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Sample records for a-i mimetic peptide

  1. Apolipoprotein A-I and A-I mimetic peptides: a role in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the westernized world. Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of most cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is a slowly evolving chronic inflammatory disorder involving the intima of large and medium sized arteries that is initiated in response to high plasma lipid levels, especially LDL. Cells of both the innate and adaptive immunity are involved in this chronic inflammation. Although high plasma LDL levels are a major contributor to most stages of the evolution of atherosclerosis, HDL and its major protein apoA-I possess properties that attenuate and may even reverse atherosclerosis. Two major functions are the ability to induce the efflux of cholesterol from cells, particularly lipid-loaded macrophages, in the artery wall for transfer to the liver, a process referred to as reverse cholesterol transport, and the ability to attenuate the pro-inflammatory properties of LDL. The removal of cellular cholesterol from lipid-loaded macrophages may also be anti-inflammatory. One of the most promising therapies to enhance the anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory properties of HDL is apoA-I mimetic peptides. Several of these peptides have been shown to promote cellular cholesterol efflux, attenuate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages, and to attenuate the pro-inflammatory properties of LDL. This latter effect may be related to their high affinity for oxidized lipids present in LDL. This review discusses the functional properties of the peptides and their effect on experimental atherosclerosis and the results of initial clinical studies in humans. PMID:22096372

  2. Formation of stable nanodiscs by bihelical apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Kariyazono, Hirokazu; Nadai, Ryo; Miyajima, Rin; Takechi-Haraya, Yuki; Baba, Teruhiko; Shigenaga, Akira; Okuhira, Keiichiro; Otaka, Akira; Saito, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Nanodiscs are composed of scaffold protein or peptide such as apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and phospholipids. Although peptide-based nanodiscs have an advantage to modulate the size of nanodiscs by changing phospholipid/peptide ratios, they are usually less stable than apoA-I-based nanodiscs. In this study, we designed a novel nanodisc scaffold peptide (NSP) that has proline-punctuated bihelical amphipathic structure based on apoA-I mimetic peptides. NSP formed α-helical structure on 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) nanodiscs prepared by cholate dialysis method. Dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that diameters of NSP nanodiscs vary depending upon POPC/NSP ratios. Comparison of thermal unfolding of nanodiscs monitored by circular dichroism measurements demonstrated that NSP forms much more stable nanodiscs with POPC than monohelical peptide, 4F, exhibiting comparable stability to apoA-I-POPC nanodiscs. Intrinsic Trp fluorescence measurements showed that Trp residues of NSP exhibit more hydrophobic environment than that of 4 F on nanodiscs, suggesting the stronger interaction of NSP with phospholipids. Thus, the bihelical structure of NSP appears to increase the stability of nanodiscs because of the enhanced interaction of peptides with phospholipids. In addition, NSP as well as 4F spontaneously solubilized POPC vesicles into nanodiscs without using detergent. These results indicate that bihelical NSP forms nanodiscs with comparable stability to apoA-I and has an ability to control the size of nanodiscs simply by changing phospholipid/peptide ratios. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides: Discordance Between In Vitro and In Vivo Properties-Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Ditiatkovski, Michael; Palsson, Jonatan; Chin-Dusting, Jaye; Remaley, Alan T; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2017-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides have antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoprotein in vitro and have been shown to inhibit atherosclerosis in vivo. It is unclear, however, if each in vitro antiatherogenic property of these peptides translates to a corresponding activity in vivo, and if so, which of these contributes most to reduce atherosclerosis. The effect of 7 apoA-I mimetic peptides, which were developed to selectively reproduce a specific component of the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I, on the development of atherosclerosis was investigated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 or 12 weeks. The peptides include those that selectively upregulate cholesterol efflux, or are anti-inflammatory, or have antioxidation properties. All the peptides studied effectively inhibited the in vivo development of atherosclerosis in this model to the same extent. However, none of the peptides had the same selective effect in vivo as they had exhibited in vitro. None of the tested peptides affected plasma lipoprotein profile; capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux was increased modestly and similarly for all peptides. There is a discordance between the selective in vitro and in vivo functional properties of apoA-I mimetic peptides, and the in vivo antiatherosclerotic effect of apoA-I-mimetic peptides is independent of their in vitro functional profile. Comparing the properties of apoA-I mimetic peptides in plasma rather than in the lipid-free state is better for predicting their in vivo effects on atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The A's Have It: Developing Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides Into a Novel Treatment for Asthma.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xianglan; Gordon, Elizabeth M; Barochia, Amisha V; Remaley, Alan T; Levine, Stewart J

    2016-08-01

    New treatments are needed for patients with asthma who are refractory to standard therapies, such as individuals with a phenotype of "type 2-low" inflammation. This important clinical problem could potentially be addressed by the development of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides. ApoA-I interacts with its cellular receptor, the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1), to facilitate cholesterol efflux out of cells to form nascent high-density lipoprotein particles. The ability of the apoA-I/ABCA1 pathway to promote cholesterol efflux from cells that mediate adaptive immunity, such as antigen-presenting cells, can attenuate their function. Data from experimental murine models have shown that the apoA-I/ABCA1 pathway can reduce neutrophilic airway inflammation, primarily by suppressing the production of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. Furthermore, administration of apoA-I mimetic peptides to experimental murine models of allergic asthma has decreased both neutrophilic and eosinophilic airway inflammation, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness and mucous cell metaplasia. Higher serum levels of apoA-I have also been associated with less severe airflow obstruction in patients with asthma. Collectively, these results suggest that the apoA-I/ABCA1 pathway may have a protective effect in asthma, and support the concept of advancing inhaled apoA-I mimetic peptides to clinical trials that can assess their safety and effectiveness. Thus, we propose that the development of inhaled apoA-I mimetic peptides as a new treatment could represent a clinical advance for patients with severe asthma who are unresponsive to other therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. ABCA1 (ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1) Mediates ApoA-I (Apolipoprotein A-I) and ApoA-I Mimetic Peptide Mobilization of Extracellular Cholesterol Microdomains Deposited by Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xueting; Sviridov, Denis; Liu, Ying; Vaisman, Boris; Addadi, Lia; Remaley, Alan T; Kruth, Howard S

    2016-12-01

    We examined the function of ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) in ApoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mobilization of cholesterol microdomains deposited into the extracellular matrix by cholesterol-enriched macrophages. We have also determined whether an ApoA-I mimetic peptide without and with complexing to sphingomyelin can mobilize macrophage-deposited cholesterol microdomains. Extracellular cholesterol microdomains deposited by cholesterol-enriched macrophages were detected with a monoclonal antibody, 58B1. ApoA-I and an ApoA-I mimetic peptide 5A mobilized cholesterol microdomains deposited by ABCA1(+/+) macrophages but not by ABCA1(-/-) macrophages. In contrast, ApoA-I mimetic peptide 5A complexed with sphingomyelin could mobilize cholesterol microdomains deposited by ABCA1(-/-) macrophages. Our findings show that a unique pool of extracellular cholesterol microdomains deposited by macrophages can be mobilized by both ApoA-I and an ApoA-I mimetic peptide but that mobilization depends on macrophage ABCA1. It is known that ABCA1 complexes ApoA-I and ApoA-I mimetic peptide with phospholipid, a cholesterol-solubilizing agent, explaining the requirement for ABCA1 in extracellular cholesterol microdomain mobilization. Importantly, ApoA-I mimetic peptide already complexed with phospholipid can mobilize macrophage-deposited extracellular cholesterol microdomains even in the absence of ABCA1. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Bioenergetic programming of macrophages by the apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F.

    PubMed

    Datta, Geeta; Kramer, Philip A; Johnson, Michelle S; Sawada, Hirotaka; Smythies, Lesley E; Crossman, David K; Chacko, Balu; Ballinger, Scott W; Westbrook, David G; Mayakonda, Palgunachari; Anantharamaiah, G M; Darley-Usmar, Victor M; White, C Roger

    2015-05-01

    The apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I) mimetic peptide 4F favours the differentiation of human monocytes to an alternatively activated M2 phenotype. The goal of the present study was to test whether the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs (monocyte-derived macrophages) requires the induction of an oxidative metabolic programme. 4F treatment induced several genes in MDMs that play an important role in lipid metabolism, including PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ) and CD36. Addition of 4F was associated with a significant increase in FA (fatty acid) uptake and oxidation compared with vehicle treatment. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by measurement of the OCR (oxygen-consumption rate). 4F increased basal and ATP-linked OCR as well as maximal uncoupled mitochondrial respiration. These changes were associated with a significant increase in ΔΨm (mitochondrial membrane potential). The increase in metabolic activity in 4F-treated MDMs was attenuated by etomoxir, an inhibitor of mitochondrial FA uptake. Finally, addition of the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 to 4F-treated MDMs reduced the expression of CD163 and CD36, cell-surface markers for M2 macrophages, and reduced basal and ATP-linked OCR. These results support our hypothesis that the 4F-mediated differentiation of MDMs to an anti-inflammatory phenotype is due, in part, to an increase in FA uptake and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism.

  7. Newly developed apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomohiko; Tanigawa, Hiroyuki; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Kuwano, Takashi; Takata, Kohei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Yahiro, Eiji; Zhang, Bo; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2015-08-01

    We elucidated the effect of newly developed Fukuoka Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide (FAMP) on in vivo macrophage reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and the underlying mechanisms. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein transgenic mice were divided into FAMP, and placebo control groups, and injected with FAMP or phosphate buffer saline intraperitoneally for 5 days. The FAMP group showed a significant decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and plasma from the FAMP group had an increased ability to promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated cholesterol efflux from bone marrow macrophages ex vivo. Furthermore, mice were injected intraperitoneally with (3)H-cholesterol-labeled and cholesterol-loaded macrophages and monitored for the appearance of (3)H-tracer. The amount of (3)H-tracer excreted into feces over 48h in the FAMP group was significantly higher than that in the control group. (3)H-cholesterol ester (CE)-HDL was injected intravenously and (3)H-cholesterol in blood was counted. In the FAMP group, plasma (3)H-CE-HDL decreased rapidly, and treatment with FAMP markedly increased the fractional catabolic rate. The administration of FAMP promoted ABCA1-dependent efflux ex vivo, HDL turnover in vivo, and macrophage RCT in vivo despite reduced plasma HDL-C levels. FAMP might have atheroprotective potential. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide treatment inhibits inflammatory responses and improves survival in septic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenghao; Datta, Geeta; Zhang, Yun; Miller, Andrew P.; Mochon, Paulina; Chen, Yiu-Fai; Chatham, John; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; White, C. Roger

    2009-01-01

    Systemic inflammation induces a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome that contributes to morbidity and mortality in septic patients. Since increasing plasma apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and HDL may reduce the complications of sepsis, we tested the hypothesis that the apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F confers similar protective effects in rats undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to undergo CLP or sham surgery. IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in plasma by 6 h after CLP surgery compared with shams. In subsequent studies, CLP rats were further subdivided to receive vehicle or 4F (10 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection, 6 h after sepsis induction. Sham-operated rats received saline. Echocardiographic studies showed a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic volume, stroke volume, and cardiac output (CO) 24 h after CLP surgery. These changes were associated with reduced blood volume and left ventricular filling pressure. 4F treatment improved blood volume status, increased CO, and reduced plasma IL-6 in CLP rats. Total cholesterol (TC) and HDL were 79 ± 5 and 61 ± 4 mg/dl, respectively, in sham rats. TC was significantly reduced in CLP rats (54 ± 3 mg/dl) due to a reduction in HDL (26 ± 3 mg/dl). 4F administration to CLP rats attenuated the reduction in TC (69 ± 4 mg/dl) and HDL (41 ± 3 mg/dl) and prevented sepsis-induced changes in HDL protein composition. Increased plasma HDL in 4F-treated CLP rats was associated with an improvement in CO and reduced mortality. It is proposed that protective effects of 4F are related to its ability to prevent the sepsis-induced reduction in plasma HDL. PMID:19561306

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F blocks sphingomyelinase-induced LDL aggregation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T; Öörni, Katariina

    2015-06-01

    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20:1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20:1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modified LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. ApoA-I mimetics.

    PubMed

    Stoekenbroek, R M; Stroes, E S; Hovingh, G K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of evidence indicates that plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are inversely related to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Consequently, HDL-C has been considered a target for therapy in order to reduce the residual CVD burden that remains significant, even after application of current state-of-the-art medical interventions. In recent years, however, a number of clinical trials of therapeutic strategies that increase HDL-C levels failed to show the anticipated beneficial effect on CVD outcomes. As a result, attention has begun to shift toward strategies to improve HDL functionality, rather than levels of HDL-C per se. ApoA-I, the major protein component of HDL, is considered to play an important role in many of the antiatherogenic functions of HDL, most notably reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), and several therapies have been developed to mimic apoA-I function, including administration of apoA-I, mutated variants of apoA-I, and apoA-I mimetic peptides. Based on the potential anti-inflammatory effects, apoA-I mimetics hold promise not only as anti-atherosclerotic therapy but also in other therapeutic areas.

  11. ApoA-I Mimetic Peptide 4F Rescues Pulmonary Hypertension by Inducing MicroRNA-193-3p

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Salil; Umar, Soban; Potus, Francois; Iorga, Andrea; Wong, Gabriel; Meriwether, David; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Mai, Denise; Navab, Kaveh; Ross, David; Navab, Mohamad; Provencher, Steeve; Fogelman, Alan M.; Bonnet, Sébastien; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a chronic lung disease associated with severe pulmonary vascular changes. A pathogenic role of oxidized lipids such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs) is well established in vascular disease. Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides including 4F have been reported to reduce levels of these oxidized lipids and improve vascular disease. However, the role of oxidized lipids in the progression of PAH and the therapeutic action of 4F in PAH is not well established. Methods and Results We studied two different rodent models of Pulmonary Hypertension (PH); a monocrotaline (MCT) rat model and a hypoxia mouse model. Plasma levels of HETEs and HODEs were significantly elevated in PH. 4F treatment reduced these levels and rescued pre-existing PH in both models. MicroRNA analysis revealed that miR193-3p (miR193) was significantly downregulated in the lung tissue and in serum from both PAH patients and in PH rodents. In-vivo miR193 overexpression in the lungs rescued pre-existing PH and resulted in downregulation of lipoxygenases and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. 4F restored PH-induced miR193 expression via transcription factor retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα). Conclusions These studies establish the importance of microRNAs as downstream effectors of an apoA-I mimetic peptide in the rescue of PH and suggest that treatment with apoA-I mimetic peptides, or miR193 may have therapeutic value. PMID:24963038

  12. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide 4F rescues pulmonary hypertension by inducing microRNA-193-3p.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Salil; Umar, Soban; Potus, Francois; Iorga, Andrea; Wong, Gabriel; Meriwether, David; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Mai, Denise; Navab, Kaveh; Ross, David; Navab, Mohamad; Provencher, Steeve; Fogelman, Alan M; Bonnet, Sébastien; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Eghbali, Mansoureh

    2014-08-26

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a chronic lung disease associated with severe pulmonary vascular changes. A pathogenic role of oxidized lipids such as hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids is well established in vascular disease. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides, including 4F, have been reported to reduce levels of these oxidized lipids and improve vascular disease. However, the role of oxidized lipids in the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension and the therapeutic action of 4F in pulmonary arterial hypertension are not well established. We studied 2 different rodent models of pulmonary hypertension (PH): a monocrotaline rat model and a hypoxia mouse model. Plasma levels of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids were significantly elevated in PH. 4F treatment reduced these levels and rescued preexisting PH in both models. MicroRNA analysis revealed that microRNA-193-3p (miR193) was significantly downregulated in the lung tissue and serum from both patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and rodents with PH. In vivo miR193 overexpression in the lungs rescued preexisting PH and resulted in downregulation of lipoxygenases and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. 4F restored PH-induced miR193 expression via transcription factor retinoid X receptor α. These studies establish the importance of microRNAs as downstream effectors of an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide in the rescue of PH and suggest that treatment with apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides or miR193 may have therapeutic value. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide reverses impaired arterial healing after injury by reducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Michael A; Chaudhuri, Pinaki; Abelson, Benjamin; Cross, Brandy N; Graham, Linda M

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) migration is essential for healing of arterial injuries caused by angioplasty, but a high cholesterol diet inhibits endothelial repair. In vivo studies suggest that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein constituent of HDL, is essential for normal healing of arterial injuries. ApoA-I mimetics, including 4F, have been designed to mimic the amphipathic portion of the apoA-I molecule. This study was undertaken to determine if 4F improves endothelial migration and healing. A razor scrape assay was used to analyze the effect of 4F on EC migration in vitro. Endothelial healing in vivo was assessed following electrical injury of carotid arteries in mice. Markers of oxidative stress were also examined. Lipid oxidation products inhibited EC migration in vitro, but preincubation with L-4F preserved EC migration. Endothelial healing of carotid arterial injuries in mice on a high cholesterol diet was delayed compared with mice on a chow diet with 27.8% vs. 48.2% healing, respectively, at 5 days. Administration of D-4F improved endothelial healing in mice on a high cholesterol diet to 43.4%. D-4F administration had no effect on lipid levels but decreased markers of oxidation. In vivo, there was a significant inverse correlation between endothelial healing and plasma markers of oxidative stress. These studies suggested that an apoA-I mimetic can improve endothelial healing of arterial injuries by decreasing oxidative stress. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. An apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide designed with a reductionist approach stimulates reverse cholesterol transport and reduces atherosclerosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ditiatkovski, Michael; D'Souza, Wilissa; Kesani, Rajitha; Chin-Dusting, Jaye; de Haan, Judy B; Remaley, Alan; Sviridov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are considered a promising novel therapeutic approach to prevent and/or treat atherosclerosis. An apoA-I mimetic peptide ELK-2A2K2E was designed with a reductionist approach and has shown exceptional activity in supporting cholesterol efflux but modest anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties in vitro. In this study we compared these in vitro properties with the capacity of this peptide to modify rates of reverse cholesterol transport and development of atherosclerosis in mouse models. The peptide enhanced the rate of reverse cholesterol transport in C57BL/6 mice and reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice receiving a high fat diet. The peptide modestly reduced the size of the plaques in aortic arch, but was highly active in reducing vascular inflammation and oxidation. Administration of the peptide to Apoe(-/-) mice on a high fat diet reduced the levels of total, high density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. It increased the proportion of smaller HDL particles in plasma at the expense of larger HDL particles, and increased the capacity of the plasma to support cholesterol efflux. Thus, ELK-2A2K2E peptide reduced atherosclerosis in Apoe(-/-) mice, however, the functional activity profile after chronic in vivo administration was different from that found in acute in vitro studies.

  15. FAMP, a novel apoA-I mimetic peptide, suppresses aortic plaque formation through promotion of biological HDL function in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Yoshinari; Ando, Setsuko; Yahiro, Eiji; Oniki, Kosuke; Ayaori, Makoto; Abe, Satomi; Kawachi, Emi; Zhang, Bo; Shioi, Seijiro; Tanigawa, Hiroyuki; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Saku, Keijiro

    2013-05-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is a major high-density lipoprotein (HDL) protein that causes cholesterol efflux from peripheral cells through the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), thus generating HDL and reversing the macrophage foam cell phenotype. Pre-β1 HDL is the smallest subfraction of HDL, which is believed to represent newly formed HDL, and it is the most active acceptor of free cholesterol. Furthermore it has a possible protective function against cardiovascular disease (CVD). We developed a novel apoA-I mimetic peptide without phospholipids (Fukuoka University ApoA-I Mimetic Peptide, FAMP). FAMP type 5 (FAMP5) had a high capacity for cholesterol efflux from A172 cells and mouse and human macrophages in vitro, and the efflux was mainly dependent on ABCA1 transporter. Incubation of FAMP5 with human HDL or whole plasma generated small HDL particles, and charged apoA-I-rich particles migrated as pre-β HDL on agarose gel electrophoresis. Sixteen weeks of treatment with FAMP5 significantly suppressed aortic plaque formation (scrambled FAMP, 31.3 ± 8.9% versus high-dose FAMP5, 16.2 ± 5.0%; P<0.01) and plasma C-reactive protein and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in apoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, it significantly enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity from the mice. A newly developed apoA-I mimetic peptide, FAMP, has an antiatherosclerotic effect through the enhancement of the biological function of HDL. FAMP may have significant atheroprotective potential and prove to be a new therapeutic tool for CVD.

  16. The 5A apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Tabet, Fatiha; Remaley, Alan T.; Segaliny, Aude I.; Millet, Jonathan; Yan, Ling; Nakhla, Shirley; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Lambert, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptide 5A is highly specific for ABCA1-transporter mediated cholesterol efflux. We investigated whether the 5A peptide shares other beneficial features of apoA-I, such as protection against inflammation and oxidation. Methods New-Zealand White rabbits received an infusion of apoA-I, reconstituted HDL containing apoA-I ((A-I)rHDL) or the 5A peptide complexed with phospholipids (PLPC), prior to inserting a collar around the carotid artery. Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were incubated with (A-I)rHDL or 5A/PLPC prior to TNFa stimulation. Results ApoA-I, (A-I)rHDL and 5A/PLPC reduced the collar mediated increase in (i) endothelial expression of cell adhesion molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, (ii) O2− production as well as the expression of the Nox4 catalytic subunits of the NADPH oxidase, and (iii) infiltration of circulating neutrophils into the carotid intima-media. In HCAECs, both 5A/PLPC and (A-I)rHDL inhibited TNFa induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression as well as the NF-κB signalling cascade and O2− production. The effects of the 5A/PLPC complex were no longer apparent in HCAECs knocked down for ABCA1. Conclusion Like apoA-I, the 5A peptide inhibits acute inflammation and oxidative stress in rabbit carotids and HCAECs. In vitro, the 5A peptide exerts these beneficial effects through interaction with ABCA1. PMID:19965776

  17. The promise of apolipoprotein A-I mimetics.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Armando J

    2010-04-01

    Synthetic high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I mimetic peptides emulate many of the atheroprotective biological functions attributed to HDL and can modify atherosclerotic disease processes. Administration of these agents as HDL replacement or modifying therapy has tremendous potential of providing new treatments for cardiovascular disease. Progress in the understanding of these agents is discussed in this review. Prospective, observational, and interventional studies have convincingly demonstrated that elevated serum levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with reduced risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). Although traditional pharmacological agents have shown modest utility in raising HDL levels and reducing CHD risk, use of HDL and apo A-I mimetics provides novel therapies to not only increase HDL levels, but to also influence HDL functionality. Evidence developed over the last several years has identified a number of pathways affected by synthetic HDL and apoA-I mimetic peptides, including enhancing reverse cholesterol transport and reducing oxidation and inflammation that directly influence the progression and regression of atherosclerotic disease. Clinical trials of relatively short-term synthetic HDL infusion into patients with CHD demonstrate beneficial effects. Use of apo A-I mimetic peptides could potentially overcome some of the limitations associated with use of the intact apo. Studies to establish the most efficacious peptides, optimal dosing regimens, and routes of administration are needed. Use of apo A-I mimetic peptides shows great promise as a therapeutic modality for HDL replacement and enhancing HDL function in treatment of patients with CHD.

  18. Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptides inhibit expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines and a mouse ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Grijalva, Victor; Su, Feng; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Farias-Eisner, Robin

    2012-08-01

    Our previous results demonstrated that the apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides L-4F and L-5F inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor production and tumor angiogenesis. The present study was designed to test whether apoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), which plays a critical role in the production of angiogenic factors and angiogenesis. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to examine the expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues. Immunoblotting, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, and luciferase activity assays were used to determine the expression and activity of HIF-1α in human ovarian cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry staining demonstrated that L-4F treatment dramatically decreased HIF-1α expression in mouse ovarian tumor tissues. L-4F inhibited the expression and activity of HIF-1α induced by low oxygen concentration, cobalt chloride (CoCl(2), a hypoxia-mimic compound), lysophosphatidic acid, and insulin in two human ovarian cancer cell lines, OV2008 and CAOV-3. L-4F had no effect on the insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt, but inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p70s6 kinase, leading to the inhibition of HIF-1α synthesis. Pretreatment with L-4F dramatically accelerated the proteasome-dependent protein degradation of HIF-1α in both insulin- and CoCl(2)-treated cells. The inhibitory effect of L-4F on HIF-1α expression is in part mediated by the reactive oxygen species-scavenging effect of L-4F. ApoA-I mimetic peptides inhibit the expression and activity of HIF-1α in both in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting the inhibition of HIF-1α may be a critical mechanism responsible for the suppression of tumor progression by apoA-I mimetic peptides.

  19. Cumulative Brain Injury from Motor Vehicle-Induced Whole-Body Vibration and Prevention by Human Apolipoprotein A-I Molecule Mimetic (4F) Peptide (an Apo A-I Mimetic).

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Geng; Zhang, Lin-ling; Agresti, Michael; Yan, Yuhui; LoGiudice, John; Sanger, James R; Matloub, Hani S; Pritchard, Kirkwood A; Jaradeh, Safwan S; Havlik, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Insidious cumulative brain injury from motor vehicle-induced whole-body vibration (MV-WBV) has not yet been studied. The objective of the present study is to validate whether whole-body vibration for long periods causes cumulative brain injury and impairment of the cerebral function. We also explored a preventive method for MV-WBV injury. A study simulating whole-body vibration was conducted in 72 male Sprague-Dawley rats divided into 9 groups (N = 8): (1) 2-week normal control; (2) 2-week sham control (in the tube without vibration); (3) 2-week vibration (exposed to whole-body vibration at 30 Hz and .5 G acceleration for 4 hours/day, 5 days/week for 2 weeks; vibration parameters in the present study are similar to the most common driving conditions); (4) 4-week sham control; (5) 4-week vibration; (6) 4-week vibration with human apolipoprotein A-I molecule mimetic (4F)-preconditioning; (7) 8-week sham control; (8) 8-week vibration; and (9) 8-week 4F-preconditioning group. All the rats were evaluated by behavioral, physiological, and histological studies of the brain. Brain injury from vibration is a cumulative process starting with cerebral vasoconstriction, squeezing of the endothelial cells, increased free radicals, decreased nitric oxide, insufficient blood supply to the brain, and repeated reperfusion injury to brain neurons. In the 8-week vibration group, which indicated chronic brain edema, shrunken neuron numbers increased and whole neurons atrophied, which strongly correlated with neural functional impairment. There was no prominent brain neuronal injury in the 4F groups. The present study demonstrated cumulative brain injury from MV-WBV and validated the preventive effects of 4F preconditioning. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptide D-4F Reduces Cardiac Hypertrophy and Improves Apolipoprotein A-I-Mediated Reverse Cholesterol Transport From Cardiac Tissue in LDL Receptor-null Mice Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Han, Jie; Zhang, Song; Ye, Ping; Liu, Yong-Xue; Qin, Yan-Wen; Miao, Dong-Mei

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia is an independent determinant of increased left ventricular (LV) mass. Because high-density lipoprotein and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) and have cardiac protective effects, we hypothesized that the apoA-I mimetic peptide D-4F could promote RCT in cardiac tissue and decrease cardiac hypertrophy induced by hypercholesterolemia. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice were fed by a Western diet for 18 weeks and then randomized to receive water, or D-4F 0.3 mg/mL, or D-4F 0.5 mg/mL added to drinking water for 6 weeks. After D-4F administration, an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride in a trend toward dose-responsivity were found in cardiac tissue. Ultrasound biomicroscopy revealed a reduction in LV posterior wall end-diastolic dimension, and an increase in mitral valve E/A ratio and LV ejection fraction. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed reduced LV wall thickness and myocardial cell diameter. The protein levels of ABCA1 and LXRα were elevated in cardiac tissue of D-4F treated mice compared with the controls (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that D-4F treatment reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved cardiac performance in low-density lipoprotein receptor-null mice fed a Western diet, presumably through the LXRα-ABCA1 pathway associated with enhanced myocardial RCT.

  1. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, alleviates ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and promotes endothelial repair through the eNOS/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghui; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wu, Mengzhang; Xu, Wenqi; Qian, Mingming; Du, Qian; Zhang, Le; Cui, Ye; Zheng, Jianlan; Chang, He; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai; Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide exerts many anti-atherogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms related to the endothelial protective effects remain elusive. In this study, the apoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, was used. Proliferation assay, wound healing, and transwell migration experiments showed that D-4F improved the impaired endothelial proliferation and migration resulting from ox-LDL. Endothelial adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion assay demonstrated that D-4F inhibited endothelial inflammation. Caspase-3 activation and TUNEL stain indicated that D-4F reduced endothelial cell apoptosis. A pivotal anti-oxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated by D-4F. The Akt/AMPK/eNOS pathways were involved in the expression of HO-1 induced by D-4F. Moreover, the anti-oxidation, pro-proliferation, and pro-migration capacities of D-4F were diminished by the inhibitors of both eNOS (L-NAME) and HO-1 (Znpp). Additionally, downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) by siRNA abolished the activation of Akt, AMPK and eNOS, and reduced the upregulation of HO-1 triggered by D-4F. Furthermore, D-4F promoted the reendothelialization of injured intima in carotid artery injury model of C57BL/6J mice in vivo. In summary, these findings suggested that D-4F might be a powerful candidate in the protection of endothelial cells and the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Peptide Mimetics of Apolipoproteins Improve HDL Function

    PubMed Central

    Navab, Mohamad; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Buga, Georgette M.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade evidence has accumulated that suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL may be at least as important as the levels of HDL-cholesterol. The recent failure of the torcetrapib clinical trails has highlighted the potential differences between HDL-cholesterol levels and HDL function. Agents to improve HDL function including HDL anti-inflammatory properties provide a new therapeutic strategy for ameliorating atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory conditions related to dyslipidemia. Seeking guidance from the structure of the apolipoproteins of the plasma lipoproteins has allowed the creation of a series of polypeptides that have interesting functionality with therapeutic implications. In animal models of atherosclerosis, peptide mimetics of apolipoproteins have been shown to improve the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL, significantly reduce lesions and improve vascular inflammation and function without necessarily altering HDL-cholesterol levels. Some of these are now entering the clinical arena as interventions in pharmacologic and pharmacodynamic studies. PMID:18449337

  3. Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: Mechanisms of Action as Anti-atherogenic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Osei-Hwedieh, David O.; Amar, Marcelo; Sviridov, Dmitri; Remaley, Alan T.

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein mimetic peptides are short synthetic peptides that share structural, as well as biological features of native apolipoproteins. The early positive clinical trials of intravaenous preparations of apoA-I, the main protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), have stimulated great interest in the use of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as possible therapeutic agents. Currently, there are a wide variety of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides at various stages of drug development. These peptides typically have been designed to either promote cholesterol efflux or act as anti-oxidants, but they usually exert other biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. Uncertainty about which of these biological properties is the most important for explaining their anti-atherogenic effect is a major unresolved question in the field. Structure-function studies relating the in vitro properties of these peptides to their ability to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models may uncover the best rationale for the design of these peptides and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the atheroprotective effect of HDL. PMID:21172387

  4. Self-assembly of fibronectin mimetic peptide-amphiphile nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rexeisen, Emilie Lynn

    Many therapeutic strategies incorporate peptides into their designs to mimic the natural protein ligands found in vivo. A few examples are the short peptide sequences RGD and PHSRN that mimic the primary and synergy-binding domains of the extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin, which is recognized by the cell surface receptor, alpha5beta 1 integrin. Even though scaffold modification with biomimetic peptides remains one of the most promising approaches for tissue engineering, the use of these peptides in therapeutic tissue-engineered products and drug delivery systems available on the commercial market is limited because the peptides are not easily able to mimic the natural protein. The design of a peptide that can effectively target the alpha5beta1 integrin would greatly increase biomimetic scaffold therapeutic potential. A novel peptide containing both the RGD primary binding domain and PHSRN synergy-binding domain for fibronectin joined with the appropriate linker should bind alpha 5beta1 integrin more efficiently and lead to greater cell adhesion over RGD alone. Several fibronectin mimetic peptides were designed and coupled to dialkyl hydrocarbon tails to make peptide-amphiphiles. The peptides contained different linkers connecting the two binding domains and different spacers separating the hydrophobic tails from the hydrophilic headgroups. The peptide-amphiphiles were deposited on mica substrates using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. Langmuir isotherms indicated that the peptide-amphiphiles that contained higher numbers of serine residues formed a more tightly packed monolayer, but the increased number of serines also made transferring the amphiphiles to the mica substrate more difficult. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the bilayers showed that the headgroups might be bent, forming small divots in the surface. These divots may help expose the PHSRN synergy-binding domain. Parallel studies undertaken by fellow group members showed that human

  5. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers regenerate acute muscle defect.

    PubMed

    Eren Cimenci, Cagla; Uzunalli, Gozde; Uysal, Ozge; Yergoz, Fatih; Karaca Umay, Ebru; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-09-15

    Skeletal muscle cells are terminally differentiated and require the activation of muscle progenitor (satellite) cells for their regeneration. There is a clinical need for faster and more efficient treatment methods for acute muscle injuries, and the stimulation of satellite cell proliferation is promising in this context. In this study, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic bioactive peptide (LM/E-PA) system that is capable of accelerating satellite cell activation by emulating the structure and function of laminin, a major protein of the basal membrane of the skeletal muscle. The LM/E-PA nanofibers enhance myogenic differentiation in vitro and the clinical relevance of the laminin-mimetic bioactive scaffold system was demonstrated further by assessing its effect on the regeneration of acute muscle injury in a rat model. Laminin mimetic peptide nanofibers significantly promoted satellite cell activation in skeletal muscle and accelerated myofibrillar regeneration following acute muscle injury. In addition, the LM/E-PA scaffold treatment significantly reduced the time required for the structural and functional repair of skeletal muscle. This study represents one of the first examples of molecular- and tissue-level regeneration of skeletal muscle facilitated by bioactive peptide nanofibers following acute muscle injury. Sports, heavy lifting and other strength-intensive tasks are ubiquitous in modern life and likely to cause acute skeletal muscle injury. Speeding up regeneration of skeletal muscle injuries would not only shorten the duration of recovery for the patient, but also support the general health and functionality of the repaired muscle tissue. In this work, we designed and synthesized a laminin-mimetic nanosystem to enhance muscle regeneration. We tested its activity in a rat tibialis anterior muscle by injecting the bioactive nanosystem. The evaluation of the regeneration and differentiation capacity of skeletal muscle suggested that the laminin-mimetic

  6. Glycosaminoglycan mimetic peptide nanofibers promote mineralization by osteogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Kocabey, Samet; Ceylan, Hakan; Tekinay, Ayse B; Guler, Mustafa O

    2013-11-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is accomplished by concerted regulation of protein-based extracellular matrix components, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and inductive growth factors. GAGs constitute a significant portion of the extracellular matrix and have a significant impact on regulating cellular behavior, either directly or through encapsulation and presentation of growth factors to the cells. In this study we utilized a supramolecular peptide nanofiber system that can emulate both the nanofibrous architecture of collagenous extracellular matrix and the major chemical composition found on GAGs. GAGs and collagen mimetic peptide nanofibers were designed and synthesized with sulfonate and carboxylate groups on the peptide scaffold. The GAG mimetic peptide nanofibers interact with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), which is a critical growth factor for osteogenic activity. The GAG mimicking ability of the peptide nanofibers and their interaction with BMP-2 promoted osteogenic activity and mineralization by osteoblastic cells. Alkaline phosphatase activity, Alizarin red staining and energy dispersive X-ray analysis spectroscopy indicated the efficacy of the peptide nanofibers in inducing mineralization. The multifunctional and bioactive microenvironment presented here provides osteoblastic cells with osteogenic stimuli similar to those observed in native bone tissue. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Apolipoprotein A-I and its mimetics for the treatment of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jonathan D

    2011-01-01

    Although statin treatment leads consistently to a reduction in major adverse coronary events and death in clinical trials, approximately 60 to 70% residual risk of these outcomes still remains. One frontier of investigational drug research is treatment to increase HDL, the ‘good cholesterol’ that is associated with a reduced risk of coronary artery disease. HDL and its major protein apolipoprotein A-I (apoAI) are protective against atherosclerosis through several mechanisms, including the ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical findings for two types of therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis: apoAI-containing compounds and apoAI mimetic peptides. Both of these therapies have excellent potential to be useful clinically to promote atherosclerosis regression and stabilize existing plaques, but significant hurdles must be overcome in order to develop these approaches into safe and effective therapies. PMID:20730693

  8. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes. PMID:26555958

  9. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  10. Carbohydrate-mimetic peptides for pan anti-tumor responses.

    PubMed

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate-peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells.

  11. Carbohydrate-Mimetic Peptides for Pan Anti-Tumor Responses

    PubMed Central

    Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Saha, Somdutta; Pashov, Anastas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Murali, Ramachandran

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mimicry is fundamental to biology and transcends to many disciplines ranging from immune pathology to drug design. Structural characterization of molecular partners has provided insight into the origins and relative importance of complementarity in mimicry. Chemical complementarity is easy to understand; amino acid sequence similarity between peptides, for example, can lead to cross-reactivity triggering similar reactivity from their cognate receptors. However, conformational complementarity is difficult to decipher. Molecular mimicry of carbohydrates by peptides is often considered one of those. Extensive studies of innate and adaptive immune responses suggests the existence of carbohydrate mimicry, but the structural basis for this mimicry yields confounding details; peptides mimicking carbohydrates in some cases fail to exhibit both chemical and conformational mimicry. Deconvolution of these two types of complementarity in mimicry and its relationship to biological function can nevertheless lead to new therapeutics. Here, we discuss our experience examining the immunological aspects and implications of carbohydrate–peptide mimicry. Emphasis is placed on the rationale, the lessons learned from the methodologies to identify mimics, a perspective on the limitations of structural analysis, the biological consequences of mimicking tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, and the notion of reverse engineering to develop carbohydrate-mimetic peptides in vaccine design strategies to induce responses to glycan antigens expressed on cancer cells. PMID:25071769

  12. A novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy[S

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Arnab; Navab, Mohamad; Hough, Greg; Gao, Feng; Meriwether, David; Grijalva, Victor; Springstead, James R.; Palgnachari, Mayakonda N.; Namiri-Kalantari, Ryan; Su, Feng; Van Lenten, Brian J.; Wagner, Alan C.; Anantharamaiah, G. M.; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Fogelman, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants were constructed with an empty vector (EV) or a vector expressing an apoA-I mimetic peptide, 6F. EV or 6F tomatoes were harvested, lyophilized, ground into powder, added to Western diet (WD) at 2.2% by weight, and fed to LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) mice at 45 mg/kg/day 6F. After 13 weeks, the percent of the aorta with lesions was 4.1 ± 4%, 3.3 ± 2.4%, and 1.9 ± 1.4% for WD, WD + EV, and WD + 6F, respectively (WD + 6F vs. WD, P = 0.0134; WD + 6F vs. WD + EV, P = 0.0386; WD + EV vs. WD, not significant). While body weight did not differ, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) levels were less in WD + 6F mice; P < 0.0295. HDL cholesterol and paroxonase-1 activity (PON) were higher in WD + 6F mice (P = 0.0055 and P = 0.0254, respectively), but not in WD + EV mice. Plasma SAA, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LPA, and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) levels positively correlated with lesions (P < 0.0001); HDL cholesterol and PON were inversely correlated (P < 0.0001). After feeding WD + 6F: i) intact 6F was detected in small intestine (but not in plasma); ii) small intestine LPA was decreased compared with WD + EV (P < 0.0469); and iii) small intestine LPA 18:2 positively correlated with the percent of the aorta with lesions (P < 0.0179). These data suggest that 6F acts in the small intestine and provides a novel approach to oral apoA-I mimetic therapy. PMID:23378594

  13. Metal stabilization of collagen and de novo designed mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Avanish S.; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H.; Belure, Sandeep V.; Hasan, Nida F.; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E.; Shreiber, David I.; Nanda, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacency of the carboxy-termini of the three chains makes this region an attractive target for introducing metal binding sites. We engineered His3 sites based on structural modeling constraints into a series of designed homotrimeric and heterotrimeric peptides, assessing the capacity of metal binding to improve stability and in the case of heterotrimers, affect specificity of assembly. Notable enhancements in stability for both homo and heteromeric systems were observed upon addition of zinc(II) and several other metal ions only when all three histidine ligands were present. Metal binding affinities were consistent with the expected Irving-Williams series for imidazole. Unlike other metals tested, copper(II) also bound to peptides lacking histidine ligands. Acetylation of the peptide N-termini prevented copper binding, indicating proline backbone amide metal-coordination at this site. Copper similarly stabilized animal extracted Type I collagen in a metal specific fashion, highlighting the potential importance of metal homeostasis within the extracellular matrix. PMID:26225466

  14. Metal Stabilization of Collagen and de Novo Designed Mimetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Avanish S; Xu, Fei; Pike, Douglas H; Belure, Sandeep V; Hasan, Nida F; Drzewiecki, Kathryn E; Shreiber, David I; Nanda, Vikas

    2015-08-18

    We explore the design of metal binding sites to modulate triple-helix stability of collagen and collagen-mimetic peptides. Globular proteins commonly utilize metals to connect tertiary structural elements that are well separated in sequence, constraining structure and enhancing stability. It is more challenging to engineer structural metals into fibrous protein scaffolds, which lack the extensive tertiary contacts seen in globular proteins. In the collagen triple helix, the structural adjacency of the carboxy-termini of the three chains makes this region an attractive target for introducing metal binding sites. We engineered His3 sites based on structural modeling constraints into a series of designed homotrimeric and heterotrimeric peptides, assessing the capacity of metal binding to improve stability and in the case of heterotrimers, affect specificity of assembly. Notable enhancements in stability for both homo- and heteromeric systems were observed upon addition of zinc(II) and several other metal ions only when all three histidine ligands were present. Metal binding affinities were consistent with the expected Irving-Williams series for imidazole. Unlike other metals tested, copper(II) also bound to peptides lacking histidine ligands. Acetylation of the peptide N-termini prevented copper binding, indicating proline backbone amide metal-coordination at this site. Copper similarly stabilized animal extracted Type I collagen in a metal-specific fashion, highlighting the potential importance of metal homeostasis within the extracellular matrix.

  15. SOCS1 Mimetic Peptide Suppresses Chronic Intraocular Inflammatory Disease (Uveitis)

    PubMed Central

    He, Chang; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sun, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Uveitis is a potentially sight-threatening disease characterized by repeated cycles of remission and recurrent inflammation. The JAK/STAT pathway regulates the differentiation of pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells that mediate uveitis. A SOCS1 mimetic peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK2/STAT1 pathways has recently been shown to suppress experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). However, it is not clear whether SOCS1-KIR ameliorated uveitis by targeting JAK/STAT pathways of pathogenic lymphocytes or via inhibition of macrophages and antigen-presenting cells that also enter the retina during EAU. To further investigate mechanisms that mediate SOCS1-KIR effects and evaluate the efficacy of SOCS1-KIR as an investigational drug for chronic uveitis, we induced EAU in rats by adoptive transfer of uveitogenic T-cells and monitored disease progression and severity by slit-lamp microscopy, histology, and optical coherence tomography. Topical administration of SOCS1-KIR ameliorated acute and chronic posterior uveitis by inhibiting Th17 cells and the recruitment of inflammatory cells into retina while promoting expansion of IL-10-producing Tregs. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection of resident retinal cells that play critical role in vision from cytotoxic effects of inflammatory cytokines by downregulating proapoptotic genes. Thus, SOCS1-KIR suppresses uveitis and confers neuroprotective effects and might be exploited as a noninvasive treatment for chronic uveitis. PMID:27703302

  16. Bacterial Capture by Peptide-Mimetic Oligoacyllysine Surfaces▿

    PubMed Central

    Rotem, Shahar; Raz, Nili; Kashi, Yechezkel; Mor, Amram

    2010-01-01

    Most procedures for detecting pathogens in liquid media require an initial concentration step. However, poor recovery efficiencies of conventional methods, such as filtration, often lead to low sensitivity. Here, we describe a strategy for concentrating bacteria using their binding affinity for an oligoacyllysine (OAK), a novel peptide-mimetic antimicrobial compound. We show that the resin-linked OAK (ROAK) efficiently captures a variety of pathogens in different media, upon brief incubation with ROAK beads or after continuous flow through a ROAK-packed column. Using Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein, we show that binding occurs rapidly during incubation and persists after filtration as visualized by confocal microscopy. The high binding affinity of bacteria was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance technology using an OAK-linked chip. ROAK-bound bacteria remained viable and were readily identifiable by real-time PCR after ethanol elution. A single ROAK bead is estimated to capture about 3,000 bacterial cells in culture medium, in contaminated saline or tap water. ROAK beads can be regenerated for multiple uses after brief ethanol treatment. Collectively, the data support the notion that OAK-based coating of polymeric surfaces might represent a useful means for medium filtration as well as for concentration of bacteria. PMID:20363797

  17. Development of multifunctional collagen scaffolds directed by collagen mimetic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Lan (Allen)

    Collagen is widely used for soft tissue replacement and tissue engineering scaffold. Functionalized collagen may offer new and improved applications for collagen-based biomaterials. But passively adsorbed molecules readily diffuse out from collagen matrix, and conventional chemical reactions on collagen are difficult to control and may compromise the biochemical feature of natural collagen. Hence, the aim of this dissertation is to develop a new physical collagen modification method through the non-covalent immobilization of collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) and CMP derivatives on collagen scaffolds, thereby evading the drawbacks of passive and chemical modifications. Most of the research on CMPs over the past three decades has focused on synthesizing CMPs and understanding the effects of amino acid sequence on the peptide structural stability. Although few attempts have been made to develop biomaterials based on pure CMP, CMP has never used in complex with natural collagen. We demonstrate that CMPs with varying chain lengths have strong propensity to associate with natural 2-D and 3-D collagen substrates. We also show that CMPs can recognize and bind to reconstituted type I collagen fibers as well as collagens of ex vivo human liver tissue. The practical use of CMPs conjugated with linear and multi-arm poly(ethylene glycol)s allows to control cell organization in 2-D collagen substrates. Our cell adhesion studies suggest that under certain conditions (e.g. high incubation temperature, small CMP size), the bound CMP derivatives can be released from the collagen matrix, which may provide new opportunities for manipulating cell behavior especially by dynamically controlling the amount of signaling molecules in the collagen matrix. Polyanionic charged CMP was synthesized to modulate tubulogenesis of endothelial cells by attracting VEGF with 3-D collagen gel and a new PEG hydrogel using bifunctional CMP conjugates was synthesized as physico-chemical crosslinkers for

  18. Vasculoprotective Effects of Apolipoprotein Mimetic Peptides: An Evolving Paradigm In Hdl Therapy (Vascular Disease Prevention, In Press.).

    PubMed

    White, C Roger; Datta, Geeta; Mochon, Paulina; Zhang, Zhenghao; Kelly, Ollie; Curcio, Christine; Parks, Dale; Palgunachari, Mayakonda; Handattu, Shaila; Gupta, Himanshu; Garber, David W; Anantharamaiah, G M

    2009-01-01

    Anti-atherogenic effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and its major protein component apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) are principally thought to be due to their ability to mediate reverse cholesterol transport. These agents also possess anti-oxidant properties that prevent the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and anti-inflammatory properties that include inhibition of endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression. Results of the Framingham study revealed that a reduction in HDL levels is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Accordingly, there has been considerable interest in developing new therapies that specifically elevate HDL cholesterol. However, recent evidence suggests that increasing circulating HDL cholesterol levels alone is not sufficient as a mode of HDL therapy. Rather, therapeutic approaches that increase the functional properties of HDL may be superior to simply raising the levels of HDL per se. Our laboratory has pioneered the development of synthetic, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides which are structurally and functionally similar to apoA-I but possess unique structural homology to the lipid-associating domains of apoA-I. The apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F inhibits atherogenic lesion formation in murine models of atherosclerosis. This effect is related to the ability of 4F to induce the formation of pre-β HDL particles that are enriched in apoA-I and paraoxonase. 4F also possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties that are independent of its effect on HDL quality per se. Recent studies suggest that 4F stimulates the expression of the antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase and inhibits superoxide anion formation in blood vessels of diabetic, hypercholesterolemic and sickle cell disease mice. The goal of this review is to discuss HDL-dependent and -independent mechanisms by which apoA-I mimetic peptides reduce vascular injury in experimental animal models.

  19. APOE-mimetic peptides reduce behavioral deficits, plaques and tangles in Alzheimer's disease transgenics.

    PubMed

    Vitek, M P; Christensen, D J; Wilcock, D; Davis, J; Van Nostrand, W E; Li, F Q; Colton, C A

    2012-01-01

    After age, the second largest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, where APOE4 is associated with lower apoE protein levels, more severer brain pathology, enhanced inflammation and disease. Small peptides corresponding to the receptor-binding region of apoE mimic the anti-inflammatory activity of the apoE holoprotein. These apoE mimetics greatly improve behavioral outcomes and neuronal survival in head trauma models that display AD pathology and neuronal loss. To determine whether apoE mimetics change behavior, inflammation and pathology in CVND-AD (SwDI-APP/NOS2(-/-)) transgenic mice. Starting at 9 months, apoE peptides were subcutaneously administered 3 times per week for 3 months followed by behavioral, histochemical and biochemical testing. Treatment with apoE mimetics significantly improved behavior while decreasing the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, neurofibrillary tangle-like and amyloid plaque-like structures. Biochemical measures matched the visible pathological results. Treatment with apoE mimetics significantly improved behavior, reduced inflammation and reduced pathology in CVND-AD mice. These improvements are associated with apoE-mimetic-mediated increases in protein phosphatase 2A activity. Testing in additional AD models showed similar benefits, reinforcing this novel mechanism of action of apoE mimetics. These data suggest that the combination of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities of apoE mimetics represents a new generation of potential therapeutics for AD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Novel thrombopoietin mimetic peptides bind c-Mpl receptor: Synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaquan; Tian, Fang; Zhi, Dejuan; Wang, Haiqing; Zhao, Chunyan; Li, Hongyu

    2017-02-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) acts in promoting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells and by initiating specific maturation events in megakaryocytes. Now, TPO-mimetic peptides with amino acid sequences unrelated to TPO are of considerable pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, four new TPO mimetic peptides that bind and activate c-Mpl receptor have been identified, synthesized and tested by Dual-Luciferase reporter gene assay for biological activities. The molecular modeling research was also approached to understand key molecular mechanisms and structural features responsible for peptide binding with c-Mpl receptor. The results presented that three of four mimetic peptides showed significant activities. In addition, the molecular modeling approaches proved hydrophobic interactions were the driven positive forces for binding behavior between peptides and c-Mpl receptor. TPO peptide residues in P7, P13 and P7' positions were identified by the analysis of hydrogen bonds and energy decompositions as the key ones for benefiting better biological activities. Our data suggested the synthesized peptides have considerable potential for the future development of stable and highly active TPO mimetic peptides.

  1. Hierachical assembly of collagen mimetic peptides into biofunctional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleaton, Jeremy W.

    Collagen is a remarkably strong and prevalent protein distributed throughout nature and as such, collagen is an ideal material for a variety of medical applications. Research efforts for the development of synthetic collagen biomaterials is an area of rapid growth. Here we present two methods for the assembly of collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs). The initial approach prompts assembly of CMPs which contain modifications for metal ion-triggered assembly. Hierarchical assembly into triple helices, followed by formation of disks via hydrophobic interactions has been demonstrated. Metal-ion mediated assembly of these disks, using iron (II)-bipyrdine interactions, has been shown to form micron-sized cages. The nature of the final structures that form depends on the number of bipyridine moieties incorporated into the CMP. These hollow spheres encapsulate a range of molecular weight fluorescently labeled dextrans. Furthermore, they demonstrate a time dependent release of contents under a variety of thermal conditions. The second approach assembles CMPs via the copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) and the strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) reactions. CMPs that incorporate the unnatural amino acids L-propargylglycine and L-azidolysine form triple helices and demonstrate higher order assembly when reacted via CuAAC. Reaction of the alkyne/azide modified CMPs under CuAAC conditions was found to produce an crosslinked 3-dimensional network. Moreover, we demonstrate that polymers, such as, PEG, can be reacted with alkyne and azide CMP triple helices via CuAAC and SPAAC. This designed covalent CMP chemistry allows for high flexibility in integrating various chemical cues, such as cell growth and differentiation within the higher order structures.

  2. Moving a Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptide into the clinic.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Issam; Hutchins, Laura; Emanuel, Peter D; Pennisi, Angela; Siegel, Eric; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs) are broad-spectrum targets for immunotherapy. Immunization with Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides (CMPs) is a strategy to induce broad-spectrum TACA-reactive antibodies hypothesized to interfere with cellular pathways involved in tumor cell survival. A Phase I study was conducted with a first-in-man CMP referred to as P10s, conjugated to the Pan T cell carrier PADRE, along with MONTANIDE(™) ISA 51 VG as adjuvant over a course of 5 immunizations. While designed as a safety and tolerability study, the potential for therapeutic impact was observed in a subject with metastatic lesions as evaluated before and after vaccine treatment. The subject received Vinorelbine and Trastuzumab (VT) for two months prior to study eligibility. PET scans showed partial response in the lungs and complete resolution of a previously enlarged subpectoral lymph node. Immunization with P10s vaccine resulted in responses to P10s, with serum and plasma antibodies reactive with and cytotoxic to human breast cancer cells in vitro, including the Trastuzumab-resistant HCC1954 cell line. However, the patient developed cystic masses in the brain parenchyma with no apparent evidence of metastases. The subject was switched to Docetaxel, Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab a year later, and her last PET scan showed a complete response in the lungs and lymph nodes. Incubation of cancer cells with a combination of vaccine-induced serum and docetaxel suggests that the induced antibodies sensitize tumor cells for more efficient killing upon administration of docetaxel. The data suggest that P10s-PADRE induces anti-tumor antibody response that in combination with chemotherapy can affect metastatic lesions in breast cancer patients.

  3. Moving a Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptide into the clinic

    PubMed Central

    Makhoul, Issam; Hutchins, Laura; Emanuel, Peter D; Pennisi, Angela; Siegel, Eric; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs) are broad-spectrum targets for immunotherapy. Immunization with Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides (CMPs) is a strategy to induce broad-spectrum TACA-reactive antibodies hypothesized to interfere with cellular pathways involved in tumor cell survival. A Phase I study was conducted with a first-in-man CMP referred to as P10s, conjugated to the Pan T cell carrier PADRE, along with MONTANIDE™ ISA 51 VG as adjuvant over a course of 5 immunizations. While designed as a safety and tolerability study, the potential for therapeutic impact was observed in a subject with metastatic lesions as evaluated before and after vaccine treatment. The subject received Vinorelbine and Trastuzumab (VT) for two months prior to study eligibility. PET scans showed partial response in the lungs and complete resolution of a previously enlarged subpectoral lymph node. Immunization with P10s vaccine resulted in responses to P10s, with serum and plasma antibodies reactive with and cytotoxic to human breast cancer cells in vitro, including the Trastuzumab-resistant HCC1954 cell line. However, the patient developed cystic masses in the brain parenchyma with no apparent evidence of metastases. The subject was switched to Docetaxel, Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab a year later, and her last PET scan showed a complete response in the lungs and lymph nodes. Incubation of cancer cells with a combination of vaccine-induced serum and docetaxel suggests that the induced antibodies sensitize tumor cells for more efficient killing upon administration of docetaxel. The data suggest that P10s-PADRE induces anti-tumor antibody response that in combination with chemotherapy can affect metastatic lesions in breast cancer patients. PMID:25483513

  4. A Novel Peptide Thrombopoietin Mimetic Designing and Optimization Using Computational Approach

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vimal Kishor; Kumar, Neeraj; Kalsan, Manisha; Saini, Abhishek; Chandra, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Thrombopoietin receptor (TPOR) is a cytokine receptor protein present on the cell surface. The activation of TPOR by thrombopoietin (TPO) (a glycoprotein hormone) triggers an intracellular cascade of megakaryocytopoiesis for the formation of platelets. Recent studies on ex vivo megakaryocytopoiesis have evolved the possibilities of therapeutics uses. These findings have paved the way for the development of various TPO alternatives (recombinant TPO, peptide, and non-peptide TPO mimetics), which are useful in regenerative medicine. However, these alternatives possess various limitations such as induction of autoimmune effects, high production cost, low specificity, and hence activity. In the present study, a novel peptidic TPO mimetic was designed through computational studies by studying the binding sites of TPO and TMP to TPOR and analogs of known mimetics. Screening of combinatorial library was done through molecular docking using ClusPro. These studies indicated mimetic-9 as a significant molecule since it was found to have better binding score of −938.8 kcal/mol with seven hydrogen bonds and a high number of hydrophobic interactions, than known mimetic TMP with docking score of −798.4 kcal/mol and TMP dimer with docking score of −811.9 kcal/mol for TPOR. Mimetic9-TPOR complex was further assessed by the molecular dynamics simulation, and their complex was found to be stable with an RMSD value of 0.091 Å. While studying the parameters, mimetic-9 was found to have overall good physiochemical properties with positive grand average hydropathy (GRAVY) score and high instability index score and was found to be localized in the extracellular region. The designed mimetic-9 might prove to be a useful lead molecule for mimicking the role of TPO for in vitro platelet production with higher efficiency. PMID:27630985

  5. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M.; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F.; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification. PMID:27808249

  6. ApoA-I mimetic administration, but not increased apoA-I-containing HDL, inhibits tumour growth in a mouse model of inherited breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cedó, Lídia; García-León, Annabel; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Santos, David; Grijalva, Victor; Martínez-Cignoni, Melanie Raquel; Carbó, José M; Metso, Jari; López-Vilaró, Laura; Zorzano, Antonio; Valledor, Annabel F; Cenarro, Ana; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lerma, Enrique; Fogelman, Alan M; Reddy, Srinivasa T; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2016-11-03

    Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) have been associated with breast cancer risk, but several epidemiologic studies have reported contradictory results with regard to the relationship between apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and breast cancer. We aimed to determine the effects of human apoA-I overexpression and administration of specific apoA-I mimetic peptide (D-4F) on tumour progression by using mammary tumour virus-polyoma middle T-antigen transgenic (PyMT) mice as a model of inherited breast cancer. Expression of human apoA-I in the mice did not affect tumour onset and growth in PyMT transgenic mice, despite an increase in the HDLc level. In contrast, D-4F treatment significantly increased tumour latency and inhibited the development of tumours. The effects of D-4F on tumour development were independent of 27-hydroxycholesterol. However, D-4F treatment reduced the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) levels in mice and prevented oxLDL-mediated proliferative response in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study shows that D-4F, but not apoA-I-containing HDL, hinders tumour growth in mice with inherited breast cancer in association with a higher protection against LDL oxidative modification.

  7. Fluoroolefins as peptide mimetics. 2. A computational study of the conformational ramifications of peptide bond replacement.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Brian E; Urban, Joseph J

    2010-01-21

    The design of peptide mimetic compounds is greatly facilitated by the identification of functionalities that can act as peptide replacements. The fluoroalkene moiety has recently been employed for that purpose. The purpose of this work is to examine the conformational ramifications of replacing peptide bonds with fluoroalkene moieties, thus generating peptidomimetics. The alanine dipeptide analogue (ADA) was chosen as a model compound. Three peptidomimetic systems were investigated including one generated by replacement of both peptide bonds of ADA, designated as DFA, and those generated by the single replacement of the C-terminal peptide bond and N-terminal peptide bond, designated as CFA and NFA, respectively. Conformations for all three systems were generated by exhaustive Monte Carlo searching. Relative conformational energies were calculated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ/MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ (for DFA), MP2/-aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/6-311+G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d)//B3LYP/6-31+G(d), and MMFF levels of theory. Aqueous phase conformational preferences were determined through calculations making use of continuum hydration models. The results indicate that replacement of both peptide bonds of ADA generates a peptidomimetic with conformational preferences where extended conformations are favored and the conformational profile is relatively insensitive to the nature of the surrounding medium. This is in contrast to ADA where the conformational preferences depend highly on the surrounding medium and where folded conformations with intramolecular hydrogen bonds are important in the absence of an interacting solvent. CFA and NFA are found to exhibit conformational preferences that do in some ways more closely resemble those of the alanine dipeptide analogue. This is particularly true in the case of NFA where interactions between the NH and CF groups are reminiscent of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding possible in ADA.

  8. Student-Driven Design of Peptide Mimetics: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Peptoid Oligomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Yoo, Barney; Schulz, Nathan; Zea, Corbin J.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Schwarz, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory is described in which peptide mimetic oligomers called "peptoids" are built stepwise on a solid-phase resin. Students employ two modern strategies to facilitate rapid multistep syntheses: solid-phase techniques to obviate the need for intermediate purifications and microwave irradiation to…

  9. Student-Driven Design of Peptide Mimetics: Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Peptoid Oligomers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Nicola L. B.; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Yoo, Barney; Schulz, Nathan; Zea, Corbin J.; Streff, Jennifer M.; Schwarz, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment for the undergraduate organic laboratory is described in which peptide mimetic oligomers called "peptoids" are built stepwise on a solid-phase resin. Students employ two modern strategies to facilitate rapid multistep syntheses: solid-phase techniques to obviate the need for intermediate purifications and microwave irradiation to…

  10. Structurally homogeneous nanosheets from self-assembly of a collagen-mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Chunfu; Zuo, Xiaobing; Conticello, Vincent P

    2014-08-04

    A collagen-mimetic peptide, NSIII, has been designed with three sequential blocks having positive, neutral, and negative charges, respectively. The non-canonical imino acid, (2S,4S)-4-aminoproline (amp), was used to specify the positive charges at the Xaa positions of (Xaa-Yaa-Gly) triads in the N-terminal domain of NSIII. Peptide NSIII underwent self-assembly from aqueous solution to form a highly homogeneous population of nanosheets. Two-dimensional crystalline sheets formed in which the length of the peptide defined the height of the sheets. These results contrasted with prior results on a similar multi-domain collagen-mimetic polypeptides in which the sheets had highly polydisperse distribution of sizes in the (x/y)- and (z)-dimensions. The structural differences between the two nanosheet assemblies were interpreted in terms of the relative stereoelectronic effects of the different aminoproline derivatives on the local triple helical conformation of the peptides.

  11. Evaluating strategies to enhance the anti-tumor immune response to a carbohydrate mimetic peptide vaccine.

    PubMed

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Jousheghany, Fariba; Artaud, Cecile; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2006-06-01

    Carbohydrate mimetic peptides of tumor associated carbohydrate antigens (TACA) are T-cell-dependent antigens and, therefore, immunization with these surrogates is predicted to overcome the low immunogenicity of carbohydrate antigens. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that among the potential immune cells involved, peptide immunization led to an increase in T-cell populations. While peptide mimetics may also function as TLR binding ligands, we did not observe evidence of involvement of NK cells. Examining tumor challenged animals, we observed that peptide immunization and not tumor cells rendered IL-12 responsiveness to T-cells, as T-cells from peptide-immunized mice produced IFN-gamma upon stimulation with IL-12. Cyclophosphamide administration enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the vaccine, which was achieved by enhancing T-cell responses with no effect on NK cell population. Prophylactic immunization of mice with a DNA construct encoding carbohydrate mimetic peptides indicated a specific role for the mimotope vaccine in anti-tumor immune responses. These data suggest a role for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells induced by mimotopes of TACA in protective immunity against tumor cells.

  12. Connexin43 mimetic peptide reduces vascular leak and retinal ganglion cell death following retinal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kerr, Nathan M; Zhang, Jie; Eady, Elizabeth K; O'Carroll, Simon J; Nicholson, Louise F B; Johnson, Cameron S; Green, Colin R

    2012-02-01

    Connexin43 gap junction protein is expressed in astrocytes and the vascular endothelium in the central nervous system. It is upregulated following central nervous system injury and is recognized as playing an important role in modulating the extent of damage. Studies that have transiently blocked connexin43 in spinal cord injury and central nervous system epileptic models have reported neuronal rescue. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuronal rescue following retinal ischaemia-reperfusion by transiently blocking connexin43 activity using a connexin43 mimetic peptide. A further aim was to evaluate the effect of transiently blocking connexin43 on vascular permeability as this is known to increase following central nervous system ischaemia. Adult male Wistar rats were exposed to 60 min of retinal ischaemia. Treatment groups consisted of no treatment, connexin43 mimetic peptide and scrambled peptide. Retinas were then evaluated at 1-2, 4, 8 and 24 h, and 7 and 21 days post-ischaemia. Evans blue dye leak from retinal blood vessels was used to assess vascular leakage. Blood vessel integrity was examined using isolectin-B4 labelling. Connexin43 levels and astrocyte activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein) were assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Retinal whole mounts and retinal ganglion cell counts were used to quantify neurodegeneration. An in vitro cell culture model of endothelial cell ischaemia was used to assess the effect of connexin43 mimetic peptide on endothelial cell survival and connexin43 hemichannel opening using propidium iodide dye uptake. We found that retinal ischaemia-reperfusion induced significant vascular leakage and disruption at 1-2, 4 and 24 h following injury with a peak at 4 h. Connexin43 immunoreactivity was significantly increased at 1-2, 4, 8 and 24 h post ischaemia-reperfusion injury co-localizing with activated astrocytes, Muller cells and vascular endothelial cells. Connexin43 mimetic peptide

  13. Bioactive Mimetics of Conotoxins and other Venom Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Peter J.; Tuck, Kellie L.

