirements. Some of the more interesting components of the design were the V-band retention and separation mechanism, the separation springs, and the launcher electronics which provided a properly inhibited release sequence operated through the Small Payload Accommodations Switch Panel (SPASP) on board the Orbiter. The original plan for this launcher was to use a motorized door. The launcher electronics, therefore has the capability to be modified to accommodate the door, if desired.

  18. Contributions of the N- and C-terminal helical segments to the lipid-free structure and lipid interaction of apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masafumi; Dhanasekaran, Padmaja; Nguyen, David; Ohta, Shinya; Lund-Katz, Sissel; Phillips, Michael C; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2006-08-29

    The tertiary structure of lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I in the monomeric state comprises two domains: a N-terminal alpha-helix bundle and a less organized C-terminal domain. This study examined how the N- and C-terminal segments of apoA-I (residues 1-43 and 223-243), which contain the most hydrophobic regions in the molecule and are located in opposite structural domains, contribute to the lipid-free conformation and lipid interaction. Measurements of circular dichroism in conjunction with tryptophan and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence data demonstrated that single (L230P) or triple (L230P/L233P/Y236P) proline insertions into the C-terminal alpha helix disrupted the organization of the C-terminal domain without affecting the stability of the N-terminal helix bundle. In contrast, proline insertion into the N terminus (Y18P) disrupted the bundle structure in the N-terminal domain, indicating that the alpha-helical segment in this region is part of the helix bundle. Calorimetric and gel-filtration measurements showed that disruption of the C-terminal alpha helix significantly reduced the enthalpy and free energy of binding of apoA-I to lipids, whereas disruption of the N-terminal alpha helix had only a small effect on lipid binding. Significantly, the presence of the Y18P mutation offset the negative effects of disruption/removal of the C-terminal helical domain on lipid binding, suggesting that the alpha helix around Y18 concealed a potential lipid-binding region in the N-terminal domain, which was exposed by the disruption of the helix-bundle structure. When these results are taken together, they indicate that the alpha-helical segment in the N terminus of apoA-I modulates the lipid-free structure and lipid interaction in concert with the C-terminal domain.

  19. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  20. Small-Angle Scatter Measurement.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wein, Steven Jay

    The design, analysis, and performance of a small -angle scatterometer are presented. The effects of the diffraction background, geometrical aberrations and system scatter at the small-angles are separated. Graphs are provided that quantify their contribution. The far-field irradiance distributions of weakly truncated and untruncated Gaussian beams are compared. The envelope of diffraction ringing is shown to decrease proportionately with the level of truncation in the pupil. Spherical aberration and defocus are shown to have little effect on the higher-order diffraction rings of Gaussian apertures and as such will have a negligible effect on most scatter measurements. A method is presented for determining the scattered irradiance level for a given BRDF in relation to the peak irradiance of the point spread function. A method of Gaussian apodization is presented and tested that allows the level of diffraction ringing to become a design parameter. Upon sufficient reduction of the diffraction background, the scattered light from the scatterometers' primary mirror is seen to be the limiting component of the small-angle instrument profile. The scatterometer described was able to make a meaningful measurement close enough to the specular direction at 0.6328mum in order to observe the characteristic height and width of the scatter function. This allowed the rms roughness and autocorrelation length of the surface to be determined from the scatter data at this wavelength. The inferred rms roughness agreed well with an independent optical profilometer measurement of the surface. The BRDF of the samples were also measured at 10.6mum. The rms roughness inferred from this scatter data did not agree with the other measurements. The BRDF did not scale in accordance with the scaler diffraction theory of microrough surfaces. The scattering in the visible was dominated by the effects of surface roughness whereas the scattering in the far-infrared was apparently dominated by the

  1. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  3. Small Collision Systems at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novitzky, Norbert

    2018-02-01

    The observation of long range correlations in highly asymmetric systems, as in p+Pb and d+Au collisions, suggests a creation of a medium with collective behavior. It is still an open question if the quark-gluon plasma is formed in these collision. Hence, the RHIC collider invested time to study the small systems in different collision systems and energies. Here we discuss the recent results from the PHENIX and STAR collaborations in four different collision systems p+Al, p+Au, d+Au and 3He+Au at = 200 GeV, and also for the energy scan in d+Au collisions between = 19.6 - 200 GeV.

  4. CAD for small hydro projects

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, N.A. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    Over the past decade, computer-aided design (CAD) has become a practical and economical design tool. Today, specifying CAD hardware and software is relatively easy once you know what the design requirements are. But finding experienced CAD professionals is often more difficult. Most CAD users have only two or three years of design experience; more experienced design personnel are frequently not CAD literate. However, effective use of CAD can be the key to lowering design costs and improving design quality--a quest familiar to every manager and designer. By emphasizing computer-aided design literacy at all levels of the firm, a Canadian joint-venturemore » company that specializes in engineering small hydroelectric projects has cut costs, become more productive and improved design quality. This article describes how they did it.« less

  5. The significance of small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  6. Small Business Innovations (Mass Microbalance)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Femtometrics of Costa Mesa, CA, developed the Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. The product is described as "the next generation of aerosol mass microbalance technology," because a new type of sensor, the Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) piezoelectric crystal, offers mass resolution two orders of magnitude greater than the Quartz Crystal Microbalance cascade impactor (QCM) (used at Langley since 1979 for collection and measurement of aerosol particles in the upper atmosphere). The Model 200-1 SAW Mass Microbalance, which provides a 400-fold increase in mass sensitivity per unit area over the QCM, can be used for real-time particle monitoring in clean rooms, measuring chemical vapors in very low concentrations, measuring target chemicals in the stratosphere and in industry as a toxic vapor monitor.

  7. Conversations between kingdoms: small RNAs.

    PubMed

    Weiberg, Arne; Bellinger, Marschal; Jin, Hailing

    2015-04-01

    Humans, animals, and plants are constantly under attack from pathogens and pests, resulting in severe consequences on global human health and crop production. Small RNA (sRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved regulatory mechanism that is involved in almost all eukaryotic cellular processes, including host immunity and pathogen virulence. Recent evidence supports the significant contribution of sRNAs and RNAi to the communication between hosts and some eukaryotic pathogens, pests, parasites, or symbiotic microorganisms. Mobile silencing signals—most likely sRNAs—are capable of translocating from the host to its interacting organism, and vice versa. In this review, we will provide an overview of sRNA communications between different kingdoms, with a primary focus on the advances in plant-pathogen interaction systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunization against Small Ruminant Lentiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Reina, Ramsés; de Andrés, Damián; Amorena, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Multisystemic disease caused by Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLV) in sheep and goats leads to production losses, to the detriment of animal health and welfare. This, together with the lack of treatments, has triggered interest in exploring different strategies of immunization to control the widely spread SRLV infection and, also, to provide a useful model for HIV vaccines. These strategies involve inactivated whole virus, subunit vaccines, DNA encoding viral proteins in the presence or absence of plasmids encoding immunological adjuvants and naturally or artificially attenuated viruses. In this review, we revisit, comprehensively, the immunization strategies against SRLV and analyze this double edged tool individually, as it may contribute to either controlling or enhancing virus replication and/or disease. PMID:23917352

  9. Advanced small launch vehicle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reins, G. E.; Alvis, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to determine the most economical (lowest cost/launch) approach for the development of an advanced small launch vehicle (ASLV) for use over the next decade. The ASLV design objective was to place a 340 kg (750 lb) payload into a 556 km (300 n.mi.) circular orbit when launched due east from Wallops Island, Virginia. The investigation encompassed improvements to the current Scout launch vehicle; use of existing military and NASA launch vehicle stages; and new, optionally staged vehicles. Staging analyses included use of liquid, solid, and hybrid propellants. Improvements in guidance, controls, interstages, telemetry, and payload shroud were also considered. It was concluded that the most economical approach is to progressively improve the Scout launch vehicle in three phased steps which are discussed.

  10. Small Scale High Speed Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Adam P. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd J. (Inventor); Lehman, Matthew K. (Inventor); Mehra, Amitav (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A small scale, high speed turbomachine is described, as well as a process for manufacturing the turbomachine. The turbomachine is manufactured by diffusion bonding stacked sheets of metal foil, each of which has been pre-formed to correspond to a cross section of the turbomachine structure. The turbomachines include rotating elements as well as static structures. Using this process, turbomachines may be manufactured with rotating elements that have outer diameters of less than four inches in size, and/or blading heights of less than 0.1 inches. The rotating elements of the turbomachines are capable of rotating at speeds in excess of 150 feet per second. In addition, cooling features may be added internally to blading to facilitate cooling in high temperature operations.

  11. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, Erik I.

    1998-01-01

    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  12. Europa Small Lander Design Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    2005-12-01

    Title: Europa Small Lander Design Concepts Authors: Wayne F. Zimmerman, James Shirley, Robert Carlson, Tom Rivellini, Mike Evans One of the primary goals of NASA's Outer Planets Program is to revisit the Jovian system. A new Europa Geophysical Explorer (EGE) Mission has been proposed and is under evaluation. There is in addition strong community interest in a surface science mission to Europa. A Europa Lander might be delivered to the Jovian system with the EGE orbiter. A Europa Astrobiology Lander (EAL) Mission has also been proposed; this would launch sometime after 2020. The primary science objectives for either of these would most likely include: Surface imaging (both microscopic and near-field), characterization of surface mechanical properties (temperature, hardness), assessment of surface and near-surface organic and inorganic chemistry (volatiles, mineralogy, and compounds), characterization of the radiation environment (total dose and particles), characterization of the planetary seismicity, and the measurement of Europa's magnetic field. The biggest challenges associated with getting to the surface and surviving to perform science investigations revolve around the difficulty of landing on an airless body, the ubiquitous extreme topography, the harsh radiation environment, and the extreme cold. This presentation reviews some the recent design work on drop-off probes, also called "hard landers". Hard lander designs have been developed for a range of science payload delivery systems spanning small impactors to multiple science pods tethered to a central hub. In addition to developing designs for these various payload delivery systems, significant work has been done in weighing the relative merits of standard power systems (i.e., batteries) against radioisotope power systems. A summary of the power option accommodation benefits and issues will be presented. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a

  13. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  14. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (< 100 kg) can be used in a variety of architectures consisting of orbiters, landers, rovers, atmospheric probes, and penetrators. A few such vehicles have been flown in the past as technology demonstrations. However, technologies such as new miniaturized science-grade sensors and electronics, advanced manufacturing for lightweight structures, and innovative propulsion are making it possible to fly much more capable micro spacecraft for planetary exploration. While micro spacecraft, such as CubeSats, offer significant cost reductions with added capability from advancing technologies, the technical challenges for deep space missions are very different than for missions conducted in low Earth orbit. Micro spacecraft must be able to sustain a broad range of planetary environments (i.e., radiations, temperatures, limited power generation) and offer long-range telecommunication performance on a par with science needs. Other capabilities needed for planetary missions, such as fine attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  15. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect

    Virr, M.J.