    2015-01-01

    Ziconotide (Prialt®), a synthetic version of the peptide ω-conotoxin MVIIA found in the venom of a fish-hunting marine cone snail Conus magnus, is one of very few drugs effective in the treatment of intractable chronic pain. However, its intrathecal mode of delivery and narrow therapeutic window cause complications for patients. This review will summarize progress in the development of small molecule, non-peptidic mimics of Conotoxins and a small number of other venom peptides. This will include a description of how some of the initially designed mimics have been modified to improve their drug-like properties. PMID:26501323

  14. Functional and pharmacological characterization of a VEGF mimetic peptide on reparative angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Federica; Basile, Anna; Capasso, Domenica; Di Gaetano, Sonia; Di Stasi, Rossella; Pascale, Maria; Turco, Caterina Maria; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia; D'Andrea, Luca Domenico

    2012-08-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the main regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Low molecular weight molecules able to stimulate angiogenesis have interesting medical application for example in regenerative medicine, but at present none has reached the clinic. We reported that a VEGF mimetic helical peptide, QK, designed on the VEGF helix sequence 17-25, is able to bind and activate the VEGF receptors, producing angiogenesis. In this study we evaluate the pharmacological properties of peptide QK with the aim to propose it as a VEGF-mimetic drug to be employed in reparative angiogenesis. We show that the peptide QK is able to recapitulate all the biological activities of VEGF in vivo and on endothelial cells. In experiments evaluating sprouting from aortic ring and vessel formation in an in vivo angiogenesis model, the peptide QK showed biological effects comparable with VEGF. At endothelial level, the peptide up-regulates VEGF receptor expression, activates intracellular pathways depending on VEGFR2, and consistently it induces endothelial cell proliferation, survival and migration. When added to angiogenic factors (VEGF and/or FGF-2), QK produces an improved biological action, which resulted in reduced apoptosis and accelerated in vitro wound healing. The VEGF-like activity of the short peptide QK, characterized by lower cost of production and easier handling compared to the native glycoprotein, suggests that it is an attractive candidate to be further developed for application in therapeutic angiogenesis.

  15. A biologically active peptide mimetic of N-acetylgalactosamine/galactose

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L; Hoober, J Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background Glycosylated proteins and lipids are important regulatory factors whose functions can be altered by addition or removal of sugars to the glycan structure. The glycans are recognized by sugar-binding lectins that serve as receptors on the surface of many cells and facilitate initiation of an intracellular signal that changes the properties of the cells. We identified a peptide that mimics the ligand of an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin and asked whether the peptide would express specific biological activity. Findings A 12-mer phage display library was screened with a GalNAc-specific lectin to identify an amino acid sequence that binds to the lectin. Phage particles that were eluted from the lectin with free GalNAc were considered to have been bound to a GalNAc-binding site. Peptides were synthesized with the selected sequence as a quadravalent structure to facilitate receptor crosslinking. Treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 24 h with the peptide stimulated secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) but not of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The secretion of IL-21 was stimulated as strongly with the peptide as with interferon-γ. Conclusion The data indicate that the quadravalent peptide has biological activity with a degree of specificity. These effects occurred at concentrations in the nanomolar range, in contrast to free sugars that generally bind to proteins in the micro- to millimolar range. PMID:19284521

  16. Molecular Design, Structures, and Activity of Antimicrobial Peptide-Mimetic Polymers

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Haruko; Palermo, Edmund F.; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Caputo, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics which are effective against drug-resistant bacteria without contributing to resistance development. We have designed and developed antimicrobial copolymers with cationic amphiphilic structures based on the mimicry of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. These copolymers exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with no adverse hemolytic activity. Notably, these polymers also did not result in any measurable resistance development in E. coli. The peptide-mimetic design principle offers significant flexibility and diversity in the creation of new antimicrobial materials and their potential biomedical applications. PMID:23832766

  17. Supramolecular assembly of multifunctional maspin-mimetic nanostructures as a potent peptide-based angiogenesis inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Zha, R. Helen; Sur, Shantanu; Boekhoven, Job; Shi, Heidi Y.; Zhang, Ming; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2014-11-08

    Aberrant angiogenesis plays a large role in pathologies ranging from tumor growth to macular degeneration. Anti-angiogenic proteins have thus come under scrutiny as versatile, potent therapeutics but face problems with purification and tissue retention. We report here on the synthesis of supramolecular nanostructures that mimic the anti-angiogenic activity of maspin, a class II tumor suppressor protein. These maspin-mimetic nanostructures are formed via self-assembly of small peptide amphiphiles containing the g-helix motif of maspin. Using tubulogenesis assays with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we demonstrate that maspin-mimetic nanostructures show anti-angiogenic activity at concentrations that are significantly lower than those necessary for the g-helix peptide. Furthermore, in vivo assays in the chick chorioallantoic membrane show maspin-mimetic nanostructures to be effective over controls at inhibiting angiogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, the nanostructures investigated here offer an attractive alternative to the use of anti-angiogenic recombinant proteins in the treatment of cancer or other diseases involving abnormal blood vessel formation.

  18. Supramolecular assembly of multifunctional maspin-mimetic nanostructures as a potent peptide-based angiogenesis inhibitor

    DOE PAGES

    Zha, R. Helen; Sur, Shantanu; Boekhoven, Job; ...

    2014-11-08

    Aberrant angiogenesis plays a large role in pathologies ranging from tumor growth to macular degeneration. Anti-angiogenic proteins have thus come under scrutiny as versatile, potent therapeutics but face problems with purification and tissue retention. We report here on the synthesis of supramolecular nanostructures that mimic the anti-angiogenic activity of maspin, a class II tumor suppressor protein. These maspin-mimetic nanostructures are formed via self-assembly of small peptide amphiphiles containing the g-helix motif of maspin. Using tubulogenesis assays with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, we demonstrate that maspin-mimetic nanostructures show anti-angiogenic activity at concentrations that are significantly lower than those necessary formore » the g-helix peptide. Furthermore, in vivo assays in the chick chorioallantoic membrane show maspin-mimetic nanostructures to be effective over controls at inhibiting angiogenesis. Thus, in conclusion, the nanostructures investigated here offer an attractive alternative to the use of anti-angiogenic recombinant proteins in the treatment of cancer or other diseases involving abnormal blood vessel formation.« less

  19. Receptor epitope usage by an interleukin-5 mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Ishino, Tetsuya; Urbina, Cecilia; Bhattacharya, Madhushree; Panarello, Dominick; Chaiken, Irwin

    2005-06-17

    The cyclic peptide AF17121 is a library-derived antagonist for human interleukin-5 (IL5) receptor alpha (IL5Ralpha) and inhibits IL5 activity. Our previous results have demonstrated that the sixth arginine residue of the peptide is crucial for the inhibitory effect and that several acidic residues in the N- and C-terminal regions also make a contribution, although to a lesser extent (Ruchala, P., Varadi, G., Ishino, T., Scibek, J., Bhattacharya, M., Urbina, C., Van Ryk, D., Uings, I., and Chaiken, I. (2004) Biopolymers 73, 556-568). However, the recognition mechanism of the receptor has remained unresolved. In this study, AF17121 was fused to thioredoxin by recombinant DNA techniques and examined for IL5Ralpha interaction using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor method. Kinetic analysis revealed that the dissociation rate of the peptide.receptor complex is comparable with that of the cytokine.receptor complex. The fusion peptide competed with IL5 for both biological function and interaction with IL5Ralpha, indicating that the binding sites on the receptor are shared by AF17121 and IL5. To define the epitope residues for AF17121, we defined its binding footprint on IL5Ralpha by alanine substitution of Asp(55), Asp(56), Glu(58), Lys(186), Arg(188), and Arg(297) of the receptor. Marked effects on the interaction were observed in all three fibronectin type III domains of IL5Ralpha, in particular Asp(55), Arg(188), and Arg(297) in the D1, D2, and D3 domains, respectively. This footprint represents a significant subset of that for IL5 binding. The fact that AF17121 mimics the receptor binding capability of IL5 but antagonizes biological function evokes several models for how IL5 induces activation of the multisubunit receptor system.

  20. A Novel Apolipoprotein C-II Mimetic Peptide That Activates Lipoprotein Lipase and Decreases Serum Triglycerides in Apolipoprotein E–Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E–knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:25395590

  1. A novel apolipoprotein C-II mimetic peptide that activates lipoprotein lipase and decreases serum triglycerides in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Amar, Marcelo J A; Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai-Ikuta, Akiko; Sviridov, Denis; Freeman, Lita; Ahsan, Lusana; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides are currently being developed as possible new agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease based on their ability to promote cholesterol efflux and their other beneficial antiatherogenic properties. Many of these peptides, however, have been reported to cause transient hypertriglyceridemia due to inhibition of lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LPL). We describe a novel bihelical amphipathic peptide (C-II-a) that contains an amphipathic helix (18A) for binding to lipoproteins and stimulating cholesterol efflux as well as a motif based on the last helix of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) that activates lipolysis by LPL. The C-II-a peptide promoted cholesterol efflux from ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1-transfected BHK cells similar to apoA-I mimetic peptides. Furthermore, it was shown in vitro to be comparable to the full-length apoC-II protein in activating lipolysis by LPL. When added to serum from a patient with apoC-II deficiency, it restored normal levels of LPL-induced lipolysis and also enhanced lipolysis in serum from patients with type IV and V hypertriglyceridemia. Intravenous injection of C-II-a (30 mg/kg) in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice resulted in a significant reduction of plasma cholesterol and triglycerides of 38 ± 6% and 85 ± 7%, respectively, at 4 hours. When coinjected with the 5A peptide (60 mg/kg), the C-II-a (30 mg/kg) peptide was found to completely block the hypertriglyceridemic effect of the 5A peptide in C57Bl/6 mice. In summary, C-II-a is a novel peptide based on apoC-II, which promotes cholesterol efflux and lipolysis and may therefore be useful for the treatment of apoC-II deficiency and other forms of hypertriglyceridemia. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  2. A peptide mimetic of human interferon (IFN)-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsushi; Sone, Saburo

    2003-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that are used clinically as antiviral and antitumour agents. The interaction of IFNs with their heterodimeric type I IFN receptor comprised of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 is a first step to inducing biological actions. Here, we describe the successful mimicry of IFN-beta by a peptide isolated by phage-display screening using a neutralizing anti-IFN-beta monoclonal antibody. The 15-mer peptide, designated SYR6, was shown to compete with IFN-beta for binding to type I IFN receptor in a concentration-dependent manner, and was shown to elicit antiviral activity on cultured cells. This antiviral activity was not eliminated in the presence of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to IFN-alpha, -beta and -gamma, and a low concentration of soluble type I IFN receptor, suggesting that it was not due to IFN contamination or the induction of endogenous IFNs by SYR6. This peptide might be a potent agonist to provide a mechanism of activating heterodimeric cytokine receptors. PMID:12542398

  3. Targeted drug delivery to tumor vasculature by a carbohydrate mimetic peptide

    PubMed Central

    Hatakeyama, Shingo; Sugihara, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Toshiaki K.; Nakayama, Jun; Akama, Tomoya O.; Tamura, Naoaki; Wong, Shuk-Man; Bobkov, Andrey A.; Takano, Yutaka; Ohyama, Chikara; Fukuda, Minoru; Fukuda, Michiko N.

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous carbohydrates play significant roles in mammalian cells, carbohydrate-based drug discovery has not been explored due to the technical difficulty of chemically synthesizing complex carbohydrate structures. Previously, we identified a series of carbohydrate mimetic peptides and found that a 7-mer peptide, designated I-peptide, inhibits hematogenous carbohydrate-dependent cancer cell colonization. During analysis of the endothelial surface receptor for I-peptide, we found that I-peptide bound to annexin 1 (Anxa1). Because Anxa1 is a highly specific tumor vasculature surface marker, we hypothesized that an I-peptide-like peptide could target anticancer drugs to the tumor vasculature. This study identifies IFLLWQR peptide, designated IF7, as homing to tumors. When synthetic IF7 peptide was conjugated to fluorescent Alexa 488 (A488) and injected intravenously into tumor-bearing mice, IF7-A488 targeted tumors within minutes. IF7 conjugated to the potent anticancer drug SN-38 and injected intravenously into nude mice carrying human colon HCT116 tumors efficiently suppressed tumor growth at low dosages with no apparent side effects. These results suggest that IF7 serves as an efficient drug delivery vehicle by targeting Anxa1 expressed on the surface of tumor vasculature. Given its extremely specific tumor-targeting activity, IF7 may represent a clinically relevant vehicle for anticancer drugs. PMID:22114188

  4. ApolipoproteinE mimetic peptides improve outcome after focal ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haichen; Anderson, Lauren G; Lascola, Christopher D; James, Michael L; Venkatraman, Talaignair N; Bennett, Ellen R; Acheson, Shawn K; Vitek, Michael P; Laskowitz, Daniel T

    2013-03-01

    Growing clinical evidence implicates isoform-specific effects of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in reducing neuroinflammation and mediating adaptive responses following ischemic and traumatic brain injury. However, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier and thus has limited therapeutic potential. We have created a small peptide, COG1410 (acetyl-AS-Aib-LRKL-Aib-KRLL-amide), derived from the apoE receptor-binding region. COG1410 retains the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective biological properties of the intact holoprotein and penetrates the blood-brain barrier. In the current study, we utilized a murine model of transient focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion to demonstrate that intravenous (IV) administration of COG1410 reduces infarct volume and radiographic progression of infarct, and improves functional outcome as assessed by rotarod when delivered up to 4h after ischemia onset. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Metal-Promoted Assembly of Two Collagen Mimetic Peptides into a Biofunctional "Spiraled Horn" Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin; Chmielewski, Jean

    2016-10-17

    Biofunctional scaffolds for the delivery of living cells are of the utmost importance for regenerative medicine. Herein, a novel, robust "spiraled horn" scaffold was elucidated through the Co(2+)-promoted hierarchical assembly of two collagen mimetic peptides, NCoH and HisCol. Each "horn" displayed a periodic banding pattern with band lengths corresponding to the length of the collagen peptide triple helix. Strand exchange between the two peptide trimers resulted in failure to form this intricate morphology, lending support to a precise metal-ligand-based mechanism of assembly. Little change occurred to the observed morphology when the Co(2+) concentration was varied from 0.5 to 4.0 mM, and the scaffold was found to be fully formed within two minutes of exposure to the metal ion. The horned network also displayed biological functionality by binding to a His-tagged fluorophore and associating with cells.

  6. A human apolipoprotein E mimetic peptide reduces atherosclerosis in aged apolipoprotein E null mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yanyong; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Mengting; Li, Feifei; Liu, Liangchen; Du, Fen; Fan, Daping; Yu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is well known as an antiatherogenic protein via regulating lipid metabolism and inflammation. We previously reported that a human apoE mimetic peptide, EpK, reduced atherosclerosis in apoE null (apoE-/-) mice through reducing inflammation without affecting plasma lipid levels. Here, we construct another human apoE mimetic peptide, named hEp, and investigate whether expression of hEp can reduce atherosclerotic lesion development in aged female apoE-/- mice with pre-existing lesions. We found that chemically synthesized hEp significantly decreased cholesterol accumulation induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein and the expression of inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide in macrophages. In an in vivo study, Lv-hEp-GFP lentiviruses were intravenously injected into 9 month-old apoE-/- mice. Mice were then fed a chow diet for 18 weeks. Results showed that in comparison to the Lv-GFP lentivirus injection (Lv-GFP) group, Lv-hEp-GFP lentivirus injection achieved hepatic hEp expression and secretion in apoE-/- mice. It was observed that hEp expression significantly reduced plasma VLDL and LDL cholesterol levels and decreased aortic atherosclerotic lesions. This was accompanied by an increase of LDL receptor expression and a reduction of TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels in the liver. Moreover, expression of hEp increased plasma paraoxonase-1 activity and decreased plasma myeloperoxidase activity and serum amyloid A levels. Our study provides evidence that hEp may be developed as a promising therapeutic apoE mimetic peptide for atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases through its induction of plasma VLDL/LDL cholesterol clearance as well as its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27648138

  7. Activity of Potent and Selective Host Defense Peptide Mimetics in Mouse Models of Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Freeman, Katie B.; Masso-Silva, Jorge A.; Falkovsky, Klaudia; Aloyouny, Ashwag; Markowitz, Kenneth; Hise, Amy G.; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Scott, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong need for new broadly active antifungal agents for the treatment of oral candidiasis that not only are active against many species of Candida, including drug-resistant strains, but also evade microbial countermeasures which may lead to resistance. Host defense peptides (HDPs) can provide a foundation for the development of such agents. Toward this end, we have developed fully synthetic, small-molecule, nonpeptide mimetics of the HDPs that improve safety and other pharmaceutical properties. Here we describe the identification of several HDP mimetics that are broadly active against C. albicans and other species of Candida, rapidly fungicidal, and active against yeast and hyphal cultures and that exhibit low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. Importantly, specificity for Candida over commensal bacteria was also evident, thereby minimizing potential damage to the endogenous microbiome which otherwise could favor fungal overgrowth. Three compounds were tested as topical agents in two different mouse models of oral candidiasis and were found to be highly active. Following single-dose administrations, total Candida burdens in tongues of infected animals were reduced up to three logs. These studies highlight the potential of HDP mimetics as a new tool in the antifungal arsenal for the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24752272

  8. Self-Assembling Glucagon-Like Peptide 1-Mimetic Peptide Amphiphiles for Enhanced Activity and Proliferation of Insulin-Secreting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Saahir; Sur, Shantanu; Newcomb, Christina J.; Appelt, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Current treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus requires daily insulin injections that fail to produce physiological glycemic control. Islet cell transplantation has been proposed as a permanent cure but is limited by loss of β-cell viability and function. These limitations could potentially be overcome by relying on the activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), which acts on β-cells to promote insulin release, proliferation, and survival. We have developed a peptide amphiphile (PA) molecule incorporating a peptide mimetic for GLP-1. This GLP-1-mimetic PA self-assembles into one-dimensional nanofibers that stabilize the active secondary structure of GLP-1 and can be cross-linked by calcium ions to form a macroscopic gel capable of cell encapsulation and 3-dimensional culture. The GLP-1-mimetic PA nanofibers were found to stimulate insulin secretion from rat insulinoma (RINm5f) cells to a significantly greater extent than the mimetic peptide alone and to a level equivalent to that of the clinically used agonist exendin-4. The activity of the GLP-1-mimetic PA is glucose-dependent, lipid-raft dependent, and partially PKA-dependent consistent with native GLP-1. The GLP-1-mimetic PA also completely abrogates inflammatory cytokine-induced cell death to the level of untreated controls. When used as a PA gel to encapsulate RINm5f cells, the GLP-1-mimetic PA stimulates insulin secretion and proliferation in a cytokine-resistant manner that is significantly greater than a non-bioactive PA gel containing exendin-4. Due to its self-assembling property and bioactivity, the GLP-1-mimetic PA can be incorporated into previously developed islet cell transplantation protocols with the potential for significant enhancement of β-cell viability and function. PMID:22342354

  9. Structurally Ordered Nanowire Formation from Co-Assembly of DNA Origami and Collagen-Mimetic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Meyer, Travis A; Modlin, Charles; Zuo, Xiaobing; Conticello, Vincent P; Ke, Yonggang

    2017-10-11

    We describe the co-assembly of two different building units: collagen-mimetic peptides and DNA origami. Two peptides CP(++) and sCP(++) are designed with a sequence comprising a central block (Pro-Hyp-Gly) and two positively charged domains (Pro-Arg-Gly) at both N- and C-termini. Co-assembly of peptides and DNA origami two-layer (TL) nanosheets affords the formation of one-dimensional nanowires with repeating periodicity of ∼10 nm. Structural analyses suggest a face-to-face stacking of DNA nanosheets with peptides aligned perpendicularly to the sheet surfaces. We demonstrate the potential of selective peptide-DNA association between face-to-face and edge-to-edge packing by tailoring the size of DNA nanostructures. This study presents an attractive strategy to create hybrid biomolecular assemblies from peptide- and DNA-based building blocks that takes advantage of the intrinsic chemical and physical properties of the respective components to encode structural and, potentially, functional complexity within readily accessible biomimetic materials.

  10. Incorporation of antimicrobial peptides in nanostructured lipid membrane mimetic bilayer cubosomes.

    PubMed

    Meikle, Thomas G; Zabara, Alexandru; Waddington, Lynne J; Separovic, Frances; Drummond, Calum J; Conn, Charlotte E

    2017-04-01

    The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering. A large variation in peptide loading capability of different cubosome formulations was confirmed using circular dichroism. Observations are supported by particle sizing using dynamic light scattering as well as by direct visualization of nanoparticle morphology using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The results are discussed in relation to bilayer properties such as the hydrophobic mismatch between bilayer and peptide, intrinsic surface curvature, and lateral pressure profile of each lipid system. The findings of this study should be of use in the further development of lipid-based peptide encapsulation systems, particularly in the field of drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular design, structures, and activity of antimicrobial peptide-mimetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Haruko; Palermo, Edmund F; Yasuhara, Kazuma; Caputo, Gregory A; Kuroda, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics which are effective against drug-resistant bacteria without contributing to resistance development. We have designed and developed antimicrobial copolymers with cationic amphiphilic structures based on the mimicry of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides. These copolymers exhibit potent antimicrobial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with no adverse hemolytic activity. Notably, these polymers also did not result in any measurable resistance development in E. coli. The peptide-mimetic design principle offers significant flexibility and diversity in the creation of new antimicrobial materials and their potential biomedical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Asymmetric synthesis of highly substituted azapolycyclic compounds via 2-alkenyl sulfoximines: potential scaffolds for peptide mimetics.

    PubMed

    Reggelin, Michael; Junker, Bernd; Heinrich, Timo; Slavik, Stefan; Bühle, Philipp

    2006-03-29

    The application of metalated, enantiomerically pure acyclic and cyclic 2-alkenyl sulfoximines for the synthesis of highly substituted aza(poly)cyclic ring systems is described. The method relies on a one-pot combination of a reagent-controlled allyl transfer reaction to alpha- or beta-amino aldehydes, followed by a Michael-type cyclization of the intermediate vinyl sulfoximines generated in the first step. The sulfur-free target compounds are preferentially obtained by samarium iodide treatment of the sulfonimidoyl substituted heterocycles. In addition to this methodological work, initial results on the biological activity of selected examples are reported. Furthermore, a concept for the transformation of peptidic lead structures into non-peptide mimetics is described, and the relevance of the new approach to highly substituted azaheterocycles in this context is discussed.

  13. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) reverse auranofin induced apoptosis and restore insulin secretion in insulinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Aisner, Yonatan; Niv, Masha Y; Benhar, Moran; Atlas, Daphne

    2013-04-01

    The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin system (TrxR/Trx1) plays a major role in protecting cells from oxidative stress. Disruption of the TrxR-Trx1 system keeps Trx1 in the oxidized state leading to cell death through activation of the ASK1-Trx1 apoptotic pathway. The potential mechanism and ability of tri- and tetra-oligopeptides derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site to mimic and enhance Trx1 cellular activity was examined. The Trx mimetics peptides (TXM) protected insulinoma INS 832/13 cells from oxidative stress induced by selectively inhibiting TrxR with auranofin (AuF). TXM reversed the AuF-effects preventing apoptosis, and increasing cell-viability. The TXM peptides were effective in inhibiting AuF-induced MAPK, JNK and p38(MAPK) phosphorylation, in correlation with preventing caspase-3 cleavage and thereby PARP-1 dissociation. The ability to form a disulfide-bridge-like conformation was estimated from molecular dynamics simulations. The TXM peptides restored insulin secretion and displayed Trx1 denitrosylase activity. Their potency was 10-100-fold higher than redox reagents like NAC, AD4, or ascorbic acid. Unable to reverse ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TXM-CB3 (NAc-Cys-Pro-Cys amide) appeared to function in part, through inhibiting ASK1-Trx dissociation. These highly effective anti-apoptotic effects of Trx1 mimetic peptides exhibited in INS 832/13 cells could become valuable in treating adverse oxidative-stress related disorders such as diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heparin mimetic peptide nanofiber gel promotes regeneration of full thickness burn injury.

    PubMed

    Yergoz, Fatih; Hastar, Nurcan; Cimenci, Cagla Eren; Ozkan, Alper Devrim; Tekinay, Turgay; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2017-07-01

    Burn injuries are one of the most common types of trauma worldwide, and their unique physiology requires the development of specialized therapeutic materials for their treatment. Here, we report the use of synthetic, functional and biodegradable peptide nanofiber gels for the improved healing of burn wounds to alleviate the progressive loss of tissue function at the post-burn wound site. These bioactive nanofiber gels form scaffolds that recapitulate the structure and function of the native extracellular matrix through signaling peptide epitopes, which can trigger angiogenesis through their affinity to basic growth factors. In this study, the angiogenesis-promoting properties of the bioactive scaffolds were utilized for the treatment of a thermal burn model. Following the excision of necrotic tissue, bioactive gels and control solutions were applied topically onto the wound area. The wound healing process was evaluated at 7, 14 and 21 days following injury through histological observations, immunostaining and marker RNA/protein analysis. Bioactive peptide nanofiber-treated burn wounds formed well-organized and collagen-rich granulation tissue layers, produced a greater density of newly formed blood vessels, and exhibited increased re-epithelialization and skin appendage development with minimal crust formation, while non-bioactive peptide nanofibers and the commercial wound dressing 3M™ Tegaderm™ did not exhibit significant efficiency over sucrose controls. Overall, the heparin-mimetic peptide nanofiber gels increased the rate of repair of burn injuries and can be used as an effective means of facilitating wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Collagen-mimetic peptide-modifiable hydrogels for articular cartilage regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Paresh A.; Chow, Lesley W.; St-Pierre, Jean-Philippe; Horejs, Christine-Maria; Peng, Yong Y.; Werkmeister, Jerome A.; Ramshaw, John A.M.; Stevens, Molly M.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative medicine strategies for restoring articular cartilage face significant challenges to recreate the complex and dynamic biochemical and biomechanical functions of native tissues. As an approach to recapitulate the complexity of the extracellular matrix, collagen-mimetic proteins offer a modular template to incorporate bioactive and biodegradable moieties into a single construct. We modified a Streptococcal collagen-like 2 protein with hyaluronic acid (HA) or chondroitin sulfate (CS)-binding peptides and then cross-linked with a matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7)-sensitive peptide to form biodegradable hydrogels. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) encapsulated in these hydrogels exhibited improved viability and significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation compared to controls that were not functionalized with glycosaminoglycan-binding peptides. Hydrogels functionalized with CS-binding peptides also led to significantly higher MMP7 gene expression and activity while the HA-binding peptides significantly increased chondrogenic differentiation of the hMSCs. Our results highlight the potential of this novel biomaterial to modulate cell-mediated processes and create functional tissue engineered constructs for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:25907054

  16. Structural Basis of GD2 Ganglioside and Mimetic Peptide Recognition by 14G2a Antibody.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Golik, Przemyslaw; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Kolinski, Michal; Zdzalik, Michal; Rokita, Hanna; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2015-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 ganglioside (GD2) have recently been approved for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma and are extensively evaluated in clinics in other indications. This study illustrates how a therapeutic antibody distinguishes between different types of gangliosides present on normal and cancer cells and informs how synthetic peptides can imitate ganglioside in its binding to the antibody. Using high resolution crystal structures we demonstrate that the ganglioside recognition by a model antibody (14G2a) is based primarily on an extended network of direct and water molecule mediated hydrogen bonds. Comparison of the GD2-Fab structure with that of a ligand free antibody reveals an induced fit mechanism of ligand binding. These conclusions are validated by directed mutagenesis and allowed structure guided generation of antibody variant with improved affinity toward GD2. Contrary to the carbohydrate, both evaluated mimetic peptides utilize a "key and lock" interaction mechanism complementing the surface of the antibody binding groove exactly as found in the empty structure. The interaction of both peptides with the Fab relies considerably on hydrophobic contacts however, the detailed connections differ significantly between the peptides. As such, the evaluated peptide carbohydrate mimicry is defined primarily in a functional and not in structural manner. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Structural Basis of GD2 Ganglioside and Mimetic Peptide Recognition by 14G2a Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Horwacik, Irena; Golik, Przemyslaw; Grudnik, Przemyslaw; Kolinski, Michal; Zdzalik, Michal; Rokita, Hanna; Dubin, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting GD2 ganglioside (GD2) have recently been approved for the treatment of high risk neuroblastoma and are extensively evaluated in clinics in other indications. This study illustrates how a therapeutic antibody distinguishes between different types of gangliosides present on normal and cancer cells and informs how synthetic peptides can imitate ganglioside in its binding to the antibody. Using high resolution crystal structures we demonstrate that the ganglioside recognition by a model antibody (14G2a) is based primarily on an extended network of direct and water molecule mediated hydrogen bonds. Comparison of the GD2-Fab structure with that of a ligand free antibody reveals an induced fit mechanism of ligand binding. These conclusions are validated by directed mutagenesis and allowed structure guided generation of antibody variant with improved affinity toward GD2. Contrary to the carbohydrate, both evaluated mimetic peptides utilize a “key and lock” interaction mechanism complementing the surface of the antibody binding groove exactly as found in the empty structure. The interaction of both peptides with the Fab relies considerably on hydrophobic contacts however, the detailed connections differ significantly between the peptides. As such, the evaluated peptide carbohydrate mimicry is defined primarily in a functional and not in structural manner. PMID:26179345

  18. Fluoroolefins as peptide mimetics: a computational study of structure, charge distribution, hydration, and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Urban, Joseph J; Tillman, Brendon G; Cronin, William Andrew

    2006-09-28

    The design of peptide mimetic compounds is greatly facilitated by the identification of functionalities that can act as peptide replacements. The fluoroalkene moiety has recently been employed for that purpose. The purpose of this work is to characterize prototypical fluoroalkenes (fluoroethylene and 2-fluoro-2-butene) with respect to key properties of peptides (amides) including structure, charge distribution, hydration, and hydrogen bonding. The results are compared to those obtained for model peptides (formamide, N-methylacetamide). Calculations have been carried out at the MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory with the 6-311++G(2d,p) and 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis sets. The results suggest that the fluoroalkene is similar in steric requirements to a peptide bond but that there is less charge separation. Calculations of the hydration free energies with the PCM bulk continuum solvent model indicate that the fluoroalkene has much smaller hydration free energies than an amide but that the difference in solvation free energy for cis and trans isomers is comparable. In studies of complexes with water molecules, the fluoroalkene is found to engage in interactions that are analogous to backbone hydrogen-bonding interactions that govern many properties of natural peptides and proteins but with smaller interaction energies. In addition, key structural differences are noted when the fluoroalkene is playing the role of hydrogen-bond acceptor which may have implications in binding, aggregation, and conformational preferences in fluoroalkene peptidomimetics. The issue of cooperativity in hydrogen-bonding interactions in complexes with multiple waters has also been investigated. The fluoroalkene is found to exhibit cooperative effects that mirror those of the peptide but are smaller in magnitude. Thus, pairwise addivitity of interactions appears to more adequately describe the fluoroalkenes than the peptides they are intended to mimic.

  19. Dysfunctional High-Density Lipoprotein and the Potential of Apolipoprotein A-1 Mimetic Peptides to Normalize the Composition and Function of Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Imaizumi, Satoshi; Navab, Mohamad; Morgantini, Cecilia; Charles-Sehoeman, Christina; Su, Feng; Gao, Feng; Kwon, Murray; Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Meriwether, David; Farias-Eisner, Robin; Fogelman, Alan M.; Reddy, Srinivasa T.

    2013-01-01

    Although high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in large epidemiological studies are inversely related to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), increasing the level of circulating HDL-C does not necessarily decrease the risk of CHD events, CHD deaths, or mortality, HDL can act as an anti- or a proinflammatory molecule, depending on the context and environment. Based on a number of recent studies, it appears that the anti- or proinflammatory nature of HDL may be a more sensitive indicator of the presence or absence of atherosclerosis than HDL-C levels. The HDL proteome has been suggested to be a marker, and perhaps a mediator, of CHD. Apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-I), the major protein in HDL is a selective target for oxidation by myeloperoxidase, which results in impaired HDL function. Improving HDL function through modification of its lipid and/or protein content maybe a therapeutic target for the treatment of CHD and many inflammatory disorders. HDL/apoA-I mimetic peptides may have the ability to modify the lipid and protein content of HDL and convert dysfunctional HDL to functional HDL. This review focuses on recent studies of dysfunctional HDL in animal models and human disease, and the potential of apoA-I mimetic peptides to normalize the composition and (function of lipoproteins. PMID:21628835

  20. Collagen-binding VEGF mimetic peptide: Structure, matrix interaction, and endothelial cell activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tania R.

    Long term survival of artificial tissue constructs depends greatly on proper vascularization. In nature, differentiation of endothelial cells and formation of vasculature are directed by dynamic spatio-temporal cues in the extracellular matrix that are difficult to reproduce in vitro. In this dissertation, we present a novel bifunctional peptide that mimics matrix-bound vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which can be used to encode spatially controlled angiogenic signals in collagen-based scaffolds. The peptide, QKCMP, contains a collagen mimetic domain (CMP) that binds to type I collagen by a unique triple helix hybridization mechanism and a VEGF mimetic domain (QK) with pro-angiogenic activity. We demonstrate QKCMP's ability to hybridize with native and heat denatured collagens through a series of binding studies on collagen and gelatin substrates. Circular dichroism experiments show that the peptide retains the triple helical structure vital for collagen binding, and surface plasmon resonance study confirms the molecular interaction between the peptide and collagen strands. Cell culture studies demonstrate QKCMP's ability to induce endothelial cell morphogenesis and network formation as a matrix-bound factor in 2D and 3D collagen scaffolds. We also show that the peptide can be used to spatially modify collagen-based substrates to promote localized endothelial cell activation and network formation. To probe the biological events that govern these angiogenic cellular responses, we investigated the cell signaling pathways activated by collagen-bound QKCMP and determined short and long-term endothelial cell response profiles for p38, ERK1/2, and Akt signal transduction cascades. Finally, we present our efforts to translate the peptide's in vitro bioactivity to an in vivo burn injury animal model. When implanted at the wound site, QKCMP functionalized biodegradable hydrogels induce enhanced neovascularization in the granulation tissue. The results show QKCMP

  1. RGD and BMP-2 mimetic peptide crosstalk enhances osteogenic commitment of human bone marrow stem cells.

    PubMed

    Bilem, I; Chevallier, P; Plawinski, L; Sone, E D; Durrieu, M C; Laroche, G

    2016-05-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) commitment and differentiation are dictated by bioactive molecules sequestered within their Extra Cellular Matrix (ECM). One common approach to mimic the physiological environment is to functionalize biomaterial surfaces with ECM-derived peptides able to recruit stem cells and trigger their linage-specific differentiation. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of RGD and BMP-2 ligands crosstalk and density on the extent of hBMSCs osteogenic commitment, without recourse to differentiation medium. RGD peptide promotes cell adhesion via cell transmembrane integrin receptors, while BMP-2 peptide, corresponding to residues 73-92 of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, was shown to induce hBMSCs osteoblast differentiation. The immobilization of peptides on aminated glass was ascertained by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), the density of grafted peptides was quantified by fluorescence microscopy and the surface roughness was evaluated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The osteogenic commitment of hBMSCs cultured on RGD and/or BMP-2 surfaces was characterized by immunohistochemistry using STRO-1 as specific stem cells marker and Runx-2 as an earlier osteogenic marker. Biological results showed that the osteogenic commitment of hBMSCs was enhanced on bifunctionalized surfaces as compared to surfaces containing BMP-2, while on RGD surfaces cells mainly preserved their stemness character. These results demonstrated that RGD and BMP-2 mimetic peptides act synergistically to enhance hBMSCs osteogenesis without supplementing the media with osteogenic factors. These findings contribute to the development of biomimetic materials, allowing a deeper understanding of signaling pathways that govern the transition of stem cells towards the osteoblastic lineage. For a long time, scientists thought that the differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) into bone cells was dictated by growth factors. This

  2. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: I. Activity against biofilms of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Yamarthy, R; Felsenstein, S; Scott, R W; Markowitz, K; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides hold promise as therapeutic agents against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans but numerous difficulties have slowed their development. Synthetic, non-peptidic analogs that mimic the properties of these peptides have many advantages and exhibit potent, selective antimicrobial activity. Several series of mimetics (with molecular weight < 1000) were developed and screened against oral Candida strains as a proof-of-principle for their antifungal properties. One phenylalkyne and several arylamide compounds with reduced mammalian cytotoxicities were found to be active against C. albicans. These compounds demonstrated rapid fungicidal activity in liquid culture even in the presence of saliva, and demonstrated synergy with standard antifungal agents. When assayed against biofilms grown on denture acrylic, the compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Repeated passages in sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels did not lead to resistant Candida, in contrast to fluconazole. Our results demonstrate the proof-of principle for the use of these compounds as anti-Candida agents, and their further testing is warranted as novel anti-Candida therapies.

  3. Empirical Estimation of Local Dielectric Constants: Toward Atomistic Design of Collagen Mimetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pike, Douglas H.; Nanda, Vikas

    2017-01-01

    One of the key challenges in modeling protein energetics is the treatment of solvent interactions. This is particularly important in the case of peptides, where much of the molecule is highly exposed to solvent due to its small size. In this study, we develop an empirical method for estimating the local dielectric constant based on an additive model of atomic polarizabilities. Calculated values match reported apparent dielectric constants for a series of Staphylococcus aureus nuclease mutants. Calculated constants are used to determine screening effects on Coulombic interactions and to determine solvation contributions based on a modified Generalized Born model. These terms are incorporated into the protein modeling platform protCAD, and benchmarked on a data set of collagen mimetic peptides for which experimentally determined stabilities are available. Computing local dielectric constants using atomistic protein models and the assumption of additive atomic polarizabilities is a rapid and potentially useful method for improving electrostatics and solvation calculations that can be applied in the computational design of peptides. PMID:25784456

  4. Annexin A1 mimetic peptide controls the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of silica particles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, P G; Ferreira, T P T; Arantes, A C S; Ciambarella, B T; Cordeiro, R S B; Flower, R J; Perretti, M; Martins, M A; Silva, P M R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endogenous glucocorticoids are pro-resolving mediators, an example of which is the endogenous glucocorticoid-regulated protein annexin A1 (ANXA1). Because silicosis is an occupational lung disease characterized by unabated inflammation and fibrosis, in this study we tested the therapeutic properties of the N-terminal ANXA1-derived peptide annexin 1-(2-26) (Ac2-26) on experimental silicosis. Experimental Approach Swiss-Webster mice were administered silica particles intranasally and were subsequently treated with intranasal peptide Ac2-26 (200 μg per mouse) or dexamethasone (25 μg per mouse) for 7 days, starting 6 h post-challenge. Ac2-26 abolished the leukocyte infiltration, collagen deposition, granuloma formation and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines evoked by silica; these variables were only partially inhibited by dexamethasone. Key Results A clear exacerbation of the silica-induced pathological changes was observed in ANXA1 knockout mice as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Incubation of lung fibroblasts from WT mice with Ac2-26 in vitro reduced IL-13 or TGF-β-induced production of CCL2 (MCP-1) and collagen, but this peptide did not affect the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) by stimulated fibroblasts from formyl peptide receptor type 1 (FPR1) knockout mice. Ac2-26 also inhibited the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) from fibroblasts of FPR2 knockout mice. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, our findings reveal novel protective properties of the ANXA1 derived peptide Ac2-26 on the inflammatory and fibrotic responses induced by silica, and suggest that ANXA1 mimetic agents might be a promising strategy as innovative anti-fibrotic approaches for the treatment of silicosis. PMID:25659822

  5. Structure of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor in complex with a peptide mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aaron A.; Liu, Wei; Chun, Eugene; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wu, Huixian; Vardy, Eyal; Huang, Xi-Ping; Trapella, Claudio; Guerrini, Remo; Calo, Girolamo; Roth, Bryan L.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2012-07-11

    Members of the opioid receptor family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are found throughout the peripheral and central nervous system, where they have key roles in nociception and analgesia. Unlike the 'classical' opioid receptors, {delta}, {kappa} and {mu} ({delta}-OR, {kappa}-OR and {mu}-OR), which were delineated by pharmacological criteria in the 1970s and 1980s, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide receptor (NOP, also known as ORL-1) was discovered relatively recently by molecular cloning and characterization of an orphan GPCR. Although it shares high sequence similarity with classical opioid GPCR subtypes ({approx}60%), NOP has a markedly distinct pharmacology, featuring activation by the endogenous peptide N/OFQ, and unique selectivity for exogenous ligands. Here we report the crystal structure of human NOP, solved in complex with the peptide mimetic antagonist compound-24 (C-24) (ref. 4), revealing atomic details of ligand-receptor recognition and selectivity. Compound-24 mimics the first four amino-terminal residues of the NOP-selective peptide antagonist UFP-101, a close derivative of N/OFQ, and provides important clues to the binding of these peptides. The X-ray structure also shows substantial conformational differences in the pocket regions between NOP and the classical opioid receptors {kappa} (ref. 5) and {mu} (ref. 6), and these are probably due to a small number of residues that vary between these receptors. The NOP-compound-24 structure explains the divergent selectivity profile of NOP and provides a new structural template for the design of NOP ligands.

  6. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptides (TXM) inhibit inflammatory pathways associated with high-glucose and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lejnev, Katia; Khomsky, Lena; Bokvist, Krister; Mistriel-Zerbib, Shani; Naveh, Tahel; Farb, Thomas Bradley; Alsina-Fernandez, Jorge; Atlas, Daphne

    2016-10-01

    Impaired insulin signaling and the associated insulin-resistance in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, represents a hallmark of the pathogenesis of type 2-diabetes-mellitus. Here we show that in the liver of db/db mice, a murine model of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, the elevated activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK; ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK)), and Akt/PKB are abolished by rosiglitazone-treatment, which normalizes blood glucose in db/db mice. This is unequivocal evidence of a functional link between the activation of the MAPK specific inflammatory-pathway and high-blood sugar. A similar reduction in ERK1/2, p38(MAPK), and Akt activities but without affecting blood-glucose was observed in the liver of db/db mice treated with a molecule that mimics the action of thioredoxin, called thioredoxin-mimetic peptide (TXM). N-Acetyl-Cys-Pro-Cys-amide (TXM-CB3) is a free radical scavenger, a reducing and denitrosylating reagent that protects the cells from early death induced by inflammatory pathways. TXM-CB3 also lowered MAPK signaling activated by the disruption of the thioredoxin-reductase-thioredoxin (Trx-TrxR) redox-system and restored Akt activity in rat hepatoma FAO cells. Similarly, two other TXM-peptides, N-Acetyl-Cys-Met-Lys-Cys-amide (TXM-CB13; DY70), and N-Acetyl-Cys-γGlu-Cys-Cys-amide (TXM-CB16; DY71), lowered insulin- and oxidative stress-induced ERK1/2 activation, and rescued HepG2 cells from cell death. The potential impact of TXM-peptides on inhibiting inflammatory pathways associated with high-glucose could be effective in reversing low-grade inflammation. TXM-peptides might also have the potential to improve insulin resistance by protecting from posttranslational modifications like nitrosylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Template-Tethered Collagen Mimetic Peptides for Studying Heterotrimeric Triple-Helical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Mo, Xiao; Kim, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) have been used to elucidate the structure and stability of the triple helical conformation of collagen molecules. Although CMP homotrimers have been widely studied, very little work has been reported regarding CMP heterotrimers because of synthetic difficulties. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of homotrimers and ABB type heterotrimers comprising natural and synthetic CMP sequences that are covalently tethered to a template, a tris(2-aminoethyl) amine (TREN) succinic acid derivative. Various tethered heterotrimers comprising synthetic CMPs [(ProHypGly)6, (ProProGly)6] and CMPs representing specific domains of type I collagen were synthesized and characterized in terms of triple helical structure, thermal melting behavior and refolding kinetics. The results indicated that CMPs derived from natural type I collagen sequence can form stable heterotrimeric helical complexes with artificial CMPs and that the thermal stability and the folding rate increase with the increasing number of helical stabilizing amino acids (e.g. Hyp) in the peptide chains. Covalent tethering enhanced the thermal stability and refolding kinetics of all CMPs; however their relative values were not affected suggesting that the tethered system can be used for comparative study of heterotrimeric CMP's folding behavior in regards to chain composition and for characterization of thermally unstable CMPs. PMID:20740489

  8. Non-Covalent Photo-Patterning of Gelatin Matrices Using Caged Collagen Mimetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Hoa San, Boi; L. Kessler, Julian; Hwan Kim, Jin; Xu, Qingguo; Hanes, Justin; Yu, Seungju Michael

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in photolithography have enabled us to spatially encode biochemical cues in biocompatible platforms such as synthetic hydrogels. Conventional patterning works through photo-activated chemical reactions on inert polymer networks. However, these techniques cannot be directly applied to protein hydrogels without chemically altering the protein scaffolds. To this end, we developed a non-covalent photo-patterning strategy for gelatin (denatured collagen) hydrogels utilizing a caged collagen mimetic peptide (caged CMP) which binds to gelatin strands through UV activated, triple helix hybridization. Here we present 2D and 3D photo-patterning of gelatin hydrogels enabled by the caged CMPs as well as creation of concentration gradients of CMPs. We show that photo-patterning of PEG-conjugated caged CMPs can be used to spatially control cell adhesion on gelatin films. CMP’s specificity for binding to gelatin allows patterning of almost any synthetic or natural gelatin-containing matrix, such as zymograms, gelatin-methacrylate hydrogels, and even a corneal tissue. Since the CMP is a chemically and biologically inert peptide which is proven to be an ideal carrier for bioactive molecules, our patterning method provides a radically new tool for immobilizing drugs to natural tissues and for functionalizing scaffolds for complex tissue formation. PMID:25476588

  9. Activity of an antimicrobial peptide mimetic against planktonic and biofilm cultures of oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Beckloff, Nicholas; Laube, Danielle; Castro, Tammy; Furgang, David; Park, Steven; Perlin, David; Clements, Dylan; Tang, Haizhong; Scott, Richard W; Tew, Gregory N; Diamond, Gill

    2007-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents that have recently been examined for their utility as therapeutic antibiotics. Unfortunately, they are expensive to produce and are often sensitive to protease digestion. To address this problem, we have examined the activity of a peptide mimetic whose design was based on the structure of magainin, exhibiting its amphiphilic structure. We demonstrate that this compound, meta-phenylene ethynylene (mPE), exhibits antimicrobial activity at nanomolar concentrations against a variety of bacterial and Candida species found in oral infections. Since Streptococcus mutans, an etiological agent of dental caries, colonizes the tooth surface and forms a biofilm, we quantified the activity of this compound against S. mutans growing under conditions that favor biofilm formation. Our results indicate that mPE can prevent the formation of a biofilm at nanomolar concentrations. Incubation with 5 nM mPE prevents further growth of the biofilm, and 100 nM mPE reduces viable bacteria in the biofilm by 3 logs. Structure-function analyses suggest that mPE inhibits the bioactivity of lipopolysaccharide and binds DNA at equimolar ratios, suggesting that it may act both as a membrane-active molecule, similar to magainin, and as an intracellular antibiotic, similar to other AMPs. We conclude that mPE and similar molecules display great potential for development as therapeutic antimicrobials.

  10. Improved assays for determining the cytosolic access of peptides, proteins, and their mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Holub, Justin M.; LaRochelle, Jonathan R.; Appelbaum, Jacob S.; Schepartz, Alanna

    2014-01-01

    Proteins and other macromolecules that cross biological membranes have great potential as tools for research and next-generation therapeutics. Here we describe two assays that effectively quantify the cytosolic localization of a number of previously reported peptides and protein domains. One assay, which we call GIGI (Glucocorticoid-Induced eGFP Induction), is an amplified assay that informs on relative cytosolic access without need for sophisticated imaging equipment or adherent cells. The second, GIGT (Glucocorticoid-Induced eGFP Translocation), is a non-amplified assay that informs on relative cytosolic access and exploits sophisticated imaging equipment to facilitate high-content screens in live cells. Each assay was employed to quantify the cytosolic delivery of several canonical “cell permeable peptides”, as well as more recently reported minimally cationic miniature proteins and zinc finger nuclease domains. Our results show definitively that both overall charge as well as charge distribution influence cytosolic access, and that small protein domains containing a discrete, helical, penta-arg motif can dramatically improve the cytosolic delivery of small folded proteins such as zinc finger domains. We anticipate that the assays described herein will prove useful to explore and discover the fundamental physicochemical and genetic properties that influence both the uptake and endosomal release of peptidic molecules and their mimetics. PMID:24256505

  11. Coating of Biomaterial Scaffolds with the Collagen-Mimetic Peptide GFOGER for Bone Defect Repair

    PubMed Central

    Wojtowicz, Abigail M.; Shekaran, Asha; Oest, Megan E.; Dupont, Kenneth M.; Templeman, Kellie L.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Guldberg, Robert E.; García, Andrés J.

    2009-01-01

    Healing large bone defects and non-unions remains a significant clinical problem. Current treatments, consisting of auto- and allografts, are limited by donor supply and morbidity, insufficient bioactivity and risk of infection. Biotherapeutics, including cells, genes and proteins, represent promising alternative therapies, but these strategies are limited by technical roadblocks to biotherapeutic delivery, cell sourcing, high cost, and regulatory hurdles. In the present study, the collagen-mimetic peptide, GFOGER, was used to coat synthetic PCL scaffolds to promote bone formation in critically-sized segmental defects in rats. GFOGER is a synthetic triple helical peptide that binds to the α2β1 integrin receptor involved in osteogenesis. GFOGER coatings passively-adsorbed onto polymeric scaffolds, in the absence of exogenous cells or growth factors, significantly accelerated and increased bone formation in non-healing femoral defects compared to uncoated scaffolds and empty defects. Despite differences in bone volume, no differences in torsional strength were detected after 12 weeks, indicating that bone mass but not bone quality was improved in this model. This work demonstrates a simple, cell/growth factor-free strategy to promote bone formation in challenging, non-healing bone defects. This biomaterial coating strategy represents a cost effective and facile approach translatable into a robust clinical therapy for musculoskeletal applications. PMID:20056517

  12. Coating of biomaterial scaffolds with the collagen-mimetic peptide GFOGER for bone defect repair.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz, Abigail M; Shekaran, Asha; Oest, Megan E; Dupont, Kenneth M; Templeman, Kellie L; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Guldberg, Robert E; García, Andrés J

    2010-03-01

    Healing large bone defects and non-unions remains a significant clinical problem. Current treatments, consisting of auto and allografts, are limited by donor supply and morbidity, insufficient bioactivity and risk of infection. Biotherapeutics, including cells, genes and proteins, represent promising alternative therapies, but these strategies are limited by technical roadblocks to biotherapeutic delivery, cell sourcing, high cost, and regulatory hurdles. In the present study, the collagen-mimetic peptide, GFOGER, was used to coat synthetic PCL scaffolds to promote bone formation in critically-sized segmental defects in rats. GFOGER is a synthetic triple helical peptide that binds to the alpha(2)beta(1) integrin receptor involved in osteogenesis. GFOGER coatings passively adsorbed onto polymeric scaffolds, in the absence of exogenous cells or growth factors, significantly accelerated and increased bone formation in non-healing femoral defects compared to uncoated scaffolds and empty defects. Despite differences in bone volume, no differences in torsional strength were detected after 12 weeks, indicating that bone mass but not bone quality was improved in this model. This work demonstrates a simple, cell/growth factor-free strategy to promote bone formation in challenging, non-healing bone defects. This biomaterial coating strategy represents a cost-effective and facile approach, translatable into a robust clinical therapy for musculoskeletal applications. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Study of collagen mimetic peptide's triple-helix structure and its thermostability by circular dichroism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bao; Wang, Jing-Jie; Chen, Hui-Juan; Xiong, Qing-Qing; Liu, Ling-Rong; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, the authors explore the triple-helix conformation and thermal stability of collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) as a function of peptide sequence and/or chain length by circular dichroism(CD). Five CMPs were designed and synthetized varying the number of POG triplets or incorporating an integrin alpha2beta1 binding motif Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu-Arg (GFOGER). CD spectroscopy from 260 to 190 nm was recorded to confirm the existence of triple-helix conformation at room temperature, while thermal melting and thermal annealing of triple-helix (thermal unfolding and refolding of triple-helix, respectively) was characterized by monitoring ellipticity at 225 nm as a function of temperature. The results demonstrated that all the CMPs adopted triple-helix conformation, and the thermal stability of the CMPs was enhanced with increasing the number of POG triplets. In contrast to natural collagen, the thermal denaturation processes of CMPs were reversible, i. e. the triple-helix unfolded upon heating while refolded upon cooling. Meanwhile, the phenomenon of "hysteresis" was observed by comparing melting and thermal curves. These findings add new insights to the mechanisms of collagen and CMPs assembly, as well as provide an alternative approach to the fabrication of artificial collagen-likes biomaterials.

  14. Design and synthesis of collagen mimetic peptide derivatives for studying triple helix assembly and collagen mimetic peptide-collagen binding interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Xiao

    2008-10-01

    Collagen is the principal tensile clement of the extra-cellular matrix in mammals and is the basic scaffold for cells and tissues. Collagen molecules are comprised of homo-trimeric helices (e.g. collagen type II and type III), ABB type hetero-trimeric helices (e.g. collagen type I, type IV, and type V), or ABC type hetero-trimeric helices (e.g. type V). Mimicry of collagen structures can help elucidate collagen triple helical conformation and provide insights into making novel collagen-like biomaterials. Our group previously reported a new physical collagen modification method, which was based on non-covalent interaction between collagen mimetic peptide (CMP: -(Pro-Hyp-Gly) x-) and natural collagen. We hypothesized that CMP binds to collagen through a process involving both strand invasion and triple helix assembly. The aim of this dissertation is to study structural formation and stability of collagen triple helix, and to investigate CMP-collagen binding interactions using two types of CMP derivatives: covalently templated CMP trimer and CMP-nanoparticle conjugates. We demonstrated that covalently templated ABB type CMP hetero-trimers could be prepared by a versatile synthetic strategy involving both solid phase and solution peptide coupling. Our thermal melting studies showed that the templated CMP hetero-trimers formed collagen-like triple helices and their folding kinetics correlated with the amino acid compositions of the individual CMP strands. We also studied the thermal melting behavior and folding kinetics of a templated hetero-trimer complex comprised of CMP and a peptide derived from collagen. This synthetic strategy can be readily extended to synthesize other ABB type hetero-trimers to investigate their local melting behavior and biological activity. We also prepared colloidally stable CMP functionalized gold nanoparticles (Au-CMPs) as a TEM marker for investigating the CMP-collagen interaction. Au-CMP showed preferential binding to collagen fiber's gap

  15. Treatment of mild traumatic brain injury with an erythropoietin-mimetic peptide.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Claudia S; Garcia, Robert; Gaddam, Samson Sujit Kumar; Grill, Raymond J; Cerami Hand, Carla; Tian, Tian Siva; Hannay, H Julia

    2013-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) results in an estimated 75-90% of the 1.7 million TBI-related emergency room visits each year. Post-concussion symptoms, which can include impaired memory problems, may persist for prolonged periods of time in a fraction of these cases. The purpose of this study was to determine if an erythropoietin-mimetic peptide, pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBSP), would improve neurological outcomes following mTBI. Sixty-four rats were randomly assigned to pHBSP or control (inactive peptide) 30 μg/kg IP every 12 h for 3 days, starting at either 1 hour (early treatment) or 24 h (delayed treatment), after mTBI (cortical impact injury 3 m/sec, 2.5 mm deformation). Treatment with pHBSP resulted in significantly improved performance on the Morris water maze task. Rats that received pHBSP required 22.3±1.3 sec to find the platform, compared to 26.3±1.3 sec in control rats (p=0.022). The rats that received pHBSP also traveled a significantly shorter distance to get to the platform, 5.0±0.3 meters, compared to 6.1±0.3 meters in control rats (p=0.019). Motor tasks were only transiently impaired in this mTBI model, and no treatment effect on motor performance was observed with pHBSP. Despite the minimal tissue injury with this mTBI model, there was significant activation of inflammatory cells identified by labeling with CD68, which was reduced in the pHBSP-treated animals. The results suggest that pHBSP may improve cognitive function following mTBI.

  16. Thioredoxin-mimetic peptide CB3 lowers MAPKinase activity in the Zucker rat brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kutner, Moshe; Khomsky, Lena; Trus, Michael; Ben-Yehuda, Hila; Lenhard, James M.; Liang, Yin; Martin, Tonya; Atlas, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a high risk factor for dementia. High glucose may be a risk factor for dementia even among persons without diabetes, and in transgenic animals it has been shown to cause a potentiation of indices that are pre-symptomatic of Alzheimer's disease. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms linking inflammatory events elicited in the brain during oxidative stress and diabetes, we monitored the activation of mitogen-activated kinsase (MAPKs), c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 MAP kinases (p38MAPK), and extracellular activating kinsae1/2 (ERK1/2) and the anti-inflammatory effects of the thioredoxin mimetic (TxM) peptides, Ac-Cys-Pro-Cys-amide (CB3) and Ac-Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-amide (CB4) in the brain of male leptin-receptor-deficient Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Daily i.p. injection of CB3 to ZDF rats inhibited the phosphorylation of JNK and p38MAPK, and prevented the expression of thioredoxin-interacting-protein (TXNIP/TBP-2) in ZDF rat brain. Although plasma glucose/insulin remained high, CB3 also increased the phosphorylation of AMP-ribose activating kinase (AMPK) and inhibited p70S6K kinase in the brain. Both CB3 and CB4 reversed apoptosis induced by inhibiting thioredoxin reductase as monitored by decreasing caspase 3 cleavage and PARP dissociation in SH-SY5Y cells. The decrease in JNK and p38MAPK activity in the absence of a change in plasma glucose implies a decrease in oxidative or neuroinflammatory stress in the ZDF rat brain. CB3 not only attenuated MAPK phosphorylation and activated AMPK in the brain, but it also diminished apoptotic markers, most likely acting via the MAPK–AMPK–mTOR pathway. These results were correlated with CB3 and CB4 inhibiting inflammation progression and protection from oxidative stress induced apoptosis in human neuronal cells. We suggest that by attenuating neuro-inflammatory processes in the brain Trx1 mimetic peptides could become beneficial for preventing neurological

  17. Thioredoxin-Mimetic-Peptides Protect Cognitive Function after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    PubMed Central

    Baratz-Goldstein, Renana; Deselms, Hanna; Heim, Leore Raphael; Khomski, Lena; Hoffer, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is recognized as a common injury among children, sportsmen, and elderly population. mTBI lacks visible objective structural brain damage but patients frequently suffer from long-lasting cognitive, behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with biochemical and cellular changes. Currently there is no effective treatment for patients with mTBI. The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin pathway (TrxR/Trx1) has both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. If the system is compromised, Trx1 remains oxidized and triggers cell death via an ASK1-Trx1 signal transduction mechanism. We previously showed tri and tetra peptides which were derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site, called thioredoxin mimetic (TXM) peptides, reversed inflammatory and oxidative stress damage mimicking Trx1 activity. Here, TXM-peptides were examined for protecting cognitive function following weight drop closed-head injury in a mouse model of mTBI. TXM-CB3 (AcCys-Pro-CysNH2), TXM-CB13 (DY-70; AcCys-Met-Lys-CysNH2) or AD4 (ACysNH2) were administered at 50 mg/kg, 60 min after injury and cognitive performance was monitored by the novel-object-recognition and Y-maze tests. Behavioral deficits subsequent to mTBI injury were reversed by a single dose of TXM-CB3, TXM-CB13 and, to a lesser extent, by AD4. TXM-CB13 similar to TXM-CB3 and AD4 reversed oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinases, p38MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, (JNK) in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We conclude that significantly improved cognitive behavior post mTBI by the TXM-peptides could result from anti-apoptotic, and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Future preclinical studies are required to establish the TXM-peptides as potential therapeutic drugs for brain injuries. PMID:27285176

  18. Thioredoxin-Mimetic-Peptides Protect Cognitive Function after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI).

    PubMed

    Baratz-Goldstein, Renana; Deselms, Hanna; Heim, Leore Raphael; Khomski, Lena; Hoffer, Barry J; Atlas, Daphne; Pick, Chaim G

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is recognized as a common injury among children, sportsmen, and elderly population. mTBI lacks visible objective structural brain damage but patients frequently suffer from long-lasting cognitive, behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with biochemical and cellular changes. Currently there is no effective treatment for patients with mTBI. The thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin pathway (TrxR/Trx1) has both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. If the system is compromised, Trx1 remains oxidized and triggers cell death via an ASK1-Trx1 signal transduction mechanism. We previously showed tri and tetra peptides which were derived from the canonical -CxxC- motif of the Trx1-active site, called thioredoxin mimetic (TXM) peptides, reversed inflammatory and oxidative stress damage mimicking Trx1 activity. Here, TXM-peptides were examined for protecting cognitive function following weight drop closed-head injury in a mouse model of mTBI. TXM-CB3 (AcCys-Pro-CysNH2), TXM-CB13 (DY-70; AcCys-Met-Lys-CysNH2) or AD4 (ACysNH2) were administered at 50 mg/kg, 60 min after injury and cognitive performance was monitored by the novel-object-recognition and Y-maze tests. Behavioral deficits subsequent to mTBI injury were reversed by a single dose of TXM-CB3, TXM-CB13 and, to a lesser extent, by AD4. TXM-CB13 similar to TXM-CB3 and AD4 reversed oxidative stress-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated kinases, p38MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, (JNK) in human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells. We conclude that significantly improved cognitive behavior post mTBI by the TXM-peptides could result from anti-apoptotic, and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Future preclinical studies are required to establish the TXM-peptides as potential therapeutic drugs for brain injuries.

  19. Fusion protein of CDR mimetic peptide with Fc inhibit TNF-alpha induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Weisong; Feng, Jiannan; Li, Yan; Lin, Zhou; Shen, Beifen

    2006-02-01

    The variable regions of antibodies play central roles in the binding with antigens. Based on the model of a tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) neutralizing monoclonal antibody (named as Z12) with TNF-alpha, heavy chain CDR2 (HCDR2) and light chain CDR3 (LCDR3) of Z12 were found to be the most responsible to bind with TNF-alpha. A mimetic peptide (PT) was designed based on the sequence derived from HCDR2 and LCDR3. Fusion protein PT-Fc was constructed by linking PT with Fc of human IgG1 through a flexible linker (GGGGGS). The primary structural characteristics of Fc and PT-Fc were analyzed, including the flexibility, hydrophilicity and epitopes. It was demonstrated that PT and Fc in the fusion protein possessed bio-function properly and non-interfering with each other. Furthermore, PT-Fc was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with thioredoxin (Trx). After trx-PT-Fc was cleaved with recombinant enterokinase, PT-Fc was obtained. The results of in vitro cytotoxic assays showed that both PT and PT-Fc could efficiently inhibit TNF-alpha induced apoptosis on L929 cells. At the same micromole concentration, the inhibition activity of PT-Fc was significantly higher than PT.

  20. PEG-Based Hydrogels with Collagen Mimetic Peptide-Mediated and Tunable Physical Crosslinks

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Patrick J.; Romano, Nicole H.; Wirtz, Denis; Yu, S. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical properties of tissue scaffolds have major effects on the morphology and differentiation of cells. In contrast to two-dimensional substrates, local biochemical and mechanical properties of three-dimensional hydrogels are difficult to control due to the geometrical confinement. We designed synthetic 3D hydrogels featuring complexes of four-arm poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) that form hydrogels via physical crosslinks mediated by thermally reversible triple helical assembly of CMPs. Here we present the fabrication of various PEG-CMP 3D hydrogels and their local mechanical properties determined by particle tracking microrheology. Results show that CMP mediated physical crosslinks can be disrupted by altering the temperature of the gel or by adding free CMPs that compete for triple helix formation. This allowed modulation of both bulk and local stiffness as well as the creation of stiffness gradients within the PEG-CMP hydrogel, which demonstrates its potential as a novel scaffold for encoding physico-chemical signals for tissue formation. PMID:20715762

  1. Carbohydrate Mimetic Peptides Augment Carbohydrate-Reactive Immune Responses in the Absence of Immune Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Hennings, Leah; Artaud, Cecile; Jousheghany, Fariba; Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Pashov, Anastas; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Among the most challenging of clinical targets for cancer immunotherapy are Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs). To augment immune responses to TACA we are developing carbohydrate mimetic peptides (CMPs) that are sufficiently potent to activate broad-spectrum anti-tumor reactivity. However, the activation of immune responses against terminal mono- and disaccharide constituents of TACA raises concerns regarding the balance between “tumor destruction” and “tissue damage”, as mono- and disaccharides are also expressed on normal tissue. To support the development of CMPs for clinical trial testing, we demonstrate in preclinical safety assessment studies in mice that vaccination with CMPs can enhance responses to TACAs without mediating tissue damage to normal cells expressing TACA. BALB/c mice were immunized with CMPs that mimic TACAs reactive with Griffonia simplicifolia lectin 1 (GS-I), and tissue reactivity of serum antibodies were compared with the tissue staining profile of GS-I. Tissues from CMP immunized mice were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin stain, and Luxol-fast blue staining for myelination. Western blots of membranes from murine mammary 4T1 cells, syngeneic with BALB/c mice, were also compared using GS-I, immunized serum antibodies, and naive serum antibodies. CMP immunization enhanced glycan reactivities with no evidence of pathological autoimmunity in any immunized mice demonstrating that tissue damage is not an inevitable consequence of TACA reactive responses. PMID:24213131

  2. A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating a Cx43-Mimetic Peptide in Cutaneous Scarring.

    PubMed

    Grek, Christina L; Montgomery, Jade; Sharma, Meenakshi; Ravi, A; Rajkumar, J S; Moyer, Kurtis E; Gourdie, Robert G; Ghatnekar, Gautam S

    2017-03-01

    The transmembrane protein Cx43 has key roles in fibrogenic processes including inflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix composition. aCT1 is a Cx43 mimetic peptide that in preclinical studies accelerated wound closure, decreased inflammation and granulation tissue area, and normalized mechanical properties after cutaneous injury. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of aCT1 in the reduction of scar formation in human incisional wounds. In a prospective, multicenter, within-participant controlled trial, patients with bilateral incisional wounds (≥10 mm) after laparoscopic surgery were randomized to receive acute treatment (immediately after wounding and 24 hours later) with an aCT1 gel formulation plus conventional standard of care protocols, involving moisture-retentive occlusive dressing, or standard of care alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was average scarring score using visual analog scales evaluating incision appearance and healing progress over 9 months. There was no significant difference in scar appearance between aCT1- or control-treated incisions after 1 month. At month 9, aCT1-treated incisions showed a 47% improvement in scar scores over controls (Vancouver Scar Scale; P = 0.0045), a significantly higher Global Assessment Scale score (P = 0.0009), and improvements in scar pigmentation, thickness, surface roughness, and mechanical suppleness. Adverse events were similar in both groups. aCT1 has potential to improve scarring outcome after surgery. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Davalintide (AC2307), a Novel Amylin Mimetic Peptide: Enhanced Pharmacological Properties over Native Amylin to Reduce Food Intake and Body Weight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: These studies describe the in vivo metabolic actions of the novel amylin mimetic peptide davalintide (AC2307) in rodents, and compare these effects to those of the native peptide. Research Design and Methods: The anti-obesity effects of davalintide were examined following intraperitoneal ...