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables amore » three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.« less

  16. Small Molecule Organic Optoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakken, Nathan

    Organic optoelectronics include a class of devices synthesized from carbon containing 'small molecule' thin films without long range order crystalline or polymer structure. Novel properties such as low modulus and flexibility as well as excellent device performance such as photon emission approaching 100% internal quantum efficiency have accelerated research in this area substantially. While optoelectronic organic light emitting devices have already realized commercial application, challenges to obtain extended lifetime for the high energy visible spectrum and the ability to reproduce natural white light with a simple architecture have limited the value of this technology for some display and lighting applications. In this research, novel materials discovered from a systematic analysis of empirical device data are shown to produce high quality white light through combination of monomer and excimer emission from a single molecule: platinum(II) bis(methyl-imidazolyl)toluene chloride (Pt-17). Illumination quality achieved Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates (x = 0.31, y = 0.38) and color rendering index (CRI) > 75. Further optimization of a device containing Pt-17 resulted in a maximum forward viewing power efficiency of 37.8 lm/W on a plain glass substrate. In addition, accelerated aging tests suggest high energy blue emission from a halogen-free cyclometalated platinum complex could demonstrate degradation rates comparable to known stable emitters. Finally, a buckling based metrology is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of small molecule organic thin films towards understanding the deposition kinetics responsible for an elastic modulus that is both temperature and thickness dependent. These results could contribute to the viability of organic electronic technology in potentially flexible display and lighting applications. The results also provide insight to organic film growth kinetics responsible for optical

  17. Small artery syndrome in women.

    PubMed

    Caes, F; Cham, B; Van den Brande, P; Welch, W

    1985-08-01

    During the past four years, 106 women underwent aortography and peripheral runoff studies for peripheral vascular disease. Eleven patients presented with "small vessels" and were selected for this study. They were significantly younger than the rest of the group (a mean age of 52 versus 66 years). A clear history of claudication was elicited in all patients. Rest pain was present in four patients. Most patients were small in stature but not obese. Weak or absent femoral and distal pulses and abdominal or femoral bruits were common. Angiography demonstrated a narrow infrarenal aorta, narrow iliac and common femoral arteries and a straight course of iliac arteries. Atherosclerotic lesions involved mainly the aortoiliac segment, but were confined to the superficial femoral artery in two patients. Reconstruction was achieved by endarterectomy or transluminal angioplasty in segmental aortoiliac disease and aortobifemoral or aortobi-iliac graft in diffuse disease. Femorpopliteal or iliopopliteal graft or lumbar sympathectomy was performed in patients with significant femoral disease. In one patient, an acutely occluded femoral segment was replaced by a venous interposition graft. Two patients were treated conservatively. There were no operative deaths. Nine patients were markedly improved at follow-up examination. Graft thrombosis occurred in one patient with combined aortobi-iliac and iliopopliteal graft. The high incidence of single bifurcating lumbar arteries at the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae supports the hypothesis that aortic hypoplasia may result from embryonic overfusion of the dorsal aortas. Lipid abnormalities existed in 54 per cent of the patients. All women were heavy smokers and 73 per cent had a positive family history of cardiovascular disease.

  18. Estimating small amplitude tremor sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katakami, S.; Ito, Y.; Ohta, K.

    2017-12-01

    Various types of slow earthquakes have been recently observed at both the updip and downdip edges of the coseismic slip areas [Obara and Kato, 2016]. Frequent occurrence of slow earthquakes may help us to reveal the physics underlying megathrust events as useful analogs. Maeda and Obara [2009] estimated spatiotemporal distribution of seismic energy radiation from low-frequency tremors. They applied their method to only the tremors, whose hypocenters had been decided with multiple station method. However, recently Katakami et al. (2016) identified a lot of continuous tremors with small amplitude that were not recorded multiple stations. These small events should be important to reveal the whole slow earthquake activity and to understand strain condition around a plate boundary in subduction zones. First, we apply the modified frequency scanning method (mFSM) at a single station to NIED Hi-net data in the southwestern Japan to understand whole tremor activity which were included weak signal tremors. Second, we developed a method to identify the tremor source area by using the difference of apparent tremor energy at each station by mFSM. We estimated the apparent source tremor energy after correcting both site amplification factor and geometrical spreading. Finally we calculate a tremor source area if the difference of apparent tremor energy between each pair of sites is the smallest. We checked a validity of this analysis by using only tremors which were already detected by envelope correlation method [Idehara et al., 2014]. We calculated the average amplitude as apparent tremor energy in 5 minutes window after occurring tremor at each station. Our results almost consistent to hypocenters which were determined the envelope correlation method. We successfully determined apparent tremor source areas of weak continuous tremors after estimating possible tremor occurrence time windows by using mFSM.

  19. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  20. 30 CFR 57.22217 - Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines... NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22217 Seals and stoppings (I-A, I-B, and I-C mines). All seals, and those stoppings that separate main intake from main...

  1. A facile method for isolation of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I from E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Ikon, Nikita; Shearer, Jennifer; Liu, Jianfang

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets “Good Manufacturing Practice” standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scalemore » are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. In conclusion, purified apoA-I possessed α-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages.« less

  2. The paradox of high apolipoprotein A-I levels independently predicting incident type-2 diabetes among Turks.

    PubMed

    Onat, A; Hergenç, G; Bulur, S; Uğur, M; Küçükdurmaz, Z; Can, G

    2010-06-25

    Predictive value of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I for incident hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD) needs further exploration. A representative sample of Turkish adults was studied with this purpose prospectively. Sex-specific apoA-I tertiles were examined regarding cardiometabolic risk. A total of 1044 men and 1067 women (aged 49+/-12 years at baseline) were followed up over 7.4 years. High serum apoA-I levels were significantly associated in multivariable analysis with female sex, aging, alcohol intake, (inversely) cigarette smoking and, in women, with systolic blood pressure. Risk of diabetes was predicted in logistic regression in both genders by top versus bottom apoA-I tertile (RR 1.98; [95%CI 1.31; 3.0]), additive to age, body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-cholesterol and lipid lowering drugs. By adding sex hormone-binding globulin to the model in a subset of the sample, the association between high apoA-I and incident diabetes was attenuated only in women. ApoA-I tertiles tended to be positively associated also with hypertension and CHD only in women but this did not reach significance. High compared with low serum apoA-I levels nearly double the risk for incident diabetes, additively to age, BMI, CRP, HDL-cholesterol among Turks. Systemic inflammation concomitant with prevailing MetS might turn apoA-I into proinflammatory particles. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A facile method for isolation of recombinant human apolipoprotein A-I from E. coli

    DOE PAGES

    Ikon, Nikita; Shearer, Jennifer; Liu, Jianfang; ...

    2017-03-20

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and plays key roles in the Reverse Cholesterol Transport pathway. In the past decade, reconstituted HDL (rHDL) has been employed as a therapeutic agent for treatment of atherosclerosis. The ability of rHDL to promote cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells has been documented to reduce the size of atherosclerotic plaque lesions. However, development of apoA-I rHDL-based therapeutics for human use requires a cost effective process to generate an apoA-I product that meets “Good Manufacturing Practice” standards. Methods available for production and isolation of unmodified recombinant human apoA-I at scalemore » are cumbersome, laborious and complex. To overcome this obstacle, a streamlined two-step procedure has been devised for isolation of recombinant untagged human apoA-I from E. coli that takes advantage of its ability to re-fold to a native conformation following denaturation. Heat treatment of a sonicated E. coli supernatant fraction induced precipitation of a large proportion of host cell proteins (HCP), yielding apoA-I as the major soluble protein. Reversed-phase HPLC of this material permitted recovery of apoA-I largely free of HCP and endotoxin. In conclusion, purified apoA-I possessed α-helix secondary structure, formed rHDL upon incubation with phospholipid and efficiently promoted cholesterol efflux from cholesterol loaded J774 macrophages.« less

  4. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  5. Minerva-Red: Small Planets Orbiting Small Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Cullen

    2018-06-01

    Recent results from Kepler and ground-based exoplanet surveys suggest that low-mass stars are host to numerous small planets. Since low-mass stars are intrinsically faint at optical wavelengths, obtaining the Doppler precision necessary to detect these companions remains a challenge for existing instruments. I will describe MINERVA-Red, a project to use a robotic, near-infrared optimized 0.7-meter telescope and a specialized Doppler spectrometer to carry out an intensive, multi-year campaign designed to reveal the planetary systems orbiting some of the closest stars to the Sun. The MINERVA-Red cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph is optimized for the “deep red”, between 800 nm and 900 nm, where the stars that will be targeted are relatively bright. The instrument is very compact and designed for the ultimate in Doppler precision – it uses a single-mode fiber input. I will describe the spectrometer and the status of the MINERVA-Red project, which is expected to begin routine operations at Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins, Arizona, in 2018.

  6. EVALUATION OF GDOT'S SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAM

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-01

    Federal Regulation 49 CFR Part 26 requires the Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) to implement a Small Business Program. The Program must be available to all firms that meet the U.S. Small Business Administration's (SBA) size standard, which...

  7. SMALL MAMMAL USE OF MICROHABITAT REVIEWED

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammal microhabitat research has greatly influenced vertebrate community ecologists. There exists a "microhabitat paradigm" that states that sympatry among small mammal species is enabled by differential use of microhabitat (i.e., microhabitat partitioning). However, seve...

  8. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... small bowel. X-rays are taken at different times as the barium travels through the upper GI tract and small bowel. CT scan (CAT scan) : A procedure that makes a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, ...

  10. Small City Transit Characteristics : an Overview

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1976-03-01

    The report is based on information and operating data from thirteen small community transit systems which were studied as part of a larger project on small community transit and its potential. It summarizes organizational, institutional, and operatio...

  11. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key ...

  12. The Characteristics of Small-Business Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headd, Brian

    2000-01-01

    Small businesses employ slightly more than half of the private sector work force. In many ways, such as education, race, origin, age, and part-time status, the small business work force differs from that of larger enterprises (Author)

  13. Small Proteins Can No Longer Be Ignored

    PubMed Central

    Storz, Gisela; Wolf, Yuri I.; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Small proteins, here defined as proteins of 50 amino acids or less in the absence of processing, have traditionally been overlooked due to challenges in their annotation and biochemical detection. In the past several years however, increasing numbers of small proteins have been identified either through the realization that mutations in “intergenic” regions actually are within unannotated small protein genes, or through the discovery that some small, regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) encode small proteins. These insights together with comparative sequence analysis indicate that tens if not hundreds of small proteins are synthesized in a given organism. This review will summarize what has been learned about the functions of several of these bacterial small proteins, most of which act at the membrane, illustrating the astonishing range of processes in which the small proteins act and pointing to several general conclusions. Important questions for future studies of these overlooked proteins also will be discussed. PMID:24606146

  14. Effect of Royal Jelly Intake on Serum Glucose, Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I Ratios in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial Study.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, Basemeh; Djazayeri, Shima; Amiri, Fatemehsadat; Malek, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Agha Fateme; Hosseini, Sharieh; Shidfar, Shahrzad; Shidfar, Farzad

    2016-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Evidence supports a role for royal jelly (RJ) in reduction of serum glucose and lipids in animals and healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of RJ intake on serum glucose, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty patients with type 2 diabetes participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The participants were randomly divided into RJ and placebo groups and were given doses of 1000 mg royal jelly or placebo 3 times a day for 8 weeks, respectively. Weight, height, fasting blood glucose, ApoA-I and ApoB were measured at baseline and endpoint. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics and dietary intakes between groups. The mean difference in glucose concentrations decreased in the RJ group (-9.4 mg/dL vs. 4 mg/dL; p=0.011). The mean difference in ApoA-I concentrations increased in the RJ group (34.4 mg/dL vs. -1.08 mg/dL; p=0.013). There was a significant decrease in mean difference of ApoB/ApoA-I in the RJ group compared with the placebo group (0.008 vs. 0.13; p<0.044), respectively. These data suggest that RJ intake may have desirable effects on serum glucose, Apo-A-I concentrations and ApoB/ApoA-I ratios in people with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Water: a responsive small molecule.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Vu, Tuan Hoang; Meyer, Bryce; Bisson, Patrick

    2012-01-17

    Unique among small molecules, water forms a nearly tetrahedral yet flexible hydrogen-bond network. In addition to its flexibility, this network is dynamic: bonds are formed or broken on a picosecond time scale. These unique features make probing the local structure of water challenging. Despite the challenges, there is intense interest in developing a picture of the local water structure due to water's fundamental importance in many fields of chemistry. Understanding changes in the local network structure of water near solutes likely holds the key to unlock problems from analyzing parameters that determine the three dimensional structure of proteins to modeling the fate of volatile materials released into the atmosphere. Pictures of the local structure of water are heavily influenced by what is known about the structure of ice. In hexagonal I(h) ice, the most stable form of solid water under ordinary conditions, water has an equal number of donor and acceptor bonds; a kind of symmetry. This symmetric tetrahedral coordination is only approximately preserved in the liquid. The most obvious manifestation of this altered tetrahedral bonding is the greater density in the liquid compared with the solid. Formation of an interface or addition of solutes further modifies the local bonding in water. Because the O-H stretching frequency is sensitive to the environment, vibrational spectroscopy provides an excellent probe for the hydrogen-bond structure in water. In this Account, we examine both local interactions between water and small solutes and longer range interactions at the aqueous surface. Locally, the results suggest that water is not a symmetric donor or acceptor, but rather has a propensity to act as an acceptor. In interactions with hydrocarbons, action is centered at the water oxygen. For soluble inorganic salts, interaction is greater with the cation than the anion. The vibrational spectrum of the surface of salt solutions is altered compared with that of neat

  16. Small Business Management Training Tools Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, Washington, DC. National Small Business Training Network.

    This directory is designed to assist in the identification of supplementary materials to support program development for small businesses. Following introductory comments and an overview of small business management training, section I lists training tools available from the Small Business Administration (SBA). Section II provides descriptions and…

  17. Entrepreneurship and Small Business Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Small Business, Minneapolis, MN.

    This course outline is intended as a guide to using the American Institute of Small Business' text entitled "How To Set Up Your Own Small Business." The outline, which is based on a 20- or 21-week course cycle, is organized around the following topics: the nature of small business and entrepreneurship; sources of information about entrepreneurship…

  18. 12 CFR 16.8 - Small issues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small issues. 16.8 Section 16.8 Banks and....8 Small issues. (a) The OCC will deem offers and sales of bank issued securities that satisfy the requirements of Commission Regulation A (17 CFR part 230, Regulation A—Conditional Small Issues Exemption) to...

  19. Informal Learning of Women Small Business Owners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharafizad, Jalleh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate women small business owners' informal learning behaviour. There is limited qualitative research that examines women small business owners' learning process and this study aims to address this gap. The study was driven by the following research questions: "Do women small business owners…

  20. Standardized Curriculum for Small Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for small engine repair was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all small engine repair programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for small engine repair I and II courses. Units in course I…

  1. Making the Most of Small Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ross A.

    2009-01-01

    The idea that classroom social ecologies are shaped by the aggregate effects of peers' prior care experiences is provocative, even though the evidence is weak that this explains the small and diminishing effect of childcare experience in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study. Small effects may indeed be small effects,…

  2. Leading with Relationships: A Small Firm Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcketti, Sara B.; Kozar, Joy M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: For the continued vitality and success of small businesses, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of the effective behaviors of small business owners. The main purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of the relational leadership framework as used by a successful small business owner. Design/methodology/approach:…

  3. Marshall Space Flight Center Small Business Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the small business opportunities that are available with the Marshall Space Flight Center. It includes information on all forms of opportunities available and information sources: subcontracting, websites, contacts and a separate section on Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) & Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Programs

  4. 75 FR 29393 - Small Business Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Business Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Small business owners... past 15 years, they have created the majority of new private sector jobs. During Small Business Week... small business owners acquire loans and hire workers. This week, we celebrate the role of entrepreneurs...

  5. 7 CFR 201.42 - Small containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small containers. 201.42 Section 201.42 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Sampling in the Administration of the Act § 201.42 Small containers. In sampling seed in small containers that it is not practical to sample as required in § 201.41, a portion of one unopened container or...

  6. Student Perceptions of Small-Group Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez, Ida Rose; McCaslin, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Elementary school teachers regularly arrange students in small groups for learning activities. A rich literature discusses various types of small-group learning formats and how those formats affect achievement. Few studies, however, have examined students' perceptions of small-group learning experiences. Our work extends the…

  7. 27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a permit as provided in this...

  8. Finding the "Right Staff" in Small Firms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Rowena; Neeson, Robyn; Billington, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore what owners of small firms are looking for from new employees. The aim is to pursue this in light of the debate around formality and informality of small firm HRM, exploring the extent to which the small firms studied had formalized HRM practices. Design/methodology/approach: The data reported here…

  9. Proceedings of the XXII A.I.VE.LA. National Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    A.I.VE.LA. - the Italian Association of Laser Velocimetry and non-invasive diagnostics - is a non-profit cultural association whose objective is to promote and support research in the field of non-contact or minimally invasive measurement techniques, particularly electromagnetic-based techniques and optical techniques. Through its Annual Meeting, AIVELA aims to create an active and stimulating forum where current research results and technical advances can be exchanged and the development of new systems for laboratory use, field testing and industrial application can be promoted. The techniques covered include Laser Doppler Anemometry - LDA, Phase Doppler Anemometry - PDA, Image Velocimetry - PIV, Flow visualization techniques, Spectroscopic measurement techniques (LIF, Raman, etc.), Laser Doppler Vibrometry - LDV, Speckle Pattern Interferometry - ESPI, Holographic techniques, Shearography, Digital Image Correlation - DIC, Moiré techniques, Structured light techniques, Infrared imaging, Photoelasticity, Image based measurement techniques, Ultrasonic sensing, Acoustic and Aeroacoustic measurements, etc. The first Annual Meeting was held back in October 1992 and since then there has been a large consensus among the research and scientific communities that the papers presented at the event are of a high scientific interest. The XXII AIVELA Annual Meeting was held at the Faculty of Engineering of University of Rome Tor Vergata on 15-16 December 2014 and was organised in collaboration with the International Master Courses in "Protection Against CBRNe Events". This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the event. The detailed Programme of the Meeting can be found at: http://www.aivela.org/XXII_Convegno/index.html Trusting our Association and its initiatives will meet your interest, I wish to thank you in advance for your kind attention and hope to meet you soon at one of our events.

  10. Albedos of Small Hilda Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, C. E.

    2010-10-01

    We present albedo results for 70 small Hilda dynamical family members detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope in multiple archival programs. This Spitzer data samples Hildas with diameters between 2 and 11 kilometers. Our preliminary analysis reveals that the mean geometric albedo for this sample is pv = 0.05, matching the mean albedo derived for large (20 to 160 km) Hilda asteroids observed by IRAS (Ryan and Woodward 2010). This mean albedo is significantly darker than the mean albedo of asteroids in the outer main belt (2.8 AU < a < 3.5 AU), possibly suggesting that these asteroids did not originate from the outer main belt . This is in direct conflict with some dynamical models which suggest that the HIldas are field asteroids trapped from an inward migration of Jupiter (Franklin et al. 2004), and may provide additional observation support for delivery of dark Kuiper Belt contaminants to the inner solar system as per the Nice Model (Levison et al. 2009).