  4. Conformational assembly and biological properties of collagen mimetic peptides and their thermally responsive polymer conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Ohm Divyam

    2011-12-01

    Collagens are one of the most abundant proteins found in body tissues and organs, endowing structural integrity, mechanical strength, and multiple biological functions. Destabilized collagen inside human body leads to various degenerative diseases (ex. osteoarthritis) and ageing. This has continued to motivate the design of synthetic peptides and bio-synthetic polypeptides to closely mimic the native collagens in terms of triple helix structure and stability, potential for higher order assembly, and biological properties. However, the widespread application of de novo collagens has been limited in part by the need for hydroxylated proline in the formation of stable triple helical structures. To address this continued need, a hydroxyproline-free, thermally stable collagen-mimetic peptide (CLP-Cys) was rationally designed via the incorporation of electrostatically stabilized amino acid triplets. CLP-Cys was synthesized via solid phase peptide synthesis. The formation and stability of the triple helical structure were indicated via circular dichroism (CD) experiments and confirmed via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results. CLP-Cys also self-assembled into nano-rods and micro-fibrils, as evidenced via a combination of dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Given the high thermal stability and its propensity for higher-order assembly, CLP-Cys was further functionalized at both the ends with a thermally responsive polymer, poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate), (PDEGMEMA) to synthesize a biohybrid triblock copolymer. The CD results indicated that the triple helical form is retained, the thermal unfolding is sustained and helix to coil transition is reversible in the triblock hybrid context. The LCST of PDEGMEMA homopolymer (26 °C) is increased (to 35 °C) upon conjugation to the hydrophilic collagen peptide domain. Further, a combination of static light scattering, Cryo-SEM, TEM and confocal microscopy elucidated that the

  5. Thrombospondin-1 Mimetic Agonist Peptides Induce Selective Death in Tumor Cells: Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies.

    PubMed

    Denèfle, Thomas; Boullet, Héloise; Herbi, Linda; Newton, Clara; Martinez-Torres, Ana-Carolina; Guez, Alexandre; Pramil, Elodie; Quiney, Claire; Pourcelot, Marilyne; Levasseur, Mikail D; Lardé, Eva; Moumné, Roba; Ogi, François-Xavier; Grondin, Pascal; Merle-Beral, Hélène; Lequin, Olivier; Susin, Santos A; Karoyan, Philippe

    2016-09-22

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a glycoprotein considered as a key actor within the tumor microenvironment. Its binding to CD47, a cell surface receptor, triggers programmed cell death. Previous studies allowed the identification of 4N1K decapeptide derived from the TSP-1/CD47 binding epitope. Here, we demonstrate that this peptide is able to induce selective apoptosis of various cancer cell lines while sparing normal cells. A structure-activity relationship study led to the design of the first serum stable TSP-1 mimetic agonist peptide able to trigger selective programmed cell death (PCD) of at least lung, breast, and colorectal cancer cells. Altogether, these results will be of valuable interest for further investigation in the design of potent CD47 agonist peptides, opening new perspectives for the development of original anticancer therapies.

  6. Metal-Promoted Assembly of Two Collagen Mimetic Peptides into a Biofunctional “Spiraled Horn” Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin; Chmielewski, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Biofunctional scaffolds for the delivery of living cells are of the utmost importance for regenerative medicine. Herein, a novel, robust “spiraled horn” scaffold was elucidated through the Co2+-promoted hierarchical assembly of two collagen mimetic peptides, NCoH and HisCol. Each “horn” displayed a periodic banding pattern with band lengths corresponding to the length of the collagen peptide triple helix. Strand exchange between the two peptide trimers resulted in failure to form this intricate morphology, lending support to a precise metal-ligand-based mechanism of assembly. Little change occurred to the observed morphology when the Co2+ concentration was varied from 0.5 to 4.0 mM, and the scaffold was found to be fully formed within two minutes of exposure to the metal ion. The horned network also displayed biological functionality by binding to a His-tagged fluorophore and associating with cells. PMID:28773959

  7. Encoding physico-chemical cues in synthetic hydrogels by triple helix assembly of collagen mimetic peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, Patrick

    The ECM is a complex natural system evolved to promote proliferation and differentiation of cells during tissue development. In order to create synthetic biomaterials for studying cell-scaffold interactions and ultimately for engineering tissues, scientists strive to recapitulate many characteristics of ECM by developing hydrogels that contain mechanical cues and biochemical signals such as adhesion moieties and cell growth factors. While synthetic hydrogels bypass limitations of naturally-derived materials (e.g. transfer of pathogens), nature provides inspiration to enhance the functionality of synthetic hydrogels through biomimetic approaches. The collagen triple helix is the basis for the supramolecular structure of collagen in the ECM, and its adaptation in collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) has provided hybridization mechanisms that can be employed in the formation and functionalization of synthetic hydrogels. The aim of this dissertation is to develop novel poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogels that employ CMP triple helix assembly as a non-covalent yet target-specific tool to encode physical and chemical cues into the hydrogel with spatial control. We demonstrate that multi-arm PEG functionalized with CMPs form hydrogels supported by physical crosslinks mediated by CMP triple helix. Particle tracking microrheology shows that these physical crosslinks are sensitive to temperature as well as addition of exogenous CMPs that can disrupt crosslinks by competing for triple helix formation. This physical crosslink disruption enables the modulation of bulk hydrogel elasticity and the introduction of local stiffness gradients in PEG-CMP hydrogels. We also present photopolymerized PEG diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogels displaying CMPs that can be further conjugated to CMPs with bioactive moieties via triple helix hybridization. Encoding these hydrogels with cell-adhesive CMPs induces cell spreading and proliferation. We further demonstrate generation of gradients and

  8. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: II. Activity against periopathogenic biofilms and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Hua, J; Scott, R W; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Whereas periodontal disease is ultimately of bacterial etiology, from multispecies biofilms of gram-negative anaerobic microorganisms, much of the deleterious effects are caused by the resultant epithelial inflammatory response. Hence, development of a treatment that combines anti-biofilm antibiotic activity with anti-inflammatory activity would be of great utility. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins are naturally occurring peptides that exhibit broad-spectrum activity as well as a variety of immunomodulatory activities. Furthermore, bacteria do not readily develop resistance to these agents. However, clinical studies have suggested that they do not represent optimal candidates for exogenous therapeutic agents. Small-molecule mimetics of these AMPs exhibit similar activities to the parent peptides, in addition to having low toxicity, high stability and low cost. To determine whether AMP mimetics have the potential for treatment of periodontal disease, we examined the activity of one mimetic, mPE, against biofilm cultures of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Metabolic assays as well as culture and biomass measurement assays demonstrated that mPE exhibits potent activity against biofilm cultures of both species. Furthermore, as little as 2 μg ml(-1) mPE was sufficient to inhibit interleukin-1β-induced secretion of interleukin-8 in both gingival epithelial cells and THP-1 cells. This anti-inflammatory activity is associated with a reduction in activation of nuclear factor-κB, suggesting that mPE can act both as an anti-biofilm agent in an anaerobic environment and as an anti-inflammatory agent in infected tissues.

  9. A tenascin-C mimetic peptide amphiphile nanofiber gel promotes neurite outgrowth and cell migration of neurosphere-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Berns, Eric J; Álvarez, Zaida; Goldberger, Joshua E; Boekhoven, Job; Kessler, John A; Kuhn, H Georg; Stupp, Samuel I

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic materials that display natural bioactive signals derived from extracellular matrix molecules like laminin and fibronectin hold promise for promoting regeneration of the nervous system. In this work, we investigated a biomimetic peptide amphiphile (PA) presenting a peptide derived from the extracellular glycoprotein tenascin-C, known to promote neurite outgrowth through interaction with β1 integrin. The tenascin-C mimetic PA (TN-C PA) was found to self-assemble into supramolecular nanofibers and was incorporated through co-assembly into PA gels formed by highly aligned nanofibers. TN-C PA content in these gels increased the length and number of neurites produced from neurons differentiated from encapsulated P19 cells. Furthermore, gels containing TN-C PA were found to increase migration of cells out of neurospheres cultured on gel coatings. These bioactive gels could serve as artificial matrix therapies in regions of neuronal loss to guide neural stem cells and promote through biochemical cues neurite extension after differentiation. One example of an important target would be their use as biomaterial therapies in spinal cord injury. Tenascin-C is an important extracellular matrix molecule in the nervous system and has been shown to play a role in regenerating the spinal cord after injury and guiding neural progenitor cells during brain development, however, minimal research has been reported exploring the use of biomimetic biomaterials of tenascin-C. In this work, we describe a selfassembling biomaterial system in which peptide amphiphiles present a peptide derived from tenascin-C that promotes neurite outgrowth. Encapsulation of neurons in hydrogels of aligned nanofibers formed by tenascin-C-mimetic peptide amphiphiles resulted in enhanced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, these peptide amphiphiles promoted migration of neural progenitor cells cultured on nanofiber coatings. Tenascin-C biomimetic biomaterials such as the one described here have

  10. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Avdic, Vanja; Zhang, Pamela; Lanouette, Sylvain; Voronova, Anastassia; Skerjanc, Ilona; Couture, Jean-Francois

    2011-08-24

    The SET1 family of methyltransferases carries out the bulk of histone H3 Lys-4 methylation in vivo. One of the common features of this family is the regulation of their methyltransferase activity by a tripartite complex composed of WDR5, RbBP5, and Ash2L. To selectively probe the role of the SET1 family of methyltransferases, we have developed a library of histone H3 peptide mimetics and report herein the characterization of an N{alpha} acetylated form of histone H3 peptide (N{alpha}H3). Binding and inhibition studies reveal that the addition of an acetyl moiety to the N terminus of histone H3 significantly enhances its binding to WDR5 and prevents the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by the WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L complex. The crystal structure of N{alpha}H3 in complex with WDR5 reveals that a high-affinity hydrophobic pocket accommodates the binding of the acetyl moiety. These results provide the structural basis to control WDR5-RbBP5-Ash2L-MLL1 activity and a tool to manipulate stem cell differentiation programs.-Avdic, V., Zhang, P., Lanouette, S., Voronova, A., Skerjanc, I., Couture, J.-F. Fine-tuning the stimulation of MLL1 methyltransferase activity by a histone H3-based peptide mimetic.

  11. [Investigation of neuroprotective activity of apolipoprotein E peptide mimetic Cog1410 in transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Latypova, E M; Timoshenko, S I; Kislik, G A; Vitek, M; Shvartsman, A L; Sarantseva, S V

    2014-01-01

    The neuroprotective activity of apolipoprotein E (apoE) peptide mimetic Cog1410, containing amino acid sequence of the receptor-binding domain apoE, has been investigated in transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster expressing human APP and beta-secretase. Expression of two transgenes caused neuropathological processes attributed to Alzheimer's disease: neurodegeneration, cognitive abnormality and amyloid deposits formation in brain. It was shown that Cog 1410 reduces neurodegeneration in brain of transgenic flies and improves cognitive functions (odor recognition). These data suggest that Cog1410 is a potential neuroprotector that can be used in AD treatment.

  12. Signalling pathways of an insulin-mimetic phosphoinositolglycan-peptide in muscle and adipose tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, A; Müller, G; Wied, S; Crecelius, A; Eckel, J

    1998-01-01

    A novel phosphoinositolglycan-peptide (PIG-P) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae potently mimicks insulin action on glucose transport and metabolism in rat muscle and adipose tissue. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cellular signalling pathways of this insulin-mimetic compound. Rapid onset and reversibility of PIG-P action on glucose transport were observed in isolated adipocytes with a half-time of transport stimulation of 6-8 min (insulin less than 5 min). Combined treatment with PIG-P and insulin indicated additive stimulation of glucose transport at submaximal concentrations and non-additive action of both agents at maximal doses. The tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) was markedly increased in response to PIG-P in rat cardiomyocytes without any effect on the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit. PIG-P action in these cells was accompanied by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of several proteins with molecular masses of 15-30 kDa, a response not detected with insulin. Downstream signalling of IRS-1 was then analysed by monitoring IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) activity in cardiomyocytes. A stable (2 and 15 min incubation with PIG-P) 7-fold stimulation corresponding to about 50% of insulin action could be detected. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and enhanced PI 3-kinase activity in response to PIG-P independent of the insulin receptor was also observed in isolated adipocytes. Involvement of PI 3-kinase in PIG-P action was subsequently confirmed by the dose-dependent inhibition of PIG-P-activated glucose transport in rat diaphragm and adipocytes by the PI 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002. These data suggest divergent upstream signalling by insulin and PIG-P involving phosphoproteins not affected by insulin. However, PIG-P and insulin action converge at the level of IRS-1 inducing insulin-independent PI 3-kinase-mediated signalling to

  13. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 fused with erythropoietin (EPO) mimetic peptide (EMP) enhances the EPO activity of EMP.

    PubMed

    Kuai, L; Wu, C; Qiu, Q; Zhang, J; Zhou, A; Wang, S; Zhang, H; Song, Q; Liao, S; Han, Y; Liu, J; Ma, Z

    2000-08-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) mimetic peptide (EMP) encoding sequence was inserted into the gene of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) between Ala348 and Pro349 (P2'-P3'), generating a novel gene, PAI-1/EMP (PMP). This was cloned into pET32a expression vector, fused with TrxA peptide in the vector, and a 63-kDa protein was expressed in inclusion bodies with an expression level >50%. The TrxA/PMP protein was purified by Ni-NTA-agarose metal-ligand affinity chromatography to a purity >90%, showing a single, silver-stained band on SDS-PAGE. Using a reticulocyte counting assay, the EPO activity of PMP was determined to be 5,000 IU/mg, 2,500-fold that of EMP.

  14. Transferred NOESY NMR studies of biotin mimetic peptide (FSHPQNT) bound to streptavidin: A structural model for studies of peptide-protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Gizachew, Dawit; Dratz, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions control signaling, specific adhesion and many other biological functions. The three dimensional structures of the interfaces and bound ligand can be approached with Tr-NOESY NMR, which can be applied to much larger proteins than conventional NMR and requires less concentrated protein. However, it is not clear how accurately the structures of protein-bound peptides can be determined by Tr-NOESY. We studied the structure of a biotin-mimetic peptide (FSHPQNT) bound to streptavidin, since the x-ray structure of the complex is available to 1.74Å resolution and we found that conditions could be adjusted so that the off-rates were fast enough for Tr-NOESY NMR. The off-rate was determined with 19F NMR, using a para-fluoro-phenylalanine analog of the peptide. A new criterion for a lower limit on kinetic off-rate was found, which allowed accurate structure determination at a slower off-rate. Non-specific binding of the peptide to streptavidin was not significant, since biotin blocked the peptide Tr-NOESY. Protein mediation for the long range peptide Tr-NOESY cross-peaks was corrected by a Tr-NOESY/ROESY averaging procedure. The protein-bound structure of the peptide was determined by Tr-NOESY constrained and simulated annealing. The structure deduced from the NMR was close to the x-ray structure. PMID:21294848

  15. Influence of route of administration and lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I peptide on pharmacokinetics and cholesterol mobilization.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Li, Dan; Drake, Lindsey; Yuan, Wenmin; Deschaine, Sara; Morin, Emily E; Ackermann, Rose; Olsen, Karl; Smith, David E; Schwendeman, Anna

    2017-01-01

    apoA-I, apoA-I mimetic peptides, and their lipid complexes or reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have been studied as treatments for various pathologies. However, consensus is lacking about the best method for administration, by intravenous (IV) or intraperitoneal (IP) routes, and formulation, as an HDL particle or in a lipid-free form. The objective of this study was to systematically examine peptide plasma levels, cholesterol mobilization, and lipoprotein remodeling in vivo following administration of lipid-free apoA-I peptide (22A) or phospholipid reconstituted 22A-sHDL by IV and IP routes. The mean circulation half-life was longer for 22A-sHDL (T1/2 = 6.27 h) than for free 22A (T1/2 = 3.81 h). The percentage of 22A absorbed by the vascular compartment after the IP dosing was ∼50% for both 22A and 22A-sHDL. The strongest pharmacologic response came from IV injection of 22A-sHDL, specifically a 5.3-fold transient increase in plasma-free cholesterol (FC) level compared with 1.3- and 1.8-fold FC increases for 22A-IV and 22A-sHDL-IP groups. Addition of either 22A or 22A-sHDL to rat plasma caused lipoprotein remodeling and appearance of a lipid-poor apoA-I. Hence, both the route of administration and the formulation of apoA-I peptide significantly affect its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS IN A GOLDEN LION TAMARIN (LEONTOPITHECUS ROSALIA) WITH THE GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1 MIMETIC EXENATIDE.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James G; Langan, Jennifer N; Gilor, Chen

    2016-09-01

    An 8-yr-old male golden lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on hyperglycemia and persistent glycosuria. Initial treatment consisted of the oral antihyperglycemic medications glipizide and metformin that resulted in decreased blood glucose concentrations; however, marked glycosuria persisted. Insufficient improvement on oral antihyperglycemic therapy and poor feasibility of daily subcutaneous insulin therapy led to an investigation into an alternative therapy with extended-release exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetic, at a dosage of 0.13 mg/kg subcutaneously once per month. Following treatment with exenatide, the persistent glycosuria resolved, the animal maintained normal blood glucose concentrations, and had lower serum fructosamine concentrations compared to pretreatment levels. Based on these findings, extended-release exenatide could be considered as a therapeutic option in nonhuman primates with diabetes mellitus that do not respond to oral antihyperglycemics and in which daily subcutaneous insulin is not feasible.

  17. TDP6, a brain-derived neurotrophic factor-based trkB peptide mimetic, promotes oligodendrocyte myelination.

    PubMed

    Wong, Agnes W; Giuffrida, Lauren; Wood, Rhiannon; Peckham, Haley; Gonsalvez, David; Murray, Simon S; Hughes, Richard A; Xiao, Junhua

    2014-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays critical roles in the development and maintenance of the central (CNS) and peripheral nervous systems (PNS). BDNF exerts its biological effects via tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). We have recently identified that BDNF promotes CNS myelination via oligodendroglial TrkB receptors. In order to selectively target TrkB to promote CNS myelination, we have used a putative TrkB agonist, a small multicyclic peptide (tricyclic dimeric peptide 6, TDP6) previously described by us that structurally mimics a region of BDNF that binds TrkB. We confirmed that TDP6 acts as a TrkB agonist as it provoked autophosphorylation of TrkB and its downstream signalling effector extracellular related-kinase 1 and 2 (Erk1/2) in primary oligodendrocytes. Using an in vitro myelination assay, we show that TDP6 significantly promotes myelination by oligodendrocytes in vitro, as evidenced by enhanced myelin protein expression and an increased number of myelinated axonal segments. In contrast, a second, structurally distinct BDNF mimetic (cyclo-dPAKKR) that targets p75NTR had no effect upon oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro, despite the fact that cyclo-dPAKKR is a very effective promoter of peripheral (Schwann cell) myelination. The selectivity of TDP6 was further verified by using TrkB-deficient oligodendrocytes, in which TDP6 failed to promote myelination, indicating that the pro-myelinating effect of TDP6 is oligodendroglial TrkB-dependent. Together, our results demonstrate that TDP6 is a novel BDNF mimetic that promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro via targeting TrkB.

  18. Self-assembled N-cadherin mimetic peptide hydrogels promote the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells through inhibition of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xu, Jianbin; Wong, Dexter Siu Hong; Li, Jinming; Zhao, Pengchao; Bian, Liming

    2017-11-01

    N-cadherin, a transmembrane protein and major component of adherens junction, mediates cell-cell interactions and intracellular signaling that are important to the regulation of cell behaviors and organ development. Previous studies have identified mimetic peptides that possess similar bioactivity as that of N-cadherin, which promotes chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs); however, the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we combined the N-cadherin mimetic peptide (HAVDI) with the self-assembling KLD-12 peptide: the resultant peptide is capable of self-assembling into hydrogels functionalized with N-cadherin peptide in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at 37 °C. Encapsulation of hMSCs in these hydrogels showed enhanced expression of chondrogenic marker genes and deposition of cartilage specific extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan and Type II Collagen compared to control hydrogels, with a scrambled-sequence peptide after 14 days of chondrogenic culture. Furthermore, western blot showed a significantly higher expression of active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which phosphorylates β-catenin and facilitates ubiquitin-mediated degradation, as well as a lower expression of β-catenin and LEF1 in the N-cadherin peptide hydrogels versus controls. Immunofluorescence staining revealed significantly less nuclear localization of β-catenin in N-cadherin mimetic peptide hydrogels. Our findings suggest that N-cadherin peptide hydrogels suppress canonical Wnt signaling in hMSCs by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation and the associated transcriptional activity of β-catenin/LEF-1/TCF complex, thereby enhancing the chondrogenesis of hMSCs. Our biomimetic self-assembled peptide hydrogels can serve as a tailorable and versatile three-dimensional culture platform to investigate the effect of biofunctionalization on stem cell behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peptide-Like Molecules (PLMs): A Journey from Peptide Bond Isosteres to Gramicidin S Mimetics and Mitochondrial Targeting Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wipf, Peter; Xiao, Jingbo; Stephenson, Corey R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Peptides are natural ligands and substrates for receptors and enzymes and exhibit broad physiological effects. However, their use as therapeutic agents often suffers from poor bioavailability and insufficient membrane permeability. The success of peptide mimicry hinges on the ability of bioisosteres, in particular peptide bond replacements, to adopt suitable secondary structures relevant to peptide strands and position functional groups in equivalent space. This perspective highlights past and ongoing studies in our group that involve new methods development as well as specific synthetic library preparations and applications in chemical biology, with the goal to enhance the use of alkene and cyclopropane peptide bond isosteres. PMID:20725595

  20. Connexin43 Mimetic Peptide Improves Retinal Function and Reduces Inflammation in a Light-Damaged Albino Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cindy X; Mat Nor, Mohd N; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Vessey, Kirstan A; Fletcher, Erica L; O'Carroll, Simon J; Acosta, Monica L; Green, Colin R

    2016-08-01

    Drugs that regulate connexin43 (Cx43) gap junction channels can reduce the spread of injury and improve functional outcomes after nervous system trauma. In the eye, Cx43 expression increases in the choroid following light damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Cx43 hemichannel block could preserve retinal function postinjury. Light damage was induced by exposure of adult albino Sprague-Dawley rats to 2700 Lux light for 24 hours. Intravitreal injections of a Cx43 mimetic peptide hemichannel blocker, Peptide5, or sham were administered 2 hours after the onset and at the end of the light damage period. Retinal function was assessed by electroretinogram and inflammatory responses in the choroid and retina were assessed using immunohistochemistry (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 [Iba-1], leukocyte common antigen [CD45], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]). Light-damaged rat eyes had (1) reduced neuronal responses in both the rod and cone pathways and (2) marked inflammatory responses in the choroid and retina. Peptide5 significantly preserved function of photoreceptoral and postphotoreceptoral neurons in these animals. This was evident 24 hours after injury and 2 weeks later, as shown by improved mixed a-wave and mixed b-wave amplitudes, isolated rod PII and PIII amplitudes, and cone PII responses when compared with sham-treated controls. Retinal thinning and inflammation were also significantly reduced in Peptide5-treated eyes when compared with sham-treated controls. Blocking Cx43 hemichannels after light damage can significantly improve functional outcomes of neurons in both the rod and cone photo-transduction pathways in the light-damaged animal model, likely by reducing choroid inflammation and suppressing the glial-mediated inflammatory response. These data may have relevance for the treatment of conditions such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration.

  1. Thrombogenic collagen-mimetic peptides: Self-assembly of triple helix-based fibrils driven by hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Cejas, Mabel A; Kinney, William A; Chen, Cailin; Vinter, Jeremy G; Almond, Harold R; Balss, Karin M; Maryanoff, Cynthia A; Schmidt, Ute; Breslav, Michael; Mahan, Andrew; Lacy, Eilyn; Maryanoff, Bruce E

    2008-06-24

    Collagens are integral structural proteins in animal tissues and play key functional roles in cellular modulation. We sought to discover collagen model peptides (CMPs) that would form triple helices and self-assemble into supramolecular fibrils exhibiting collagen-like biological activity without preorganizing the peptide chains by covalent linkages. This challenging objective was accomplished by placing aromatic groups on the ends of a representative 30-mer CMP, (GPO)(10), as with l-phenylalanine and l-pentafluorophenylalanine in 32-mer 1a. Computational studies on homologous 29-mers 1a'-d' (one less GPO), as pairs of triple helices interacting head-to-tail, yielded stabilization energies in the order 1a' > 1b' > 1c' > 1d', supporting the hypothesis that hydrophobic aromatic groups can drive CMP self-assembly. Peptides 1a-d were studied comparatively relative to structural properties and ability to stimulate human platelets. Although each 32-mer formed stable triple helices (CD) spectroscopy, only 1a and 1b self-assembled into micrometer-scale fibrils. Light microscopy images for 1a depicted long collagen-like fibrils, whereas images for 1d did not. Atomic force microscopy topographical images indicated that 1a and 1b self-organize into microfibrillar species, whereas 1c and 1d do not. Peptides 1a and 1b induced the aggregation of human blood platelets with a potency similar to type I collagen, whereas 1c was much less effective, and 1d was inactive (EC(50) potency: 1a/1b > 1c > 1d). Thus, 1a and 1b spontaneously self-assemble into thrombogenic collagen-mimetic materials because of hydrophobic aromatic interactions provided by the special end-groups. These findings have important implications for the design of biofunctional CMPs.

  2. Crosstalk between diabetes and brain: glucagon-like peptide-1 mimetics as a promising therapy against neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Duarte, A I; Candeias, E; Correia, S C; Santos, R X; Carvalho, C; Cardoso, S; Plácido, A; Santos, M S; Oliveira, C R; Moreira, P I

    2013-04-01

    According to World Health Organization estimates, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an epidemic (particularly in under development countries) and a socio-economic challenge. This is even more relevant since increasing evidence points T2D as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), supporting the hypothesis that AD is a "type 3 diabetes" or "brain insulin resistant state". Despite the limited knowledge on the molecular mechanisms and the etiological complexity of both pathologies, evidence suggests that neurodegeneration/death underlying cognitive dysfunction (and ultimately dementia) upon long-term T2D may arise from a complex interplay between T2D and brain aging. Additionally, decreased brain insulin levels/signaling and glucose metabolism in both pathologies further suggests that an effective treatment strategy for one disorder may be also beneficial in the other. In this regard, one such promising strategy is a novel successful anti-T2D class of drugs, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics (e.g. exendin-4 or liraglutide), whose potential neuroprotective effects have been increasingly shown in the last years. In fact, several studies showed that, besides improving peripheral (and probably brain) insulin signaling, GLP-1 analogs minimize cell loss and possibly rescue cognitive decline in models of AD, Parkinson's (PD) or Huntington's disease. Interestingly, exendin-4 is undergoing clinical trials to test its potential as an anti-PD therapy. Herewith, we aim to integrate the available data on the metabolic and neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 mimetics in the central nervous system (CNS) with the complex crosstalk between T2D-AD, as well as their potential therapeutic value against T2D-associated cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  4. Sera from Children with Autism Induce Autistic Features Which Can Be Rescued with a CNTF Small Peptide Mimetic in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism. PMID:25769033

  5. Rapid Endolysosomal Escape and Controlled Intracellular Trafficking of Cell Surface Mimetic Quantum-Dots-Anchored Peptides and Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Tan, Roger S; Naruchi, Kentaro; Amano, Maho; Hinou, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Shin-Ichiro

    2015-09-18

    A novel strategy for the development of a high performance nanoparticules platform was established by means of cell surface mimetic quantum-dots (QDs)-anchored peptides/glycopeptides, which was developed as a model system for nanoparticle-based drug delivery (NDD) vehicles with defined functions helping the specific intracellular trafficking after initial endocytosis. In this paper, we proposed a standardized protocol for the preparation of multifunctional QDs that allows for efficient cellular uptake and rapid escaping from the endolysosomal system and subsequent cytoplasmic molecular delivery to the target cellular compartment. Chemoselective ligation of the ketone-functionalized hexahistidine derivative facilitated both efficient endocytic entry and rapid endolysosomal escape of the aminooxy/phosphorylcholine self-assembled monolayer-coated QDs (AO/PCSAM-QDs) to the cytosol in various cell lines such as human normal and cancer cells, while modifications of these QDs with cell-penetrating arginine-rich peptides showed poor cellular uptake and induced self-aggregation of AO/PCSAM-QDs. Combined use of hexahistidylated AO/PCSAM-QDs with serglycine-like glycopeptides, namely synthetic proteoglycan initiators (PGIs), elicited the entry and controlled intracellular trafficking, Golgi localization, and also excretion of these nanoparticles, which suggested that the present approach would provide an ideal platform for the design of high performance NDD systems.

  6. Thrombin receptor (PAR-1) antagonists. Solid-phase synthesis of indole-based peptide mimetics by anchoring to a secondary amide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H C; McComsey, D F; White, K B; Addo, M F; Andrade-Gordon, P; Derian, C K; Oksenberg, D; Maryanoff, B E

    2001-08-20

    A novel, 10-step, solid-phase method, based on a secondary amide linker, was developed to construct a diverse library of indole-based SFLLR peptide mimetics as thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor 1, PAR-1) antagonists. The key steps include stepwise reductive alkylation, urea formation, and Mannich reaction. Screening of the library led to a quick development of the SAR and the significant improvement of PAR-1 activity.

  7. "Click" immobilization of a VEGF-mimetic peptide on decellularized endothelial extracellular matrix to enhance angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Meirong; Li, Siheng; Erasquin, Uriel J; Wang, Hao; Ren, Li; Chen, Changyi; Wang, Yingjun; Cai, Chengzhi

    2014-06-11

    We show that coating of decellularized extracellular matrix (DC-ECM) on substrate surfaces is an efficient way to generate a platform mimicking the native ECM environment. Moreover, the DC-ECM can be modified with a peptide (QK) mimicking vascular endothelial growth factor without apparently compromising its integrity. The modification was achieved through metabolic incorporation of a "clickable" handle to DC-ECM followed by rapid attachment of the QK peptide with an azido tag using copper-catalyzed click reaction. The attachment of the QK peptide on to DC-ECM in this way further enhanced the angiogenic responses (formation of branched tubular networks) of endothelial cells.

  8. EPOR-Based Purification and Analysis of Erythropoietin Mimetic Peptides from Human Urine by Cys-Specific Cleavage and LC/MS/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Matthias; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2015-09-01

    The development of a new class of erythropoietin mimetic agents (EMA) for treating anemic conditions has been initiated with the discovery of oligopeptides capable of dimerizing the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor and thus stimulating erythropoiesis. The most promising amino acid sequences have been mounted on various different polymeric structures or carrier molecules to obtain highly active EPO-like drugs exhibiting beneficial and desirable pharmacokinetic profiles. Concomitant with creating new therapeutic options, erythropoietin mimetic peptide (EMP)-based drug candidates represent means to artificially enhance endurance performance and necessitate coverage by sports drug testing methods. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a strategy for the comprehensive detection of EMPs in doping controls, which can be used complementary to existing protocols. Three model EMPs were used to provide proof-of-concept data. Following EPO receptor-facilitated purification of target analytes from human urine, the common presence of the cysteine-flanked core structure of EMPs was exploited to generate diagnostic peptides with the aid of a nonenzymatic cleavage procedure. Sensitive detection was accomplished by targeted-SIM/data-dependent MS2 analysis. Method characterization was conducted for the EMP-based drug peginesatide concerning specificity, linearity, precision, recovery, stability, ion suppression/enhancement, and limit of detection (LOD, 0.25 ng/mL). Additionally, first data for the identification of the erythropoietin mimetic peptides EMP1 and BB68 were generated, demonstrating the multi-analyte testing capability of the presented approach.

  9. Study of various presentation forms for a peptide mimetic of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B capsular polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Garay, Hilda; Menéndez, Tamara; Cruz-Leal, Yoelys; Coizeau, Edelgis; Noda, Jesus; Morera, Vivian; Guillén, Gerardo; Albericio, Fernando; Reyes, Osvaldo

    2011-01-19

    The formulation of a broadly protective vaccine to prevent the serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) disease is still an unmet medical need. We have previously reported the induction of bactericidal and protective antibodies against MenB after immunization of mice with a phage-displayed peptide named 4 L-5. This peptide mimics a capsular polysaccharide (CPS) epitope in MenB. With the aim of developing vaccine formulations that could be used in humans, we evaluate in this study various forms of presentation to the immune system of the 4 L-5 sequence, based on synthetic peptides. We synthesized the following: (i) a linear 4 L-5 peptide, (ii) a multiple antigen peptide containing four copies of the 4 L-5 sequence (named MAP), which was then dimerized, and the product named dimeric MAP, and (iii) a second multiple antigen peptide, in this case with two copies of the 4 L-5 sequence and a copy of a T-helper cell epitope of tetanus toxoid, which was then dimerized and the product named MAP-TT. The linear peptide, the MAP, and the dimeric MAP were conjugated to the carrier protein P64K by different conjugation methods. Plain antigens and antigens coupled to P64K were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Of those variants that gave immunogenic results, MAP-TT rendered the highest levels of specific antipeptide IgG antibodies and serum bactericidal activity. These results can find application in the development of meningococcal vaccine candidates and in peptide-based vaccines strategies.

  10. Use of cloneable peptide-MBP fusion protein as a mimetic coating antigen in the standardized immunoassay for mycotoxin ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; He, Zhenyun; He, Qinghua; Qiu, Yulou; Chen, Bo; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xing

    2014-09-03

    The quality of mycotoxin conjugates is essential to the development of reliability of immunoassays for mycotoxins. However, conventional mycotoxin conjugates are usually synthesized by chemical methods, which are harmful to the environment and yield unwanted cross-reactions. In this study, using ochratoxin A (OTA) as a model system, a selected OTA mimotope (phage-displayed peptide) that specifically binds to anti-OTA antibody was expressed as soluble and monovalent fusions to maltose binding protein (MBP). These prepared fusion proteins can serve as a mimetic coating antigen in both a quantitative chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunoassay (CLEIA) and a qualitative dot immunoassay for OTA. One of the prepared mimetic coating antigen (L12-206-MBP)-based CLEIAs exhibited a half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of 0.82 ng/mL and a working range of 0.30-2.17 ng/mL, which resemble those of the conventional OTA-OVA conjugate-based immunoassay. The dot immunoassay developed with both the OTA-OVA conjugate and the mimetics showed identical visual cutoff values of 5 ng/mL. The mimetic coating antigen proposed here is an OTA-free product and can be prepared reproducibly as a homogeneous product and facilitates standardization of immunoassays for the mycotoxin OTA.

  11. Inhibition of CD4+ T lymphocyte binding to fibronectin and immune-cell accumulation in inflammatory sites by non-peptidic mimetics of Arg-Gly-Asp.

    PubMed Central

    Hershkoviz, R; Greenspoon, N; Mekori, Y A; Hadari, R; Alon, R; Kapustina, G; Lider, O

    1994-01-01

    The Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) cell adhesion motif has been demonstrated in various studies to play a pivotal role in leucocyte and platelet interactions with plasma and extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins. The recognition of the RGD sequence is mediated by heterodimeric receptors designated integrins of the beta 1 subfamily, expressed on distinct cell types, including T lymphocytes. We have recently shown that flexible non-peptidic mimetics of RGD, in which the two ionic side groups were separated by a linear spacer of 11 atoms, bound specifically to the platelet integrin alpha 11b beta 3, and inhibited T cell-mediated immune responses. The present study was designed to (i) further characterize the structural requirements for RGD interactions with CD4+ T cells, and (ii) examine the mechanisms by which the RGD mimetics interfere with immune cell reactivity in vivo. We now report that freezing the conformational degrees of freedom in the spacer chain, which fixes the relative orientation of the guanidinium and carboxylate side groups in a favourable manner, results in a higher level of inhibition of T cell binding to immobilized fibronectin, an RGD-containing ECM glycoprotein. In vivo, treatment of mice with relatively low doses of the RGD mimetics, but not the RGD peptide, inhibited the elicitation of an adoptively transferred DTH reaction. This inhibition was achieved by direct impairment of the ability of antigen-primed lymph node cells to migrate and accumulate in inflammatory sites. Hence, we suggest that the design and production of non-peptidic mimetics of RGD offers a novel approach to study defined parameters related to the structure-function requirements of small adhesion epitopes. Furthermore, this approach could be used therapeutically to inhibit pathological processes which depend on RGD recognition. PMID:7905794

  12. Collagen-gelatin mixtures as wound model, and substrates for VEGF-mimetic peptide binding and endothelial cell activation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Tania R; Stahl, Patrick J; Li, Yang; Yu, S Michael

    2015-03-01

    In humans, high level of collagen remodeling is seen during normal physiological events such as bone renewal, as well as in pathological conditions, such as arthritis, tumor growth and other chronic wounds. Our lab recently discovered that collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) is able to hybridize with denatured collagens at these collagen remodeling sites with high affinity. Here, we show that the CMP's high binding affinity to denatured collagens can be utilized to deliver angiogenic signals to scaffolds composed of heat-denatured collagens (gelatins). We first demonstrate hybridization between denatured collagens and QKCMP, a CMP with pro-angiogenic QK domain. We show that high levels of QKCMP can be immobilized to a new artificial matrix containing both fibrous type I collagen and heat denatured collagen through triple helix hybridization, and that the QKCMP is able to stimulate early angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs). We also show that the QKCMP can bind to excised tissues from burn injuries in cutaneous mouse model, suggesting its potential for promoting neovascularization of burn wounds. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collagen-Gelatin Mixtures as Wound Model, and Substrates for VEGF-Mimetic Peptide Binding and Endothelial Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tania R.; Stahl, Patrick J.; Li, Yang; Yu, S. Michael

    2015-01-01

    In humans, high level of collagen remodeling is seen during normal physiological events such as bone renewal, as well as in pathological conditions, such as arthritis, tumor growth and other chronic wounds. Our lab recently discovered that collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) is able to hybridize with denatured collagens at these collagen remodeling sites with high affinity. Here, we show that the CMP's high binding affinity to denatured collagens can be utilized to deliver angiogenic signals to scaffolds composed of heat-denatured collagens (gelatins). We first demonstrate hybridization between denatured collagens and QKCMP, a CMP with pro-angiogenic QK domain. We show that high levels of QKCMP can be immobilized to a new artificial matrix containing both fibrous type I collagen and heat denatured collagen through triple helix hybridization, and that the QKCMP is able to stimulate early angiogenic response of endothelial cells (ECs). We also show that the QKCMP can bind to excised tissues from burn injuries in cutaneous mouse model, suggesting its potential for promoting neovascularization of burn wounds. PMID:25584990

  14. Integration of growth factor gene delivery with collagen‐triggered wound repair cascades using collagen‐mimetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Urello, Morgan A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Growth factors (GFs) play vital roles in wound repair. Many GF therapies have reached clinical trials, but success has been hindered by safety concerns and a lack of efficacy. Previously, we presented an approach to produce protein factors in wound beds through localized gene delivery mediated by biomimetic peptides. Modification of polyethylenimine (PEI) DNA polyplexes with collagen‐mimetic peptides (CMPs) enabled tailoring of polyplex release/retention and improved gene transfer activity in a cell‐responsive manner. In this work, CMP‐mediated delivery from collagen was shown to improve expression of platelet‐derived growth factor–BB (PDGF‐BB) and promote a diverse range of cellular processes associated with wound healing, including proliferation, extracellular matrix production, and chemotaxis. Collagens were pre‐exposed to physiologically‐simulating conditions (complete media, 37°C) for days to weeks prior to cell seeding to simulate the environment within typical wound dressings. In cell proliferation studies, significant increases in cell counts were demonstrated in collagen gels containing CMP‐modified polyplex versus unmodified polyplex, and these effects became most pronounced following prolonged preincubation periods of greater than a week. Collagen containing CMP‐modified polyplexes also induced a twofold increase in gel contraction as well as enhanced directionality and migratory activity in response to cell‐secreted PDGF‐BB gradients. While these PDGF‐BB‐triggered behaviors were observed in collagens containing unmodified polyplexes, the responses withstood much longer preincubation periods in CMP‐modified polyplex samples (10 days vs. <5 days). Furthermore, enhanced closure rates in an in vitro wound model suggested that CMP‐based PDGF‐BB delivery may have utility in actual wound repair and other regenerative medicine applications. PMID:27981245

  15. An Independent Evaluation of a Novel Peptide Mimetic, Brilacidin (PMX30063), for Ocular Anti-Infective

    PubMed Central

    Romanowski, Eric G.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Mah, Francis S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Brilacidin (BRI), a novel defensin mimetic, was evaluated as an ocular anti-infective. Methods: In vitro: Potency based on MIC90s was compared for 50 Staphylococcus aureus (SA), 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), and 25 each of Streptococcus pneumonia (SP), Streptococcus viridans (SV), Moraxella (MS), Haemophilus influenzae (HI), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), and Serratia marcescens (SM). In vivo: Using established methods, ocular toxicity was graded with Draize testing. For efficacy testing, both corneas of 24 rabbits were infected with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas the corneal epithelium was removed in the left eye. After 4 h, 21 topical drops over 5 h were administered to 4 groups: BRI 0.5%, vancomycin (VAN) 5%, saline, and no treatment. The eyes were clinically graded and the corneas were harvested for colony counts. Results: In vitro: Both SA and SE had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations among the bacterial groups. The MIC90s to BRI for SP, SV, MS, HI, PA, and SM were 4, 32, 256, 32, 16, and 128-fold higher, respectively, than SA and SE. In vivo: Draize testing determined BRI 0.5% to be minimally irritating. For abraded corneas, BRI was not statistically different from VAN for reducing MRSA. BRI was bactericidal. For intact corneas, VAN reduced more CFU than BRI. BRI reduced CFU in abraded corneas more than intact corneas suggesting poor corneal penetration. Conclusions: BRI has Gram-positive in vitro activity; topical BRI 0.5% was minimally irritating; and BRI 0.5% was equally efficacious as VAN in a MRSA keratitis model when the corneal epithelium was removed. PMID:26501484

  16. A RHAMM mimetic peptide blocks hyaluronan signaling and reduces inflammation and fibrogenesis in excisional skin wounds.

    PubMed

    Tolg, Cornelia; Hamilton, Sara R; Zalinska, Ewa; McCulloch, Lori; Amin, Ripal; Akentieva, Natalia; Winnik, Francoise; Savani, Rashmin; Bagli, Darius J; Luyt, Len G; Cowman, Mary K; McCarthy, Jim B; Turley, Eva A

    2012-10-01

    Hyaluronan is activated by fragmentation and controls inflammation and fibroplasia during wound repair and diseases (eg, cancer). Hyaluronan-binding peptides were identified that modify fibrogenesis during skin wound repair. Peptides were selected from 7- to 15mer phage display libraries by panning with hyaluronan-Sepharose beads and assayed for their ability to block fibroblast migration in response to hyaluronan oligosaccharides (10 kDa). A 15mer peptide (P15-1), with homology to receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) hyaluronan binding sequences, was the most effective inhibitor. P15-1 bound to 10-kDa hyaluronan with an affinity of K(d) = 10(-7) and appeared to specifically mimic RHAMM since it significantly reduced binding of hyaluronan oligosaccharides to recombinant RHAMM but not to recombinant CD44 or TLR2,4, and altered wound repair in wild-type but not RHAMM(-/-) mice. One topical application of P15-1 to full-thickness excisional rat wounds significantly reduced wound macrophage number, fibroblast number, and blood vessel density compared to scrambled, negative control peptides. Wound collagen 1, transforming growth factor β-1, and α-smooth muscle actin were reduced, whereas tenascin C was increased, suggesting that P15-1 promoted a form of scarless healing. Signaling/microarray analyses showed that P15-1 blocks RHAMM-regulated focal adhesion kinase pathways in fibroblasts. These results identify a new class of reagents that attenuate proinflammatory, fibrotic repair by blocking hyaluronan oligosaccharide signaling.

  17. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Callum F.; Margetts, Mai B.; Menting, John G.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Smith, Brian J.; Ward, Colin W.; Lawrence, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe701 and Phe705. The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. PMID:27281820

  18. PHEX Mimetic (SPR4-Peptide) Corrects and Improves HYP and Wild Type Mice Energy-Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zelenchuk, Lesya V.; Hedge, Anne-Marie; Rowe, Peter S. N.

    2014-01-01

    Context PHEX or DMP1 mutations cause hypophosphatemic-rickets and altered energy metabolism. PHEX binds to DMP1-ASARM-motif to form a complex with α5β3 integrin that suppresses FGF23 expression. ASARM-peptides increase FGF23 by disrupting the PHEX-DMP1-Integrin complex. We used a 4.2 kDa peptide (SPR4) that binds to ASARM-peptide/motif to study the DMP1-PHEX interaction and to assess SPR4 for the treatment of energy metabolism defects in HYP and potentially other bone-mineral disorders. Design Subcutaneously transplanted osmotic pumps were used to infuse SPR4-peptide or vehicle (VE) into wild-type mice (WT) and HYP-mice (PHEX mutation) for 4 weeks. Results SPR4 partially corrected HYP mice hypophosphatemia and increased serum 1.25(OH)2D3. Serum FGF23 remained high and PTH was unaffected. WT-SPR4 mice developed hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia with increased PTH, FGF23 and 1.25(OH)2D3. SPR4 increased GAPDH HYP-bone expression 60× and corrected HYP-mice hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. HYP-VE serum uric-acid (UA) levels were reduced and SPR4 infusion suppressed UA levels in WT-mice but not HYP-mice. SPR4 altered leptin, adiponectin, and sympathetic-tone and increased the fat mass/weight ratio for HYP and WT mice. Expression of perlipin-2 a gene involved in obesity was reduced in HYP-VE and WT-SPR4 mice but increased in HYP-SPR4 mice. Also, increased expression of two genes that inhibit insulin-signaling, ENPP1 and ESP, occurred with HYP-VE mice. In contrast, SPR4 reduced expression of both ENPP1 and ESP in WT mice and suppressed ENPP1 in HYP mice. Increased expression of FAM20C and sclerostin occurred with HYP-VE mice. SPR4 suppressed expression of FAM20C and sclerostin in HYP and WT mice. Conclusions ASARM peptides and motifs are physiological substrates for PHEX and modulate osteocyte PHEX-DMP1-α5β3-integrin interactions and thereby FGF23 expression. These interactions also provide a nexus that regulates bone and energy metabolism. SPR4 suppression of

  19. Alpha-turn mimetics: short peptide alpha-helices composed of cyclic metallopentapeptide modules.

    PubMed

    Kelso, Michael J; Beyer, Renée L; Hoang, Huy N; Lakdawala, Ami S; Snyder, James P; Oliver, Warren V; Robertson, Tom A; Appleton, Trevor G; Fairlie, David P

    2004-04-21

    Alpha-Helices are key structural components of proteins and important recognition motifs in biology. Short peptides (peptide helices could be valuable for studying protein folding, modeling proteins, creating artificial proteins, and may aid the design of inhibitors or mimics of protein function. This study reports the facile incorporation of 3- and 4-alpha turns in 10-15 residue peptides through formation in situ of multiple cyclic metallopeptide modules [Pd(en)(H*XXXH*)](2+). The nonhelical peptides Ac-H*ELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2) (1), Ac-H*ELTH*AVTDYH*ELTH*-NH(2) (2), and Ac-H*AAAH*HELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2) (3) (H is histidine-methylated at imidazole-N3) react in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) or water with 2, 2, and 3 molar equivalents, respectively, of [Pd(en)(NO(3))(2)] to form exclusively [Pd(2)(en)(2)(Ac-H*ELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2))](4+) (4), [Pd(2)(en)(2)(Ac-H*ELTH*AVTDYH*ELTH*-NH(2))](4+) (5), and [Pd(3)(en)(3)(Ac-H*AAAH*HELTH*H*VTDH*-NH(2))](6+) (6), characterized by mass spectrometry, 1D and 2D (1)H- and 1D (15)N-NMR spectroscopy. Despite the presence of multiple histidines and other possible metal-binding residues in these peptides, 2D (1)H NMR spectra reveal that Pd(en)(2+) is remarkably specific in coordinating to imidazole-N1 of only (i, i + 4) pairs of histidines (i.e., only those separated by three amino acids), resulting in 4-6 made up of cyclic metallopentapeptide modules ([Pd(en)(H*XXXH*)](2+))(n), n = 2, 2, 3, respectively, each cycle being a 22-membered ring. We have previously shown that a single metallopentapeptide can nucleate alpha-helicity (Kelso et al., Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 421-424.). We now demonstrate its use as an alpha-turn-mimicking module for the facile conversion of unstructured short peptides into helices of macrocycles and provide 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, structure

  20. A RHAMM Mimetic Peptide Blocks Hyaluronan Signaling and Reduces Inflammation and Fibrogenesis in Excisional Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tolg, Cornelia; Hamilton, Sara R.; Zalinska, Ewa; McCulloch, Lori; Amin, Ripal; Akentieva, Natalia; Winnik, Francoise; Savani, Rashmin; Bagli, Darius J.; Luyt, Len G.; Cowman, Mary K.; McCarthy, Jim B.; Turley, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Hyaluronan is activated by fragmentation and controls inflammation and fibroplasia during wound repair and diseases (eg, cancer). Hyaluronan-binding peptides were identified that modify fibrogenesis during skin wound repair. Peptides were selected from 7- to 15mer phage display libraries by panning with hyaluronan-Sepharose beads and assayed for their ability to block fibroblast migration in response to hyaluronan oligosaccharides (10 kDa). A 15mer peptide (P15-1), with homology to receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM) hyaluronan binding sequences, was the most effective inhibitor. P15-1 bound to 10-kDa hyaluronan with an affinity of Kd = 10−7 and appeared to specifically mimic RHAMM since it significantly reduced binding of hyaluronan oligosaccharides to recombinant RHAMM but not to recombinant CD44 or TLR2,4, and altered wound repair in wild-type but not RHAMM−/− mice. One topical application of P15-1 to full-thickness excisional rat wounds significantly reduced wound macrophage number, fibroblast number, and blood vessel density compared to scrambled, negative control peptides. Wound collagen 1, transforming growth factor β-1, and α-smooth muscle actin were reduced, whereas tenascin C was increased, suggesting that P15-1 promoted a form of scarless healing. Signaling/microarray analyses showed that P15-1 blocks RHAMM-regulated focal adhesion kinase pathways in fibroblasts. These results identify a new class of reagents that attenuate proinflammatory, fibrotic repair by blocking hyaluronan oligosaccharide signaling. PMID:22889846

  1. Insulin Mimetic Peptide Disrupts the Primary Binding Site of the Insulin Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Callum F; Margetts, Mai B; Menting, John G; Smith, Nicholas A; Smith, Brian J; Ward, Colin W; Lawrence, Michael C

    2016-07-22

    Sets of synthetic peptides that interact with the insulin receptor ectodomain have been discovered by phage display and reported in the literature. These peptides were grouped into three classes termed Site 1, Site 2, and Site 3 based on their mutual competition of binding to the receptor. Further refinement has yielded, in particular, a 36-residue Site 2-Site 1 fusion peptide, S519, that binds the insulin receptor with subnanomolar affinity and exhibits agonist activity in both lipogenesis and glucose uptake assays. Here, we report three-dimensional crystallographic detail of the interaction of the C-terminal, 16-residue Site 1 component (S519C16) of S519 with the first leucine-rich repeat domain (L1) of the insulin receptor. Our structure shows that S519C16 binds to the same site on the L1 surface as that occupied by a critical component of the primary binding site, namely the helical C-terminal segment of the insulin receptor α-chain (termed αCT). In particular, the two phenylalanine residues within the FYXWF motif of S519C16 are seen to engage the insulin receptor L1 domain surface in a fashion almost identical to the respective αCT residues Phe(701) and Phe(705) The structure provides a platform for the further development of peptidic and/or small molecule agents directed toward the insulin receptor and/or the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Characterization of linear mimetic peptides of Interleukin-22 from dissection of protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    La Manna, Sara; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Di Natale, Concetta; Leone, Marilisa; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Malfitano, Anna Maria; Cianfarani, Francesca; Madonna, Stefania; Caravella, Sergio; Albanesi, Cristina; Novellino, Ettore; Marasco, Daniela

    2017-07-01

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) belongs to the family of IL-10 cytokines and is involved in a wide number of human diseases, including inflammatory disorders and cancer pathology. The ligand-receptor complex IL-22/IL-22R plays a key role in several pathways especially in the regulation and resolution of immune responses. The identification of novel compounds able to modulate IL-22/IL-22R complex could open the route to new therapeutic strategies in multiple human diseases. In this study, we designed and characterized IL-22 derived peptides at protein interface regions: several sequences revealed able to interfere with the protein complex with IC50 in the micromolar range as evaluated through Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments. Their conformational characterization was carried out through Circular Dichroism (CD) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, shedding new light into the features of IL-22 fragments and on structural determinants of IL-22/IL-22R1 recognition. Finally, several peptides were tested on human keratinocyte cultures for evaluating their ability to mimic the activation of molecular pathways downstream to IL-22R in response to IL-22 binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  3. A Peptide Mimetic Targeting Trans-Homophilic NCAM Binding Sites Promotes Spatial Learning and Neural Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Lene B.; Fantin, Martina; Jennings, Alistair; Venero, Cesar; Popov, Victor; Rusakov, Dmitri; Stewart, Michael G.; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir; Sandi, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The key roles played by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) in plasticity and cognition underscore this membrane protein as a relevant target to develop cognitive-enhancing drugs. However, NCAM is a structurally and functionally complex molecule with multiple domains engaged in a variety of actions, which raise the question as to which NCAM fragment should be targeted. Synthetic NCAM mimetic peptides that mimic NCAM sequences relevant to specific interactions allow identification of the most promising targets within NCAM. Recently, a decapeptide ligand of NCAM—plannexin, which mimics a homophilic trans-binding site in Ig2 and binds to Ig3—was developed as a tool for studying NCAM's trans-interactions. In this study, we investigated plannexin's ability to affect neural plasticity and memory formation. We found that plannexin facilitates neurite outgrowth in primary hippocampal neuronal cultures and improves spatial learning in rats, both under basal conditions and under conditions involving a deficit in a key plasticity-promoting posttranslational modification of NCAM, its polysialylation. We also found that plannexin enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1, where it also increases the number of mushroom spines and the synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunits GluA1 and GluA2. Altogether, these findings provide compelling evidence that plannexin is an important facilitator of synaptic functional, structural and molecular plasticity in the hippocampal CA1 region, highlighting the fragment in NCAM's Ig3 module where plannexin binds as a novel target for the development of cognition-enhancing drugs. PMID:21887252

  4. Effect of connexin 43 inhibition by the mimetic peptide Gap27 on corneal wound healing, inflammation and neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Pierfrancesco; Xeroudaki, Maria; Parekh, Mohit; Bertolin, Marina; Breda, Claudia; Cagini, Carlo; Ponzin, Diego; Lagali, Neil; Ferrari, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The connexin 43 (Cx43) mimetic peptide Gap27 was designed to transiently block the function of this gap junction. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Gap27 on corneal healing, inflammation and neovascularization. Experimental Approach The effect of Gap27 on wound healing, inflammation and vascularization was assessed in primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC) in vitro and whole human corneas ex vivo, and in an in vivo rat wound healing model. Key Results Gap27 enhanced the wound closure of HCEC in vitro and accelerated wound closure and stratification of epithelium in human corneas ex vivo, but did not suppress the corneal release of inflammatory mediators IL‐6 or TNF‐α in vivo. In human corneas ex vivo, F4/80 positive macrophages were observed around the wound site. In vivo, topical Gap27 treatment enhanced the speed and density of early granulocyte infiltration into rat corneas. After 7 days, the expressions of TNF‐α and TGFβ1 were elevated and correlated with inflammatory cell accumulation in the tissue. Additionally, Gap27 did not suppress VEGF release in organotypic culture, nor did it suppress early or late VEGFA expression or neovascularization in vivo. Conclusions and Implications Gap27 can be effective in promoting the healing of superficial epithelial wounds, but in deep stromal wounds it has the potential to promote inflammatory cell migration and accumulation in the tissue and does not suppress the subsequent neovascularization response. These results support the proposal that Gap27 acts as a healing agent in the transient, early stages of corneal epithelial wounding. PMID:27472295

  5. D-4F, an apolipoprotein A-I mimetic, inhibits TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human alveolar epithelial cell.

    PubMed

    You, Jia; Wang, Jintao; Xie, Linshen; Zhu, Chengwen; Xiong, Jingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Emerging evidences support that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and asthmatic airway remodeling. Recent studies demonstrated that apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I) is the only known substance that can resolve established pulmonary fibrotic nodules, and Apo A-I mimetic D-4F (a synthetic polypeptide consisting of 18 amino acids) plays an inhibitory role in murine asthmatic model. However, cellular mechanisms for such therapeutic effects of Apo A-I and D-4F remain to be elucidated. This study evaluated the effects of D-4F on TGF-β1 induced EMT in human type II alveolar epithelial cell line A549. A549 cells treated with 10ng/ml of TGF-β1 manifested distinct EMT, including fibroblastic morphological changes, down-regulation of epithelial marker E-cadherin and up-regulation of mesenchymal marker vimentin. These EMT related changes were all inhibited by D-4F in a concentration dependent manner. Transcriptional investigation demonstrated clearly that D-4F dose-dependently compensated for the reduced E-cadherin mRNA level and the increased vimentin mRNA level in TGF-β1 treated A549 cells. Translational analysis revealed that D-4F significantly reversed the TGF-β1 induced changes of E-cadherin and vimentin levels. These results suggested that D-4F inhibits TGF-β1 induced EMT in human alveolar epithelial cell. Given the functional similarities between D-4F and Apo A-I, it is speculated that D-4F and Apo A-I are able to exert possible anti-fibrotic and anti-asthmatic effects via inhibiting alveolar EMT, and D-4F may possess beneficial clinical potential for patients suffering from pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-assembled BolA-like amphiphilic peptides as viral-mimetic gene vectors for cancer cell targeted gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Xiao; Xu, Xiao-Ding; Yang, Shuo; Yang, Juan; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of BolA-like amphiphilic peptides with dual ligands comprising a tumor-targeting moiety of RGD sequence and a cell-penetrating moiety of R8 sequence are designed and synthesized as gene vectors. The BolA-structural peptide carriers can self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles with a hydrophilic core and shell, which are similar to the viral capsid and can bind plasmid DNA in an aqueous medium to form viral-mimetic complexes. It is found that the BolA-like dual ligands system exhibits significantly enhanced gene expression in both HeLa and 293T cell lines, as compared with poly(ethylenimine) PEI. These BolA-like amphiphilic peptides are promising in clinical trials of gene therapy. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Design, synthesis, and validation of a β-turn mimetic library targeting protein-protein and peptide-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Whitby, Landon R; Ando, Yoshio; Setola, Vincent; Vogt, Peter K; Roth, Bryan L; Boger, Dale L

    2011-07-06

    The design and synthesis of a β-turn mimetic library as a key component of a small-molecule library targeting the major recognition motifs involved in protein-protein interactions is described. Analysis of a geometric characterization of 10,245 β-turns in the protein data bank (PDB) suggested that trans-pyrrolidine-3,4-dicarboxamide could serve as an effective and synthetically accessible library template. This was confirmed by initially screening select compounds against a series of peptide-activated GPCRs that recognize a β-turn structure in their endogenous ligands. This validation study was highlighted by identification of both nonbasic and basic small molecules with high affinities (K(i) = 390 and 23 nM, respectively) for the κ-opioid receptor (KOR). Consistent with the screening capabilities of collaborators and following the design validation, the complete library was assembled as 210 mixtures of 20 compounds, providing a total of 4200 compounds designed to mimic all possible permutations of 3 of the 4 residues in a naturally occurring β-turn. Unique to the design and because of the C(2) symmetry of the template, a typical 20 × 20 × 20-mix (8000 compounds prepared as 400 mixtures of 20 compounds) needed to represent 20 variations in the side chains of three amino acid residues reduces to a 210 × 20-mix, thereby simplifying the library synthesis and subsequent screening. The library was prepared using a solution-phase synthetic protocol with liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extractions for purification and conducted on a scale that insures its long-term availability for screening campaigns. Screening the library against the human opioid receptors (KOR, MOR, and DOR) identified not only the activity of library members expected to mimic the opioid receptor peptide ligands but also additional side-chain combinations that provided enhanced receptor binding selectivities (>100-fold) and affinities (as low as K(i) = 80 nM for KOR). A key insight to emerge from

  8. Peptide Mimetic of the S100A4 Protein Modulates Peripheral Nerve Regeneration and Attenuates the Progression of Neuropathy in Myelin Protein P0 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moldovan, Mihai; Pinchenko, Volodymyr; Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Fugleholm, Kåre; Klingelhofer, Jorg; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir; Krarup, Christian; Kiryushko, Darya

    2013-01-01

    We recently found that S100A4, a member of the multifunctional S100 protein family, protects neurons in the injured brain and identified two sequence motifs in S100A4 mediating its neurotrophic effect. Synthetic peptides encompassing these motifs stimulated neuritogenesis and survival in vitro and mimicked the S100A4-induced neuroprotection in brain trauma. Here, we investigated a possible function of S100A4 and its mimetics in the pathologies of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We found that S100A4 was expressed in the injured PNS and that its peptide mimetic (H3) affected the regeneration and survival of myelinated axons. H3 accelerated electrophysiological, behavioral and morphological recovery after sciatic nerve crush while transiently delaying regeneration after sciatic nerve transection and repair. On the basis of the finding that both S100A4 and H3 increased neurite branching in vitro, these effects were attributed to the modulatory effect of H3 on initial axonal sprouting. In contrast to the modest effect of H3 on the time course of regeneration, H3 had a long-term neuroprotective effect in the myelin protein P0 null mice, a model of dysmyelinating neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease), where the peptide attenuated the deterioration of nerve conduction, demyelination and axonal loss. From these results, S100A4 mimetics emerge as a possible means to enhance axonal sprouting and survival, especially in the context of demyelinating neuropathies with secondary axonal loss, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 disease. Moreover, our data suggest that S100A4 is a neuroprotectant in PNS and that other S100 proteins, sharing high homology in the H3 motif, may have important functions in PNS pathologies. PMID:23508572

  9. [Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics: a new treatment for Alzheimer's disease?].

    PubMed

    García-Casares, Natalia; García-Arnés, Juan Antonio; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Valdivielso-Felices, Pedro; García-Arias, Carlota; González-Santos, Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. Los analogos del glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) son una opcion terapeutica establecida en los pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Sin embargo, las propiedades de los analogos del GLP-1 van mas alla del control estrictamente metabolico del paciente diabetico. Los efectos neuroprotectores de los analogos del GLP-1 se han puesto de manifiesto en estudios recientes y han abierto nuevos campos de investigacion en trastornos neurodegenerativos como la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA), entre otros. Objetivo. Revision sistematica de los estudios experimentales y ensayos clinicos en humanos que demuestran las propiedades neuroprotectoras de los analogos del GLP-1 en la EA. Desarrollo. Los estudios experimentales que se han llevado a cabo en modelos de roedores con EA demuestran las propiedades neuroprotectoras de los analogos del GLP-1 sobre el sistema nervioso central que reducen las placas de beta-amiloide, el estres oxidativo y la respuesta inflamatoria cerebral. Recientemente se han puesto en marcha estudios con analogos del GLP-1 en humanos con deterioro cognitivo y EA. Conclusiones. Los analogos del GLP-1 presentan propiedades neuroprotectoras. Al considerarse la diabetes tipo 2 un factor de riesgo para el deterioro cognitivo y la demencia, deben considerarse los beneficios de los analogos del GLP-1 sobre la cognicion. Del mismo modo, los analogos del GLP-1 suponen un tratamiento prometedor en la EA.

  10. Identification, Design and Synthesis of Tubulin-Derived Peptides as Novel Hyaluronan Mimetic Ligands for the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM/HMMR)

    PubMed Central

    Esguerra, Kenneth V. N.; Tolg, Cornelia; Akentieva, Natalia; Price, Matthew; Cho, Choi-Fong; Lewis, John D.; McCarthy, James B.; Turley, Eva A.; Luyt, Leonard G.

    2016-01-01

    Fragments of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan (HA) promote tissue inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. HA fragments act through HA receptors including CD44, LYVE1, TLR2,4 and the receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR). RHAMM is a multifunctional protein with both intracellular and extracellular roles in cell motility and proliferation. Extracellular RHAMM binds directly to HA fragments while intracellular RHAMM binds directly to ERK1 and tubulin. Both HA and regions of tubulin (s-tubulin) are anionic and bind to basic amino acid-rich regions in partner proteins, such as in HA and tubulin binding regions of RHAMM. We used this as a rationale for developing bioinformatics and SPR (surface plasmon resonance) based screening to identify high affinity anionic RHAMM peptide ligands. A library of 12-mer peptides was prepared based on the carboxyl terminal tail sequence of s-tubulin isoforms and assayed for their ability to bind to the HA/tubulin binding region of recombinant RHAMM using SPR. This approach resulted in the isolation of three 12-mer peptides with nanomolar affinity for RHAMM. These peptides bound selectively to RHAMM but not to CD44 or TLR2,4 and blocked RHAMM:HA interactions. Furthermore, fluorescein-peptide uptake by PC3MLN4 prostate cancer cells was blocked by RHAMM mAb but not by CD44 mAb. These peptides also reduced the ability of prostate cancer cells to degrade collagen type I. The selectivity of these novel HA peptide mimics for RHAMM suggest their potential for development as HA mimetic imaging and therapeutic agents for HA-promoted disease. PMID:26456171

  11. Peptide mimetics of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and FcαRI block IgA-induced human neutrophil activation and migration.