  11. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  12. Small Technology Business Incubation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report contains a summary of typical business incubation needs of small technology companies. This document will serve as a guide in the design and implementation of services offered by the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), an incubator program being designed and developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the methodology used to perform the needs assessment and services proposed to meet the needs of client companies. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologiesmore » through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland.« less

  13. The Small World of Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Borsboom, Denny; Cramer, Angélique O. J.; Schmittmann, Verena D.; Epskamp, Sacha; Waldorp, Lourens J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mental disorders are highly comorbid: people having one disorder are likely to have another as well. We explain empirical comorbidity patterns based on a network model of psychiatric symptoms, derived from an analysis of symptom overlap in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). Principal Findings We show that a) half of the symptoms in the DSM-IV network are connected, b) the architecture of these connections conforms to a small world structure, featuring a high degree of clustering but a short average path length, and c) distances between disorders in this structure predict empirical comorbidity rates. Network simulations of Major Depressive Episode and Generalized Anxiety Disorder show that the model faithfully reproduces empirical population statistics for these disorders. Conclusions In the network model, mental disorders are inherently complex. This explains the limited successes of genetic, neuroscientific, and etiological approaches to unravel their causes. We outline a psychosystems approach to investigate the structure and dynamics of mental disorders. PMID:22114671

  14. Small business development: who pays?

    PubMed

    Hellinger, D

    1985-11-01

    This article traces the trends in the aid community towards income generation and small business projects in developing countries since the 1950s. 1 of the great weakness of the development assistance community in the area of income generation remains the lack of analysis of population differentiation in the communities in which they work. A very different approach to the problem of the informal sector and income generation is one that responds directly to the needs of poor communities. Institutions working within poor communities and supporting multi-sectoral development while strengthening local organizations are much better situated to respond to the diverse needs of the community than are single-sector organizations with only 1 skill or service to offer. To assist significant numbers of poor people, particularly women, grouping of some sort is essential. This is not to say that group enterprise development is an easy process. The intensive and costly organizational and management assistance required to prepare a poor group for credit must be weighed along with the potential for creating a basis of long-range change within the community. To work with individual family enterprizes in a community can also have important social and economic effects, although the long-range impact may be more limited. Today, more than ever, the poor face the challenge of creating new survival mechanisms within their communities. Development agencies and assistance programs have the responsibility to help rather than hinder this process.

  15. Small Engine Component Technology (SECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Early, M.; Dawson, R.; Zeiner, P.; Turk, M.; Benn, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study of small gas turbine engines was conducted to identify high payoff technologies for year-2000 engines and to define companion technology plans. The study addressed engines in the 186 to 746 KW (250 to 1000 shp) or equivalent thrust range for rotorcraft, commuter (turboprop), cruise missile (turbojet), and APU applications. The results show that aggressive advancement of high payoff technologies can produce significant benefits, including reduced SFC, weight, and cost for year-2000 engines. Mission studies for these engines show potential fuel burn reductions of 22 to 71 percent. These engine benefits translate into reductions in rotorcraft and commuter aircraft direct operating costs (DOC) of 7 to 11 percent, and in APU-related DOCs of 37 to 47 percent. The study further shows that cruise missile range can be increased by as much as 200 percent (320 percent with slurry fuels) for a year-2000 missile-turbojet system compared to a current rocket-powered system. The high payoff technologies were identified and the benefits quantified. Based on this, technology plans were defined for each of the four engine applications as recommended guidelines for further NASA research and technology efforts to establish technological readiness for the year 2000.

  16. Safety activities in small businesses

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Raymond C.; Cunningham, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Workplace injuries occur at higher rates in smaller firms than in larger firms, and the number of workplace safety activities appear to be inversely associated with those rates. Predictors of safety activities are rarely studied. Methods This study uses data from a national random survey of firms (n = 722) with less than 250 employees conducted in 2002. Results We found that, regardless of firm size or industry, safety activities were more common in 2002 than they were in a similar 1983 study. Having had an OSHA inspection in the last five years and firm size were stronger predictors of safety activities than industry hazardousness and manager’s perceptions of hazardousness. All four variables were significant predictors (β range .19 to .28; R2 = .27). Conclusions Further progress in the prevention of injuries in small firms will require attention to factors likely subsumed within the firm size variable, especially the relative lack of slack resources that might be devoted to safety activities. PMID:26339124

  17. Where the Small Moon Rules

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-19

    Pan may be small as satellites go, but like many of Saturn's ring moons, it has a has a very visible effect on the rings. Pan (17 miles or 28 kilometers across, left of center) holds open the Encke gap and shapes the ever-changing ringlets within the gap (some of which can be seen here). In addition to raising waves in the A and B rings, other moons help shape the F ring, the outer edge of the A ring and open the Keeler gap. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 8 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 2, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 840,000 miles (1.4 million kilometers) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 128 degrees. Image scale is 5 miles (8 kilometers) per pixel. Pan has been brightened by a factor of two to enhance its visibility. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20499

  18. Holographic gunsights for small arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Anthony M.; Sieczka, Eric J.; Radler, Richard; Upatnieks, Juris

    1996-05-01

    Holographic gunsights were first demonstrated in the mid 1970s by researchers at the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) under contracts with the Air Force and the Army. The sights utilized He-Ne gas lasers and were designed for use with large weapons systems. With the advent of low cost visible laser diode, ERIM formed a new company, EOTech, to develop, manufacture and market a holographic gun sight for small arms. A hologram is used to reconstruct the image of a reticle pattern that appears at the target plane. Unlike red-dot sights, virtually any reticle pattern, 2D or 3D, can be formed. The design challenges include an opto-mechanical package that is compact, light weight and low cost which can withstand recoils up to 4,000 Gs and provide fine elevation/windage pointing adjustments, and optics that are aberration-free and stable over a wide temperature range. Manufacturing challenges include the mass production of high quality holographic optics at low cost and the precision alignment of the very low f/number optics.

  19. Triglyceride enrichment of HDL enhances in vivo metabolic clearance of HDL apo A-I in healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Lamarche, Benoît; Uffelman, Kristine D.; Carpentier, André; Cohn, Jeffrey S.; Steiner, George; Barrett, P. Hugh; Lewis, Gary F.

    1999-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) enrichment of HDL resulting from cholesteryl ester transfer protein–mediated exchange with TG-rich lipoproteins may enhance the lipolytic transformation and subsequent metabolic clearance of HDL particles in hypertriglyceridemic states. The present study investigates the effect of TG enrichment of HDL on the clearance of HDL-associated apo A-I in humans. HDL was isolated from plasma of six normolipidemic men (mean age: 29.7 ± 2.7 years) in the fasting state and after a five-hour intravenous infusion with a synthetic TG emulsion, Intralipid. Intralipid infusion resulted in a 2.1-fold increase in the TG content of HDL. Each tracer was then whole-labeled with 125I or 131I and injected intravenously into the subject. Apo A-I in TG-enriched HDL was cleared 26% more rapidly than apo A-I in fasting HDL. A strong correlation between the Intralipid-induced increase in the TG content of HDL and the increase in HDL apo A-I fractional catabolic rate reinforced the importance of TG enrichment of HDL in enhancing its metabolic clearance. HDL was separated further into lipoproteins containing apo A-II (LpAI:AII) and those without apo A-II (LpAI). Results revealed that the enhanced clearance of apo A-I from TG-enriched HDL could be largely attributed to differences in the clearance of LpAI but not LpAI:AII. This is, to our knowledge, the first direct demonstration in humans that TG enrichment of HDL enhances the clearance of HDL apo A-I from the circulation. This phenomenon could provide an important mechanism explaining how HDL apo A-I and HDL cholesterol are lowered in hypertriglyceridemic states. PMID:10207171

  20. Effects of Nanoparticle Morphology and Acyl Chain Length on Spontaneous Lipid Transfer Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Xia, Yan; Li, Ming; Charubin, Kamil; ...

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we report on studies of lipid transfer rates between different morphology nanoparticles and lipids with different length acyl chains. The lipid transfer rate of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (di-C 14, DMPC) in discoidal “bicelles” (0.156 h –1) is 2 orders of magnitude greater than that of DMPC vesicles (ULVs) (1.1 × 10 –3 h –1). For both bicellar and ULV morphologies, increasing the acyl chain length by two carbons [going from di-C 14 DMPC to di-C 16, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)] causes lipid transfer rates to decrease by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Results from small angle neutron scattering (SANS), differentialmore » scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) are in good agreement. Finally, the present studies highlight the importance of lipid dynamic processes taking place in different morphology biomimetic membranes.« less

  1. Small silencing RNAs: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Ghildiyal, Megha; Zamore, Phillip D

    2009-02-01

    Since the discovery in 1993 of the first small silencing RNA, a dizzying number of small RNA classes have been identified, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). These classes differ in their biogenesis, their modes of target regulation and in the biological pathways they regulate. There is a growing realization that, despite their differences, these distinct small RNA pathways are interconnected, and that small RNA pathways compete and collaborate as they regulate genes and protect the genome from external and internal threats.

  2. Bulk density of small meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya, J.-B.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Brown, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    Aims: Here we report on precise metric and photometric observations of 107 optical meteors, which were simultaneously recorded at multiple stations using three different intensified video camera systems. The purpose is to estimate bulk meteoroid density, link small meteoroids to their parent bodies based on dynamical and physical density values expected for different small body populations, to better understand and explain the dynamical evolution of meteoroids after release from their parent bodies. Methods: The video systems used had image sizes ranging from 640 × 480 to 1360 × 1036 pixels, with pixel scales from 0.01° per pixel to 0.05° per pixel, and limiting meteor magnitudes ranging from Mv = +2.5 to +6.0. We find that 78% of our sample show noticeable deceleration, allowing more robust constraints to be placed on density estimates. The density of each meteoroid is estimated by simultaneously fitting the observed deceleration and lightcurve using a model based on thermal fragmentation, conservation of energy and momentum. The entire phase space of the model free parameters is explored for each event to find ranges of parameters which fit the observations within the measurement uncertainty. Results: (a) We have analysed our data by first associating each of our events with one of the five meteoroid classes. The average density of meteoroids whose orbits are asteroidal and chondritic (AC) is 4200 kg m-3 suggesting an asteroidal parentage, possibly related to the high-iron content population. Meteoroids with orbits belonging to Jupiter family comets (JFCs) have an average density of 3100 ± 300 kg m-3. This high density is found for all meteoroids with JFC-like orbits and supports the notion that the refractory material reported from the Stardust measurements of 81P/Wild 2 dust is common among the broader JFC population. This high density is also the average bulk density for the 4 meteoroids with orbits belonging to the Ecliptic shower-type class (ES) also

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations on discoidal HDL particles suggest a mechanism for rotation in the apo A-I belt model.

    PubMed

    Klon, Anthony E; Segrest, Jere P; Harvey, Stephen C

    2002-12-06

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) is the major protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Elevated levels of HDL in the bloodstream have been shown to correlate strongly with a reduced risk factor for atherosclerosis. Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out on three separate model discoidal high-density lipoprotein particles (HDL) containing two monomers of apo A-I and 160 molecules of palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), to a time-scale of 1ns. The starting structures were on the basis of previously published molecular belt models of HDL consisting of the lipid-binding C-terminal domain (residues 44-243) wrapped around the circumference of a discoidal HDL particle. Subtle changes between two of the starting structures resulted in significantly different behavior during the course of the simulation. The results provide support for the hypothesis of Segrest et al. that helical registration in the molecular belt model of apo A-I is modulated by intermolecular salt bridges. In addition, we propose an explanation for the presence of proline punctuation in the molecular belt model, and for the presence of two 11-mer helical repeats interrupting the otherwise regular pattern of 22-mer helical repeats in the lipid-binding domain of apo A-I.

  4. Climate Change in Small Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomé, Ricardo; Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Brito de Azevedo, Eduardo; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.

    2014-05-01

    Isolated islands are especially vulnerable to climate change. But their climate is generally not well reproduced in GCMs, due to their small size and complex topography. Here, results from a new generation of climate models, forced by scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosol concentrations, established by the IPCC for its fifth report, are used to characterize the climate of the islands of Azores and Madeira, and its response to the ongoing global warming. The methodology developed here uses the new global model EC-Earth, data from ERA-Interim reanalysis and results from an extensive set of simulations with the WRF research model, using, for the first time, a dynamic approach for the regionalization of global fields at sufficiently fine resolutions, in which the effect of topographical complexity is explicitly represented. The results reviewed here suggest increases in temperature above 1C in the middle of the XXI century in Azores and Madeira, reaching values higher than 2.5C at the end of the century, accompanied by a reduction in the annual rainfall of around 10% in the Azores, which could reach 30% in Madeira. These changes are large enough to justify much broader impacts on island ecosystems and the human population. The results show the advantage of using the proposed methodology, in particular for an adequate representation of the precipitation regime in islands with complex topography, even suggesting the need for higher resolutions in future work. The WRF results are also compared against two different downscaling techniques using an air mass transformation model and a modified version of the upslope precipitation model of Smith and Barstad (2005).

  5. Minuteman 2 launched small satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Sunny; Hinders, Kriss; Martin, Trent; Mcmillian, Shandy; Sharp, Brad; Vajdos, Greg

    1994-01-01

    The goal of LEOSat Industries' Spring 1994 project was to design a small satellite that has a strong technology demonstration or scientific justification and incorporates a high level of student involvement. The satellite is to be launched into low earth orbit by the converted Minuteman 2 satellite launcher designed by Minotaur Designs, Inc. in 1993. The launch vehicle shroud was modified to a height of 90 inches, a diameter of 48 inches at the bottom and 35 inches at the top for a total volume of 85 cubic feet. The maximum allowable mass of the payload is about 1100 lb., depending on the launch site, orbit altitude, and inclination. The satellite designed by LEOSat Industries is TerraSat, a remote-sensing satellite that will provide information for use in space-based earth studies. It will consist of infrared and ultraviolet/visible sensors similar to the SDI-developed sensors being tested on Clementine. The sensors will be mounted on the Defense Systems, Inc. Standard Satellite-1 spacecraft bus. LEOSat has planned for two satellites orbiting the Earth with trajectories similar to that of LANDSAT 5. The semi-major axis is 7080 kilometers, the eccentricity is 0, and the inclination is 98.2 degrees. The estimated mass of TerraSat is 145 kilograms and the estimated volume is 1.8 cubic meters. The estimated cost of TerraSat is $13.7 million. The projected length of time from assembly of the sensors to launch of the spacecraft is 13 months.

  6. Small Molecules-Big Data.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter

    2016-11-17

    Quantum mechanics builds large-scale graphs (networks): the vertices are the discrete energy levels the quantum system possesses, and the edges are the (quantum-mechanically allowed) transitions. Parts of the complete quantum mechanical networks can be probed experimentally via high-resolution, energy-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The complete rovibronic line list information for a given molecule can only be obtained through sophisticated quantum-chemical computations. Experiments as well as computations yield what we call spectroscopic networks (SN). First-principles SNs of even small, three to five atomic molecules can be huge, qualifying for the big data description. Besides helping to interpret high-resolution spectra, the network-theoretical view offers several ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the increasingly important information systems containing line-by-line spectroscopic data. For example, the smallest number of measurements necessary to perform to obtain the complete list of energy levels is given by the minimum-weight spanning tree of the SN and network clustering studies may call attention to "weakest links" of a spectroscopic database. A present-day application of spectroscopic networks is within the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) approach, whereby the transitions information on a measured SN is turned into experimental energy levels via a weighted linear least-squares refinement. MARVEL has been used successfully for 15 molecules and allowed to validate most of the transitions measured and come up with energy levels with well-defined and realistic uncertainties. Accurate knowledge of the energy levels with computed transition intensities allows the realistic prediction of spectra under many different circumstances, e.g., for widely different temperatures. Detailed knowledge of the energy level structure of a molecule coming from a MARVEL analysis is important for a considerable number of modeling

  7. Born Small for Gestational Age and Poor School Performance - How Small Is Too Small?

    PubMed

    Lindström, Linda; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bergman, Eva; Lundgren, Maria

    2017-01-01

    To assess the relationship between severity of small for gestational age (SGA) and the risk of poor school performance, and to investigate whether adult stature modifies this risk. 1,088,980 Swedish children born at term between 1973 and 1988 were categorized into severe SGA (less than -3 standard deviations (SD) of expected birth weight), moderate SGA (-2.01 to -3 SD), mild SGA (-1.01 to -2 SD), and appropriate for gestational age (-1 to 0.99 SD). The risk of poor school performance at the time of graduation from compulsory school (grades <10th percentile) was calculated using unconditional logistic regression models and adjusted for socio-economic factors. In a sub-analysis, we stratified boys by adult stature, and adjusted for maternal but not paternal height. All SGA groups were significantly associated with an increased risk of poor school performance, with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals ranging from 1.85 (1.65-2.07) for severe SGA to 1.25 (1.22-1.28) for mild SGA. In the sub-analysis, all birth weight groups were associated with an increased risk of poor school performance among boys with short stature compared to those with non-short stature. Mild SGA is associated with a significantly increased risk of poor school performance, and the risk increases with severity of SGA. Further, this risk diminishes after adequate catch-up growth. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Density of very small meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikwaya Eluo, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-08-01

    Knowing the density of meteoroids helps to determine the physical structure and gives insight into the composition of their parent bodies. The density of meteoroids can provide clues to their origins, whether cometary or asteroidal. Density helps also to characterize the risk meteoroids may pose to artificial satellites.Ceplecha (1968) calculated the density of small meteoroids based on a parameter KB (meteoroid beginning height) and classified them in four categories (A,B,C,D) with densities going from 2700 to 180 kgm-3.Babadzhanov(2002) applied a model based on quasi-continuous fragmentation (QCF) on 413 photographic Super-Schmidt meteors by solely fitting their light curves. Their densities range from 400 to 7800 kgm-3. Bellot Rubio et al. (2002) analyzed the same 413 photographic meteors assuming the single body theory based on meteoroid dynamical properties and found densities ranging from 400 to 4800 kgm-3. A thermal erosion model was used by Borovicka et al. (2007) to analyze, simultaneously, the observed decelerations and light curves of six Draconid meteors. The density was found to be 300 kgm-3, consistent with the fact that the Draconid meteors are porous aggregates of grains associated with the Jupiter-family-comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (Jacchia, L.G., 1950).We used the Campbell-Brown and Koschny (2004) model of meteoroid ablation to determine the density of faint meteoroids from the analysis of both observed decelerations and light curves of meteoroids (Kikwaya et al., 2009; Kikwaya et al., 2011). Our work was based on a collection of six and ninety-two sporadic meteors. The grain masses used in the modeling ranged from 10-12 Kg to 10-9 Kg. We computed the orbit of each meteoroid and determined its Tisserand parameter. We found that meteoroids with asteroidal orbits have bulk densities ranging from 3000-5000 kgm-3. Meteoroids consistent with HTC/NIC parents have bulk densities from 400 kgm-3 to 1600 kg m-3. JFC meteoroids were found to have surprisingly

  9. Zoonotic risks from small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Ganter, M

    2015-12-14

    Zoonoses are infections that spread naturally between species (sometimes by a vector) from animals to other animal species or to humans or from humans to animals. Most of the zoonoses diagnosed in sheep and goats are transmitted by close contact of man with these animals and are, more often, occupational diseases that principally affect breeders, veterinarians and/or slaughterhouse workers. Some other diseases have an airborne transmission and affect the population in the vicinity of sheep/goat farms. Due to the fact that small ruminants are almost the only remaining animals which are migrating in industrialised countries, there is a severe risk for transmitting the diseases. Some other zoonotic diseases are foodborne diseases, which are mainly transmitted from animals to humans and to other animal species by contaminated food and water. Within the last decade central Europe was threatened by some new infections, e.g., bluetongue disease and schmallenberg disease, which although not of zoonotic interest, are caused by pathogens transmitted by vectors. Causal agents of both diseases have found highly effective indigenous vectors. In the future, climate change may possibly modify conditions for the vectors and influence their distribution and competence. By this, other vector-borne zoonotic infections may propagate into former disease free countries. Changes in human behaviour in consummation and processing of food, in animal housing and management may also influence future risks for zoonosis. Monitoring, prevention and control measures are proposed to limit further epidemics and to enable the containment of outbreaks. Measures depend mainly on the damage evoked or anticipated by the disease, the local situation, and the epidemiology of the zoonoses, the presence of the infective agent in wild and other animals, as well as the resistance of the causal microorganisms in the environment and the possibility to breed sheep and goats which are resistant to specific

  10. 47 CFR 90.1017 - Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. 90.1017 Section 90.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... the 220 MHz Service § 90.1017 Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. A...