    PubMed

    Heineke, Marieke H; van der Steen, Lydia P E; Korthouwer, Rianne M; Hage, J Joris; Langedijk, Johannes P M; Benschop, Joris J; Bakema, Jantine E; Slootstra, Jerry W; van Egmond, Marjolein

    2017-07-24

    The cross-linking of the IgA Fc receptor (FcαRI) by IgA induces release of the chemoattractant LTB4, thereby recruiting neutrophils in a positive feedback loop. IgA autoantibodies of patients with autoimmune blistering skin diseases therefore induce massive recruitment of neutrophils, resulting in severe tissue damage. To interfere with neutrophil mobilization and reduce disease morbidity, we developed a panel of specific peptides mimicking either IgA or FcαRI sequences. CLIPS technology was used to stabilize three-dimensional structures and to increase peptides' half-life. IgA and FcαRI peptides reduced phagocytosis of IgA-coated beads, as well as IgA-induced ROS production and neutrophil migration in in vitro and ex vivo (human skin) experiments. Since topical application would be the preferential route of administration, Cetomacrogol cream containing an IgA CLIPS peptide was developed. In the presence of a skin permeation enhancer, peptides in this cream were shown to penetrate the skin, while not diffusing systemically. Finally, epitope mapping was used to discover sequences important for binding between IgA and FcαRI. In conclusion, a cream containing IgA or FcαRI peptide mimetics, which block IgA-induced neutrophil activation and migration in the skin may have therapeutic potential for patients with IgA-mediated blistering skin diseases. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Helix mimetics: Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    The development of protein-protein interaction (PPIs) inhibitors represents a challenging goal in chemical biology and drug discovery. PPIs are problematic targets because they involve large surfaces with less well defined features and recognition motifs that are less amenable to conventional experimental and computational ligand discovery methodologies. α-Helix mediated PPIs represent a sub group with a clearly defined interface and thus may be more amenable to the development of generic ligand discovery methods. Indeed, this is borne out in numerous studies using peptides covalently constrained into a helical conformation resulting in improvement of myriad biophysical and cellular properties. It is however desirable to have small molecule alternatives: a helix mimetic (proteomimetic) is a generic small molecule scaffold that projects functional groups in a similar spatial orientation so as to mimic the presentation of key amino acid side chains from the helix that mediates the PPI. The first true example of a helix mimetic was described over a decade ago however this approach has not yet been elaborated to the extent that it receives similar levels of attention to constrained peptides. This review explores recent significant developments in the area of small molecule α-helix mimetics and provides a critical overview of success stories, potential limitations of the approach, and areas for future development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Creation of Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) Mutant Mice and Correction of Their Hypertriglyceridemia with an ApoC-II Mimetic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Akiko; Vaisman, Boris L; Amar, Marcelo J; Liu, Chengyu; Gordon, Scott M; Drake, Steven K; Pryor, Milton; Sampson, Maureen L; Yang, Ling; Freeman, Lita A; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-02-01

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, a plasma enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs). ApoC-II deficiency in humans results in hypertriglyceridemia. We used zinc finger nucleases to create Apoc2 mutant mice to investigate the use of C-II-a, a short apoC-II mimetic peptide, as a therapy for apoC-II deficiency. Mutant mice produced a form of apoC-II with an uncleaved signal peptide that preferentially binds high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) due to a 3-amino acid deletion at the signal peptide cleavage site. Homozygous Apoc2 mutant mice had increased plasma TG (757.5 ± 281.2 mg/dl) and low HDL cholesterol (31.4 ± 14.7 mg/dl) compared with wild-type mice (TG, 55.9 ± 13.3 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol, 55.9 ± 14.3 mg/dl). TGs were found in light (density < 1.063 g/ml) lipoproteins in the size range of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron remnants (40-200 nm). Intravenous injection of C-II-a (0.2, 1, and 5 μmol/kg) reduced plasma TG in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum decrease of 90% occurring 30 minutes after the high dose. Plasma TG did not return to baseline until 48 hours later. Similar results were found with subcutaneous or intramuscular injections. Plasma half-life of C-II-a is 1.33 ± 0.72 hours, indicating that C-II-a only acutely activates lipolysis, and the sustained TG reduction is due to the relatively slow rate of new TG-rich lipoprotein synthesis. In summary, we describe a novel mouse model of apoC-II deficiency and show that an apoC-II mimetic peptide can reverse the hypertriglyceridemia in these mice, and thus could be a potential new therapy for apoC-II deficiency. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  14. Creation of Apolipoprotein C-II (ApoC-II) Mutant Mice and Correction of Their Hypertriglyceridemia with an ApoC-II Mimetic Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Sakurai, Akiko; Vaisman, Boris L.; Amar, Marcelo J.; Liu, Chengyu; Gordon, Scott M.; Drake, Steven K.; Pryor, Milton; Sampson, Maureen L.; Yang, Ling; Freeman, Lita A.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a cofactor for lipoprotein lipase, a plasma enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides (TGs). ApoC-II deficiency in humans results in hypertriglyceridemia. We used zinc finger nucleases to create Apoc2 mutant mice to investigate the use of C-II-a, a short apoC-II mimetic peptide, as a therapy for apoC-II deficiency. Mutant mice produced a form of apoC-II with an uncleaved signal peptide that preferentially binds high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) due to a 3-amino acid deletion at the signal peptide cleavage site. Homozygous Apoc2 mutant mice had increased plasma TG (757.5 ± 281.2 mg/dl) and low HDL cholesterol (31.4 ± 14.7 mg/dl) compared with wild-type mice (TG, 55.9 ± 13.3 mg/dl; HDL cholesterol, 55.9 ± 14.3 mg/dl). TGs were found in light (density < 1.063 g/ml) lipoproteins in the size range of very-low-density lipoprotein and chylomicron remnants (40–200 nm). Intravenous injection of C-II-a (0.2, 1, and 5 μmol/kg) reduced plasma TG in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximum decrease of 90% occurring 30 minutes after the high dose. Plasma TG did not return to baseline until 48 hours later. Similar results were found with subcutaneous or intramuscular injections. Plasma half-life of C-II-a is 1.33 ± 0.72 hours, indicating that C-II-a only acutely activates lipolysis, and the sustained TG reduction is due to the relatively slow rate of new TG-rich lipoprotein synthesis. In summary, we describe a novel mouse model of apoC-II deficiency and show that an apoC-II mimetic peptide can reverse the hypertriglyceridemia in these mice, and thus could be a potential new therapy for apoC-II deficiency. PMID:26574515

  15. Multi-Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Collagen Mimetic Peptides into AAB Type Heterotrimers, Nanofibers and Hydrogels Driven by Charged Pair Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Lesley Russell

    2011-12-01

    Replicating the multi-hierarchical self-assembly of collagen (peptide chain to triple helix to nanofiber and, finally, to a hydrogel) has long attracted scientists, both from the fundamental science perspective of supramolecular chemistry and for the potential biomedical applications perceived in tissue engineering. In terms of triple helical formation, collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body with at least 28 types, yet research involving collagen mimetic systems has only recently began to consider the innate ability of collagen to control helix composition and register. Collagen triple helices can be homotrimeric or heterotrimeric and while some types of natural collagen form only one specific composition of helix, others can form multiple. It is critical to fully understand and, if possible, reproduce the control that native collagen has on helix composition and register. In terms of nanofiber formation, many approaches to drive the self-assembly of synthetic systems through the same steps as natural collagen have been partially successful, but none have simultaneously demonstrated all levels of structural assembly. In this work, advancements in the ability to control helix composition and replicate the multi-hierarchical assembly of collagen are described. Both positive and negative design for the assembly of AAB type collagen heterotrimers were utilized by promoting heterotrimer formation though the use of charged amino acids to form intra-helix electrostatic interactions, while simultaneously discouraging homotrimers, resulting in the identification of multiple peptide systems with full control over the composition of the resulting triple helix. Similar salt-bridged hydrogen bonds between charged residues were incorporated into nanofiber forming peptides, one of which successfully assembled into sticky-ended triple helices, nanofibers with characteristic triple helical packing visible in the solution state, and strong hydrogels that are

  16. Targeting the tight junction protein, zonula occludens-1, with the connexin43 mimetic peptide, αCT1, reduces VEGF-dependent RPE pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Obert, Elisabeth; Strauss, Randy; Brandon, Carlene; Grek, Christina; Ghatnekar, Gautam; Gourdie, Robert; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2017-05-01

    A critical target tissue in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which forms the outer blood-retina barrier (BRB). RPE-barrier dysfunction might result from attenuation/disruption of intercellular tight junctions. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) is a major structural protein of intercellular junctions. A connexin43-based peptide mimetic, αCT1, was developed to competitively block interactions at the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1, thereby inhibiting ligands that selectively bind to this domain. We hypothesized that targeting ZO-1 signaling using αCT1 would maintain BRB integrity and reduce RPE pathophysiology by stabilizing gap- and/or tight-junctions. RPE-cell barrier dysfunction was generated in mice using laser photocoagulation triggering choroidal neovascularization (CNV) or bright light exposure leading to morphological damage. αCT1 was delivered via eye drops. αCT1 treatment reduced CNV development and fluid leakage as determined by optical coherence tomography, and damage was correlated with disruption in cellular integrity of surrounding RPE cells. Light damage significantly disrupted RPE cell morphology as determined by ZO-1 and occludin staining and tiling pattern analysis, which was prevented by αCT1 pre-treatment. In vitro experiments using RPE and MDCK monolayers indicated that αCT1 stabilizes tight junctions, independent of its effects on Cx43. Taken together, stabilization of intercellular junctions by αCT1 was effective in ameliorating RPE dysfunction in models of AMD-like pathology. The connexin43 mimetic αCT1 accumulates in the mouse retinal pigment epithelium following topical delivery via eye drops. αCT1 eye drops prevented RPE-cell barrier dysfunction in two mouse models. αCT1 stabilizes intercellular tight junctions. Stabilization of cellular junctions via αCT1 may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for both wet and dry age-related macular degeneration.

  17. Thermal hysteresis in the backbone and side-chain dynamics of the elastin mimetic peptide [VPGVG]3 revealed by 2H NMR.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiang; Sun, Cheng; Huang, Jiaxin; Boutis, Gregory S

    2012-01-12

    We report on experimental measurements of the backbone and side-chain dynamics of the elastin mimetic peptide [VPGVG](3) by (2)H NMR echo spectroscopy and 2D T(1)-T(2) correlation relaxometry. The T(1) and T(2) relaxation times of the Gly α-deuterons and Val α-, β-, and γ-deuterons of a hydrated sample reveal a thermal hysteresis when the temperature is raised from -10 to 45 °C and then subsequently cooled back to -10 °C. In addition, near 30 °C we observe a reduction in the slope of the T(1)(T) and T(2)(T) heating curves, indicating a structural change that appears to be correlated well to the known inverse temperature transition of this peptide. The thermal dependence of the correlation times of the Gly α-deuterons are well fit by an Arrhenius Law, from which we measured E(act) = (20.0 ± 3.1) kJ/mol when the sample is heated and E(act) = (10.9 ± 2.8) kJ/mol when cooled. Molecular dynamics simulations support the notion that the measured activation energy is determined largely by the extent of localized water, which is observed to decrease with increasing temperature from approximately 25 to 42 °C.

  18. Topical administration of a suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) mimetic peptide inhibits ocular inflammation and mitigates ocular pathology during mouse uveitis.

    PubMed

    He, Chang; Yu, Cheng-Rong; Sun, Lin; Mahdi, Rashid M; Larkin, Joseph; Egwuagu, Charles E

    2015-08-01

    Uveitis is a diverse group of potentially sight-threatening intraocular inflammatory diseases and pathology derives from sustained production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the optical axis. Although topical or systemic steroids are effective therapies, their adverse effects preclude prolonged usage and are impetus for seeking alternative immunosuppressive agents, particularly for patients with refractory uveitis. In this study, we synthesized a 16 amino acid membrane-penetrating lipophilic suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 peptide (SOCS1-KIR) that inhibits JAK/STAT signaling pathways and show that it suppresses and ameliorates experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), the mouse model of human uveitis. Fundus images, histological and optical coherence tomography analysis of eyes showed significant suppression of clinical disease, with average clinical score of 0.5 compared to 2.0 observed in control mice treated with scrambled peptide. We further show that SOCS1-KIR conferred protection from ocular pathology by inhibiting the expansion of pathogenic Th17 cells and inhibiting trafficking of inflammatory cells into the neuroretina during EAU. Dark-adapted scotopic and photopic electroretinograms further reveal that SOCS1-KIR prevented decrement of retinal function, underscoring potential neuroprotective effects of SOCS1-KIR in uveitis. Importantly, SOCS1-KIR is non-toxic, suggesting that topical administration of SOCS1-Mimetics can be exploited as a non-invasive treatment for uveitis and for limiting cytokine-mediated pathology in other ocular inflammatory diseases including scleritis.

  19. A synthetic strategy for the preparation of cyclic peptide mimetics based on SET-promoted photocyclization processes.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ung Chan; Jin, Ying Xue; Oh, Sun Wha; Park, Chan Hyo; Park, Jong Hoon; Campana, Charles F; Cai, Xiaolu; Duesler, Eileen N; Mariano, Patrick S

    2003-09-03

    A novel method for the synthesis of cyclic peptide analogues has been developed. The general approach relies on the use of SET-promoted photocyclization reactions of peptides that contain N-terminal phthalimides as light absorbing electron acceptor moieties and C-terminal alpha-amidosilane or alpha-amidocarboxylate centers. Prototypical substrates are prepared by coupling preformed peptides with the acid chloride of N-phthalimidoglycine. Irradiation of these substrates results in the generation of cyclic peptide analogues in modest to good yields. The chemical efficiencies of these processes are not significantly affected by (1) the lengths of the peptide chains separating the phthalimide and alpha-amidosilane or alpha-amidocarboxylate centers and (2) the nature of the penultimate cation radical alpha-heterolytic fragmentation process (i.e., desilylation vs decarboxylation). An evaluation of the effects of N-alkyl substitution on the amide residues in the peptide chain showed that N-alkyl substitution does not have a major impact on the efficiencies of the photocyclization reactions but that it profoundly increases the stability of the cyclic peptide.

  20. EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

    2014-01-01

    Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30 min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1 h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders. PMID:25268254

  1. EphrinA4 mimetic peptide targeted to EphA binding site impairs the formation of long-term fear memory in lateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Dines, M; Lamprecht, R

    2014-09-30

    Fear conditioning leads to long-term fear memory formation and is a model for studying fear-related psychopathologies conditions such as phobias and posttraumatic stress disorder. Long-term fear memory formation is believed to involve alterations of synaptic efficacy mediated by changes in synaptic transmission and morphology in lateral amygdala (LA). EphrinA4 and its cognate Eph receptors are intimately involved in regulating neuronal morphogenesis, synaptic transmission and plasticity. To assess possible roles of ephrinA4 in fear memory formation we designed and used a specific inhibitory ephrinA4 mimetic peptide (pep-ephrinA4) targeted to EphA binding site. We show that this peptide, composed of the ephrinA4 binding domain, interacts with EphA4 and inhibits ephrinA4-induced phosphorylation of EphA4. Microinjection of the pep-ephrinA4 into rat LA 30 min before training impaired long- but not short-term fear conditioning memory. Microinjection of a control peptide derived from a nonbinding E helix site of ephrinA4, that does not interact with EphA, had no effect on fear memory formation. Microinjection of pep-ephrinA4 into areas adjacent to the amygdala had no effect on fear memory. Acute systemic administration of pep-ephrinA4 1 h after training also impaired long-term fear conditioning memory formation. These results demonstrate that ephrinA4 binding sites in LA are essential for long-term fear memory formation. Moreover, our research shows that ephrinA4 binding sites may serve as a target for pharmacological treatment of fear and anxiety disorders.

  2. Restrain of bone growth by estrogen-mimetic peptide-1 (EMP-1): a micro-computed tomographic study.

    PubMed

    Kasher, Roni; Bajayo, Alon; Gabet, Yankel; Nevo, Nava; Fridkin, Mati; Katchalski-Katzir, Ephraim; Kohen, Fortune; Bab, Itai

    2009-06-01

    Estrogen has a key role in the regulation of skeletal growth and maintenance of bone mass. Recently, we developed peptides having estrogen-like activity as potential estrogen-based new drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of long-term administration of the most efficacious of these peptides, the hexapeptide EMP-1 (VSWFFE), on bone mass and development. EMP-1 was injected daily to ovariectomized (OVX) and intact young, sexually mature female mice for 10 weeks. Whole femora, including the cartilaginous growth plates were analyzed by micro-computed tomography (microCT). We found that peptide EMP-1 restrains bone growth in OVX mice: it inhibited dramatically bone longitudinal growth (40%), and decreased femoral diaphyseal diameter. Peptide EMP-1 had no effect on bone growth in normal mice, and did not influence the OVX-induced bone loss. We then developed a new microCT methodology to evaluate uncalcified and calcified growth plate parameters. In the OVX mice, peptide EMP-1 reduced volume and thickness of the uncalcified growth plate, a possible cause for the inhibition of bone longitudinal growth. Peptide EMP-1 may be used as a lead compound for the development of drugs to treat acromegalic patients.

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Mimetics: a Therapeutic Tool for Atherosclerotic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Masahiro; Higaki, Yasuki; Saku, Keijiro; Uehara, Yoshinari

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials and epidemiological studies have revealed a negative correlation between serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular events. Currently, statin treatment is the standard therapy for cardiovascular diseases, reducing plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. However, more than half of the patients have not been able to receive the beneficial effects of this treatment.The reverse cholesterol transport pathway has several potential anti-atherogenic properties. An important approach to HDL-targeted therapy is the optimization of HDL cholesterol levels and function in the blood to enhance the removal of circulating cholesterol and to prevent or mitigate inflammation that causes atherosclerosis. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors increase HDL cholesterol levels in humans, but whether they reduce the risk of atherosclerotic diseases is unknown. HDL therapies using HDL mimetics, including reconstituted HDL, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-IMilano, ApoA-I mimetic peptides, or full-length ApoA-I, are highly effective in animal models. In particular, the Fukuoka University ApoA-I-mimetic peptide (FAMP) effectively removes cholesterol via the ABCA1 transporter and acts as an anti-atherosclerotic agent by enhancing the biological functions of HDL without elevating HDL cholesterol levels.Our literature review suggests that HDL mimetics have significant atheroprotective potential and are a therapeutic tool for atherosclerotic diseases.

  4. Conformation and Lipid Binding of a C-Terminal (198-243) Peptide of Human Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)†

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongli L.; Atkinson, David

    2008-01-01

    Human apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the principle apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins that are critically involved in reverse cholesterol transport. The intrinsically flexibility of apoA-I has hindered studies of the structural and functional details of the protein. Our strategy is to study peptide models representing different regions of apoA-I. Our previous report on [1-44]apoA-I demonstrated that this N-terminal region is unstructured and folds into ~ 60% α-helix with a moderate lipid binding affinity. We now present details of the conformation and lipid interaction of a C-terminal 46 residue peptide, [198-243]apoA-I, encompassing putative helix repeats 10, 9 and the second half of repeat 8 from the C-terminus of apoA-I. Far ultraviolet circular dichroism spectra show that [198-243] apoA-I is also unfolded in aqueous solution. However, self-association induces ~ 50% α-helix in the peptide. The self-associated peptide exists mainly as a tetramer, as determined by native electrophoresis, cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and unfolding data from circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In the presence of a number of lipid mimicking detergents, above their CMC, ~ 60% α-helix was induced in the peptide. In contrast, SDS, an anionic lipid mimicking detergent, induced helical folding in the peptide at a concentration of ~ 0.003% (~ 100 μM), ~ 70 fold below its typical CMC (0.17–0.23% or 6–8 mM). Both monomeric and tetrameric peptide can solublize dimyristoyl phosphatidyl choline (DMPC) liposomes and fold into ~ 60% α-helix. Fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation and visualization by negative staining electromicroscopy, demonstrated that the peptide binds to DMPC with high affinity to form at least two sizes of relatively homogenous discoidal HDL-like particles depending on the initial lipid:peptide ratio. The characteristics (lipid:peptide w/w, diameter and density) of both complexes are similar to those of

  5. In silico-designed novel non-peptidic ABAD LD hot spot mimetics reverse Aβ-induced mitochondrial impairments in vitro.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Ambily Nath Indu; Kim, TaeHun; Jung, Seo Yun; Lim, Sang Min; Pae, Ae Nim

    2017-06-29

    Present work aimed to introduce non-peptidic ABAD loop D (LD ) hot spot mimetics as ABAD-Aβ inhibitors. A full-length atomistic model of ABAD-Aβ complex was built as a scaffold to launch the lead design and its topology later verified by cross-checking the computational mutagenesis results with that of in vitro data. Thereafter, the interactions of prime Aβ-binding LD residues-Tyr101, Thr108, and Thr110-were translated into specific pharmacophore features and this hypothesis subsequently used as a virtual screen query. ELISA-based screening of 20 hits identified two promising lead candidates, VC15 and VC19 with an IC50 of 4.4 ± 0.3 and 9.6 ± 0.1 μm, respectively. They productively reversed Aβ-induced mitochondrial dysfunctions such as mitochondrial membrane potential loss (JC-1 assay), toxicity (MTT assay), and ATP reduction (ATP assay) in addition to increased cell viabilities. This is the first reporting of LD hot spot-centric in silico scheme to discover novel compounds with promising ABAD-Aβ inhibitory potential. These chemotypes are proposed for further structural optimization to derive novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapeutics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Sustained intravitreal delivery of connexin43 mimetic peptide by poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) acid micro- and nanoparticles--Closing the gap in retinal ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Shan; Green, Colin R; Wang, Kailun; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Rupenthal, Ilva D

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has shown that transient block of connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannels by mimetic peptides (MP) after retinal ischaemia inhibits uncontrolled hemichannel opening causing blood-brain barrier permeability and endothelial cell loss, and consequently provides improved retinal ganglion cell (RGC) survival. However, the highly hydrophilic character and potentially poor stability of native peptides can limit efficient delivery in a clinical setting. The present study investigated the ability of intravitreally injected Cx43 MP encapsulated into slow-release poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nano-(Nps) and microparticles (Mps) to promote RGC survival in a retinal ischaemia-reperfusion rat model. The particle size was around 113 nm (Nps) and 9 μm (Mps), respectively, with Cx43 MP entrapment efficiencies of 70% (Nps) and 97% (Mps). A triphasic in vitro release profile was observed with an initial burst of surface-bound Cx43 MP followed by slow release due to polymer erosion and further drug release at the point of complete particle breakdown, with 100% release achieved after 63 (Nps) and 112 (Mps) days, respectively. Nps showed the most promising results on both Cx43 down-regulation and RGC rescue in this acute injury model. Mps treatment, on the other hand, was unable to down regulate the initial inflammatory response possibly due to trapping of the bigger particles in the vitreous and the much slower release of Cx43 MP from these particles, but displayed a delayed effect on Cx43 regulation and RGC preservation due to the sustained release.

  7. Formation of AAB-Type Collagen Heterotrimers from Designed Cationic and Aromatic Collagen-Mimetic Peptides: Evaluation of the C-Terminal Cation-π Interactions.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chu-Harn; Fu, Yi-Hsuan; Horng, Jia-Cherng

    2017-03-13

    Most of natural collagens are heterotrimers composed of two (AAB) or three (ABC) different peptide chains, and thus heterotrimeric constructs are preferable to mimic natural collagens. Exploring the forces to assemble synthetic collagen-mimetic peptides (CMPs) into heterotrimers has been an attractive topic in preparing collagen-related biomaterials. Here we designed and synthesized two cationic CMPs (CR and CK) in which multiple Arg or Lys residues are installed in their C-terminal region, and one aromatic CMP (CF) whose C-terminal end contains multiple Phe residues. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy showed that AAB-type heterotrimers could form in both CR-CF and CK-CF mixtures, suggesting that the C-terminal cation-π interactions between cationic and aromatic residues could serve as a nucleation force and substantially promote the folding of heterotrimers. In particular, only one major heterotrimeric fold was found in each mixture. For CR-CF mixtures, either the heterotrimer with two CR chains and one CF chain or that with one CR chain and two CF chains could form, depending on the molar ratios of CR to CF in solution. By contrast, in CK-CF mixtures only the heterotrimer consisting of two CK chains and one CF chain was found in solution even increasing the ratio of CF, implying that the heterotrimer composed of one CK chain and two CF chains is highly unstable. Additionally, differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the folding of these heterotrimers is governed by entropic effects. Together, our results provide a new design to prepare AAB-type collagen heterotrimers and reveal new insights into their folding thermodynamics.

  8. Preparation of orthogonally protected (2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-methyl-4-phosphonobutyric acid (Pmab) as a phosphatase–stable phosphothreonine mimetic and its use in the synthesis of Polo–box domain–binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fa; Park, Jung-Eun; Lee, Kyung S.; Burke, Terrence R.

    2014-01-01

    Reported herein is the first stereoselective synthesis of (2S,3R)-4-[bis-(tert-butyloxy)phosphinyl]-2-[(9H-fluoren-9-ylmethoxy)carbonyl]amino-3-methylbutanoic acid [(N-Fmoc, O,O-(bis-(tert-butyl))-Pmab, 4] as a hydrolytically-stable phosphothreonine mimetic bearing orthogonal protection compatible with standard solid-phase protocols. The synthetic approach used employs Evans’ oxazolidinone for chiral induction. Also presented is the application of 4 in the solid-phase synthesis of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) polo box domain (PBD)-binding peptides. These Pmab-containing peptides retain PBD binding efficacy similar to a parent pThr containing peptide. Reagent 4 should be a highly useful reagent for the preparation of signal transduction-directed peptides. PMID:24954959

  9. A Peptide Mimetic of 5-Acetylneuraminic Acid-Galactose Binds with High Avidity to Siglecs and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Eggink, Laura L.; Spyroulias, Georgios A.; Jones, Norman G.; Hanson, Carl V.; Hoober, J. Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We previously identified several peptide sequences that mimicked the terminal sugars of complex glycans. Using plant lectins as analogs of lectin-type cell-surface receptors, a tetravalent form of a peptide with the sequence NPSHPLSG, designated svH1C, bound with high avidity to lectins specific for glycans with terminal 5-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-galactose (Gal)/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sequences. In this report, we show by circular dichroism and NMR spectra that svH1C lacks an ordered structure and thus interacts with binding sites from a flexible conformation. The peptide binds with high avidity to several recombinant human siglec receptors that bind preferentially to Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal, Neu5Ac(α2,6)GalNAc or Neu5Ac(α2,8)Neu5Ac ligands. In addition, the peptide bound the receptor NKG2D, which contains a lectin-like domain that binds Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal. The peptide bound to these receptors with a KD in the range of 0.6 to 1 μM. Binding to these receptors was inhibited by the glycoprotein fetuin, which contains multiple glycans that terminate in Neu5Ac(α2,3)Gal or Neu5Ac(α2,6)Gal, and by sialyllactose. Binding of svH1C was not detected with CLEC9a, CLEC10a or DC-SIGN, which are lectin-type receptors specific for other sugars. Incubation of neuraminidase-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with svH1C resulted in binding of the peptide to a subset of the CD14+ monocyte population. Tyrosine phosphorylation of siglecs decreased dramatically when peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with 100 nM svH1C. Subcutaneous, alternate-day injections of svH1C into mice induced several-fold increases in populations of several types of immune cells in the peritoneal cavity. These results support the conclusion that svH1C mimics Neu5Ac-containing sequences and interacts with cell-surface receptors with avidities sufficient to induce biological responses at low concentrations. The attenuation of inhibitory receptors suggests that svH1C has

  10. Structure, topology and assembly of a 32-mer peptide corresponding to the loop 3 and transmembrane domain 4 of divalent metal transporter (DMT1) in membrane-mimetic environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Gu, Ji-Dong; Sun, Hongzhe

    2008-01-01

    Divalent metal transporter (DMT1) belongs to the family of Nramp proteins. The fourth transmembrane domain (TM4) housing the disease-causing mutations both in Nramp1 and Nramp2 at the conserved two adjacent glycine residues, was implicated to serve an important biological function. In the present study, we have characterized structurally and topologically a 32-mer synthetic peptide, corresponding to the sequence of the loop 3 and the fourth transmembrane domain of rat DMT1 in membrane-mimetic environments (e.g. TFE, SDS micelles) using both CD and NMR spectroscopic techniques. Solution structures derived from NMR and molecular dynamic/simulated annealing calculation demonstrated that the peptide exhibits a highly defined alpha-helice in the middle portion of the peptide, flanked by a highly flexible N-terminus and a relatively ordered C-terminus. Paramagnetic broadening on peptide signals by spin-labels and Mn2+ suggested that both the N-terminus and helical core of the peptide were embedded into the SDS micelles. The peptide exhibited amphipathic characteristics, with hydrophilic residues (Thr189, Asp192, Thr193 and Asp200) lying in one side of the helix which provides a basis for the formation of water-filled channel architectures through self-associations. Diffusion-ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) indicated that the peptide exhibits mixtures of hexamers, trimers and monomers, in contrast to the fourth transmembrane peptide (24-mer) being aggregated as a trimer only. This appears to be the first report on the effects of loops on aggregation behavior of transmembrane domains in membrane-mimetic environments.

  11. Multi-hierarchical self-assembly of a collagen mimetic peptide from triple helix to nanofibre and hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Leary, Lesley E. R.; Fallas, Jorge A.; Bakota, Erica L.; Kang, Marci K.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.

    2011-10-01

    Replicating the multi-hierarchical self-assembly of collagen has long-attracted scientists, from both the perspective of the fundamental science of supramolecular chemistry and that of potential biomedical applications in tissue engineering. Many approaches to drive the self-assembly of synthetic systems through the same steps as those of natural collagen (peptide chain to triple helix to nanofibres and, finally, to a hydrogel) are partially successful, but none simultaneously demonstrate all the levels of structural assembly. Here we describe a peptide that replicates the self-assembly of collagen through each of these steps. The peptide features collagen's characteristic proline-hydroxyproline-glycine repeating unit, complemented by designed salt-bridged hydrogen bonds between lysine and aspartate to stabilize the triple helix in a sticky-ended assembly. This assembly is propagated into nanofibres with characteristic triple helical packing and lengths with a lower bound of several hundred nanometres. These nanofibres form a hydrogel that is degraded by collagenase at a similar rate to that of natural collagen.

  12. Multi-hierarchical self-assembly of a collagen mimetic peptide from triple helix to nanofibre and hydrogel.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Lesley E R; Fallas, Jorge A; Bakota, Erica L; Kang, Marci K; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2011-08-28

    Replicating the multi-hierarchical self-assembly of collagen has long-attracted scientists, from both the perspective of the fundamental science of supramolecular chemistry and that of potential biomedical applications in tissue engineering. Many approaches to drive the self-assembly of synthetic systems through the same steps as those of natural collagen (peptide chain to triple helix to nanofibres and, finally, to a hydrogel) are partially successful, but none simultaneously demonstrate all the levels of structural assembly. Here we describe a peptide that replicates the self-assembly of collagen through each of these steps. The peptide features collagen's characteristic proline-hydroxyproline-glycine repeating unit, complemented by designed salt-bridged hydrogen bonds between lysine and aspartate to stabilize the triple helix in a sticky-ended assembly. This assembly is propagated into nanofibres with characteristic triple helical packing and lengths with a lower bound of several hundred nanometres. These nanofibres form a hydrogel that is degraded by collagenase at a similar rate to that of natural collagen.

  13. Effects of synthetic neural adhesion molecule mimetic peptides and related proteins on the cardiomyogenic differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruodan; Srinivasan, Sureshkumar Perumal; Sureshkumar, Poornima; Nembo, Erastus Nembu; Schäfer, Christoph; Semmler, Judith; Matzkies, Matthias; Albrechtsen, Morten; Hescheler, Jürgen; Nguemo, Filomain

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells differentiating into cardiomyocyte-like cells in an appropriate cellular environment have attracted significant attention, given the potential use of such cells for regenerative medicine. However, the precise mechanisms of lineage specification of pluripotent stem cells are still largely to be explored. Identifying the role of various small synthetic peptides involved in cardiomyogenesis may provide new insights into pathways promoting cardiomyogenesis. In the present study, using a transgenic murine embryonic stem (ES) cell lineage expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) promoter (pαMHC-EGFP), we investigated the cardiomyogenic effects of 7 synthetic peptides (Betrofin3, FGLs, FGL(L), hNgf_C2, EnkaminE, Plannexin and C3) on cardiac differentiation. The expression of several cardiac-specific markers was determined by RT-PCR whereas the structural and functional properties of derived cardiomyocytes were examined by immunofluorescence and electrophysiology, respectively. The results revealed that Betrofin3, an agonist of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) peptide exerted the most striking pro-cardiomyogenic effect on ES cells. We found that BDNF receptor, TrkB expression was up-regulated during differentiation. Treatment of differentiating cells with Betrofin3 between days 3 and 5 enhanced the expression of cardiac-specific markers and improved cardiomyocyte differentiation and functionality as revealed by genes regulation, flow cytometry and patch clamp analysis. Thus Betrofin3 may exert its cardiomyogenic effects on ES cells via TrkB receptor. Taken together, the results suggest that Betrofin3 modulates BDNF signaling with positive cardiomyogenic effect in stage and dose-dependent manner providing an effective strategy to increase ES cell-based generation of cardiomyocytes and offer a novel therapeutic approach to cardiac pathologies where BDNF levels are impaired.

  14. A Fhit-mimetic peptide suppresses annexin A4-mediated chemoresistance to paclitaxel in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Paduano, Francesco; Ngankeu, Apollinaire; Ortuso, Francesco; Lovat, Francesca; Pinton, Sandra; D'Agostino, Sabrina; Zanesi, Nicola; Aqeilan, Rami I; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore; Alcaro, Stefano; Croce, Carlo M; Trapasso, Francesco

    2016-05-24

    We recently reported that Fhit is in a molecular complex with annexin A4 (ANXA4); following to their binding, Fhit delocalizes ANXA4 from plasma membrane to cytosol in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells, thus restoring their chemosensitivity to the drug. Here, we demonstrate that Fhit physically interacts with A4 through its N-terminus; molecular dynamics simulations were performed on a 3D Fhit model to rationalize its mechanism of action. This approach allowed for the identification of the QHLIKPS heptapeptide (position 7 to 13 of the wild-type Fhit protein) as the smallest Fhit sequence still able to preserve its ability to bind ANXA4. Interestingly, Fhit peptide also recapitulates the property of the native protein in inhibiting Annexin A4 translocation from cytosol to plasma membrane in A549 and Calu-2 lung cancer cells treated with paclitaxel. Finally, the combination of Tat-Fhit peptide and paclitaxel synergistically increases the apoptotic rate of cultured lung cancer cells and blocks in vivo tumor formation.Our findings address to the identification of chemically simplified Fhit derivatives that mimic Fhit tumor suppressor functions; intriguingly, this approach might lead to the generation of novel anticancer drugs to be used in combination with conventional therapies in Fhit-negative tumors to prevent or delay chemoresistance.

  15. A Fhit-mimetic peptide suppresses annexin A4-mediated chemoresistance to paclitaxel in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ngankeu, Apollinaire; Ortuso, Francesco; Lovat, Francesca; Pinton, Sandra; D'Agostino, Sabrina; Zanesi, Nicola; Aqeilan, Rami I.; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore; Alcaro, Stefano; Croce, Carlo M.; Trapasso, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that Fhit is in a molecular complex with annexin A4 (ANXA4); following to their binding, Fhit delocalizes ANXA4 from plasma membrane to cytosol in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells, thus restoring their chemosensitivity to the drug. Here, we demonstrate that Fhit physically interacts with A4 through its N-terminus; molecular dynamics simulations were performed on a 3D Fhit model to rationalize its mechanism of action. This approach allowed for the identification of the QHLIKPS heptapeptide (position 7 to 13 of the wild-type Fhit protein) as the smallest Fhit sequence still able to preserve its ability to bind ANXA4. Interestingly, Fhit peptide also recapitulates the property of the native protein in inhibiting Annexin A4 translocation from cytosol to plasma membrane in A549 and Calu-2 lung cancer cells treated with paclitaxel. Finally, the combination of Tat-Fhit peptide and paclitaxel synergistically increases the apoptotic rate of cultured lung cancer cells and blocks in vivo tumor formation. Our findings address to the identification of chemically simplified Fhit derivatives that mimic Fhit tumor suppressor functions; intriguingly, this approach might lead to the generation of novel anticancer drugs to be used in combination with conventional therapies in Fhit-negative tumors to prevent or delay chemoresistance. PMID:27166255

  16. Inhibition of p53-dependent transcription by BOX-I phospho-peptide mimetics that bind to p300

    PubMed Central

    Dornan, David; Hupp, Ted R.

    2001-01-01

    The N-terminal BOX-I domain of p53 containing a docking site for the negative regulator MDM2 and the positive effector p300, harbours two recently identified phosphorylation sites at Thr18 or Ser20 whose affect on p300 is undefined. Biochemical assays demonstrate that although MDM2 binding is inhibited by these phosphorylations, p300 binding is strikingly stabilized by Thr18 or Ser20 phosphorylation. Introducing EGFP-BOX-I domain peptides with an aspartate substitution at Thr18 or Ser20 induced a significant inhibition of endogenous p53-dependent transcription in cycling cells, in irradiated cells, as well as in cells transiently co-transfected with p300 and p53. In contrast an EGFP-wild-type BOX-I domain peptide stimulated p53 activity via inhibition of MDM2 protein binding. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p53 at Thr18 or Ser20 can activate p53 by stabilizing the p300–p53 complex and also identify a class of small molecular weight ligands capable of selective discrimination between MDM2- and p300-dependent activities. PMID:11258706

  17. Ex vivo investigation of ocular tissue distribution following intravitreal administration of connexin43 mimetic peptide using the microdialysis technique and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Rohit; Mandal, Abhirup; Rupenthal, Ilva D; Mitra, Ashim K

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate an ex vivo eye model for intravitreal drug sampling and tissue distribution of connexin43 mimetic peptide (Cx43MP) following intravitreal injection using the microdialysis technique and LC-MS/MS. An LC-MS/MS method was developed, validated, and applied for quantification of Cx43MP in ocular tissues. Microdialysis probes were calibrated for in vitro recovery studies. Bovine eyes were fixed in a customized eye holder and after intravitreal injection of Cx43MP, microdialysis probes were implanted in the vitreous body. Vitreous samples were collected at particular time intervals over 24 h. Moreover, 24 and 48 h after intravitreal injection ocular tissues were collected, processed, and analyzed for Cx43MP concentrations using LC-MS/MS. The LC-MS/MS method showed good linearity (r (2) = 0.9991). The mean percent recovery for lower (LQC), medium (MQC), and higher quality control (HQC) (0.244, 3.906, and 125 μg/mL) was found to be 83.83, 84.92, and 94.52, respectively, with accuracy ranges between 96 and 99 % and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of 0.122 and 0.412 μg/mL. The in vitro recovery of the probes was found to be over 80 %. As per microdialysis sample analysis, the Cx43MP concentration was found to increase slowly in the vitreous body up to 16 h and thereafter declined. After 48 h, the Cx43MP concentration was higher in vitreous, cornea, and retina compared to lens, iris, and aqueous humor. This ex vivo model may therefore be a useful tool to investigate intravitreal kinetics and ocular disposition of therapeutic molecules after intravitreal injection.

  18. Connexin 43 mimetic peptide Gap27 reveals potential differences in the role of Cx43 in wound repair between diabetic and non-diabetic cells.

    PubMed

    Pollok, Simone; Pfeiffer, Ann-Catherine; Lobmann, Ralf; Wright, Catherine S; Moll, Ingrid; Martin, Patricia E M; Brandner, Johanna M

    2011-04-01

    During early wound healing (WH) events Connexin 43 (Cx43) is down-regulated at wound margins. In chronic wound margins, including diabetic wounds, Cx43 expression is enhanced suggesting that down-regulation is important for WH. We previously reported that the Cx43 mimetic peptide Gap27 blocks Cx43 mediated intercellular communication and promotes skin cell migration of infant cells in vitro. In the present work we further investigated the molecular mechanism of Gap27 action and its therapeutic potential to improve WH in skin tissue and diabetic and non-diabetic cells. Ex vivo skin, organotypic models and human keratinocytes/fibroblasts of young and old donors and of diabetic and non-diabetic origin were used to assess the impact of Gap27 on cell migration, proliferation, Cx43 expression, localization, phosphorylation and hemichannel function. Exposure of ex vivo WH models to Gap27 decreased dye spread, accelerated WH and elevated cell proliferation. In non-diabetic cell cultures Gap27 decreased dye uptake through Cx hemichannels and after scratch wounding cells showed enhanced migration and proliferation. Cells of diabetic origin were less susceptible to Gap27 during early passages. In late passages these cells showed responses comparable to non-diabetic cells. The cause of the discrepancy between diabetic and non-diabetic cells correlated with decreased Cx hemichannel activity in diabetic cells but excluded differences in Cx43 expression, localization and Ser368-phosphorylation. These data emphasize the importance of Cx43 in WH and support the concept that Gap27 could be a beneficial therapeutic to accelerate normal WH. However, its use in diabetic WH may be restricted and our results highlight differences in the role of Cx43 in skin cells of different origin.

  19. Na/K-ATPase Mimetic pNaKtide Peptide Inhibits the Growth of Human Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhichuan; Zhang, Zhongbing; Xie, Joe X.; Li, Xin; Tian, Jiang; Cai, Ting; Cui, Hongjuan; Ding, Hanfei; Shapiro, Joseph I.; Xie, Zijian

    2011-01-01

    Cells contain a large pool of nonpumping Na/K-ATPase that participates in signal transduction. Here, we show that the expression of α1 Na/K-ATPase is significantly reduced in human prostate carcinoma as well as in several human cancer cell lines. This down-regulation impairs the ability of Na/K-ATPase to regulate Src-related signaling processes. A supplement of pNaKtide, a peptide derived from α1 Na/K-ATPase, reduces the activities of Src and Src effectors. Consequently, these treatments stimulate apoptosis and inhibit growth in cultures of human cancer cells. Moreover, administration of pNaKtide inhibits angiogenesis and growth of tumor xenograft. Thus, the new findings demonstrate the in vivo effectiveness of pNaKtide and suggest that the defect in Na/K-ATPase-mediated signal transduction may be targeted for developing new anticancer therapeutics. PMID:21784855

  20. Mapping the Interaction of B Cell Leukemia 3 (BCL-3) and Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) p50 Identifies a BCL-3-mimetic Anti-inflammatory Peptide*

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia E.; Grassia, Gianluca; Colleran, Amy; Kiely, Patrick A.; Ialenti, Armando; Maffia, Pasquale; Carmody, Ruaidhrí J.

    2015-01-01

    The NF-κB transcriptional response is tightly regulated by a number of processes including the phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of NF-κB subunits. The IκB family protein BCL-3 stabilizes a NF-κB p50 homodimer·DNA complex through inhibition of p50 ubiquitination. This complex inhibits the binding of the transcriptionally active NF-κB subunits p65 and c-Rel on the promoters of NF-κB target genes and functions to suppress inflammatory gene expression. We have previously shown that the direct interaction between p50 and BCL-3 is required for BCL-3-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression. In this study we have used immobilized peptide array technology to define regions of BCl-3 that mediate interaction with p50 homodimers. Our data show that BCL-3 makes extensive contacts with p50 homodimers and in particular with ankyrin repeats (ANK) 1, 6, and 7, and the N-terminal region of Bcl-3. Using these data we have designed a BCL-3 mimetic peptide based on a region of the ANK1 of BCL-3 that interacts with p50 and shares low sequence similarity with other IκB proteins. When fused to a cargo carrying peptide sequence this BCL-3-derived peptide, but not a mutated peptide, inhibited Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine expression in vitro. The BCL-3 mimetic peptide was also effective in preventing inflammation in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw edema mouse model. This study demonstrates that therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the functional activity of BCL-3 may be effective in the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:25922067

  1. Binding of the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, to α5β1 on pig islet cells increases fibronectin production and facilitates internalization of PR_b functionalized liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Atchison, Nicole A.; Fan, Wei; Papas, Klearchos K.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Tsapatsis, Michael; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising treatment for type 1 diabetes. Recent studies have demonstrated that human islet allografts can restore insulin independence to patients with this disease. As islet isolation and immunotherapeutic techniques improve, the demand for this cell-based therapy will dictate the need for other sources of islets. Pig islets could provide an unlimited supply for xenotransplantation and have shown promise as an alternative to human islet allografts. However, stresses imposed during islet isolation and transplantation decrease islet viability, leading to loss of graft function. In this study, we investigated the ability of a fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, which specifically binds to the α5β1 integrin, to reestablish lost extracellular matrix (ECM) around isolated pig islets and increase internalization of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and western blotting were used to show the presence of the integrin α5β1 on the pig islets on day 0 (day of isolation), as well as different days of islet culture. Islets cultured in medium supplemented with free PR_b for 48 hours were found to have increased levels of ECM fibronectin secretion compared to islets in normal culture conditions. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry we found that PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes delivered to the pig islets internalized into the cells in a PR_b concentration dependent manner, and non-functionalized liposomes showed minimal internalization. These studies proved that the fibronectin-mimetic peptide, PR_b, is an appropriate peptide bullet for applications involving α5β1 expressing pig islet cells. Fibronectin production stimulated through α5β1 PR_b binding may decrease apoptosis and therefore increase islet viability in culture. In addition, PR_b peptide-amphiphile functionalized liposomes may be used for targeted delivery of different agents to pig islet cells. PMID:20704278

  2. Effect of amino acid distribution of amphipathic helical peptide derived from human apolipoprotein A-I on membrane curvature sensing.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masafumi; Takamura, Yuki; Kawakami, Toru; Aimoto, Saburo; Saito, Hiroyuki; Mukai, Takahiro

    2013-03-01

    Amphipathic helix, which senses membrane curvature, is of growing interest. Here we explore the effect of amino acid distribution of amphipathic helical peptide derived from the C-terminal region (residues 220-241) of human apolipoprotein (apo) A-I on membrane curvature sensing. This peptide preferred a curved membrane in a manner similar to full-length apoA-I, although its model peptide did not sense membrane curvature. Substitution of several residues both on the polar and non-polar faces of the amphipathic helix had no significant effect on sensing, suggestive of the elaborate molecular architecture in the C-terminal helical region of apoA-I to exert lipid efflux function. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cosmology with Mimetic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Vikman, Alexander E-mail: viatcheslav.Mukhanov@lmu.de

    2014-06-01

    We consider minimal extensions of the recently proposed Mimetic Dark Matter and show that by introducing a potential for the mimetic non-dynamical scalar field we can mimic nearly any gravitational properties of the normal matter. In particular, the mimetic matter can provide us with inflaton, quintessence and even can lead to a bouncing nonsingular universe. We also investigate the behaviour of cosmological perturbations due to a mimetic matter. We demonstrate that simple mimetic inflation can produce red-tilted scalar perturbations which are largely enhanced over gravity waves.

  4. Novel therapeutics for type 2 diabetes: incretin hormone mimetics (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Verspohl, E J

    2009-10-01

    Known treatments of type 2 diabetes mellitus have limitations such as weight gain, and hypoglycaemias. A new perspective is the use of incretin hormones and incretin enhancers. Incretins are defined as being responsible for the higher insulin release after an oral glucose load compared to an intravenous glucose load. The delicate balance of glucose homeostasis, in which incretin hormones are involved, is disturbed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The incretin GLP-1 helps to maintain glucose homeostasis through stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon release in a glucose-dependent manner. This is associated with reductions in body weight, and no risk of hypoglycaemias. When classical oral agents have failed to maintain adequate glycaemic control, incretin mimetics may be of particular value for obese patients and those who have little control over meal sizes. Exenatide was marketed as a GLP-1 analogue and longer acting incretin mimetics such as liraglutide, albiglutide and others have the same pharmacological profile. In addition to incretin mimetics incretin enhancers which inhibit/delay degradation of incretins were developed: so-called DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin are approved in Europe. Their differences from incretin mimetics include: oral bioavailability, less side effects with overdose, no direct CNS effects (nausea and vomiting) and no effect on weight. In rodent models of diabetes, but not yet in humans, GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors increase islet mass and preserve beta-cell function. Incretin mimetics and enhancers expand type 2 diabetes treatment, are still not first line therapy and it is discussed if they are to be prophylactically used.

  5. Treatment of mice with the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 mimetic peptide, tyrosine kinase inhibitor peptide, prevents development of the acute form of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and induces stable remission in the chronic relapsing/remitting form.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Mustafa G; Flowers, Lawrence O; Patel, Chintak B; Patel, Ravi A; Haider, Mohammad I; Johnson, Howard M

    2005-10-15

    We have previously characterized a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor peptide (Tkip) that is a mimetic of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and inhibits JAK2 phosphorylation of the transcription factor STAT1alpha. We show in this study that Tkip protects mice against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Mice are immunized with myelin basic protein (MBP) for induction of disease. Tkip (63 mug) administered every other day suppressed the development of acute EAE in 75% of New Zealand White (NZW) mice. Furthermore, Tkip completely protected SJL/J mice, which where induced to get the relapsing/remitting form of EAE, against relapses compared with control groups in which >70% of the mice relapsed after primary incidence of disease. Protection of mice by Tkip was similar to that seen with the type I IFN, IFN-tau. Protection of mice correlated with lower MBP Ab titers in Tkip-treated groups as well as suppression of MBP-induced proliferation of splenocytes taken from EAE-afflicted mice. Cessation of Tkip and IFN-tau administration resulted in SJL/J mice relapsing back into disease. Prolonged treatment of mice with Tkip produced no evidence of cellular toxicity or weight loss. Consistent with its JAK2 inhibitory function, Tkip also inhibited the activity of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, which uses the STAT1alpha transcription factor. The data presented in this study show that Tkip, like the type I IFN, IFN-tau, inhibits both the autoreactive cellular and humoral responses in EAE and ameliorates both the acute and chronic relapsing/remitting forms of EAE.

  6. Design and synthesis of a protein. beta. -turn mimetic

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.L.; Voss, M.E.; Hill, D.E.; Kahn, M.; Madison, V.S.; Cook, C.M. )

    1990-01-03

    A nine-membered-ring lactam system (1) has been chosen as a framework for the development of non-peptide molecules to mimic structural features of peptide and protein {beta}-turns. The synthesis of model di- and tetrapeptide mimetics starting from 1,5-cyclooctadiene derivatives is reported. In the model dipeptide mimetic (9), the amide linkages is trans (NMR, X-ray) and functional groups at positions adjacent to the lactam amide bond correspond closely to the side-chain positions of residues i + 1 and i + 2 of classical type II{prime} {beta}-turns. In the model tetrapeptide mimetic (30), all four side chains of low-energy trans amide conformers of the mimetic are well matched to their peptide counterparts.

  7. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    PubMed Central

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Holst, Jens J.; Cronin, Anna M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats. PMID:27136422

  8. The Naturally Occurring Host Defense Peptide, LL-37, and Its Truncated Mimetics KE-18 and KR-12 Have Selected Biocidal and Antibiofilm Activities Against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli In vitro.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yu; McLean, Denise T F; Linden, Gerard J; McAuley, Danny F; McMullan, Ronan; Lundy, Fionnuala T

    2017-01-01

    Amongst the recognized classes of naturally occurring antimicrobials, human host defense peptides are an important group with an advantage (given their source) that they should be readily translatable to medicinal products. It is also plausible that truncated versions will display some of the biological activities of the parent peptide, with the benefit that they are less costly to synthesize using solid-phase chemistry. The host defense peptide, LL-37, and two truncated mimetics, KE-18 and KR-12, were tested for their inhibitory effects and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, microorganisms commonly implicated in biofilm-related infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Using in silico prediction tools, the truncated peptides KE-18 and KR-12 were selected for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiofilm testing on the basis of their favorable cationicity, hydrophobic ratio, and amphipathicity compared with the parent peptide. Two methods were analyzed for determining peptide efficacy against biofilms; a crystal violet assay and an XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. The biocidal activities (measured by MIC) and antibiofilm activities (measured by a crystal violet assay) appeared to be independent. LL-37 had no biocidal action against C. albicans (MIC > 250 μg/ml) but significant effects in both biofilm-prevention and biofilm-inhibition assays. KE-18 and KR-12 yielded superior MIC values against all three microorganisms. Only KE-18 had a significant effect in the biofilm-prevention assay, which persisted even at sub-MICs. Neither of the truncated peptides were active in the biofilm-inhibition assay. KE-18 was shown to bind lipopolysaccharide as effectively as LL-37 and to bind lipoteichoic acid more effectively. None of the peptides showed hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes at the concentrations tested. KE-18 should be

  9. The Naturally Occurring Host Defense Peptide, LL-37, and Its Truncated Mimetics KE-18 and KR-12 Have Selected Biocidal and Antibiofilm Activities Against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli In vitro

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yu; McLean, Denise T. F.; Linden, Gerard J.; McAuley, Danny F.; McMullan, Ronan; Lundy, Fionnuala T.

    2017-01-01

    Amongst the recognized classes of naturally occurring antimicrobials, human host defense peptides are an important group with an advantage (given their source) that they should be readily translatable to medicinal products. It is also plausible that truncated versions will display some of the biological activities of the parent peptide, with the benefit that they are less costly to synthesize using solid-phase chemistry. The host defense peptide, LL-37, and two truncated mimetics, KE-18 and KR-12, were tested for their inhibitory effects and antibiofilm properties against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, microorganisms commonly implicated in biofilm-related infections such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Using in silico prediction tools, the truncated peptides KE-18 and KR-12 were selected for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and antibiofilm testing on the basis of their favorable cationicity, hydrophobic ratio, and amphipathicity compared with the parent peptide. Two methods were analyzed for determining peptide efficacy against biofilms; a crystal violet assay and an XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. The biocidal activities (measured by MIC) and antibiofilm activities (measured by a crystal violet assay) appeared to be independent. LL-37 had no biocidal action against C. albicans (MIC > 250 μg/ml) but significant effects in both biofilm-prevention and biofilm-inhibition assays. KE-18 and KR-12 yielded superior MIC values against all three microorganisms. Only KE-18 had a significant effect in the biofilm-prevention assay, which persisted even at sub-MICs. Neither of the truncated peptides were active in the biofilm-inhibition assay. KE-18 was shown to bind lipopolysaccharide as effectively as LL-37 and to bind lipoteichoic acid more effectively. None of the peptides showed hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes at the concentrations tested. KE-18 should be

  10. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis and Testing of Non-Peptide, Cell-Permeable, Potent Small Molecule Smac Mimetics as a New Therapy for Prostate Cancer. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Jianfeng Lu+, Jennifer L. Meagher∃, Chao -Yie Yang+, Su Qiu+, York Tomita¶, Yumi Ueda¶, Sheng Jiang#, Krzysztof Krajewski#, Peter P. Roller#, Jeanne A...in the presence of puromycin from EMD Biosciences (2 µg/ml). Cell growth assay The effect of Smac mimetics on HL-60 cell growth was evaluated by a...BIR3 Domains in XIAP Haiying Sun+, Zaneta Nikolovska-Coleska+, Jianfeng Lu+, Jennifer L. Meagher∃, Chao -Yie Yang+, Su Qiu+, York Tomita¶, Yumi

  11. Design, Synthesis and Characterization of A Potent, Non-Peptide, Cell-Permeable, Bivalent Smac Mimetic that Concurrently Targets both the BIR2 and BIR3 Domains in XIAP

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Haiying; Nikolovska-Coleska, Zaneta; Lu, Jianfeng; Meagher, Jennifer L.; Yang, Chao-Yie; Qiu, Su; Tomita, York; Ueda, Yumi; Jiang, Sheng; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Roller, Peter P.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.; Wang, Shaomeng

    2008-01-01

    XIAP is a central apoptosis regulator that inhibits apoptosis by binding to and inhibiting the effectors caspase-3/-7 and an initiator caspase-9 through its BIR2 and BIR3 domains, respectively. Smac protein in its dimeric form effectively antagonizes XIAP by concurrently targeting both its BIR2 and BIR3 domains. We report the design, synthesis and characterization of a non-peptide, cell-permeable, bivalent small-molecule (SM-164) which mimics Smac protein for targeting XIAP. Our study shows that SM-164 binds to XIAP containing both BIR domains with an IC50 value of 1.39 nM, being 300 and 7000-times more potent than its monovalent counterparts and the natural Smac AVPI peptide, respectively. SM-164 concurrently interacts with both BIR domains in XIAP and functions as an ultra-potent antagonist of XIAP in both cell-free functional and cell-based assays. SM-164 targets cellular XIAP and effectively induces apoptosis at concentrations as low as 1 nM in leukemia cancer cells, while having a minimal toxicity to normal human primary cells at 10,000 nM. The potency of bivalent SM-164 in binding, functional and cellular assays is 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than its corresponding monovalent Smac mimetics. PMID:17999504

  12. Braneworld mimetic cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghnezhad, Naser; Nozari, Kourosh

    2017-06-01

    We extend the idea of mimetic gravity to a Randall-Sundrum II braneworld model. As for the 4-dimensional mimetic gravity, we isolate the conformal degree of freedom of 5-dimensional gravity in a covariant manner. We assume the bulk metric to be made up of a non-dynamical scalar field Φ and an auxiliary metric G˜AB so that GAB =G˜CDΦ,CΦ,DG˜AB where A , B , . . . are the bulk spacetime indices. Then we show that the induced conformal degree of freedom on the brane as an induced scalar field, plays the role of a mimetic field on the brane. In fact, we suppose that the scalar degree of freedom which mimics the dark sectors on the brane has its origin on the bulk scalar field, Φ. By adopting some suitable mimetic potentials on the brane, we show that this brane mimetic field explains the late time cosmic expansion in the favor of observational data: the equation of state parameter of this field crosses the cosmological constant line in near past from quintessence to phantom phase in a redshift well in the range of observation. We show also that this induced mimetic scalar field has the capability to explain initial time cosmological inflation. We study parameter space of the models numerically in order to constraint the models with Planck2015 data set.

  13. S4(13)-PV cell-penetrating peptide induces physical and morphological changes in membrane-mimetic lipid systems and cell membranes: implications for cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Ana M S; Trabulo, Sara; Cardoso, Ana L; Lorents, Annely; Morais, Catarina M; Gomes, Paula; Nunes, Cláudia; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette; Padari, Kärt; Pooga, Margus; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C; Jurado, Amália S

    2012-03-01

    The present work aims to gain insights into the role of peptide-lipid interactions in the mechanisms of cellular internalization and endosomal escape of the S4(13)-PV cell-penetrating peptide, which has been successfully used in our laboratory as a nucleic acid delivery system. A S4(13)-PV analogue, S4(13)-PVscr, displaying a scrambled amino acid sequence, deficient cell internalization and drug delivery inability, was used in this study for comparative purposes. Differential scanning calorimetry, fluorescence polarization and X-ray diffraction at small and wide angles techniques showed that both peptides interacted with anionic membranes composed of phosphatidylglycerol or a mixture of this lipid with phosphatidylethanolamine, increasing the lipid order, shifting the phase transition to higher temperatures and raising the correlation length between the bilayers. However, S4(13)-PVscr, in contrast to the wild-type peptide, did not promote lipid domain segregation and induced the formation of an inverted hexagonal lipid phase instead of a cubic phase in the lipid systems assayed. Electron microscopy showed that, as opposed to S4(13)-PVscr, the wild-type peptide induced the formation of a non-lamellar organization in membranes of HeLa cells. We concluded that lateral phase separation and destabilization of membrane lamellar structure without compromising membrane integrity are on the basis of the lipid-driven and receptor-independent mechanism of cell entry of S4(13)-PV peptide. Overall, our results can contribute to a better understanding of the role of peptide-lipid interactions in the mechanisms of cell-penetrating peptide membrane translocation, helping in the future design of more efficient cell-penetrating peptide-based drug delivery systems.

  14. Molecules that mimic apolipoprotein A-I: potential agents for treating atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leman, Luke J; Maryanoff, Bruce E; Ghadiri, M Reza

    2014-03-27

    Certain amphipathic α-helical peptides can functionally mimic many of the properties of full-length apolipoproteins, thereby offering an approach to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for combating atherosclerosis. In this Perspective, we summarize the key findings and advances over the past 25 years in the development of peptides that mimic apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). This assemblage of information provides a reasonably clear picture of the state of the art in the apolipoprotein mimetic field, an appreciation of the potential for such agents in pharmacotherapy, and a sense of the opportunities for optimizing the functional properties of HDL.

  15. Molecules that Mimic Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential Agents for Treating Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Leman, Luke J.; Maryanoff, Bruce E.; Ghadiri, M. Reza

    2013-01-01

    Certain amphipathic α-helical peptides can functionally mimic many of the properties of full-length apolipoproteins, thereby offering an approach to modulate high-density lipoprotein (HDL) for combating atherosclerosis. In this Perspective, we summarize the key findings and advances over the past 25 years in the development of peptides that mimic apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). This assemblage of information provides a reasonably clear picture of the state of the art in the apolipoprotein mimetic field, an appreciation of the potential for such agents in pharmacotherapy, and a sense of the opportunities for optimizing the functional properties of HDL. PMID:24168751

  16. Collagen-mimetic peptides mediate flow-dependent thrombus formation by high- or low-affinity binding of integrin alpha2beta1 and glycoprotein VI.

    PubMed

    Munnix, I C A; Gilio, K; Siljander, P R M; Raynal, N; Feijge, M A H; Hackeng, T M; Deckmyn, H; Smethurst, P A; Farndale, R W; Heemskerk, J W M

    2008-12-01

    Collagen acts as a potent surface for platelet adhesion and thrombus formation under conditions of blood flow. Studies using collagen-derived triple-helical peptides have identified the GXX'GER motif as an adhesive ligand for platelet integrin alpha2beta1, and (GPO)(n) as a binding sequence for the signaling collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). The potency was investigated of triple-helical peptides, consisting of GXX'GER sequences within (GPO)(n) or (GPP)(n) motifs, to support flow-dependent thrombus formation. At a high-shear rate, immobilized peptides containing both the high-affinity alpha2beta1-binding motif GFOGER and the (GPO)(n) motif supported platelet aggregation and procoagulant activity, even in the absence of von Willebrand factor (VWF). With peptides containing only one of these motifs, co-immobilized VWF was needed for thrombus formation. The (GPO)(n) but not the (GPP)(n) sequence induced GPVI-dependent platelet aggregation and procoagulant activity. Peptides with intermediate affinity (GLSGER, GMOGER) or low-affinity (GASGER, GAOGER) alpha2beta1-binding motifs formed procoagulant thrombi only if both (GPO)(n) and VWF were present. At a low-shear rate, immobilized peptides with high- or low-affinity alpha2beta1-binding motifs mediated formation of thrombi with procoagulant platelets only in combination with (GPO)(n). Triple-helical peptides with specific receptor-binding motifs mimic the properties of native collagen I in thrombus formation by binding to both platelet collagen receptors. At a high-shear rate, either GPIb or high-affinity (but not low-affinity) GXX'GER mediates GPVI-dependent formation of procoagulant thrombi. By extension, high-affinity binding for alpha2beta1 can control the overall platelet-adhesive activity of native collagens.

  17. Mimetic finite difference method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco; Shashkov, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The mimetic finite difference (MFD) method mimics fundamental properties of mathematical and physical systems including conservation laws, symmetry and positivity of solutions, duality and self-adjointness of differential operators, and exact mathematical identities of the vector and tensor calculus. This article is the first comprehensive review of the 50-year long history of the mimetic methodology and describes in a systematic way the major mimetic ideas and their relevance to academic and real-life problems. The supporting applications include diffusion, electromagnetics, fluid flow, and Lagrangian hydrodynamics problems. The article provides enough details to build various discrete operators on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes and summarizes the major convergence results for the mimetic approximations. Most of these theoretical results, which are presented here as lemmas, propositions and theorems, are either original or an extension of existing results to a more general formulation using polyhedral meshes. Finally, flexibility and extensibility of the mimetic methodology are shown by deriving higher-order approximations, enforcing discrete maximum principles for diffusion problems, and ensuring the numerical stability for saddle-point systems.

  18. Structural Basis for Species Selectivity in the HIV-1 gp120-CD4 Interaction: Restoring Affinity to gp120 in Murine CD4 Mimetic Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kassler, Kristin; Meier, Julia; Eichler, Jutta; Sticht, Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    The first step of HIV-1 infection involves interaction between the viral glycoprotein gp120 and the human cellular receptor CD4. Inhibition of the gp120-CD4 interaction represents an attractive strategy to block HIV-1 infection. In an attempt to explore the known lack of affinity of murine CD4 to gp120, we have investigated peptides presenting the putative gp120-binding site of murine CD4 (mCD4). Molecular modeling indicates that mCD4 protein cannot bind gp120 due to steric clashes, while the larger conformational flexibility of mCD4 peptides allows an interaction. This finding is confirmed by experimental binding assays, which also evidenced specificity of the peptide-gp120 interaction. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the mCD4-peptide stably interacts with gp120 via an intermolecular β-sheet, while an important salt-bridge formed by a C-terminal lysine is lost. Fixation of the C-terminus by introducing a disulfide bridge between the N- and C-termini of the peptide significantly enhanced the affinity to gp120. PMID:22312332

  19. Bacterial ClpB heat-shock protein, an antigen-mimetic of the anorexigenic peptide α-MSH, at the origin of eating disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tennoune, N; Chan, P; Breton, J; Legrand, R; Chabane, Y N; Akkermann, K; Järv, A; Ouelaa, W; Takagi, K; Ghouzali, I; Francois, M; Lucas, N; Bole-Feysot, C; Pestel-Caron, M; do Rego, J-C; Vaudry, D; Harro, J; Dé, E; Déchelotte, P; Fetissov, S O

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms at the origin of eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia and binge-eating disorder (BED), are currently unknown. Previous data indicated that immunoglobulins (Igs) or autoantibodies (auto-Abs) reactive with α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) are involved in regulation of feeding and emotion; however, the origin of such auto-Abs is unknown. Here, using proteomics, we identified ClpB heat-shock disaggregation chaperone protein of commensal gut bacteria Escherichia coli as a conformational antigen mimetic of α-MSH. We show that ClpB-immunized mice produce anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH, influencing food intake, body weight, anxiety and melanocortin receptor 4 signaling. Furthermore, chronic intragastric delivery of E. coli in mice decreased food intake and stimulated formation of ClpB- and α-MSH-reactive antibodies, while ClpB-deficient E. coli did not affect food intake or antibody levels. Finally, we show that plasma levels of anti-ClpB IgG crossreactive with α-MSH are increased in patients with AN, bulimia and BED, and that the ED Inventory-2 scores in ED patients correlate with anti-ClpB IgG and IgM, which is similar to our previous findings for α-MSH auto-Abs. In conclusion, this work shows that the bacterial ClpB protein, which is present in several commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, can be responsible for the production of auto-Abs crossreactive with α-MSH, associated with altered feeding and emotion in humans with ED. Our data suggest that ClpB-expressing gut microorganisms might be involved in the etiology of EDs. PMID:25290265

  20. Molecular imaging of alpha v beta3 integrin expression in atherosclerotic plaques with a mimetic of RGD peptide grafted to Gd-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Burtea, Carmen; Laurent, Sophie; Murariu, Oltea; Rattat, Dirk; Toubeau, Gérard; Verbruggen, Alfons; Vansthertem, David; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N

    2008-04-01

    -to-noise ratio, and the low immunogenicity of the mimetic molecule highlight its potential for an industrial and clinical implementation.

  1. [Incretin mimetic drugs: therapeutic positioning].

    PubMed

    López Simarro, F

    2014-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic and complex disease, due to the differences among affected individuals, which affect choice of treatment. The number of drug families has increased in the last few years, and these families have widely differing mechanisms of action, which contributes greatly to the individualization of treatment according to the patient's characteristics and comorbidities. The present article discusses incretin mimetic drugs. Their development has been based on knowledge of the effects of natural incretin hormones: GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide 1), GIP (glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide) and dipeptidyl peptidase enzyme 4 (DPP4), which rapidly degrade them in the systemic circulation. This group is composed of 2 different types of molecules: GLP-1 analogs and DPP4 enzyme inhibitors. The benefits of these molecules include a reduction in plasma glucose without the risk of hypoglycemias or weight gain. There are a series of questions that require new studies to establish a possible association between the use of these drugs and notification of cases of pancreatitis, as well as their relationship with pancreatic and thyroid cancer. Also awaited is the publication of several studies that will provide information on the relationship between these drugs and cardiovascular risk in people with diabetes. All these questions will probably be progressively elucidated with greater experience in the use of these drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  2. Aspartate and glutamate mimetic structures in biologically active compounds.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Peter; Dolenc, Marija Sollner

    2004-04-01

    Glutamate and aspartate are frequently recognized as key structural elements for the biological activity of natural peptides and synthetic compounds. The acidic side-chain functionality of both the amino acids provides the basis for the ionic interaction and subsequent molecular recognition by specific receptor sites that results in the regulation of physiological or pathophysiological processes in the organism. In the development of new biologically active compounds that possess the ability to modulate these processes, compounds offering the same type of interactions are being designed. Thus, using a peptidomimetic design approach, glutamate and aspartate mimetics are incorporated into the structure of final biologically active compounds. This review covers different bioisosteric replacements of carboxylic acid alone, as well as mimetics of the whole amino acid structure. Amino acid analogs presented include those with different distances between anionic moieties, and analogs with additional functional groups that result in conformational restriction or alternative interaction sites. The article also provides an overview of different cyclic structures, including various cycloalkane, bicyclic and heterocyclic analogs, that lead to conformational restriction. Higher di- and tripeptide mimetics in which carboxylic acid functionality is incorporated into larger molecules are also reviewed. In addition to the mimetic structures presented, emphasis in this article is placed on their steric and electronic properties. These mimetics constitute a useful pool of fragments in the design of new biologically active compounds, particularly in the field of RGD mimetics and excitatory amino acid agonists and antagonists.

  3. The Potential Therapeutic Application of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Recio, Carlota; Maione, Francesco; Iqbal, Asif J.; Mascolo, Nicola; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapies are currently under investigation to improve pathological cardiovascular complications, but yet, there have been very few new medications approved for intervention/treatment. Therefore, new approaches to treat CVD are urgently required. Attempts to prevent vascular complications usually involve amelioration of contributing risk factors and underlying processes such as inflammation, obesity, hyperglycaemia, or hypercholesterolemia. Historically, the development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been avoided by the Pharmaceutical industry due to their low stability, size, rate of degradation, and poor delivery. However, more recently, resurgence has taken place in developing peptides and their mimetics for therapeutic intervention. As a result, increased attention has been placed upon using peptides that mimic the function of mediators involved in pathologic processes during vascular damage. This review will provide an overview on novel targets and experimental therapeutic approaches based on peptidomimetics for modulation in CVD. We aim to specifically examine apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE mimetic peptides and their role in cholesterol transport during atherosclerosis, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1-derived peptides and annexin-A1 as potent inhibitors of inflammation, incretin mimetics and their function in glucose-insulin tolerance, among others. With improvements in technology and synthesis platforms the future looks promising for the development of novel peptides and mimetics for therapeutic use. However, within the area of CVD much more work is required to identify and improve our understanding of peptide structure, interaction, and function in order to select the best targets to take forward for treatment. PMID:28111551

  4. The Potential Therapeutic Application of Peptides and Peptidomimetics in Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Recio, Carlota; Maione, Francesco; Iqbal, Asif J; Mascolo, Nicola; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Numerous therapies are currently under investigation to improve pathological cardiovascular complications, but yet, there have been very few new medications approved for intervention/treatment. Therefore, new approaches to treat CVD are urgently required. Attempts to prevent vascular complications usually involve amelioration of contributing risk factors and underlying processes such as inflammation, obesity, hyperglycaemia, or hypercholesterolemia. Historically, the development of peptides as therapeutic agents has been avoided by the Pharmaceutical industry due to their low stability, size, rate of degradation, and poor delivery. However, more recently, resurgence has taken place in developing peptides and their mimetics for therapeutic intervention. As a result, increased attention has been placed upon using peptides that mimic the function of mediators involved in pathologic processes during vascular damage. This review will provide an overview on novel targets and experimental therapeutic approaches based on peptidomimetics for modulation in CVD. We aim to specifically examine apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apoE mimetic peptides and their role in cholesterol transport during atherosclerosis, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1-derived peptides and annexin-A1 as potent inhibitors of inflammation, incretin mimetics and their function in glucose-insulin tolerance, among others. With improvements in technology and synthesis platforms the future looks promising for the development of novel peptides and mimetics for therapeutic use. However, within the area of CVD much more work is required to identify and improve our understanding of peptide structure, interaction, and function in order to select the best targets to take forward for treatment.

  5. Instabilities in mimetic matter perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzjahi, Hassan; Gorji, Mohammad Ali; Mansoori, Seyed Ali Hosseini

    2017-07-01

    We study cosmological perturbations in mimetic matter scenario with a general higher derivative function. We calculate the quadratic action and show that both the kinetic term and the gradient term have the wrong sings. We perform the analysis in both comoving and Newtonian gauges and confirm that the Hamiltonians and the associated instabilities are consistent with each other in both gauges. The existence of instabilities is independent of the specific form of higher derivative function which generates gradients for mimetic field perturbations. It is verified that the ghost instability in mimetic perturbations is not associated with the higher derivative instabilities such as the Ostrogradsky ghost.

  6. A novel mimetic antigen eliciting protective antibody to Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Granoff, D M; Moe, G R; Giuliani, M M; Adu-Bobie, J; Santini, L; Brunelli, B; Piccinetti, F; Zuno-Mitchell, P; Lee, S S; Neri, P; Bracci, L; Lozzi, L; Rappuoli, R

    2001-12-01

    Molecular mimetic Ags are of considerable interest as vaccine candidates. Yet there are few examples of mimetic Ags that elicit protective Ab against a pathogen, and the functional activity of anti-mimetic Abs has not been studied in detail. As part of the Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B genome sequencing project, a large number of novel proteins were identified. Herein, we provide evidence that genome-derived Ag 33 (GNA33), a lipoprotein with homology to Escherichia coli murein transglycosylase, elicits protective Ab to meningococci as a result of mimicking an epitope on loop 4 of porin A (PorA) in strains with serosubtype P1.2. Epitope mapping of a bactericidal anti-GNA33 mAb using overlapping peptides shows that the mAb recognizes peptides from GNA33 and PorA that share a QTP sequence that is necessary but not sufficient for binding. By flow cytometry, mouse antisera prepared against rGNA33 and the anti-GNA33 mAb bind as well as an anti-PorA P1.2 mAb to the surface of eight of nine N. meningitidis serogroup B strains tested with the P1.2 serosubtype. Anti-GNA33 Abs also are bactericidal for most P1.2 strains and, for susceptible strains, the activity of an anti-GNA33 mAb is similar to that of an anticapsular mAb but less active than an anti-P1.2 mAb. Anti-GNA Abs also confer passive protection against bacteremia in infant rats challenged with P1.2 strains. Thus, GNA33 represents one of the most effective immunogenic mimetics yet described. These results demonstrate that molecular mimetics have potential as meningococcal vaccine candidates.

  7. Helix stabilization of amphipathic peptides by hydrocarbon stapling increases cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Sviridov, D O; Ikpot, I Z; Stonik, J; Drake, S K; Amar, M; Osei-Hwedieh, D O; Piszczek, G; Turner, S; Remaley, A T

    2011-07-08

    Apolipoprotein mimetic peptides are short amphipathic peptides that efflux cholesterol from cells by the ABCA1 transporter and are being investigated as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease. We examined the role of helix stabilization of these peptides in cholesterol efflux. A 23-amino acid long peptide (Ac-VLEDSFKVSFLSALEEYTKKLNTQ-NH2) based on the last helix of apoA-I (A10) was synthesized, as well as two variants, S1A10 and S2A10, in which the third and fourth and third and fifth turn of each peptide, respectively, were covalently joined by hydrocarbon staples. By CD spectroscopy, the stapled variants at 24 °C were more helical in aqueous buffer than A10 (A10 17%, S1A10 62%, S2A10 97%). S1A10 and S2A10 unlike A10 were resistant to proteolysis by pepsin and chymotrypsin. S1A10 and S2A10 showed more than a 10-fold increase in cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter compared to A10. In summary, hydrocarbon stapling of amphipathic peptides increases their helicity, makes them resistant to proteolysis and enhances their ability to promote cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter, indicating that this peptide modification may be useful in the development of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides.

  8. Neural ECM mimetics.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Veronica; Tekinay, Ayse; Müller, Hans Werner

    2014-01-01

    The consequence of numerous neurological disorders is the significant loss of neural cells, which further results in multilevel dysfunction or severe functional deficits. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is of tremendous importance for neural regeneration mediating ambivalent functions: ECM serves as a growth-promoting substrate for neurons but, on the other hand, is a major constituent of the inhibitory scar, which results from traumatic injuries of the central nervous system. Therefore, cell and tissue replacement strategies on the basis of ECM mimetics are very promising therapeutic interventions. Numerous synthetic and natural materials have proven effective both in vitro and in vivo. The closer a material's physicochemical and molecular properties are to the original extracellular matrix, the more promising its effectiveness may be. Relevant factors that need to be taken into account when designing such materials for neural repair relate to receptor-mediated cell-matrix interactions, which are dependent on chemical and mechanical sensing. This chapter outlines important characteristics of natural and synthetic ECM materials (scaffolds) and provides an overview of recent advances in design and application of ECM materials for neural regeneration, both in therapeutic applications and in basic biological research.

  9. High-density Lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential New Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Elizabeth M; Figueroa, Debbie M; Barochia, Amisha V; Yao, Xianglan; Levine, Stewart J

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of ALI, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach.

  10. High-density Lipoproteins and Apolipoprotein A-I: Potential New Players in the Prevention and Treatment of Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Figueroa, Debbie M.; Barochia, Amisha V.; Yao, Xianglan; Levine, Stewart J.

    2016-01-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia. Similar to observations in cardiovascular disease, however, HDL may become dysfunctional and contribute to disease pathogenesis in respiratory disorders. Furthermore, synthetic apoA-I mimetic peptides have been shown to have protective effects in animal models of ALI, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and influenza pneumonia. These findings provide evidence to support the concept that apoA-I mimetic peptides might be developed into a new treatment that can either prevent or attenuate the manifestations of lung diseases, such as asthma. Thus, the lung is positioned to take a page from the cardiovascular disease playbook and utilize the protective properties of HDL and apoA-I as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:27708582

  11. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  12. Amphipathic polyproline peptides stimulate cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter.

    PubMed

    Sviridov, D O; Drake, S K; Freeman, L A; Remaley, A T

    2016-03-18

    ApoA-I mimetics are short synthetic peptides that contain an amphipathic α-helix and stimulate cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter in a detergent-like extraction mechanism. We investigated the use of amphipathic peptides with a polypro helix for stimulating cholesterol efflux by ABCA1. Polypro peptides were synthesized with modified prolines, containing either a hydrophobic phenyl group (Prop) or a polar N-acetylgalactosamine (Prog) attached to the pyrrolidine ring and were designated as either PP-2, 3, 4, or 5, depending on the number of 3 amino acid repeat units (Prop-Prog-Prop). Based on molecular modeling, these peptides were predicted to be relatively rigid and to bind to a phospholipid bilayer. By CD spectroscopy, PP peptides formed a Type-II polypro helix in an aqueous solution. PP-2 was inactive in promoting cholesterol efflux, but peptides with more than 2 repeat units were active. PP-4 showed a similar Vmax as a much longer amphipathic α-helical peptide, containing 37 amino acids, but had a Km that was approximately 20-fold lower. PP peptides were specific in that they did not stimulate cholesterol efflux from cells not expressing ABCA1 and were also non-cytotoxic. Addition of PP-3, 4 and 5 to serum promoted the formation of smaller size HDL species (7 nM) and increased its capacity for ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux by approximately 20-35% (p < 0.05). Because of their relatively small size and increased potency, amphipathic peptides with a polypro helix may represent an alternative structural motif for the development of apoA-I mimetic peptides.

  13. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of PL-3994, a novel cyclic peptide (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)) natriuretic peptide receptor-A agonist that is resistant to neutral endopeptidase and acts as a bronchodilator.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Jeffrey D; Makhlina, Marie; Silvester, Kevin R; Vengurlekar, Shailesh S; Chen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Jie; Koziol-White, Cynthia J; Cooper, Philip R; Hallam, Trevor J; Hay, Douglas W P; Panettieri, Reynold A

    2013-04-01

    The pharmacological and airways relaxant profiles of PL-3994 (Hept-cyclo(Cys-His-Phe-d-Ala-Gly-Arg-d-Nle-Asp-Arg-Ile-Ser-Cys)-Tyr-[Arg mimetic]-NH(2)), a novel natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) agonist, were evaluated. PL-3994, a full agonist, has high affinity for recombinant human (h), dog, or rat NPR-As (K(i)s of 1, 41, and 10 nm, respectively), and produced concentration-dependent cGMP generation in human, dog and rat NPR-As (respective EC(50)s of 2, 3 and 14 nm). PL-3994 has a K(i) of 7 nm for hNPR-C but was without effect on cGMP generation in hNPR-B. PL-3994 (1 μm) was without significant effect against 75 diverse molecular targets. PL-3994 or BNP, a natural NPR ligand, produced concentration-dependent relaxation of pre-contracted guinea-pig trachea (IC(50)s of 42.7 and 10.7 nm, respectively). PL-3994, and also BNP, (0.1 nm-100 μm) elicited a potent, concentration-dependent but small relaxation of pre-contracted human precision-cut lung slices (hPCLS). Intratracheal PL-3994 (1-1000 μg/kg) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the bronchoconstrictor response evoked by aerosolized methacholine, but was without significant effect on cardiovascular parameters. PL-3994 was resistant to degradation by human neutral endopeptidase (hNEP) (92% remaining after 2 h), whereas the natural ligands, ANP and CNP, were rapidly metabolized (≤1% remaining after 2 h). PL-3994 is a potent, selective NPR agonist, resistant to NEP, with relaxant effects in guinea-pig and human airway smooth muscle systems. PL-3994 has the profile predictive of longer clinical bronchodilator activity than observed previously with ANP, and suggests its potential utility in the treatment of asthma, in addition to being a useful research tool to evaluate NPR biology.

  14. Extracellular matrix-mimetic adhesive biomaterials for bone repair

    PubMed Central

    Shekaran, Asha; García, Andrés J.

    2010-01-01

    Limited osseointegration of current orthopaedic biomaterials contributes to the failure of implants such as arthroplasties, bone screws and bone grafts, which present a large socioeconomic cost within the United States. These implant failures underscore the need for biomimetic approaches that modulate host cell-implant material responses to enhance implant osseointegration and bone formation. Bioinspired strategies have included functionalizing implants with ECM proteins or ECM-derived peptides or protein fragments which engage integrins and direct osteoblast adhesion and differentiation. This review discusses 1) bone ECM composition and key integrins implicated in osteogenic differentiation, 2) the use of implants functionalized with ECM-mimetic peptides/protein fragments, and 3) growth-factor derived peptides to promote the mechanical fixation of implants to bone and to enhance bone healing within large defects. PMID:21105174

  15. Synthesis and properties of carbohydrate-phosphate backbone-modified oligonucleotide analogues and nucleic acid mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramova, Tatyana V.; Silnikov, Vladimir N.

    2011-05-01

    Advances in the synthesis of oligo(deoxy)ribonucleotide analogues and nucleic acid mimetics made in the last decade are summarized. Attention is focused on new methods for the synthesis of derivatives with a modified ribose-phosphate backbone (phosphorothioate, boranophosphate, and nucleoside phosphonate derivatives) and derivatives devoid of the phosphate group. Among nucleic acid mimetics, conformationally restricted modified peptide nucleic acids, including those bearing a negative or positive charge, and morpholino oligomers are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the main types of analogues as regards the complexity of the synthesis and the possibility of their application as antisense agents or reagents for hybridization analysis are compared.

  16. Bioactive self-assembled peptide nanofibers for corneal stroma regeneration.

    PubMed

    Uzunalli, G; Soran, Z; Erkal, T S; Dagdas, Y S; Dinc, E; Hondur, A M; Bilgihan, K; Aydin, B; Guler, M O; Tekinay, A B

    2014-03-01

    Defects in the corneal stroma caused by trauma or diseases such as macular corneal dystrophy and keratoconus can be detrimental for vision. Development of therapeutic methods to enhance corneal regeneration is essential for treatment of these defects. This paper describes a bioactive peptide nanofiber scaffold system for corneal tissue regeneration. These nanofibers are formed by self-assembling peptide amphiphile molecules containing laminin and fibronectin inspired sequences. Human corneal keratocyte cells cultured on laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers retained their characteristic morphology, and their proliferation was enhanced compared with cells cultured on fibronectin-mimetic nanofibers. When these nanofibers were used for damaged rabbit corneas, laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers increased keratocyte migration and supported stroma regeneration. These results suggest that laminin-mimetic peptide nanofibers provide a promising injectable, synthetic scaffold system for cornea stroma regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging Roles of Apolipoprotein E and Apolipoprotein A-I in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xianglan; Gordon, Elizabeth M; Figueroa, Debbie M; Barochia, Amisha V; Levine, Stewart J

    2016-08-01

    Emerging roles are being recognized increasingly for apolipoproteins in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases on the basis of their ability to suppress inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue remodeling, and to promote adaptive immunity and host defense. Apolipoproteins, such as apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are important components of lipoprotein particles that facilitate the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma and cells. ApoE-containing lipoprotein particles are internalized into cells by low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs), whereas apoA-I can interact with the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) transporter to efflux cholesterol and phospholipids out of cells. ApoE and apoA-I also mediate receptor-independent effects, such as binding to and neutralizing LPS. Both apoE and apoA-I are expressed by lung cells, which allows apoE/LDLR- and apoA-I/ABCA1-dependent pathways to modulate normal lung health and the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, including asthma, acute lung injury, cancer, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension. Data from human studies and research using experimental murine model systems have shown that both apoE and apoA-I pathways play primarily protective roles in lung biology and respiratory disease. Furthermore, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides, corresponding to the LDLR-binding domain of apoE or the class A amphipathic α-helical structure of apoA-I, have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects that attenuate the severity of lung disease in murine models. Thus, the development of inhaled apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as a novel treatment paradigm could represent a significant advance for patients with respiratory disease who do not respond to current therapies.

  18. Emerging Roles of Apolipoprotein E and Apolipoprotein A-I in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xianglan; Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Figueroa, Debbie M.; Barochia, Amisha V.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging roles are being recognized increasingly for apolipoproteins in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases on the basis of their ability to suppress inflammation, oxidative stress, and tissue remodeling, and to promote adaptive immunity and host defense. Apolipoproteins, such as apolipoprotein E (apoE) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are important components of lipoprotein particles that facilitate the transport of cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipids between plasma and cells. ApoE-containing lipoprotein particles are internalized into cells by low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLRs), whereas apoA-I can interact with the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) transporter to efflux cholesterol and phospholipids out of cells. ApoE and apoA-I also mediate receptor-independent effects, such as binding to and neutralizing LPS. Both apoE and apoA-I are expressed by lung cells, which allows apoE/LDLR- and apoA-I/ABCA1-dependent pathways to modulate normal lung health and the pathogenesis of respiratory diseases, including asthma, acute lung injury, cancer, emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary hypertension. Data from human studies and research using experimental murine model systems have shown that both apoE and apoA-I pathways play primarily protective roles in lung biology and respiratory disease. Furthermore, apolipoprotein mimetic peptides, corresponding to the LDLR-binding domain of apoE or the class A amphipathic α-helical structure of apoA-I, have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects that attenuate the severity of lung disease in murine models. Thus, the development of inhaled apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as a novel treatment paradigm could represent a significant advance for patients with respiratory disease who do not respond to current therapies. PMID:27073971

  19. Max Bergmann lecture protein epitope mimetics in the age of structural vaccinology.

    PubMed

    Robinson, John A

    2013-03-01

    This review highlights the growing importance of protein epitope mimetics in the discovery of new biologically active molecules and their potential applications in drug and vaccine research. The focus is on folded β-hairpin mimetics, which are designed to mimic β-hairpin motifs in biologically important peptides and proteins. An ever-growing number of protein crystal structures reveal how β-hairpin motifs often play key roles in protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions. This review illustrates how using protein structures as a starting point for small-molecule mimetic design can provide novel ligands as protein-protein interaction inhibitors, as protease inhibitors, and as ligands for chemokine receptors and folded RNA targets, as well as novel antibiotics to combat the growing health threat posed by the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The β-hairpin antibiotics are shown to target a β-barrel outer membrane protein (LptD) in Pseudomonas sp., which is essential for the biogenesis of the outer cell membrane. Another exciting prospect is that protein epitope mimetics will be of increasing importance in synthetic vaccine design, in the emerging field of structural vaccinology. Crystal structures of protective antibodies bound to their pathogen-derived epitopes provide an ideal starting point for the design of synthetic epitope mimetics. The mimetics can be delivered to the immune system in a highly immunogenic format on the surface of synthetic virus-like particles. The scientific challenges in molecular design remain great, but the potential significance of success in this area is even greater. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Design, solid-phase synthesis, and evaluation of a phenyl-piperazine-triazine scaffold as α-helix mimetics.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heejo; Lee, Woo Sirl; Oh, Misook; Lee, Huisun; Lee, Ji Hoon; Im, Wonpil; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2014-12-08

    α-Helices play a critical role in mediating many protein-protein interactions (PPIs) as recognition motifs. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in developing small molecules that can mimic helical peptide segments to modulate α-helix-mediated PPIs. Due to the relatively low aqueous solubility and synthetic difficulty of most current α-helix mimetic small molecules, one important goal in this area is to develop small molecules with favorable physicochemical properties and ease of synthesis. Here we designed phenyl-piperazine-triazine-based α-helix mimetics that possess improved water solubility and excellent synthetic accessibility. We developed a facile solid-phase synthetic route that allows for rapid creation of a large, diverse combinatorial library of α-helix mimetics. Further, we identified a selective inhibitor of the Mcl-1/BH3 interaction by screening a focused library of phenyl-piperazine-triazines, demonstrating that the scaffold is able to serve as functional mimetics of α-helical peptides. We believe that our phenyl-piperazine-triazine-based α-helix mimetics, along with the facile and divergent solid-phase synthetic method, have great potential as powerful tools for discovering potent inhibitors of given α-helix-mediated PPIs.

  1. Amylin structure-function relationships and receptor pharmacology: implications for amylin mimetic drug development.

    PubMed

    Bower, Rebekah L; Hay, Debbie L

    2016-06-01

    Amylin is an important, but poorly understood, 37 amino acid glucoregulatory hormone with great potential to target metabolic diseases. A working example that the amylin system is one worth developing is the FDA-approved drug used in insulin-requiring diabetic patients, pramlintide. However, certain characteristics of pramlintide pharmacokinetics and formulation leave considerable room for further development of amylin-mimetic compounds. Given that amylin-mimetic drug design and development is an active area of research, surprisingly little is known about the structure/function relationships of amylin. This is largely due to the unfavourable aggregative and solubility properties of the native peptide sequence, which are further complicated by the composition of amylin receptors. These are complexes of the calcitonin receptor with receptor activity-modifying proteins. This review explores what is known of the structure-function relationships of amylin and provides insights that can be drawn from the closely related peptide, CGRP. We also describe how this information is aiding the development of more potent and stable amylin mimetics, including peptide hybrids.

  2. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the

  3. Pro-Cognitive Effects of Non-Peptide Analogues of Soluble Amyloid Peptide Precursor Fragment sAPP.

    PubMed

    Tiunova, A A; Komissarova, N V; Nenaidenko, V G; Makhmutova, A A; Beznosko, B K; Bachurin, S O; Anokhin, K V

    2016-08-01

    We studied pro-cognitive effect of two heterocyclic low-molecular-weight compounds that serve as non-peptide analogues of soluble fragment of amyloid peptide precursor (sAPP). Intracerebroventricular and systemic administration of peptide mimetics P2 and P5 improved weak memory on the model of passive avoidance in chicks and in the object location task in mice. Both compounds were effective if administered close to the moment of training or 4 h after it. The time windows and dose range for the pro-cognitive effects of the mimetics were similar to those observed in previous studies with sAPP peptide fragments.

  4. Stabilization of the cysteine-rich conotoxin MrIA by using a 1,2,3-triazole as a disulfide bond mimetic.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Wang, Ching-I A; Harvey, Peta J; Rosengren, K Johan; Bhola, Rebecca F; Gelmi, Maria L; Longhi, Renato; Christie, Macdonald J; Lewis, Richard J; Alewood, Paul F; Brust, Andreas

    2015-01-19

    The design of disulfide bond mimetics is an important strategy for optimising cysteine-rich peptides in drug development. Mimetics of the drug lead conotoxin MrIA, in which one disulfide bond is selectively replaced of by a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole bridge, are described. Sequential copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC; click reaction) followed by disulfide formation resulted in the regioselective syntheses of triazole-disulfide hybrid MrIA analogues. Mimetics with a triazole replacing the Cys4-Cys13 disulfide bond retained tertiary structure and full in vitro and in vivo activity as norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. Importantly, these mimetics are resistant to reduction in the presence of glutathione, thus resulting in improved plasma stability and increased suitability for drug development. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Synthesis and screening of small-molecule α-helix mimetic libraries targeting protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heejo; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2015-02-01

    α-Helices are the most common protein secondary structure and play a key role in mediating many protein-protein interactions (PPIs) by serving as recognition motifs. Given that aberrant α-helix-mediated PPIs are linked to various disease states, targeting such interactions with small-molecules represents an attractive strategy to develop therapeutic candidates for the related diseases. Over the last decade, significant efforts have been directed toward developing α-helix mimetic small-molecules that can modulate α-helix-mediated PPIs. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in the development of non-peptidic, small-molecule α-helix mimetics with a focus on library synthesis and screening methods to efficiently discover small-molecule α-helix mimetics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mitochondrial apoptosis and BH3 mimetics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The BCL2-selective BH3 mimetic venetoclax was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed, chromosome 17p-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is undergoing extensive testing, alone and in combination, in lymphomas, acute leukemias, and solid tumors. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding of the biology of BCL2 family members that shed light on the action of BH3 mimetics, review preclinical and clinical studies leading to the regulatory approval of venetoclax, and discuss future investigation of this new class of antineoplastic agent. PMID:27990281

  7. Mitochondrial apoptosis and BH3 mimetics.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haiming; Meng, X Wei; Kaufmann, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    The BCL2-selective BH3 mimetic venetoclax was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed, chromosome 17p-deleted chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and is undergoing extensive testing, alone and in combination, in lymphomas, acute leukemias, and solid tumors. Here we summarize recent advances in understanding of the biology of BCL2 family members that shed light on the action of BH3 mimetics, review preclinical and clinical studies leading to the regulatory approval of venetoclax, and discuss future investigation of this new class of antineoplastic agent.

  8. Thrombopoietin mimetics for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dodillet, Helga; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Monsef, Ina; Skoetz, Nicole

    2017-09-30

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is one of the most frequent haematologic malignancies of the elderly population and characterised by progenitor cell dysplasia with ineffective haematopoiesis and a high rate of transformation to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Thrombocytopenia represents a common problem for patients with MDS. ranging from mild to serious bleeding events and death. To manage thrombocytopenia, the current standard treatment includes platelet transfusion, unfortunately leading to a range of side effects. Thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics represent an alternative treatment option for MDS patients with thrombocytopenia. However, it remains unclear, whether TPO mimetics influence the increase of blast cells and therefore to premature progression to AML. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetics for patients with MDS. We searched for randomised controlled trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (January 2000 to August 2017), trials registries (ISRCTN, EU clinical trials register and clinicaltrials.gov) and conference proceedings. We did not apply any language restrictions. Two review authors independently screened search results, disagreements were solved by discussion. We included randomised controlled trials comparing TPO mimetics with placebo, no further treatment or another TPO mimetic in patients with MDS of all risk groups, without gender, age or ethnicity restrictions. Additional chemotherapeutic treatment had to be equal in both arms. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of trials, disagreements were resolved by discussion. Risk ratio (RR) was used to analyse mortality during study, transformation to AML, incidence of bleeding events, transfusion requirement, all adverse events, adverse events >= grade 3, serious adverse events and platelet response. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) have been extracted as hazard ratios, but

  9. Apolipoprotein A-I: A Molecule of Diverse Function.

    PubMed

    Mangaraj, Manaswini; Nanda, Rachita; Panda, Suchismita

    2016-07-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) an indispensable component and a major structural protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), plays a vital role in reverse cholesterol transport and cellular cholesterol homeostasis since its identification. Its multifunctional role in immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, viral, bacterial infection etc. has crossed its boundary of its potential of protecting cardiovascular system and lowering cardiovascular disease risk, attributing HDL to be known as a protective fat removal particle. Its structural homology with prostacyclin stabilization factor has contributed to its anti-clotting and anti-aggregatory effect on platelet which has potentiated its cardio-protective role as well as its therapeutic efficacy against Alzheimer's disease. The binding affinity and neutralising action against endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, reduces the toxic manifestations of septic shock. As a negative acute phase protein, it blocks T-cell signalling of macrophages. However the recently identified anti-tumor activity of apo A-I has been highlighted in various models of melanoma, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoblastic leukaemia, gastric as well as pancreatic cancers. These cancer fighting effects are directed towards regression of tumor size and distant metastasis by its immuno modulatory activity as well as its clearing effect on serum lysophospholipids. This lowering effect on lysophospholipid concentration is utilized by apo A-I mimetic peptides to be used in retarding tumor cell proliferation and as a potential cancer therapeutic agent. Not only that, it inhibits the tumor associated neo-angiogenesis as well as brings down the matrix degrading enzymes associated with tumor metastasis. However this efficient therapeutic potential of apo A-I as an anti tumor agent awaits further future experimental studies in humans.

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis of triple-helical, collagen-mimetic lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Jayati; Hanson, Andrea J; Muhonen, Wallace W; Shabb, John B; Mallik, Sanku

    2010-01-01

    Collagen-mimetic peptides and lipopeptides are widely used as substrates for matrix degrading enzymes, as new biomaterials for tissue engineering, as drug delivery systems and so on. However, the preparation and subsequent purification of these peptides and their fatty-acid conjugates are really challenging. Herein, we report a rapid microwave-assisted, solid-phase synthetic protocol to prepare the fatty-acid conjugated, triple-helical peptides containing the cleavage site for the enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). We employed a PEG-based resin as the solid support and the amino acids were protected with Fmoc- and tert-butyl groups. The amino acids were coupled at 50 degrees C (25 W of microwave power) for 5 min. The deprotection reactions were carried out at 75 degrees C (35 W of microwave power) for 3 min. Using this protocol, a peptide containing 23 amino acids was synthesized and then conjugated to stearic acid in 14 h.

  11. Orthogonally Protected Furanoid Sugar Diamino Acids for Solid-Phase Synthesis of Oligosaccharide Mimetics.

    PubMed

    John, Franklin; Wittmann, Valentin

    2015-08-07

    Sugar diamino acids (SDAs), which differ from the widely used sugar amino acids in the presence of a second amino group connected to the carbohydrate core, share structural features of both amino acids and carbohydrates. They can be used for the preparation of linear and branched amide-linked oligosaccharide mimetics. Such oligomers carry free amino groups, which are positively charged at neutral pH, in a spatially defined way and, thus, represent a potential class of aminoglycoside mimetics. We report here the first examples of orthogonally protected furanoid SDAs and their use in solid-phase synthesis. Starting from d-glucose, we developed a divergent synthetic route to three derivatives of 3,5-diamino-3,5-dideoxy-d-ribofuranose. These building blocks are compatible with solid-phase peptide synthesis following the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) strategy, which we demonstrate by the synthesis of an SDA tetramer.

  12. Antibody mimetics: promising complementary agents to animal-sourced antibodies.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Abdul Rasheed; Baloch, Abdul Wahid; Sutton, Brian J; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Despite their wide use as therapeutic, diagnostic and detection agents, the limitations of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies have inspired scientists to design the next generation biomedical agents, so-called antibody mimetics that offer many advantages over conventional antibodies. Antibody mimetics can be constructed by protein-directed evolution or fusion of complementarity-determining regions through intervening framework regions. Substantial progress in exploiting human, butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and bacterial systems to design and select mimetics using display technologies has been made in the past 10 years, and one of these mimetics [Kalbitor® (Dyax)] has made its way to market. Many challenges lie ahead to develop mimetics for various biomedical applications, especially those for which conventional antibodies are ineffective, and this review describes the current characteristics, construction and applications of antibody mimetics compared to animal-sourced antibodies. The possible limitations of mimetics and future perspectives are also discussed.

  13. Wood mimetic hydrogel beads for enzyme immobilization.

    PubMed

    Park, Saerom; Kim, Sung Hee; Won, Keehoon; Choi, Joon Weon; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Hyung Joo; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-22

    Wood component-based composite hydrogels have potential applications in biomedical fields owing to their low cost, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. The controllable properties of wood mimetic composites containing three major wood components are useful for enzyme immobilization. Here, lipase from Candida rugosa was entrapped in wood mimetic beads containing cellulose, xylan, and lignin by dissolving wood components with lipase in [Emim][Ac], followed by reconstitution. Lipase entrapped in cellulose/xylan/lignin beads in a 5:3:2 ratio showed the highest activity; this ratio is very similar to that in natural wood. The lipase entrapped in various wood mimetic beads showed increased thermal and pH stability. The half-life times of lipase entrapped in cellulose/alkali lignin hydrogel were 31- and 82-times higher than those of free lipase during incubation under denaturing conditions of high temperature and low pH, respectively. Owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and controllable properties, wood mimetic hydrogel beads can be used to immobilize various enzymes for applications in the biomedical, bioelectronic, and biocatalytic fields.

  14. Designing a small molecule erythropoietin mimetic.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a protein made by the kidneys in response to low red blood cell count that is secreted into the bloodstream and binds to a receptor on hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow inducing them to become new red blood cells. EPO made with recombinant DNA technology was brought to market in the 1980s to treat anemia caused by kidney disease and cancer chemotherapy. Because EPO infusion was able to replace blood transfusions in many cases, it rapidly became a multibillion dollar per year drug and as the first biologic created with recombinant technology it launched the biotech industry. For many years intense research was focused on creating a small molecule orally available EPO mimetic. The Robert Wood Johnson (RWJ) group seemed to definitively establish that only large peptides with a minimum of 60 residues could replace EPO, as anything less was not a full agonist. An intense study of the published work led me to hypothesize that the size of the mimetic is not the real issue, but the symmetry making and breaking of the EPO receptor induced by the ligand is the key to activating the stem cells. This analysis meant that residues in the binding site of the receptor deemed absolutely essential for ligand binding and activation from mutagenesis experiments, were probably not really that important. My fundamental hypotheses were: (a) the symmetric state of the homodimeric receptor is the most stable state and thus must be the off-state, (b) a highly localized binding site exists at a pivot point where the two halves of the receptor meet, (c) small molecules can be created that have high potency for this site that will be competitive with EPO and thus can displace the protein-protein interaction, (d) small symmetric molecules will stabilize the symmetric off-state of the receptor, and (e) a key asymmetry in the small molecule will stabilize a mirror image asymmetry in the receptor resulting in the stabilization of the on-state and proliferation of

  15. Model peptide studies of sequence regions in the elastomeric biomineralization protein, Lustrin A. I. The C-domain consensus-PG-, -NVNCT-motif.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Wustman, Brandon A; Morse, Daniel; Evans, John Spencer

    2002-05-01

    The lustrin superfamily represents a unique group of biomineralization proteins localized between layered aragonite mineral plates (i.e., nacre layer) in mollusk shell. Recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) pulling studies have demonstrated that the lustrin-containing organic nacre layer in the abalone, Haliotis rufescens, exhibits a typical sawtooth force-extension curve with hysteretic recovery. This force extension behavior is reminiscent of reversible unfolding and refolding in elastomeric proteins such as titin and tenascin. Since secondary structure plays an important role in force-induced protein unfolding and refolding, the question is, What secondary structure(s) exist within the major domains of Lustrin A? Using a model peptide (FPGKNVNCTSGE) representing the 12-residue consensus sequence found near the N-termini of the first eight cysteine-rich domains (C-domains) within the Lustrin A protein, we employed CD, NMR spectroscopy, and simulated annealing/minimization to determine the secondary structure preferences for this sequence. At pH 7.4, we find that the 12-mer sequence adopts a loop conformation, consisting of a "bend" or "turn" involving residues G3-K4 and N7-C8-T9, with extended conformations arising at F1-G3; K4-V6; T9-S10-G11 in the sequence. Minor pH-dependent conformational effects were noted for this peptide; however, there is no evidence for a salt-bridge interaction between the K4 and E12 side chains. The presence of a loop conformation within the highly conserved -PG-, -NVNCT- sequence of C1-C8 domains may have important structural and mechanistic implications for the Lustrin A protein with regard to elastic behavior.

  16. Pro-apoptotic activity of BH3-only proteins and BH3 mimetics: from theory to potential cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Mariusz L; Czyz, Malgorzata

    2012-10-01

    The evasion of cancer cells from the induction of cell death pathways results in the resistance of tumor to current treatment modalities. Therefore, the resistance to cell death, one of the hallmarks of cancer, is a major target in the development of new approaches to selectively affect cancer cells. The complex interplay between individual members of Bcl-2 family regulates both cell survival and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by maintaining mitochondrial membrane integrity (anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 subfamily) and by triggering its disruption in response to stress stimuli (Bax-like subfamily). BH3-only proteins, another Bcl-2 subfamily, act either by direct stimulation of pro-apoptotic proteins of the Bax subfamily or by interfering with anti-apoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 subfamily. Thus, pro-apoptotic BH3 mimetics, thought to function as BH3-only proteins, are expected to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatment. BH3 mimetics could be either natural or synthetic, peptidic or only based on a helical peptide-like scaffold. Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that BH3 mimetics may not be sufficient to cure cancer patients when used as a single agent. BH3 profiling of cancer cells was introduced to better predict the in vivo responsiveness of tumor to BH3 mimetics combined with conventional therapies. In summary, targeting the Bcl-2 proteins is a promising tool with potential to generate new treatment modalities and to complement existing anti-cancer therapies. This review presents the current knowledge on BH3-only proteins and the spectrum of strategies employing BH3 mimetics in preclinical and clinical studies that aim at tumor targeting.

  17. An apolipoprotein E-mimetic stimulates axonal regeneration and remyelination after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng-Qiao; Fowler, Kenneth A; Neil, Jessica E; Colton, Carol A; Vitek, Michael P

    2010-07-01

    Elevated apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis within crushed sciatic nerves advocates that apoE could benefit axonal repair and reconstruction of axonal and myelin membranes. We created an apoE-mimetic peptide, COG112 (acetyl-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKKCLRVRLASHLRKLRKRLL-amide), and found that postinjury treatment with COG112 significantly improved recovery of motor and sensory function following sciatic nerve crush in C57BL/6 mice. Morphometric analysis of injured sciatic nerves revealed that COG112 promoted axonal regrowth after 2 weeks of treatment. More strikingly, the thickness of myelin sheaths was increased by COG112 treatment. Consistent with these histological findings, COG112 potently elevated growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and peripheral myelin protein zero (P0), which are markers of axon regeneration and remyelination, respectively. Electron microscopic examination further suggested that the apoE-mimetic COG112 may increase clearance of myelin debris. Schwann cell uptake of cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein particles was selectively enhanced by COG112 treatment in a Schwann cell line S16. Moreover, COG112 significantly promoted axon elongation in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures from rat pups. Considering that cholesterol and lipids are needed for reconstructing myelin sheaths and axon extension, these data support a hypothesis where supplementation with exogenous apoE-mimetics such as COG112 may be a promising strategy for restoring lost functional and structural elements following nerve injury.

  18. An Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic Stimulates Axonal Regeneration and Remyelination after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Kenneth A.; Neil, Jessica E.; Colton, Carol A.; Vitek, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated apolipoprotein E (apoE) synthesis within crushed sciatic nerves advocates that apoE could benefit axonal repair and reconstruction of axonal and myelin membranes. We created an apoE-mimetic peptide, COG112 (acetyl-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWKKCLRVRLASHLRKLRKRLL-amide), and found that postinjury treatment with COG112 significantly improved recovery of motor and sensory function following sciatic nerve crush in C57BL/6 mice. Morphometric analysis of injured sciatic nerves revealed that COG112 promoted axonal regrowth after 2 weeks of treatment. More strikingly, the thickness of myelin sheaths was increased by COG112 treatment. Consistent with these histological findings, COG112 potently elevated growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and peripheral myelin protein zero (P0), which are markers of axon regeneration and remyelination, respectively. Electron microscopic examination further suggested that the apoE-mimetic COG112 may increase clearance of myelin debris. Schwann cell uptake of cholesterol-containing low-density lipoprotein particles was selectively enhanced by COG112 treatment in a Schwann cell line S16. Moreover, COG112 significantly promoted axon elongation in primary dorsal root ganglion cultures from rat pups. Considering that cholesterol and lipids are needed for reconstructing myelin sheaths and axon extension, these data support a hypothesis where supplementation with exogenous apoE-mimetics such as COG112 may be a promising strategy for restoring lost functional and structural elements following nerve injury. PMID:20406857

  19. Non-local F(R)-mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we study non-local F(R)-mimetic gravity. We implement mimetic gravity in the framework of non-local F(R)-theories of gravity. Given some specific class of models and using a potential on the mimetic field, we investigate some scenarios related to the early-time universe, namely the inflation and the cosmological bounce, which bring to Einstein's gravity with cold dark matter at the late-time.

  20. NEC violation in mimetic cosmology revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ijjas, Anna; Ripley, Justin; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of Einstein gravity, if the null energy condition (NEC) is satisfied, the energy density in expanding space-times always decreases while in contracting space-times the energy density grows and the universe eventually collapses into a singularity. In particular, no non-singular bounce is possible. It is, though, an open question if this energy condition can be violated in a controlled way, i.e., without introducing pathologies, such as unstable negative-energy states or an imaginary speed of sound. In this letter, we will re-examine the claim that the recently proposed mimetic scenario can violate the NEC without pathologies. We show that mimetic cosmology is prone to gradient instabilities even in cases when the NEC is satisfied (except for trivial examples). Most interestingly, the source of the instability is always the Einstein-Hilbert term in the action. The matter stress-energy component does not contribute spatial gradient terms but instead makes the problematic curvature modes dynamical. We also show that mimetic cosmology can be understood as a singular limit of known, well-behaved theories involving higher-derivative kinetic terms and discuss ways of removing the instability.

  1. Nanoparticle-based biologic mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Cliffel, David E.; Turner, Brian N.; Huffman, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    Centered on solid chemistry foundations, biology and materials science have reached a crossroad where bottom-up designs of new biologically important nanomaterials are a reality. The topics discussed here present the interdisciplinary field of creating biological mimics. Specifically, this discussion focuses on mimics that are developed using various types of metal nanoparticles (particularly gold) through facile synthetic methods. These methods conjugate biologically relevant molecules, e.g., small molecules, peptides, proteins, and carbohydrates, in conformationally favorable orientations on the particle surface. These new products provide stable, safe, and effective substitutes for working with potentially hazardous biologicals for applications such as drug targeting, immunological studies, biosensor development, and biocatalysis. Many standard bioanalytical techniques can be used to characterize and validate the efficacy of these new materials, including quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Metal nanoparticle–based biomimetics continue to be developed as potential replacements for the native biomolecule in applications of immunoassays and catalysis. PMID:20049778

  2. Progress of Mimetic Enzymes and Their Applications in Chemical Sensors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Li, Jianping; Deng, Huan; Zhang, Lianming

    2016-11-01

    The need to develop innovative and reformative approaches to synthesize chemical sensors has increased in recent years because of demands for selectivity, stability, and reproducibility. Mimetic enzymes provide an efficient and convenient method for chemical sensors. This review summarizes the application of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors. Mimetic enzymes can be classified into five categories: hydrolases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and induced enzymes. Potential and recent applications of mimetic enzymes in chemical sensors are reviewed in detail, and the outlook of profound development has been illustrated.

  3. Designing ECM-mimetic materials using protein engineering.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lei; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-04-01

    The natural extracellular matrix (ECM), with its multitude of evolved cell-instructive and cell-responsive properties, provides inspiration and guidelines for the design of engineered biomaterials. One strategy to create ECM-mimetic materials is the modular design of protein-based engineered ECM (eECM) scaffolds. This modular design strategy involves combining multiple protein domains with different functionalities into a single, modular polymer sequence, resulting in a multifunctional matrix with independent tunability of the individual domain functions. These eECMs often enable decoupled control over multiple material properties for fundamental studies of cell-matrix interactions. In addition, since the eECMs are frequently composed entirely of bioresorbable amino acids, these matrices have immense clinical potential for a variety of regenerative medicine applications. This brief review demonstrates how fundamental knowledge gained from structure-function studies of native proteins can be exploited in the design of novel protein-engineered biomaterials. While the field of protein-engineered biomaterials has existed for over 20years, the community is only now beginning to fully explore the diversity of functional peptide modules that can be incorporated into these materials. We have chosen to highlight recent examples that either (i) demonstrate exemplary use as matrices with cell-instructive and cell-responsive properties or (ii) demonstrate outstanding creativity in terms of novel molecular-level design and macro-level functionality. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits experimental colitis and colitis-propelled carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gkouskou, K K; Ioannou, M; Pavlopoulos, G A; Georgila, K; Siganou, A; Nikolaidis, G; Kanellis, D C; Moore, S; Papadakis, K A; Kardassis, D; Iliopoulos, I; McDyer, F A; Drakos, E; Eliopoulos, A G

    2016-05-12

    In both humans with long-standing ulcerative colitis and mouse models of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC), tumors develop predominantly in the distal part of the large intestine but the biological basis of this intriguing pathology remains unknown. Herein we report intrinsic differences in gene expression between proximal and distal colon in the mouse, which are augmented during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)/azoxymethane (AOM)-induced CAC. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes identified discrete biological pathways operating in proximal vs distal intestine and revealed a cluster of genes involved in lipid metabolism to be associated with the disease-resistant proximal colon. Guided by this finding, we have further interrogated the expression and function of one of these genes, apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), a major component of high-density lipoprotein. We show that ApoA-I is expressed at higher levels in the proximal compared with the distal part of the colon and its ablation in mice results in exaggerated DSS-induced colitis and disruption of epithelial architecture in larger areas of the large intestine. Conversely, treatment with an ApoA-I mimetic peptide ameliorated the phenotypic, histopathological and inflammatory manifestations of the disease. Genetic interference with ApoA-I levels in vivo impacted on the number, size and distribution of AOM/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mechanistically, ApoA-I was found to modulate signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-κB activation in response to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide with concomitant impairment in the production of the pathogenic cytokine interleukin-6. Collectively, these data demonstrate a novel protective role for ApoA-I in colitis and CAC and unravel an unprecedented link between lipid metabolic processes and intestinal pathologies.

  5. From neutron stars to quark stars in mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashenok, Artyom V.; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2016-09-01

    Realistic models of neutron and quark stars in the framework of mimetic gravity with a Lagrange multiplier constraint are presented. We discuss the effect of a mimetic scalar aiming to describe dark matter on the mass-radius relation and the moment of inertia for slowly rotating relativistic stars. The mass-radius relation and moment of inertia depend on the value of the mimetic scalar in the center of the star. This fact leads to the ambiguity in the mass-radius relation for a given equation of state. Such ambiguity allows us to explain some observational facts better than in standard general relativity. The case of mimetic potential V (ϕ )˜A eC ϕ2 is considered in detail. The relative deviation of the maximal moment of inertia is approximately twice as large as the relative deviation of the maximal stellar mass. We also briefly discuss the mimetic f (R ) gravity. In the case of f (R )=R +a R2 mimetic gravity, it is expected that the increase of maximal mass and maximal moment of inertia due to the mimetic scalar becomes much stronger with bigger parameter a . The influence of the scalar field in mimetic gravity can lead to the possible existence of extreme neutron stars with large masses.

  6. Disformal transformations, veiled General Relativity and Mimetic Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Deruelle, Nathalie; Rua, Josephine E-mail: rua@cbpf.br

    2014-09-01

    In this Note we show that Einstein's equations for gravity are generically invariant under ''disformations''. We also show that the particular subclass when this is not true yields the equations of motion of ''Mimetic Gravity''. Finally we give the ''mimetic'' generalization of the Schwarzschild solution.

  7. Nanoscale engineering of extracellular matrix-mimetic bioadhesive surfaces and implants for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Shekaran, Asha; Garcia, Andres J

    2011-03-01

    The goal of tissue engineering is to restore tissue function using biomimetic scaffolds which direct desired cell fates such as attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Cell behavior in vivo is determined by a complex interaction of cells with extracellular biosignals, many of which exist on a nanoscale. Therefore, recent efforts in tissue engineering biomaterial development have focused on incorporating extracellular matrix- (ECM) derived peptides or proteins into biomaterials in order to mimic natural ECM. Concurrent advances in nanotechnology have also made it possible to manipulate protein and peptide presentation on surfaces on a nanoscale level. This review discusses protein and peptide nanopatterning techniques and examples of how nanoscale engineering of bioadhesive materials may enhance outcomes for regenerative medicine. Synergy between ECM-mimetic tissue engineering and nanotechnology fields can be found in three major strategies: (1) Mimicking nanoscale orientation of ECM peptide domains to maintain native bioactivity, (2) Presenting adhesive peptides at unnaturally high densities, and (3) Engineering multivalent ECM-derived peptide constructs. Combining bioadhesion and nanopatterning technologies to allow nanoscale control of adhesive motifs on the cell-material interface may result in exciting advances in tissue engineering. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Nanotechnologies - Emerging Applications in Biomedicine. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mimetic gain in batesian and Müllerian mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hadeler, K P; de Mottoni, P; Tesei, A

    1982-04-01

    Starting from field investigations and experiments on mimetic butterfly populations a model for two mimetic species is developed. The model comprises various features such as the growth rates and carrying capacities of the two species, their unpalatability to predators, the recruitment and the training of the predators and, most important, the similarity of the two mimetic species. The model ranges from pure Batesian to pure Müllerian mimicry over a spectrum of possible cases. The mimetic gain is introduced as the relative increase in equilibrium density in a mimetic situation as compared to a situation where mimicry is not present. The dependence of this quantity on parameters as growth rate, carrying capacity, unpalatability, and similarity is investigated using numerical methods.

  9. Exercise Mimetics: Impact on Health and Performance.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Evans, Ronald M

    2017-02-07

    The global epidemic of obesity and its associated chronic diseases is largely attributed to an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. While physical exercise remains the best solution, the development of muscle-targeted "exercise mimetics" may soon provide a pharmaceutical alternative to battle an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. At the same time, these advances are fueling a raging debate on their escalating use as performance-enhancing drugs in high-profile competitions such as the Olympics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations?

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Richard T; Zillikens, M Carola; Friesema, Edith C H; delli Paoli, Giuseppe; Bloch, Wilhelm; Uitterlinden, André G; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; de Lange, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated disorders that involve a multiplicity of tissues. Both fasting and physical exercise are known to counteract dyslipidemia/hyperglycemia. Skeletal muscle plays a key role in the control of blood glucose levels, and the metabolic changes and related signaling pathways in skeletal muscle induced by fasting overlap with those induced by exercise. The reduction of fat disposal has been shown to extend to the liver and to white and brown adipose tissue and to involve an increase in their metabolic activities. In recent years signal transduction pathways related to exercise and fasting/food withdrawal in muscle have been intensively studied, both in animals and in humans. Combining fasting/food withdrawal with exercise in animals as well as in humans causes changes unlike those seen during fasting/food withdrawal or exercise alone, which favor repair of muscle over autophagy. In addition, compounds that mimic exercise have been studied in combination with exercise or fasting/food withdrawal. This review addresses our current knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie the individual and combined effects of fasting/food withdrawal, endurance or resistance exercise, and their mimetics, in muscle vs other organs in rodents and humans, and highlights which combinations may improve metabolic disorders.-Jaspers, R. T., Zillikens, M. C., Friesema, E. C. H., delli Paoli, G., Bloch, W., Uitterlinden, A. G., Goglia, F., Lanni, A., de Lange, P. Exercise, fasting, and mimetics: toward beneficial combinations.

  11. Tunable elastin-mimetic multiblock hybrid copolymers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieshaber, Sarah Elizabeth

    Elastin-mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) have been developed to capture the multiblock molecular architecture of tropoelastin, allowing tunability in chemical, structural, biological, and mechanical properties. Multiblock EMHPs containing flexible synthetic segments were first synthesized via step growth polymerization of diazido-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and alkyne-terminated AKA3KA (K = lysine, A = alanine) (AK2) peptide employing copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC, or orthogonal click chemistry). Covalent crosslinking of the EMHPs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) through the lysine residues in the peptide domain afforded an elastomeric hydrogel (xEMHP) with a compressive modulus of 0.12 +/- 0.018 MPa when hydrated. xEMHPs exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to primary porcine vocal fold fibroblasts. The modular nature of the synthesis allowed facile adjustment of the peptide sequence to modulate the structural and the biological properties of EMHPs. Thus, EMHPs containing integrin-binding peptides were constructed using di-azido-PEG and an alkyne-terminated AK2 peptide with a terminal, integrin-binding GRGDSP domain via the step growth click coupling reaction. Hydrogels formed by covalent crosslinking of the RGD-containing EMHPs had a compressive modulus of 1.06 +/- 0.1MPa when hydrated. Neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were able to adhere to the hydrogels within 1 h, and to spread and develop F-actin filaments 24 h post seeding. NHDF proliferation was only observed on hydrogels containing RGD domains, demonstrating the importance of integrin engagement for cell growth and the potential use of these EMHPs as tissue engineering scaffolds. The tunability of the EMHP system was further investigated by development of self-assembling, pH-responsive multiblock polymers composed of alternating domains of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and a peptide derived from the hydrophobic domains of elastin with the sequence (VPGVG)2 (VG2). The

  12. Cholesterol depletion blocks redistribution of lipid raft components and insulin-mimetic signaling by glimepiride and phosphoinositolglycans in rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Gunter; Hanekop, Nils; Wied, Susanne; Frick, Wendelin

    2002-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored plasma membrane (GPI) proteins, such as Gce1, the dually acylated nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs), such as pp59(Lyn), and the membrane protein, caveolin, together with cholesterol are typical components of detergent/carbonate-insoluble glycolipid-enriched raft domains (DIGs) in the plasma membrane of most eucaryotes. Previous studies demonstrated the dissociation from caveolin and concomitant redistribution from DIGs of Gce1 and pp59(Lyn) in rat adipocytes in response to four different insulin-mimetic stimuli, glimepiride, phosphoinositolglycans, caveolin-binding domain peptide, and trypsin/NaCl-treatment. We now characterized the structural basis for this dynamic of DIG components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Carbonate extracts from purified plasma membranes of basal and stimulated adipocytes were analyzed by high-resolution sucrose gradient centrifugation. RESULTS: This process revealed the existence of two distinct species of detergent/carbonate-insoluble complexes floating at higher buoyant density and harboring lower amounts of cholesterol, caveolin, GPI proteins, and NRTKs (lcDIGs) compared to typical DIGs of high cholesterol content (hcDIGs). The four insulin-mimetic stimuli decreased by 40-70% and increased by 2.5- to 5-fold the amounts of GPI proteins and NRTKs at hcDIGs and lcDIGs, respectively. Cholesterol depletion of adipocytes per se by incubation with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin or cholesterol oxidase also caused translocation of GPI proteins and NRTKs from hcDIGs to lcDIGs and their release from caveolin in reversible fashion without concomitant induction of insulin-mimetic signaling. Cholesterol depletion, however, reduced by 50-60% the stimulus-induced translocation as well as dissociation from hcDIGs-associated caveolin of GPI proteins and NRTKs, activation of NRTKs as well as insulin-mimetic signaling and metabolic action. In contrast, insulin-mimetic signaling induced by vanadium compounds was not

  13. Interfacing membrane mimetics with mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Michael T.; Hoi, Kin Kuan; Robinson, Carol V.

    2017-01-01

    Conspectus Membrane proteins play critical physiological roles and make up the majority of drug targets. Due to their generally low expression levels and amphipathic nature, membrane proteins represent challenging molecular entities for biophysical study. Mass spectrometry offers several sensitive approaches to study the biophysics of membrane proteins. By preserving noncovalent interactions in the gas phase and using collisional activation to remove solubilization agents inside the mass spectrometer, native mass spectrometry (MS) is capable of studying isolated assemblies that would be insoluble in aqueous solution, such as membrane protein oligomers and protein-lipid complexes. Conventional methods use detergent to solubilize the protein prior to electrospray ionization. Gas-phase activation inside the mass spectrometer removes the detergent to yield the isolated proteins with bound ligands. This approach has proven highly successful for ionizing membrane proteins. With the appropriate choice of detergents, membrane proteins with bound lipid species can be observed, which allows characterization of protein-lipid interactions. However, detergents have several limitations. They do not necessarily replicate the native lipid bilayer environment, and only a small number of protein-lipid interactions can be resolved. In this Account, we summarize the development of different membrane mimetics as cassettes for MS analysis of membrane proteins. Examples include amphipols, bicelles, and picodiscs with a special emphasis on lipoprotein Nanodiscs. Polydispersity and heterogeneity of the membrane mimetic cassette is a critical issue for study by MS. Ever more complex datasets consisting of overlapping protein charge states and multiple lipid-bound entities have required development of new computational, theoretical, and experimental approaches to interpret both mass and ion mobility spectra. We will present the rationale and limitations of these approaches. Starting with the

  14. A spectral mimetic least-squares method

    DOE PAGES

    Bochev, Pavel; Gerritsma, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral mimetic least-squares method for a model diffusion–reaction problem, which preserves key conservation properties of the continuum problem. Casting the model problem into a first-order system for two scalar and two vector variables shifts material properties from the differential equations to a pair of constitutive relations. We also use this system to motivate a new least-squares functional involving all four fields and show that its minimizer satisfies the differential equations exactly. Discretization of the four-field least-squares functional by spectral spaces compatible with the differential operators leads to a least-squares method in which the differential equations are alsomore » satisfied exactly. Additionally, the latter are reduced to purely topological relationships for the degrees of freedom that can be satisfied without reference to basis functions. Furthermore, numerical experiments confirm the spectral accuracy of the method and its local conservation.« less

  15. A spectral mimetic least-squares method

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel; Gerritsma, Marc

    2014-09-01

    We present a spectral mimetic least-squares method for a model diffusion–reaction problem, which preserves key conservation properties of the continuum problem. Casting the model problem into a first-order system for two scalar and two vector variables shifts material properties from the differential equations to a pair of constitutive relations. We also use this system to motivate a new least-squares functional involving all four fields and show that its minimizer satisfies the differential equations exactly. Discretization of the four-field least-squares functional by spectral spaces compatible with the differential operators leads to a least-squares method in which the differential equations are also satisfied exactly. Additionally, the latter are reduced to purely topological relationships for the degrees of freedom that can be satisfied without reference to basis functions. Furthermore, numerical experiments confirm the spectral accuracy of the method and its local conservation.

  16. Caloric restriction mimetics: towards a molecular definition.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Frank; Pietrocola, Federico; Eisenberg, Tobias; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Caloric restriction, be it constant or intermittent, is reputed to have health-promoting and lifespan-extending effects. Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are compounds that mimic the biochemical and functional effects of caloric restriction. In this Opinion article, we propose a unifying definition of CRMs as compounds that stimulate autophagy by favouring the deacetylation of cellular proteins. This deacetylation process can be achieved by three classes of compounds that deplete acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA; the sole donor of acetyl groups), that inhibit acetyl transferases (a group of enzymes that acetylate lysine residues in an array of proteins) or that stimulate the activity of deacetylases and hence reverse the action of acetyl transferases. A unifying definition of CRMs will be important for the continued development of this class of therapeutic agents.

  17. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself.

  18. Crossmodal Modulation of Spatial Localization by Mimetic Words

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Miura, Kayo

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated whether aurally presented mimetic words affect the judgment of the final position of a moving object. In Experiment 1, horizontal apparent motion of a visual target was presented, and an auditory mimetic word of “byun” (representing rapid forward motion), “pitari” (representing stop of motion), or “nisahi” (nonsense syllable) was presented via headphones. Observers were asked to judge which of two test stimuli was horizontally aligned with the target. The results showed that forward displacement in the “pitari” condition was significantly smaller than in the “byun” and “nisahi” conditions. However, when non-mimetic but meaningful words were presented (Experiment 2), this effect did not occur. Our findings suggest that the mimetic words, especially that meaning stop of motion, affect spatial localization by means of mental imagery regarding “stop” established by the phonological information of the word. PMID:27994845

  19. Promises and Challenges of Smac Mimetics as Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-11-15

    Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins block programmed cell death and are expressed at high levels in various human cancers, thus making them attractive targets for cancer drug development. Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetics are small-molecule inhibitors that mimic Smac, an endogenous antagonist of IAP proteins. Preclinical studies have shown that Smac mimetics can directly trigger cancer cell death or, even more importantly, sensitize tumor cells for various cytotoxic therapies, including conventional chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or novel agents. Currently, several Smac mimetics are under evaluation in early clinical trials as monotherapy or in rational combinations (i.e., GDC-0917/CUDC-427, LCL161, AT-406/Debio1143, HGS1029, and TL32711/birinapant). This review discusses the promise as well as some challenges at the translational interface of exploiting Smac mimetics as cancer therapeutics.

  20. Understanding Mimetic Documents through "Knowledge Modeling" (Understanding Documents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirsch, Irwin S.; Mosenthal, Peter B.

    1991-01-01

    Shows how the scheme for understanding mimetic documents in previous columns can be used as a framework for understanding the levels of knowledge that make up John Anderson's "declarative stage." (RS)

  1. Isotropic solutions of phospholipid bicelles: a new membrane mimetic for high-resolution NMR studies of polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Vold, R R; Prosser, R S; Deese, A J

    1997-04-01

    In order to illustrate the utility of phospholipid bicelles [Sanders, C.R. and Schwonek, J.P. (1992) Biochemistry, 31, 8898-8905] as a membrane mimetic for high-resolution NMR studies, we have recorded two-dimensional 1H NMR spectra of the tetradecameric peptide mastoparan Vespula lewisii in an isotropic aqueous solution of dimyristoyl and dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine. Mastoparan is largely unstructured in water, but assumes a well-defined helical conformation in association with the bilayers. A pronounced periodicity of the sequential NH chemical shifts provides strong evidence that the helix axis of this short peptide is parallel, rather than perpendicular, to the bilayer plane. The bicellar solutions still require in-depth morphological characterization, but they appear to be ideal media for NMR determination of the mode of binding and the structure of membrane-associated peptides and proteins.