  11. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give small...

  12. Making Small Schools Work: A Handbook for Teachers in Small Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigsworth, Alan; Solstad, Karl Jan

    This handbook addresses the provision of an equitable basic education in rural areas, particularly in developing countries, by means of small schools located close to the pupils' homes. It is based on beliefs that small schools can be good schools; the appropriate place for a small school and its teachers is within the community; and small schools…

  13. 47 CFR 90.1017 - Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. 90.1017 Section 90.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... the 220 MHz Service § 90.1017 Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. A...

  14. 47 CFR 90.1017 - Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. 90.1017 Section 90.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... the 220 MHz Service § 90.1017 Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. A...

  15. 47 CFR 90.1017 - Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. 90.1017 Section 90.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... the 220 MHz Service § 90.1017 Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. A...

  16. 47 CFR 90.1017 - Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. 90.1017 Section 90.1017 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... the 220 MHz Service § 90.1017 Bidding credits for small businesses and very small businesses. A...

  17. 48 CFR 752.219-8 - Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. 752.219-8 Section 752.219-8 Federal... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 752.219-8 Utilization of small business concerns and small disadvantaged business concerns. The Foreign Assistance Act calls for USAID to give small...

  18. 76 FR 5680 - Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Parts 121, 124, 125, 126, and 134 RIN 3245-AF65 Small Business, Small Disadvantaged Business, HUBZone, and Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Business Status Protest and Appeal Regulations. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U...

  19. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. 32.7 Section 32.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small...

  20. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. 32.7 Section 32.7 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small...

  1. Disruption of Human Plasma High Density Lipoproteins by Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Requires Labile Apolipoprotein A-I

    PubMed Central

    Han, Mikyung; Gillard, Baiba K.; Courtney, Harry S.; Ward, Kathryn; Rosales, Corina; Khant, Htet; Ludtke, Steven J.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Human plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), the primary vehicle for reverse cholesterol transport, are the target of serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes that turns serum opaque. HDL comprise a core of neutral lipids–cholesteryl esters and some triglyceride–surrounded by a surface monolayer of cholesterol, phospholipids, and specialized proteins–apolipoproteins (apos) A-I and A-II. HDL is an unstable particle residing in a kinetic trap from which it can escape via chaotropic, detergent or thermal perturbation. Recombinant (r) SOF catalyzes the transfer of nearly all neutral lipids of ~100,000 HDL particles (D ~ 8.5 nm) into a single, large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM; D >100 nm) leaving a new HDL-like particle–neo HDL (D ~5.8 nm) while releasing lipid-free (LF) apo A-I. CERM formation and apo A-I release have similar kinetics suggesting parallel or rapid consecutive steps. By using complementary physico-chemical methods, we have refined the mechanistic model for HDL opacification. According to size exclusion chromatography, HDL containing non-labile apo A-I resists rSOF-mediated opacification. Based on kinetic cryo electron microscopy, rSOF (10 nM) catalyzes the conversion of HDL (4 μM) to neo HDL via a step-wise mechanism in which intermediate-size particles are seen. Kinetic turbidimetry revealed opacification as a rising exponential reaction with a rate constant k = (4.400 ± 0.004) × 10−2 min−1. Analysis of the kinetic data using transition state theory gave an enthalpy, entropy and free energy of activation of ΔH‡ = 73.9 kJ/mol, ΔS‡ = −66.87 J/°K, and ΔG‡ = 94.6 kJ/mol respectively. The free energy of activation for opacification is nearly identical to that for the displacement of apo A-I from HDL by guanidine hydrochloride. We conclude that apo A-I lability is required for HDL opacification, LF apo A-I desorption is the rate-limiting step, and nearly all HDL particles contain

  2. Big strokes in small persons.

    PubMed

    Adams, Robert J

    2007-11-01

    in all children with SCD is approximately 0.5% to 1.0% per year. On the basis of STOP, if the patient meets the high-risk TCD criteria, regular blood transfusions are recommended. A second study was performed (2000-2005) to attempt withdrawal of transfusion in selected children in a randomized controlled study. Children with initially abnormal TCD velocities (> or =200 cm/s) treated with regular blood transfusion for 30 months or more, which resulted in reduction of the TCD to less than 170 cm/s, were eligible for randomization into STOP II. Half continued transfusion and half had cessation of transfusion. This trial was halted early for safety reasons. There was an unacceptably high rate of TCD reversion back to high risk (> or =200 cm/s), as well as 2 strokes in children who discontinued transfusion. There are no evidence-based guidelines for the discontinuation of transfusion in children once they have been identified as having high risk based on TCD. The current situation is undesirable because of the long-term effects of transfusion, including iron overload. Iron overload has recently become easier to manage with the introduction of an oral iron chelator. The inflammatory environment known to exist in SCD and the known effect of plasma free hemoglobin, released by hemolysis, of reducing available nitric oxide may contribute to the development of cerebrovascular disease. Further research may lead to more targeted therapies. We can reduce many of the big strokes that occur in these small persons by aggressively screening patients at a young age (and periodically throughout the childhood risk period) and interrupting the process with regular blood transfusions.

  3. Small planetary mission plan: Report to Congress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This document outlines NASA's small planetary projects plan within the context of overall agency planning. In particular, this plan is consistent with Vision 21: The NASA Strategic Plan, and the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) Strategic Plan. Small planetary projects address focused scientific objectives using a limited number of mature instruments, and are designed to require little or no new technology development. Small missions can be implemented by university and industry partnerships in coordination with a NASA Center to use the unique services the agency provides. The timeframe for small missions is consistent with academic degree programs, which makes them an excellent training ground for graduate students and post-doctoral candidates. Because small missions can be conducted relatively quickly and inexpensively, they provide greater opportunity for increased access to space. In addition, small missions contribute to sustaining a vital scientific community by increasing the available opportunities for direct investigator involvement from just a few projects in a career to many.

  4. Technology Challenges in Small UAV Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Michael J.; Vranas, Thomas L.; Motter, Mark; Shams, Qamar; Pollock, Dion S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of highly capable small UAVs present unique challenges for technology protagonists. Size constraints, the desire for ultra low cost and/or disposable platforms, lack of capable design and analysis tools, and unique mission requirements all add to the level of difficulty in creating state-of-the-art small UAVs. This paper presents the results of several small UAV developments, the difficulties encountered, and proposes a list of technology shortfalls that need to be addressed.

  5. Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-17

    Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization References: (a) Title 15, United States Code (b) Title 10, United States Code (c) DoD 5025.1-M, "Department...position of Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (Director, SADBU) under the direction, authority, and control of the Under...Defense Agencies, and the DoD Field Activities. C. RESPONSIBILITIES The Director of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization shall serve as the

  6. 14th Annual Small Business Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-18

    Government Contracting, Small Business Administration 5:45 pm - 7:45 pm RECEPTION IN DISPLAY AREA 14TH ANNUAL SMALL BUSINESS CONFERENCE...as a lobbyist for a large multi-national conglomerate that included among its subsidiaries movie companies, sports teams, financial services companies...Past Performance /Small Business Participation > M.1 Basis of Award: The Government plans to award a single contract for the Fighting Trailer

  7. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. However, in order to create many small missions, new technology must be developed, applied, and assimilated. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper (FBC) missions.

  8. Small firm subsistence and market dimensionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Jeroen; Péli, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    In many markets, large and small firms coexist. As large firms can in principle out-compete small ones, the actual presence of the latter asks for an explanation. In ours, we focus on the dimensionality of markets, which can change as a consequence of product innovations, preference elaboration or institutions. We show that increasing market dimensionality substantially enlarges the market periphery relative to the market center, which creates new potential niches for small firms. We thereby provide a parsimonious explanation for small firm subsistence.

  9. Advanced Deployable Structural Systems for Small Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith; Straubel, Marco; Wilkie, W. Keats; Zander, Martin E.; Fernandez, Juan M.; Hillebrandt, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges for small satellites is packaging and reliable deployment of structural booms and arrays used for power, communication, and scientific instruments. The lack of reliable and efficient boom and membrane deployment concepts for small satellites is addressed in this work through a collaborative project between NASA and DLR. The paper provides a state of the art overview on existing spacecraft deployable appendages, the special requirements for small satellites, and initial concepts for deployable booms and arrays needed for various small satellite applications. The goal is to enhance deployable boom predictability and ground testability, develop designs that are tolerant of manufacturing imperfections, and incorporate simple and reliable deployment systems.

  10. A case report of hereditary apolipoprotein A-I amyloidosis associated with a novel APOA1 mutation and variable phenotype.

    PubMed

    Tougaard, Birgitte G; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Krag, Søren Rasmus; Gilbertson, Janet A; Rowczenio, Dorota; Gillmore, Julian D; Birn, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) amyloidosis is a non-AL, non-AA, and non-transthyretin type of amyloidosis associated with mutations in the APOA1 gene inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. It is a form of systemic amyloidosis, but at presentation, can also mimic localized amyloidosis. The renal presentation generally involves interstitial and medullary deposition of apo A-I amyloid protein. We describe the identification of apo A-I amyloidosis by mass spectrometry in a 52-year old male, with no family history of amyloidosis, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and associated with heterozygosity for a novel APOA1 mutation (c.220 T > A) which encodes the known amyloidogenic Trp50Arg variant. Renal amyloid deposits in this case were confined to the glomeruli alone, and the patient developed progressive renal impairment. One year after diagnosis, the patient had a successful kidney transplant from an unrelated donor. Pathogenic mutations in the APOA1 gene are generally associated with symptoms of amyloidosis. In this family however, genotyping of family members identified several unaffected carriers suggesting a variable disease penetrance, which has not been described before in this form of amyloidosis and has implications when counselling those with APOA1 mutations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. 78 FR 64430 - Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Mixed Straddles; Straddle-by-Straddle Identification Under Section 1092(b)(2)(A)(i)(I); Correction... amendments to proposed regulations relating to guidance for taxpayers electing to establish a mixed straddle... to establish a mixed straddle using straddle-by-straddle identification. DATES: Comments must be...

  12. Effect of an isoenergetic traditional Mediterranean diet on apolipoprotein A-I kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) kinetics has not been studied to date. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the effect of the MedDiet in the absence of changes in body weight on apolipoprotein (apo) A-I kinetic in men with metaboli...

  13. Dysfunctional HDL containing L159R apoA-I leads to exacerbation of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the effect of the mutation L159R apoA-I or apoA-IL159R (FIN) was assessed. apoA-IL159R (FIN) is associated with a dominant negative phenotype, displaying hypoalphaproteinemia and an increased risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Transgenic mice lines were created through strategic mati...

  14. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  15. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  16. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  17. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  18. Composition, structure and substrate properties of reconstituted discoidal HDL with apolipoprotein A-I and cholesteryl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergunov, Alexander D.; Shabrova, Elena V.; Dobretsov, Gennady E.

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the influence of lipid unsaturation and neutral lipid on the maturation of high density lipoproteins, the discoidal complexes of apoA-I, phosphatidylcholine and cholesteryl ester (CE) were prepared. Saturated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and unsaturated palmitoyllinoleoylphosphatidylcholine (PLPC), palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC), and fluorescent probe cholesteryl 1-pyrenedecanoate (CPD) that forms in a diffusion- and concentration-dependent manner short-lived dimer of unexcited and excited molecules (excimer) were used. The apoA-I/DPPC/CPD complexes were heterogeneous by size, composition and probe location. CPD molecules incorporated more efficiently into larger complexes and accumulated in a central part of the discs. The apoA-I/POPC(PLPC)/CPD were also heterogeneous, however, probe molecules distributed preferentially into smaller complexes and accumulated at disc periphery. The kinetics of CPD transfer by recombinant cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to human plasma LDL is well described by two-exponential decay, the fast component with a shorter transfer time being more populated in PLPC compared to DPPC complexes. The presence of CE molecules in discoidal HDL results in particle heterogeneity. ApoA-I influences the CETP activity modulating the properties of apolipoprotein-phospholipid interface. This may include CE molecules accumulation in the boundary lipid in unsaturated phosphatidylcholine and cluster formation in the bulk bilayer in saturated phosphatidylcholine.

  19. 22 CFR 221.23 - Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment to A.I.D. of excess amounts received by a Noteholder. 221.23 Section 221.23 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEE STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Procedure for Obtaining Compensation § 221.23 Payment to A...

  20. Role of urea on recombinant Apo A-I stability and its utilization in anion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Angarita, Monica; Arosio, Paolo; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Baur, Daniel; Falkenstein, Roberto; Kuhne, Wolfgang; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2014-08-08

    Apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is an important lipid-binding protein involved in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol. High protein purity, in particular with respect to endotoxins is required for therapeutic applications. The use of urea during the purification process of recombinant Apo A-I produced in Escherichia coli has been suggested so as to provide high endotoxin clearance. In this work, we show that urea can be used as a sole modifier during the ion exchange chromatographic purification of Apo A-I and we investigate the molecular mechanism of elution by correlating the effect of urea on self-association, conformation and adsorption equilibrium properties of a modified model Apo A-I. In the absence of urea the protein was found to be present as a population of oligomers represented mainly by trimers, hexamers and nonamers. The addition of urea induced oligomer dissociation and protein structure unfolding. We correlated the changes in protein association and conformation with variations of the adsorption equilibrium of the protein on a strong anion exchanger. It was confirmed that the adsorption isotherms, described by a Langmuir model, were dependent on both protein and urea concentrations. Monomers, observed at low urea concentration (0.5M), were characterized by larger binding affinity and adsorption capacity compared to both protein oligomers (0M) and unfolded monomers (2-8M). The reduction of both the binding strength and maximum adsorption capacity at urea concentrations larger than 0.5M explains the ability of urea of inducing elution of the protein from the ion exchange resin. The dissociation of the protein complexes occurring during the elution could likely be the origin of the effective clearance of endotoxins originally trapped inside the oligomers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic deletion of apolipoprotein A-I increases airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and collagen deposition in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiling; Xu, Hao; Shi, Yang; Nandedkar, Sandhya; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Haiqing; Feroah, Thom; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Schulte, Marie L.; Jones, Deron W.; Jarzembowski, Jason; Sorci-Thomas, Mary; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between high-density lipoprotein and pulmonary function is unclear. To determine mechanistic relationships we investigated the effects of genetic deletion of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) on plasma lipids, paraoxonase (PON1), pro-inflammatory HDL (p-HDL), vasodilatation, airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary oxidative stress, and inflammation. ApoA-I null (apoA-I−/−) mice had reduced total and HDL cholesterol but increased pro-inflammatory HDL compared with C57BL/6J mice. Although PON1 protein was increased in apoA-I−/− mice, PON1 activity was decreased. ApoA-I deficiency did not alter vasodilatation of facialis arteries, but it did alter relaxation responses of pulmonary arteries. Central airway resistance was unaltered. However, airway resistance mediated by tissue dampening and elastance were increased in apoA-I−/− mice, a finding also confirmed by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) studies. Inflammatory cells, collagen deposition, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were increased in apoA-I−/− lungs but not oxidized phospholipids. Colocalization of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1 was increased in apoA-I−/− lungs. Xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were increased in apoA-I−/− lungs. Dichlorodihydrofluorescein-detectable oxidants were increased in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in apoA-I−/− mice. In contrast, BALF nitrite+nitrate levels were decreased in apoA-I−/− mice. These data demonstrate that apoA-I plays important roles in limiting pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, which if not prevented, will decrease pulmonary artery vasodilatation and increase airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:20498409

  2. Population cycles in small rodents.

    PubMed

    Krebs, C J; Gaines, M S; Keller, B L; Myers, J H; Tamarin, R H

    1973-01-05

    We conclude that population fluctuations in Microtus in southern Indiana are produced by a syndrome of changes in birth and death rates similar to that found in other species of voles and lemmings. The mechanisms which cause the changes in birth and death rates are demolished by fencing the population so that no dispersal can occur. Dispersal thus seems critical for population regulation in Microtus. Because most dispersal occurs during the increase phase of the population cycle and there is little dispersal during the decline phase, dispersal is not directly related to population density. Hence the quality of dispersing animals must be important, and we have found one case of increased dispersal tendency by one genotype. The failure of population regulation of Microtus in enclosed areas requires an explanation by any hypothesis attempting to explain population cycles in small rodents. It might be suggested that the fence changed the predation pressure on the enclosed populations. However, the fence was only 2 feet (0.6 meter) high and did not stop the entrance of foxes, weasels, shrews, or avian predators. A striking feature was that the habitat in the enclosures quickly recovered from complete devastation by the start of the spring growing season. Obviously the habitat and food quality were sufficient to support Microtus populations of abnormally high densities, and recovery of the habitat was sufficiently quick that the introduction of new animals to these enclosed areas resulted in another population explosion. Finally, hypotheses of population regulation by social stress must account for the finding that Microtus can exist at densities several times greater than normal without "stress" taking an obvious toll. We hypothesize that the prevention of dispersal changes the quality of the populations in the enclosures in comparison to those outside the fence. Voles forced to remain in an overcrowded fenced population do not suffer high mortality rates and continue

  3. Small business executives and health insurance: findings from a national survey of very small firms.

    PubMed

    Holve, Erin; Brodie, Mollyann; Levitt, Larry

    2003-09-01

    Previous researchers have documented that very small businesses (3-24 workers) are less likely to offer employees health insurance than larger corporations. This study supplements previous findings on the prevalence of health insurance among small firms. The authors also attempt to illuminate reasons behind coverage decisions by interviewing small business owners and executives, who most often make health benefits decisions on behalf of their employees. The study examines attitudes about health insurance, opinions, and practices in these very small firms, and the response of small business owners to policy alternatives designed to expand coverage in small businesses.

  4. The Small Retailer and His Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstinger, Irving

    1975-01-01

    This study, through personal interviews, collected data on small retailers for three purposes: (1) to provide informative insights into small-scale retailing in New York City, (2) to explore retailers' opinions as to why customers shop at their stroes, and (3) to ascertain the more common problems experienced by retailers. (Author/BP)

  5. Small Arms Marksmanship Manual, NAVPERS 93863.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    The Navy's small arms marksmanship training program is designed to achieve proficiency for Navy personnel in handling the rifle, pistol andshotgun. The minimum objective of this program is to qualify Navy personnel as "Marksman," and ensure that personnel who are issued small arms for security, recreation, or competitions are fully qualified in…

  6. Gestures: Silent Scaffolding within Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Glenda; Wiebe, Eric N.; Reid-Griffin, Angela

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes how gestures are used to enhance scaffolding that occurs in small group settings. Sixth and eighth grade students participated in an elective science course focused on earth science concepts with a substantial spatial visualization component. Gestures that students used in small group discussions were analyzed and four…

  7. Small Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... represent that it will make good faith efforts to award subcontracts to small businesses at the same...). It also conforms SBA rules for the section 7(a) Business Loan Program and the Certified Development... Business Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda] Part XVII Small Business Administration Semiannual...

  8. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campola, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  9. Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater

    Science.gov Websites

    Operators Small Systems Management and Planning for Small Community Wastewater The NESC has provided information below. If you have a technical question we can help. Call us toll free at (304) 293-4191. or e of Clean Water Agencies (NACWA) Achieving Environmental Excellence: An Environmental Management

  10. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    PubMed

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New Small Autonomous Schools District Policy. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Unified School District, CA.