  2. Platelet-mimetic strategies for modulating the wound environment and inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Platelets closely interface with the immune system to fight pathogens, target wound sites, and regulate tissue repair. Natural platelet levels within the body can be depleted for a variety of reasons, including excessive bleeding following traumatic injury, or diseases such as cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Platelet transfusions are commonly used to improve platelet count and hemostatic function in these cases, but transfusions can be complicated by the contamination risks and short storage life of donated platelets. Lyophilized platelets that can be freeze-dried and stored for longer periods of time and synthetic platelet-mimetic technologies that can enhance or replace the functions of natural platelets, while minimizing adverse immune responses have been explored as alternatives to transfusion. Synthetic platelets typically comprise nanoparticles surface-decorated with peptides or ligands to recreate specific biological characteristics of platelets, including targeting of wound and disease sites and facilitating platelet aggregation. Recent efforts in synthetic platelet design have additionally focused on matching platelet shape and mechanics to recreate the marginalization and clot contraction capabilities of natural platelets. The ability to specifically tune the properties of synthetic platelet-mimetic materials has shown utility in a variety of applications including hemostasis, drug delivery, and targeted delivery of cancer therapeutics. PMID:27190260

  3. [Effect of needling the mimetic muscle on recovery of mimetic function in the patient of spontaneous facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ri-Han; Chen, Ri-Li

    2008-11-01

    To observe therapeutic effects of different acupuncture methods for recovery of mimetic function in the patient of spontaneous facial paralysis. One hundred and thirty-four cases of facial paralysis were randomly divided into a mimetic muscle acupuncture group (mimetic muscle group, n = 79) and a routine acupoint group (n = 55). The mimetic muscle group were treated by encircling needling frontal belly of epicranial muscle, orbicular muscle of eye, orbicular muscle of mouth and buccinator muscle, and the routine acupoint group with acupuncture at Dicang (ST 4), Jiache (ST 6), Yangbai (GB 14), Sibai (ST 2), Cuanzhu (BL 2), etc. on the affected side. Their therapeutic effects were compared after they were treated for 2 courses. The effective rate and the good rate were 94.9% and 92.4% in the mimetic muscle group and 70.9% and 52.7% in the routine acupoint group, respectively, with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). The therapeutic effect of needling the mimetic muscle on spontaneous facial paralysis is superior to that of the routine acupuncture therapy.

  4. ABCA1 agonist peptides for the treatment of disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bielicki, John K.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose of review The review summarizes information pertaining to the preclinical development of new apolipoprotein (apo) E mimetic peptides that stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux. Recent findings Small α-helical peptides based on the C-terminal domain of apoE have been developed for therapeutic applications. These peptides stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux via the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) with high potency, like native apolipoproteins on a molar basis. This potent activity has been related to the unique ability of these peptides to maintain α-helix structure upon dilution. Recent structure-activity studies improving the safety features of these mimetic peptides have greatly improved their potential for clinical use. Structural features of the class A α-helix motif that induce muscle toxicity and hypertriglyceridemia have been identified. These may have implications for the design of other HDL mimetic peptides. Summary ABCA1 is an integral membrane protein that plays a central role in biology. Its principal function is to mediate the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid from cells to extracellular apo, preventing a build-up of excess cholesterol in membranes. This process generates HDL particles that perform a variety of functions to protect against disease. A number of these functions can be viewed as directly or indirectly supporting ABCA1 activity, thus constituting a positive feedback system to optimize cellular lipid efflux responses and disease prevention. Consequently, therapeutic approaches that mimic the activities of apos may prove highly effective to combat disease. One such approach involves the use of peptides. The broad biological relevance of ABCA1 suggests these apo mimetic peptides may be useful for the treatment of a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.

  5. ABCA1 agonist peptides for the treatment of disease

    DOE PAGES

    Bielicki, John K.

    2016-02-01

    Purpose of review The review summarizes information pertaining to the preclinical development of new apolipoprotein (apo) E mimetic peptides that stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux. Recent findings Small α-helical peptides based on the C-terminal domain of apoE have been developed for therapeutic applications. These peptides stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux via the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) with high potency, like native apolipoproteins on a molar basis. This potent activity has been related to the unique ability of these peptides to maintain α-helix structure upon dilution. Recent structure-activity studies improving the safety features of these mimetic peptides have greatly improved their potentialmore » for clinical use. Structural features of the class A α-helix motif that induce muscle toxicity and hypertriglyceridemia have been identified. These may have implications for the design of other HDL mimetic peptides. Summary ABCA1 is an integral membrane protein that plays a central role in biology. Its principal function is to mediate the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipid from cells to extracellular apo, preventing a build-up of excess cholesterol in membranes. This process generates HDL particles that perform a variety of functions to protect against disease. A number of these functions can be viewed as directly or indirectly supporting ABCA1 activity, thus constituting a positive feedback system to optimize cellular lipid efflux responses and disease prevention. Consequently, therapeutic approaches that mimic the activities of apos may prove highly effective to combat disease. One such approach involves the use of peptides. The broad biological relevance of ABCA1 suggests these apo mimetic peptides may be useful for the treatment of a number of diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease.« less

  6. Characterization of Potent SMAC Mimetics that Sensitize Cancer Cells to TNF Family-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Kate; Milutinovic, Snezana; Ardecky, Robert J.; Gonzalez-Lopez, Marcos; Ganji, Santhi Reddy; Finlay, Darren; Riedl, Stefan; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Pinilla, Clemencia; Houghten, Richard; Vuori, Kristiina; Reed, John C.; Cosford, Nicholas D. P.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Inhibitor of APoptosis (IAP) protein family suppress apoptosis within tumor cells, particularly in the context of immune cell-mediated killing by the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily cytokines. Most IAPs are opposed endogenously by the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (SMAC), which binds to selected baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains of IAPs to displace interacting proteins. The development of SMAC mimetics as novel anticancer drugs has gained impetus, with several agents now in human clinical trials. To further understand the cellular mechanisms of SMAC mimetics, we focused on IAP family members cIAP1 and cIAP2, which are recruited to TNF receptor complexes where they support cell survival through NF-κB activation while suppressing apoptosis by preventing caspase activation. We established fluorescence polarization (FP) assays for the BIR2 and BIR3 domains of human cIAP1 and cIAP2 using fluorochrome-conjugated SMAC peptides as ligands. A library of SMAC mimetics was profiled using the FP assays to provide a unique structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis compared to previous assessments of binding to XIAP. Potent compounds displayed mean inhibitory binding constants (Ki) of 9 to 27 nM against the BIR3 domains of cIAP1 and cIAP2, respectively. Selected compounds were then characterized using cytotoxicity assays in which a cytokine-resistant human tumor cell line was sensitized to either TNF or lymphotoxin-α (LT-α). Cytotoxicity correlated closely with cIAP1 and cIAP2 BIR3 binding activity with the most potent compounds able to reduce cell viability by 50%. Further testing demonstrated that active compounds also inhibit RIP1 binding to BIR3 of cIAP1 and cIAP2 in vitro and reduce steady-state cIAP1 protein levels in cells. Altogether, these data inform the SAR for our SMAC mimetics with respect to cIAP1 and cIAP2, suggesting that these IAP family members play an important role in tumor cell resistance to cytotoxicity

  7. Fluoroolefins as Peptide Mimetics. 2. A Computational Study of the Conformational Ramifications of Peptide Bond Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    J. Med. Chem. 2005, 48, 1768 . (6) Niida, A.; Tomita, K.; Mizumoto, M.; Tanigaki, H.; Terada, T.; Oishi, S.; Otaka, A.; Inui, K.-I.; Fujii, N. Org...Jensen, F. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 1774 . (37) IUPAC-IUB Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Abbrevia- tions and symbols for the

  8. Energy restriction and potential energy restriction mimetics.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Sibylle; Pallauf, Kathrin; Huebbe, Patricia; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-12-01

    Energy restriction (ER; also known as caloric restriction) is the only nutritional intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase lifespan in model organisms and may delay ageing in humans. In the present review we discuss current scientific literature on ER and its molecular, metabolic and hormonal effects. Moreover, criteria for the classification of substances that might induce positive ER-like changes without having to reduce energy intake are summarised. Additionally, the putative ER mimetics (ERM) 2-deoxy-d-glucose, metformin, rapamycin, resveratrol, spermidine and lipoic acid and their suggested molecular targets are discussed. While there are reports on these ERM candidates that describe lifespan extension in model organisms, data on longevity-inducing effects in higher organisms such as mice remain controversial or are missing. Furthermore, some of these candidates produce detrimental side effects such as immunosuppression or lactic acidosis, or have not been tested for safety in long-term studies. Up to now, there are no known ERM that could be recommended without limitations for use in humans.

  9. Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp mimetics and soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor as therapeutic modalities for concanavalin A induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, R; Shirin, H; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Kenet, G; Aeed, H; Matas, Z; Zaidel, L; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown that synthetic non-peptidic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp, a major cell adhesive ligand of extracellular matrix, prevented an increase in serum aminotransferase activity, as a manifestation of concanavalin A induced liver damage in mice. This study examined the effects of an Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic on liver histology and cytokine release in response to concanavalin A administration, and the efficacy of soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in preventing hepatitis in this model of liver injury. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with either the Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic SF-6,5 or recombinant soluble receptor of TNF alpha before their inoculation with 10 mg/kg concanavalin A. Liver enzymes, histology, and the serum values of TNF alpha and interleukin (IL)6 were examined. RESULTS: The histopathological damage in the liver, and the concanavalin A induced release of TNF alpha and IL6 were significantly inhibited by the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic (p < 0.001). Liver injury, manifested by the increase in serum aminotransferase and cytokines, as well as by histological manifestations of hepatic damage, was effectively prevented by pretreatment of the mice with the soluble TNF receptor (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy of a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic and soluble TNF receptor in the prevention of immune mediated liver damage in mice. Images PMID:9155591

  10. Dispersal of mimetic seeds of three species of Ormosia (Leguminosae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.S.; DeLay, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Seeds with 'imitation arils' appear wholly or partially covered by pulp or aril but actually carry no fleshy material. The mimetic seed hypothesis to explain this phenomenon proposes a parasitic relationship in which birds are deceived into dispersing seeds that resemble bird-dispersed fruits, without receiving a nutrient reward. The hard-seed for grit hypothesis proposes a mutualistic relationship in which large, terrestrial birds swallow the exceptionally hard 'mimetic' seeds as grit for grinding the softer seeds on which they feed. They defecate, dispersing the seeds, and abrade the seed surface, enhancing germination. Any fruit mimicry is incidental. Fruiting trees of Ormosia spp. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) were observed to ascertain mechanisms of seed dispersal and the role of seemingly mimetic characteristics of the seeds in that dispersal. Seed predation and seed germination were also examined. Ormosia isthamensis and O. macrocalyx (but not O. bopiensis) deceived arboreally-foraging frugivorous birds into taking their mimetic seeds, although rates of seed dispersal were low. These results are consistent with the mimetic seed hypothesis. On the other hand, the rates of disappearance of seeds from the ground under the Ormosia trees, hardness of the seeds, and enhancement of germination with the abrasion of the seed coat are all consistent with the hard-seed for grit hypothesis.

  11. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications.

  12. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics mediated neuroregeneration and synaptic repair: emerging therapeutic modality for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Iqbal, Khalid

    2016-07-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable and debilitating chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder which is the leading cause of dementia worldwide. AD is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disorder, histopathologically characterized by the presence of amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of Aβ peptides and abnormally hyperphosphorylated tau protein, respectively. Independent of the various etiopathogenic mechanisms, neurodegeneration is a final common outcome of AD neuropathology. Synaptic loss is a better correlate of cognitive impairment in AD than Aβ or tau pathologies. Thus a highly promising therapeutic strategy for AD is to shift the balance from neurodegeneration to neuroregeneration and synaptic repair. Neurotrophic factors, by virtue of their neurogenic and neurotrophic activities, have potential for the treatment of AD. However, the clinical therapeutic usage of recombinant neurotrophic factors is limited because of the insurmountable hurdles of unfavorable pharmacokinetic properties, poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, and severe adverse effects. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics, in this context, represent a potential strategy to overcome these short comings, and have shown promise in preclinical studies. Neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics have been the focus of intense research in recent years for AD drug development. Here, we review the relevant literature regarding the therapeutic beneficial effect of neurotrophic factors in AD, and then discuss the recent status of research regarding the neurotrophic factor small-molecule mimetics as therapeutic candidates for AD. Lastly, we summarize the preclinical studies with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021). P021 is a neurogenic and neurotrophic compound which enhances dentate gyrus neurogenesis and memory processes via inhibiting leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) signaling pathway and increasing

  13. Carboxyl-Terminal Cleavage of Apolipoprotein A-I by Human Mast Cell Chymase Impairs Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Maaninka, Katariina; Lappalainen, Jani; Nurmi, Katariina; Metso, Jari; Öörni, Katariina; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam; Kovanen, Petri T

    2016-02-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to possess several atheroprotective functions, including inhibition of inflammation. Protease-secreting activated mast cells reside in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigated the effects of the neutral proteases released by activated mast cells on the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I. Activation of human mast cells triggered the release of granule-associated proteases chymase, tryptase, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A, and granzyme B. Among them, chymase cleaved apoA-I with the greatest efficiency and generated C-terminally truncated apoA-I, which failed to bind with high affinity to human coronary artery endothelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor-α-activated human coronary artery endothelial cells, the chymase-cleaved apoA-I was unable to suppress nuclear factor-κB-dependent upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and to block THP-1 cells from adhering to and transmigrating across the human coronary artery endothelial cells. Chymase-cleaved apoA-I also had an impaired ability to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide-activated GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)- and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor)-differentiated human macrophage foam cells and to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)-activated human neutrophils. Importantly, chymase-cleaved apoA-I showed reduced ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo in mice. Treatment with chymase blocked the ability of the apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F, but not of the protease-resistant D-4F, to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in activated human coronary artery endothelial cells and macrophage foam cells and to prevent reactive oxygen species formation in activated neutrophils. The findings identify C-terminal cleavage of apoA-I by human mast

  14. Carboxyl-Terminal Cleavage of Apolipoprotein A-I by Human Mast Cell Chymase Impairs Its Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Su Duy; Maaninka, Katariina; Lappalainen, Jani; Nurmi, Katariina; Metso, Jari; Öörni, Katariina; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Lee-Rueckert, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) has been shown to possess several atheroprotective functions, including inhibition of inflammation. Protease-secreting activated mast cells reside in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we investigated the effects of the neutral proteases released by activated mast cells on the anti-inflammatory properties of apoA-I. Approach and Results— Activation of human mast cells triggered the release of granule-associated proteases chymase, tryptase, cathepsin G, carboxypeptidase A, and granzyme B. Among them, chymase cleaved apoA-I with the greatest efficiency and generated C-terminally truncated apoA-I, which failed to bind with high affinity to human coronary artery endothelial cells. In tumor necrosis factor-α–activated human coronary artery endothelial cells, the chymase-cleaved apoA-I was unable to suppress nuclear factor-κB–dependent upregulation of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and to block THP-1 cells from adhering to and transmigrating across the human coronary artery endothelial cells. Chymase-cleaved apoA-I also had an impaired ability to downregulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 in lipopolysaccharide-activated GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor)– and M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor)–differentiated human macrophage foam cells and to inhibit reactive oxygen species formation in PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate)–activated human neutrophils. Importantly, chymase-cleaved apoA-I showed reduced ability to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo in mice. Treatment with chymase blocked the ability of the apoA-I mimetic peptide L-4F, but not of the protease-resistant D-4F, to inhibit proinflammatory gene expression in activated human coronary artery endothelial cells and macrophage foam cells and to prevent reactive oxygen species formation in activated neutrophils. Conclusions— The

  15. Synthetic mimetics of protein secondary structure domains

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Nathan T.; Katt, William P.; Hamilton, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins modulate the majority of all biological functions and are primarily composed of highly organized secondary structural elements such as helices, turns and sheets. Many of these functions are affected by a small number of key protein–protein contacts, often involving one or more of these well-defined structural elements. Given the ubiquitous nature of these protein recognition domains, their mimicry by peptidic and non-peptidic scaffolds has become a major focus of contemporary research. This review examines several key advances in secondary structure mimicry over the past several years, particularly focusing upon scaffolds that show not only promising projection of functional groups, but also a proven effect in biological systems. PMID:20123744

  16. A Thiol-Ene Coupling Approach to Native Peptide Stapling and Macrocyclization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanxiang; Chou, Danny Hung-Chieh

    2015-09-07

    We report the discovery of a peptide stapling and macrocyclization method using thiol-ene reactions between two cysteine residues and an α,ω-diene in high yields. This new approach enabled us to selectively modify cysteine residues in native, unprotected peptides with a variety of stapling modifications for helix stabilization or general macrocyclization. We synthesized stapled Axin mimetic analogues and demonstrated increased alpha helicity upon peptide stapling. We then synthesized stapled p53 mimetic analogues using pure hydrocarbon linkers and demonstrated their abilities to block the p53-MDM2 interaction and selectively kill p53 wild-type colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells but not p53 null cells. In summary, we demonstrated a robust and versatile peptide stapling method that could be potentially applied to both synthetic and expressed peptides.

  17. Tool developments for structure-function studies of host defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangshun

    2007-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides, or host defense peptides, are universal signaling and effector molecules in host defense and innate immunity. This article highlights various tools developed for cathelicidins and defensins, ranging from peptide identification, production, and structural biology, including the eight databases for antimicrobial peptides. Novel peptides can be identified from natural sources at both gene and protein levels. Solid-phase synthesis and bacterial expression are the two important methods for peptide production. Three-dimensional structures of antimicrobial peptides, primarily determined by solution NMR techniques, are essential for an in-depth understanding of the mode of action. The introduction of octanoyl phosphatidylglycerol as a bacterial membrane-mimetic model provides new insights into peptide-lipid interactions. The incorporation of structure and activity data into the antimicrobial peptide database (http://aps.unmc.edu/AP/main.html) will lead to an integrated understanding of these peptides via structural bioinformatics.

  18. Peptide-membrane Interactions by Spin-labeling EPR

    PubMed Central

    Smirnova, Tatyana I.; Smirnov, Alex I.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is a well-established method that has recently grown in popularity as an experimental technique, with multiple applications in protein and peptide science. The growth is driven by development of labeling strategies, as well as by considerable technical advances in the field, that are paralleled by an increased availability of EPR instrumentation. While the method requires an introduction of a paramagnetic probe at a well-defined position in a peptide sequence, it has been shown to be minimally destructive to the peptide structure and energetics of the peptide-membrane interactions. In this chapter, we describe basic approaches for using SDSL EPR spectroscopy to study interactions between small peptides and biological membranes or membrane mimetic systems. We focus on experimental approaches to quantify peptide-membrane binding, topology of bound peptides, and characterize peptide aggregation. Sample preparation protocols including spin-labeling methods and preparation of membrane mimetic systems are also described. PMID:26477253

  19. Synthetic peptides mimicking the binding site of human acetylcholinesterase for its inhibitor fasciculin 2.

    PubMed

    Kafurke, Uwe; Erijman, Ariel; Aizner, Yonatan; Shifman, Julia M; Eichler, Jutta

    2015-09-01

    Molecules capable of mimicking protein binding and/or functional sites present useful tools for a range of biomedical applications, including the inhibition of protein-ligand interactions. Such mimics of protein binding sites can currently be generated through structure-based design and chemical synthesis. Computational protein design could be further used to optimize protein binding site mimetics through rationally designed mutations that improve intermolecular interactions or peptide stability. Here, as a model for the study, we chose an interaction between human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and its inhibitor fasciculin-2 (Fas) because the structure and function of this complex is well understood. Structure-based design of mimics of the hAChE binding site for Fas yielded a peptide that binds to Fas at micromolar concentrations. Replacement of hAChE residues known to be essential for its interaction with Fas with alanine, in this peptide, resulted in almost complete loss of binding to Fas. Computational optimization of the hAChE mimetic peptide yielded a variant with slightly improved affinity to Fas, indicating that more rounds of computational optimization will be required to obtain peptide variants with greatly improved affinity for Fas. CD spectra in the absence and presence of Fas point to conformational changes in the peptide upon binding to Fas. Furthermore, binding of the optimized hAChE mimetic peptide to Fas could be inhibited by hAChE, providing evidence for a hAChE-specific peptide-Fas interaction.

  20. A BH3 Mimetic for Killing Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Douglas R

    2016-06-16

    Venetoclax is a BH3 mimetic approved for treating chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis but "primed for death" by elevated BCL-2, which binds to pro-apoptotic proteins and holds them in check. Venetoclax releases this antagonism and is the first approved drug to target a protein-protein interaction.

  1. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  2. Bio-mimetic sensors based on molecularly imprinted membranes.

    PubMed

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-07-30

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  3. Dark energy oscillations in mimetic F (R ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we address the problem of dark energy oscillations in the context of mimetic F (R ) gravity with potential. The issue of dark energy oscillations can be a problem in some models of ordinary F (R ) gravity, and a remedy that can make the oscillations milder is to introduce additional modifications in the functional form of the F (R ) gravity. As we demonstrate, the power-law modifications are not necessary in the mimetic F (R ) case, and by appropriately choosing the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier, it is possible to make the oscillations almost vanish at the end of the matter domination era and during the late-time acceleration era. We examine the behavior of the dark energy equation of state parameter and of the total effective equation of state parameter as functions of the redshift, and we compare the resulting picture with the ordinary F (R ) gravity case. As we also show that the present day values of the dark energy equation of state parameter and of the total effective equation of state parameter are in better agreement with the observational data, in comparison to the ordinary F (R ) gravity case. Finally, we study the evolution of the growth factor as a function of the redshift for all the mimetic models we use.

  4. SOCS1 Mimetics and Antagonists: A Complementary Approach to Positive and Negative Regulation of Immune Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Chulbul M. I.; Larkin, Joseph; Johnson, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are inducible intracellular proteins that play essential regulatory roles in both immune and non-immune function. Of the eight known members, SOCS1 and SOCS3 in conjunction with regulatory T cells play key roles in regulation of the immune system. Molecular tools such as gene transfections and siRNA have played a major role in our functional understanding of the SOCS proteins where a key functional domain of 12-amino acid residues called the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) has been identified on SOCS1 and SOCS3. KIR plays a key role in inhibition of the JAK2 tyrosine kinase, which in turn plays a key role in cytokine signaling. A peptide corresponding to KIR (SOCS1-KIR) bound to the activation loop of JAK2 and inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1α transcription factor by JAK2. Cell internalized SOCS1-KIR is a potent therapeutic in the experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis and showed promise in a psoriasis model and a model of diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease. By contrast, a peptide, pJAK2(1001–1013), that corresponds to the activation loop of JAK2 is a SOCS1 antagonist. The antagonist enhanced innate and adaptive immune response against a broad range of viruses including herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, and an EMC picornavirus. SOCS mimetics and antagonists are thus potential therapeutics for negative and positive regulation of the immune system. PMID:25954276

  5. Self-Assembling Cyclic d,l-α-Peptides as Modulators of Plasma HDL Function. A Supramolecular Approach toward Antiatherosclerotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    There is great interest in developing new modes of therapy for atherosclerosis to treat coronary heart disease and stroke, particularly ones that involve modulation of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Here, we describe a new supramolecular chemotype for altering HDL morphology and function. Guided by rational design and SAR-driven peptide sequence enumerations, we have synthesized and determined the HDL remodeling activities of over 80 cyclic d,l-α-peptides. We have identified a few distinct sequence motifs that are effective in vitro in remodeling human and mouse plasma HDLs to increase the concentration of lipid-poor pre-beta HDLs, which are key initial acceptors of cholesterol in the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process, and concomitantly promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. Functional assays with various control peptides, such as scrambled sequences, linear and enantiomeric cyclic peptide variants, and backbone-modified structures that limit peptide self-assembly, provide strong support for the supramolecular mode of action. Importantly, when the lead cyclic peptide c[wLwReQeR] was administered to mice (ip), it also promoted the formation of small, lipid-poor HDLs in vivo, displayed good plasma half-life (∼6 h), did not appear to have adverse side effects, and exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in an acute in vivo inflammation assay. Given that previously reported HDL remodeling peptides have been based on α-helical apoA-I mimetic architectures, the present study, involving a new structural class, represents a promising step toward new potential therapeutics to combat atherosclerosis. PMID:28691076

  6. Peptide Paratope Mimics of the Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody b12.

    PubMed

    Haußner, Christina; Damm, Dominik; Nirschl, Sandra; Rohrhofer, Anette; Schmidt, Barbara; Eichler, Jutta

    2017-04-04

    The broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody b12 recognizes the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 and efficiently neutralizes HIV-1 infections in vitro and in vivo. Based on the 3D structure of a b12⋅gp120 complex, we have designed an assembled peptide (b12-M) that presents the parts of the three heavy-chain complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of b12, which contain the contact sites of the antibody for gp120. This b12-mimetic peptide, as well as a truncated peptide presenting only two of the three heavy-chain CDRs of b12, were shown to recognize gp120 in a similar manner to b12, as well as to inhibit HIV-1 infection, demonstrating functional mimicry of b12 by the paratope mimetic peptides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Minimalist Antibodies and Mimetics: An Update and Recent Applications.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Virginia J; Ta, Angeline N; McNaughton, Brian R

    2016-10-17

    The immune system utilizes antibodies to recognize foreign or disease-relevant receptors, initiating an immune response to destroy unwelcomed guests. Because researchers can evolve antibodies to bind virtually any target, it is perhaps unsurprising that these reagents, and their small-molecule conjugates, are used extensively in clinical and basic research environments. However, virtues of antibodies are countered by significant challenges. Foremost among these is the need for expression in mammalian cells (largely due to often necessary post-translational modifications). In response to these challenges, researchers have developed an array of minimalist antibodies and mimetics, which are smaller, more stable, simpler to express in Escherichia coli, and amendable to laboratory evolution and protein engineering. Here we describe these scaffolds and discuss recent applications of minimalist antibodies and mimetics. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Imperfect Batesian mimicry and the conspicuousness costs of mimetic resemblance.

    PubMed

    Speed, Michael P; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2010-07-01

    We apply signal detection methodology to make predictions about the evolution of Batesian mimicry. Our approach is novel in three ways. First, we applied a deterministic evolutionary modeling system that allows a large number of alternative mimetic morphs to coexist and compete. Second, we considered that there may be natural boundaries to phenotypic expression. Finally, we allowed increasing conspicuousness to impose an increasing detection cost on mimics. In some instances, the model predicts widespread variation in mimetic forms at evolutionary stability. In other situations, rather than a polymorphism the model predicts dimorphisms in which some prey were maximally cryptic and had minimal resemblance to the model, whereas many others were more conspicuous than the model. The biological implications of these results, particularly for our understanding of imperfect mimicry, are discussed.

  9. Small-molecule SMAC mimetics as new cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Longchuan; Smith, David C; Wang, Shaomeng

    2014-10-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cellular process and faulty regulation of apoptosis is a hallmark of human cancers. Targeting key apoptosis regulators with the goal to restore apoptosis in tumor cells has been pursued as a new cancer therapeutic strategy. XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2, members of inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, are critical regulators of cell death and survival and are attractive targets for new cancer therapy. The SMAC/DIABLO protein is an endogenous antagonist of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2. In the last decade, intense research efforts have resulted in the design and development of several small-molecule SMAC mimetics now in clinical trials for cancer treatment. In this review, we will discuss the roles of XIAP, cIAP1, and cIAP2 in regulation of cell death and survival, and the design and development of small-molecule SMAC mimetics as novel cancer treatments.

  10. CNTO 530 functions as a potent EPO mimetic via unique sustained effects on bone marrow proerythroblast pools.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Houde, Estelle; Marshall, Deborah; Volk, Amy; Makropoulos, Dorie; Emerson, Christine; Pradeep, Anamika; Bugelski, Peter J; Wojchowski, Don M

    2009-05-14

    Anemia as associated with numerous clinical conditions can be debilitating, but frequently can be treated via administration of epoetin-alfa, darbepoietin-alfa, or methoxy-PEG epoetin-beta. Despite the complexity of EPO-EPO receptor interactions, the development of interesting EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) also has been possible. CNTO 530 is one such novel MIMETIBODY Fc-domain dimeric EMP fusion protein. In a mouse model, single-dose CNTO 530 (unlike epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa) bolstered red cell production for up to 1 month. In 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin-paclitaxel models, CNTO 530 also protected against anemia with unique efficiency. These actions were not fully accounted for by half-life estimates, and CNTO 530 signaling events therefore were studied. Within primary bone marrow erythroblasts, kinetics of STAT5, ERK, and AKT activation were similar for CNTO 530 and epoetin-alfa. p70S6K activation by CNTO 530, however, was selectively sustained. In vivo, CNTO 530 uniquely stimulated the enhanced formation of PODXL(high)CD71(high) (pro)erythroblasts at frequencies multifold above epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa. CNTO 530 moreover supported the sustained expansion of a bone marrow-resident Kit(neg)CD71(high)Ter119(neg) progenitor pool. Based on these distinct erythropoietic and EPOR signaling properties, CNTO 530 holds excellent promise as a new EPO mimetic.

  11. CNTO 530 functions as a potent EPO mimetic via unique sustained effects on bone marrow proerythroblast pools

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Pradeep; Houde, Estelle; Marshall, Deborah; Volk, Amy; Makropoulos, Dorie; Emerson, Christine; Pradeep, Anamika; Bugelski, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Anemia as associated with numerous clinical conditions can be debilitating, but frequently can be treated via administration of epoetin-alfa, darbepoietin-alfa, or methoxy-PEG epoetin-beta. Despite the complexity of EPO-EPO receptor interactions, the development of interesting EPO mimetic peptides (EMPs) also has been possible. CNTO 530 is one such novel MIMETIBODY Fc-domain dimeric EMP fusion protein. In a mouse model, single-dose CNTO 530 (unlike epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa) bolstered red cell production for up to 1 month. In 5-fluorouracil and carboplatin-paclitaxel models, CNTO 530 also protected against anemia with unique efficiency. These actions were not fully accounted for by half-life estimates, and CNTO 530 signaling events therefore were studied. Within primary bone marrow erythroblasts, kinetics of STAT5, ERK, and AKT activation were similar for CNTO 530 and epoetin-alfa. p70S6K activation by CNTO 530, however, was selectively sustained. In vivo, CNTO 530 uniquely stimulated the enhanced formation of PODXLhighCD71high (pro)erythroblasts at frequencies multifold above epoetin-alfa or darbepoietin-alfa. CNTO 530 moreover supported the sustained expansion of a bone marrow–resident KitnegCD71highTer119neg progenitor pool. Based on these distinct erythropoietic and EPOR signaling properties, CNTO 530 holds excellent promise as a new EPO mimetic. PMID:19264917

  12. Apolipoprotein E-Mimetics Inhibit Neurodegeneration and Restore Cognitive Functions in a Transgenic Drosophila Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarantseva, Svetlana; Timoshenko, Svetlana; Bolshakova, Olga; Karaseva, Eugenia; Rodin, Dmitry; Schwarzman, Alexander L.; Vitek, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Mutations of the amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) are found in familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and some lead to the elevated production of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ). While Aβ has been implicated in the causation of AD, the exact role played by Aβ and its APP precursor are still unclear. Principal Findings In our study, Drosophila melanogaster transgenics were established as a model to analyze AD-like pathology caused by APP overexpression. We demonstrated that age related changes in the levels and pattern of synaptic proteins accompanied progressive neurodegeneration and impairment of cognitive functions in APP transgenic flies, but that these changes may be independent from the generation of Aβ. Using novel peptide mimetics of Apolipoprotein-E, COG112 or COG133 proved to be neuroprotective and significantly improved the learning and memory of APP transgenic flies. Conclusions The development of neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits was corrected by injections of COG112 or COG133, novel mimetics of apolipoprotein-E (apoE) with neuroprotective activities. PMID:19997607

  13. Nanofibrous scaffolds releasing a small molecule BDNF-mimetic for the re-direction of endogenous neuroblast migration in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fon, Deniece; Zhou, Kun; Ercole, Francesca; Fehr, Friederike; Marchesan, Silvia; Minter, Myles R; Crack, Peter J; Finkelstein, David I; Forsythe, John S

    2014-03-01

    Brain tissue engineering has the potential to harness existing elements of neurogenesis within the adult brain to overcome a microenvironment that is otherwise inhibitory to regeneration, especially following severe tissue damage. This study investigates the ability of electrospun poly ε-caprolactone (PCL) to re-direct the migratory pathway of endogenous neuroblasts from the disrupted subventricular zone (SVZ). A small molecule non-peptide ligand (BDNF-mimetic) that mimicked the trophic properties of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was incorporated into electrospun PCL scaffolds to improve neuroblast survival and promote neuroblast migration towards the implant. PCL scaffolds were able to support neuroblast infiltration and migration along the implant tract. In the presence of the BDNF-mimetic, neuroblasts were able to migrate towards the implant via the parenchyma, and their persistence within the implants was prolonged. In addition, the BDNF-mimetic improved implant integration and increased local neuronal plasticity by increasing neurite sprouting at the tissue-implant interface. SMI32+ neurites were observed inside scaffolds at 21 days but not 8 days post implantation, indicating that at least some of the infiltrated neuroblasts had differentiated into neurons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On (in)stabilities of perturbations in mimetic models with higher derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yunlong; Shen, Liuyuan; Mou, Yicen; Li, Mingzhe

    2017-08-01

    Usually when applying the mimetic model to the early universe, higher derivative terms are needed to promote the mimetic field to be dynamical. However such models suffer from the ghost and/or the gradient instabilities and simple extensions cannot cure this pathology. We point out in this paper that it is possible to overcome this difficulty by considering the direct couplings of the higher derivatives of the mimetic field to the curvature of the spacetime.

  15. BH3 mimetics activate multiple pro-autophagic pathways.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Orhon, I; Morselli, E; Criollo, A; Shen, S; Mariño, G; BenYounes, A; Bénit, P; Rustin, P; Maiuri, M C; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-15

    The BH3 mimetic ABT737 induces autophagy by competitively disrupting the inhibitory interaction between the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), thereby stimulating the Beclin 1-dependent allosteric activation of the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Here, we examined whether ABT737 stimulates other pro-autophagic signal-transduction pathways. ABT737 caused the activating phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and of the AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, the activating phosphorylation of several subunits of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) and the hyperphosphorylation of the IKK substrate IκB, inhibition of the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and consequent dephosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase. In addition, ABT737 treatment dephosphorylates (and hence likewise inhibits) p53, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt. All these effects were shared by ABT737 and another structurally unrelated BH3 mimetic, HA14-1. Functional experiments revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IKK, Sirtuin and the p53-depleting ubiquitin ligase MDM2 prevented ABT737-induced autophagy. These results point to unexpected and pleiotropic pro-autophagic effects of BH3 mimetics involving the modulation of multiple signalling pathways.

  16. Dynamical behavior in mimetic F(R) gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N. E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the cosmological behavior of mimetic F(R) gravity. This scenario is the F(R) extension of usual mimetic gravity classes, which are based on re-parametrizations of the metric using new, but not propagating, degrees of freedom, that can lead to a wider family of solutions. Performing a detailed dynamical analysis for exponential, power-law, and arbitrary F(R) forms, we extracted the corresponding critical points. Interestingly enough, we found that although the new features of mimetic F(R) gravity can affect the universe evolution at early and intermediate times, at late times they will not have any effect, and the universe will result at stable states that coincide with those of usual F(R) gravity. However, this feature holds for the late-time background evolution only. On the contrary, the behavior of the perturbations is expected to be different since the new term contributes to the perturbations even if it does not contribute at the background level.

  17. Recovering a MOND-like acceleration law in mimetic gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagnozzi, Sunny

    2017-09-01

    We reconsider the recently proposed mimetic gravity, focusing in particular on whether the theory is able to reproduce the inferred flat rotation curves of galaxies. We extend the theory by adding a non-minimal coupling between matter and mimetic field. Such coupling leads to the appearance of an extra force which renders the motion of test particles non-geodesic. By studying the weak field limit of the resulting equations of motion, we demonstrate that in the Newtonian limit the acceleration law induced by the non-minimal coupling reduces to a modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND)-like one. In this way, it is possible to reproduce the successes of MOND, namely the explanation for the flat galactic rotation curves and the Tully–Fisher relation, within the framework of mimetic gravity, without the need for particle dark matter. The scale-dependence of the recovered acceleration scale opens up the possibility of addressing the missing mass problem not only on galactic but also on cluster scales: we defer a full study of this issue, together with a complete analysis of fits to spiral galaxy rotation curves, to an upcoming companion paper.

  18. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Kooijmans, Sander A A; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2012-01-01

    The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics.

  19. Exosome mimetics: a novel class of drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Kooijmans, Sander AA; Vader, Pieter; van Dommelen, Susan M; van Solinge, Wouter W; Schiffelers, Raymond M

    2012-01-01

    The identification of extracellular phospholipid vesicles as conveyors of cellular information has created excitement in the field of drug delivery. Biological therapeutics, including short interfering RNA and recombinant proteins, are prone to degradation, have limited ability to cross biological membranes, and may elicit immune responses. Therefore, delivery systems for such drugs are under intensive investigation. Exploiting extracellular vesicles as carriers for biological therapeutics is a promising strategy to overcome these issues and to achieve efficient delivery to the cytosol of target cells. Exosomes are a well studied class of extracellular vesicles known to carry proteins and nucleic acids, making them especially suitable for such strategies. However, the considerable complexity and the related high chance of off-target effects of these carriers are major barriers for translation to the clinic. Given that it is well possible that not all components of exosomes are required for their proper functioning, an alternative strategy would be to mimic these vesicles synthetically. By assembly of liposomes harboring only crucial components of natural exosomes, functional exosome mimetics may be created. The low complexity and use of well characterized components strongly increase the pharmaceutical acceptability of such systems. However, exosomal components that would be required for the assembly of functional exosome mimetics remain to be identified. This review provides insights into the composition and functional properties of exosomes, and focuses on components which could be used to enhance the drug delivery properties of exosome mimetics. PMID:22619510

  20. The thermodynamics of simple biomembrane mimetic systems

    PubMed Central

    Raudino, Antonio; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Pannuzzo, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Insight into the forces governing a system is essential for understanding its behavior and function. Thermodynamic investigations provide a wealth of information that is not, or is hardly, available from other methods. This article reviews thermodynamic approaches and assays to measure collective properties such as heat adsorption / emission and volume variations. These methods can be successfully applied to the study of lipid vesicles (liposomes) and biological membranes. With respect to instrumentation, differential scanning calorimetry, pressure perturbation calorimetry, isothermal titration calorimetry, dilatometry, and acoustic techniques aimed at measuring the isothermal and adiabatic processes, two- and three-dimensional compressibilities are considered. Applications of these techniques to lipid systems include the measurement of different thermodynamic parameters and a detailed characterization of thermotropic, barotropic, and lyotropic phase behavior. The membrane binding and / or partitioning of solutes (proteins, peptides, drugs, surfactants, ions, etc.) can also be quantified and modeled. Many thermodynamic assays are available for studying the effect of proteins and other additives on membranes, characterizing non-ideal mixing, domain formation, bilayer stability, curvature strain, permeability, solubilization, and fusion. Studies of membrane proteins in lipid environments elucidate lipid–protein interactions in membranes. Finally, a plethora of relaxation phenomena toward equilibrium thermodynamic structures can be also investigated. The systems are described in terms of enthalpic and entropic forces, equilibrium constants, heat capacities, partial volume changes, volume and area compressibility, and so on, also shedding light on the stability of the structures and the molecular origin and mechanism of the structural changes. PMID:21430953

  1. A recombinant mimetics of the HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate fused with human IgG Fc fragment elicits neutralizing antibody response in the vaccinated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, Zhi; Pan, Chungen; Lu, Hong; Shui, Yuan; Li, Lin; Li, Xiaojuan; Xu, Xueqing; Liu, Shuwen; Jiang, Shibo

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} One recombinant mimetics of gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) consisting of gp41 N46 sequence, foldon and IgG Fc, designated N46FdFc, was expressed. {yields} N46FdFc-induced antibodies in mice that neutralized HIV-1 infection, inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. {yields} These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines. -- Abstract: HIV-1 gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate (PFI) composed of three N-terminal heptad repeats (NHR) plays a crucial role in viral fusion and entry and represents an attractive target for anti-HIV therapeutics (e.g., enfuvirtide) and vaccines. In present study, we constructed and expressed two recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics, designated N46Fd and N46FdFc. N46Fd consists of N46 (residues 536-581) in gp41 NHR and foldon (Fd), a trimerization motif. N46FdFc is composed of N46Fd fused with human IgG Fc fragment as an immunoenhancer. We immunized mice with N46 peptide, N46Fd and N46FdFc, respectively, and found that only N46FdFc elicited neutralizing antibody response in mice against infection by HIV-1 strains IIIB (clade B, X4), 92US657 (clade B, R5), and 94UG103 (clade A, X4R5). Anti-N46FdFc antibodies inhibited PIE7 binding to PFI, blocked gp41 six-helix bundle formation, and suppressed HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion. These findings provide an important clue for developing recombinant gp41 PFI mimetics-based HIV vaccines.

  2. Review cyclic peptides on a merry-go-round; towards drug design.

    PubMed

    Tapeinou, Anthi; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Simal, Carmen; Tselios, Theodore

    2015-09-01

    Peptides and proteins are attractive initial leads for the rational design of bioactive molecules. Several natural cyclic peptides have recently emerged as templates for drug design due to their resistance to chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis and high selectivity to receptors. The development of practical protocols that mimic the power of nature's strategies remains paramount for the advancement of novel peptide-based drugs. The de novo design of peptide mimetics (nonpeptide molecules or cyclic peptides) for the synthesis of linear or cyclic peptides has enhanced the progress of therapeutics and diverse areas of science and technology. In the case of metabolically unstable peptide ligands, the rational design and synthesis of cyclic peptide analogues has turned into an alternative approach for improved biological activity.

  3. Selection of peptides for serological detection of equine infectious anemia.

    PubMed

    Santos, E M; Cardoso, R; Souza, G R L; Goulart, L R; Heinemann, M B; Leite, R C; Reis, J K P

    2012-08-13

    Equine infectious anemia caused by equine infectious anemia virus is an important disease due to its high severity and incidence in animals. We used a phage display library to isolate peptides that can be considered potential markers for equine infectious anemia diagnosis. We selected peptides using IgG purified from a pool comprised of 20 sera from animals naturally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. The diagnostic potential of these peptides was investigated by ELISA, Western blot and dot blot with purified IgG and serum samples. Based on the results, we chose a peptide mimetic for glycoprotein gp45 epitopes of equine infectious anemia virus, with potential for use as an antigen in indirect diagnostic assays. Synthesis of this peptide has possible applications for the development of new diagnostic tools for this disease.

  4. TREN (Tris(2-aminoethyl)amine): an effective scaffold for the assembly of triple helical collagen mimetic structures.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Juliann; De Capua, Antonia; Locardi, Elsa; Goodman, Murray

    2002-11-27

    A new scaffold, TREN-(suc-OH)(3) where TREN is tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and suc is the succinic acid spacers, was incorporated to assemble triple helices composed of Gly-Nleu-Pro sequences (Nleu denotes N-isobutylglycine). Extensive biophysical studies which include denaturation studies, CD and NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling demonstrated that TREN-[suc-(Gly-Nleu-Pro)(n)-NH(2)](3) (n = 5 and 6) form stable triple helical structures in solution. A comparative analysis of TREN-assembled and KTA-assembled collagen mimetics (KTA denotes Kemp triacid, 1,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) indicates that the flexibility of the TREN scaffold is superior to the KTA scaffold in inducing triple helicity. This effect most likely arises from the flexibility of the TREN scaffold which allows the three peptide chains to adjust their register for a tighter triple helical packing.

  5. Design and characterization of short antimicrobial peptides using leucine zipper templates with selectivity towards microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Azmi, Sarfuddin; Srivastava, Saurabh; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Jitendra Kumar; Mishra, Nripendra N; Shukla, Praveen K; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2014-11-01

    Design of antimicrobial peptides with selective activity towards microorganisms is an important step towards the development of new antimicrobial agents. Leucine zipper sequence has been implicated in cytotoxic activity of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides; moreover, this motif has been utilized for the design of novel antimicrobial peptides with modulated cytotoxicity. To understand further the impact of substitution of amino acids at 'a' and/or 'd' position of a leucine zipper sequence of an antimicrobial peptides on its antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties four short peptides (14-residue) were designed on the basis of a leucine zipper sequence without or with replacement of leucine residues in its 'a' and 'd' positions with D-leucine or alanine or proline residue. The original short leucine zipper peptide (SLZP) and its D-leucine substituted analog, DLSA showed comparable activity against the tested Gram-positive and negative bacteria and the fungal strains. The alanine substituted analog (ASA) though showed appreciable activity against the tested bacteria, it showed to some extent lower activity against the tested fungi. However, the proline substituted analog (PSA) showed lower activity against the tested bacterial or fungal strains. Interestingly, DLSA, ASA and PSA showed significantly lower cytotoxicity than SLZP against both human red blood cells (hRBCs) and murine 3T3 cells. Cytotoxic and bactericidal properties of these peptides matched with peptide-induced damage/permeabilization of mammalian cells and bacteria or their mimetic lipid vesicles suggesting cell membrane could be the target of these peptides. As evidenced by tryptophan fluorescence and acrylamide quenching studies the peptides showed similarities either in interaction or in their localization within the bacterial membrane mimetic negatively charged lipid vesicles. Only SLZP showed localization inside the mammalian membrane mimetic zwitterionic lipid vesicles. The results show

  6. Antagonism of scavenger receptor CD36 by 5A peptide prevents chronic kidney disease progression in mice independent of blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Carolina P; Bocharov, Alexander V; Baranova, Irina N; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G; Huang, Yuning G; Wilkins, Kenneth J; Hu, Xuzhen; Street, Jonathan M; Alvarez-Prats, Alejandro; Mullick, Adam E; Patterson, Amy P; Remaley, Alan T; Eggerman, Thomas L; Yuen, Peter S T; Star, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Scavenger receptor CD36 participates in lipid metabolism and inflammatory pathways important for cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few pharmacological agents are available to slow the progression of CKD. However, apolipoprotein A-I-mimetic peptide 5A antagonizes CD36 in vitro. To test the efficacy of 5A, and to test the role of CD36 during CKD, we compared wild-type to CD36 knockout mice and wild-type mice treated with 5A, in a progressive CKD model that resembles human disease. Knockout and 5A-treated wild-type mice were protected from CKD progression without changes in blood pressure and had reductions in cardiovascular risk surrogate markers that are associated with CKD. Treatment with 5A did not further protect CD36 knockout mice from CKD progression, implicating CD36 as its main site of action. In a separate model of kidney fibrosis, 5A-treated wild-type mice had less macrophage infiltration and interstitial fibrosis. Peptide 5A exerted anti-inflammatory effects in the kidney and decreased renal expression of inflammasome genes. Thus, CD36 is a new therapeutic target for CKD and its associated cardiovascular risk factors. Peptide 5A may be a promising new agent to slow CKD progression.

  7. Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic COG1410 Reduces Acute Vasogenic Edema following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Yue; Zhong, Jianjun; Liu, Jieshi; Qin, Xinghu; Chen, Ligang; Vitek, Michael P; Li, Fengqiao; Xu, Lu; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-15

    The degree of post-traumatic brain edema and dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) influences the neurofunctional outcome after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of apolipoprotein E-mimetic peptide COG1410 reduces the brain water content after subarachnoid hemorrhage, intra-cerebral hemorrhage, and focal brain ischemia. However, the effects of COG1410 on vasogenic edema following TBI are not known. The current study evaluated the effects of 1 mg/kg daily COG1410 versus saline administered intravenously after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury on BBB dysfunction and vasogenic edema at an acute stage in mice. The results demonstrated that treatment with COG1410 suppressed the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9, reduced the disruption of the BBB and Evans Blue dye extravasation, reduced the TBI lesion volume and vasogenic edema, and decreased the functional deficits compared with mice treated with vehicle, at an acute stage after CCI. These findings suggest that COG1410 is a promising preclinical therapeutic agent for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

  8. Apolipoprotein E-Mimetic COG1410 Reduces Acute Vasogenic Edema following Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fang; Wu, Yue; Zhong, Jianjun; Liu, Jieshi; Qin, Xinghu; Chen, Ligang; Vitek, Michael P.; Li, Fengqiao; Xu, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The degree of post-traumatic brain edema and dysfunction of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) influences the neurofunctional outcome after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of apolipoprotein E-mimetic peptide COG1410 reduces the brain water content after subarachnoid hemorrhage, intra-cerebral hemorrhage, and focal brain ischemia. However, the effects of COG1410 on vasogenic edema following TBI are not known. The current study evaluated the effects of 1 mg/kg daily COG1410 versus saline administered intravenously after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury on BBB dysfunction and vasogenic edema at an acute stage in mice. The results demonstrated that treatment with COG1410 suppressed the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9, reduced the disruption of the BBB and Evans Blue dye extravasation, reduced the TBI lesion volume and vasogenic edema, and decreased the functional deficits compared with mice treated with vehicle, at an acute stage after CCI. These findings suggest that COG1410 is a promising preclinical therapeutic agent for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. PMID:26192010

  9. Cell behavior on a CCN1 functionalized elastin-mimetic protein polymer

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Swathi; Haller, Carolyn A.; Sallach, Rory E.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2011-01-01

    We report the design of an elastin-mimetic triblock copolymer with the ability to guide endothelial cell adhesion, spreading, and migration while maintaining the elastomeric properties of the protein polymer. The V2 ligand sequence from matricellular protein CCN1 (cysteine-rich 61, CYR61) was multimerized and cloned into elastin polymer LysB10, creating LysB10.V2. Cell adhesion studies demonstrated that a LysB10.V2 surface density of at least 40 pmol/cm2 was required to elicit cell attachment. Peptide blocking studies confirmed V2 specific engagement with integrin receptor αvβ3 (P < 0.05) and we observed the formation of actin stress fiber networks and vinculin clustering, characteristic of focal adhesion assembly. Haptotatic migration assays demonstrated the ability of LysB10.V2 surfaces to stimulate migration of endothelial cells (P < 0.05). Significantly, we illustrated the ability of LysB10.V2 to support a quiescent endothelium. The CCN1 molecule functions to support many key biological processes necessary for tissue repair and thus presents a promising target for bioengineering applications. Collectively, our results demonstrate the potential to harness CCN1 specific function in the design of new scaffold materials for applications in regenerative medicine. PMID:22212194

  10. Bcl-2/MDM2 Dual Inhibitors Based on Universal Pyramid-Like α-Helical Mimetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ziqian; Song, Ting; Feng, Yingang; Guo, Zongwei; Fan, Yudan; Xu, Wenjie; Liu, Lu; Wang, Anhui; Zhang, Zhichao

    2016-04-14

    No α-helical mimetic that exhibits Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition has been rationally designed due to the different helicities of the α-helixes at their binding interfaces. Herein, we extracted a one-turn α-helix-mimicking ortho-triarene unit from o-phenylene foldamers. Linking benzamide substrates with a rotatable C-N bond, we constructed a novel semirigid pyramid-like scaffold that could support its two-turn α-helix mimicry without aromatic stacking interactions and could adopt the different dihedral angles of the key residues of p53 and BH3-only peptides. On the basis of this universal scaffold, a series of substituent groups were installed to capture the key residues of both p53TAD and BimBH3 and balance the differences of the bulks between them. Identified by FP, ITC, and NMR spectroscopy, a compound 6e (zq-1) that directly binds to Mcl-1, Bcl-2, and MDM2 with balanced submicromolar affinities was obtained. Cell-based experiments demonstrated its antitumor ability through Bcl-2/MDM2 dual inhibition simultaneously.

  11. Stable Incretin Mimetics Counter Rapid Deterioration of Bone Quality in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Sity Aishah; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Bouvard, Béatrice; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Irwin, Nigel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-12-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk for bone fractures. Although bone mass is reduced, bone quality is also dramatically altered in this disorder. However, recent evidences suggest a beneficial effect of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathways on bone quality. The aims of the present study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of bone strength at the organ and tissue level; and to ascertain whether enzyme resistant GIP or GLP-1 mimetic could be beneficial in preventing bone fragility in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-treated mice were used as a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated for 21 days with an enzymatic-resistant GIP peptide ([D-Ala(2) ]GIP) or with liraglutide (each at 25 nmol/kg bw, ip). Bone quality was assessed at the organ and tissue level by microCT, qXRI, 3-point bending, qBEI, nanoindentation, and Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. [D-Ala2]GIP and liraglutide treatment did prevent loss of whole bone strength and cortical microstructure in the STZ-injected mice. However, tissue material properties were significantly improved in STZ-injected animals following treatment with [D-Ala2]GIP or liraglutide. Treatment of STZ-diabetic mice with [D-Ala(2) ]GIP or liraglutide was capable of significantly preventing deterioration of the quality of the bone matrix. Further studies are required to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved and to validate whether these findings can be translated to human patients.

  12. α-Helix Mimetics as Modulators of Aβ Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Hamilton, Andrew D

    2017-04-26

    A key molecular species in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the Aβ42 alloform of Aβ peptide, which is dominant in the amyloid plaques deposited in the brains of AD patients. Recent studies have decisively demonstrated that the prefibrillar soluble oligomers are the neurotoxic culprits and are associated with the pathology of AD. Nascent Aβ42 is predominantly disordered but samples α-helical conformations covering residues 15-24 and 29-35 in the presence of micelles and structure-inducing solvents. In this report, a focused library of oligopyridylamide based α-helical mimetics was designed to target the central α-helix subdomain of Aβ (Aβ13-26). A tripyridylamide, ADH-41, was identified as one of the most potent antagonists of Aβ fibrillation. Amyloid-assembly kinetics, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) show that ADH-41 wholly suppresses the aggregation of Aβ at a substoichiometric dose. Dot blot and ELISA assays demonstrate the inhibition of the putative neurotoxic Aβ oligomers. ADH-41 targets Aβ in a sequence and structure-specific manner, as it did not have any effect on the aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), a peptide which shares sequence similarity with Aβ. Spectroscopic studies using NMR and CD confirm induction of α-helicity in Aβ mediated by ADH-41. Calorimetric and fluorescence titrations yielded binding affinity in the low micromolar range. ADH-41 was also effective at inhibiting the seed-catalyzed aggregation of Aβ probably by modulating the Aβ conformation into a fiber incompetent structure. Overall, we speculate that ADH-41 directs Aβ into off-pathway structures, and thereby alters various solution based functions of Aβ. Cell-based assays to assess the effect of ADH-41 on Aβ are underway and will be presented in due course.

  13. Phylogenetic codivergence supports coevolution of mimetic Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Cuthill, Jennifer Hoyal; Charleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The unpalatable and warning-patterned butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene provide the best studied example of mutualistic Müllerian mimicry, thought-but rarely demonstrated-to promote coevolution. Some of the strongest available evidence for coevolution comes from phylogenetic codivergence, the parallel divergence of ecologically associated lineages. Early evolutionary reconstructions suggested codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and this was initially hailed as one of the most striking known cases of coevolution. However, subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses found discrepancies in phylogenetic branching patterns and timing (topological and temporal incongruence) that argued against codivergence. We present the first explicit cophylogenetic test of codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and re-examine the timing of these radiations. We find statistically significant topological congruence between multilocus coalescent population phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene. Cophylogenetic historical reconstructions support repeated codivergence of mimetic populations, from the base of the sampled radiations. Pairwise distance correlation tests, based on our coalescent analyses plus recently published AFLP and wing colour pattern gene data, also suggest that the phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene show significant topological congruence. Divergence time estimates, based on a Bayesian coalescent model, suggest that the evolutionary radiations of H. erato and H. melpomene occurred over the same time period, and are compatible with a series of temporally congruent codivergence events. Our results suggest that differences in within-species genetic divergence are the result of a greater overall effective population size for H. erato relative to H. melpomene and do not imply incongruence in the timing of their phylogenetic radiations. Repeated codivergence between Müllerian co

  14. Phylogenetic Codivergence Supports Coevolution of Mimetic Heliconius Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer; Charleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The unpalatable and warning-patterned butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene provide the best studied example of mutualistic Müllerian mimicry, thought–but rarely demonstrated–to promote coevolution. Some of the strongest available evidence for coevolution comes from phylogenetic codivergence, the parallel divergence of ecologically associated lineages. Early evolutionary reconstructions suggested codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and this was initially hailed as one of the most striking known cases of coevolution. However, subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses found discrepancies in phylogenetic branching patterns and timing (topological and temporal incongruence) that argued against codivergence. We present the first explicit cophylogenetic test of codivergence between mimetic populations of H. erato and H. melpomene, and re-examine the timing of these radiations. We find statistically significant topological congruence between multilocus coalescent population phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene. Cophylogenetic historical reconstructions support repeated codivergence of mimetic populations, from the base of the sampled radiations. Pairwise distance correlation tests, based on our coalescent analyses plus recently published AFLP and wing colour pattern gene data, also suggest that the phylogenies of H. erato and H. melpomene show significant topological congruence. Divergence time estimates, based on a Bayesian coalescent model, suggest that the evolutionary radiations of H. erato and H. melpomene occurred over the same time period, and are compatible with a series of temporally congruent codivergence events. Our results suggest that differences in within-species genetic divergence are the result of a greater overall effective population size for H. erato relative to H. melpomene and do not imply incongruence in the timing of their phylogenetic radiations. Repeated codivergence between M

  15. The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Derived Peptide FGL Facilitates Long-Term Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallerac, Glenn; Zerwas, Meike; Novikova, Tatiana; Callu, Delphine; Leblanc-Veyrac, Pascale; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir; Rampon, Claire; Doyere, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is known to play a role in developmental and structural processes but also in synaptic plasticity and memory of the adult animal. Recently, FGL, a NCAM mimetic peptide that binds to the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR-1), has been shown to have a beneficial impact on normal memory functioning, as…

  16. The Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule-Derived Peptide FGL Facilitates Long-Term Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus in Vivo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallerac, Glenn; Zerwas, Meike; Novikova, Tatiana; Callu, Delphine; Leblanc-Veyrac, Pascale; Bock, Elisabeth; Berezin, Vladimir; Rampon, Claire; Doyere, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is known to play a role in developmental and structural processes but also in synaptic plasticity and memory of the adult animal. Recently, FGL, a NCAM mimetic peptide that binds to the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR-1), has been shown to have a beneficial impact on normal memory functioning, as…

  17. Reproductive isolation related to mimetic divergence in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob S; Summers, Kyle

    2014-08-27

    In a mimetic radiation--when a single species evolves to resemble different model species--mimicry can drive within-species morphological diversification, and, potentially, speciation. While mimetic radiations have occurred in a variety of taxa, their role in speciation remains poorly understood. We study the Peruvian poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a mimetic radiation into four distinct morphs. Using a combination of colour-pattern analysis, landscape genetics and mate-choice experiments, we show that a mimetic shift in R. imitator is associated with a narrow phenotypic transition zone, neutral genetic divergence and assortative mating, suggesting that divergent selection to resemble different model species has led to a breakdown in gene flow between these two populations. These results extend the effects of mimicry on speciation into a vertebrate system and characterize an early stage of speciation where reproductive isolation between mimetic morphs is incomplete but evident.

  18. Iron Oxide Nanozyme: A Multifunctional Enzyme Mimetic for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lizeng; Fan, Kelong; Yan, Xiyun

    2017-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles have been widely used in many important fields due to their excellent nanoscale physical properties, such as magnetism/superparamagnetism. They are usually assumed to be biologically inert in biomedical applications. However, iron oxide nanoparticles were recently found to also possess intrinsic enzyme-like activities, and are now regarded as novel enzyme mimetics. A special term, “Nanozyme”, has thus been coined to highlight the intrinsic enzymatic properties of such nanomaterials. Since then, iron oxide nanoparticles have been used as nanozymes to facilitate biomedical applications. In this review, we will introduce the enzymatic features of iron oxide nanozyme (IONzyme), and summarize its novel applications in biomedicine. PMID:28900505

  19. Microemulsions, micelles, and vesicles as media for membrane mimetic photochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1980-06-12

    Microemulsions, micelles, and vesicles are compared as media for membrane mimetic photochemistry. These systems solubilize, concentrate, compartmentalize, organize, and localize reactants; maintain proton and/or reactant gradients; alter quantum efficiencies; lower ionization potentials; change oxidation and reduction properties; change dissociation constants; affect vectorial electron displacements; alter photophysical pathways and rates; alter chemical pathways and rates; stabilize reactants, intermediates, and products; and separate products (charges). Formation of structures of microemulsions, micelles, and vesicles as well as substrate solubilization therein are summarized. Attention is focused on the utilization of microemulsions as reaction media. 72 references.

  20. Non-peptidyl insulin mimetics as a potential antidiabetic agent.

    PubMed

    Nankar, Rakesh P; Doble, Mukesh

    2013-08-01

    Insulin has an important role in the maintenance of blood sugar. It is the only available therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus and there is a dire need for an oral substitute. Different categories of compounds including mono and di substituted benzoquinones, vanadium based compounds and natural products have been reported to cause insulin-like effects either by increasing phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR) or inhibiting the protein tyrosine phosphatases. This review summarizes the development of various insulin mimetics with special emphasis on their structure-activity relationships and various biological actions they produce.

  1. Impact of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic AEOL 10150 on the Endothelin System of Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Devi; Kumarathasan, Prem; Thomson, Errol M.; St-Germain, Carly; Blais, Erica; Crapo, James; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic peptide involved in the regulation of vasomotor tone and maintenance of blood pressure. Oxidative stress activates the endothelin system, and is implicated in pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutase mimetics designed with the aim of treating diseases that involve reactive oxygen species in their pathophysiology may exert a hypotensive effect, but effects on the endothelin system are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effect of the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 on the basal endothelin system in vivo. Male Fischer-344 rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight of AEOL 10150 in saline. Plasma oxidative stress markers and endothelins (bigET-1, ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) as well as lung and heart endothelin/nitric oxide system gene expressions were measured using HPLC-Coularray, HPLC-Fluorescence and RT-PCR respectively. AEOL 10150 reduced (p<0.05) the circulating levels of isoprostane (-25%) and 3-nitrotyrosine (-50%) measured in plasma 2h and 24h after treatment, confirming delivery of a physiologically-relevant dose and the potent antioxidant activity of the drug. The reduction in markers of oxidative stress coincided with sustained 24h decrease (p<0.05) of plasma levels of ET-1 (-50%) and ET-3 (-10%). Expression of preproET-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 mRNA were not altered significantly in the lungs. However preproET-1 (not significant) and ECE-1 mRNA (p<0.05) were increased (10–25%) in the heart. Changes in the lungs included decrease (p<0.05) of mRNA for the ET-1 clearance receptor ETB and the vasoconstriction-signaling ETA receptor (-30%), and an early surge of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression followed by sustained decrease (-40% after 24 hours). The results indicate that interception of the endogenous physiological flux of reactive nitrogen species and reactive

  2. Stapled peptides: providing the best of both worlds in drug development.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiayang; Gao, Lixia; Shull, Austin Y; Teng, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Peptide-based drug discovery has experienced a remarkable resurgence within the past decade due to the emerging class of inhibitors known as stapled peptides. Stapled peptides are therapeutic protein mimetics that have been locked within a specific conformational structure by hydrocarbon stapling. These peptides are highly important in selectively impairing disease-relevant protein-protein interactions and exhibit significant pharmacokinetic advantages over other forms of therapeutics in terms of affinity, specificity, size, synthetic accessibility and resistance to proteolytic degradation. A series of stapled peptides are currently in development, and the potential successes of these peptides, either as single-agent treatments or as combinational treatments with other therapeutic modalities, could potentially change the landscape of protein therapeutic development. Here, we provide examples of successful discovery efforts to illustrate the research strategies of stapled peptides in drug design and development.

  3. B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) homology domain 3 (BH3) mimetics demonstrate differential activities dependent upon the functional repertoire of pro- and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins.

    PubMed

    Renault, Thibaud T; Elkholi, Rana; Bharti, Archana; Chipuk, Jerry E

    2014-09-19

    The B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) family is the key mediator of cellular sensitivity to apoptosis during pharmacological interventions for numerous human pathologies, including cancer. There is tremendous interest to understand how the proapoptotic BCL-2 effector members (e.g. BCL-2-associated X protein, BAX) cooperate with the BCL-2 homology domain only (BH3-only) subclass (e.g. BCL-2 interacting mediator of death, BIM; BCL-2 interacting-domain death agonist, BID) to induce mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) and apoptosis and whether these mechanisms may be pharmacologically exploited to enhance the killing of cancer cells. Indeed, small molecule inhibitors of the anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members have been designed rationally. However, the success of these "BH3 mimetics" in the clinic has been limited, likely due to an incomplete understanding of how these drugs function in the presence of multiple BCL-2 family members. To increase our mechanistic understanding of how BH3 mimetics cooperate with multiple BCL-2 family members in vitro, we directly compared the activity of several BH3-mimetic compounds (i.e. ABT-263, ABT-737, GX15-070, HA14.1, TW-37) in biochemically defined large unilamellar vesicle model systems that faithfully recapitulate BAX-dependent mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. Our investigations revealed that the presence of BAX, BID, and BIM differentially regulated the ability of BH3 mimetics to derepress proapoptotic molecules from anti-apoptotic proteins. Using mitochondria loaded with fluorescent BH3 peptides and cells treated with inducers of cell death, these differences were supported. Together, these data suggest that although the presence of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins primarily dictates cellular sensitivity to BH3 mimetics, additional specificity is conferred by proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Road to exercise mimetics: targeting nuclear receptors in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Fan, Weiwei; Atkins, Annette R; Yu, Ruth T; Downes, Michael; Evans, Ronald M

    2013-12-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body and is the major site for energy expenditure. It exhibits remarkable plasticity in response to physiological stimuli such as exercise. Physical exercise remodels skeletal muscle and enhances its capability to burn calories, which has been shown to be beneficial for many clinical conditions including the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Nuclear receptors (NRs) comprise a class of transcription factors found only in metazoans that regulate major biological processes such as reproduction, development, and metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated crucial roles for NRs and their co-regulators in the regulation of skeletal muscle energy metabolism and exercise-induced muscle remodeling. While nothing can fully replace exercise, development of exercise mimetics that enhance or even substitute for the beneficial effects of physical exercise would be of great benefit. The unique property of NRs that allows modulation by endogenous or synthetic ligands makes them bona fide therapeutic targets. In this review, we present an overview of the current understanding of the role of NRs and their co-regulators in skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and summarize recent progress in the development of exercise mimetics that target NRs and their co-regulators.

  5. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Nicholes, N.; Date, A.; Beaujean, P.; Hauk, P.; Kanwar, M.; Ostermeier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. PMID:26637825

  6. Insulino-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects of zinc.

    PubMed

    Vardatsikos, George; Pandey, Nihar R; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-03-01

    While it has long been known that zinc (Zn) is crucial for the proper growth and maintenance of normal biological functions, Zn has also been shown to exert insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects. These insulin-like properties have been demonstrated in isolated cells, tissues, and different animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Zn treatment has been found to improve carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rodent models of diabetes. In isolated cells, it enhances glucose transport, glycogen and lipid synthesis, and inhibits gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the insulin-like effects of Zn compounds involves the activation of several key components of the insulin signaling pathways, which include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B/Akt (PKB/Akt) pathways. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which Zn triggers the activation of these pathways remain to be clarified. In this review, we provide a brief history of zinc, and an overview of its insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic effects, as well as the potential mechanisms by which zinc exerts these effects.

  7. The mimetic repertoire of the spotted bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus maculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Laura A.; Healy, Susan D.

    2011-06-01

    Although vocal mimicry in songbirds is well documented, little is known about the function of such mimicry. One possibility is that the mimic produces the vocalisations of predatory or aggressive species to deter potential predators or competitors. Alternatively, these sounds may be learned in error as a result of their acoustic properties such as structural simplicity. We determined the mimetic repertoires of a population of male spotted bowerbirds Ptilonorhynchus maculatus, a species that mimics predatory and aggressive species. Although male mimetic repertoires contained an overabundance of vocalisations produced by species that were generally aggressive, there was also a marked prevalence of mimicry of sounds that are associated with alarm such as predator calls, alarm calls and mobbing calls, irrespective of whether the species being mimicked was aggressive or not. We propose that it may be the alarming context in which these sounds are first heard that may lead both to their acquisition and to their later reproduction. We suggest that enhanced learning capability during acute stress may explain vocal mimicry in many species that mimic sounds associated with alarm.

  8. Mimetic butterflies support Wallace's model of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2008-07-22

    Theoretical and empirical observations generally support Darwin's view that sexual dimorphism evolves due to sexual selection on, and deviation in, exaggerated male traits. Wallace presented a radical alternative, which is largely untested, that sexual dimorphism results from naturally selected deviation in protective female coloration. This leads to the prediction that deviation in female rather than male phenotype causes sexual dimorphism. Here I test Wallace's model of sexual dimorphism by tracing the evolutionary history of Batesian mimicry-an example of naturally selected protective coloration-on a molecular phylogeny of Papilio butterflies. I show that sexual dimorphism in Papilio is significantly correlated with both female-limited Batesian mimicry, where females are mimetic and males are non-mimetic, and with the deviation of female wing colour patterns from the ancestral patterns conserved in males. Thus, Wallace's model largely explains sexual dimorphism in Papilio. This finding, along with indirect support from recent studies on birds and lizards, suggests that Wallace's model may be more widely useful in explaining sexual dimorphism. These results also highlight the contribution of naturally selected female traits in driving phenotypic divergence between species, instead of merely facilitating the divergence in male sexual traits as described by Darwin's model.

  9. Chronic Wound Dressings Based on Collagen-Mimetic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cereceres, Stacy; Touchet, Tyler; Browning, Mary Beth; Smith, Clayton; Rivera, Jose; Höök, Magnus; Whitfield-Cargile, Canaan; Russell, Brooke; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic wounds are projected to reach epidemic proportions due to the aging population and the increasing incidence of diabetes. There is a strong clinical need for an improved wound dressing that can balance wound moisture, promote cell migration and proliferation, and degrade at an appropriate rate to minimize the need for dressing changes. Approach: To this end, we have developed a bioactive, hydrogel microsphere wound dressing that incorporates a collagen-mimetic protein, Scl2GFPGER, to promote active wound healing. A redesigned Scl2GFPGER, engineered collagen (eColGFPGER), was created to reduce steric hindrance of integrin-binding motifs and increase overall stability of the triple helical backbone, thereby resulting in increased cell adhesion to substrates. Results: This study demonstrates the successful modification of the Scl2GFPGER protein to eColGFPGER, which displayed enhanced stability and integrin interactions. Fabrication of hydrogel microspheres provided a matrix with adaptive moisture technology, and degradation rates have potential for use in human wounds. Innovation: This collagen-mimetic wound dressing was designed to permit controlled modulation of cellular interactions and degradation rate without impact on other physical properties. Its fabrication into uniform hydrogel microspheres provides a bioactive dressing that can readily conform to irregular wounds. Conclusion: Overall, this new eColGFPGER shows strong promise in the generation of bioactive hydrogels for wound healing as well as a variety of tissue scaffolds. PMID:26244101

  10. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic) or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic) to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation. PMID:21631947

  11. Modular protein switches derived from antibody mimetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Nicholes, N; Date, A; Beaujean, P; Hauk, P; Kanwar, M; Ostermeier, M

    2016-02-01

    Protein switches have potential applications as biosensors and selective protein therapeutics. Protein switches built by fusion of proteins with the prerequisite input and output functions are currently developed using an ad hoc process. A modular switch platform in which existing switches could be readily adapted to respond to any ligand would be advantageous. We investigated the feasibility of a modular protein switch platform based on fusions of the enzyme TEM-1 β-lactamase (BLA) with two different antibody mimetic proteins: designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) and monobodies. We created libraries of random insertions of the gene encoding BLA into genes encoding a DARPin or a monobody designed to bind maltose-binding protein (MBP). From these libraries, we used a genetic selection system for β-lactamase activity to identify genes that conferred MBP-dependent ampicillin resistance to Escherichia coli. Some of these selected genes encoded switch proteins whose enzymatic activity increased up to 14-fold in the presence of MBP. We next introduced mutations into the antibody mimetic domain of these switches that were known to cause binding to different ligands. To different degrees, introduction of the mutations resulted in switches with the desired specificity, illustrating the potential modularity of these platforms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Virtual screening using combinatorial cyclic peptide libraries reveals protein interfaces readily targetable by cyclic peptides.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Fergal J; O'Donovan, Darragh; Devocelle, Marc; Moran, Niamh; O'Connell, David J; Shields, Denis C

    2015-03-23

    Protein-protein and protein-peptide interactions are responsible for the vast majority of biological functions in vivo, but targeting these interactions with small molecules has historically been difficult. What is required are efficient combined computational and experimental screening methods to choose among a number of potential protein interfaces worthy of targeting lead macrocyclic compounds for further investigation. To achieve this, we have generated combinatorial 3D virtual libraries of short disulfide-bonded peptides and compared them to pharmacophore models of important protein-protein and protein-peptide structures, including short linear motifs (SLiMs), protein-binding peptides, and turn structures at protein-protein interfaces, built from 3D models available in the Protein Data Bank. We prepared a total of 372 reference pharmacophores, which were matched against 108,659 multiconformer cyclic peptides. After normalization to exclude nonspecific cyclic peptides, the top hits notably are enriched for mimetics of turn structures, including a turn at the interaction surface of human α thrombin, and also feature several protein-binding peptides. The top cyclic peptide hits also cover the critical "hot spot" interaction sites predicted from the interaction crystal structure. We have validated our method by testing cyclic peptides predicted to inhibit thrombin, a key protein in the blood coagulation pathway of important therapeutic interest, identifying a cyclic peptide inhibitor with lead-like activity. We conclude that protein interfaces most readily targetable by cyclic peptides and related macrocyclic drugs may be identified computationally among a set of candidate interfaces, accelerating the choice of interfaces against which lead compounds may be screened.

  13. Therapeutic potential of a peptide targeting BCL-2 cell guardians in cancer.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jerry M

    2012-06-01

    A promising approach to cancer therapy is to elicit apoptosis with "BH3 mimetic" drugs, which target proteins of the BCL-2 family. As of yet, however, such drugs can target only certain BCL-2 family proteins. Hence, in this issue of the JCI, LaBelle et al. assess instead the therapeutic potential of a "stapled" BH3 peptide from the BIM protein, which inactivates all its prosurvival relatives. The peptide killed cultured hematologic tumor cells and abated growth of a leukemia xenograft, without perturbing the hematopoietic compartment. Hence, such peptides might eventually provide a new way to treat refractory leukemias.

  14. Allylic Amines as Key Building Blocks in the Synthesis of (E)-Alkene Peptide Isosteres

    PubMed Central

    Skoda, Erin M.; Davis, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleophilic imine additions with vinyl organometallics have developed into efficient, high yielding, and robust methodologies to generate structurally diverse allylic amines. We have used the hydrozirconation-transmetalation-imine addition protocol in the synthesis of allylic amine intermediates for peptide bond isosteres, phosphatase inhibitors, and mitochondria-targeted peptide mimetics. The gramicidin S-derived XJB-5-131 and JP4-039 and their analogs have been prepared on up to 160 g scale for preclinical studies. These (E)-alkene peptide isosteres adopt type II′ β-turn secondary structures and display impressive biological properties, including selective reactions with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and prevention of apoptosis. PMID:22323894

  15. Single-spanning membrane protein insertion in membrane mimetic systems: role and localization of aromatic residues.

    PubMed

    Coïc, Yves-Marie; Vincent, Michel; Gallay, Jacques; Baleux, Françoise; Mousson, Florence; Beswick, Veronica; Neumann, Jean-Michel; de Foresta, Béatrice

    2005-12-01

    Membrane protein insertion in the lipid bilayer is determining for their activity and is governed by various factors such as specific sequence motifs or key amino-acids. A detailed fluorescence study of such factors is exemplified with PMP1, a small (38 residues) single-membrane span protein that regulates the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase in yeast and specifically interacts with phosphatidylserines. Such interactions may stabilize raft domains that have been shown to contain H(+)-ATPase. Previous NMR studies of various fragments have focused on the critical role of interfacial residues in the PMP1 structure and intermolecular interactions. The C-terminal domain contains a terminal Phe (F38), a single Trp (W28) and a single Tyr (Y25) that may act together to anchor the protein in the membrane. In order to describe the location and dynamics of W28 and the influence of Y25 on protein insertion within membrane, we carried out a detailed steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence study of the synthetic G13-F38 fragment and its Tyr-less mutant, Y25L in various membrane mimetic systems. Detergent micelles are conveniently used for this purpose. We used dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) in order to compare with and complement previous NMR results. In addition, dodecylmaltoside (DM) was used so that we could apply our recently described new quenching method by two brominated analogs of DM (de Foresta et al. 2002, Eur. Biophys. J. 31:185-97). In both systems, and in the presence and absence of Y25, W28 was shown to be located below but close to the polar headgroup region, as shown by its maximum emission wavelengths (lambda(max)), curves for the quenching of Trp by the brominated analogs of DM and bimolecular constants for quenching (k(q)) by acrylamide. Results were interpreted by comparison with calibration data obtained with fluorescent model peptides. Time-resolved anisotropy measurements were consistent with PMP1 fragment immobilization within peptide-detergent complexes. We

  16. Synthesis and Characterization of Elastin-Mimetic Hybrid Polymers with Multiblock, Alternating Molecular Architecture and Elastomeric Properties

    PubMed Central

    Grieshaber, Sarah E.; Farran, Alexandra J. E.; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Kiick, Kristi L.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2009-01-01

    We are interested in developing elastin–mimetic hybrid polymers (EMHPs) that capture the multiblock molecular architecture of tropoelastin as well as the remarkable elasticity of mature elastin. In this study, multiblock EMHPs containing flexible synthetic segments based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) alternating with alanine-rich, lysine-containing peptides were synthesized by step-growth polymerization using α,ω-azido-PEG and alkyne-terminated AKA3KA (K = lysine, A = alanine) peptide, employing orthogonal click chemistry. The resulting EMHPs contain an estimated three to five repeats of PEG and AKA3KA and have an average molecular weight of 34 kDa. While the peptide alone exhibited α-helical structures at high pH, the fractional helicity for EMHPs was reduced. Covalent cross-linking of EMHPs with hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) through the lysine residue in the peptide domain afforded an elastomeric hydrogel (xEMHP) with a compressive modulus of 0.12 MPa when hydrated. The mechanical properties of xEMHP are comparable to a commercial polyurethane elastomer (Tecoflex SG80A) under the same conditions. In vitro toxicity studies showed that while the soluble EMHPs inhibited the growth of primary porcine vocal fold fibroblasts (PVFFs) at concentrations ≥0.2 mg/mL, the cross-linked hybrid elastomers did not leach out any toxic reagents and allowed PVFFs to grow and proliferate normally. The hybrid and modular approach provides a new strategy for developing elastomeric scaffolds for tissue engineering. PMID:19763157

  17. Papain-catalyzed peptide bond formation: enzyme-specific activation with guanidinophenyl esters.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Roseri J A C; Zarzycka, Barbara; Amatdjais-Groenen, Helene I V; Jans, Sander C B; Nuijens, Timo; Quaedflieg, Peter J L M; van Delft, Floris L; Nabuurs, Sander B; Rutjes, Floris P J T

    2011-09-19

    The substrate mimetics approach is a versatile method for small-scale enzymatic peptide-bond synthesis in aqueous systems. The protease-recognized amino acid side chain is incorporated in an ester leaving group, the substrate mimetic. This shift of the specific moiety enables the acceptance of amino acids and peptide sequences that are normally not recognized by the enzyme. The guanidinophenyl group (OGp), a known substrate mimetic for the serine proteases trypsin and chymotrypsin, has now been applied for the first time in combination with papain, a cheap and commercially available cysteine protease. To provide insight in the binding mode of various Z-X(AA)-OGp esters, computational docking studies were performed. The results strongly point at enzyme-specific activation of the OGp esters in papain through a novel mode of action, rather than their functioning as mimetics. Furthermore, the scope of a model dipeptide synthesis was investigated with respect to both the amino acid donor and the nucleophile. Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to prioritize 22 natural and unnatural amino acid donors for synthesis. Experimental results correlate well with the predicted ranking and show that nearly all amino acids are accepted by papain.

  18. Membrane catalysis of peptide-receptor binding

    PubMed Central

    Langelaan, David N.; Rainey, Jan K.

    2011-01-01

    The membrane catalysis hypothesis states that a peptide ligand activates its target receptor after an initial interaction with the surrounding membrane. Upon membrane binding and interaction, the ligand is structured such that receptor binding and activation is encouraged. As evidence for this hypothesis, there are numerous studies concerning the conformation that peptides adopt in membrane mimetic environments. This mini-review analyzes the features of ligand peptides with available high-resolution membrane-induced structure and a characterized membrane-binding region. At the peptide-membrane interface, both amphipathic helices and turn structures are commonly formed in peptide ligands and both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions can be responsible for membrane binding. Apelin is the ligand to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) named APJ, with various important physiological effects, which we have recently characterized both in solution and bound to anionic micelles. The structural changes that apelin undergoes when binding to micelles provide strong evidence for membrane catalysis of apelin-APJ interactions. PMID:20453923

  19. Modification of biomaterials surface by mimetic cell membrane to improve biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Tan, Guo-Xin; Ning, Cheng-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Modification of biomaterials surface by mimetic cell membrane for improving biocompatibility, to imitate the excellent biological and physiological properties of the natural cell membrane, is an important research area in materials science. Numerous studies have been attempted to construct a mimetic cell membrane biointerface composed of phosphorylcholine (PC)-containing polymers or other phospholipid analogues on biomaterials surface. PC-containing biointerfaces show outstanding characteristics, especially in biological aspects such as blood compatibility and antifouling property. In this mini-review, the strategies of membrane mimetic modification of biomaterials and their antifouling applications are summarized.

  20. Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin when used in conjunction with incretin-mimetic therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, G; Matthews, D R; Perkovic, V; de Zeeuw, D; Mahaffey, K W; Mathieu, C; Woo, V; Wysham, C; Capuano, G; Desai, M; Shaw, W; Vercruysse, F; Meininger, G; Neal, B

    2016-01-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) who were on an incretin mimetic [dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor or glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist]. CANVAS is a double-blind, placebo-controlled study that randomized participants to canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to routine therapy. The present post hoc analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg compared with placebo in subsets of patients from CANVAS who were taking background DPP-4 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists with or without other antihyperglycaemic agents at week 18. Of the 4330 patients in CANVAS, 316 were taking DPP-4 inhibitors and 95 were taking GLP-1 receptor agonists. At 18 weeks, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided larger placebo-subtracted reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients taking DPP-4 inhibitors [-0.56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.77, -0.35), and -0.75% (95% CI: -0.95, -0.54), respectively] and GLP-1 receptor agonists [-1.00% (95% CI: -1.35, -0.65), and -1.06% (95% CI: -1.43, -0.69), respectively]. Body weight and blood pressure (BP) reductions were seen with canagliflozin versus placebo in both subsets. Higher incidences of genital mycotic infections and osmotic diuresis-related adverse events (AEs) were seen with canagliflozin compared with placebo. The incidence of hypoglycaemia was numerically higher with canagliflozin versus placebo; nearly all events occurred in patients on background insulin or insulin secretagogues. In patients on background incretin mimetics, canagliflozin improved HbA1c, body weight and BP, with an increased incidence of AEs related to SGLT2 inhibition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Bim-BH3 mimetic therapy is effective at suppressing inflammatory arthritis through the activation of myeloid cell apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Scatizzi, John C.; Hutcheson, Jack; Pope, Richard M.; Firestein, Gary S.; Koch, Alisa E.; Mavers, Melissa; Smason, Avraham; Agrawal, Hemant; Haines, G. Kenneth; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Perlman, Harris

    2010-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a destructive autoimmune disease characterized by an increased inflammation in the joint. Therapies which activate the apoptotic cascade may have potential as a future therapy for RA, however few therapeutics fit this category. Recently, therapies that mimic the action of Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain-only proteins such as Bim have shown success in preclinical studies of cancer but their potential in autoimmune disease is unknown. Methods Synovial tissue from RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patients were analyzed for expression of Bim and CD68 using immunohistochemistry. Macrophages from mice lacking (Bim−/−) were examined for response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using flow cytometry, real time PCR, ELISA, and immunoblot analysis. Bim−/− mice were stimulated with thioglycollate or LPS and examined for macrophage activation and cytokine production. Experimental arthritis was induced using the K/BxN serum-transfer model. A mimetic peptide corresponding to the BH3 domain of Bim (TAT-BH3) was administered as a prophylactic and as a therapeutic. Edema of the ankles and histopathogical analysis of ankle sections were used to determine severity of arthritis, cellular composition, and apoptosis. Results The expression of Bim was reduced in RA synovial tissue as compared to controls, particularly in macrophages. Bim−/− macrophages displayed elevated expression of markers of inflammation and secreted more IL-1β following stimulation with LPS or thioglycollate. TAT-BH3 ameliorated arthritis development, reduced the number of myeloid cells in the joint, and enhanced apoptosis without inducing cytotoxicity. Conclusion These data demonstrate that BH3 mimetic therapy may have significant potential for RA treatment. PMID:20112357

  2. Structural Characterization of an LPA1 Second Extracellular Loop Mimetic with a Self-Assembling Coiled-Coil Folding Constraint.

    PubMed

    Young, John K; Clayton, Benjamin T; Kikonyogo, Alexandra; Pham, Truc-Chi T; Parrill, Abby L

    2013-01-29

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures are of interest as a means to understand biological signal transduction and as tools for therapeutic discovery. The growing number of GPCR crystal structures demonstrates that the extracellular loops (EL) connecting the membrane-spanning helices show tremendous structural variability relative to the more structurally-conserved seven transmembrane α-helical domains. The EL of the LPA(1) receptor have not yet been conclusively resolved, and bear limited sequence identity to known structures. This study involved development of a peptide to characterize the intrinsic structure of the LPA(1) GPCR second EL. The loop was embedded between two helices that assemble into a coiled-coil, which served as a receptor-mimetic folding constraint (LPA(1)-CC-EL2 peptide). The ensemble of structures from multi-dimensional NMR experiments demonstrated that a robust coiled-coil formed without noticeable deformation due to the EL2 sequence. In contrast, the EL2 sequence showed well-defined structure only near its C-terminal residues. The NMR ensemble was combined with a computational model of the LPA(1) receptor that had previously been validated. The resulting hybrid models were evaluated using docking. Nine different hybrid models interacted with LPA 18:1 as expected, based on prior mutagenesis studies, and one was additionally consistent with antagonist affinity trends.

  3. Universal Surface-initiated Polymerization of Antifouling Zwitterionic Brushes Using A Mussel-Mimetic Peptide Initiator

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinghao; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    We report a universal method for the surface-initated polymerization (SIP) of a antifouling polymer brush on various classes of surfaces, including noble metals, metal oxides and inert polymers. Inspired by the versatility of mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized a novel bifunctional tripeptide bromide (BrYKY) which combines an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating alkyl bromide with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and lysine. Simple dip-coating of substrates with variable wetting properties and compositions, including Teflon®, in a BrYKY solution at pH 8.5 led to formation of a thin film of cross-linked BrYKY. Subsequently, we showed that the BrYKY layer initiated the ATRP of a zwitterionic monomer, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) on all substrates, resulting in high density antifouling pSBMA brushes. Both BrYKY deposition and pSBMA grafting were unambiguously confirmed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and goniometry. All substrates that were coated with BrYKY/pSBMA dramatically reduced bacterial adhesion for 24 h and also resisted mammalian cell adhesion for at least 4 months, demonstrating the long-term stability of the BrYKY anchoring and antifouling properties of pSBMA. The use of BrYKY as a primer and polymerization initiator has the potential to be widely employed in surface grafted polymer brush modifications for biomedical and other applications. PMID:22506651

  4. Improved Oxidase Mimetic Activity by Praseodymium Incorporation into Ceria Nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Fernandez-Garcia, Susana; Tinoco, Miguel; Yan, Zhaoxia; Xue, Qi; Blanco, Ginesa; Calvino, Jose J; Hungria, Ana B; Chen, Xiaowei

    2017-06-07

    Ceria nanocubes (NC) modified with increasing concentrations of praseodymium (5, 10, 15, and 20 mol %) have been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The as-synthesized Pr-modified ceria nanocubes exhibit an enhanced oxidase-like activity on the organic dye TMB within a wide range of concentrations and durations. The oxidase activity increases with increasing Pr amounts in Pr-modified ceria nanocubes within the investigated concentration range. Meanwhile, these Pr-modified ceria nanocubes also show higher reducibility than pure ceria nanocubes. The kinetics of their oxidase mimetic activity is fitted with the Michaelis-Menten equation. A mechanism has been proposed on how the Pr incorporation could affect the energy level of the bands in ceria and hence facilitate the TMB oxidation reaction. The presence of Pr(3+) species on the surface also contributes to the increasing activity of the Pr-modified ceria nanocubes present higher oxidase activity than pure ceria nanocubes.

  5. Resveratrol as a calorie restriction mimetic: therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jay H.; Manganiello, Vincent; Dyck, Jason R.B.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely believed that calorie restriction (CR) can extend the lifespan of model organisms and protect against aging-related diseases. A potential CR mimetic is resveratrol, which may have beneficial effects against numerous diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer in tissue culture and animal models. However, resveratrol in its current form is not ideal as therapy, because even at very high doses it has modest efficacy and many downstream effects. Identifying the cellular targets responsible for the effects of resveratrol and developing target-specific therapies will be helpful in increasing the efficacy of this drug without increasing its potential adverse effects. A recent discovery suggests that the metabolic effects of resveratrol may be mediated by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs), particularly PDE4. Here, we review the current literature on the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of resveratrol and attempt to shed light on the controversies surrounding its action. PMID:22885100

  6. A multilevel multiscale mimetic method for an anisotropic infiltration problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Moulton, David; Svyatskiy, Daniil

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed to simulate two-phase flow in porous media. The M{sup 3} method is locally mass conserving at all levels in its hierarchy, it supports unstructured polygonal grids and full tensor permeabilities, and it can achieve large coarsening factors. In this work we consider infiltration of water into a two-dimensional layered medium. The grid is aligned with the layers but not the coordinate axes. We demonstrate that with an efficient temporal updating strategy for the coarsening parameters, fine-scale accuracy of prominent features in the flow is maintained by the M{sup 3} method.

  7. Taking toll: lipid A mimetics as adjuvants and immunomodulators.

    PubMed

    Persing, David H; Coler, Rhea N; Lacy, Michael J; Johnson, David A; Baldridge, Jory R; Hershberg, Robert M; Reed, Steven G

    2002-01-01

    Vaccine adjuvants based on the structure of lipid A, such as monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA), have proven to be safe and effective in inducing immune responses to heterologous proteins in animal and human vaccines. Recent work on the development of a recombinant vaccine for leishmaniasis has demonstrated that a clinical grade MLA formulation - MPL(R) adjuvant - is essential in the development of a protective response. Preliminary evidence suggests that MLA and a chemically distinct family of lipid A mimetics - the aminoalkyl glucosaminide 4-phosphates - act on Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). As TLR4 agonists, they have potent immunomodulatory effects when used both as vaccine adjuvants and as stand-alone products. Novel approaches to vaccine development could benefit from taking full advantage of the effects of these compounds on innate and adaptive responses.

  8. Inflamed leukocyte-mimetic nanoparticles for molecular imaging of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyue; Wong, Richard; Khalidov, Ildar; Wang, Andrew Y; Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Wang, Yi; Jin, Moonsoo M

    2011-10-01

    Dysregulated host inflammatory response causes many diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and sepsis. Sensitive detection of the site of inflammation will, therefore, produce a wide-ranging impact on disease diagnosis and treatment. We hypothesized that nanoprobes designed to mimic the molecular interactions occurring between inflamed leukocytes and endothelium may possess selectivity toward diverse host inflammatory responses. To incorporate inflammation-sensitive molecular interactions, super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were conjugated with integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 I domain, engineered to mimic activated leukocytes in physiology. Whole body optical and magnetic resonance imaging in vivo revealed that leukocyte-mimetic nanoparticles localized preferentially to the vasculature within and in the invasive front of the tumor, as well as to the site of acute inflammation. This study explored in vivo detection of tumor-associated vasculature with systemically injected inflammation-specific nanoparticles, presenting a possibility of tumor detection by inflamed tumor microenvironment.

  9. New diketone based vanadium complexes as insulin mimetics.

    PubMed

    Sheela, A; Roopan, S Mohana; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2008-10-01

    Since 1985, when Heyliger et al. first reported the in vivo insulin mimetic activity of oral vanadate, extensive studies exploring vanadium chemistry, including the synthesis of novel complexes and their biological effects both in vitro and in vivo have been pursued. Such complexes have emerged as possible potential agents for diabetes therapy. Among the several existing compounds, diketone based vanadium complexes have been chosen for the current study. Two new complexes namely bisdimethylmalonatooxovanadium(IV) and bisdiethylmalonatooxovanadium(IV) have been synthesized and characterized by UV-visible, FTIR and mass spectral studies. The antidiabetic activity of the complexes was proved by animal study. The results show that the above complexes have comparable antidiabetic potential with respect to the standard drug as well as with bisacetylacetonatooxovanadium(IV) which has been studied earlier by Reul et al.

  10. Towards protein-based viral mimetics for cancer therapies.

    PubMed

    Unzueta, Ugutz; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Vázquez, Esther; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Mangues, Ramón; Villaverde, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    High resistance and recurrence rates, together with elevated drug clearance, compel the use of maximum-tolerated drug doses in cancer therapy, resulting in high-grade toxicities and limited clinical applicability. Promoting active drug accumulation in tumor tissues would minimize such issues and improve therapeutic outcomes. A new class of therapeutic drugs suitable for the task has emerged based on the concept of virus-mimetic nanocarriers, or 'artificial viruses'. Among the spectrum of materials under exploration in nanocarrier research, proteins offer unparalleled structural and functional versatility for designing virus-like molecular vehicles. By exhibiting 'smart' functions and biomimetic traits, protein-based nanocarriers will be a step ahead of the conventional drug-protein conjugates already in the clinic in ensuring efficient delivery of passenger antitumor drugs.

  11. Genes controlling mimetic colour pattern variation in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Nicola J

    2016-10-01

    Butterfly wing patterns are made up of arrays of coloured scales. There are two genera in which within-species variation in wing patterning is common and has been investigated at the molecular level, Heliconius and Papilio. Both of these species have mimetic relationships with other butterfly species that increase their protection from predators. Heliconius have a 'tool-kit' of five genetic loci that control colour pattern, three of which have been identified at the gene level, and which have been repeatedly used to modify colour pattern by different species in the genus. By contrast, the three Papilio species that have been investigated each have different genetic mechanisms controlling their polymorphic wing patterns.

  12. Ancient homology underlies adaptive mimetic diversity across butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Jason R.; Imhoff, Vance E.; Martin, Arnaud; Savage, Wesley K.; Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Pote, Ben L.; Peterson, Chelsea; Smith, Gabriella E.; Evans, Benjamin; Reed, Robert D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Convergent evolution provides a rare, natural experiment with which to test the predictability of adaptation at the molecular level. Little is known about the molecular basis of convergence over macro-evolutionary timescales. Here we use a combination of positional cloning, population genomic resequencing, association mapping and developmental data to demonstrate that positionally orthologous nucleotide variants in the upstream region of the same gene, WntA, are responsible for parallel mimetic variation in two butterfly lineages that diverged >65 million years ago. Furthermore, characterization of spatial patterns of WntA expression during development suggests that alternative regulatory mechanisms underlie wing pattern variation in each system. Taken together, our results reveal a strikingly predictable molecular basis for phenotypic convergence over deep evolutionary time. PMID:25198507

  13. Ionic supramolecular bonds preserve mechanical properties and enable synergetic performance at high humidity in water-borne, self-assembled nacre-mimetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Paramita; Walther, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Although tremendous effort has been focused on enhancing the mechanical properties of nacre-mimetic materials, conservation of high stiffness and strength against hydration-induced decay of mechanical properties at high humidity remains a fundamental challenge in such water-borne high-performance materials. Herein, we demonstrate that ionic supramolecular bonds, introduced by infiltration of divalent Cu2+ ions, allow efficient stabilization of the mechanical properties of self-assembled water-borne nacre-mimetics based on sustainable sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na+CMC) and natural sodium montmorillonite nanoclay (Na+MTM) against high humidity (95% RH). The mechanical properties in the highly hydrated state (Young's modulus up to 13.5 GPa and tensile strength up to 125 MPa) are in fact comparable to a range of non-crosslinked nacre-mimetic materials in the dry state. Moreover, the Cu2+-treated nacre-inspired materials display synergetic mechanical properties as found in a simultaneous improvement of stiffness, strength and toughness, as compared to the pristine material. Significant inelastic deformation takes place considering the highly reinforced state. This contrasts the typical behaviour of tight, covalent crosslinks and is suggested to originate from a sacrificial, dynamic breakage and rebinding of transient supramolecular ionic bonds. Considering easy access to a large range of ionic interactions and alteration of counter-ion charge via external stimuli, we foresee responsive and adaptive mechanical properties in highly reinforced and stiff bio-inspired bulk nanocomposites and in other bio-inspired materials, e.g. nanocellulose papers and peptide-based materials.Although tremendous effort has been focused on enhancing the mechanical properties of nacre-mimetic materials, conservation of high stiffness and strength against hydration-induced decay of mechanical properties at high humidity remains a fundamental challenge in such water-borne high

  14. Type I Collagen and Collagen Mimetics as Angiogenesis Promoting Superpolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Twardowski, T.; Fertala, A.; Orgel, J.P.R.O.; San Antonio, J.D.

    2008-07-18

    Angiogenesis, the development of blood vessels from the pre-existing vasculature, is a key component of embryogenesis and tissue regeneration. Angiogenesis also drives pathologies such as tumor growth and metastasis, and hemangioma development in newborns. On the other hand, promotion of angiogenesis is needed in tissues with vascular insufficiencies, and in bioengineering, to endow tissue substitutes with appropriate microvasculatures. Therefore, much research has focused on defining mechanisms of angiogenesis, and identifying pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules. Type I collagen, the most abundant protein in humans, potently stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Crucial to its angiogenic activity appears to be ligation and possibly clustering of endothelial cell (EC) surface {alpha}1{beta}1/{alpha}2{beta}1 integrin receptors by the GFPGER502-507 sequence of the collagen fibril. However, additional aspects of collagen structure and function that may modulate its angiogenic properties are discussed. Moreover, type I collagen and fibrin, another angiogenic polymer, share several structural features. These observations suggest strategies for creating 'angiogenic superpolymers', including: modifying type I collagen to influence its biological half-life, immunogenicity, and integrin binding capacity; genetically engineering fibrillar collagens to include additional integrin binding sites or angiogenic determinants, and remove unnecessary or deleterious sequences without compromising fibril integrity; and exploring the suitability of poly(ortho ester), PEG-lysine copolymer, tubulin, and cholesteric cuticle as collagen mimetics, and suggesting means of modifying them to display ideal angiogenic properties. The collagenous and collagen mimetic angiogenic superpolymers described here may someday prove useful for many applications in tissue engineering and human medicine.

  15. Possible interaction of quinolone antibiotics with peptide transporter 1 in oral absorption of peptide-mimetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kamioka, Hiroki; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Hatano, Yasuko; Idota, Yoko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated whether quinolone antibiotics inhibit the PEPT1-mediated uptake of its substrates. Among the quinolones examined, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and purlifloxacin significantly inhibited the uptake of PEPT1 substrate phenylalanine-Ψ(CN-S)-alanine (Phe-Ψ-Ala) in HeLa/PEPT1 cells to 31.6 ± 1.3%, 27.6 ± 2.9%, 36.8 ± 2.2% and 32.6 ± 1.4%, respectively. Further examination showed that MFLX was an uncompetitive inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 4.29 ± 1.29 mm. In addition, MFLX significantly decreased the cephalexin and valacyclovir uptake in HeLa/PEPT1 cells. In an in vivo study in rats, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of orally administered Phe-Ψ-Ala was significantly decreased in the presence of MFLX (171 ± 1 ng/ml) compared with that in its absence (244 ± 9 ng/ml). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of orally administered Phe-Ψ-Ala in the presence of MFLX (338 ± 50 ng/ml · h) tended to decrease compared with that in its absence (399 ± 75 ng/ml · h). The oral bioavailability of Phe-Ψ-Ala in the presence and absence of MFLX was 41.7 ± 6.2% and 49.2 ± 9.2%, respectively. The results indicate that administration of quinolone antibiotics concomitantly with PEPT1 substrate drugs may potentially result in drug-drug interaction.

  16. Peptide environment specifies conformation. Helicity of hydrophobic segments compared in aqueous, organic, and membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Li, S C; Deber, C M

    1993-11-05

    Transmembrane segments in integral membrane proteins exist characteristically as helices in lipid bilayers, yet are often rich in residues considered helix-destabilizing (Val, Ile, Gly) in soluble proteins. We propose that helicity of a transmembrane segment is likely to be affected by factors other than the "intrinsic" helical propensities of its component amino acids. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the conformation(s) in aqueous, organic, membrane-mimetic (micellar), and membrane (bilayer) environments of designed model peptides with systematically altered helical propensity and/or segmental hydrophobicity. Peptides of prototypic sequence NH2-(Ser-Lys)2-Ala5-Leu6-Ala7-Ala8-Leu9-Ala10-++ +Trp11-Ala12-Leu13-Ala14- (Lys-Ser)3-OH were synthesized, which incorporate a hydrophobic core "guest" segment (residues 5-14) into a water-soluble hydrophilic host matrix. Related peptides featured substitution of Leu6,9,13-->Gly, Leu6,9,13-->Ala, and Ala7,10,14-->Gly. Circular dichroism spectra revealed that algorithms for soluble proteins correctly predicted peptide helical proclivities in aqueous solutions, but peptide helicity in organic (trifluoroethanol) solvents, membrane-mimetic SDS micelles, and negatively charged lipid bilayer vesicles, was found to be governed almost exclusively by the segmental hydrophobicity of the peptide mid-hydrophobic core segment. In related Trp fluorescence studies, peptide-membrane association was similarly correlated with extent of hydrophobic interaction.

  17. Female preferences drive the evolution of mimetic accuracy in male sexual displays.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Seth William; Patricelli, Gail Lisa; Coyle, Brian; Siani, Jennifer; Borgia, Gerald

    2007-10-22

    Males in many bird species mimic the vocalizations of other species during sexual displays, but the evolutionary and functional significance of interspecific vocal mimicry is unclear. Here we use spectrographic cross-correlation to compare mimetic calls produced by male satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus) in courtship with calls from several model species. We show that the accuracy of vocal mimicry and the number of model species mimicked are both independently related to male mating success. Multivariate analyses revealed that these mimetic traits were better predictors of male mating success than other male display traits previously shown to be important for male mating success. We suggest that preference-driven mimetic accuracy may be a widespread occurrence, and that mimetic accuracy may provide females with important information about male quality. Our findings support an alternative hypothesis to help explain a common element of male sexual displays.

  18. Design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of ShK toxin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baell, Jonathan B.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Norton, Raymond S.

    2002-04-01

    ShK toxin is a structurally defined, 35-residue polypeptide which blocks the voltage-gated Kv1.3 potassium channel in T-lymphocytes and has been identified as a possible immunosuppressant. Our interest lies in the rational design and synthesis of type-III mimetics of protein and polypeptide structure and function. ShK toxin is a challenging target for mimetic design as its binding epitope consists of relatively weakly binding residues, some of which are discontinuous. We discuss here our investigations into the design and synthesis of 1st generation, small molecule mimetics of ShK toxin and highlight any principles relevant to the generic design of type-III mimetics of continuous and discontinuous binding epitopes. We complement our approach with attempted pharmacophore-based database mining.

  19. The Benefits of Calorie Restriction and Calorie Restriction Mimetics as Related to the Eye

    PubMed Central

    Anekonda, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of calorie restriction without malnutrition seem to possess many beneficial effects in numerous disease states. Recently, studies related to calorie restriction mimetics that biochemically mimic the effects of calorie restriction are also becoming increasingly popular. Both calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics trigger an adaptive response reminiscent of mild-stress or low-dose toxic response, which is frequently referred to as hormesis in the toxicology literature. Although some benefits of calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics have been studied, the role of hormesis-related pathways in the eye has not been given a special attention. This review will present the current literature on calorie restriction and calorie restriction mimetics as related to most prominent eye diseases and provide insights on the therapeutic role of hormesis in eye diseases. PMID:20844606

  20. A non-linear constrained optimization technique for the mimetic finite difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Manzini, Gianmarco; Svyatskiy, Daniil; Bertolazzi, Enrico; Frego, Marco

    2014-09-30

    This is a strategy for the construction of monotone schemes in the framework of the mimetic finite difference method for the approximation of diffusion problems on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes.

  1. Photochemical solar energy conversion utilizing semiconductors localized in membrane-mimetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1991-08-31

    Extending the frontiers of colloidal photochemistry and colloidal electrochemistry to solar photochemistry research had been the main objective of this research. More specific objectives of this proposal include the examination of semiconductor-particle-mediated photoelectron transfer and photoelectric effects in different membrane mimetic systems. Emphasis had been placed on developing bilayer lipid membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett films as new membrane-mimetic systems, as well as on the characterization and utilization of these systems.

  2. How sound symbolism is processed in the brain: a study on Japanese mimetic words.

    PubMed

    Kanero, Junko; Imai, Mutsumi; Okuda, Jiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the systematic and non-arbitrary link between word and meaning. Although a number of behavioral studies demonstrate that both children and adults are universally sensitive to sound symbolism in mimetic words, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been extensively investigated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how Japanese mimetic words are processed in the brain. In Experiment 1, we compared processing for motion mimetic words with that for non-sound symbolic motion verbs and adverbs. Mimetic words uniquely activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). In Experiment 2, we further examined the generalizability of the findings from Experiment 1 by testing another domain: shape mimetics. Our results show that the right posterior STS was active when subjects processed both motion and shape mimetic words, thus suggesting that this area may be the primary structure for processing sound symbolism. Increased activity in the right posterior STS may also reflect how sound symbolic words function as both linguistic and non-linguistic iconic symbols.

  3. How Sound Symbolism Is Processed in the Brain: A Study on Japanese Mimetic Words

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Jiro; Okada, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the systematic and non-arbitrary link between word and meaning. Although a number of behavioral studies demonstrate that both children and adults are universally sensitive to sound symbolism in mimetic words, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been extensively investigated. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how Japanese mimetic words are processed in the brain. In Experiment 1, we compared processing for motion mimetic words with that for non-sound symbolic motion verbs and adverbs. Mimetic words uniquely activated the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). In Experiment 2, we further examined the generalizability of the findings from Experiment 1 by testing another domain: shape mimetics. Our results show that the right posterior STS was active when subjects processed both motion and shape mimetic words, thus suggesting that this area may be the primary structure for processing sound symbolism. Increased activity in the right posterior STS may also reflect how sound symbolic words function as both linguistic and non-linguistic iconic symbols. PMID:24840874

  4. Mimetic Divergence and the Speciation Continuum in the Mimic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob S; Venegas, Pablo J; Summers, Kyle

    2016-02-01

    While divergent ecological adaptation can drive speciation, understanding the factors that facilitate or constrain this process remains a major goal in speciation research. Here, we study two mimetic transition zones in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a Müllerian mimetic radiation to establish four morphs in Peru. We find that mimetic morphs are strongly phenotypically differentiated, producing geographic clines with varying widths. However, distinct morphs show little neutral genetic divergence, and landscape genetic analyses implicate isolation by distance as the primary determinant of among-population genetic differentiation. Mate choice experiments suggest random mating at the transition zones, although certain allopatric populations show a preference for their own morph. We present evidence that this preference may be mediated by color pattern specifically. These results contrast with an earlier study of a third transition zone, in which a mimetic shift was associated with reproductive isolation. Overall, our results suggest that the three known mimetic transition zones in R. imitator reflect a speciation continuum, which we have characterized at the geographic, phenotypic, behavioral, and genetic levels. We discuss possible explanations for variable progress toward speciation, suggesting that multifarious selection on both mimetic color pattern and body size may be responsible for generating reproductive isolation.

  5. Bioactive Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Eric Banan-Mwine; Oh, Deog H.; Lee, Byong H.

    2017-01-01

    The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development. PMID:28445415

  6. Bioactive Peptides.

    PubMed

    Daliri, Eric Banan-Mwine; Oh, Deog H; Lee, Byong H

    2017-04-26

    The increased consumer awareness of the health promoting effects of functional foods and nutraceuticals is the driving force of the functional food and nutraceutical market. Bioactive peptides are known for their high tissue affinity, specificity and efficiency in promoting health. For this reason, the search for food-derived bioactive peptides has increased exponentially. Over the years, many potential bioactive peptides from food have been documented; yet, obstacles such as the need to establish optimal conditions for industrial scale production and the absence of well-designed clinical trials to provide robust evidence for proving health claims continue to exist. Other important factors such as the possibility of allergenicity, cytotoxicity and the stability of the peptides during gastrointestinal digestion would need to be addressed. This review discusses our current knowledge on the health effects of food-derived bioactive peptides, their processing methods and challenges in their development.

  7. 3-Substituted Indazoles as Configurationally Locked 4EGI-1 Mimetic and Inhibitors of eIF4E/eIF4G Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Yefidoff-Freedman, Revital; Chen, Ting; Sahoo, Rupam; Chen, Limo; Wagner, Gerhard; Halperin, Jose A.; Aktas, Bertal H.; Chorev, Michael

    2014-01-01

    4EGI-1, the prototypic inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction, was identified in a high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries using a fluorescence polarization assay that measures inhibition of binding of an eIF4G-derived peptide to recombinant eIF4E. As such, the molecular probe 4EGI-1 holds a potential for studying molecular mechanisms involved in human disorders characterized by loss of physiologic restrains on translation initiation. A hit-to-lead optimization campaign was carried out to overcome the liability of the configurational instability in 4EGI-1, which stems from the (E)-to-(Z) isomerization of the hydrazone function. We identified compound 1a, in which the labile hydrazone was incorporated into a rigid indazole scaffold as a promising rigidified 4EGI-1 mimetic lead. In a structure-activity relationship study aimed at probing the structural latitude of this new chemotype as an inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and translation initiation we identified 1d, an indazole-based 4EGI-1 mimetic, as a new and improved lead inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and a promising molecular probe candidate for elucidating the role of cap-dependent translation initiation in a host of pathophysiological states. PMID:24458973

  8. 3-substituted indazoles as configurationally locked 4EGI-1 mimetics and inhibitors of the eIF4E/eIF4G interaction.

    PubMed

    Yefidoff-Freedman, Revital; Chen, Ting; Sahoo, Rupam; Chen, Limo; Wagner, Gerhard; Halperin, Jose A; Aktas, Bertal H; Chorev, Michael

    2014-03-03

    4EGI-1, the prototypic inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction, was identified in a high-throughput screening of small-molecule libraries with the aid of a fluorescence polarization assay that measures inhibition of binding of an eIF4G-derived peptide to recombinant eIF4E. As such, the molecular probe 4EGI-1 has potential for the study of molecular mechanisms involved in human disorders characterized by loss of physiological restraints on translation initiation. A hit-to-lead optimization campaign was carried out to overcome the configurational instability in 4EGI-1, which stems from the E-to-Z isomerization of the hydrazone function. We identified compound 1 a, in which the labile hydrazone was incorporated into a rigid indazole scaffold, as a promising rigidified 4EGI-1 mimetic lead. In a structure-activity relationship study directed towards probing the structural latitude of this new chemotype as an inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and translation initiation we identified 1 d, an indazole-based 4EGI-1 mimetic, as a new and improved lead inhibitor of eIF4E/eIF4G interaction and a promising molecular probe candidate for elucidation of the role of cap-dependent translation initiation in a host of pathophysiological states.

  9. Collagen-like peptides and peptide-polymer conjugates in the design of assembled materials

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Tianzhi; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals, and there has been long-standing interest in understanding and controlling collagen assembly in the design of new materials. Collagen-like peptides (CLP), also known as collagen-mimetic peptides (CMP) or collagen-related peptides (CRP), have thus been widely used to elucidate collagen triple helix structure as well as to produce higher-order structures that mimic natural collagen fibers. This mini-review provides an overview of recent progress on these topics, in three broad topical areas. The first focuses on reported developments in deciphering the chemical basis for collagen triple helix stabilization, which we review not with the intent of describing the basic structure and biological function of collagen, but to summarize different pathways for designing collagen-like peptides with high thermostability. Various approaches for producing higher-order structures via CLP self-assembly, via various types of intermolecular interaction, are then discussed. Finally, recent developments in a new area, the production of polymer-CLP bioconjugates, are summarized. Biological applications of collagen contained hydrogels are also included in this section. The topics may serve as a guide for the design of collagen-like peptides and their bioconjugates for targeted application in the biomedical arena. PMID:24039275

  10. Antimicrobial polymers as synthetic mimics of host-defense peptides.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kenichi; Caputo, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria 'superbugs' are an emerging threat to public health due to the decrease in effective antibiotics as well as the slowed pace of development of new antibiotics to replace those that become ineffective. The need for new antimicrobial agents is a well-documented issue relating to world health. Tremendous efforts have been given to developing compounds that not only show high efficacy, but also those that are less susceptible to resistance development in the bacteria. However, the development of newer, stronger antibiotics which can overcome these acquired resistances is still a scientific challenge because a new mode of antimicrobial action is likely required. To that end, amphiphilic, cationic polymers have emerged as a promising candidate for further development as an antimicrobial agent with decreased potential for resistance development. These polymers are designed to mimic naturally occurring host-defense antimicrobial peptides which act on bacterial cell walls or membranes. Antimicrobial-peptide mimetic polymers display antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria including drug-resistant strains and are less susceptible to resistance development in bacteria. These polymers also showed selective activity to bacteria over mammalian cells. Antimicrobial polymers provide a new molecular framework for chemical modification and adaptation to tune their biological functions. The peptide-mimetic design of antimicrobial polymers will be versatile, generating a new generation of antibiotics toward implementation of polymers in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Motif mimetic of epsin perturbs tumor growth and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yunzhou; Wu, Hao; Rahman, H.N. Ashiqur; Liu, Yanjun; Pasula, Satish; Tessneer, Kandice L.; Cai, Xiaofeng; Liu, Xiaolei; Chang, Baojun; McManus, John; Hahn, Scott; Dong, Jiali; Brophy, Megan L.; Yu, Lili; Song, Kai; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Saunders, Debra; Njoku, Charity; Song, Hoogeun; Mehta-D’Souza, Padmaja; Towner, Rheal; Lupu, Florea; McEver, Rodger P.; Xia, Lijun; Boerboom, Derek; Srinivasan, R. Sathish; Chen, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is critical for cancer progression. In multiple murine models, endothelium-specific epsin deficiency abrogates tumor progression by shifting the balance of VEGFR2 signaling toward uncontrolled tumor angiogenesis, resulting in dysfunctional tumor vasculature. Here, we designed a tumor endothelium–targeting chimeric peptide (UPI) for the purpose of inhibiting endogenous tumor endothelial epsins by competitively binding activated VEGFR2. We determined that the UPI peptide specifically targets tumor endothelial VEGFR2 through an unconventional binding mechanism that is driven by unique residues present only in the epsin ubiquitin–interacting motif (UIM) and the VEGFR2 kinase domain. In murine models of neoangiogenesis, UPI peptide increased VEGF-driven angiogenesis and neovascularization but spared quiescent vascular beds. Further, in tumor-bearing mice, UPI peptide markedly impaired functional tumor angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis, resulting in a notable increase in survival. Coadministration of UPI peptide with cytotoxic chemotherapeutics further sustained tumor inhibition. Equipped with localized tumor endothelium–specific targeting, our UPI peptide provides potential for an effective and alternative cancer therapy. PMID:26571402

  12. Downsizing the BAD BH3 peptide to small constrained α-helices with improved ligand efficiency.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Nicholas E; Harrison, Rosemary S; Ruiz-Gomez, Gloria; Abbenante, Giovanni; Mason, Jody M; Fairlie, David P

    2016-11-22

    Bcl2 Homology (BH) proteins can either trigger or prevent programmed cell death or apoptosis. Deregulation of the BH protein family network leads to evasion of apoptosis, uncontrolled proliferation and is a hallmark of cancer. Inhibition of pro-survival BH proteins is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy for certain cancers. We have examined whether helix-constrained peptides based on the BAD BH3 domain (residues 103-127) can be downsized to much smaller more drug-like peptides. We report the preparation, structural characterisation, in vitro Bcl-xL inhibition and leukemic T-cell killing ability of 45 linear, mono-, bi- and tricyclic helical peptidomimetics between 8- and 19-residues in length. We show that the BAD BH3 can be downsized to 8-14 residues and still maintain appreciable affinity for Bcl-xL. In addition, the binding efficiency indices (BEI) of the downsized mimetics are significantly higher than the BAD BH3 and similar stapled BH3 mimetics, approaching drug-like molecules. This suggests that bicyclic and monocyclic mimetics based on BH3 domains are much more efficient binding ligands than the longer peptides which they mimic.

  13. [Molecular diversities and functions of antibacterial peptides from the skins of Ranidae of amphibians.].

    PubMed

    Jin, Li-Li; Wang, Qiu-Yu

    2008-10-01

    Granular glands in the frog skins of Ranidae of amphibians, a widely distributed group with over 650 species, synthesize and secrete a remarkably diverse array of peptides with the broad-spectrum antibacterial, antifungal and other biologic activities to protect the organism against a wide range of pathogens, which are believed to have arisen as a result of multiple gene duplication events. Almost without exception, these components are hydrophobic, cationic and form an amphipathic a-helix in a membrane-mimetic solvent. The peptides can be grouped into families on the basis of structural similarity. To date, brevinin-1, esculentin-1, esculentin-2, and temporin peptides, ranalexin, ranatuerin-1, ranatuerin-2 and palustrin, brevinin-2, tigerinin, japonicin, nigrocin and melittin-related peptides have been found in amphibians of Ranidae. In this paper, the molecular diversity, structural feature and the biological ac-tivity of Ranidae antibacterial peptides were reviewed.

  14. Structural diversity and species distribution of host-defense peptides in frog skin secretions.

    PubMed

    Conlon, J Michael

    2011-07-01

    Cationic peptides that adopt an amphipathic α-helical conformation in a membrane-mimetic environment are synthesized in the skins of many frog species. These peptides often display cytolytic activities against bacteria and fungi consistent with the idea that they play a role in the host's system of defense against pathogenic microorganisms, but their importance in the survival strategy of the animal is not clearly understood. Despite the common misconception that antimicrobial peptides are synthesized in the skins of all anurans, the species distribution is sporadic, suggesting that their production may confer some evolutionary advantage to the organism but is not necessary for survival. The low potency of many frog skin antimicrobial peptides is consistent with the hypothesis that cutaneous symbiotic bacteria may provide the major system of defense against pathogenic microorganisms in the environment with antimicrobial peptides assuming a supplementary role in some species.

  15. Peptide identification

    DOEpatents

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Cannon, William R [Richland, WA; Jarman, Kenneth D [Richland, WA; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Richland, WA

    2011-07-12

    Peptides are identified from a list of candidates using collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry data. A probabilistic model for the occurrence of spectral peaks corresponding to frequently observed partial peptide fragment ions is applied. As part of the identification procedure, a probability score is produced that indicates the likelihood of any given candidate being the correct match. The statistical significance of the score is known without necessarily having reference to the actual identity of the peptide. In one form of the invention, a genetic algorithm is applied to candidate peptides using an objective function that takes into account the number of shifted peaks appearing in the candidate spectrum relative to the test spectrum.

  16. Promotion of hair growth by newly synthesized ceramide mimetic compound.

    PubMed

    Park, Bu-Mahn; Bak, Soon-Sun; Shin, Kyung-Oh; Kim, Minhee; Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Sekyoo; Sung, Young Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2017-09-09

    Based on the crucial roles of ceramides in skin barrier function, use of ceramides or their structural mimetic compounds, pseudoceramides, as cosmetic ingredients are getting more popular. While currently used pseudoceramides are intended to substitute the structural roles of ceramides in stratum corneum, development of bioactive pseudoceramides has been repeatedly reported. In this study, based on the potential involvement of sphingolipids in hair cycle regulation, we investigated the effects of newly synthesized pseudoceramide, bis-oleamido isopropyl alcohol (BOI), on hair growth using cultured human hair follicles and animal models. BOI treatment promoted hair growth in cultured human hair follicles ex vivo and induced earlier conversion of telogen into anagen. Although we did not find a significant enhancement of growth factor expression and follicular cell proliferation, BOI treatment resulted in an increased sphinganine and sphingosine contents as well as increased ceramides contents in cultured dermal papilla (DP) cells. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that biologically active pseudoceramide promotes hair growth by stimulating do novo synthesis of sphingolipids in DP cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Membrane mimetic surface functionalization of nanoparticles: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Weingart, Jacob; Vabbilisetty, Pratima; Sun, Xue-Long

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs), due to their size-dependent physical and chemical properties, have shown remarkable potential for a wide range of applications over the past decades. Particularly, the biological compatibilities and functions of NPs have been extensively studied for expanding their potential in areas of biomedical application such as bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery. In doing so, surface functionalization of NPs by introducing synthetic ligands and/or natural biomolecules has become a critical component in regards to the overall performance of the NP system for its intended use. Among known examples of surface functionalization, the construction of an artificial cell membrane structure, based on phospholipids, has proven effective in enhancing biocompatibility and has become a viable alternative to more traditional modifications, such as direct polymer conjugation. Furthermore, certain bioactive molecules can be immobilized onto the surface of phospholipid platforms to generate displays more reminiscent of cellular surface components. Thus, NPs with membrane-mimetic displays have found use in a range of bioimaging, biosensing, and drug delivery applications. This review herein describes recent advances in the preparations and characterization of integrated functional NPs covered by artificial cell membrane structures and their use in various biomedical applications. PMID:23688632

  18. The population genetics of mimetic diversity in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Kronforst, Marcus R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2008-03-07

    Theory predicts strong stabilizing selection on warning patterns within species and convergent evolution among species in Müllerian mimicry systems yet Heliconius butterflies exhibit extreme wing pattern diversity. One potential explanation for the evolution of this diversity is that genetic drift occasionally allows novel warning patterns to reach the frequency threshold at which they gain protection. This idea is controversial, however, because Heliconius butterflies are unlikely to experience pronounced population subdivision and local genetic drift. To examine the fine-scale population genetic structure of Heliconius butterflies we genotyped 316 individuals from eight Costa Rican Heliconius species with 1428 AFLP markers. Six species exhibited evidence of population subdivision and/or isolation by distance indicating genetic differentiation among populations. Across species, variation in the extent of local genetic drift correlated with the roles different species have played in generating pattern diversity: species that originally generated the diversity of warning patterns exhibited striking population subdivision while species that later radiated onto these patterns had intermediate levels of genetic diversity and less genetic differentiation among populations. These data reveal that Heliconius butterflies possess the coarse population genetic structure necessary for local populations to experience pronounced genetic drift which, in turn, could explain the origin of mimetic diversity.

  19. The population genetics of mimetic diversity in Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Kronforst, Marcus R; Gilbert, Lawrence E

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts strong stabilizing selection on warning patterns within species and convergent evolution among species in Müllerian mimicry systems yet Heliconius butterflies exhibit extreme wing pattern diversity. One potential explanation for the evolution of this diversity is that genetic drift occasionally allows novel warning patterns to reach the frequency threshold at which they gain protection. This idea is controversial, however, because Heliconius butterflies are unlikely to experience pronounced population subdivision and local genetic drift. To examine the fine-scale population genetic structure of Heliconius butterflies we genotyped 316 individuals from eight Costa Rican Heliconius species with 1428 AFLP markers. Six species exhibited evidence of population subdivision and/or isolation by distance indicating genetic differentiation among populations. Across species, variation in the extent of local genetic drift correlated with the roles different species have played in generating pattern diversity: species that originally generated the diversity of warning patterns exhibited striking population subdivision while species that later radiated onto these patterns had intermediate levels of genetic diversity and less genetic differentiation among populations. These data reveal that Heliconius butterflies possess the coarse population genetic structure necessary for local populations to experience pronounced genetic drift which, in turn, could explain the origin of mimetic diversity. PMID:18077248

  20. Wing patterning gene redefines the mimetic history of Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Heather M.; Counterman, Brian A.; Papa, Riccardo; Albuquerque de Moura, Priscila; Cardoso, Marcio Z.; Linares, Mauricio; Mallet, James; Reed, Robert D.; Jiggins, Chris D.; Kronforst, Marcus R.; McMillan, W. Owen

    2011-01-01

    The mimetic butterflies Heliconius erato and Heliconius melpomene have undergone parallel radiations to form a near-identical patchwork of over 20 different wing-pattern races across the Neotropics. Previous molecular phylogenetic work on these radiations has suggested that similar but geographically disjunct color patterns arose multiple times independently in each species. The neutral markers used in these studies, however, can move freely across color pattern boundaries, and therefore might not represent the history of the adaptive traits as accurately as markers linked to color pattern genes. To assess the evolutionary histories across different loci, we compared relationships among races within H. erato and within H. melpomene using a series of unlinked genes, genes linked to color pattern loci, and optix, a gene recently shown to control red color-pattern variation. We found that although unlinked genes partition populations by geographic region, optix had a different history, structuring lineages by red color patterns and supporting a single origin of red-rayed patterns within each species. Genes closely linked (80–250 kb) to optix exhibited only weak associations with color pattern. This study empirically demonstrates the necessity of examining phenotype-determining genomic regions to understand the history of adaptive change in rapidly radiating lineages. With these refined relationships, we resolve a long-standing debate about the origins of the races within each species, supporting the hypothesis that the red-rayed Amazonian pattern evolved recently and expanded, causing disjunctions of more ancestral patterns. PMID:22084094

  1. Cerebral Response to Peripheral Challenge with a Viral Mimetic.

    PubMed

    Konat, Gregory

    2016-02-01

    It has been well established that peripheral inflammation resulting from microbial infections profoundly alters brain function. This review focuses on experimental systems that model cerebral effects of peripheral viral challenge. The most common models employ the induction of the acute phase response via intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The ensuing transient surge of blood-borne inflammatory mediators induces a "mirror" inflammatory response in the brain characterized by the upregulated expression of a plethora of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory/stress proteins. These inflammatory mediators modify the activity of neuronal networks leading to a constellation of behavioral traits collectively categorized as the sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is an important protective response of the host that has evolved to enhance survival and limit the spread of infections within a population. However, a growing body of clinical data indicates that the activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain may constitute a serious comorbidity factor for neuropathological conditions. Such comorbidity has been demonstrated using the PIC paradigm in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, prion disease and seizures. Also, prenatal or perinatal PIC challenge has been shown to disrupt normal cerebral development of the offspring resulting in phenotypes consistent with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Remarkably, recent studies indicate that mild peripheral PIC challenge may be neuroprotective in stroke. Altogether, the PIC challenge paradigm represents a unique heuristic model to elucidate the immune-to-brain communication pathways and to explore preventive strategies for neuropathological disorders.

  2. Determination of superoxide dismutase mimetic activity in common culinary herbs.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Magali; Naughton, Declan P; Opara, Elizabeth I

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously determined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of these herbs. SODm activity was significantly increased following (C) and (C&D) for rosemary and sage only. The impact of (C) and (C&D) on the SODm for thyme may have been influenced by its transition metal ion content. SODm activity may contribute to the herbs' antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities however the source and significance of this activity need to be established.

  3. Preclinical pharmacokinetic analysis of NOV-002, a glutathione disulfide mimetic.

    PubMed

    Uys, J D; Manevich, Y; Devane, L C; He, L; Garret, T E; Pazoles, C J; Tew, K D; Townsend, D M

    2010-09-01

    NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic that is the subject of clinical investigation in oncology indications. GSSG is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to form glutathione (GSH), thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to report the pharmacokinetic properties of NOV-002 and evaluate the effect that NOV-002 elicits in redox homeostasis. The pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of NOV-002 and GSH was evaluated in mice following a dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. The redox potential and total protein thiol status was calculated. Here we show that NOV-002 is a substrate for GR and that GSH is a primary metabolite. Non-linear pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that the estimated absorption and elimination rate constants correspond to a half-life of approximately 13 min with an AUC of 1.18 μgh/mL, a C(max) of 2.16 μg/ml and a volume of distribution of 42.61 L/kg. In addition, measurement of the redox potential and total protein thiol status indicated the generation of a transient oxidative signal in the plasma compartment after administration of NOV-002. These results indicate that NOV-002 exerts kinetic and dynamic effects in mice consistent with the GSSG component as the active pharmacological constituent of the drug. A longer-lasting decrease in total plasma free thiol content was also seen, suggesting that the oxidative effect of the GSSG from NOV-002 was impacting redox homeostasis.

  4. Enzyme-mimetic activity of Ce-intercalated titanate nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kai; Soh, Nobuaki

    2015-04-23

    Colloidal solutions of Ce-doped titanate nanosheets (Ce-TNS) with tiny dimensions (<10 nm) were fabricated through a hydrolysis reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide and Ce(NO3)3, and their annihilation activity for reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated. The obtained Ce-TNS had an akin crystal structure to layered tetratitanate (Ti4O9(2-)) and Ce ions occupied interlayer space between the host layers with a negative charge. The Ce-TNS possessed a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity for disproportionation of superoxide anion radicals (O2(-)) as target ROS. It was explained that the annihilation of O2(-) caused a valence fluctuation of Ce ions existing in the interlayer. Moreover, the activity of Ce-TNS exceeded that of CeO2 nanoparticles recently attracting much attention as an inorganic SOD mimic. The superior performance was explained mainly by a high dispersion stability of the Ce-TNS bringing about a huge reaction area. Moreover, the Ce-TNS protected DNA molecules from ultraviolet light induced oxidative damage, demonstrating effectiveness as one of the new inorganic protecting agents for biomolecules and tissues.

  5. Membrane-mimetic films of asymmetric phosphatidylcholine lipid bolaamphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-Long; Biswas, Nilanjana; Kai, Toshitsugu; Dai, Zhifei; Dluhy, Richard A; Chaikof, Elliot L

    2006-01-31

    Membrane-spanning phospholipid bolaamphiphiles either alone or as a constituent of a multicomponent lipid membrane may prove to be facile building blocks for generating robust bioactive membrane-mimetic assemblies. We have previously reported the synthesis of asymmetric dialkyl phospholipid bolaamphiphiles that contain ester linked phosphatidylcholine and amine functionalities at opposite chain ends. In this report, we describe the synthesis of phospholipid bolaamphiphiles that are conjugated to biotin via the terminal amine with or without a poly(ethylene oxide) spacer arm of varying chain length. The behavior of biotinylated bolaamphiphiles as a self-assembled monolayer at an air-water interface was characterized by epi-fluorescence microscopy and revealed that domain structure and pi-A isotherms were substantially influenced by linker type and size. Substrate bound assemblies were produced by Langmuir-Blodgett deposition onto planar substrates coated with an avidin derivatized polyelectrolyte multilayer. Significantly, external reflectance infrared spectroscopy confirmed the fabrication of bolaamphiphile thin films that display extended stability in vitro.

  6. Bio-mimetic optical sensor for structural deflection measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Streeter, Robert W.; Khan, Md. A.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2014-03-01

    Reducing the environmental impact of aviation is a primary goal of NASA aeronautics research. One approach to achieve this goal is to build lighter weight aircraft, which presents complex challenges due to a corresponding increase in structural flexibility. Wing flexibility can adversely affect aircraft performance from the perspective of aerodynamic efficiency and safety. Knowledge of the wing position during flight can aid active control methods designed to mitigate problems due to increased wing flexibility. Current approaches to measuring wing deflection, including strain measurement devices, accelerometers, or GPS solutions, and new technologies such as fiber optic strain sensors, have limitations for their practical application to flexible aircraft control. Hence, it was proposed to use a bio-mimetic optical sensor based on the fly-eye to track wing deflection in real-time. The fly-eye sensor has several advantages over conventional sensors used for this application, including light weight, low power requirements, fast computation, and a small form factor. This paper reports on the fly-eye sensor development and its application to real-time wing deflection measurement.

  7. De novo antimicrobial peptides with low mammalian cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Javadpour, M M; Juban, M M; Lo, W C; Bishop, S M; Alberty, J B; Cowell, S M; Becker, C L; McLaughlin, M L

    1996-08-02

    De novo antimicrobial peptides with the sequences: (KLAKKLA)n, (KLAKLAK)n (where n = 1,2,3), (KALKALK)3, (KLGKKLG)n, and (KAAKKAA)n (where n = 2,3), were prepared as the C-terminus amides. These peptides were designed to be perfectly amphipathic in helical conformations. Peptide antibacterial activity was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. Peptide cytotoxicity was tested against human erythrocytes and 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. The 3T3 cell testing was a much more sensitive test of cytotoxicity. The peptides were much less lytic toward human erythrocytes than 3T3 cells. Peptide secondary structure in aqueous solution, sodium dodecylsulfate micelles, and phospholipid vesicles was estimated using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The leucine/alanine-containing 21-mers were bacteriostatic at 3-8 microM and cytotoxic to 3T3 cells at about 10 microM concentrations. The leucine/alanine- or leucine/glycine-containing 14-mers and the leucine/glycine 21-mer were bacteriostatic at 6-22 microM but had much lower cytotoxicity toward 3T3 cells and higher selectivities than the natural antimicrobial peptides magainin 2 amide and cecropin B amide. The 7-mer peptides are devoid of biological activity and of secondary structure in membrane mimetic environments. The 14-mer peptides and the glycine-containing 21-mer show modest levels of helicity in model membranes. The leucine/alanine-containing 21-mer peptides have substantial helicity in model membranes. The propensity to alpha-helical conformation of the peptides in amphipathic media is proportional to their 3T3 cell cytotoxicity.

  8. Multiscale mimetic method for two-phase flow in fractured media using embedded discrete fracture model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qingfu; Huang, Zhaoqin; Yao, Jun; Wang, Yueying; Li, Yang

    2017-09-01

    A multiscale mimetic method is developed for the simulation of multiphase flow in fractured porous media in the context of an embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM). The EDFM constructs independent grids for matrix and fracture system. Therefore, it is an efficient and practical flow model as it avoids the complicated unstructured grid subdivision and computing process. In order to extend the EDFM to field-scale applications, we integrate EDFM into a multiscale mimetic method. In this work, we use the multiscale basis functions to capture the detailed interactions between the fractures and the background. The multiscale basis functions are calculated numerically by solving EDFM on the local fine-grid with mimetic finite difference (MFD) method. The MFD method is conservative and robust, which makes it possible to deal with highly complex grid systems. Through combination of multiscale mimetic method and EDFM, this formulation can generate accurate velocity field and pressure field on the fine-scale grid more efficiently than the traditional methods. Numerical results are presented for verification of this multiscale mimetic approach for embedded discrete fracture media, and demonstrate its computational efficiency. The results show that this method is an accurate and efficient method for flow simulation in real-field fractured heterogeneous reservoirs.

  9. Elementary dispersion analysis of some mimetic discretizations on triangular C-grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, P.; Danilov, S.

    2017-02-01

    Spurious modes supported by triangular C-grids limit their application for modeling large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows. Their behavior can be modified within a mimetic approach that generalizes the scalar product underlying the triangular C-grid discretization. The mimetic approach provides a discrete continuity equation which operates on an averaged combination of normal edge velocities instead of normal edge velocities proper. An elementary analysis of the wave dispersion of the new discretization for Poincaré, Rossby and Kelvin waves shows that, although spurious Poincaré modes are preserved, their frequency tends to zero in the limit of small wavenumbers, which removes the divergence noise in this limit. However, the frequencies of spurious and physical modes become close on shorter scales indicating that spurious modes can be excited unless high-frequency short-scale motions are effectively filtered in numerical codes. We argue that filtering by viscous dissipation is more efficient in the mimetic approach than in the standard C-grid discretization. Lumping of mass matrices appearing with the velocity time derivative in the mimetic discretization only slightly reduces the accuracy of the wave dispersion and can be used in practice. Thus, the mimetic approach cures some difficulties of the traditional triangular C-grid discretization but may still need appropriately tuned viscosity to filter small scales and high frequencies in solutions of full primitive equations when these are excited by nonlinear dynamics.

  10. Nacre-mimetics with synthetic nanoclays up to ultrahigh aspect ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Paramita; Malho, Jani-Markus; Rahimi, Khosrow; Schacher, Felix H.; Wang, Baochun; Demco, Dan Eugen; Walther, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Nacre-mimetics hold great promise as mechanical high-performance and functional materials. Here we demonstrate large progress of mechanical and functional properties of self-assembled polymer/nanoclay nacre-mimetics by using synthetic nanoclays with aspect ratios covering three orders in magnitude (25-3,500). We establish comprehensive relationships among structure formation, nanostructuration, deformation mechanisms and mechanical properties as a function of nanoclay aspect ratio, and by tuning the viscoelastic properties of the soft phase via hydration. Highly ordered, large-scale nacre-mimetics are obtained even for low aspect ratio nanoplatelets and show pronounced inelastic deformation with very high toughness, while those formed by ultralarge nanoplatelets exhibit superb stiffness and strength, previously only reachable for highly crosslinked materials. Regarding functionalities, we report formerly impossible glass-like transparency, and excellent gas barrier considerably exceeding earlier nacre-mimetics based on natural nanoclay. Our study enables rational design of future high-performance nacre-mimetic materials and opens avenues for ecofriendly, transparent, self-standing and strong advanced barrier materials.

  11. Beyond Antibodies as Binding Partners: The Role of Antibody Mimetics in Bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaowen; Yang, Yu-Ping; Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-06-12

    The emergence of novel binding proteins or antibody mimetics capable of binding to ligand analytes in a manner analogous to that of the antigen-antibody interaction has spurred increased interest in the biotechnology and bioanalytical communities. The goal is to produce antibody mimetics designed to outperform antibodies with regard to binding affinities, cellular and tumor penetration, large-scale production, and temperature and pH stability. The generation of antibody mimetics with tailored characteristics involves the identification of a naturally occurring protein scaffold as a template that binds to a desired ligand. This scaffold is then engineered to create a superior binder by first creating a library that is then subjected to a series of selection steps. Antibody mimetics have been successfully used in the development of binding assays for the detection of analytes in biological samples, as well as in separation methods, cancer therapy, targeted drug delivery, and in vivo imaging. This review describes recent advances in the field of antibody mimetics and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry, specifically in diagnostics and other analytical methods.

  12. Virus-mimetic polyplex particles for systemic and inflammation-specific targeted delivery of large genetic contents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S; Lu, K; Leelawattanachai, J; Hu, X; Park, S; Park, T; Min, I M; Jin, M M

    2013-11-01

    Systemic and target-specific delivery of large genetic contents has been difficult to achieve. Although viruses effortlessly deliver kilobase-long genome into cells, its clinical use has been hindered by serious safety concerns and the mismatch between native tropisms and desired targets. Nonviral vectors, in contrast, are limited by low gene transfer efficiency and inherent cytotoxicity. Here we devised virus-mimetic polyplex particles (VMPs) based on electrostatic self-assembly among polyanionic peptide (PAP), cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) and nucleic acids. We fused PAP to the engineered ligand-binding domain of integrin αLβ2 to target intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), an inducible marker of inflammation. Fully assembled VMPs packaged large genetic contents, bound specifically to target molecules, elicited receptor-mediated endocytosis and escaped endosomal pathway, resembling intracellular delivery processes of viruses. Unlike conventional PEI-mediated transfection, molecular interaction-dependent gene delivery of VMPs was unaffected by the presence of serum and achieved higher efficiency without toxicity. By targeting overexpressed ICAM-1, VMPs delivered genes specifically to inflamed endothelial cells and macrophages both in vitro and in vivo. Simplicity and versatility of the platform and inflammation-specific delivery may open up opportunities for multifaceted gene therapy that can be translated into the clinic and treat a broad range of debilitating immune and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Furoxans (1,2,5-Oxadiazole-N-Oxides) as Novel NO Mimetic Neuroprotective and Procognitive Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefer, Isaac T.; VandeVrede, Lawren; Fa; , Mauro; Arancio, Ottavio; Thatcher, Gregory R.J.

    2012-08-31

    Furoxans (1,2,5-oxadiazole-N-oxides) are thiol-bioactivated NO-mimetics that have not hitherto been studied in the CNS. Incorporation of varied substituents adjacent to the furoxan ring system led to modulation of reactivity toward bioactivation, studied by HPLC-MS/MS analysis of reaction products. Attenuated reactivity unmasked the cytoprotective actions of NO in contrast to the cytotoxic actions of higher NO fluxes reported previously for furoxans. Neuroprotection was observed in primary neuronal cell cultures following oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD). Neuroprotective activity was observed to correlate with thiol-dependent bioactivation to produce NO{sub 2}{sup -}, but not with depletion of free thiol itself. Neuroprotection was abrogated upon cotreatment with a sGC inhibitor, ODQ, thus supporting activation of the NO/sGC/CREB signaling cascade by furoxans. Long-term potentiation (LTP), essential for learning and memory, has been shown to be potentiated by NO signaling, therefore, a peptidomimetic furoxan was tested in hippocampal slices treated with oligomeric amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) and was shown to restore synaptic function. The novel observation of furoxan activity of potential therapeutic use in the CNS warrants further studies.

  14. A continued saga of Boc5, the first non-peptidic glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist with in vivo activities.

    PubMed

    He, Min; Guan, Ni; Gao, Wei-wei; Liu, Qing; Wu, Xiao-yan; Ma, Da-wei; Zhong, Da-fang; Ge, Guang-bo; Li, Chuan; Chen, Xiao-yan; Yang, Ling; Liao, Jia-yu; Wang, Ming-wei

    2012-02-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapy presents a promising option for treating type 2 diabetes. However, there are several limitations relative to the peptidic GLP-1 mimetics currently on the market or under development. This concern has led to a continued interest in the search for non-peptidic agonists for GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). Here, we briefly review the discovery, characterization and current status of a novel class of cyclobutane-derivative-based non-peptidic agonists for GLP-1R, including Boc5 and its newly discovered analogue WB4-24. Although the oral bioavailability of such compounds still poses great challenges, the progress made so far encourages us to identify a truly 'druggable' small molecule agonist for GLP-1R.

  15. Prey from the eyes of predators: Color discriminability of aposematic and mimetic butterflies from an avian visual perspective.

    PubMed

    Su, Shiyu; Lim, Matthew; Kunte, Krushnamegh

    2015-11-01

    Predation exerts strong selection on mimetic butterfly wing color patterns, which also serve other functions such as sexual selection. Therefore, specific selection pressures may affect the sexes and signal components differentially. We tested three predictions about the evolution of mimetic resemblance by comparing wing coloration of aposematic butterflies and their Batesian mimics: (a) females gain greater mimetic advantage than males and therefore are better mimics, (b) due to intersexual genetic correlations, sexually monomorphic mimics are better mimics than female-limited mimics, and (c) mimetic resemblance is better on the dorsal wing surface that is visible to predators in flight. Using a physiological model of avian color vision, we quantified mimetic resemblance from predators' perspective, which showed that female butterflies were better mimics than males. Mimetic resemblance in female-limited mimics was comparable to that in sexually monomorphic mimics, suggesting that intersexual genetic correlations did not constrain adaptive response to selection for female-limited mimicry. Mimetic resemblance on the ventral wing surface was better than that on the dorsal wing surface, implying stronger natural and sexual selection on ventral and dorsal surfaces, respectively. These results suggest that mimetic resemblance in butterfly mimicry rings has evolved under various selective pressures acting in a sex- and wing surface-specific manner. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2009-10-13

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  17. Cysteine-containing peptides having antioxidant properties

    DOEpatents

    Bielicki, John K.

    2008-10-21

    Cysteine containing amphipathic alpha helices of the exchangeable apolipoproteins, as exemplified by apolipoprotein (apo) A-I.sub.Milano (R173C) and apoA-I.sub.Paris, (R151C) were found to exhibit potent antioxidant activity on phospholipid surfaces. The addition of a free thiol, at the hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface of an amphipathic alpha helix of synthetic peptides that mimic HDL-related proteins, imparts a unique antioxidant activity to these peptides which inhibits lipid peroxidation and protects phospholipids from water-soluble free radical initiators. These peptides can be used as therapeutic agents to combat cardiovascular disease, ischemia, bone disease and other inflammatory related diseases.

  18. Cerebral Response to Peripheral Challenge with a Viral Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Konat, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that peripheral inflammation resulting from microbial infections profoundly alters brain function. This review focuses on experimental systems that model cerebral effects of peripheral viral challenge. The most common models employ the induction of the acute phase response (APR) via intraperitoneal injection of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The ensuing transient surge of blood-borne inflammatory mediators induces a “mirror” inflammatory response in the brain characterized by the upregulated expression of a plethora of genes encoding cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory/stress proteins. These inflammatory mediators modify the activity of neuronal networks leading to a constellation of behavioral traits collectively categorized as the sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is an important protective response of the host that has evolved to enhance survival and limit the spread of infections within a population. However, a growing body of clinical data indicates that the activation of inflammatory pathways in the brain may constitute a serious comorbidity factor for neuropathological conditions. Such comorbidity has been demonstrated using the PIC paradigm in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease, prion disease and seizures. Also, prenatal or perinatal PIC challenge has been shown to disrupt normal cerebral development of the offspring resulting in phenotypes consistent with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism. Remarkably, recent studies indicate that mild peripheral PIC challenge may be neuroprotective in stroke. Altogether, the PIC challenge paradigm represents a unique heuristic model to elucidate the immune-to-brain communication pathways and to explore preventive strategies for neuropathological disorders. PMID:26526143

  19. Mussel-mimetic, bioadhesive polymers from plant-derived materials.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, Noriko; Kaneko, Daisaku; Taira, Shu; Wang, Siqian; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2015-02-01

    Mussel-mimetic, bioadhesive polymers are synthesized from plant-derived sources. The strong adhesive action is caused by interactions between the catechol groups at the end of the polymer terminal chains and the substrate surface. Here, we present a preliminary study of the adhesion properties and a discussion of the adhesion mechanism. Two bioadhesive polymers were synthesized from natural plant-derived monomers by the transesterification of: (a) caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid; DHCA) and p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid; 4HCA) to produce poly(DHCA-co-4HCA); and (b) 4-dihydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (DHHCA) and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid (3HPPA) to produce poly(DHHCA-co-3HPPA). Thermoplastic poly(DHCA-co-4HCA) or poly(DHHCA-co-3HPPA) was placed between glass, carbon, steel, or bovine dentin substrates, and a lap shear adhesion test was conducted to compare them using conventional cyanoacrylate glue and epoxy resin. The greatest adhesion for all tested substrates was exhibited by poly(DHHCA-co-3HPPA), followed by epoxy resin adhesive, poly(DHCA-co-4HCA), and cyanoacrylate adhesive. The adhesive strength of poly(DHHCA-co-3HPPA) was greater than 25.6 MPa for glass, 29.6 MPa for carbon, 15.7 MPa for steel, and 16.3 MPA for bovine dentin. The adhesion of poly(DHHCA-co-3HPPA) might be the strongest reported for a mussel-mimic adhesive system, and could be a feasible alternative to petroleum adhesives. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  1. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-07-30

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function.

  2. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  3. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  4. Preclinical Pharmacokinetic Analysis of NOV-002, a Glutathione Disulfide Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Uys, Joachim D.; Manevich, Yefim; DeVane, Lindsay C.; He, Lin; Garret, Tracy E.; Pazoles, Christopher J.; Tew, Kenneth D.; Townsend, Danyelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary NOV-002 is a glutathione disulfide (GSSG) mimetic that is in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer and other oncology indications. GSSG is reduced by glutathione reductase (GR) to form glutathione (GSH), thereby maintaining redox homeostasis. The purpose of the study was to report the pharmacokinetic properties of NOV-002 and evaluate the effect that NOV-002 elicits in redox homeostasis. The pharmacokinetic analysis and tissue distribution of NOV-002 and GSH was evaluated in mice following a dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. The redox potential and total protein thiol status was calculated. Here we show that NOV-002 is a substrate for GR and that GSH is a primary metabolite. Nonlinear pharmacokinetic modeling predicted that the estimated absorption and elimination rate constants correspond to a half-life of ~13 mins with an AUC of 1.18 μg.h/ml, a Cmax of 2.16 μg/ml and a volume of distribution of 42.61 L/kg. In addition, measurement of the redox potential and total protein thiol status indicated the generation of a transient oxidative signal in the plasma compartment after administration of NOV-002. These results indicate that NOV-002 exerts kinetic and dynamic effects in mice consistent with the GSSG component as the active pharmacological constituent of the drug. A longer-lasting decrease in total plasma free thiol content was also seen, suggesting that the oxidative effect of the GSSG from NOV-002 was impacting redox homeostasis. PMID:20359856

  5. Remarkable effect of chalcogen substitution on an enzyme mimetic for deiodination of thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Raja, Karuppusamy; Mugesh, Govindasamy

    2015-06-22

    Iodothyronine deiodinases are selenoenzymes which regulate the thyroid hormone homeostasis by catalyzing the regioselective deiodination of thyroxine (T4). Synthetic deiodinase mimetics are important not only to understand the mechanism of enzyme catalysis, but also to develop therapeutic agents as abnormal thyroid hormone levels have implications in different diseases, such as hypoxia, myocardial infarction, critical illness, neuronal ischemia, tissue injury, and cancer. Described herein is that the replacement of sulfur/selenium atoms in a series of deiodinase mimetics by tellurium remarkably alters the reactivity as well as regioselectivity toward T4. The tellurium compounds reported in this paper represent the first examples of deiodinase mimetics which mediate sequential deiodination of T4 to produce all the hormone derivatives including T0 under physiologically relevant conditions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Healthy imperfect dark matter from effective theory of mimetic cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Shin'ichi; Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu

    2017-07-01

    We study the stability of a recently proposed model of scalar-field matter called mimetic dark matter or imperfect dark matter. It has been known that mimetic matter with higher derivative terms suffers from gradient instabilities in scalar perturbations. To seek for an instability-free extension of imperfect dark matter, we develop an effective theory of cosmological perturbations subject to the constraint on the scalar field's kinetic term. This is done by using the unifying framework of general scalar-tensor theories based on the ADM formalism. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to construct a model of imperfect dark matter which is free from ghost and gradient instabilities. As a side remark, we also show that mimetic F(Script R) theory is plagued with the Ostrogradsky instability.

  7. (Pseudo)amide-linked oligosaccharide mimetics: molecular recognition and supramolecular properties

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Caballero, Fernando; Ortiz Mellet, Carmen; García Fernández, José M

    2010-01-01

    Summary Oligosaccharides are currently recognised as having functions that influence the entire spectrum of cell activities. However, a distinct disadvantage of naturally occurring oligosaccharides is their metabolic instability in biological systems. Therefore, much effort has been spent in the past two decades on the development of feasible routes to carbohydrate mimetics which can compete with their O-glycosidic counterparts in cell surface adhesion, inhibit carbohydrate processing enzymes, and interfere in the biosynthesis of specific cell surface carbohydrates. Such oligosaccharide mimetics are potential therapeutic agents against HIV and other infections, against cancer, diabetes and other metabolic diseases. An efficient strategy to access this type of compounds is the replacement of the glycosidic linkage by amide or pseudoamide functions such as thiourea, urea and guanidine. In this review we summarise the advances over the last decade in the synthesis of oligosaccharide mimetics that possess amide and pseudoamide linkages, as well as studies focussing on their supramolecular and recognition properties. PMID:20485602

  8. A review of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion: cruise and fast-start

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Li-Ming; Cao, Yong-Hui; Pan, Guang

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the understanding of underwater bio-mimetic propulsion. Two impressive models of underwater propulsion are considered: cruise and fast-start. First, we introduce the progression of bio-mimetic propulsion, especially underwater propulsion, where some primary conceptions are touched upon. Second, the understanding of flapping foils, considered as one of the most efficient cruise styles of aquatic animals, is introduced, where the effect of kinematics and the shape and flexibility of foils on generating thrust are elucidated respectively. Fast-start propulsion is always exhibited when predator behaviour occurs, and we provide an explicit introduction of corresponding zoological experiments and numerical simulations. We also provide some predictions about underwater bio-mimetic propulsion.

  9. Erythropoietin and thrombopoietin mimetics: Natural alternatives to erythrocyte and platelet disorders.

    PubMed

    Gutti, Usha; Pasupuleti, Satya Ratan; Sahu, Itishri; Kotipalli, Aneesh; Undi, Ram Babu; Kandi, Ravinder; Venakata Saladi, Raja Gopal; Gutti, Ravi Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietin (TPO) plays a major role in the regulation of hematopoietic development. Though, blood transfusion was the most widely used method to treat low blood count, over the years with advancements in recombinant technology and drug designing, the EPO and TPO mimetics are dominating the therapeutics industry. On the other hand, the recombinant human EPO and TPO are associated either with reduced half-life or immune reactions. The restoration of alternate medicine in recent years has the hope to overcome limitations associated with recombinant technology, to treat various disorder including blood diseases, with low to no side effects. The work in recent years on plant derived mimetics suggests a paradigm shift in the way diseases are treated. Here, we are providing a comprehensive review on the EPO and TPO recombinant counterparts and synthetic mimetics studied till date with a focus on the need for more natural alternatives.

  10. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux and scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.

  11. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and GAG mimetics regulate the behavior of stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengmeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Lyu, Zhonglin; Gu, Hao; Li, Dan; Chen, Hong

    2017-02-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are linear sulfated polysaccharides that exist in most mammalian cells. By undergoing conjugation with various proteins, GAGs play important roles in a variety of bioactivities, including promoting stem cell differentiation. However, they have their own intrinsic disadvantages that limit their further applications for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Therefore, more and more GAG-mimetic materials have been studied as natural GAG analogs for emerging applications. This review explains the mechanism of how GAGs regulate stem cell differentiation and elaborates on the current progress of the applications of GAG-based materials on regulating stem cell differentiation. The types and applications of GAG-mimetic materials on regulating stem cell differentiation are introduced as well. Finally, the challenges and perspectives for GAGs and their mimetics in regulating stem cell differentiation are discussed.

  12. Static spherically symmetric solutions in mimetic gravity: rotation curves and wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Sebastiani, Lorenzo; Vagnozzi, Sunny; Zerbini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we analyse static spherically symmetric solutions in the framework of mimetic gravity, an extension of general relativity where the conformal degree of freedom of gravity is isolated in a covariant fashion. Here we extend previous works by considering, in addition, a potential for the mimetic field. An appropriate choice of such a potential allows for the reconstruction of a number of interesting cosmological and astrophysical scenarios. We explicitly show how to reconstruct such a potential for a general static spherically symmetric space-time. A number of applications and scenarios are then explored, among which are traversable wormholes. Finally, we analytically reconstruct potentials, which leads to solutions to the equations of motion featuring polynomial corrections to the Schwarzschild space-time. Accurate choices for such corrections could provide an explanation for the inferred flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies within the mimetic gravity framework, without the need for particle dark matter.

  13. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux and scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.

  14. The arbitrary order mixed mimetic finite difference method for the diffusion equation

    DOE PAGES

    Gyrya, Vitaliy; Lipnikov, Konstantin; Manzini, Gianmarco

    2016-05-01

    Here, we propose an arbitrary-order accurate mimetic finite difference (MFD) method for the approximation of diffusion problems in mixed form on unstructured polygonal and polyhedral meshes. As usual in the mimetic numerical technology, the method satisfies local consistency and stability conditions, which determines the accuracy and the well-posedness of the resulting approximation. The method also requires the definition of a high-order discrete divergence operator that is the discrete analog of the divergence operator and is acting on the degrees of freedom. The new family of mimetic methods is proved theoretically to be convergent and optimal error estimates for flux andmore » scalar variable are derived from the convergence analysis. A numerical experiment confirms the high-order accuracy of the method in solving diffusion problems with variable diffusion tensor. It is worth mentioning that the approximation of the scalar variable presents a superconvergence effect.« less

  15. Peptide therapeutics: targeting the undruggable space.

    PubMed

    Tsomaia, Natia

    2015-04-13

    Rapid advancements in genomics have brought a better understanding of molecular mechanisms for various pathologies and identified a number of highly attractive target classes. Some of these targets include intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs), which control many essential biological pathways. Their surfaces are part of a diverse and unexplored biological space, where traditional small molecule scaffolds are not always successful. While large biologics can effectively modulate PPIs in the extracellular region, their limitation in crossing the cellular membrane leaves intracellular protein targets outside of their reach. There is a growing need in the pharmaceutical field to push the boundaries of traditional drug design and discover innovative molecules that are able to modulate key biological pathways by inhibiting intracellular PPIs. Peptides are one of the most promising classes of molecules that could deliver such therapeutics in the near future. In this review, we describe technological advancements and emerging chemical approaches for stabilizing active peptide conformations, including stapling, hydrogen bond surrogates, beta-hairpin mimetics, grafting on stable scaffolds, and macrocyclization. These design strategies carry the promise of opening the doors for peptide therapeutics to reach the currently "undruggable" space.

  16. Micelle bound structure and DNA interaction of brevinin-2-related peptide, an antimicrobial peptide derived from frog skin.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Ng, Boon Yee; Chong, Charmaine; Lim, Ming Zhen; Gill, Sonia Kiran; Lee, Ke Hui; Sivaraman, J; Chatterjee, Chiradip

    2014-10-01

    Brevinin-2-related peptide (BR-II), a novel antimicrobial peptide isolated from the skin of frog, Rana septentrionalis, shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity with low haemolytic activity. It has also been shown to have antiviral activity, specifically to protect cells from infection by HIV-1. To understand the active conformation of the BR-II peptide in membranes, we have investigated the interaction of BR-II with the prokaryotic and eukaryotic membrane-mimetic micelles such as sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), respectively. The interactions were studied using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Fluorescence experiments revealed that the N-terminus tryptophan residue of BR-II interacts with the hydrophobic core of the membrane mimicking micelles. The CD results suggest that interactions with membrane-mimetic micelles induce an α-helix conformation in BR-II. We have also determined the solution structures of BR-II in DPC and SDS micelles using NMR spectroscopy. The structural comparison of BR-II in the presence of SDS and DPC micelles showed significant conformational changes in the residues connecting the N-terminus and C-terminus helices. The ability of BR-II to bind DNA was elucidated by agarose gel retardation and fluorescence experiments. The structural differences of BR-II in zwitterionic versus anionic membrane mimics and the DNA binding ability of BR-II collectively contribute to the general understanding of the pharmacological specificity of this peptide towards prokaryotic and eukaryotic membranes and provide insights into its overall antimicrobial mechanism. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Structural and Functional Studies of Peptide-Carbohydrate Mimicry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Margaret A.; Pinto, B. Mario

    Certain peptides act as molecular mimics of carbohydrates in that they are specifically recognized by carbohydrate-binding proteins. Peptides that bind to anti-carbohydrate antibodies, carbohydrate-processing enzymes, and lectins have been identified. These peptides are potentially useful as vaccines and therapeutics; for example, immunologically functional peptide molecular mimics (mimotopes) can strengthen or modify immune responses induced by carbohydrate antigens. However, peptides that bind specifically to carbohydrate-binding proteins may not necessarily show the corresponding biological activity, and further selection based on biochemical studies is always required. The degree of structural mimicry required to generate the desired biological activity is therefore an interesting question. This review will discuss recent structural studies of peptide-carbohydrate mimicry employing NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, and molecular modeling, as well as relevant biochemical data. These studies provide insights into the basis of mimicry at the molecular level. Comparisons with other carbohydrate-mimetic compounds, namely proteins and glycopeptides, will be drawn. Finally, implications for the design of new therapeutic compounds will also be presented.

  18. Peptide Directed 3D Assembly of Nanoparticles through Biomolecular Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Prerna

    The current challenge of the 'bottom up' process is the programmed self-assembly of nanoscale building blocks into complex and larger-scale superstructures with unique properties that can be integrated as components in solar cells, microelectronics, meta materials, catalysis, and sensors. Recent trends in the complexity of device design demand the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) superstructures from multi-nanomaterial components in precise configurations. Bio mimetic assembly is an emerging technique for building hybrid materials because living organisms are efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally benign material generators, allowing low temperature fabrication. Using this approach, a novel peptide-directed nanomaterial assembly technology based on bio molecular interaction of streptavidin and biotin is presented for assembling nanomaterials with peptides for the construction of 3D peptide-inorganic superlattices with defined 3D shape. We took advantage of robust natural collagen triple-helix peptides and used them as nanowire building blocks for 3D peptide-gold nanoparticles superlattice generation. The type of 3D peptide superlattice assembly with hybrid NP building blocks described herein shows potential for the fabrication of complex functional device which demands precise long-range arrangement and periodicity of NPs.

  19. The Medical Potential of Antimicrobial Peptides from Insects.

    PubMed

    Tonk, Miray; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are peptide-based effector molecules produced by the innate immune system to combat microbes. Insects produce the broadest repertoire of AMPs, and their potent antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo has promoted their development as alternatives to conventional antibiotics, in an attempt to address the threat of multidrug-resistant pathogens. Here we discuss current obstacles that hinder the therapeutic development of novel insect-derived AMPs, including potential cytotoxic, immunogenic and allergenic side effects, and the high costs of large-scale production. These challenges may be overcome by the falling costs of synthetic peptide analogs and the heterologous production of recombinant peptides in insect cells or plants (molecular pharming). Insect AMPs offer a promising alternative for the treatment of skin, eye and lung infections, and could also restore the susceptibility of multidrug-resistant pathogens to conventional antibiotics when used as combinatorial treatments. Insect AMPs can also be used as templates for the rational design of peptide mimetics to overcome the drawbacks of natural therapeutic peptides.

  20. Dormancy as exaptation to protect mimetic seeds against deterioration before dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Novembre, Ana D. L. C.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R.; Marcos Filho, Júlio

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Mimetic seeds simulate the appearance of fleshy fruits and arilled seeds without producing nutritive tissues as a reward for seed dispersers. In this strategy of seed dispersal, seeds may remain attached to the mother plant for long periods after maturity, increasing their availability to naïve seed dispersers. The hypothesis that seed coat impermeability in many tropical Fabaceae with mimetic seeds serves as an exaptation to protect the seeds from deterioration and rotting while awaiting dispersal was investigated. Methods Seed coat impermeability was evaluated in five mimetic-seeded species of tropical Fabaceae in south-eastern Brazil (Abarema langsdorffii, Abrus precatorius, Adenanthera pavonina, Erythrina velutina and Ormosia arborea) and in Erythrina speciosa, a ‘basal’ species in its genus, which has monochromatic brown seeds and no mimetic displays. Seed hardness was evaluated as a defence against accelerated ageing (humid chamber at 41 °C for 144 h). Seed development and physiological potential of O. arborea was evaluated and the effect of holding mature seeds in pods on the mother plant in the field for a period of 1 year under humid tropical conditions was compared with seeds stored under controlled conditions (15 °C and 40 % relative air humidity). Key Results All five mimetic-seeded species, and E. speciosa, showed strong coat impermeability, which protected the seeds against deterioration in accelerated ageing. Most O. arborea seeds only became dormant 2 months after pod dehiscence. Germination of seeds after 1 year on the plant in a humid tropical climate was 56 %, compared with 80 % for seeds stored in controlled conditions (15 °C, 45 % relative humidity). Seedling shoot length after 1 year did not differ between seed sources. Conclusions Dormancy acts in mimetic-seeded species as an exaptation to reduce seed deterioration, allowing an increase in their effective dispersal period and mitigating the losses incurred by low

  1. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use and the maintenance of Müllerian mimetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Gompert, Zachariah; Willmott, Keith; Elias, Marianne

    2011-07-21

    Müllerian mimicry, where groups of chemically defended species display a common warning color pattern and thereby share the cost of educating predators, is one of the most striking examples of ecological adaptation. Classic models of Müllerian mimicry predict that all unpalatable species of a similar size and form within a community should converge on a single mimetic pattern, but instead communities of unpalatable species often display a remarkable diversity of mimetic patterns (e.g. neotropical ithomiine butterflies). It has been suggested that this apparent paradox may be explained if different suites of predators and species belonging to different mimicry groups utilize different micro-habitats within the community. We developed a stochastic individual-based model for a community of unpalatable mimetic prey species and their predators to evaluate this hypothesis and to examine the effect of predator heterogeneity on prey micro-habitat use. We found that community-level mimetic diversity was higher in simulations with heterogeneous predator micro-habitat use than in simulations with homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. Regardless of the form of predation, mimicry pattern-based assortative mating caused community-level mimetic diversity to persist. Heterogeneity in predator micro-habitat use led to an increased association between mimicry pattern and prey micro-habitat use relative to homogeneous predator micro-habitat use. This increased association was driven, at least in part, by evolutionary convergence of prey micro-habitat use when predators displayed heterogeneous micro-habitat use. These findings provide a theoretical explanation for an important question in evolutionary biology: how is community-level Müllerian mimetic diversity maintained in the face of selection against rare phenotypes? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Functional Sialyl LewisX Mimetics with a Heteroaromatic Core

    PubMed Central

    Schlemmer, Claudine; Wiebe, Christine; Ferenc, Dorota; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Wedepohl, Stefanie; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; Dernedde, Jens; Opatz, Till

    2014-01-01

    Functional mimetics of the sialyl LewisX tetrasaccharide were prepared by the enzymatic sialylation of a 1,3-diglycosylated indole and a glycosyl azide, which was subsequently transformed into a 1,4-diglycosylated 1,2,3-triazole, by using the trans-sialidase of Trypanosoma cruzi. These compounds inhibited the binding of E-, L-, and P-selectin-coated nanoparticles to polyacrylamide-bound sialyl-LewisX-containing neighboring sulfated tyrosine residues (sTyr/sLeX-PAA) at low or sub-millimolar concentrations. Except for E-selectin, the mimetics showed higher activities than the natural tetrasaccharide. PMID:24888318

  3. 3D Cell Entrapment as a Function of the Weight Percent of Peptide-Amphiphile Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Carolyn M.; Forster, Colleen L.; Kokkoli, Efrosini

    2015-01-01

    The design of scaffolds which mimic the stiffness, nanofiber structure, and biochemistry of the native extra-cellular matrix (ECM) has been a major objective for the tissue engineering field. Furthermore, mimicking the innate three dimensional (3D) environment of the ECM has been shown to significantly alter cellular response compared to traditional two dimensional (2D) culture. We report the development of a self-assembling, fibronectin-mimetic, peptide-amphiphile nanofiber scaffold for 3D cell culture. To form such a scaffold, 5 mol% of a bioactive PR_g fibronectin-mimetic peptide-amphiphile was mixed with 95 mol% of a diluent peptide-amphiphile (E2) whose purpose was to neutralize electrostatic interactions, increase the gelation kinetics and promote cell survival. Atomic force microscopy verified the fibrilar structure of the gels and the mechanical properties were characterized for various weight percent (wt%) formulations of the 5 mol% PR_g - 95 mol% E2 peptide-amphiphile mixture. The 0.5 wt% formulations had an elastic modulus of 429.0 ± 21.3 Pa while the 1.0 wt% peptide-amphiphile hydrogels had an elastic modulus of 808.6 ± 38.1 Pa. The presence of entrapped cells in the gels decreased the elastic modulus and the decrease was a function of the cell loading. While both formulations supported cell proliferation, the 0.5 wt% gels supported significantly greater NIH3T3/GFP fibroblast cell proliferation throughout the gels than the 1.0 wt% gels. However, compared to the 0.5 wt% formulations, the 1.0 wt% hydrogels promoted greater increase in mRNA expression and production of fibronectin and type IV collagen ECM proteins. This study suggests that this fibronectin-mimetic scaffold holds great promise in the advance of 3D culture applications and cell therapies. PMID:25970351

  4. Combinatorial peptide on-resin analysis: optimization of static nanoelectrospray ionization technique for sequence determination.

    PubMed

    Biederman, K J; Lee, H; Haney, C A; Kaczmarek, M; Buettner, J A

    1999-03-01

    The optimizations of static nanoelectrospray parameters to determine peptide or mimetic sequences released from resin were explored. Several different manufacturers of probe tips were utilized and a method was developed for the direct analysis of bead-bound peptides by nanoelectrospray. The method involved minimum sample handling to assure maximum recovery from individual beads. Parameters that were explored included an inside and outside wash of the probe tip, the distance from the probe housing to the probe tip, source temperature, drying gas flow, individual tips and presence of beads. The same soluble synthetic peptide was used in all comparisons, which had a molecular weight of 717 amu. The discovery of the sequence of a bead-bound peptide was achieved. The parameters that were found to effect signal were outside wash, presence of bead and distance. There was the need for pneumatic assist to initiate electrospray on some occasions, although this generally resulted in unsatisfactory performance.

  5. Inhibition of Rotavirus Infectivity by a Neoglycolipid Receptor Mimetic

    PubMed Central

    Bergner, Daniel W.; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B.; Hanafin, William P.; Firkins, Lawrence D.; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    -scale production capabilities make SLPE a promising candidate for further exploration as a possible prophylactic or therapeutic nutriceutical for combating rotavirus disease in animals. Most importantly, the results presented here provide proof of concept that the nutriceutical approach of providing natural or synthetic dietary receptor mimetics for protection against gastrointestinal virus infectious disease in all species is plausible. PMID:22254094

  6. A Case of Mimetic Isomorphism: A Short-Cut to Increasing Loyalty to Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the process of shortening career path to leadership positions in academia that could serve as an example of mimetic isomorphism, where university tries to apply business-like quick result-oriented strategies. This strategy incentivizes young faculty to stay in universities and keep loyalty to academia. This process could also…

  7. Comparative Allometric Growth of the Mimetic Ephippid Reef Fishes Chaetodipterus faber and Platax orbicularis

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Breno; Sakai, Yoichi; Pereira, Pedro H. C.; Gasset, Eric; Buchet, Vincent; Maamaatuaiahutapu, Moana; Ready, Jonathan S.; Oliveira, Yrlan; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Mimesis is a relatively widespread phenomenon among reef fish, but the ontogenetic processes relevant for mimetic associations in fish are still poorly understood. In the present study, the allometric growth of two allopatric leaf-mimetic species of ephippid fishes, Chaetodipterus faber from the Atlantic and Platax orbicularis from the Indo-Pacific, was analyzed using ten morphological variables. The development of fins was considered owing to the importance of these structures for mimetic behaviors during early life stages. Despite the anatomical and behavioral similarities in both juvenile and adult stages, C. faber and P. orbicularis showed distinct patterns of growth. The overall shape of C. faber transforms from a rounded-shape in mimetic juveniles to a lengthened profile in adults, while in P. orbicularis, juveniles present an oblong profile including dorsal and anal fins, with relative fin size diminishing while the overall profile grows rounder in adults. Although the two species are closely-related, the present results suggest that growth patterns in C. faber and P. orbicularis are different, and are probably independent events in ephippids that have resulted from similar selective processes. PMID:26630347

  8. The first MCL-1-selective BH3 mimetics have therapeutic potential for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Samaher; Pocard, Marc; Mirshahi, Massoud; Billard, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Small-molecule BH3 mimetics are designed to mimic the BH3 domain of BH3-only BCL-2 family members which are antagonists of the prosurvival members (such as BCL-2, BCL-XL and MCL-1). The BH3 mimetics are intended to bind with high affinity to prosurvival proteins, in order to inhibit their functional activity and hence to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Both navitoclax (BCL-2/BCL-XL antagonist) and ABT-199/venetoclax (BCL-2-selective inhibitor) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy especially in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, these BH3 mimetics cannot antagonize the prosurvival protein MCL-1 that is overexpressed and involved in therapeutic resistance in CLL. Furthermore, until now, none of the reported small-molecule MCL-1 inhibitors bound to their target with high affinity. The first MCL-1-selective BH3 mimetics capable of high-affinity binding and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells through an on-target mechanism have just been identified. This discovery should advance the translational research to implement novel drugs in treating CLL.

  9. The Representation of Reality in Teaching: A "Mimetic Didactic" Perspective on Examples in Plenary Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willbergh, Ilmi

    2017-01-01

    Using an observation study in Norwegian lower-secondary school classrooms this paper explores how subject matter and students' real-world experiences are linked within the use of examples in teaching. The theory of "mimetic didactics" claims that giving students the possibility to interpret examples as both subject matter and something…

  10. Aspects of late-time evolution in mimetic F(R) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate how to describe in an unified way early and late-time acceleration in the context of mimetic F(R) gravity. As we show, an exponential F(R) gravity model has appealing features, with regard to unification and we perform an analysis of the late-time evolution. The resulting picture is interesting since in the mimetic case, certain pathologies of some ordinary F(R) models are remedied in a consistent way, owing to the presence of the mimetic potential and the Lagrange multiplier. We quantify the late-time evolution analysis by studying the scaled dark energy density, the dark energy equation of state and the total effective equation of state, and as we show the late-time evolution is crucially affected by the functional form of the F(R) gravity. It is intriguing that the most appealing case corresponds to the exponential F(R) gravity which unifies late- and early-time acceleration. Finally, we study the behavior of the effective gravitational constant and the growth factor, and as we show, significant differences between the mimetic and ordinary F(R) exponential model are spotted in the growth factor.

  11. Protein Surface Mimetics: Understanding How Ruthenium Tris(Bipyridines) Interact with Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Sarah H.; Filby, Maria H.; Hayes, Ed; Kuhn, Lars T.; Kalverda, Arnout P.; Webb, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Protein surface mimetics achieve high‐affinity binding by exploiting a scaffold to project binding groups over a large area of solvent‐exposed protein surface to make multiple cooperative noncovalent interactions. Such recognition is a prerequisite for competitive/orthosteric inhibition of protein–protein interactions (PPIs). This paper describes biophysical and structural studies on ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) surface mimetics that recognize cytochrome (cyt) c and inhibit the cyt c/cyt c peroxidase (CCP) PPI. Binding is electrostatically driven, with enhanced affinity achieved through enthalpic contributions thought to arise from the ability of the surface mimetics to make a greater number of noncovalent interactions than CCP with surface‐exposed basic residues on cyt c. High‐field natural abundance 1H,15N HSQC NMR experiments are consistent with surface mimetics binding to cyt c in similar manner to CCP. This provides a framework for understanding recognition of proteins by supramolecular receptors and informing the design of ligands superior to the protein partners upon which they are inspired. PMID:27860106

  12. Small molecule insulin mimetics reduce food intake and body weight and prevent development of obesity.

    PubMed

    Air, Ellen L; Strowski, Mathias Z; Benoit, Stephen C; Conarello, Stacey L; Salituro, Gino M; Guan, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Kun; Woods, Stephen C; Zhang, Bei B

    2002-02-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for a number of metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Insulin has been suggested to function as one of the adiposity signals to the brain for modulation of energy balance. Administration of insulin into the brain reduces food intake and body weight, and mice with a genetic deletion of neuronal insulin receptors are hyperphagic and obese. However, insulin is also an anabolic factor; when administered systemically, pharmacological levels of insulin are associated with body weight gain in patients. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and feasibility of small molecule insulin mimetic compounds to regulate key parameters of energy homeostasis. Central intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of an insulin mimetic resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of food intake and body weight in rats, and altered the expression of hypothalamic genes known to regulate food intake and body weight. Oral administration of a mimetic in a mouse model of high-fat diet-induced obesity reduced body weight gain, adiposity and insulin resistance. Thus, insulin mimetics have a unique advantage over insulin in the control of body weight and hold potential as a novel anti-obesity treatment.

  13. The relationship between mimetic imperfection and phenotypic variation in insect colour patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Graham; Gilbert, Francis; Brandt, Amoret

    2002-01-01

    Many hoverflies (Syrphidae) mimic wasps or bees through colour or behavioural adaptations. The relationship between phenotypic variation in colour pattern and mimetic perfection (as determined by pigeons) was investigated in three species of Müllerian mimics (Vespula spp.) and 10 Batesian hoverfly mimics, plus two non-mimetic species of flies. Four predictions were tested: (i) Batesian mimics might be imperfect because they are in the process of evolving towards perfection, hence there should be a positive relationship between variation and imperfection; (ii) some Batesian mimics are imperfect because they do not have the appropriate genetic variation to improve and have evolved to be as good as possible, hence there should be no differences between species, all displaying a low level of variation; (iii) very common hoverflies should show the highest levels of variation because they outnumber their models, resulting in high predation and a breakdown in the mimetic relationship; and (iv) social wasps (Vespula) have such a powerful defence that anything resembling a wasp, both Müllerian and perfect Batesian mimics, would be avoided, resulting in relaxed selection and high variance. Poor mimics may still evolve to resemble wasps as well as possible and display lower levels of variation. The data only provided support for the fourth prediction. The Müllerian mimics, one of the most perfect Batesian mimics, and the non-mimetic flies displayed much higher levels of variation than the other species of Batesian mimics. PMID:11886630

  14. The two faces of mimetic Horndeski gravity: disformal transformations and Lagrange multiplier

    SciTech Connect

    Arroja, Frederico; Bartolo, Nicola; Karmakar, Purnendu; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it E-mail: sabino.matarrese@pd.infn.it

    2015-09-01

    We show that very general scalar-tensor theories of gravity (including, e.g., Horndeski models) are generically invariant under disformal transformations. However there is a special subset, when the transformation is not invertible, that yields new equations of motion which are a generalization of the so-called 'mimetic' dark matter theory recently introduced by Chamsedinne and Mukhanov. These conclusions hold true irrespective of whether the scalar field in the action of the assumed scalar-tensor theory of gravity is the same or different than the scalar field involved in the transformation. The new equations of motion for our general mimetic theory can also be derived from an action containing an additional Lagrange multiplier field. The general mimetic scalar-tensor theory has the same number of derivatives in the equations of motion as the original scalar-tensor theory. As an application we show that the simplest mimetic scalar-tensor model is able to mimic the cosmological background of a flat FLRW model with a barotropic perfect fluid with any constant equation of state.

  15. Protein Surface Mimetics: Understanding How Ruthenium Tris(Bipyridines) Interact with Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sarah H; Filby, Maria H; Hayes, Ed; Kuhn, Lars T; Kalverda, Arnout P; Webb, Michael E; Wilson, Andrew J

    2017-01-17

    Protein surface mimetics achieve high-affinity binding by exploiting a scaffold to project binding groups over a large area of solvent-exposed protein surface to make multiple cooperative noncovalent interactions. Such recognition is a prerequisite for competitive/orthosteric inhibition of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). This paper describes biophysical and structural studies on ruthenium(II) tris(bipyridine) surface mimetics that recognize cytochrome (cyt) c and inhibit the cyt c/cyt c peroxidase (CCP) PPI. Binding is electrostatically driven, with enhanced affinity achieved through enthalpic contributions thought to arise from the ability of the surface mimetics to make a greater number of noncovalent interactions than CCP with surface-exposed basic residues on cyt c. High-field natural abundance (1) H,(15) N HSQC NMR experiments are consistent with surface mimetics binding to cyt c in similar manner to CCP. This provides a framework for understanding recognition of proteins by supramolecular receptors and informing the design of ligands superior to the protein partners upon which they are inspired. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Solving Navier-Stokes' equation using Castillo-Grone's mimetic difference operators on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abouali, Mohammad; Castillo, Jose

    2012-11-01

    This paper discusses the performance and the accuracy of Castillo-Grone's (CG) mimetic difference operator in solving the Navier-Stokes' equation in order to simulate oceanic and atmospheric flows. The implementation is further adapted to harness the power of the many computing cores available on the Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and the speedup is discussed.

  17. Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Ali Adem; Ren, Dacheng

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). PMID:24287494

  18. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy reveals highly efficient cytosolic delivery of certain penta-arg proteins and stapled peptides.

    PubMed

    LaRochelle, Jonathan R; Cobb, Garrett B; Steinauer, Angela; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Schepartz, Alanna

    2015-02-25

    We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to accurately and precisely determine the relative efficiencies with which three families of "cell-penetrating peptides" traffic to the cytosol of mammalian cells. We find that certain molecules containing a "penta-arg" motif reach the cytosol, intact, with efficiencies greater than 50%. This value is at least 10-fold higher than that observed for the widely studied cationic sequence derived from HIV Tat or polyarginine Arg8, and equals that of hydrocarbon-stapled peptides that are active in cells and animals. Moreover, we show that the efficiency with which stapled peptides reach the cytosol, as determined by FCS, correlates directly with their efficacy in cell-based assays. We expect that these findings and the associated technology will aid the design of peptides, proteins, and peptide mimetics that predictably and efficiently reach the interior of mammalian cells.

  19. Social variables exert selective pressures in the evolution and form of primate mimetic musculature.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Anne M; Li, Ly; Waller, Bridget M; Micheletta, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    Mammals use their faces in social interactions more so than any other vertebrates. Primates are an extreme among most mammals in their complex, direct, lifelong social interactions and their frequent use of facial displays is a means of proximate visual communication with conspecifics. The available repertoire of facial displays is primarily controlled by mimetic musculature, the muscles that move the face. The form of these muscles is, in turn, limited by and influenced by phylogenetic inertia but here we use examples, both morphological and physiological, to illustrate the influence that social variables may exert on the evolution and form of mimetic musculature among primates. Ecomorphology is concerned with the adaptive responses of morphology to various ecological variables such as diet, foliage density, predation pressures, and time of day activity. We present evidence that social variables also exert selective pressures on morphology, specifically using mimetic muscles among primates as an example. Social variables include group size, dominance 'style', and mating systems. We present two case studies to illustrate the potential influence of social behavior on adaptive morphology of mimetic musculature in primates: (1) gross morphology of the mimetic muscles around the external ear in closely related species of macaque (Macaca mulatta and Macaca nigra) characterized by varying dominance styles and (2) comparative physiology of the orbicularis oris muscle among select ape species. This muscle is used in both facial displays/expressions and in vocalizations/human speech. We present qualitative observations of myosin fiber-type distribution in this muscle of siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and human to demonstrate the potential influence of visual and auditory communication on muscle physiology. In sum, ecomorphologists should be aware of social selective pressures as well as ecological ones, and that observed morphology might

  20. Characterization of an IL-2 mimetic with therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Eckenberg, R; Rose, T; Moreau, J L; Weil, R; Gesbert, F; Dubois, S; Tello, D; Bossus, M; Gras, H; Tartar, A; Bertoglio, J; Chouaïb, S; Jacques, Y; Alzari, P M; Thèze, J

    2001-06-01

    Human interleukin-2 (IL-2) interacts with two types of functional receptors (IL-2R alpha betagamma and IL-2R betagamma) and acts on a broad range of target cells involved in inflammatory reactions and immune responses. IL-2 is also used in different clinical trials aimed at improving the treatment of some cancers and the recovery of CD4 lymphocytes by HIV patients. The therapeutic index of IL-2 is limited by various side effects dominated by the vascular leak syndrome. We have shown that a chemically synthesised fragment of the IL-2 sequence can fold into a helical tetramer likely mimicking the quatemary structure of an hemopoietin. Indeed, peptide p1-30 (containing amino acids 1 to 30, including the sequence corresponding to the entire alpha helix A of IL-2) spontaneously folds into an alpha-helical homotetramer and stimulates the growth of T-cell lines expressing human IL-2R beta, whereas shorter versions of the peptide lack helical structure and are inactive. At the cellular level, p1-30 induces lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and preferentially activates CD8 low lymphocytes and natural killer cells, which constitutively express IL-2R beta. A significant IFN-gamma production is also detected following p1-30 stimulation. A mutant form of p1-30 (Asp20-->Lys) which is likely unable to induce vascular leak syndrome remains capable to generate LAK cells like the original p1-30 peptide. Altogether our data suggest that p1-30 has therapeutic potential.

  1. Analysis and optimization of interactions between peptides mimicking the GD2 ganglioside and the monoclonal antibody 14G2a.

    PubMed

    Horwacik, Irena; Kurciński, Mateusz; Bzowska, Małgorzata; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra K; Czaplicki, Dominik; Koliński, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna

    2011-07-01

    Overexpression of the GD2 ganglioside (GD2) is a hallmark of neuroblastoma. The antigen is used in neuroblastoma diagnosis and to target newly developed therapies to cancer cells. Peptide mimetics are novel approaches in the design of antigens for vaccine development. We previously reported the isolation of five GD2-mimicking peptides from the LX-8 phage display library with the monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a. The goal of our current study was to analyze and optimize the binding of the peptide mimetics to the mAb 14G2a. Therefore, we performed further experiments and supported them with molecular modeling to investigate structure-activity relationships that are the basis for the observed mimicry of GD2 by our peptides. Here, we show that the peptides have overlapping binding sites on the mAb, 14G2a and restricted specificity, as they did not crossreact with other ganglioside-specific antibodies tested. In addition we demonstrate that the phage environment was involved in the process of selection of our peptides. The AAEGD sequence taken from the viral major coat protein, p8, and added to the C-termini of the peptides #65, #85 and #94 significantly improved their binding to the mAb, 14G2a. By application of analogs with amino acid substitutions and sequence truncations, we elucidated the structure-activity relationships necessary for the interactions between the 14G2a mAb and the peptide #94 (RCNPNMEPPRCF). We identified amino acids indispensable for the observed GD2-mimicry by #94 and confirmed a pivotal role of the disulphide bridge between the cysteine residues of #94 for binding to the mAb 14G2a. More importantly, we report five new peptides demonstrating a significant improvement of mAb 14G2a binding. The experimental data were supported and expanded with molecular modeling tools. Taken together, the experimental results and the in silico data allowed us to probe in detail the mechanism of the molecular mimicry of GD2 by the peptides. Additionally, we

  2. Antibody mimetic receptor proteins for label-free biosensors.

    PubMed

    Raina, M; Sharma, R; Deacon, S E; Tiede, C; Tomlinson, D; Davies, A G; McPherson, M J; Wälti, C

    2015-02-07

    The development of high sensitivity biosensors, for example for clinical diagnostics, requires the identification of suitable receptor molecules which offer high stability, specificity and affinity, even when embedded into solid-state biosensor transducers. Here, we present an electrochemical biosensor employing small synthetic receptor proteins (Mw < 15 kDa) which emulate antibodies but with improved stability, sensitivity and molecular recognition properties, in particular when immobilized on a solid sensor surface. The synthetic receptor protein is a non-antibody-based protein scaffold with variable peptide regions inserted to provide the specific binding, and was designed to bind anti-myc tag antibody (Mw ∼ 150 kDa), as a proof-of-principle exemplar. Both the scaffold and the selected receptor protein were found to have high thermostability with melting temperatures of 101 °C and 85 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the secondary structures of the receptor protein were found to be very similar to that of the original native scaffold, despite the insertion of variable peptide loops that create the binding sites. A label-free electrochemical sensor was fabricated by functionalising a microfabricated gold electrode with the receptor protein. A change in the phase of the electrochemical impedance was observed when the biosensor was subjected to anti-myc tag antibodies at concentrations between 6.7 pM and 6.7 nM. These findings demonstrate that these non-antibody receptor proteins are excellent candidates for recognition molecules in label-free biosensors.

  3. Novel apo E-derived ABCA1 agonist peptide (CS-6253) promotes reverse cholesterol transport and induces formation of preβ-1 HDL in vitro

    DOE PAGES

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; ...

    2015-07-24

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from themore » carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  4. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K.; Johansson, Jan O.; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  5. Novel Apo E-Derived ABCA1 Agonist Peptide (CS-6253) Promotes Reverse Cholesterol Transport and Induces Formation of preβ-1 HDL In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hafiane, Anouar; Bielicki, John K; Johansson, Jan O; Genest, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) mimetic peptides replicate some aspects of HDL function. We have previously reported the effects of compound ATI-5261 on its ability to replicate many functions of native apo A-I in the process of HDL biogenesis. ATI-5261 induced muscle toxicity in wild type C57Bl/6 mice, increased CPK, ALT and AST and increase in triglyceride (Tg) levels. Aromatic phenylalanine residues on the non-polar face of ATI-5261, together with positively charged arginine residues at the lipid-water interface were responsible for these effects. This information was used to create a novel analog (CS-6253) that was non-toxic. We evaluated this peptide designed from the carboxyl terminus of apo E, in its ability to mimic apo A-I functionality. Our data shows that the lipidated particles generated by incubating cells overexpressing ABCA1 with lipid free CS-6253 enhances the rate of ABCA1 lipid efflux with high affinity interactions with native ABCA1 oligomeric forms and plasma membrane micro-domains. Interaction between ABCA1 and lipid free CS-6253 resulted in formation of nascent HDL-CS-6253 particles that are actively remodeled in plasma. Mature HDL-CS-6253 particles deliver cholesterol to liver cells via SR-BI in-vitro. CS-6253 significantly increases cholesterol efflux in murine macrophages and in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells expressing ABCA1. Addition of CS-6253 to plasma dose-dependently displaced apo A-I from α-HDL particles and led to de novo formation of preβ-1 HDL that stimulates ABCA1 dependent cholesterol efflux efficiently. When incubated with human plasma CS-6253 was also found to bind with HDL and LDL and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from HDL to LDL predominantly. Our data shows that CS-6253 mimics apo A-I in its ability to promote ABCA1-mediated formation of nascent HDL particles, and enhances formation of preβ-1 HDL with increase in the cycling of apo A-I between the preβ and α-HDL particles in-vitro. These mechanisms are

  6. A nerve growth factor mimetic TrkA antagonist causes withdrawal of cortical cholinergic boutons in the adult rat

    PubMed Central

    Debeir, Thomas; Saragovi, H. Uri; Cuello, A. Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons respond to the administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in vivo with a prominent and selective increase of choline acetyl transferase activity. This suggests the possible involvement of endogenous NGF, acting through its receptor TrkA, in the maintenance of central nervous system cholinergic synapses in the adult rat brain. To test this hypothesis, a small peptide, C(92-96), that blocks NGF-TrkA interactions was delivered stereotactically into the rat cortex over a 2-week period, and its effect and potency were compared with those of an anti-NGF monoclonal antibody (mAb NGF30). Two presynaptic antigenic sites were studied by immunoreactivity, and the number of presynaptic sites was counted by using an image analysis system. Synaptophysin was used as a marker for overall cortical synapses, and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter was used as a marker for cortical cholinergic presynaptic sites. No significant variations in the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive sites were observed. However, both mAb NGF30 and the TrkA antagonist C(92-96) provoked a significant decrease in the number and size of vesicular acetylcholine transporter–IR sites, with the losses being more marked in the C(92-96) treated rats. These observations support the notion that endogenously produced NGF acting through TrkA receptors is involved in the maintenance of the cholinergic phenotype in the normal, adult rat brain and supports the idea that NGF normally plays a role in the continual remodeling of neural circuits during adulthood. The development of neurotrophin mimetics with antagonistic and eventually agonist action may contribute to therapeutic strategies for central nervous system degeneration and trauma. PMID:10097164

  7. MD simulations and multivariate studies for modeling the antileishmanial activity of peptides.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Mirian Elisa Rodrigues; Fadel, Valmir; Maltarollo, Vinícius Gonçalves; Baldissera, Gisele; Honorio, Kathia Maria; Ruggiero, José Roberto; Dos Santos Cabrera, Marcia Perez

    2017-10-01

    Leishmaniasis, a protozoan-caused disease, requires alternative treatments with minimized side-effects and less prone to resistance development. Antimicrobial peptides represent a possible choice to be developed. We report on the prospection of structural parameters of 23 helical antimicrobial and leishmanicidal peptides as a tool for modeling and predicting the activity of new peptides. This investigation is based on molecular dynamic simulations (MD) in mimetic membrane environment, as most of these peptides share the feature of interacting with phospholipid bilayers. To overcome the lack of experimental data on peptides' structures, we started simulations from designed 100% α-helices. This procedure was validated through comparisons with NMR data and the determination of the structure of Decoralin-amide. From physicochemical features and MD results, descriptors were raised and statistically related to the minimum inhibitory concentration against Leishmania by the multivariate data analysis technique. This statistical procedure confirmed five descriptors combined by different loadings in five principal components. The leishmanicidal activity depends on peptides' charge, backbone solvation, volume, and solvent-accessible surface area. The generated model possesses good predictability (q(2)  = 0.715, r(2)  = 0.898) and is indicative for the most and the least active peptides. This is a novel theoretical path for structure-activity studies combining computational methods that identify and prioritize the promising peptide candidates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Photochemical solar energy conversion utilizing semiconductors localized in membrane-mimetic systems. Performance report, April 1, 1989--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Fendler, J.H.

    1991-08-31

    Extending the frontiers of colloidal photochemistry and colloidal electrochemistry to solar photochemistry research had been the main objective of this research. More specific objectives of this proposal include the examination of semiconductor-particle-mediated photoelectron transfer and photoelectric effects in different membrane mimetic systems. Emphasis had been placed on developing bilayer lipid membranes and Langmuir-Blodgett films as new membrane-mimetic systems, as well as on the characterization and utilization of these systems.

  9. A Y2 receptor mimetic aptamer directed against neuropeptide Y.

    PubMed

    Proske, Daniela; Höfliger, Martin; Söll, Richard M; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Famulok, Michael

    2002-03-29

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36-amino acid neuropeptide that exerts its activity by at least five different receptor subtypes that belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. We isolated an aptamer directed against NPY from a nuclease-resistant RNA library. Mapping experiments with N-terminally, C-terminally, and centrally truncated analogues of NPY revealed that the aptamer recognizes the C terminus of NPY. Individual replacement of the four arginine residues at positions 19, 25, 33, and 35 by l-alanine showed that arginine 33 is essential for binding. The aptamer does not recognize pancreatic polypeptide, a highly homologous Y4 receptor-specific peptide of the gut. Furthermore, the affinity of the aptamer to the Y5 receptor-selective agonist [Ala(31),Aib(32)]NPY and the Y1/Y5 receptor-binding peptide [Leu(31),Pro(34)]NPY was considerably reduced, whereas Y2 receptor-specific NPY mutants were bound well by the aptamer. Accordingly, the NPY epitope was recognized by the Y2 receptor, and the aptamer was highly similar. This Y2 receptor mimicking effect was further confirmed by competition binding studies. Whereas the aptamer competed with the Y2 receptor for binding of [(3)H]NPY with high affinity, a low affinity displacement of [(3)H]NPY was observed at the Y1 and the Y5 receptors. Consequently, competition at the Y2 receptor occurred with a considerably lower K(i) value compared with the Y1 and Y5 receptors. These results indicate that the aptamer mimics the binding of NPY to the Y2 receptor more closely than to the Y1 and Y5 receptors.

  10. C-Peptide Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... vital for the body to use its main energy source, glucose . Since C-peptide and insulin are produced ... these cases, C-peptide measurement is a useful alternative to testing for insulin. C-peptide measurements can ...

  11. Multifunctional hybrid networks based on self assembling peptide sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathaye, Sameer

    The overall aim of this dissertation is to achieve a comprehensive correlation between the molecular level changes in primary amino acid sequences of amphiphilic beta-hairpin peptides and their consequent solution-assembly properties and bulk network hydrogel behavior. This has been accomplished using two broad approaches. In the first approach, amino acid substitutions were made to peptide sequence MAX1 such that the hydrophobic surfaces of the folded beta-hairpins from the peptides demonstrate shape specificity in hydrophobic interactions with other beta-hairpins during the assembly process, thereby causing changes to the peptide nanostructure and bulk rheological properties of hydrogels formed from the peptides. Steric lock and key complementary hydrophobic interactions were designed to occur between two beta-hairpin molecules of a single molecule, LNK1 during beta-sheet fibrillar assembly of LNK1. Experimental results from circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy and oscillatory rheology collectively indicate that the molecular design of the LNK1 peptide can be assigned the cause of the drastically different behavior of the networks relative to MAX1. The results indicate elimination or significant reduction of fibrillar branching due to steric complementarity in LNK1 that does not exist in MAX1, thus supporting the original hypothesis. As an extension of the designed steric lock and key complementarity between two beta-hairpin molecules of the same peptide molecule. LNK1, three new pairs of peptide molecules LP1-KP1, LP2-KP2 and LP3-KP3 that resemble complementary 'wedge' and 'trough' shapes when folded into beta-hairpins were designed and studied. All six peptides individually and when blended with their corresponding shape complement formed fibrillar nanostructures with non-uniform thickness values. Loose packing in the assembled structures was observed in all the new peptides as compared to the uniform tight packing in MAX1 by SANS analysis. This

  12. What kind of signals do mimetic tiger moths send? A phylogenetic test of wasp mimicry systems (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae: Euchromiini).

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Rebecca B; Weller, Susan J

    2002-01-01

    Mimicry has been examined in field and laboratory studies of butterflies and its evolutionary dynamics have been explored in computer simulations. Phylogenetic studies examining the evolution of mimicry, however, are rare. Here, the phylogeny of wasp-mimicking tiger moths, the Sphecosoma group, was used to test evolutionary predictions of computer simulations of conventional Müllerian mimicry and quasi-Batesian mimicry dynamics. We examined whether mimetic traits evolved individually, or as suites of characters, using concentrated change tests. The phylogeny of these moth mimics revealed that individual mimetic characters were conserved, as are the three mimetic wasp forms: yellow Polybia, black Polybia and Parachartergus mimetic types. This finding was consistent with a 'supergene' control of linked loci and the Nicholson two-step model of mimicry evolution. We also used a modified permutation-tail probability approach to examine the rate of mimetic-type evolution. The observed topology, hypothetical Müllerian and Batesian scenarios, and 1000 random trees were compared using Kishino-Hasegawa tests. The observed phylogeny was more consistent with the predicted Müllerian distribution of mimetic traits than with that of a quasi-Batesian scenario. We suggest that the range of discriminatory abilities of the predator community plays a key role in shaping mimicry dynamics. PMID:12028753