    Inspired by the gains in student achievement realized by the small schools movement in New York City, the Oakland Unified School District (California) has proposed creating a network of 10 new, small autonomous (NSA) schools over the next 3 years. School size will range between 250 and 500 students, depending on grade level. "Autonomous"…

  12. Exploring Small Animal Care. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Dennis W.

    This course guide in small animal care is designed to give students seeking employment in veterinary hospitals, kennels, or pet shops an opportunity to (1) develop basic skills in small animal handling, sanitation of housing, and nutrition, (2) acquire skills in dog and cat grooming, including shop operation, (3) develop attitudes which contribute…

  13. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Treesearch

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  14. Utilization of Small Businesses in Navy Subcontracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    10 2.   DOD Procurement Scorecard ...........................................................11 3. D.  GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE...Firms conducting business with the federal government are required to take into account small-business concerns in the acquisition process. Subpart 19.7...including increased loan provisions, higher lending limits, tax cuts for small businesses, and implements several of the Task Forces’ recommendations

  15. Different types of small volcanos on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slyuta, E. N.; Shalimov, I. V.; Nikishin, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    One of the studies of volcanic activity on Venus is the comparison of that with the analogous volcanic activity on Earth. The preliminary report of such a comparison and description of a small cluster of small venusian volcanos is represented in detail in this paper.

  16. Small Hydropower in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Johnson, Kurt

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federalmore » approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.« less

  17. Small farmers and deforestation in Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brondízio, Eduardo S.; Cak, Anthony; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Mena, Carlos; Bilsborrow, Richard; Futemma, Celia T.; Ludewigs, Thomas; Moran, Emilio F.; Batistella, Mateus

    This chapter discusses the relationship between small farmers' land use and deforestation, with particular attention paid to the past 30 years of Amazonian colonization in Brazil and Ecuador. Our analysis calls attention to common features uniting different social groups as small farmers (e.g., social identity, access to land and resources, technology, market, and credit), as well as the variability between small farmers in terms of time in the region (from native populations to recent colonists), contribution to regional deforestation, types of land use systems. At a regional level, small farmers contribute to the majority of deforestation events, but are responsible for only a fraction of the total deforested area in Amazonia. We discuss three misconceptions that have been used to define small farmers and their contribution to the regional economy, development, and deforestation: (1) small farmers have backward land use systems associated with low productivity and extensive deforestation and subsistence production, (2) small farmers contribute to Amazonian deforestation as much as large farmers, and (3) small farmers, particularly colonist farmers, follow an inexorable path of deforestation unless curbed by government action. We conclude the chapter discussing their growing regional importance and the need for more inclusive public policies concerning infrastructure and services and valorization of resources produced in rural areas of Amazonia.

  18. Fixture for mounting small parts for processing

    DOEpatents

    Foreman, Larry R.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Thomas, Michael H.

    1990-01-01

    A fixture for mounting small parts, such as fusion target spheres or microelectronic components. A glass stalk is drawn and truncated near its tip. The truncated end of the glass stalk is dipped into silicone rubber forming an extending streamer. After the rubber cures for approximately 24 hours, a small part is touched to the streamer, and will be held securely throughout processing.

  19. Facilities Renewal at the Small College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Alexandria, VA. Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers.

    This monograph on facilities renewal at small colleges offers six case studies illustrating how these small private colleges and universities managed and funded deferred maintenance. The case studies were all written by facilities directors from institutions that developed innovative strategic plans to revitalize their physical plants. The first…

  20. A thermocouple thermode for small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Thermode composed of two thin-walled stainless steel hypodermic needles and cooper-constantan thermocouple or small thermistor to indicate temperature at point of perfusion is used to measure brain temperature in animals. Because of relatively small size of thermode, structural damage to brain is minimized.

  1. The Small Book Press: A Cultural Essential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bill

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of small literary book publishers notes works of small-press authors (Thomas Paine, Washington Irving, Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, Upton Sinclair, Anais Nin); today's outstanding presses (Creative Arts Book Company, Persea Books, Full Court Press, Reed and Cannon Company, Tuumba Books); and role of little magazines. Thirty-seven…

  2. Insights from Small-"N" Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gouvea, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Small-"N" studies have been relatively uncommon in biology education research and are likely less familiar to instructors and administrators than large-"N" studies. Nevertheless, many scholars in the social sciences have argued for the value of small-"N" studies in informing research and practice (e.g., Flyvbjerg…

  3. EFFECTS OF WATERSHED DISTURBANCE ON SMALL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents the effects of watershed disturbance on small streams. The South Fork Broad River Watershed was studied to evaluate the use of landscape indicators to predict pollutant loading at small spatial scales and to develop indicators of pollutants. Also studie...

  4. E-Learning in Small Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambrook, Sally

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on the existing and potential role of electronic learning in small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs). Innovations in information and communication technologies (ICTs) could create new forms of learning, particularly appealing to small organisations, to overcome traditional barriers such as lack of financial resources, time,…

  5. 76 FR 74749 - Small Business Subcontracting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... amend its regulations to implement provisions of the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010 (Jobs Act... used in preparing its bid or proposal during contract performance. SBA also proposed to amend its... and evaluating small business subcontracting plan performance. SBA also proposed to clarify which...

  6. Small Drinking Water Systems Communication and Outreach ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of our small drinking water systems efforts, this poster highlights several communications and outreach highlights that EPA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Water have been undertaking in collaboration with states and the Association of State Drinking Water Administrators. To share information at EPA's annual small drinking water systems workshop

  7. New Small Satellite Missions Launching To Space

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-07

    On November 11, 2017, NASA will launch four new small satellite missions to space from the Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. Each mission will demonstrate critical new capabilities for small spacecraft. More info: https://go.nasa.gov/2isTr8q

  8. Small-diameter success stories II

    Treesearch

    Jean Livingston

    2006-01-01

    Many of our national forests are in critical need of restoration. These forests are dense, with an abundance of small-diameter, tightly spaced trees and underbrush that can contribute to the rapid growth of fire. If economic and value-added uses for this small-diameter and unmerchantable material can be found, forest restoration costs could be offset and catastrophic...

  9. Democratic Participation in Small-Town Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Patricia A.; Schmuck, Richard A.

    Using first-hand material collected by interview and observation during a 160-day trip around 21 states, this report describes the current situation of democratic participation in small-town schools. The small-town school is like a vortex drawing everyone into its activities and serving as a foundation for the community's social and cultural…

  10. Enumeration of small collections violates Weber's law.

    PubMed

    Choo, H; Franconeri, S L

    2014-02-01

    In a phenomenon called subitizing, we can immediately generate exact counts of small collections (one to three objects), in contrast to larger collections, for which we must either create rough estimates or serially count. A parsimonious explanation for this advantage for small collections is that noisy representations of small collections are more tolerable, due to the larger relative differences between consecutive numbers (e.g., 2 vs. 3 is a 50 % increase, but 10 vs. 11 is only a 10 % increase). In contrast, the advantage could stem from the fact that small-collection enumeration is more precise, relying on a unique mechanism. Here, we present two experiments that conclusively showed that the enumeration of small collections is indeed "superprecise." Participants compared numerosity within either small or large visual collections in conditions in which the relative differences were controlled (e.g., performance for 2 vs. 3 was compared with performance for 20 vs. 30). Small-number comparison was still faster and more accurate, across both "more-fewer" judgments (Exp. 1), and "same-different" judgments (Exp. 2). We then reviewed the remaining potential mechanisms that might underlie this superprecision for small collections, including the greater diagnostic value of visual features that correlate with number and a limited capacity for visually individuating objects.

  11. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  12. Small Schools Curriculum: Physical Education, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; Hartl, Doris, Ed.

    The self-contained sections within the document (one for grades K-3, the other for grades 4-6) present objectives, activities, monitoring procedures and resources for the elementary physical education curriculum for Washington small school districts. Identical introductory materials describe the organization of Small Schools materials,…

  13. Inserting new technology into small missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2001-01-01

    Part of what makes small missions small is that they have less money. Executing missions at low cost implies extensive use of cost sharing with other missions or use of existing solutions. Luckily, there are methods for creating new technology and inserting it into faster-better-cheaper missions.

  14. Shared Services: Opportunities for Small Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark County School District, Las Vegas, NV.

    An approach used in the Virgin Valley High School, a small, rural school in Mesquite, Nevada, in finding the solution to shortages of personnel created by involvement in educational changes is discussed. Shared services in a small school are described with relationship to school personnel, community personnel, and other governmental agencies. The…

  15. Small Engines and Outboard Marine Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This competency-based curriculum guide is a handbook for the development of small engine and outboard marine mechanics programs. Based on a survey of Alaskan small engines and marine mechanics employers, it includes all competencies a student should acquire in such a mechanics program. The handbook stresses the importance of understanding the…

  16. Harvesting small stems -- A Southern USA perspective

    Treesearch

    William F. Watson; Bryce J. Stokes

    1989-01-01

    Operations that harvest small stems using conventional equipment are discussed. A typical operation consists of rubber-tired feller-bunchers with shear heads, rubber-tired grapple skidders, and in-woods chippers. These systems harvest the small stems either in a pre-harvest, postharvest, or integrated-harvest method.

  17. SMALL CRAFT OPERATION AND NAVIGATION, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    THE MATERIAL IN THIS COURSE IN MARINE NAVIGATION AND SMALL CRAFT OPERATION ON INLAND AND INTERNATIONAL WATERS WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INDIVIDUAL AUTHOR FOR USE IN TRADE SCHOOL PREPARATORY AND EXTENSION CLASSES FOR MALE ADULTS WHO PLAN TO OPERATE BOATS. THE OBJECTIVE IS TO PREPARE THE SMALL BOAT OPERATOR FOR HIS OWN CONTINUATION IN THE STUDY OF…

  18. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  19. Small-Group Instruction: Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    The volume is an analysis of the state of the art of small-group methods of instruction. It describes some of the more commonly used small-group techniques and the rationale behind them, and provides an analysis of their potential use for various types and conditions of instructional environments. Explicit guidelines are provided to assist…

  20. Small Intestine Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Small intestine cancer usually begins in an area of the intestine called the duodenum. This cancer is rarer than cancers in other parts of the gastrointestinal system, such as the colon and stomach. Explore the links on this page to learn more about small intestine cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical t