Science.gov

Sample records for a-independent stand-alone initiation

  1. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-alone dental plans. 155.1065 Section 155... Functions: Certification of Qualified Health Plans § 155.1065 Stand-alone dental plans. (a) General requirements. The Exchange must allow the offering of a limited scope dental benefits plan through the Exchange...

  2. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stand-alone dental plans. 155.1065 Section 155... Functions: Certification of Qualified Health Plans § 155.1065 Stand-alone dental plans. (a) General requirements. The Exchange must allow the offering of a limited scope dental benefits plan through the Exchange...

  3. 45 CFR 155.1065 - Stand-alone dental plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-alone dental plans. 155.1065 Section 155... Functions: Certification of Qualified Health Plans § 155.1065 Stand-alone dental plans. (a) General requirements. The Exchange must allow the offering of a limited scope dental benefits plan through the Exchange...

  4. Stand-alone tsunami alarm equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Akio; Hayashi, Yutaka; Miyaoka, Kazuki; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshitaka; Catalán, Patricio A.; Zelaya, Cecilia; Riquelme Vasquez, Felipe; Sanchez-Olavarria, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Sergio

    2017-05-01

    One of the quickest means of tsunami evacuation is transfer to higher ground soon after strong and long ground shaking. Ground shaking itself is a good initiator of the evacuation from disastrous tsunami. Longer period seismic waves are considered to be more correlated with the earthquake magnitude. We investigated the possible application of this to tsunami hazard alarm using single-site ground motion observation. Information from the mass media is sometimes unavailable due to power failure soon after a large earthquake. Even when an official alarm is available, multiple information sources of tsunami alert would help people become aware of the coming risk of a tsunami. Thus, a device that indicates risk of a tsunami without requiring other data would be helpful to those who should evacuate. Since the sensitivity of a low-cost MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer is sufficient for this purpose, tsunami alarm equipment for home use may be easily realized. Amplitude of long-period (20 s cutoff) displacement was proposed as the threshold for the alarm based on empirical relationships among magnitude, tsunami height, hypocentral distance, and peak ground displacement of seismic waves. Application of this method to recent major earthquakes indicated that such equipment could effectively alert people to the possibility of tsunami.

  5. 21 CFR 801.50 - Labeling requirements for stand-alone software.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling requirements for stand-alone software....50 Labeling requirements for stand-alone software. (a) Stand-alone software that is not distributed... in packaged form, stand-alone software regulated as a medical device must provide its unique device...

  6. A stochastic method for stand-alone photovoltaic system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Cabral, Claudia Valeria Tavora; Filho, Delly Oliveira; Martins, Jose Helvecio

    Photovoltaic systems utilize solar energy to generate electrical energy to meet load demands. Optimal sizing of these systems includes the characterization of solar radiation. Solar radiation at the Earth's surface has random characteristics and has been the focus of various academic studies. The objective of this study was to stochastically analyze parameters involved in the sizing of photovoltaic generators and develop a methodology for sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Energy storage for isolated systems and solar radiation were analyzed stochastically due to their random behavior. For the development of the methodology proposed stochastic analysis were studied including the Markov chainmore » and beta probability density function. The obtained results were compared with those for sizing of stand-alone using from the Sandia method (deterministic), in which the stochastic model presented more reliable values. Both models present advantages and disadvantages; however, the stochastic one is more complex and provides more reliable and realistic results. (author)« less

  7. Item Banking Enables Stand-Alone Measurement of Driving Ability.

    PubMed

    Khadka, Jyoti; Fenwick, Eva K; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2016-12-01

    To explore whether large item sets, as used in item banking, enable important latent traits, such as driving, to form stand-alone measures. The 88-item activity limitation (AL) domain of the glaucoma module of the Eye-tem Bank was interviewer-administered to patients with glaucoma. Rasch analysis was used to calibrate all items in AL domain on the same interval-level scale and test its psychometric properties. Based on Rasch dimensionality metrics, the AL scale was separated into subscales. These subscales underwent separate Rasch analyses to test whether they could form stand-alone measures. Independence of these measures was tested with Bland and Altman (B&A) Limit of Agreement (LOA). The AL scale was completed by 293 patients (median age, 71 years). It demonstrated excellent precision (3.12). However, Rasch analysis dimensionality metrics indicated that the domain arguably had other dimensions which were driving, luminance, and reading. Once separated, the remaining AL items, driving and luminance subscales, were unidimensional and had excellent precision of 4.25, 2.94, and 2.22, respectively. The reading subscale showed poor precision (1.66), so it was not examined further. The luminance subscale demonstrated excellent agreement (mean bias, 0.2 logit; 95% LOA, -2.2 to 3.3 logit); however, the driving subscale demonstrated poor agreement (mean bias, 1.1 logit; 95% LOA, -4.8 to 7.0 logit) with the AL scale. These findings indicate that driving items in the AL domain of the glaucoma module were perceived and responded to differently from the other AL items, but the reading and luminance items were not. Therefore, item banking enables stand-alone measurement of driving ability in glaucoma.

  8. Availability model of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazurek, G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we present a simple, empirical model of stand-alone photovoltaic power system availability. The model is a final result of five-year long studies and ground measurements of solar irradiation carried out in Central Europe. The obtained results facilitate sizing of PV modules that have to be installed with taking into account system's availability level in each month of a year. The model can be extended to different geographical locations, with help of local meteorological data or solar irradiation datasets derived from satellite measurements.

  9. Benchmarking the Collocation Stand-Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven; Knittel, Jeremy; Shoan, Wendy; Kim, Youngkwang; Conway, Claire; Conway, Darrel J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the processes and results of Verification and Validation (VV) efforts for the Collocation Stand Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT). We describe the test program and environments, the tools used for independent test data, and comparison results. The VV effort employs classical problems with known analytic solutions, solutions from other available software tools, and comparisons to benchmarking data available in the public literature. Presenting all test results are beyond the scope of a single paper. Here we present high-level test results for a broad range of problems, and detailed comparisons for selected problems.

  10. Benchmarking the Collocation Stand-Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven; Knittel, Jeremy; Shoan, Wendy (Compiler); Kim, Youngkwang; Conway, Claire (Compiler); Conway, Darrel

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the processes and results of Verification and Validation (V&V) efforts for the Collocation Stand Alone Library and Toolkit (CSALT). We describe the test program and environments, the tools used for independent test data, and comparison results. The V&V effort employs classical problems with known analytic solutions, solutions from other available software tools, and comparisons to benchmarking data available in the public literature. Presenting all test results are beyond the scope of a single paper. Here we present high-level test results for a broad range of problems, and detailed comparisons for selected problems.

  11. Modular photovoltaic stand-alone systems: Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    A family of modular stand-alone power systems that covered the range in power level from 1 kw to 14 kw was developed. Products within this family were required to be easily adaptable to different environments and applications, and were to be both reliable and cost effective. Additionally, true commonality in hardware was to be exploited, and unnecessary recurrence of design and development costs were to be minimized; thus improving hardware availability. Assurance of compatibility with large production runs, was also an underlying program goal. A secondary objective was to compile, evaluate, and determine the economic and technical status of available, and potentially available, technology options associated with the balance of systems (BOS) for stand-along photovoltaic (PV) power systems. The secondary objective not only directly supported the primary but additionally contributed to the definition and implementation of the BOS cost reduction plan.

  12. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  13. DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Ratajczak, A. F.

    1983-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system activities sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, PV-powered medical refrigerators in six countries, PV system microprocessor control development activities and PV-hybrid system assessments. The AID project includes a large village system in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding project in Upper Volta, five medical clinics in four countries, PV-powered remote earth station application. These PV activities and summarizes significant findings to data are reviewed.

  14. 45 CFR 156.150 - Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the... STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.150 Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the Exchange. (a) Annual limitation on cost-sharing. For a stand-alone dental plan covering...

  15. 45 CFR 156.150 - Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the Exchange.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the... STANDARDS RELATED TO EXCHANGES Essential Health Benefits Package § 156.150 Application to stand-alone dental plans inside the Exchange. (a) Annual limitation on cost-sharing. A stand-alone dental plan covering the...

  16. System design optimization for stand-alone photovoltaic systems sizing by using superstructure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azau, M. A. M.; Jaafar, S.; Samsudin, K.

    2013-06-01

    Although the photovoltaic (PV) systems have been increasingly installed as an alternative and renewable green power generation, the initial set up cost, maintenance cost and equipment mismatch are some of the key issues that slows down the installation in small household. This paper presents the design optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems using superstructure model where all possible types of technology of the equipment are captured and life cycle cost analysis is formulated as a mixed integer programming (MIP). A model for investment planning of power generation and long-term decision model are developed in order to help the system engineer to build a cost effective system.

  17. A control strategy for PV stand-alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slouma, S.; Baccar, H.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system study in domestic applications. Because of the decrease in power of photovoltaic module as a consequence of changes in solar radiation and temperature which affect the photovoltaic module performance, the design and control of DC-DC buck converter was proposed for providing power to the load from a photovoltaic source.In fact, the control of this converter is carried out with integrated MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm which ensures a maximum energy generated by the PV arrays. Moreover, the output stage is composed by a battery energy storage system, dc-ac inverter, LCL filter which enables higher efficiency, low distortion ac waveforms and low leakage currents. The control strategy adopted is cascade control composed by two regulation loops.Simulations performed with PSIM software were able to validate the control system.The realization and testing of the photovoltaic system were achieved in the Photovoltaic laboratory of the Centre for Research and Energy Technologies at the Technopark Borj Cedria. Experimental results verify the effeciency of the proposed system.

  18. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-07-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

  19. Improving efficiency of a regional stand alone bone bank.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Jonathan M; Rowan, Clare H; Davidson, Helen; Millar, Ciara; McAlinden, M Gavan

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of a stand-alone Bone Bank in our Regional Orthopaedic Hospital has improved the availability of femoral head allograft. Benninger et al. (Bone Joint J 96-B:1307-1311, 2014), demonstrated their institutions bank to be cost effective despite a 30 % discard rate for harvested allograft. We sought to audit our own discard rates and subsequent cost-effectiveness of our bone bank. Donor recruitment. Before approaching a potential donor, our establishment's nurse specialists review their clinical notes and biochemical laboratory results, available on a regional Electronic Care Records. They view femoral head architecture on radiographs against set criteria, Patient Archive and Communication system (SECTRA, Sweden). In total 1383 femoral heads were harvested, 247 were discarded giving an overall rate of 17.9 %. The most common reasons for discard of harvested graft was a positive microbiology/bacteriology result, n = 96 (38.9 %). After a rise in discard rates in 2007, we have steadily reduced our discard rates since 2006/2007 (28.2 %), 2008/2009 (17 %), 2010/2011 (14.8 %), and finally to 10.3 % in 2012/2013. In the current financial year, our cost to harvest, test, store and release a femoral head is £ 610. With a structured donor recruitment process and unique pre-operative radiographic analysis we have successfully reduced our discard rates bi-annually making our bone bank increasingly cost-effective.

  20. Testing the stand-alone microbeam at Columbia University.

    PubMed

    Garty, G; Ross, G J; Bigelow, A W; Randers-Pehrson, G; Brenner, D J

    2006-01-01

    The stand-alone microbeam at Columbia University presents a novel approach to biological microbeam irradiation studies. Foregoing a conventional accelerator as a source of energetic ions, a small, high-specific-activity, alpha emitter is used. Alpha particles emitted from this source are focused using a compound magnetic lens consisting of 24 permanent magnets arranged in two quadrupole triplets. Using a 'home made' 6.5 mCi polonium source, a 1 alpha particle s(-1), 10 microm diameter microbeam can, in principle, be realised. As the alpha source energy is constant, once the microbeam has been set up, no further adjustments are necessary apart from a periodic replacement of the source. The use of permanent magnets eliminates the need for bulky power supplies and cooling systems required by other types of ion lenses and greatly simplifies operation. It also makes the microbeam simple and cheap enough to be realised in any large lab. The Microbeam design as well as first tests of its performance, using an accelerator-based beam are presented here.

  1. Photovoltaic stand-alone modular systems, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naff, G. J.; Marshall, N. A.

    1983-01-01

    The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.

  2. Design requirements for a stand alone EUV interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michallon, Ph.; Constancias, C.; Lagrange, A.; Dalzotto, B.

    2008-03-01

    EUV lithography is expected to be inserted for the 32/22 nm nodes with possible extension below. EUV resist availability remains one of the main issues to be resolved. There is an urgent need to provide suitable tools to accelerate resist development and to achieve resolution, LER and sensitivity specifications simultaneously. An interferometer lithography tool offers advantages regarding conventional EUV exposure tool. It allows the evaluation of resists, free from the deficiencies of optics and mask which are limiting the achieved resolution. Traditionally, a dedicated beam line from a synchrotron, with limited access, is used as a light source in EUV interference lithography. This paper identifies the technology locks to develop a stand alone EUV interferometer using a compact EUV source. It will describe the theoretical solutions adopted and especially look at the feasibility according to available technologies. EUV sources available on the market have been evaluated in terms of power level, source size, spatial coherency, dose uniformity, accuracy, stability and reproducibility. According to the EUV source characteristics, several optic designs were studied (simple or double gratings). For each of these solutions, the source and collimation optic specifications have been determined. To reduce the exposure time, a new grating technology will also be presented allowing to significantly increasing the transmission system efficiency. The optical grating designs were studied to allow multi-pitch resolution print on the same exposure without any focus adjustment. Finally micro mechanical system supporting the gratings was studied integrating the issues due to vacuum environment, alignment capability, motion precision, automation and metrology to ensure the needed placement control between gratings and wafer. A similar study was carried out for the collimation-optics mechanical support which depends on the source characteristics.

  3. Design of Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System at Brumbun Beach Tulungagung East Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmat, A. N.; Hidayat, M. N.; Ronilaya, F.; Setiawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Indonesian government insists to optimize the use of renewable energy resources in electricity generation. One of the efforts is launching Independent Energy Village plan. This program aims to fulfill the need of electricity for isolated or remote villages in Indonesia. In order to support the penetration of renewable energy resources in electricity generation, a hybrid power generation system is developed. The simulation in this research is based on the availability of renewable energy resources in Brumbun beach, Tulungagung, East Java. Initially, the electricity was supplied through stand-alone electricity generations which are installed at each house. Hence, the use of electricity between 5 p.m. – 9 p.m. requires high operational costs. Based on the problem above, this research is conducted to design a stand-alone hybrid electricity generation system, which may consist of diesel, wind, and photovoltaic. The design is done by using HOMER software to optimize the use of electricity from renewable resources and to reduce the operation of diesel generation. The combination of renewable energy resources in electricity generation resulted in NPC of 44.680, COE of 0,268, and CO2 emissions of 0,038 % much lower than the use of diesel generator only.

  4. Imagery rescripting as a stand-alone treatment for patients with social phobia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Frets, Petra G; Kevenaar, Ciska; van der Heiden, Colin

    2014-03-01

    The majority of patients with social phobia reports experiencing negative images, usually linked to memories of earlier aversive social experiences. Several studies have indicated that such negative self-imagery appears to have a causal role in maintaining social phobia, which suggests that interventions aimed at dealing with these images could be beneficial in the treatment of social phobia. One potentially powerful approach is imagery rescripting (IR), a clinical intervention that focuses on changing the meaning and impact of unpleasant memories. In the treatment of social phobia IR was only used as part of a broader cognitive-behavioral treatment package. However, we propose that IR alone might also be an effective treatment for this anxiety disorder. The present study reports an initial evaluation of the application of IR as a stand-alone treatment for six adult outpatients presenting with social phobia. A single case series using an A-B replication across patients design was employed. Following a no-treatment baseline period, IR was delivered weekly and patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months. For all patients, substantial reductions were obtained on all outcome measures at post-treatment, and gains were largely maintained at 6-months follow-up. The generalizability of the effects of IR for social phobia is limited by the small number of patients treated by only one therapist. The results of this preliminary case series suggest that IR as a stand alone treatment is an apparently effective intervention in the treatment of patients with social phobia, and indicate that controlled evaluation of its efficacy might be worthwhile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Life cycle cost analysis of a stand-alone PV system in rural Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Emma

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system to electrify a rural area in Kenya. The research conducted involved a comprehensive review of all the relevant literature associated with the study. Methodologies were extrapolated from this extensive literature to develop a model for the complete design and economic analysis of a stand-alone PV system. A women's center in rural Kenya was used as a worked example to demonstrate the workings of the model. The results suggest that electrifying the center using a stand-alone PV system is an economically viable option which is encouraging for the surrounding area. This model can be used as a business model to determine the economic feasibility of a stand-alone PV system in alternative sites in Kenya.

  6. Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) for the space shuttle Orbiter, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, Bill

    1989-01-01

    The Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) specifications are examined. The HP.SAPMD GSE software is listed; the HP/SGA readme program is presented; and the SPMD acceptance test procedure is described.

  7. Key factors for the implementation of successful, stand-alone village electrification schemes in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Campos, Teodoro

    The hypothesis of this work is that there are social, financial, technical, managerial institutional and political key factors that may either support or prevent the success of small stand alone energy systems in rural areas. This research work aims at contributing to the identification of such factors and study their relevance to the performance and sustainability of stand alone energy systems in rural areas; to meet its purpose, a wide range of literature was reviewed including rural electrification programmes and projects, research and development projects on access to electricity in rural areas, impact studies and others, and a field research survey was done the Andes and Upper Jungle regions in Peru. Nineteen possible critical factors were identified, thirteen with relevance at the local context (the community or village), and six with relevance at the national (or wider) context. From literature review it was found that the possible local critical factors were relevant only to four categories of factors instead of the six considered initially (i.e. social, financial, technological and managerial): the other two categories, political and institutional were found to be more relevant to the national context, therefore those were included in the group of possible critical factors of wider context. A series of questionnaires were designed to collect field data information, which was later used to analyse and establish the relation of each identified factor with the success of the systems studied. The survey research was implemented in 14 villages, 7 with small diesel sets and 7 with small hydropower schemes, all spread in the Andes and Upper Jungle of Peru, which were carefully selected to be representative of regions with isolated stand alone systems and with different socioeconomic background. Out of the 13 possible critical factors of local context, it was found that only 3 are really critical, the others are important but not critical; one of them (technical

  8. Performance and Simulation of a Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, S. T.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Assadi, M. K.; Gilani, S. I. U. H.; Khlief, A. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a Simulink® Thermolib Model has been established for simulation performance evaluation of Stand-alone Parabolic Trough Solar Thermal Power Plant in Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Malaysia. This paper proposes a design of 1.2 kW parabolic trough power plant. The model is capable to predict temperatures at any system outlet in the plant, as well as the power output produced. The conditions that are taken into account as input to the model are: local solar radiation and ambient temperatures, which have been measured during the year. Other parameters that have been input to the model are the collector’s sizes, location in terms of latitude and altitude. Lastly, the results are presented in graphical manner to describe the analysed variations of various outputs of the solar fields obtained, and help to predict the performance of the plant. The developed model allows an initial evaluation of the viability and technical feasibility of any similar solar thermal power plant.

  9. SAPT units turn-on in an interference-dominant environment. [Stand Alone Pressure Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, W.-C.; Yang, C.-C.; Lichtenberg, C.

    1990-01-01

    A stand alone pressure transducer (SAPT) is a credit-card-sized smart pressure sensor inserted between the tile and the aluminum skin of a space shuttle. Reliably initiating the SAPT units via RF signals in a prelaunch environment is a challenging problem. Multiple-source interference may exist if more than one GSE (ground support equipment) antenna is turned on at the same time to meet the simultaneity requirement of 10 ms. A polygon model for orbiter, external tank, solid rocket booster, and tail service masts is used to simulate the prelaunch environment. Geometric optics is then applied to identify the coverage areas and the areas which are vulnerable to multipath and/or multiple-source interference. Simulation results show that the underside areas of an orbiter have incidence angles exceeding 80 deg. For multipath interference, both sides of the cargo bay areas are found to be vulnerable to a worst-case multipath loss exceeding 20 dB. Multiple-source interference areas are also identified. Mitigation methods for the coverage and interference problem are described. It is shown that multiple-source interference can be eliminated (or controlled) using the time-division-multiplexing method or the time-stamp approach.

  10. Integrated versus stand-alone second generation ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse and trash.

    PubMed

    Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cavalett, Otávio; Cunha, Marcelo P; Jesus, Charles D F; Rossell, Carlos E V; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Bonomi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials is often conceived considering independent, stand-alone production plants; in the Brazilian scenario, where part of the potential feedstock (sugarcane bagasse) for second generation ethanol production is already available at conventional first generation production plants, an integrated first and second generation production process seems to be the most obvious option. In this study stand-alone second generation ethanol production from surplus sugarcane bagasse and trash is compared with conventional first generation ethanol production from sugarcane and with integrated first and second generation; simulations were developed to represent the different technological scenarios, which provided data for economic and environmental analysis. Results show that the integrated first and second generation ethanol production process from sugarcane leads to better economic results when compared with the stand-alone plant, especially when advanced hydrolysis technologies and pentoses fermentation are included. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The eBioKit, a stand-alone educational platform for bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Conesa, Ana; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Bioinformatics skills have become essential for many research areas; however, the availability of qualified researchers is usually lower than the demand and training to increase the number of able bioinformaticians is an important task for the bioinformatics community. When conducting training or hands-on tutorials, the lack of control over the analysis tools and repositories often results in undesirable situations during training, as unavailable online tools or version conflicts may delay, complicate, or even prevent the successful completion of a training event. The eBioKit is a stand-alone educational platform that hosts numerous tools and databases for bioinformatics research and allows training to take place in a controlled environment. A key advantage of the eBioKit over other existing teaching solutions is that all the required software and databases are locally installed on the system, significantly reducing the dependence on the internet. Furthermore, the architecture of the eBioKit has demonstrated itself to be an excellent balance between portability and performance, not only making the eBioKit an exceptional educational tool but also providing small research groups with a platform to incorporate bioinformatics analysis in their research. As a result, the eBioKit has formed an integral part of training and research performed by a wide variety of universities and organizations such as the Pan African Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) as part of the initiative Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa), the Southern Africa Network for Biosciences (SAnBio) initiative, the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub, and the International Glossina Genome Initiative. PMID:28910280

  12. The eBioKit, a stand-alone educational platform for bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Hernández-de-Diego, Rafael; de Villiers, Etienne P; Klingström, Tomas; Gourlé, Hadrien; Conesa, Ana; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Bioinformatics skills have become essential for many research areas; however, the availability of qualified researchers is usually lower than the demand and training to increase the number of able bioinformaticians is an important task for the bioinformatics community. When conducting training or hands-on tutorials, the lack of control over the analysis tools and repositories often results in undesirable situations during training, as unavailable online tools or version conflicts may delay, complicate, or even prevent the successful completion of a training event. The eBioKit is a stand-alone educational platform that hosts numerous tools and databases for bioinformatics research and allows training to take place in a controlled environment. A key advantage of the eBioKit over other existing teaching solutions is that all the required software and databases are locally installed on the system, significantly reducing the dependence on the internet. Furthermore, the architecture of the eBioKit has demonstrated itself to be an excellent balance between portability and performance, not only making the eBioKit an exceptional educational tool but also providing small research groups with a platform to incorporate bioinformatics analysis in their research. As a result, the eBioKit has formed an integral part of training and research performed by a wide variety of universities and organizations such as the Pan African Bioinformatics Network (H3ABioNet) as part of the initiative Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa), the Southern Africa Network for Biosciences (SAnBio) initiative, the Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) hub, and the International Glossina Genome Initiative.

  13. EVALUATION AND USE OF STAND-ALONE COMMERCIAL PHOTOLYTIC CONVERTERS FOR NO2 TO NO CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of stand-alone commercial photolytic converters of NO2 to NO are now available for use with NO, O3 chemiluminescence monitors for the measurement of NO2. Both units have been tested for interferences resulting from photolysis of HONO or from decomposition of PAN. On...

  14. Linguistic and Structural Analyses of Stand-Alone Literature Reviews: Seventy-Five Years of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Heidi Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to offer a multifaceted overview of stand-alone literature reviews. These texts, literature reviews published unattached to research articles, have existed for centuries but remained largely unstudied by linguists. Thus, the goal of this project is to present these reviews' situational, grammatical, and…

  15. Maintaining the Dialogue: Joint Involvement in a Stand-Alone CD-Rom Chinese Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orton, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Presents a stand-alone CD-Rom version of a Web-based course in Modern Standard Chinese and addresses the problem of losing opportunities for negotiation in joint involvement episodes with teachers and peers in the CD-ROM course. Demonstrates trials of a mode of self-assessment in tasks using annotated sample texts generated by other students. (VWL)

  16. The Stand-Alone Microprocessor System: A Valuable Tool in College Admissions and Recruitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Larry Neal

    1983-01-01

    The stand-alone microprocessor is seen as one innovative tool that can be used both in the organizational management of decline and in meeting specific organizational needs such as those of the admissions director and staff. The term "microprocessor" is defined. (MLW)

  17. Human microRNA target analysis and gene ontology clustering by GOmir, a novel stand-alone application

    PubMed Central

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Zotos, Pantelis; Papachristoudis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Background microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of about 20–23 nucleotides length found in a wide variety of organisms. miRNAs regulate gene expression, by interacting with target mRNAs at specific sites in order to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. Predicting or verifying mRNA targets of specific miRNAs is a difficult process of great importance. Results GOmir is a novel stand-alone application consisting of two separate tools: JTarget and TAGGO. JTarget integrates miRNA target prediction and functional analysis by combining the predicted target genes from TargetScan, miRanda, RNAhybrid and PicTar computational tools as well as the experimentally supported targets from TarBase and also providing a full gene description and functional analysis for each target gene. On the other hand, TAGGO application is designed to automatically group gene ontology annotations, taking advantage of the Gene Ontology (GO), in order to extract the main attributes of sets of proteins. GOmir represents a new tool incorporating two separate Java applications integrated into one stand-alone Java application. Conclusion GOmir (by using up to five different databases) introduces miRNA predicted targets accompanied by (a) full gene description, (b) functional analysis and (c) detailed gene ontology clustering. Additionally, a reverse search initiated by a potential target can also be conducted. GOmir can freely be downloaded BRFAA. PMID:19534746

  18. Human microRNA target analysis and gene ontology clustering by GOmir, a novel stand-alone application.

    PubMed

    Roubelakis, Maria G; Zotos, Pantelis; Papachristoudis, Georgios; Michalopoulos, Ioannis; Pappa, Kalliopi I; Anagnou, Nicholas P; Kossida, Sophia

    2009-06-16

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of about 20-23 nucleotides length found in a wide variety of organisms. miRNAs regulate gene expression, by interacting with target mRNAs at specific sites in order to induce cleavage of the message or inhibit translation. Predicting or verifying mRNA targets of specific miRNAs is a difficult process of great importance. GOmir is a novel stand-alone application consisting of two separate tools: JTarget and TAGGO. JTarget integrates miRNA target prediction and functional analysis by combining the predicted target genes from TargetScan, miRanda, RNAhybrid and PicTar computational tools as well as the experimentally supported targets from TarBase and also providing a full gene description and functional analysis for each target gene. On the other hand, TAGGO application is designed to automatically group gene ontology annotations, taking advantage of the Gene Ontology (GO), in order to extract the main attributes of sets of proteins. GOmir represents a new tool incorporating two separate Java applications integrated into one stand-alone Java application. GOmir (by using up to five different databases) introduces miRNA predicted targets accompanied by (a) full gene description, (b) functional analysis and (c) detailed gene ontology clustering. Additionally, a reverse search initiated by a potential target can also be conducted. GOmir can freely be downloaded BRFAA.

  19. The effectiveness of stand alone air cleaners for shelter-in-place.

    PubMed

    Ward, M; Siegel, J A; Corsi, R L

    2005-04-01

    Stand-alone air cleaners may be efficient for rapid removal of indoor fine particles and have potential use for shelter-in-place (SIP) strategies following acts of bioterrorism. A screening model was employed to ascertain the potential significance of size-resolved particle (0.1-2 microm) removal using portable high efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) air cleaners in residential buildings following an outdoor release of particles. The number of stand-alone air cleaners, air exchange rate, volumetric flow rate through the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, and size-resolved particle removal efficiency in the HVAC filter were varied. The effectiveness of air cleaners for SIP was evaluated in terms of the outdoor and the indoor particle concentration with air cleaner(s) relative to the indoor concentration without air cleaners. Through transient and steady-state analysis of the model it was determined that one to three portable HEPA air cleaners can be effective for SIP following outdoor bioaerosol releases, with maximum reductions in particle concentrations as high as 90% relative to conditions in which an air cleaner is not employed. The relative effectiveness of HEPA air cleaners vs. other removal mechanisms was predicted to decrease with increasing particle size, because of increasing competition by particle deposition with indoor surfaces and removal to HVAC filters. However, the effect of particle size was relatively small for most scenarios considered here. The results of a screening analysis suggest that stand-alone (portable) air cleaners that contain high efficiency particle arresting (HEPA) filters can be effective for reducing indoor fine particle concentrations in residential dwellings during outdoor releases of biological warfare agents. The relative effectiveness of stand-alone air cleaners for reducing occupants' exposure to particles of outdoor origin depends on several factors, including the type of heating, ventilating and air

  20. Hybrid Configuration of Darrieus and Savonius Rotors for Stand-alone Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Tanzawa, Yoshiaki; Hashizume, Takumi; Nagao, Toshio

    The suitable hybrid configuration of Darrieus lift-type and Savonius drag-type rotors for stand-alone wind turbine-generator systems is discussed using our dynamic simulation model. Two types of hybrid configurations are taken up: Type-A installs the Savonius rotor inside the Darrieus rotor and Type-B installs the Savonius rotor outside the Darrieus rotor. The computed results of the output characteristics and the dynamic behaviors of the system operated at the maximum power coefficient points show that Type-A, which has fine operating behavior to wind speed changes and can be compactly designed because of a shorter rotational shaft, is an effective way for self-controlled stand-alone small-scale systems.

  1. Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) for the space shuttle Orbiter, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, Bill

    1989-01-01

    The specifications for the Stand Alone Pressure Measurement Device (SAPMD) are as follows: the SAPMD shall measure ambient pressure at the surface of the Orbiter TPS in the range of 0 to 15 pounds per square inch absolute (PSIA). Measurement will begin at solid rocket booster (SRB) ignition as sensed by appropriate vibration sensing elements in the SAPMD. Pressure and corresponding real-time data are to be recorded every one tenth second for 140 seconds and at the end of the recording period, the operation will be discontinued with the data preserved for interrogation subsequent to Orbiter re-entry and landing. The type and size of the battery shall be such as to allow the vibration sensing elements and a real-time clock to be initialized a minimum of 30 day prior to launch and still provide power as necessary to perform the 140 second data recording period after SRB ignition. Battery installation shall be in such a manner as to allow battery replacement without removing the SAPMD from its position or removing more than one TPS tile. The SAPMD must be mounted in specific locations under tile of the TPS. To accommodate such mounting, the absolute maximum physical dimensions much not exceed 6.0 inches in length, 1.5 inches in width, and 0.4 inches in height, and the device shall be of such configuration that it can be bonded to the Orbiter skin at the joint line of two TPS tiles with the pressure sensing port at the surface of the tile. The SAPMD must remain operational in the temperature range of -40 to +85 C and survive storage temperature of -55 to +125 C. The pressure port must withstand 934 C without causing damage to the TPS during entry and must remain functional at 262 C during ascent. The accuracy of the pressure measurement must be plus or minus one-half PSIA over a temperature range of 0 to +36 C. All the specifications were met and verified by prototype testing and documented in the enclosed test data. Four flight-qualified models were fabricated and of

  2. Development of a microprocessor controller for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.

  3. Space crew radiation exposure analysis system based on a commercial stand-alone CAD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew H.; Golightly, Michael J.; Hardy, Alva C.

    1992-01-01

    Major improvements have recently been completed in the approach to spacecraft shielding analysis. A Computer-Aided Design (CAD)-based system has been developed for determining the shielding provided to any point within or external to the spacecraft. Shielding analysis is performed using a commercially available stand-alone CAD system and a customized ray-tracing subroutine contained within a standard engineering modeling software package. This improved shielding analysis technique has been used in several vehicle design projects such as a Mars transfer habitat, pressurized lunar rover, and the redesigned Space Station. Results of these analyses are provided to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the system.

  4. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling A Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Douglas D.; Hanson, John M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a framework for development of specific algorithms and procedures that propagate the time-domain solution for a dynamical system simulation consisting of multiple numerically coupled self-contained stand-alone subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (other dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Centralized and distributed versions of coupling structure have been addressed. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system simultaneous-solution approach.

  5. Improvements and applications of COBRA-TF for stand-alone and coupled LWR safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Avramova, M.; Cuervo, D.; Ivanov, K.

    2006-07-01

    The advanced thermal-hydraulic subchannel code COBRA-TF has been recently improved and applied for stand-alone and coupled LWR core calculations at the Pennsylvania State Univ. in cooperation with AREVA NP GmbH (Germany)) and the Technical Univ. of Madrid. To enable COBRA-TF for academic and industrial applications including safety margins evaluations and LWR core design analyses, the code programming, numerics, and basic models were revised and substantially improved. The code has undergone through an extensive validation, verification, and qualification program. (authors)

  6. Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.

    PubMed

    2005-03-01

    Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice.

  7. Stand-alone scattering optical device using holographic photopolymer (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongchan; Lee, KyeoReh; Park, YongKeun

    2016-03-01

    When a light propagates through highly disordered medium, its optical parameters such as amplitude, phase and polarization states are completely scrambled because of multiple scattering events. Since the multiple scattering is a fundamental optical process that contains extremely high degrees of freedom, optical information of a transmitted light is totally mingled. Until recently, the presence of multiple scattering in an inhomogeneous medium is considered as a major obstacle when manipulating a light transmitting through the medium. However, a recent development of wavefront shaping techniques enable us to control the propagation of light through turbid media; a light transmitting through a turbid medium can be effectively controlled by modulating the spatial profile of the incident light using spatial light modulator. In this work, stand-alone scattering optical device is proposed; a holographic photopolymer film, which is much economic compared to the other digital spatial light modulators, is used to record and reconstruct permanent wavefront to generate optical field behind a scattering medium. By employing our method, arbitrary optical field can be generated since the scattering medium completely mixes all the optical parameters which allow us to access all the optical information only by modulating spatial phase profile of the impinging wavefront. The method is experimentally demonstrated in both the far-field and near-field regime where it shows promising fidelity and stability. The proposed stand-alone scattering optical device will opens up new avenues for exploiting the randomness inherent in disordered medium.

  8. Robust Power Management Control for Stand-Alone Hybrid Power Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Elkhatib; Adouane, Lounis; Aitouche, Abdel; Mohammed, Walaa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new robust fuzzy control of energy management strategy for the stand-alone hybrid power systems. It consists of two levels named centralized fuzzy supervisory control which generates the power references for each decentralized robust fuzzy control. Hybrid power systems comprises: a photovoltaic panel and wind turbine as renewable sources, a micro turbine generator and a battery storage system. The proposed control strategy is able to satisfy the load requirements based on a fuzzy supervisor controller and manage power flows between the different energy sources and the storage unit by respecting the state of charge and the variation of wind speed and irradiance. Centralized controller is designed based on If-Then fuzzy rules to manage and optimize the hybrid power system production by generating the reference power for photovoltaic panel and wind turbine. Decentralized controller is based on the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model and permits us to stabilize each photovoltaic panel and wind turbine in presence of disturbances and parametric uncertainties and to optimize the tracking reference which is given by the centralized controller level. The sufficient conditions stability are formulated in the format of linear matrix inequalities using the Lyapunov stability theory. The effectiveness of the proposed Strategy is finally demonstrated through a SAHPS (stand-alone hybrid power systems) to illustrate the effectiveness of the overall proposed method.

  9. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-11-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  10. Fuzzy logic control of stand-alone photovoltaic system with battery storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalouni, S.; Rekioua, D.; Rekioua, T.; Matagne, E.

    Photovoltaic energy has nowadays an increased importance in electrical power applications, since it is considered as an essentially inexhaustible and broadly available energy resource. However, the output power provided via the photovoltaic conversion process depends on solar irradiation and temperature. Therefore, to maximize the efficiency of the photovoltaic energy system, it is necessary to track the maximum power point of the PV array. The present paper proposes a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) method, based on fuzzy logic controller (FLC), applied to a stand-alone photovoltaic system. It uses a sampling measure of the PV array power and voltage then determines an optimal increment required to have the optimal operating voltage which permits maximum power tracking. This method carries high accuracy around the optimum point when compared to the conventional one. The stand-alone photovoltaic system used in this paper includes two bi-directional DC/DC converters and a lead-acid battery bank to overcome the scare periods. One converter works as an MPP tracker, while the other regulates the batteries state of charge and compensates the power deficit to provide a continuous delivery of energy to the load. The Obtained simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy logic controller.

  11. International market assessment of stand-alone photovoltaic power systems for cottage industry applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philippi, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The final result of an international assessment of the market for stand-alone photovoltaic systems in cottage industry applications is reported. Nonindustrialized countries without centrally planned economies were considered. Cottage industries were defined as small rural manufacturers, employing less than 50 people, producing consumer and simple products. The data to support this analysis were obtained from secondary and expert sources in the U.S. and in-country field investigations of the Philippines and Mexico. The near-term market for photovoltaics for rural cottage industry applications appears to be limited to demonstration projects and pilot programs, based on an in-depth study of the nature of cottage industry, its role in the rural economy, the electric energy requirements of cottage industry, and a financial analysis of stand-alone photovoltaic systems as compared to their most viable competitor, diesel driven generators. Photovoltaics are shown to be a better long-term option only for very low power requirements. Some of these uses would include clay mixers, grinders, centrifuges, lathes, power saws and lighting of a workshop.

  12. A Matched Cohort Analysis Comparing Stand-Alone Cages and Anterior Cervical Plates Used for Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Overley, Samuel C.; Merrill, Robert K.; Leven, Dante M.; Meaike, Joshua J.; Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Objective: To compare perioperative characteristics of stand-alone cages and anterior cervical plates used for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods: We reviewed 40 adult patients who received a stand-alone cage for elective ACDF and matched them with 40 patients who received an anterior cervical plate. We statistically compared operative time, length of stay, proportion of ambulatory cases, overall complications necessitating a trip to the ED, readmission, or reoperation related to index procedure. Results: There were 21 women and 19 men in the plate cohort with average ages of 53 years ± 12 and 20 women and 20 men in the stand-alone group with an average age of 52 years ± 11. With no statistical difference in total number, the plate group experienced 4 short-term (within 90 days of discharge) complications, including 3 patients who visited the emergency department for dysphagia and 1 who visited the emergency department for severe back pain, while the stand-alone group experienced 0 complications. There was no significant difference in operative time between the stand-alone group (75.35 min) and the plate group (81.35 min; P = .37). There was a significant difference between the proportion of ambulatory cases in the stand-alone group (25) and the plate group (6; P < .0001). Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that stand-alone cages have fewer complications compared to anterior plating, with a lower trend of incidence of postoperative dysphagia. Stand-alone cages may offer the advantage of sending patients home ambulatory after ACDF surgery. PMID:28811982

  13. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  14. System Simulation by Recursive Feedback: Coupling a Set of Stand-Alone Subsystem Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional construction of digital dynamic system simulations often involves collecting differential equations that model each subsystem, arran g them to a standard form, and obtaining their numerical gin solution as a single coupled, total-system simultaneous set. Simulation by numerical coupling of independent stand-alone subsimulations is a fundamentally different approach that is attractive because, among other things, the architecture naturally facilitates high fidelity, broad scope, and discipline independence. Recursive feedback is defined and discussed as a candidate approach to multidiscipline dynamic system simulation by numerical coupling of self-contained, single-discipline subsystem simulations. A satellite motion example containing three subsystems (orbit dynamics, attitude dynamics, and aerodynamics) has been defined and constructed using this approach. Conventional solution methods are used in the subsystem simulations. Distributed and centralized implementations of coupling have been considered. Numerical results are evaluated by direct comparison with a standard total-system, simultaneous-solution approach.

  15. Solar pv fed stand-alone excitation system of a synchronous machine for reactive power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar, N.; Jain, Siddhartha; Jyotheeswara Reddy, K.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a model of a stand-alone solar energy conversion system based on synchronous machine working as a synchronous condenser in overexcited state. The proposed model consists of a Synchronous Condenser, a DC/DC boost converter whose output is fed to the field of the SC. The boost converter is supplied by the modelled solar panel and a day time variable irradiance is fed to the panel during the simulation time. The model also has one alternate source of rechargeable batteries for the time when irradiance falls below a threshold value. Also the excess power produced when there is ample irradiance is divided in two parts and one is fed to the boost converter while other is utilized to recharge the batteries. A simulation is done in MATLAB-SIMULINK and the obtained results show the utility of such modelling for supplying reactive power is feasible.

  16. High Angular Sensitivity, Absolute Rotary Encoding Device with Polygonal Mirror and Stand-Alone Diffraction Gratings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a monochromatic light beam is directed towards the facets. The facets of the polygonal mirror direct the light beam to a stand-alone low line density diffraction grating to diffract the monochromatic light beam into a number of diffracted light beams such that a number of light spots are created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spots on the linear array detector means. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spots and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-lo-digital converter.

  17. Status of DOE and AID stand-alone photovoltaic system field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bifano, W. J.; Delombard, R.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Scudder, L. R.

    The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is managing stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (AID). The DOE project includes village PV power demonstration projects in Gabon (four sites) and the Marshall Islands, and PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in six countries. The AID project includes a large village power system, a farmhouse system and two water pumping-irrigation systems in Tunisia, a water pumping/grain grinding system in Upper Volta, five medical clinic systems in four countries, PV-powered vaccine refrigerator systems in 18 countries and a PV-powered remote earth station in Indonesia. This paper reviews these PV projects and summarizes significant findings to date.

  18. Study of Stand-Alone Microgrid under Condition of Faults on Distribution Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malla, S. G.; Bhende, C. N.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of stand-alone microgrid is analyzed under the condition of faults on distribution feeders. During fault since battery is not able to maintain dc-link voltage within limit, the resistive dump load control is presented to do so. An inverter control is proposed to maintain balanced voltages at PCC under the unbalanced load condition and to reduce voltage unbalance factor (VUF) at load points. The proposed inverter control also has facility to protect itself from high fault current. Existing maximum power point tracker (MPPT) algorithm is modified to limit the speed of generator during fault. Extensive simulation results using MATLAB/SIMULINK established that the performance of the controllers is quite satisfactory under different fault conditions as well as unbalanced load conditions.

  19. Stand-alone digital data storage control system including user control interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Kenneth D. (Inventor); Gray, David L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A storage control system includes an apparatus and method for user control of a storage interface to operate a storage medium to store data obtained by a real-time data acquisition system. Digital data received in serial format from the data acquisition system is first converted to a parallel format and then provided to the storage interface. The operation of the storage interface is controlled in accordance with instructions based on user control input from a user. Also, a user status output is displayed in accordance with storage data obtained from the storage interface. By allowing the user to control and monitor the operation of the storage interface, a stand-alone, user-controllable data storage system is provided for storing the digital data obtained by a real-time data acquisition system.

  20. Power quality improvement of a stand-alone power system subjected to various disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lone, Shameem Ahmad; Mufti, Mairaj Ud-Din

    In wind-diesel stand-alone power systems, the disturbances like random nature of wind power, turbulent wind, sudden changes in load demand and the wind park disconnection effect continuously the system voltage and frequency. The satisfactory operation of such a system is not an easy task and the control design has to take in to account all these subtleties. For maintaining the power quality, generally, a short-term energy storage device is used. In this paper, the performance of a wind-diesel system associated with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system is studied. The effect of installing SMES at wind park bus/load bus, on the system performance is investigated. To control the exchange of real and reactive powers between the SMES unit and the wind-diesel system, a control strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The dynamic models of the hybrid power system for most common scenarios are developed and the results presented.

  1. Use of small stand-alone Internet nodes as a distributed control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Robert W.; Kucera, Michael J.; Shea, Michael F.

    1994-12-01

    For several years, the standard model for accelerator control systems has been workstation consoles connected to VME local stations by a Local Area Network with analog and digital data being accessed via a field bus to custom I/O interface electronics. Commercially available hardware has now made it possible to implement a small stand-alone data acquisition station that combines the LAN connection, the computer, and the analog and digital I/O interface on a single board. This eliminates the complexity of a field bus and the associated proprietary I/O hardware. A minimum control system is one data acquisition station and a Macintosh or workstation console, both connected to the network; larger systems have more consoles and nodes. An implementation of this architecture is described along with performance and operational experience.

  2. A Meta-Analytic Review of Stand-Alone Interventions to Improve Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Alleva, Jessica M.; Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L.; Martijn, Carolien; Miles, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    Objective Numerous stand-alone interventions to improve body image have been developed. The present review used meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of such interventions, and to identify the specific change techniques that lead to improvement in body image. Methods The inclusion criteria were that (a) the intervention was stand-alone (i.e., solely focused on improving body image), (b) a control group was used, (c) participants were randomly assigned to conditions, and (d) at least one pretest and one posttest measure of body image was taken. Effect sizes were meta-analysed and moderator analyses were conducted. A taxonomy of 48 change techniques used in interventions targeted at body image was developed; all interventions were coded using this taxonomy. Results The literature search identified 62 tests of interventions (N = 3,846). Interventions produced a small-to-medium improvement in body image (d + = 0.38), a small-to-medium reduction in beauty ideal internalisation (d + = -0.37), and a large reduction in social comparison tendencies (d + = -0.72). However, the effect size for body image was inflated by bias both within and across studies, and was reliable but of small magnitude once corrections for bias were applied. Effect sizes for the other outcomes were no longer reliable once corrections for bias were applied. Several features of the sample, intervention, and methodology moderated intervention effects. Twelve change techniques were associated with improvements in body image, and three techniques were contra-indicated. Conclusions The findings show that interventions engender only small improvements in body image, and underline the need for large-scale, high-quality trials in this area. The review identifies effective techniques that could be deployed in future interventions. PMID:26418470

  3. Five-year durability of stand-alone interspinous process decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Pierce D; Patel, Vikas V; Orndorff, Douglas G; Lavelle, William F; Block, Jon E; Geisler, Fred H

    2017-01-01

    Background Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery in older adults. Interspinous process decompression (IPD) using a stand-alone spacer that functions as an extension blocker offers a minimally invasive treatment option for intermittent neurogenic claudication associated with spinal stenosis. Methods This study evaluated the 5-year clinical outcomes for IPD (Superion®) from a randomized controlled US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) noninferiority trial. Outcomes included Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) symptom severity (ss), physical function (pf), and patient satisfaction (ps) subdomains, leg and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results At 5 years, 84% of patients (74 of 88) demonstrated clinical success on at least two of three ZCQ domains. Individual ZCQ domain success rates were 75% (66 of 88), 81% (71 of 88), and 90% (79 of 88) for ZCQss, ZCQpf, and ZCQps, respectively. Leg and back pain success rates were 80% (68 of 85) and 65% (55 of 85), respectively, and the success rate for ODI was 65% (57 of 88). Percentage improvements over baseline were 42%, 39%, 75%, 66%, and 58% for ZCQss, ZCQpf, leg and back pain VAS, and ODI, respectively (all P<0.001). Within-group effect sizes were classified as very large for four of five clinical outcomes (ie, >1.0; all P<0.0001). Seventy-five percent of IPD patients were free from reoperation, revision, or supplemental fixation at their index level at 5 years. Conclusion After 5 years of follow-up, IPD with a stand-alone spacer provides sustained clinical benefit. PMID:28919727

  4. Five-year durability of stand-alone interspinous process decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Nunley, Pierce D; Patel, Vikas V; Orndorff, Douglas G; Lavelle, William F; Block, Jon E; Geisler, Fred H

    2017-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is the most common indication for spine surgery in older adults. Interspinous process decompression (IPD) using a stand-alone spacer that functions as an extension blocker offers a minimally invasive treatment option for intermittent neurogenic claudication associated with spinal stenosis. This study evaluated the 5-year clinical outcomes for IPD (Superion ® ) from a randomized controlled US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) noninferiority trial. Outcomes included Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) symptom severity (ss), physical function (pf), and patient satisfaction (ps) subdomains, leg and back pain visual analog scale (VAS), and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). At 5 years, 84% of patients (74 of 88) demonstrated clinical success on at least two of three ZCQ domains. Individual ZCQ domain success rates were 75% (66 of 88), 81% (71 of 88), and 90% (79 of 88) for ZCQss, ZCQpf, and ZCQps, respectively. Leg and back pain success rates were 80% (68 of 85) and 65% (55 of 85), respectively, and the success rate for ODI was 65% (57 of 88). Percentage improvements over baseline were 42%, 39%, 75%, 66%, and 58% for ZCQss, ZCQpf, leg and back pain VAS, and ODI, respectively (all P <0.001). Within-group effect sizes were classified as very large for four of five clinical outcomes (ie, >1.0; all P <0.0001). Seventy-five percent of IPD patients were free from reoperation, revision, or supplemental fixation at their index level at 5 years. After 5 years of follow-up, IPD with a stand-alone spacer provides sustained clinical benefit.

  5. Minimization of the energy storage requirements of a stand-alone wind power installation by means of photovoltaic panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaldellis, J. K.; Kostas, P.; Filios, A.

    2006-07-01

    Autonomous wind power systems are among the most interesting and environmentally friendly technological solutions for the electrification of remote consumers. In many cases, however, the battery contribution to the initial or the total operational cost is found to be dominant, discouraging further penetration of the available wind resource. This is basically the case for areas possessing a medium-low wind potential. On the other hand, several isolated consumers are located in regions having the regular benefit of an abundant and reliable solar energy supply. In this context the present study investigates the possibility of reducing the battery size of a stand-alone wind power installation by incorporating a small photovoltaic generator. For this purpose an integrated energy production installation based exclusively on renewable energy resources is hereby proposed. Subsequently a new numerical algorithm is developed that is able to estimate the appropriate dimensions of a similar system. According to the results obtained by long-term experimental measurements, the introduction of the photovoltaic panels considerably improves the operational and financial behaviour of the complete installation owing to the imposed significant battery capacity diminution. Copyright

  6. Are integrated HIV services less stigmatizing than stand-alone models of care? A comparative case study from Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Church, Kathryn; Wringe, Alison; Fakudze, Phelele; Kikuvi, Joshua; Simelane, Dudu; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Integrating HIV with primary health services has the potential to reduce HIV-related stigma through delivering care in settings disassociated with HIV. This study investigated the relationship between integrated care and felt stigma. The study design was a comparative case study of four models of HIV care in Swaziland, ranging from fully integrated to fully stand-alone HIV care. Methods An exit survey (N=602) measured differences in felt stigma across model of care; the primary outcome “perception of HIV status exposure through clinic attendance” was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. In-depth interviews (N=22) explored whether and how measured differences in stigma experiences were related to service integration. Results There were significant differences in perceived status exposure across models of care. After adjustment for potential confounding between sites, those at a partially integrated site and a partially stand-alone site had greater odds of perceived status exposure than those at the fully stand-alone site (aOR 3.33, 95% CI 1.98–5.60; and aOR 11.84, 95% CI 6.89–20.36, respectively). There was no difference between the fully stand-alone and the fully integrated clinic. Qualitative data suggested that many clients at HIV-only sites felt greater confidentiality knowing that those around them were positive, and support was gained from other HIV care clients. Confidentiality was maintained in various ways, even in stand-alone sites, through separate waiting areas for HIV testing and HIV treatment, and careful clinic and room labelling. Conclusions The relationship between model of care and stigma was complex, and the hypothesis that stigma is higher at stand-alone sites did not hold true in this high prevalence setting. Policy-makers should ensure that service integration does not increase stigma, in particular within partially integrated models of care. PMID:23336726

  7. A PDF projection method: A pressure algorithm for stand-alone transported PDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Asghar; Steinhilber, Gerd; Markus, Detlev; Maas, Ulrich

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a new formulation of the projection approach is introduced for stand-alone probability density function (PDF) methods. The method is suitable for applications in low-Mach number transient turbulent reacting flows. The method is based on a fractional step method in which first the advection-diffusion-reaction equations are modelled and solved within a particle-based PDF method to predict an intermediate velocity field. Then the mean velocity field is projected onto a space where the continuity for the mean velocity is satisfied. In this approach, a Poisson equation is solved on the Eulerian grid to obtain the mean pressure field. Then the mean pressure is interpolated at the location of each stochastic Lagrangian particle. The formulation of the Poisson equation avoids the time derivatives of the density (due to convection) as well as second-order spatial derivatives. This in turn eliminates the major sources of instability in the presence of stochastic noise that are inherent in particle-based PDF methods. The convergence of the algorithm (in the non-turbulent case) is investigated first by the method of manufactured solutions. Then the algorithm is applied to a one-dimensional turbulent premixed flame in order to assess the accuracy and convergence of the method in the case of turbulent combustion. As a part of this work, we also apply the algorithm to a more realistic flow, namely a transient turbulent reacting jet, in order to assess the performance of the method.

  8. Design of stand-alone brackish water desalination wind energy system for Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Habali, S.M.; Saleh, I.A.

    1994-06-01

    More than 100 underground water wells drilled in Jordan are known to have brackish water with total desolved solids (TDS) over 1500 ppm but not greater than 4000 ppm. The world standard for potable water limits the TDS count to 500 ppm in addition to being free from live microorganisms or dangerous mineral and organic substances. A reverse osmosis desalination scheme powered by a stand-alone wind energy converter (WEC) is proposed to produce fresh water water from wells located in potentially high-wind sites. The purpose of this study if to present the main design parameters and economic estimates of amore » wind-assisted RO system using a diesel engine as the baseline energy source and an electric wind turbine for the wind energy source. It is found that brackish water pumping and desalinating using WECs costs 0.67 to 1.16 JD/m[sup 3] (JD = Jordanian Dinar, 1US$ = 0.68 JD), which is less than using conventional diesel engines especially in remote areas. In addition, the wind-reverse osmosis system becomes more economically feasible for higher annual production rates or in good wind regimes.« less

  9. Solid oxide fuel cell hybrid system: Control strategy for stand-alone configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Mario L.

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is the development and testing of a control system for solid oxide fuel cell hybrid systems through dynamic simulations. Due to the complexity of these cycles, several parameters, such as the turbine rotational speed, the temperatures within the fuel cell, the differential pressure between the anodic and the cathodic side and the Steam-To-Carbon Ratio need to be monitored and kept within safe limits. Furthermore, in stand-alone conditions the system response to load variations is required to meet the global plant power demand at any time, supporting global load variations and avoiding dangerous or unstable conditions. The plant component models and their integration were carried out in previous studies. This paper focuses on the control strategy required for managing the net electrical power from the system, avoiding malfunctions or damage. Once the control system was developed and tuned, its performance was evaluated by simulating the transient behaviour of the whole hybrid cycle: the results for several operating conditions are presented and discussed.

  10. An intelligent stand-alone ultrasonic device for monitoring local structural damage: implementation and preliminary experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pertsch, Alexander; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Wang, Yang; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous structural health monitoring has the potential to significantly improve the safety management of aged, in-service civil structures. In particular, monitoring of local damage growth at hot-spot areas can help to prevent disastrous structural failures. Although ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) has proved to be effective in monitoring local damage growth, conventional equipment and devices are usually bulky and only suitable for scheduled human inspections. The objective of this research is to harness the latest developments in embedded hardware and wireless communication for developing a stand-alone, compact ultrasonic device. The device is directed at the continuous structural health monitoring of civil structures. Relying on battery power, the device possesses the functionalities of high-speed actuation, sensing, signal processing, and wireless communication. Integrated with contact ultrasonic transducers, the device can generate 1 MHz Rayleigh surface waves in a steel specimen and measure response waves. An envelope detection algorithm based on the Hilbert transform is presented for efficiently determining the peak values of the response signals, from which small surface cracks are successfully identified.

  11. NOY: a neutrino observatory network project based on stand alone air shower detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanet, F.; Lebrun, D.; Chauvin, J.; Lagorio, E.; Stassi, P.

    2011-09-01

    We have developed a self powered stand alone particle detector array dedicated to the observation of horizontal tau air showers induced by high energy neutrinos interacting in mountain rock. Air shower particle detection reaches a 100% duty cycle and is practically free of background when compared to Cherenkov light or radio techniques. It is thus better suited for rare neutrino event search. An appropriate mountain to valley topological configuration has been identified and the first array will be deployed on an inclined slope at an elevation of 1500 m facing Southern Alps near the city of Grenoble (France). A full simulation has been performed. A neutrino energy dependent mountain tomography chart is obtained using a neutrino and tau propagation code together with a detailed cartography and elevation map of the region. The array acceptance is then evaluated between 1 PeV and 100 EeV by simulating decaying tau air showers across the valley. The effective detection surface is determined by the shower lateral extension at array location and is hence much larger than the array geometrical area. The array exposure will be 1014 cm2 sr s at 100 PeV. Several independent arrays can be deployed with the aim of constituting a large distributed observatory. Some other sites are already under study. At last, special care is dedicated to the educational and outreach aspects of such a cosmic ray detector.

  12. MIRNA-DISTILLER: A Stand-Alone Application to Compile microRNA Data from Databases.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Jessica K; Bodan, Denis A; Zanger, Ulrich M

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA molecules of ∼22 nucleotides which regulate large numbers of genes by binding to seed sequences at the 3'-untranslated region of target gene transcripts. The target mRNA is then usually degraded or translation is inhibited, although thus resulting in posttranscriptional down regulation of gene expression at the mRNA and/or protein level. Due to the bioinformatic difficulties in predicting functional miRNA binding sites, several publically available databases have been developed that predict miRNA binding sites based on different algorithms. The parallel use of different databases is currently indispensable, but highly uncomfortable and time consuming, especially when working with numerous genes of interest. We have therefore developed a new stand-alone program, termed MIRNA-DISTILLER, which allows to compile miRNA data for given target genes from public databases. Currently implemented are TargetScan, microCosm, and miRDB, which may be queried independently, pairwise, or together to calculate the respective intersections. Data are stored locally for application of further analysis tools including freely definable biological parameter filters, customized output-lists for both miRNAs and target genes, and various graphical facilities. The software, a data example file and a tutorial are freely available at http://www.ikp-stuttgart.de/content/language1/html/10415.asp.

  13. MIRNA-DISTILLER: A Stand-Alone Application to Compile microRNA Data from Databases

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Jessica K.; Bodan, Denis A.; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNA molecules of ∼22 nucleotides which regulate large numbers of genes by binding to seed sequences at the 3′-untranslated region of target gene transcripts. The target mRNA is then usually degraded or translation is inhibited, although thus resulting in posttranscriptional down regulation of gene expression at the mRNA and/or protein level. Due to the bioinformatic difficulties in predicting functional miRNA binding sites, several publically available databases have been developed that predict miRNA binding sites based on different algorithms. The parallel use of different databases is currently indispensable, but highly uncomfortable and time consuming, especially when working with numerous genes of interest. We have therefore developed a new stand-alone program, termed MIRNA-DISTILLER, which allows to compile miRNA data for given target genes from public databases. Currently implemented are TargetScan, microCosm, and miRDB, which may be queried independently, pairwise, or together to calculate the respective intersections. Data are stored locally for application of further analysis tools including freely definable biological parameter filters, customized output-lists for both miRNAs and target genes, and various graphical facilities. The software, a data example file and a tutorial are freely available at http://www.ikp-stuttgart.de/content/language1/html/10415.asp PMID:22303335

  14. Stand-Alone Ethics, Social Responsibility, and Sustainability Course Requirements: A Snapshot from Australia and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.; Wymer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the extent to which Australian and New Zealand marketing educators use dedicated or stand-alone courses to equip students with alternative views of business. A census of marketing programs in degree-granting universities was conducted. Program brochures were obtained via the Internet and were content analyzed. This study…

  15. EVALUATION AND USE OF STAND-ALONE COMMERCIAL PHOTOLYTIC CONVERTERS FOR CONVERSION OF NO2 AND NO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two types of stand-alone photolytic converters of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) to nitric oxide (NO) are now commercially available for use with NO, ozone (O3) chemiluminescence detector (CLD) monitors for the measurement of NO2. Both units have been tested for interferences resulting...

  16. 49 CFR 1109.4 - Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered... § 1109.4 Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology. (a) A... methodology must engage in non-binding mediation of its dispute with the railroad upon filing a formal...

  17. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  18. A Low-Power Wearable Stand-Alone Tongue Drive System for People With Severe Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Ali; Buswell, Nathanael; Ghovanloo, Maysam; Mohsenin, Tinoosh

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a low-power stand-alone tongue drive system (sTDS) used for individuals with severe disabilities to potentially control their environment such as computer, smartphone, and wheelchair using their voluntary tongue movements. A low-power local processor is proposed, which can perform signal processing to convert raw magnetic sensor signals to user-defined commands, on the sTDS wearable headset, rather than sending all raw data out to a PC or smartphone. The proposed sTDS significantly reduces the transmitter power consumption and subsequently increases the battery life. Assuming the sTDS user issues one command every 20 ms, the proposed local processor reduces the data volume that needs to be wirelessly transmitted by a factor of 64, from 9.6 to 0.15 kb/s. The proposed processor consists of three main blocks: serial peripheral interface bus for receiving raw data from magnetic sensors, external magnetic interference attenuation to attenuate external magnetic field from the raw magnetic signal, and a machine learning classifier for command detection. A proof-of-concept prototype sTDS has been implemented with a low-power IGLOO-nano field programmable gate array (FPGA), bluetooth low energy, battery and magnetic sensors on a headset, and tested. At clock frequency of 20 MHz, the processor takes 6.6 s and consumes 27 nJ for detecting a command with a detection accuracy of 96.9%. To further reduce power consumption, an application-specified integrated circuit processor for the sTDS is implemented at the postlayout level in 65-nm CMOS technology with 1-V power supply, and it consumes 0.43 mW, which is 10 lower than FPGA power consumption and occupies an area of only 0.016 mm.

  19. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting the Electric Demand of Stand-Alone Consumers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Direktor, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of short-term forecasting of electric power demand of stand-alone consumers (small inhabited localities) situated outside centralized power supply areas is considered. The basic approaches to modeling the electric power demand depending on the forecasting time frame and the problems set, as well as the specific features of such modeling, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for the short-term forecast of the electric demand are indicated, and difficulties involved in the solution of the problem are outlined. The basic principles of arranging artificial neural networks are set forth; it is also shown that the proposed method is preferable when the input information necessary for prediction is lacking or incomplete. The selection of the parameters that should be included into the list of the input data for modeling the electric power demand of residential areas using artificial neural networks is validated. The structure of a neural network is proposed for solving the problem of modeling the electric power demand of residential areas. The specific features of generation of the training dataset are outlined. The results of test modeling of daily electric demand curves for some settlements of Kamchatka and Yakutia based on known actual electric demand curves are provided. The reliability of the test modeling has been validated. A high value of the deviation of the modeled curve from the reference curve obtained in one of the four reference calculations is explained. The input data and the predicted power demand curves for the rural settlement of Kuokuiskii Nasleg are provided. The power demand curves were modeled for four characteristic days of the year, and they can be used in the future for designing a power supply system for the settlement. To enhance the accuracy of the method, a series of measures based on specific features of a neural network's functioning are proposed.

  20. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  1. A review of three stand-alone topical thrombins for surgical hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Christine M; Meyer-Massetti, Carla; Kayser, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Topical thrombins are active hemostatic agents that can be used to minimize blood loss during surgery. Before 2007, the only topical thrombins available were derived from bovine plasma. Antibody formation to bovine thrombin and/or factor V, with subsequent risk of cross-reactivity with human factor V, and hemorrhagic complications associated with human factor-V deficiencies have been described in case reports of surgeries in which bovine thrombins were used. This risk is now included in the boxed warning section of the bovine thrombin prescribing information. In 2007 and 2008, 2 new topical thrombins from nonbovine sources received approval for use from the US Food and Drug Administration. The 3 active topical thrombins that are currently marketed are bovine plasma-derived thrombin, human plasma-derived thrombin, and human recombinant thrombin. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the literature on the efficacy and safety of topical thrombins and discuss the pharmacoeconomic considerations associated with their use. PubMed, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched for relevant papers published in English through October 10,2008, using the terms thrombin, human recombinant thrombin, bovine thrombin, plasma derived thrombin, and topical thrombin. Manufacturer-provided materials were also reviewed. Abstracts and unpublished data, as well as evaluations of sealants, adhesives, glues, and other hemostats that contain thrombin mixed with fibrinogen and other clotting factors, were excluded. Four randomized, double-blind studies involving the active, stand-alone topical thrombins were found. The bovine thrombin involved in these studies was the predecessor to the currently marketed, highly purified bovine formulation. No studies comparing the human products, studies involving the highly purified bovine preparation, or placebo-controlled studies involving bovine thrombin were found. In a Phase III comparison of human recombinant thrombin and

  2. Maintenance of Segmental Lordosis and Disk Height in Stand-alone and Instrumented Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion (XLIF).

    PubMed

    Malham, Gregory M; Ellis, Ngaire J; Parker, Rhiannon M; Blecher, Carl M; White, Rohan; Goss, Ben; Seex, Kevin A

    2017-03-01

    A prospective single-surgeon nonrandomized clinical study. To evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes, by fixation type, in extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) patients and provide an algorithm for determining patients suitable for stand-alone XLIF. XLIF may be supplemented with pedicle screw fixation, however, since stabilizing structures remain intact, it is suggested that stand-alone XLIF can be used for certain indications. This eliminates the associated morbidity, though subsidence rates may be elevated, potentially minimizing the clinical benefits. A fixation algorithm was developed after evaluation of patient outcomes from the surgeon's first 30 cases. This algorithm was used prospectively for 40 subsequent patients to determine the requirement for supplemental fixation. Preoperative, postoperative, and 12-month follow-up computed tomography scans were measured for segmental and global lumbar lordosis and posterior disk height. Clinical outcome measures included back and leg pain (visual analogue scale), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS). Preoperatively to 12-month follow-up there were increases in segmental lordosis (7.9-9.4 degrees, P=0.0497), lumbar lordosis (48.8-55.2 degrees, P=0.0328), and disk height (3.7-5.5 mm, P=0.0018); there were also improvements in back (58.6%) and leg pain (60.0%), ODI (44.4%), PCS (56.7%), and MCS (16.1%) for stand-alone XLIF. For instrumented XLIF, segmental lordosis (7.6-10.5 degrees, P=0.0120) and disk height (3.5-5.6 mm, P<0.001) increased, while lumbar lordosis decreased (51.1-45.8 degrees, P=0.2560). Back (49.8%) and leg pain (30.8%), ODI (32.3%), PCS (37.4%), and MCS (2.0%) were all improved. Subsidence occurred in 3 (7.5%) stand-alone patients. The XLIF treatment fixation algorithm provided a clinical pathway to select suitable patients for stand-alone XLIF. These patients achieved positive clinical outcomes, satisfactory fusion rates, with

  3. Analysis of Operating Modes of Stand-Alone Series Controller of Power Flows for Overhead Power Transmission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astashev, M. G.; Panfilov, D. I.; Seregin, D. A.; Chernyshev, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The features of using the bridge voltage inverter in small-size stand-alone series controllers of power flows (PFSC) for overhead power transmission lines (OPTL) are examined. The basic processes in the converter during transient and steady state modes were analyzed. The basic relations for calculating the electromagnetic processes taking into account the energy loss in the circuit and without it were received. A simulation model is proposed of a converter that makes it possible to study its operating modes during the formation of reactance introduced into the overhead power transmission line. The results of simulation of operating modes of the PFSC are presented.

  4. Optimization of a stand-alone Solar PV-Wind-DG Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation at Sagar Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P. C.; Majumder, A.; Chakraborty, N.

    2010-10-01

    An estimation of a stand-alone solar PV and wind hybrid system for distributed power generation has been made based on the resources available at Sagar island, a remote area distant to grid operation. Optimization and sensitivity analysis has been made to evaluate the feasibility and size of the power generation unit. A comparison of the different modes of hybrid system has been studied. It has been estimated that Solar PV-Wind-DG hybrid system provides lesser per unit electricity cost. Capital investment is observed to be lesser when the system run with Wind-DG compared to Solar PV-DG.

  5. Stand-alone and biorefinery pathways to produce hydrogen through gasification and dark fermentation using Pinus Patula.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos A; Betancourt, Ramiro; Cardona, Carlos A

    2017-12-01

    New efforts in the search of alternative clean and renewable energy to replace the current energy precursors have been assessed in order to reduce emissions to the environment. Lignocellulosic Biomass (LB) can be used to produce bioenergy due to its high energy potential and availability. Different ways are proposed for the transformation of these residues into high added-value products. Thermochemical and biochemical technologies are the most interest concepts focusing on the use of biomass as source for energy production at positive net balances. This study presents the techno-economic, energy and environmental assessment of five scenarios for the hydrogen production through gasification and dark fermentation based on the biorefinery and stand-alone concepts. The results demonstrated that the production of hydrogen based on the concept of a biorefinery can improve the profitability, energy efficiency and reduce the emissions of the processes compared to that based on the stand-alone way. The selection of ethanol and electricity as valuable co-products of the biorefinery in the hydrogen production process confirmed that the process scale and products diversity makes possible a flexible and suitable process to produce hydrogen and other energy carriers from Pinus Patula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GOssTo: a stand-alone application and a web tool for calculating semantic similarities on the Gene Ontology.

    PubMed

    Caniza, Horacio; Romero, Alfonso E; Heron, Samuel; Yang, Haixuan; Devoto, Alessandra; Frasca, Marco; Mesiti, Marco; Valentini, Giorgio; Paccanaro, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    We present GOssTo, the Gene Ontology semantic similarity Tool, a user-friendly software system for calculating semantic similarities between gene products according to the Gene Ontology. GOssTo is bundled with six semantic similarity measures, including both term- and graph-based measures, and has extension capabilities to allow the user to add new similarities. Importantly, for any measure, GOssTo can also calculate the Random Walk Contribution that has been shown to greatly improve the accuracy of similarity measures. GOssTo is very fast, easy to use, and it allows the calculation of similarities on a genomic scale in a few minutes on a regular desktop machine. alberto@cs.rhul.ac.uk GOssTo is available both as a stand-alone application running on GNU/Linux, Windows and MacOS from www.paccanarolab.org/gossto and as a web application from www.paccanarolab.org/gosstoweb. The stand-alone application features a simple and concise command line interface for easy integration into high-throughput data processing pipelines. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. SedInConnect: a stand-alone, free and open source tool for the assessment of sediment connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crema, Stefano; Cavalli, Marco

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing call, within the scientific community, for solid theoretic frameworks and usable indices/models to assess sediment connectivity. Connectivity plays a significant role in characterizing structural properties of the landscape and, when considered in combination with forcing processes (e.g., rainfall-runoff modelling), can represent a valuable analysis for an improved landscape management. In this work, the authors present the development and application of SedInConnect: a free, open source and stand-alone application for the computation of the Index of Connectivity (IC), as expressed in Cavalli et al. (2013) with the addition of specific innovative features. The tool is intended to have a wide variety of users, both from the scientific community and from the authorities involved in the environmental planning. Thanks to its open source nature, the tool can be adapted and/or integrated according to the users' requirements. Furthermore, presenting an easy-to-use interface and being a stand-alone application, the tool can help management experts in the quantitative assessment of sediment connectivity in the context of hazard and risk assessment. An application to a sample dataset and an overview on up-to-date applications of the approach and of the tool shows the development potential of such analyses. The modelled connectivity, in fact, appears suitable not only to characterize sediment dynamics at the catchment scale but also to integrate prediction models and as a tool for helping geomorphological interpretation.

  8. SABERS. Stand-Alone ADIC Binary Exploitation Resources System. Volume III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    REFERENCE MANUAL Data Base Example TRIZ ?age . (Initial State) 2 0 513 Figure D-2C The DBM generates and maintains several trie pages in the course of...5 5 5 1 582 1 26 PROCSS _ 3 TRIZ _ _ I _ _ _ I .... _ _--_ _ _ _ _ Ii_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,,,,___ _ _ _ _ __ _ . . . 1.1 _ _ _ _ Page 2 58 0 . _2562. 0

  9. Under-Body Blast Mitigation: Stand-Alone Seat Safety Activation System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Restraints, Airbags or other protection systems) to mitigate injury to the occupant during the onset of the event. Injuries may occur as soon as 2.5 ms...cost-effective sensor to accurately and consistently deploy airbags and other pyrotechnic restraint systems based on accelerometers and other...Circuitry are critically important in order to activate the initiators of air bags and pyrotechnic restraint system such as airbags at the very first

  10. Do stand-alone interbody spacers with integrated screws provide adequate segmental stability for multilevel cervical arthrodesis?

    PubMed

    Paik, Haines; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Cardoso, Mario J; Gaume, Rachel E; Ambati, Divya V; Dmitriev, Anton E

    2014-08-01

    Some postoperative complications after anterior cervical fusions have been attributed to anterior cervical plate (ACP) profiles and the necessary wide operative exposure for their insertion. Consequently, low-profile stand-alone interbody spacers with integrated screws (SIS) have been developed. Although SIS constructs have demonstrated similar biomechanical stability to the ACP in single-level fusions, their role as a stand-alone device in multilevel reconstructions has not been thoroughly evaluated. To evaluate the acute segmental stability afforded by an SIS device compared with the traditional ACP in the setting of a multilevel cervical arthrodesis. In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Thirteen human cadaveric cervical spines (C2-T1) were nondestructively tested with a custom 6 df spine simulator under axial rotation, flexion-extension, and lateral bending loading. After intact analysis, eight single-levels (C4-C5/C6-C7) from four specimens were instrumented and tested with ACP and SIS. Nine specimens were tested with C5-C7 SIS, C5-C7 ACP, C4-C7 ACP, C4-C7 ACP+posterior fixation, C4-C7 SIS, and C4-C7 SIS+posterior fixation. Testing order was randomized with each additional level instrumented. Full range of motion (ROM) data were obtained and analyzed by each loading modality, using mean comparisons with repeated measures analysis of variance. Paired t tests were used for post hoc analysis with Sidak correction for multiple comparisons. No significant difference in ROM was noted between the ACP and SIS for single-level fixation (p>.05). For multisegment reconstructions (two and three levels), the ACP proved superior to SIS and intact condition, with significantly lower ROM in all planes (p<.05). When either the three-level SIS or ACP constructs were supplemented with posterior lateral mass fixation, there was a greater than 80% reduction in ROM under all testing modalities (p<.05), with no significant difference between the ACP and SIS constructs (p

  11. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery as primary stand-alone surgery for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Nathan M; Wang, Jing; Barton, Keith

    2017-05-01

    Recently, many new devices and procedures have been developed to lower intraocular pressure in a less invasive and purportedly safer manner than traditional glaucoma surgery. These new devices might encourage an earlier transition to surgery and reduce the long-term commitment to topical glaucoma medications with their associated compliance and intolerance issues. Although often seen as an adjunct to cataract surgery, a growing body of evidence suggests that primary minimally invasive glaucoma surgery may be a viable initial treatment option. New studies have shown that primary ab interno trabeculectomy (Trabectome, NeoMedix Inc., Tustin, CA, USA), trabecular micro-bypass stent insertion (iStent and iStent Inject, Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA), canalicular scaffolding (Hydrus, Invantis Inc., Irvine CA, USA), the ab interno gel Implant (XEN, Allergan, Dublin, Ireland) or supraciliary stenting (CyPass Micro-Stent, Alcon, Fort Worth, TX, USA) may lower the lowering intraocular pressure and/or topical medication burden in phakic or pseudophakic patients with glaucoma. This effect seems to last at least 12 months but reliable cost-effectiveness and quality of life indicators have not yet been established by investigator-initiated randomized trials of sufficient size and duration. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  12. Stand-alone coil embolization of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: Efficacy and technical issues.

    PubMed

    Kocur, Damian; Zbroszczyk, Miłosz; Przybyłko, Nikodem; Hofman, Mariusz; Jamróz, Tomasz; Baron, Jan; Bażowski, Piotr; Kwiek, Stanisław

    2016-10-01

    We report our experience with endovascular coiling of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with special consideration of angiographic and clinical outcomes and periprocedural complications. The analysis included treatment results of 28 patients with ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. The aneurysm size ranged from 1.8 to 9.8 mm (mean 5.2, SD 1.7). Clinical examinations with the use of modified Rankin Score and angiographic outcomes were evaluated initially post-embolization and at a minimum follow-up of six months. Initial post-treatment complete and near-complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 27 (96%) cases and incomplete occlusion in one (4%) case. Imaging follow-up, performed in 15 (53.6%) patients, showed no change in the degree of occlusion in 11 (73%), coil compaction in one (7%) and progressive occlusion in three (20%) patients. Three (20%) patients underwent a second coil embolization. The procedure-related severe morbidity and mortality rate was 6.4% (2/31). Coil prolapse was present in one (3.2%) case and intraprocedural aneurysm rupture in three (9.6%) cases. The clinical follow-up evaluation achieved in 19 (67.9%) patients showed no change in 17 (89.5%) patients and improvement in two (10.5%) patients. Although the efficacy of coil embolization of anterior communicating artery aneurysms is unquestionable and the procedure-related complications are acceptable, they should not be neglected. Further investigations are needed to better understand protective factors, as well as to establish unequivocally appropriate management strategy of these complications. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Stand-alone coil embolization of anterior communicating artery aneurysms: Efficacy and technical issues

    PubMed Central

    Zbroszczyk, Miłosz; Przybyłko, Nikodem; Hofman, Mariusz; Jamróz, Tomasz; Baron, Jan; Bażowski, Piotr; Kwiek, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Objective We report our experience with endovascular coiling of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with special consideration of angiographic and clinical outcomes and periprocedural complications. Materials and methods The analysis included treatment results of 28 patients with ruptured and unruptured aneurysms. The aneurysm size ranged from 1.8 to 9.8 mm (mean 5.2, SD 1.7). Clinical examinations with the use of modified Rankin Score and angiographic outcomes were evaluated initially post-embolization and at a minimum follow-up of six months. Results Initial post-treatment complete and near-complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved in 27 (96%) cases and incomplete occlusion in one (4%) case. Imaging follow-up, performed in 15 (53.6%) patients, showed no change in the degree of occlusion in 11 (73%), coil compaction in one (7%) and progressive occlusion in three (20%) patients. Three (20%) patients underwent a second coil embolization. The procedure-related severe morbidity and mortality rate was 6.4% (2/31). Coil prolapse was present in one (3.2%) case and intraprocedural aneurysm rupture in three (9.6%) cases. The clinical follow-up evaluation achieved in 19 (67.9%) patients showed no change in 17 (89.5%) patients and improvement in two (10.5%) patients. Conclusions Although the efficacy of coil embolization of anterior communicating artery aneurysms is unquestionable and the procedure-related complications are acceptable, they should not be neglected. Further investigations are needed to better understand protective factors, as well as to establish unequivocally appropriate management strategy of these complications. PMID:27531863

  14. A soil-canopy scheme for use in a numerical model of the atmosphere: 1D stand-alone model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, E. A.; Garratt, J. R.; Krummel, P. B.

    We provide a detailed description of a soil-canopy scheme for use in the CSIRO general circulation models (GCMs) (CSIRO-4 and CSIRO-9), in the form of a one-dimensional stand-alone model. In addition, the paper documents the model's ability to simulate realistic surface fluxes by comparison with mesoscale model simulations (involving more sophisticated soil and boundary-layer treatments) and observations, and the diurnal range in surface quantities, including extreme maximum surface temperatures. The sensitivity of the model to values of the surface resistance is also quantified. The model represents phase 1 of a longer-term plan to improve the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and surface schemes in the CSIRO GCMs.

  15. Endovascular Therapy of the Superficial Femoral Artery Via a Stand-Alone Transradial Access: A Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Elias B; Ababneh, Bashar A; Amin, Amit N

    2018-02-01

    We describe our experience in transradial recanalization of the superficial femoral artery (SFA), and we provide a stepwise approach accounting for the patient's height and optimizing the yield of currently available devices. Fifteen patients with simple SFA disease, including 4 patients with total SFA occlusions <15 cm, were selected for stand-alone transradial recanalization. A 6F, 125-cm multipurpose guiding catheter was used to cannulate the limb of interest and support device delivery. The procedure was successful in all patients and consisted of balloon angioplasty (using 0.014″, 200-cm shaft monorail balloons) in all patients, and orbital atherectomy in 6 patients. We illustrate the steps and challenges of the transradial approach, namely the limited support in complex disease and the limited reach of current equipment. In patients with simple SFA disease, transradial recanalization appears feasible and safe but currently limited to balloon angioplasty ± orbital atherectomy. Proximal SFA stenting may be feasible in patients <160 cm in height.

  16. An Approach for High-precision Stand-alone Positioning in a Dynamic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halis Saka, M.; Metin Alkan, Reha; Ozpercin, Alişir

    2015-04-01

    In this study, an algorithm is developed for precise positioning in dynamic environment utilizing a single geodetic GNSS receiver using carrier phase data. In this method, users should start the measurement on a known point near the project area for a couple of seconds making use of a single dual-frequency geodetic-grade receiver. The technique employs iono-free carrier phase observations with precise products. The equation of the algorithm is given below; Sm(t(i+1))=SC(ti)+[ΦIF (t(i+1) )-ΦIF (ti)] where, Sm(t(i+1)) is the phase-range between satellites and the receiver, SC(ti) is the initial range computed from the initial known point coordinates and the satellite coordinates and ΦIF is the ionosphere-free phase measurement (in meters). Tropospheric path delays are modelled using the standard tropospheric model. To accomplish the process, an in-house program was coded and some functions were adopted from Easy-Suite available at http://kom.aau.dk/~borre/easy. In order to assess the performance of the introduced algorithm in a dynamic environment, a dataset from a kinematic test measurement was used. The data were collected from a kinematic test measurement in Istanbul, Turkey. In the test measurement, a geodetic dual-frequency GNSS receiver, Ashtech Z-Xtreme, was set up on a known point on the shore and a couple of epochs were recorded for initialization. The receiver was then moved to a vessel and data were collected for approximately 2.5 hours and the measurement was finalized on a known point on the shore. While the kinematic measurement on the vessel were carried out, another GNSS receiver was set up on a geodetic point with known coordinates on the shore and data were collected in static mode to calculate the reference trajectory of the vessel using differential technique. The coordinates of the vessel were calculated for each measurement epoch with the introduced method. With the purpose of obtaining more robust results, all coordinates were calculated

  17. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Du, L.; Mentz, G.; Mukherjee, B.; Parker, E.; Godwin, C.; Chin, J.-Y.; O'Toole, A.; Robins, T.; Rowe, Z.; Lewis, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84 ± 27%, but dropped to 63 ± 33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34 ± 30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. PMID:22145709

  18. SSTAR, a Stand-Alone Easy-To-Use Antimicrobial Resistance Gene Predictor.

    PubMed

    de Man, Tom J B; Limbago, Brandi M

    2016-01-01

    We present the easy-to-use Sequence Search Tool for Antimicrobial Resistance, SSTAR. It combines a locally executed BLASTN search against a customizable database with an intuitive graphical user interface for identifying antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes from genomic data. Although the database is initially populated from a public repository of acquired resistance determinants (i.e., ARG-ANNOT), it can be customized for particular pathogen groups and resistance mechanisms. For instance, outer membrane porin sequences associated with carbapenem resistance phenotypes can be added, and known intrinsic mechanisms can be included. Unique about this tool is the ability to easily detect putative new alleles and truncated versions of existing AR genes. Variants and potential new alleles are brought to the attention of the user for further investigation. For instance, SSTAR is able to identify modified or truncated versions of porins, which may be of great importance in carbapenemase-negative carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. SSTAR is written in Java and is therefore platform independent and compatible with both Windows and Unix operating systems. SSTAR and its manual, which includes a simple installation guide, are freely available from https://github.com/tomdeman-bio/Sequence-Search-Tool-for-Antimicrobial-Resistance-SSTAR-. IMPORTANCE Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is quickly becoming a routine method for identifying genes associated with antimicrobial resistance (AR). However, for many microbiologists, the use and analysis of WGS data present a substantial challenge. We developed SSTAR, software with a graphical user interface that enables the identification of known AR genes from WGS and has the unique capacity to easily detect new variants of known AR genes, including truncated protein variants. Current software solutions do not notify the user when genes are truncated and, therefore, likely nonfunctional, which makes phenotype predictions less accurate. SSTAR

  19. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners.

    PubMed

    Batterman, S; Du, L; Mentz, G; Mukherjee, B; Parker, E; Godwin, C; Chin, J-Y; O'Toole, A; Robins, T; Rowe, Z; Lewis, T

    2012-06-01

    This study, a randomized controlled trial, evaluated the effectiveness of free-standing air filters and window air conditioners (ACs) in 126 low-income households of children with asthma. Households were randomized into a control group, a group receiving a free-standing HEPA filter placed in the child's sleeping area, and a group receiving the filter and a window-mounted AC. Indoor air quality (IAQ) was monitored for week-long periods over three to four seasons. High concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide were frequently seen. When IAQ was monitored, filters reduced PM levels in the child's bedroom by an average of 50%. Filter use varied greatly among households and declined over time, for example, during weeks when pollutants were monitored, filter use was initially high, averaging 84±27%, but dropped to 63±33% in subsequent seasons. In months when households were not visited, use averaged only 34±30%. Filter effectiveness did not vary in homes with central or room ACs. The study shows that measurements over multiple seasons are needed to characterize air quality and filter performance. The effectiveness of interventions using free-standing air filters depends on occupant behavior, and strategies to ensure filter use should be an integral part of interventions. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increased particulate matter (PM) levels by about 14 μg/m3 and was often detected using ETS-specific tracers despite restrictions on smoking in the house as reported on questionnaires administered to caregivers. PM concentrations depended on season, filter usage, relative humidity, air exchange ratios, number of children, outdoor PM levels, sweeping/dusting, and presence of a central air conditioner (AC). Free-standing air filters can be an effective intervention that provides substantial reductions in PM concentrations if the filters are used. However, filter use was variable across the study population and declined over the study duration, and

  20. APT - NASA ENHANCED VERSION OF AUTOMATICALLY PROGRAMMED TOOL SOFTWARE - STAND-ALONE VERSION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    The APT code is one of the most widely used software tools for complex numerically controlled (N/C) machining. APT is an acronym for Automatically Programmed Tools and is used to denote both a language and the computer software that processes that language. Development of the APT language and software system was begun over twenty years ago as a U. S. government sponsored industry and university research effort. APT is a "problem oriented" language that was developed for the explicit purpose of aiding the N/C machine tools. Machine-tool instructions and geometry definitions are written in the APT language to constitute a "part program." The APT part program is processed by the APT software to produce a cutter location (CL) file. This CL file may then be processed by user supplied post processors to convert the CL data into a form suitable for a particular N/C machine tool. This June, 1989 offering of the APT system represents an adaptation, with enhancements, of the public domain version of APT IV/SSX8 to the DEC VAX-11/780 for use by the Engineering Services Division of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Enhancements include the super pocket feature which allows concave and convex polygon shapes of up to 40 points including shapes that overlap, that leave islands of material within the pocket, and that have one or more arcs as part of the pocket boundary. Recent modifications to APT include a rework of the POCKET subroutine and correction of an error that prevented the use within a macro of a macro variable cutter move statement combined with macro variable double check surfaces. Former modifications included the expansion of array and buffer sizes to accommodate larger part programs, and the insertion of a few user friendly error messages. The APT system software on the DEC VAX-11/780 is organized into two separate programs: the load complex and the APT processor. The load complex handles the table initiation phase and is usually only run when changes to the

  1. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  2. Janus Stands Alone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-18

    Although Janus should be the least lonely of all moons -- sharing its orbit with Epimetheus -- it still spends most of its orbit far from other moons, alone in the vastness of space. Janus (111 miles or 179 kilometers across) and Epimetheus have the same average distance from Saturn, but they take turns being a little closer or a little farther from Saturn, swapping positions approximately every 4 years. See PIA08348 for more. This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 19 degrees above the ringplane. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Feb. 4, 2015. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 1.6 million miles (2.5 million kilometers) from Janus and at a Sun-Janus-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 91 degrees. Image scale is 9 miles (15 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/pia18315

  3. Standing Alone in Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freado, Mark D.; Bath, Howard I.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Mark Freado and Howard Bath present the case of an 11 year boy who had been arrested and charged with the murder of his two-year-old cousin. Because of the severity of the criminal charge against this boy, and despite his age, a transfer hearing was set to determine whether he would be tried as a juvenile or an adult. Such…

  4. A Stand-Alone Synbiotic Treatment for the Prevention of D-Lactic Acidosis in Short Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Terashima, Hideo; Kohno, Keisuke; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Synbiotics are combinations of probiotics and prebiotics that have recently been used in the context of various gastrointestinal diseases, including infectious enteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and bowel obstruction. We encountered a patient with recurrent D-lactic acidosis who was treated successfully for long periods using synbiotics. The patient was diagnosed as having short bowel syndrome and had recurrent episodes of neurologic dysfunction due to D-lactic acidosis. In addition to fasting, the patient had been treated with antibiotics to eliminate D-lactate–producing bacteria. After the failure of antibiotic treatment, a stand-alone synbiotic treatment was started, specifically Bifidobacterium breve Yakult and Lactobacillus casei Shirota as probiotics, and galacto-oligosaccharide as a prebiotic. Serum D-lactate levels declined, and the patient has been recurrence-free for 3 years without dietary restriction. Synbiotics allowed the reduction in colonic absorption of D-lactate by both prevention of D-lactate–producing bacterial overgrowth and stimulation of intestinal motility, leading to remission of D-lactate acidosis. PMID:23701144

  5. Adult Degenerative Scoliosis with Spinal Stenosis Treated with Stand-Alone Cage via an Extreme Lateral Transpsoas Approach; a Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    von Keudell, Arvind; Alimi, Marjan; Gebhard, Harry; Härtl, Roger

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old female with severe degenerative scoliosis and back and leg pain that was successfully treated with stand- alone cages via an extreme lateral transpsoas approach. This patient had declined open surgery and instrumentation due to her advanced age concerns about potential side effects. PMID:26110180

  6. Preparing Teachers to Integrate Technology into K-12 Instruction: Comparing a Stand-Alone Technology Course with a Technology-Infused Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Ray R.; Wetzel, Keith; Foulger, Teresa S.; Lindsey, LeeAnn

    2015-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of learning technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) domain knowledge in a new technology-infused approach for teaching technology to teacher candidates with a more traditional, stand-alone course. In the new approach, learning to use technology is infused into program methods courses. Candidates all…

  7. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  8. Estuary Data Mapper: A Stand-Alone Tool for Geospatial Data Access, Visualization and Download for Estuaries and Coastal Watersheds of the United States. (UNH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Estuary Data Mapper (EDM; http://badger.epa.gov/rsig/edm/index.html) has been designed as a free stand-alone tool for geospatial data discovery, visualization, and data download for estuaries and their associated watersheds in the conterminous United States. EDM requi...

  9. Stand-alone front-end system for high- frequency, high-frame-rate coded excitation ultrasonic imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhyoung; Hu, Changhong; Shung, K Kirk

    2011-12-01

    A stand-alone front-end system for high-frequency coded excitation imaging was implemented to achieve a wider dynamic range. The system included an arbitrary waveform amplifier, an arbitrary waveform generator, an analog receiver, a motor position interpreter, a motor controller and power supplies. The digitized arbitrary waveforms at a sampling rate of 150 MHz could be programmed and converted to an analog signal. The pulse was subsequently amplified to excite an ultrasound transducer, and the maximum output voltage level achieved was 120 V(pp). The bandwidth of the arbitrary waveform amplifier was from 1 to 70 MHz. The noise figure of the preamplifier was less than 7.7 dB and the bandwidth was 95 MHz. Phantoms and biological tissues were imaged at a frame rate as high as 68 frames per second (fps) to evaluate the performance of the system. During the measurement, 40-MHz lithium niobate (LiNbO(3)) single-element lightweight (<;0.28 g) transducers were utilized. The wire target measure- ment showed that the -6-dB axial resolution of a chirp-coded excitation was 50 μm and lateral resolution was 120 μm. The echo signal-to-noise ratios were found to be 54 and 65 dB for the short burst and coded excitation, respectively. The contrast resolution in a sphere phantom study was estimated to be 24 dB for the chirp-coded excitation and 15 dB for the short burst modes. In an in vivo study, zebrafish and mouse hearts were imaged. Boundaries of the zebrafish heart in the image could be differentiated because of the low-noise operation of the implemented system. In mouse heart images, valves and chambers could be readily visualized with the coded excitation.

  10. Survivorship and clinical outcomes after multi-level anterior lumbar reconstruction with stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion or hybrid construct.

    PubMed

    Chen, Benjamin; Akpolat, Yusuf T; Williams, Paul; Bergey, Darren; Cheng, Wayne K

    2016-06-01

    In multilevel disc disease, there is still uncertainty regarding whether multiple total disc replacement is more effective and safer than fusion. Our objective was to measure and compare the clinical outcome of multilevel hybrid constructs with stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using a retrospective analysis. Sixty-four patients with chronic low back pain determined to be from two or three-level degenerative disc disease were included. Thirty-three patients were treated with hybrid fusion and 31 with ALIF. Several parameters were retrospectively reviewed, including blood loss, operation time, hospital stay, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and survivorship without the need for revision surgery. Telephone follow-ups were conducted to ascertain survivorship, clinical outcomes (VAS, ODI) and patient satisfaction. Operation time was longer in the hybrid group (p=0.021). The hybrid group showed a significant improvement in VAS and ODI with 52.2% and 50.0% improvement versus 28.3% and 25.5% in the ALIF group (p<0.05). At the telephone follow-up for patient satisfaction, 95.7% (n=22) of the hybrid group were satisfied and 95.2% (n=21) of the ALIF group were satisfied. Seventy-four percent (n=17) in the hybrid group and 85.7% (n=18) in the ALIF group would choose to do the initial surgery again. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed 80.5% survivorship for hybrids and 75.9% for ALIF at 5years. With our clinical outcomes in VAS and ODI scores, these results, when taken together, indicate that hybrid fusion is a valid and viable alternative to ALIF fusion, with at least equal if not better clinical outcomes in terms of survivorship, back pain, and disability scores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison between solar utilization of a closed microalgae-based bio-loop and that of a stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiang; Chen, Lei; Li, Aimin; Liu, Fuqiang; Long, Chao; Shan, Aidang; Borthwick, Alistair G L

    2015-05-01

    This study compared the solar energy utilization of a closed microalgae-based bio-loop for energy efficient production of biogas with fertilizer recovery against that of a stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system. The comparison was made from the perspective of broad life cycle assessment, simultaneously taking exergy to be the functional unit. The results indicated that the bio-loop was more environmentally competitive than an equivalent stand-alone PV system, but had higher economic cost due to high energy consumption during the operational phase. To fix the problem, a patented, interior pressurization scheduling method was used to operate the bio-loop, with microalgae and aerobic bacterial placed together in the same reactor. As a result, the overall environmental impact and total investment were respectively reduced by more than 75% and 84%, a vast improvement on the bio-loop. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Standing with electrical stimulation and splinting is no better than standing alone for management of ankle plantarflexion contractures in people with traumatic brain injury: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joan; Harvey, Lisa A; Moseley, Anne M; Whiteside, Bhavini; Simpson, Melissa; Stroud, Katarina

    2014-12-01

    Is a combination of standing, electrical stimulation and splinting more effective than standing alone for the management of ankle contractures after severe brain injury? A multi-centre randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis. Thirty-six adults with severe traumatic brain injury and ankle plantarflexion contractures. All participants underwent a 6-week program. The experimental group received tilt table standing, electrical stimulation and ankle splinting. The control group received tilt table standing alone. The primary outcome was passive ankle dorsiflexion with a 12Nm torque. Secondary outcomes included: passive dorsiflexion with lower torques (3, 5, 7 and 9Nm); spasticity; the walking item of the Functional Independence Measure; walking speed; global perceived effect of treatment; and perceived treatment credibility. OUTCOME MEASURES were taken at baseline (Week 0), end of intervention (Week 6), and follow-up (Week 10). The mean between-group differences (95% CI) for passive ankle dorsiflexion at Week 6 and Week 10 were -3 degrees (-8 to 2) and -1 degrees (-6 to 4), respectively, in favour of the control group. There was a small mean reduction of 1 point in spasticity at Week 6 (95% CI 0.1 to 1.8) in favour of the experimental group, but this effect disappeared at Week 10. There were no differences for other secondary outcome measures except the physiotherapists' perceived treatment credibility. Tilt table standing with electrical stimulation and splinting is not better than tilt table standing alone for the management of ankle contractures after severe brain injury. ACTRN12608000637347. [Leung J, Harvey LA, Moseley AM, Whiteside B, Simpson M, Stroud K (2014) Standing with electrical stimulation and splinting is no better than standing alone for management of ankle plantarflexion contractures in people with traumatic brain injury: a randomised trial.Journal of Physiotherapy60: 201-208]. Copyright © 2014

  13. Long-term outcome after adjacent two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using stand-alone plasmaphore-covered titanium cages.

    PubMed

    Marbacher, Serge; Hidalgo-Staub, Teresa; Kienzler, Jenny; Wüergler-Hauri, Carola; Landolt, Hans; Fandino, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Reports on long-term outcome of stand-alone contiguous two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using stand-alone Plasmaphore-coated titanium cages (PCTCs) are rare, and data on follow-ups > 3 years are missing. To evaluate the long-term outcome of adjacent two-level microsurgical ACDF using stand-alone PCTC. A total of 33 consecutive patients presented with cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) underwent contiguous two-level ACDF. Clinical long-term evaluation (mean: 61 ± 14 months) included documentation of neurologic deficits (motor deficits, sensory deficits, reflex status, and gait disturbance), neck pain, and radicular pain. Functional outcome was measured using the Odom criteria, patient-perceived outcome, and evaluation of work status. Radiographs were evaluated to assess intervertebral disc height, subsidence, level of fusion, sagittal balance, and implant position. Surgery was performed at levels C5-C6 and C6-C7 in 30 patients and at C4-C5 and C5-C6 in 3 (mean age: 50.1 ± 7.7 years). Symptoms and neurologic deficits improved as follows: neurologic deficits (pre: 100%; post: 36%), radicular pain (pre: 85%; post: 15%), and neck pain (pre: 94%; post: 33%). Excellent and good functional and subjective outcome was noted in 75%. Cage subsidence was found to be more prominent in the lower (52%) than the upper (36%) mobile cervical segment. Two-level fusion was documented in most patients (n = 29 [88%]). Kyphotic deformity occurred in two cases (n = 2 [6%]). Stand-alone contiguous two-level ACDF using PCPT proved to be effective, yielding good long-term clinical and functional outcomes. The relatively high rate of subsidence did not affect the good clinical and functional long-term outcome. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Biomechanical Stability of a Stand-Alone Interbody Spacer in Two-Level and Hybrid Cervical Fusion Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Scott C.; Tracey, Robert W.; Cody, John P.; Gaume, Rachel E.; Lehman, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. Objective: To evaluate the segmental stability of a stand-alone spacer (SAS) device compared with the traditional anterior cervical plate (ACP) construct in the setting of a 2-level cervical fusion construct or as a hybrid construct adjacent to a previous 1-level ACP construct. Methods: Twelve human cadaveric cervical spines (C2-T1) were nondestructively tested with a custom 6-degree-of-freedom spine simulator under axial rotation (AR), flexion-extension (FE), and lateral bending (LB) at 1.5 N m loads. After intact analysis, each specimen underwent instrumentation and testing in the following 3 configurations, with each specimen randomized to the order of construct: (A) C5-7 SAS; (B) C5-6 ACP, and C6-7 SAS (hybrid); (C) C5-7 ACP. Full range of motion (ROM) data at C5-C7 was obtained and analyzed by each loading modality utilizing mean comparisons with repeated measures analysis of variance with Sidak correction for multiple comparisons. Results: Compared with the intact specimen, all tested constructs had significantly increased segmental stability at C5-C7 in AR and FE ROM, with no difference in LB ROM. At C5-C6, all test constructs again had increased segmental stability in FE ROM compared with intact (10.9° ± 4.4° Intact vs SAS 6.6° ± 3.2°, P < .001; vs.Hybrid 2.9° ± 2.0°, P = .005; vs ACP 2.1° ± 1.4°, P < .001), but had no difference in AR and LB ROM. Analysis of C6-C7 ROM demonstrated all test groups had significantly greater segmental stability in FE ROM compared with intact (9.6° ± 2.7° Intact vs SAS 5.0° ± 3.0°, P = .018; vs Hybrid 5.0° ± 2.7°, P = .018; vs ACP 4.4° ± 5.2°, P = .005). Only the hybrid and 2-level ACP constructs had increased stability at C6-C7 in AR ROM compared with intact, with no difference for all test groups in LB ROM. Comparison between test constructs demonstrated no difference in C5-C7 and C6-C7 segmental stability in all planes of motion

  15. Biomechanical Stability of a Stand-Alone Interbody Spacer in Two-Level and Hybrid Cervical Fusion Constructs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Daniel G; Wagner, Scott C; Tracey, Robert W; Cody, John P; Gaume, Rachel E; Lehman, Ronald A

    2017-10-01

    In vitro human cadaveric biomechanical analysis. To evaluate the segmental stability of a stand-alone spacer (SAS) device compared with the traditional anterior cervical plate (ACP) construct in the setting of a 2-level cervical fusion construct or as a hybrid construct adjacent to a previous 1-level ACP construct. Twelve human cadaveric cervical spines (C2-T1) were nondestructively tested with a custom 6-degree-of-freedom spine simulator under axial rotation (AR), flexion-extension (FE), and lateral bending (LB) at 1.5 N m loads. After intact analysis, each specimen underwent instrumentation and testing in the following 3 configurations, with each specimen randomized to the order of construct: (A) C5-7 SAS; (B) C5-6 ACP, and C6-7 SAS (hybrid); (C) C5-7 ACP. Full range of motion (ROM) data at C5-C7 was obtained and analyzed by each loading modality utilizing mean comparisons with repeated measures analysis of variance with Sidak correction for multiple comparisons. Compared with the intact specimen, all tested constructs had significantly increased segmental stability at C5-C7 in AR and FE ROM, with no difference in LB ROM. At C5-C6, all test constructs again had increased segmental stability in FE ROM compared with intact (10.9° ± 4.4° Intact vs SAS 6.6° ± 3.2°, P < .001; vs.Hybrid 2.9° ± 2.0°, P = .005; vs ACP 2.1° ± 1.4°, P < .001), but had no difference in AR and LB ROM. Analysis of C6-C7 ROM demonstrated all test groups had significantly greater segmental stability in FE ROM compared with intact (9.6° ± 2.7° Intact vs SAS 5.0° ± 3.0°, P = .018; vs Hybrid 5.0° ± 2.7°, P = .018; vs ACP 4.4° ± 5.2°, P = .005). Only the hybrid and 2-level ACP constructs had increased stability at C6-C7 in AR ROM compared with intact, with no difference for all test groups in LB ROM. Comparison between test constructs demonstrated no difference in C5-C7 and C6-C7 segmental stability in all planes of motion. However, at C5-C6 comparison between test

  16. Segmental kyphosis after cervical interbody fusion with stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages: a comparative study on 2 different PEEK cages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chi Heon; Chung, Chun Kee; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Park, Sung Bae; Sohn, Seil; Lee, Sungjoon

    2015-02-01

    Retrospective comparative study. Two polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages of different designs were compared in terms of the postoperative segmental kyphosis after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Segmental kyphosis occasionally occurs after the use of a stand-alone cage for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Although PEEK material seems to have less risk of segmental kyphosis compared with other materials, the occurrence of segmental kyphosis for PEEK cages has been reported to be from 0% to 29%. There have been a few reports that addressed the issue of PEEK cage design. A total of 41 consecutive patients who underwent single-level anterior discectomy and fusion with a stand-alone cage were included. Either a round tube-type (Solis; 18 patients, S-group) or a trapezoidal tube-type (MC+; 23 patients, M-group) cage was used. The contact area between the cage and the vertebral body is larger in MC+ than in Solis, and anchoring pins were present in the Solis cage. The effect of the cage type on the segmental angle (SA) (lordosis vs. kyphosis) at postoperative month 24 was analyzed. Preoperatively, segmental lordosis was present in 12/18 S-group and 16/23 M-group patients (P=0.84). The SA was more lordotic than the preoperative angle in both groups just after surgery, with no difference between groups (P=0.39). At 24 months, segmental lordosis was observed in 9/18 S-group and 20/23 M-group patients (P=0.01). The patients in M-group were 7.83 times more likely than patients in S-group (P=0.04; odds ratio, 7.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-56.28) not to develop segmental kyphosis. The design of the PEEK cage used may influence the SA, and this association needs to be considered when using stand-alone PEEK cages.

  17. A Clinical Comparison of Anterior Cervical Plates Versus Stand-Alone Intervertebral Fusion Devices for Single-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Procedures.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Ripul R; Kim, Kee D; Eastlack, Robert; Lopez, John; Clavenna, Andrew; Brooks, Daina M; Joshua, Gita

    2017-03-01

    To compare radiologic and clinical outcomes, including rates of dysphagia and dysphonia, using a no-profile stand-alone intervertebral spacer with integrated screw fixation versus an anterior cervical plate and spacer construct for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) procedures. This multicenter, randomized, prospective study included 54 patients with degenerative disc disease requiring ACDF at a single level at C3-C7. Twenty-six patients underwent single-level ACDF with stand-alone spacers, and 28 with plate fixation and spacers. Analyses were based on comparison of perioperative outcomes, radiologic and clinical metrics, and incidence of dysphagia and/or dysphonia. Mean patient age was 48.8 ± 10.1years (53.7% female). No significant differences were observed between groups in operative time (101.8 ± 34.4 minutes, 114.4 ± 31.5 minutes), estimated blood loss (44.8 ± 76.5 mL, 82.5 ± 195.1 mL), or length of hospital stay (1.2 ± 0.6 days, 1.3 ± 0.6 days). Mean visual analog scale pain scores and Neck Disability Index scores improved significantly from preoperative to last follow-up (10.8 ± 2.6 months) in both groups (P < 0.05). Mean Voice Handicap Index and Eating Assessment Tool scores improved significantly from discharge to last follow-up in both groups (P < 0.05). From discharge to 6 months, the stand-alone spacers group consistently demonstrated greater improvement in Voice Handicap Index. Preoperative intervertebral disc and neuroforaminal heights increased significantly across treatment groups (P < 0.01), and no cases required surgical revision at index or adjacent levels. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with stand-alone spacers resulted in similar clinical and radiologic outcomes as compared with plate and spacers and may help minimize postoperative dysphonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of plate-cage construct and stand-alone anchored spacer in the surgical treatment of three-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a preliminary clinical study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Sheng; Liu, Zu-De; Li, Xin-Feng; Qian, Lie; Zhong, Gui-Bin; Chen, Fang-Jing

    2015-09-01

    Although stand-alone cages were advocated to be superior to plate-cage construct (PCC) because of comparable clinical outcomes and fewer plate-related complications, cage dislocation and subsidence were frequently mentioned in multilevel fusion. There are some concerns about whether these issues can be effectively prevented in multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) by stand-alone anchored spacer (SAAS). The aim was to compare clinical outcomes, radiologic parameters, and complications of PCC and SAAS in the treatment of three-level cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). This was a retrospective comparative study. A total of 38 consecutive patients with three-level CSM (ACDF with PCC, 20 patients; ACDF with SAAS, 18 patients) were reviewed. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Japanese Orthopaedic Association and Neck Disability Index. The radiologic evaluations included cervical alignment (CA), segmental angle (SA), postoperative curvature loss (PCL), and incidence of subsidence. All the aforementioned parameters were compared before and after surgery between two groups. Besides, the aforementioned results were also compared between the two groups. The complications were also recorded. The mean follow-up period was 30.3 months. No significant differences were observed in clinical outcomes between the two groups (p>.05). Additionally, no significant differences existed in fusion rate between the two groups. There were significant differences in PCL of SA and CA and correction of SA between the two groups (p<.05). Besides, the incidence of subsidence (9 of 54 levels, 16.7%) was recorded in the SAAS group, and the potential of SAAS to reduce the incidence of postoperative dysphagia was not proven. No other complications were observed in this study. In the surgical treatment of three-level CSM, PCC is superior to SAAS in correction and maintenance of SA and avoiding cage subsidence, although the technique of ACDF with SAAS yielded encouraging

  19. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  20. One and two level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using an expandable, stand-alone, interbody fusion device: a VariLift® case series

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-Tuck, Rebecca; Del Monaco, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical interventions such as posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with and without posterior instrumentation are often employed in patients with degenerative spinal conditions that fail to respond to conservative medical management. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System was developed as a stand-alone solution to provide the benefits of an intervertebral fusion device without the requirement of supplemental pedicle screw fixation. Methods In this retrospective case series, 25 patients underwent PLIF with a stand-alone VariLift® expandable interbody fusion device without adjunctive pedicle screw fixation. There were 12 men and 13 women, with a mean age of 57.2 years (range, 33–83 years); single level in 18 patients, 2 levels in 7 patients. Back pain severity was reported as none, mild, moderate, severe and worst imaginable at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Preoperatively, 88% (22 of 25) of patients reported severe back pain. Results All patients experienced symptomatic improvement and, by 12 months postoperatively, 71% (15 of 21) of patients reported only mild residual pain. Overall, pain scores improved significantly from baseline to 12 months (P=0.0002). There were no revision surgeries and fusion was achieved 12 of 13 patients (92%) who returned for a 12-month radiographic follow-up. There were three cases of intractable postsurgical pain which required extended hospitalization or pain management, one wound infection and one case of surgical site dehiscence, both treated and resolved during inpatient hospitalization. Conclusions In this single-physician case series, the VariLift® device used in single or two-level PLIF provided effective symptom relief and produced a high fusion rate without the need for supplemental fixation. PMID:28435912

  1. One and two level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using an expandable, stand-alone, interbody fusion device: a VariLift® case series.

    PubMed

    Barrett-Tuck, Rebecca; Del Monaco, Diana; Block, Jon E

    2017-03-01

    Surgical interventions such as posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with and without posterior instrumentation are often employed in patients with degenerative spinal conditions that fail to respond to conservative medical management. The VariLift ® Interbody Fusion System was developed as a stand-alone solution to provide the benefits of an intervertebral fusion device without the requirement of supplemental pedicle screw fixation. In this retrospective case series, 25 patients underwent PLIF with a stand-alone VariLift ® expandable interbody fusion device without adjunctive pedicle screw fixation. There were 12 men and 13 women, with a mean age of 57.2 years (range, 33-83 years); single level in 18 patients, 2 levels in 7 patients. Back pain severity was reported as none, mild, moderate, severe and worst imaginable at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Preoperatively, 88% (22 of 25) of patients reported severe back pain. All patients experienced symptomatic improvement and, by 12 months postoperatively, 71% (15 of 21) of patients reported only mild residual pain. Overall, pain scores improved significantly from baseline to 12 months (P=0.0002). There were no revision surgeries and fusion was achieved 12 of 13 patients (92%) who returned for a 12-month radiographic follow-up. There were three cases of intractable postsurgical pain which required extended hospitalization or pain management, one wound infection and one case of surgical site dehiscence, both treated and resolved during inpatient hospitalization. In this single-physician case series, the VariLift ® device used in single or two-level PLIF provided effective symptom relief and produced a high fusion rate without the need for supplemental fixation.

  2. A qualitative study of how patients with type 2 diabetes use an electronic stand-alone personal health record.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kevin T; Abbott, Amy A; Galt, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Patient use of personal health records (PHRs) to manage their health information has been proposed to enhance patient knowledge and empower patients to make changes in their self-care behaviors. However, there remains a gap in understanding about patients' actual PHR use behaviors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how patients with type 2 diabetes used a PHR to manage their diabetes-related health information for self-care. Fifty-nine patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed 3-6 months after receiving initial training on a free-of-charge, Web-based PHR. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative process of in vivo coding, categorization, and theme development. Nine themes emerged, three of which expressed positive experiences: complete and accessible record; increased awareness; and behavioral changes. The remaining six themes expressed negative experiences: out of sight, out of mind; I would have used it if I were sicker; economic, infrastructure, and computer literacy barriers; lack of patient-provider engagement; double tracking; and privacy and security concerns. Despite some potential positive benefits resulting from PHR use, several barriers inhibited sustained and effective use over time. Provider and patient education about the benefits of PHR use and about the potential for filling in information gaps in the provider-based record is key to engage patients and stimulate PHR adoption and use.

  3. Bmi1 is required for the initiation of pancreatic cancer through an Ink4a-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Bednar, Filip; Schofield, Heather K; Collins, Meredith A; Yan, Wei; Zhang, Yaqing; Shyam, Nikhil; Eberle, Jaime A; Almada, Luciana L; Olive, Kenneth P; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E; Nakada, Daisuke; Simeone, Diane M; Morrison, Sean J; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2015-07-01

    Epigenetic dysregulation is involved in the initiation and progression of many epithelial cancers. BMI1, a component of the polycomb protein family, plays a key role in these processes by controlling the histone ubiquitination and long-term repression of multiple genomic loci. BMI1 has previously been implicated in pancreatic homeostasis and the function of pancreatic cancer stem cells. However, no work has yet addressed its role in the early stages of pancreatic cancer development. Here, we show that BMI1 is required for the initiation of murine pancreatic neoplasia using a novel conditional knockout of Bmi1 in combination with a Kras(G12D)-driven pancreatic cancer mouse model. We also demonstrate that the requirement for Bmi1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis is independent of the Ink4a/Arf locus and at least partially mediated by dysregulation of reactive oxygen species. Our data provide new evidence of the importance of this epigenetic regulator in the genesis of pancreatic cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Solar photovoltaics: Stand alone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1980-11-01

    The Lewis Research Center involvement in space photovoltaic research and development and in using photovoltaics for terrestrial applications is described with emphasis on applications in which the normal source of power may be a diesel generator, batteries, or other types of power not connected to a utility grid. Once an application is processed, technology is developed and demonstrated with a user who participates in the cost and furnishes the site. Projects completed related to instruments, communication, refrigeration, and highways, are described as well as warning systems, weather stations, fire lookouts, and village power systems. A commercially available photovoltaic powered electric fence charger is the result of Lewis research and development.

  5. Ketoacylsynthase Domains of a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase in Thraustochytrium sp. Strain ATCC 26185 Can Effectively Function as Stand-Alone Enzymes in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xi; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Qiu, Xiao

    2017-05-01

    Thraustochytrium sp. strain ATCC 26185 accumulates a high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutritionally important ω-3 very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA) synthesized primarily by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase, a type I polyketide synthase-like megaenzyme. The PUFA synthase in this species comprises three large subunits, each with multiple catalytic domains. It was hypothesized that among these domains, ketoacylsynthase (KS) domains might be critical for catalyzing the condensation of specific unsaturated acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) with malonyl-ACP, thereby retaining double bonds in an extended acyl chain. To investigate the functions of these putative KS domains, two segment sequences from subunit A (KS-A) and subunit B (KS-B) of the PUFA synthase were dissected and then expressed as stand-alone enzymes in Escherichia coli The results showed that both KS-A and KS-B domains could complement the defective phenotypes of both E. coli fabB and fabF mutants. Overexpression of these domains in wild-type E. coli led to increases in total fatty acid production. KS-B produced a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while KS-A could improve the overall production of fatty acids more effectively, particularly for the production of SFAs, implying that KS-A is more comparable to FabF, while KS-B is more similar to FabB in catalytic functions. Successful complementation and functional expression of the embedded KS domains in E. coli are the first step forward in studying the molecular mechanism of the PUFA synthase for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs in Thraustochytrium IMPORTANCE Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) are important for human health. They can be biosynthesized in either an aerobic pathway or an anaerobic pathway in nature. However, abundant VLCPUFAs in marine microorganisms are primarily synthesized by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase, a megaenzyme with

  6. Continuous monitoring bed-level dynamics on an intertidal flat: introducing novel stand-alone high-resolution SED-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhan; Lenting, Walther; van der Wal, Daphne; Bouma, Tjeerd

    2015-04-01

    Tidal flat morphology is continuously shaped by hydrodynamic force, resulting in highly dynamic bed elevations. The knowledge of short-term bed-level changes is important both for understanding sediment transport processes as well as for assessing critical ecological processes such as e.g. vegetation recruitment chances on tidal flats. Due to the labour involved, manual discontinuous measurements lack the ability to continuously monitor bed-elevation changes. Existing methods for automated continuous monitoring of bed-level changes lack vertical accuracy (e.g., Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin sensor and resistive rod) or limited in spatial application by using expensive technology (e.g., acoustic bed level sensors). A method provides sufficient accuracy with a reasonable cost is needed. In light of this, a high-accuracy sensor (2 mm) for continuously measuring short-term Surface-Elevation Dynamics (SED-sensor) was developed. This SED-sensor makes use of photovoltaic cells and operates stand-alone using internal power supply and data logging system. The unit cost and the labour in deployments is therefore reduced, which facilitates monitoring with a number of units. In this study, the performance of a group of SED-sensors is tested against data obtained with precise manual measurements using traditional Sediment Erosion Bars (SEB). An excellent agreement between the two methods was obtained, indicating the accuracy and precision of the SED-sensors. Furthermore, to demonstrate how the SED-sensors can be used for measuring short-term bed-level dynamics, two SED-sensors were deployed for 1 month at two sites with contrasting wave exposure conditions. Daily bed-level changes were obtained including a severe storm erosion event. The difference in observed bed-level dynamics at both sites was statistically explained by their different hydrodynamic conditions. Thus, the stand-alone SED-sensor can be applied to monitor sediment surface dynamics with high vertical and temporal

  7. Dynamical downscaling of historical climate over CORDEX East Asia domain: A comparison of regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model to stand-alone RCM simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Liwei; Zhou, Tianjun; Peng, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    The FROALS (flexible regional ocean-atmosphere-land system) model, a regional ocean-atmosphere coupled model, has been applied to the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) East Asia domain. Driven by historical simulations from a global climate system model, dynamical downscaling for the period from 1980 to 2005 has been conducted at a uniform horizontal resolution of 50 km. The impacts of regional air-sea couplings on the simulations of East Asian summer monsoon rainfall have been investigated, and comparisons have been made to corresponding simulations performed using a stand-alone regional climate model (RCM). The added value of the FROALS model with respect to the driving global climate model was evident in terms of both climatology and the interannual variability of summer rainfall over East China by the contributions of both the high horizontal resolution and the reasonably simulated convergence of the moisture fluxes. Compared with the stand-alone RCM simulations, the spatial pattern of the simulated low-level monsoon flow over East Asia and the western North Pacific was improved in the FROALS model due to its inclusion of regional air-sea coupling. The results indicated that the simulated sea surface temperature (SSTs) resulting from the regional air-sea coupling were lower than those derived directly from the driving global model over the western North Pacific north of 15°N. These colder SSTs had both positive and negative effects. On the one hand, they strengthened the western Pacific subtropical high, which improved the simulation of the summer monsoon circulation over East Asia. On the other hand, the colder SSTs suppressed surface evaporation and favored weaker local interannual variability in the SST, which led to less summer rainfall and weaker interannual rainfall variability over the Korean Peninsula and Japan. Overall, the reference simulation performed using the FROALS model is reasonable in terms of rainfall over the land area of

  8. Outcomes Evaluation of Zero-Profile Devices Compared to Stand-Alone PEEK Cages for the Treatment of Three- and Four-Level Cervical Disc Disease.

    PubMed

    Gerszten, Peter C; Paschel, Erin; Mashaly, Hazem; Sabry, Hatem; Jalalod'din, Hasan; Saoud, Khaled

    2016-09-10

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a well-accepted treatment option for patients with cervical spine disease. Three- and four-level discectomies are known to be associated with a higher complication rate and lower fusion rate than single-level surgery. This study was performed to evaluate and compare zero-profile fixation and stand-alone PEEK cages for three- and four-level ACDF. Two cohorts of patients who underwent ACDF for the treatment of three- and four-level disease were compared. Thirty-three patients underwent implantation of zero-profile devices that included titanium screw fixation (Group A). Thirty-five patients underwent implantation of stand-alone PEEK cages without any form of screw fixation (Group B). In Group A, twenty-seven patients underwent a three-level and six patients a four-level ACDF, with a total of 105 levels. In Group B, thirty patients underwent a three-level and five patients underwent a four-level ACDF, with a total number of 110 levels. In Group A, the mean preoperative visual analog scale score (VAS) for arm pain was 6.4 (range 3-8), and the mean postoperative VAS for arm pain decreased to 2.5 (range 1-7). In group B, the mean preoperative VAS of arm pain was 7.1 (range 3-10), and the mean postoperative VAS of arm pain decreased to 2 (range 0-4). In Group A, four patients (12%) developed dysphagia, and in Group B, three patients (9%) developed dysphagia.  Conclusions: This study found zero-profile instrumentation and PEEK cages to be both safe and effective for patients who underwent three- and four-level ACDF, comparable to reported series using plate devices. Rates of dysphagia for the cohort were much lower than reports using plate devices. Zero-profile segmental fixation devices and PEEK cages may be considered as viable alternatives over plate fixation for patients requiring multi-level anterior cervical fusion surgery.

  9. A stand-alone lateral condyle-elevating trochlear osteotomy leads to high residual instability but no excessive increase in patellofemoral osteoarthritis at 12-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tigchelaar, S; van Sambeeck, J; Koeter, S; van Kampen, A

    2018-04-01

    Trochlear osteotomy is a rarely performed procedure, only indicated in selected cases. Due to its nature, it can potentially lead to cartilage damage and subsequent early osteoarthritis. Satisfactory short-term results from lateral condyle-elevating osteotomy have previously been reported. The long-term effects of this procedure on clinical outcomes, patellar stability and radiological osteoarthritis are reported here. Sixteen patients (19 knees) with patellar instability due to trochlear dysplasia were included. An isolated lateral condyle-elevating trochlear osteotomy was performed between 1995 and 2002. All patients were re-examined at a minimum of 12-year follow-up. Three patients were lost to follow-up, and one patient underwent a patellofemoral arthroplasty 3 years post-operatively due to progressive osteoarthritis. Complete follow-up was therefore available in 12 patients (15 knees). Recurrent instability, VAS pain, WOMAC, Lysholm and Kujala scores were used as outcome measures. Radiological osteoarthritis was recorded using the Iwano and the Kellgren-Lawrence classifications. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for repeated measures (pre-operative, 2-year and final follow-up), and Spearman's correlation coefficient for relationships between osteoarthritis and functional scores. At final follow-up, VAS pain showed a non-significant improvement from 52 to 25, and the median Kujala score was 78. Median Lysholm (54-71, p = 0.021) and WOMAC (78-96, p = 0.021) scores improved from the pre-operative assessment to final follow-up. There was no significant difference observed between clinical scores at the 2-year and final follow-up. Residual patellar instability was reported in four out of 15 knees. Three knees showed no patellofemoral osteoarthritis, eight knees had grade 1 and four knees grade 2. No correlation between VAS pain, Lysholm, WOMAC or Kujala scores and osteoarthritis could be identified (n.s.). A stand-alone lateral condyle

  10. Ketoacylsynthase Domains of a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase in Thraustochytrium sp. Strain ATCC 26185 Can Effectively Function as Stand-Alone Enzymes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xi; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Thraustochytrium sp. strain ATCC 26185 accumulates a high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a nutritionally important ω-3 very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA) synthesized primarily by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase, a type I polyketide synthase-like megaenzyme. The PUFA synthase in this species comprises three large subunits, each with multiple catalytic domains. It was hypothesized that among these domains, ketoacylsynthase (KS) domains might be critical for catalyzing the condensation of specific unsaturated acyl-acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) with malonyl-ACP, thereby retaining double bonds in an extended acyl chain. To investigate the functions of these putative KS domains, two segment sequences from subunit A (KS-A) and subunit B (KS-B) of the PUFA synthase were dissected and then expressed as stand-alone enzymes in Escherichia coli. The results showed that both KS-A and KS-B domains could complement the defective phenotypes of both E. coli fabB and fabF mutants. Overexpression of these domains in wild-type E. coli led to increases in total fatty acid production. KS-B produced a higher ratio of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while KS-A could improve the overall production of fatty acids more effectively, particularly for the production of SFAs, implying that KS-A is more comparable to FabF, while KS-B is more similar to FabB in catalytic functions. Successful complementation and functional expression of the embedded KS domains in E. coli are the first step forward in studying the molecular mechanism of the PUFA synthase for the biosynthesis of VLCPUFAs in Thraustochytrium. IMPORTANCE Very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VLCPUFAs) are important for human health. They can be biosynthesized in either an aerobic pathway or an anaerobic pathway in nature. However, abundant VLCPUFAs in marine microorganisms are primarily synthesized by polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthase, a

  11. Stand-Alone Pulmonary Vein Isolation Versus Pulmonary Vein Isolation With Additional Substrate Modification as Index Ablation Procedures in Patients With Persistent and Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: The Randomized Alster-Lost-AF Trial (Ablation at St. Georg Hospital for Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation).

    PubMed

    Fink, Thomas; Schlüter, Michael; Heeger, Christian-Hendrik; Lemes, Christine; Maurer, Tilman; Reissmann, Bruno; Riedl, Johannes; Rottner, Laura; Santoro, Francesco; Schmidt, Boris; Wohlmuth, Peter; Mathew, Shibu; Sohns, Christian; Ouyang, Feifan; Metzner, Andreas; Kuck, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for persistent atrial fibrillation is associated with limited success rates and often requires multiple procedures to maintain stable sinus rhythm. In the prospective and randomized Alster-Lost-AF trial (Ablation at St. Georg Hospital for Long-Standing Persistent Atrial Fibrillation), we sought to assess, in patients with symptomatic persistent or long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, the outcomes of initial ablative strategies comprising either stand-alone PVI (PVI-only approach) or a stepwise approach of PVI followed by complex fractionated atrial electrogram ablation and linear ablation (Substrate-modification approach). Patients were randomized 1:1 to stand-alone PVI or PVI plus substrate modification. The primary study end point was freedom from recurrence of any atrial tachyarrhythmia, outside a 90-day blanking period, at 12 months. A total of 124 patients were enrolled, with 118 patients included in the analysis (61 in the PVI-only group, 57 in the Substrate-modification group). Atrial tachyarrhythmias recurred in 28 PVI-only group patients and 24 Substrate-modification group patients, for 1-year freedom from tachyarrhythmia recurrence after a single ablation procedure of 54% (95% confidence interval, 43%-68%) in the PVI-only and 57% (95% confidence interval, 46%-72%) in the Substrate-modification group ( P =0.86). Twenty-four patients in the PVI-only group (39%) and 18 in the Substrate-modification group (32%) were without arrhythmia recurrence and off antiarrhythmic drug therapy at the end of the 12-month follow-up. In patients with persistent and long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation, no significant difference was observed in 12-month freedom from atrial tachyarrhythmias between an index ablative approach of stand-alone PVI and a stepwise approach of PVI plus complex fractionated atrial electrogram and linear ablation. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00820625. © 2017 American Heart

  12. An innovative stand-alone bioreactor for the highly reproducible transfer of cyclic mechanical stretch to stem cells cultured in a 3D scaffold.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Marco; Lotti, Fabrizio; Biagiotti, Luigi; Lannocca, Maurizio; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea; Valente, Sabrina; Muscari, Claudio; Bonafè, Francesca; Caldarera, Claudio M; Guarnieri, Carlo; Cavalcanti, Silvio; Giordano, Emanuele

    2014-10-01

    Much evidence in the literature demonstrates the effect of cyclic mechanical stretch in maintaining, or addressing, a muscle phenotype. Such results were obtained using several technical approaches, useful for the experimental collection of proofs of principle but probably unsuitable for application in clinical regenerative medicine. Here we aimed to design a reliable innovative bioreactor, acting as a stand-alone cell culture incubator, easy to operate and effective in addressing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto a 3D bioreabsorbable scaffold, towards a muscle phenotype via the transfer of a controlled and highly-reproducible cyclic deformation. Electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and biochemical analysis of the obtained pseudotissue constructs showed that cells 'trained' over 1 week: (a) displayed multilayer organization and invaded the 3D mesh of the scaffold; and (b) expressed typical markers of muscle cells. This effect was due only to physical stimulation of the cells, without the need of any other chemical or genetic manipulation. This device is thus proposed as a prototypal instrument to obtain pseudotissue constructs to test in cardiovascular regenerative medicine, using good manufacturing procedures. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Timing and Outcome of Referral to the First Stand-Alone Palliative Care Center in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, the Palliative Care Center of Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Khaled; Al-Awadi, Ahmad; Soliman, Najla A; Mostafa, Sobhy; Mostafa, Mohammad; Mostafa, Wafaa; Alsirafy, Samy A

    2017-05-01

    Compared to other regions of the world, palliative care (PC) in the Eastern Mediterranean region is at an earlier stage of development. The Palliative Care Center of Kuwait (PCC-K) was established a few years ago as the first stand-alone PC center in the region. This study was conducted to investigate the timing of referral to the PCC-K and its outcome. Retrospective review of referrals to the PCC-K during its first 3 years of action. Late referral was defined as referral during the last 30 days of life. During the 3-year period, 498 patients with cancer were referred to the PCC-K of whom 467 were eligible for analysis. Referral was considered late in 58% of patients. Nononcology facilities were more likely to refer patients late when compared to oncology facilities ( P = .033). The palliative performance scale (PPS) was ≤30 in 59% of late referrals and 21% in earlier referrals ( P < .001). Among 467 referred patients, 342 (73%) were eligible for transfer to the PCC-K, 102 (22%) were ineligible, and 23 (5%) died before assessment by the PCC-K consultation team. From the 342 eligible patients, the family caregivers refused the transfer of 64 (19%) patients to the PCC-K. Patients are frequently referred late to the PCC-K. Further research to identify barriers to PC and its early integration in Kuwait is required. The PPS may be useful in identifying late referrals.

  14. A Study on Electric Power Smoothing System for Lead-Acid Battery of Stand-Alone Natural Energy Power System Using EDLC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yan; Shibata, Ryosuke; Yamamura, Naoki; Ishida, Muneaki

    To resolve energy shortage and global warming problem, renewable natural resource and its power system has been gradually generalizing. However, the power fluctuation suppressing in short period and the balance control of consumption and supply in long period are two of main problems that need to be resolved urgently in natural energy power system. In Stand-alone Natural Energy Power System (SNEPS) with power energy storage devices, power fluctuation in short period is one of the main reasons that recharge cycle times increase and lead-acid battery early failure. Hence, to prolong the service life of lead-acid battery and improve power quality through suppressing the power fluctuation, we proposed a method of electric power smoothing for lead-acid battery of SNEPS using bi-directional Buck/Boost converter and Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) in this paper. According to the test data of existing SNEPS, a power fluctuation condition is selected and as an example to analyze the validity of the proposed method. The analysis of frequency characteristics indicates the power fluctuation is suppressed a desired range in the target frequency region. The experimental results of confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system and the results well satisfy the requirement of system design.

  15. CRionScan: A stand-alone real time controller designed to perform ion beam imaging, dose controlled irradiation and proton beam writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudin, L.; Barberet, Ph.; Serani, L.; Moretto, Ph.

    2013-07-01

    High resolution ion microbeams, usually used to perform elemental mapping, low dose targeted irradiation or ion beam lithography needs a very flexible beam control system. For this purpose, we have developed a dedicated system (called “CRionScan”), on the AIFIRA facility (Applications Interdisciplinaires des Faisceaux d'Ions en Région Aquitaine). It consists of a stand-alone real-time scanning and imaging instrument based on a Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (Compact RIO) device from National Instruments™. It is based on a real-time controller, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), input/output modules and Ethernet connectivity. We have implemented a fast and deterministic beam scanning system interfaced with our commercial data acquisition system without any hardware development. CRionScan is built under LabVIEW™ and has been used on AIFIRA's nanobeam line since 2009 (Barberet et al., 2009, 2011) [1,2]. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) embedded in the Compact RIO as a web page is used to control the scanning parameters. In addition, a fast electrostatic beam blanking trigger has been included in the FPGA and high speed counters (15 MHz) have been implemented to perform dose controlled irradiation and on-line images on the GUI. Analog to Digital converters are used for the beam current measurement and in the near future for secondary electrons imaging. Other functionalities have been integrated in this controller like LED lighting using Pulse Width Modulation and a “NIM Wilkinson ADC” data acquisition.

  16. Further development of LLNA:DAE method as stand-alone skin-sensitization testing method and applied for evaluation of relative skin-sensitizing potency between chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    To date, there has been no well-established local lymph node assay (LLNA) that includes an elicitation phase. Therefore, we developed a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE) to discriminate true skin sensitizers from chemicals that gave borderline positive results and previously reported this assay. To develop the LLNA:DAE method as a useful stand-alone testing method, we investigated the complete procedure for the LLNA:DAE method using hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA), isoeugenol, and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) as test compounds. We defined the LLNA:DAE procedure as follows: in the dose-finding test, four concentrations of chemical applied to dorsum of the right ear on days 1, 2, and 3 and dorsum of both ears on day 10. Ear thickness and skin irritation score were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 10, and 12. Local lymph nodes were excised and weighed on day 12. The test dose for the primary LLNA:DAE study was selected as the dose that gave the highest left ear lymph node weight in the dose-finding study, or the lowest dose that produced a left ear lymph node of over 4 mg. This procedure was validated using nine different chemicals. Furthermore, qualitative relationship was observed between the degree of elicitation response in the left ear lymph node and the skin sensitizing potency of 32 chemicals tested in this study and the previous study. These results indicated that LLNA:DAE method was as first LLNA method that was able to evaluate the skin sensitizing potential and potency in elicitation response.

  17. Stand-alone containment analysis of Phébus FPT tests with ASTEC and MELCOR codes: the FPT-2 test.

    PubMed

    Gonfiotti, Bruno; Paci, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    During the last 40 years, many studies have been carried out to investigate the different phenomena occurring during a Severe Accident (SA) in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Such efforts have been supported by the execution of different experimental campaigns, and the integral Phébus FP tests were probably some of the most important experiments in this field. In these tests, the degradation of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel bundle was investigated employing different control rod materials and burn-up levels in strongly or weakly oxidizing conditions. From the findings on these and previous tests, numerical codes such as ASTEC and MELCOR have been developed to analyze the evolution of a SA in real NPPs. After the termination of the Phébus FP campaign, these two codes have been furthermore improved to implement the more recent findings coming from different experimental campaigns. Therefore, continuous verification and validation is still necessary to check that the new improvements introduced in such codes allow also a better prediction of these Phébus tests. The aim of the present work is to re-analyze the Phébus FPT-2 test employing the updated ASTEC and MELCOR code versions. The analysis focuses on the stand-alone containment aspects of this test, and three different spatial nodalizations of the containment vessel (CV) have been developed. The paper summarizes the main thermal-hydraulic results and presents different sensitivity analyses carried out on the aerosols and fission products (FP) behavior. When possible, a comparison among the results obtained during this work and by different authors in previous work is also performed. This paper is part of a series of publications covering the four Phébus FP tests using a PWR fuel bundle: FPT-0, FPT-1, FPT-2, and FPT-3, excluding the FPT-4 one, related to the study of the release of low-volatility FP and transuranic elements from a debris bed and a pool of melted fuel.

  18. [Application of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on a novel porous TiO2/glass composite. I. Implantation in the sheep cervical spine and radiological evaluation].

    PubMed

    Korinth, M C; Hero, T; Mahnken, A H; Ragoss, C; Scherer, K

    2004-12-01

    Animals are becoming more and more common as in vitro and in vivo models for the human spine. Especially the sheep cervical spine is stated to be of good comparability and usefulness in the evaluation of in vivo radiological, biomechanical and histological behaviour of new bone replacement materials, implants and cages for cervical spine interbody fusion. In preceding biomechanical in vitro examination human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO/glass composite (Ecopore) or polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) after discectomy. First experience with the use of the new material and its influence on the primary stability after in vitro application were gained. After fusion of 10 sheep cervical spines in the levels C2/3 and C4/5 in each case with PMMA and with an Ecopore-cage, radiologic as well as computertomographic examinations were performed postoperatively and every 4 weeks during the following 2 and 4 months, respectively. Apart from establishing our animal model, we analysed the radiological changes and the degree of bony fusion of the operated segments during the course. In addition we performed measurements of the corresponding disc space heights (DSH) and intervertebral angles (IVA) for comparison among each other, during the course and with the initial values. Immediately after placement of both implants in the disc spaces the mean DSH and IVA increased (34.8% and 53.9%, respectively). During the following months DSH decreased to a greater extent in the Ecopore-segments than in the PMMA-segments, even to a value below the initial value (p>0.05). Similarly, the IVA decreased in both groups in the postoperative time lapse, but more distinct in the Ecopore-segments (p<0.05). These changes in terms of a subsidence of the implants, were confirmed morphologically in the radiological examination in the course. The radiologically evaluated fusion, i.e. bony bridging of

  19. Wireless network of stand-alone end effect probes for soil in situ permittivity measurements over the 100MHZ-6GHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontoux, François; Bircher, Simone; Ruffié, Gilles; Bonnaudiin, Fabrice; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Yann

    2017-04-01

    , it should be useful to install many probes on the same site to obtain permittivity measurements over a large area. To reach this goal, the probes should communicate with each other to send data to a record device. Furthermore, it is needed to record measurements over a long time period (many months) to study the in-situ dielectric soil property variations according to changing weather conditions and seasonal trends. The goal of the research work presented is to develop a dielectric sensor system based on end effect probes able to communicate the data using wireless technology. It must be stand-alone from an electric and data recording point of view so it must integrate a VNA circuit instead of the ANRITSU VNA used for the moment. The LoRa wireless technology has been selected because of its low electric consumption and the large distance between equipment available. LoRaWAN™ is a Low Power Wide Area Network specification intended for wireless battery operated devices. The LoRaWAN data rates range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps which is sufficient for our probes' data exchanges. We will present the work done to perform the VNA and the LoRa communication board as well as the work done to improve the probes and the permittivity computation algorithm.

  20. Surgical Outcome of a Zero-profile Device Comparing with Stand-alone Cage and Anterior Cervical Plate with Iliac Bone Graft in the Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae Sik; Cho, Pyoung Goo

    2014-01-01

    Objective A Zero-profile device is a cervical stand-alone cage with integrated segmental fixation device. We characteristically evaluated the radiological changes as well as clinical outcomes in the application of Zero-profile devices compared with stand-alone cages and anterior cervical plates with iliac bone grafts for the cervical disease. Methods Retrospectively, total 60 patients at least more than one year follow-up were enrolled. Twenty patients were treated with Zero-profile devices (Group A), twenty patients with stand-alone cages (Group B) and twenty patients with anterior cervical plates and iliac bone grafts (Group C) for a single level cervical disease. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Odom's criteria and Bazaz-Yoo dysphagia index. The radiologic parameters were by subsidence and the changes of the midpoint interbody height (IBH), the segmental kyphotic angle (SKA), the overall kyphotic angle (OKA) in index level. Results Although there was no significant clinical difference according to the Odom's criteria among them(p=0.766), post-operative dysphagia was significantly decreased in the Group A and B compared with the Group C (p=0.04). From the immediate postoperative to the last follow-up time, the mean change of IBH decrement and SKA increment were significant in the Group B compared with the Group A (p=0.025, p=0.033) and the Group C (p=0.001, p=0.000). The subsidence rate was not significant among all groups (p=0.338). Conclusion This Zero-profile device is a valuable alternative to the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia and without segmental kyphotic change. PMID:25346764

  1. Is the radiographic subsidence of stand-alone cages associated with adverse clinical outcomes after cervical spine fusion? An observational cohort study with 2-year follow-up outcome scoring.

    PubMed

    Zajonz, Dirk; Franke, Anne-Catherine; von der Höh, Nicolas; Voelker, Anna; Moche, Michael; Gulow, Jens; Heyde, Christoph-Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The stand-alone treatment of degenerative cervical spine pathologies is a proven method in clinical practice. However, its impact on subsidence, the resulting changes to the profile of the cervical spine and the possible influence of clinical results compared to treatment with additive plate osteosynthesis remain under discussion until present. This study was designed as a retrospective observational cohort study to test the hypothesis that radiographic subsidence of cervical cages is not associated with adverse clinical outcomes. 33 cervical segments were treated surgically by ACDF with stand-alone cage in 17 patients (11 female, 6 male), mean age 56 years (33-82 years), and re-examined after eight and twenty-six months (mean) by means of radiology and score assessment (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (MOS-SF 36), Oswestry Neck Disability Index (ONDI), painDETECT questionnaire and the visual analogue scale (VAS)). Subsidence was observed in 50.5% of segments (18/33) and 70.6% of patients (12/17). 36.3% of cases of subsidence (12/33) were observed after eight months during mean time of follow-up 1. After 26 months during mean time of follow-up 2, full radiographic fusion was seen in 100%. MOS-SF 36, ONDI and VAS did not show any significant difference between cases with and without subsidence in the two-sample t-test. Only in one type of scoring (painDETECT questionnaire) did a statistically significant difference in t-Test emerge between the two groups (p = 0.03; α = 0.05). However, preoperative painDETECT score differ significantly between patients with subsidence (13.3 falling to 12.6) and patients without subsidence (7.8 dropped to 6.3). The radiological findings indicated 100% healing after stand-alone treatment with ACDF. Subsidence occurred in 50% of the segments treated. No impact on the clinical results was detected in the medium-term study period.

  2. Stand-alone anchored cage versus cage with plating for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a prospective, randomized, controlled study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Osamu; Kitada, Akira; Naitou, Satoko; Tachibana, Atsuko; Ito, Yuya; Fujikawa, Akira

    2015-07-01

    To avoid complications associated with plating in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), stand-alone anchored PEEK cage was developed and favourable outcomes with a low rate of dysphasia have been described. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of ACDF using a standalone anchored PEEK cage (PREVAIL; Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN) with those of a PEEK cage with plating in a prospective randomized manner. Fifty patients with single-level cervical radiculopathy were randomly assigned to a PREVAIL or a PEEK cage with plating. Following 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, clinical and radiological outcomes were assessed. The mean surgical time for the patients with a PREVAIL was significantly shorter than that for those with a PEEK cage with plating. The clinical outcomes evaluated by visual analogue scale for pain and the Odom's criteria were comparable between both the groups. Both the groups demonstrated the high fusion rate (92% in PREVAIL; 96% in PEEK cage with plating). The subsidence rate and the improvement of cervical alignment were comparable between both the groups. The incidence of adjacent-level ossification was significantly lower for patients with a PREVAIL than that for those with a PEEK cage with plating. The rate of dysphasia graded by the method of Bazaz and measurement of prevertebral soft tissue swelling indicated no significant differences between both the groups. Our prospective randomized study confirmed that stand-alone anchored PEEK cage is a valid alternative to plating in ACDF with a low rate of adjacent-level ossification. However, the potential to reduce the incidence of dysphasia was not confirmed.

  3. Anterior Cervical Fusion with Stand-alone Trabecular Metal Cages to Treat Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Degenerative Disk Disease. Observations in 88 Cases with Minimum 12-month Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Luciano; Roperto, Raffaelino; Cacciotti, Guglielmo; Calvosa, Francesco

    2018-06-14

     Anterior cervical fusion (ACF) with autologous bone was reported > 50 years ago. The continuous development of materials with elastic properties close to that of the cortical bone improves induction of osteogenesis and simplifies the technique of interbody fusion. To determine the safety and efficiency of stand-alone trabecular metal (TM) (or porous tantalum) cages for ACF, we performed a retrospective analysis of 88 consecutive patients with one-level or two-level degenerative disk disease (DDD) causing cervical myelopathy treated by interbody fusion with stand-alone TM cages.  During a 65-month period, 88 consecutive patients had ACF at 105 levels between C3 and C7. All surgeries involved one- or two-segmental DDD producing mild or severe cervical spine myelopathy, in 31 patients (35.2%), associated with unilateral or bilateral radiculopathy. We implanted all disk spaces with unfilled TM trapezoidal cages (Zimmer Biomet Spine, Broomfield, Colorado, United States).  At a mean follow-up of 31 months (range: 12-65 months), 95.4% of patients had a good to excellent outcome, with subjective and objective improvement of myelopathy; the result was fair in two and poor in two other patients. Radicular pain and/or any deficits disappeared in 84 patients (95.4%) complaining of preoperative myeloradiculopathy. The fusion rate was 68.2% at 6 months and 100% at 1 year. Device fragmentation was never observed. In two cases, a second operation with removal of TM cages, corpectomy, expansion cages, and plating was necessary.  TM cages appear to be safe and efficient for ACF in DDD patients with myelopathy. To confirm our preliminary impressions, larger studies with long-term follow-up are necessary. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Chapter 2: Stand-alone Applications - TOPCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, C. J.

    Tool for OPerations on Catalogues And Tables or TOPCAT is a graphical viewer for table data. It offers a variety of ways to work with data tables, including a browser for the cell data, viewers for information about table and column metadata, dataset visualization, and even analysis. We discuss a small subset of TOPCAT's functionalities in this chapter. TOPCAT was originally developed as part of the Starlink program in the United Kingdom. It is now maintained by AstroGrid. The program is written in pure Java and available under the GNU General Public License. It is available for download and a version is included in the software distribution accompanying this book. TOPCAT is a GUI interface on top of the STIL library. A command line interface to this library, STILTS, described in Chapter 21 provides scriptable access to many of the capabilities described here. The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of TOPCAT to the novice user. The best place to look for and learn about TOPCAT is the web page maintained by Mark B. Taylor. There, TOPCAT documentation is provided in HTML, PDF, via screen shots, etc. In this chapter we take the user through a few examples that give the general idea of how TOPCAT works. The majority of the functionality of TOPCAT is not included in this short tutorial. Our goal in this tutorial is to lead the reader through an exercise that would result in a publication quality figure (e.g. for a journal article). Specifically, we will use TOPCAT to show how the color-magnitude relation of a galaxy cluster compares to that of all galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (York et al. 2000). This diagnostic is used not only in cluster finding, but its linear fit can provide insight into the age and/or metallicity of the oldest galaxies in galaxy clusters (which are some of the oldest galaxies in the Universe). The data we need for this exercise are: 1) the entire spectroscopic galaxy catalog from the SDSS, with galaxy positions, galaxy redshifts, and galaxy magnitudes and 2) galaxy members of a known galaxy cluster. For the former, we will download data directly from the SDSS servers to our local machine for analysis. For the latter, we will use TOPCAT's ability to call live cone search services.

  5. Stand Alone Battery Thermal Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, Brad

    The objective of this project is research, development and demonstration of innovative thermal management concepts that reduce the cell or battery weight, complexity (component count) and/or cost by at least 20%. The project addresses two issues that are common problems with current state of the art lithium ion battery packs used in vehicles; low power at cold temperatures and reduced battery life when exposed to high temperatures. Typically, battery packs are “oversized” to satisfy the two issues mentioned above. The first phase of the project was spent making a battery pack simulation model using AMEsim software. The battery pack usedmore » as a benchmark was from the Fiat 500EV. FCA and NREL provided vehicle data and cell data that allowed an accurate model to be created that matched the electrical and thermal characteristics of the actual battery pack. The second phase involved using the battery model from the first phase and evaluate different thermal management concepts. In the end, a gas injection heat pump system was chosen as the dedicated thermal system to both heat and cool the battery pack. Based on the simulation model. The heat pump system could use 50% less energy to heat the battery pack in -20°C ambient conditions, and by keeping the battery cooler at hot climates, the battery pack size could be reduced by 5% and still meet the warranty requirements. During the final phase, the actual battery pack and heat pump system were installed in a test bench at DENSO to validate the simulation results. Also during this phase, the system was moved to NREL where testing was also done to validate the results. In conclusion, the heat pump system can improve “fuel economy” (for electric vehicle) by 12% average in cold climates. Also, the battery pack size, or capacity, could be reduced 5%, or if pack size is kept constant, the pack life could be increased by two years. Finally, the total battery pack and thermal system cost could be reduced 5% only if the system is integrated with the vehicle cabin air conditioning system. The reason why we were not able to achieve the 20% reduction target is because of the natural decay of the battery cell due to the number of cycles. Perhaps newer battery chemistries that are not so sensitive to cycling would have more potential for reducing the battery size due to thermal issues.« less

  6. A Stand-Alone Interactive Physics Showcase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaff, Daniel; Hagelgans, Anja; Weidemuller, Matthias; Bretzer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    We present a showcase with interactive exhibits of basic physical experiments that constitutes a complementary method for teaching physics and interesting students in physical phenomena. Our interactive physics showcase, shown in Fig. 1, stimulates interest for science by letting the students experience, firsthand, surprising phenomena and…

  7. Multi-site evaluation of a computer aided detection (CAD) algorithm for small acute intra-cranial hemorrhage and development of a stand-alone CAD system ready for deployment in a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Ruchi R.; Fernandez, James; Lee, Joon K.; Chan, Tao; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2010-03-01

    Timely detection of Acute Intra-cranial Hemorrhage (AIH) in an emergency environment is essential for the triage of patients suffering from Traumatic Brain Injury. Moreover, the small size of lesions and lack of experience on the reader's part could lead to difficulties in the detection of AIH. A CT based CAD algorithm for the detection of AIH has been developed in order to improve upon the current standard of identification and treatment of AIH. A retrospective analysis of the algorithm has already been carried out with 135 AIH CT studies with 135 matched normal head CT studies from the Los Angeles County General Hospital/ University of Southern California Hospital System (LAC/USC). In the next step, AIH studies have been collected from Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and are currently being processed using the AIH CAD system as part of implementing a multi-site assessment and evaluation of the performance of the algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity numbers from the Walter Reed study will be compared with the numbers from the LAC/USC study to determine if there are differences in the presentation and detection due to the difference in the nature of trauma between the two sites. Simultaneously, a stand-alone system with a user friendly GUI has been developed to facilitate implementation in a clinical setting.

  8. Stand-alone Emollient Treatment Reduces Flares After Discontinuation of Topical Steroid Treatment in Atopic Dermatitis: A Double-blind, Randomized, Vehicle-controlled, Left-right Comparison Study.

    PubMed

    Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Rippke, Frank; Richter, Daniel; Filbry, Alexander; Arrowitz, Craig; Weber, Teresa; Fischer, Tobias W; Zillikens, Detlef

    2018-04-27

    Prevention of the flares is a main goal in the long-term treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). Therefore we investigated the efficacy of a water-in-oil emollient, containing licochalcone A, omega-6-fatty acids, ceramide 3 and glycerol, for prevention of the flares in adults with mild to moderately severe AD, treated with topical steroids, that led to clearing of the inflammatory lesions and had been discontinued prior to inclusion. The study was a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled, left-right comparison test with the number of relapses, defined as re-occurrence of erythema for at least 3 consecutive days, considered the primary outcome. Compared with the vehicle, the active formulation significantly reduced the number of relapses and maintained the barrier homeostasis of the respective arm. To the best of knowledge, this is the first study to show prevention of the AD flares by the use of stand-alone emollient treatment, based on comparison with the corresponding vehicle while excluding concomitant/rescue medications.

  9. The international phase 4 validation study of the EORTC QLQ-SWB32: A stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being for people receiving palliative care for cancer.

    PubMed

    Vivat, B; Young, T E; Winstanley, J; Arraras, J I; Black, K; Boyle, F; Bredart, A; Costantini, A; Guo, J; Irarrazaval, M E; Kobayashi, K; Kruizinga, R; Navarro, M; Omidvari, S; Rohde, G E; Serpentini, S; Spry, N; Van Laarhoven, H W M; Yang, G M

    2017-11-01

    The EORTC Quality of Life Group has just completed the final phase (field-testing and validation) of an international project to develop a stand-alone measure of spiritual well-being (SWB) for palliative cancer patients. Participants (n = 451)-from 14 countries on four continents; 54% female; 188 Christian; 50 Muslim; 156 with no religion-completed a provisional 36-item measure of SWB plus the EORTC QLQ-C15-PAL (PAL), then took part in a structured debriefing interview. All items showed good score distribution across response categories. We assessed scale structure using principal component analysis and Rasch analysis, and explored construct validity, and convergent/divergent validity with the PAL. Twenty-two items in four scoring scales (Relationship with Self, Relationships with Others, Relationship with Someone or Something Greater, and Existential) explained 53% of the variance. The measure also includes a global SWB item and nine other items. Scores on the PAL global quality-of-life item and Emotional Functioning scale weakly-moderately correlated with scores on the global SWB item and two of the four SWB scales. This new validated 32-item SWB measure addresses a distinct aspect of quality-of-life, and is now available for use in research and clinical practice, with a role as both a measurement and an intervention tool. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cervical Stand-Alone Polyetheretherketone Cage versus Zero-Profile Anchored Spacer in Single-Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion : Minimum 2-Year Assessment of Radiographic and Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Jun; Hur, Junseok W; Lee, Jang-Bo; Han, Jin-Sol; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Park, Jung-Yul

    2015-08-01

    We compared the clinical and radiographic outcomes of stand-alone polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage and Zero-Profile anchored spacer (Zero-P) for single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). We retrospectively reviewed 121 patients who underwent single level ACDF within 2 years (Jan 2011-Jan 2013) in a single institute. Total 50 patients were included for the analysis who were evaluated more than 2-year follow-up. Twenty-nine patients were allocated to the cage group (m : f=19 : 10) and 21 for Zero-P group (m : f=12 : 9). Clinical (neck disability index, visual analogue scale arm and neck) and radiographic (Cobb angle-segmental and global cervical, disc height, vertebral height) assessments were followed at pre-operative, immediate post-operative, post-3, 6, 12, and 24 month periods. Demographic features and the clinical outcome showed no difference between two groups. The change between final follow-up (24 months) and immediate post-op of Cobb-segmental angle (p=0.027), disc height (p=0.002), vertebral body height (p=0.033) showed statistically better outcome for the Zero-P group than the cage group, respectively. The Zero-Profile anchored spacer has some advantage after cage for maintaining segmental lordosis and lowering subsidence rate after single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.

  11. Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwinger, Jorg; Goris, Nadine; Tjiputra, Jerry F.

    Idealised and hindcast simulations performed with the stand-alone ocean carbon-cycle configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-OC) are described and evaluated. We present simulation results of three different model configurations (two different model versions at different grid resolutions) using two different atmospheric forcing data sets. Model version NorESM-OC1 corresponds to the version that is included in the NorESM-ME1 fully coupled model, which participated in CMIP5. The main update between NorESM-OC1 and NorESM-OC1.2 is the addition of two new options for the treatment of sinking particles. We find that using a constant sinking speed, which has been the standard in NorESM'smore » ocean carbon cycle module HAMOCC (HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model), does not transport enough particulate organic carbon (POC) into the deep ocean below approximately 2000 m depth. The two newly implemented parameterisations, a particle aggregation scheme with prognostic sinking speed, and a simpler scheme that uses a linear increase in the sinking speed with depth, provide better agreement with observed POC fluxes. Additionally, reduced deep ocean biases of oxygen and remineralised phosphate indicate a better performance of the new parameterisations. For model version 1.2, a re-tuning of the ecosystem parameterisation has been performed, which (i) reduces previously too high primary production at high latitudes, (ii) consequently improves model results for surface nutrients, and (iii) reduces alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon biases at low latitudes. We use hindcast simulations with prescribed observed and constant (pre-industrial) atmospheric CO 2 concentrations to derive the past and contemporary ocean carbon sink. As a result, for the period 1990–1999 we find an average ocean carbon uptake ranging from 2.01 to 2.58 Pg C yr -1 depending on model version, grid resolution, and atmospheric forcing data set.« less

  12. Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1)

    DOE PAGES

    Schwinger, Jorg; Goris, Nadine; Tjiputra, Jerry F.; ...

    2016-08-02

    Idealised and hindcast simulations performed with the stand-alone ocean carbon-cycle configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-OC) are described and evaluated. We present simulation results of three different model configurations (two different model versions at different grid resolutions) using two different atmospheric forcing data sets. Model version NorESM-OC1 corresponds to the version that is included in the NorESM-ME1 fully coupled model, which participated in CMIP5. The main update between NorESM-OC1 and NorESM-OC1.2 is the addition of two new options for the treatment of sinking particles. We find that using a constant sinking speed, which has been the standard in NorESM'smore » ocean carbon cycle module HAMOCC (HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model), does not transport enough particulate organic carbon (POC) into the deep ocean below approximately 2000 m depth. The two newly implemented parameterisations, a particle aggregation scheme with prognostic sinking speed, and a simpler scheme that uses a linear increase in the sinking speed with depth, provide better agreement with observed POC fluxes. Additionally, reduced deep ocean biases of oxygen and remineralised phosphate indicate a better performance of the new parameterisations. For model version 1.2, a re-tuning of the ecosystem parameterisation has been performed, which (i) reduces previously too high primary production at high latitudes, (ii) consequently improves model results for surface nutrients, and (iii) reduces alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon biases at low latitudes. We use hindcast simulations with prescribed observed and constant (pre-industrial) atmospheric CO 2 concentrations to derive the past and contemporary ocean carbon sink. As a result, for the period 1990–1999 we find an average ocean carbon uptake ranging from 2.01 to 2.58 Pg C yr -1 depending on model version, grid resolution, and atmospheric forcing data set.« less

  13. She stands alone: Pakistani woman film director, Shireen Pasha.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the activities of film director Shireen Pasha in promoting truth in the mass media in Pakistan. Pasha is described as one who finds it inexcusable in a state-subsidized system that national problems of poverty are not aired openly. Pasha has pursued the goal of exposing the real lives of Pakistanis on film in contrast to the publicly aired segments of "pretty girls in nice drawing rooms." Foreign channels available through satellite communications technology are viewed by Pasha as inappropriate with regard to people's needs and uncreative. Pakistan began with one channel, PTV, which recently refused to air her documentary on living conditions in Pakistan's rural areas "The Travelogue Pakistan." "The Walled City of Lahore" was her film about life in the old city. Both films poetically depicted the honor of humans and their struggle to stay alive. Some of her documentaries are made to show the value of indigenous skills, centuries old know-how, and traditions, regardless of the poverty. Pasha is described as fighting with PTV management over use of resources. Pasha desires to invest in training people to do documentaries or be more field-oriented rather than investing in equipment. Pasha joined PTV in 1975 and left in 1990. Pasha is recognized for her isolation as a woman in the business world, her commitment to exposing remote cultures and truth, and the odds she must confront in attaining her goals. Pasha is committed to doing extensive research, usually conducted during the summer months, in order to construct a credible story line that is produced usually during the winter months. One model of film story line is defined as one where women are portrayed as starting from an indigenous skill or knowledge and shifting to a greater position of power and control over their lives. Pasha believes that people who make films have the responsibility to evoke a reaction in people and to offer solutions. Two acclaimed films, which were supported by USAID and the government, were "Before It's Too Late" and "Only One Way." Both deal with resource issues and the environment. She is currently director of her own film house, The Film Makers, in Lahore. After graduating from the National College of Arts in 1968, she furthered her education in the US in the history of art.

  14. Stand-Alone and Hybrid Positioning Using Asynchronous Pseudolites

    PubMed Central

    Gioia, Ciro; Borio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers are usually unable to achieve satisfactory performance in difficult environments, such as open-pit mines, urban canyons and indoors. Pseudolites have the potential to extend GNSS usage and significantly improve receiver performance in such environments by providing additional navigation signals. This also applies to asynchronous pseudolite systems, where different pseudolites operate in an independent way. Asynchronous pseudolite systems require, however, dedicated strategies in order to properly integrate GNSS and pseudolite measurements. In this paper, several asynchronous pseudolite/GNSS integration strategies are considered: loosely- and tightly-coupled approaches are developed and combined with pseudolite proximity and receiver signal strength (RSS)-based positioning. The performance of the approaches proposed has been tested in different scenarios, including static and kinematic conditions. The tests performed demonstrate that the methods developed are effective techniques for integrating heterogeneous measurements from different sources, such as asynchronous pseudolites and GNSS. PMID:25609041

  15. Development of a StandAlone Surgical Haptic Arm.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel; Lewis, Andrew; Fischer, Gregory S

    2011-01-01

    When performing telesurgery with current commercially available Minimally Invasive Robotic Surgery (MIRS) systems, a surgeon cannot feel the tool interactions that are inherent in traditional laparoscopy. It is proposed that haptic feedback in the control of MIRS systems could improve the speed, safety and learning curve of robotic surgery. To test this hypothesis, a standalone surgical haptic arm (SASHA) capable of manipulating da Vinci tools has been designed and fabricated with the additional ability of providing information for haptic feedback. This arm was developed as a research platform for developing and evaluating approaches to telesurgery, including various haptic mappings between master and slave and evaluating the effects of latency.

  16. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  17. Radon Monitoring in Army Stand-Alone Housing Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    greater damage to tissues. The internal exposures to alpha radiation resulting from inhalation of radioactive radon daughters (adsorbed onto airborne...appropriate detector, the monitor can measure all or some of the radon daughters adsorbed onto airborne, respirable dust particles. As with the 3...input to the cell is equipped with a 0.8-rim micropore filter that3removes any solid radon daughters from the air stream. Alpha I 26 Final Report, April

  18. A stand-alone tidal prediction application for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Han; Fan, Ren-Ye; Yang, Yi-Chung

    2017-04-01

    It is essential for people conducting fishing, leisure, or research activities at the coasts to have timely and handy tidal information. Although tidal information can be found easily on the internet or using mobile device applications, this information is all applicable for only certain specific locations, not anywhere on the coast, and they need an internet connection. We have developed an application for Android devices, which allows the user to obtain hourly tidal height anywhere on the coast for the next 24 hours without having to have any internet connection. All the necessary information needed for the tidal height calculation is stored in the application. To develop this application, we first simulate tides in the Taiwan Sea using the hydrodynamic model (MIKE21 HD) developed by the DHI. The simulation domain covers the whole coast of Taiwan and the surrounding seas with a grid size of 1 km by 1 km. This grid size allows us to calculate tides with high spatial resolution. The boundary conditions for the simulation domain were obtained from the Tidal Model Driver of the Oregon State University, using its tidal constants of eight constituents: M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, and Q1. The simulation calculates tides for 183 days so that the tidal constants for the above eight constituents of each water grid can be extracted by harmonic analysis. Using the calculated tidal constants, we can predict the tides in each grid of our simulation domain, which is useful when one needs the tidal information for any location in the Taiwan Sea. However, for the mobile application, we only store the eight tidal constants for the water grids on the coast. Once the user activates the application, it reads the longitude and latitude from the GPS sensor in the mobile device and finds the nearest coastal grid which has our tidal constants. Then, the application calculates tidal height variation based on the harmonic analysis. The application also allows the user to input location and time to obtain tides for any historic or future dates for the input location. The predicted tides have been verified with the historic tidal records of certain tidal stations. The verification shows that the tides predicted by the application match the measured record well.

  19. Constraining lidar stand-alone retrievals with lunar photometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Jose; Román, Roberto; Böckmann, Christine; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    This study combines atmospheric optical information measured with lidar and nocturnal photometers in order to find configurations that allow for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties without "3+2" lidar setups. It has been carried out using data measured at the EARLINET Granada station during the experimental campaign SLOPE in the framework of ACTRIS-2 project.

  20. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Crandall, Richard S.; Deb, Satyendra K.; Stone, Jack L.

    1995-01-01

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired.

  1. Developing a Stand Alone Sun Photometer for Ships and Buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, John N.

    1997-01-01

    During November and December 1995 the first Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 1) was carried to characterize the aerosol physical and optical properties in the clean marine atmosphere near Tasmania in the South Pacific. As part of this effort, and with funding from this proposal, we installed a sun photometer on the R/V Discoverer and a spectro-photometer on the NOAA C-130 aircraft.

  2. Stand-Alone Measurements and Characterization | Photovoltaic Research |

    Science.gov Websites

    Science and Technology Facility cluster tools offer powerful capabilities for measuring and characterizing Characterization tool suite are supplemented by the Integrated Measurements and Characterization cluster tool the Integrated M&C cluster tool using a mobile transport pod, which can keep samples under vacuum

  3. The yeast stands alone: the future of protein biologic production.

    PubMed

    Love, Kerry R; Dalvie, Neil C; Love, J Christopher

    2017-12-22

    Yeasts are promising alternative hosts for the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics because they simply and efficiently meet needs for both platform and small-market drugs. Fast accumulation of biomass and low-cost media reduce the cost-of-goods when using yeast, which in turn can enable agile, small-volume manufacturing facilities. Small, tractable yeast genomes are amenable to rapid process development, facilitating strain and product quality by design. Specifically, Pichia pastoris is becoming a widely accepted yeast for biopharmaceutical manufacturing in much of the world owing to a clean secreted product and the rapidly expanding understanding of its cell biology as a host organism. We advocate for a near term partnership spanning industry and academia to promote open source, timely development of yeast hosts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Array structure design handbook for stand alone photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didelot, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    This handbook will permit the user to design a low-cost structure for a variety of photovoltaic system applications under 10 kW. Any presently commercially available photovoltaic modules may be used. Design alternatives are provided for different generic structure types, structural materials, and electric interfaces. The use of a hand-held calculator is sufficient to perform the necessary calculations for the array designs.

  5. Instructor-Facilitated vs. Stand-Alone Tactical Game Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Mixed Factor Repeated-Measures ANOVA showed that the two groups of leaders did not differ significantly on the time they used to complete either the...game training on tactical decision making. Thirty- two leaders were assigned to complete two urban operations- based missions (patrol and defense...using the SimFX game. These leaders worked under the direction of an instructor and interacted with peers. Thirty-seven more leaders completed the two

  6. The SLD VXD3 detector and its initial performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Arodzero, A.; Baltay, C.; Brau, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Burrows, P. N.; Chou, A.; Crawford, G.; Damerell, C.; Dervan, P.; Dong, D.; Emmet, W.; English, R.; Etzion, E.; Foss, M.; Frey, R.; Haller, G.; Hasuko, K.; Hertzbach, S.; Hoeflich, J.; Huber, J.; Huffer, M.; Jackson, D.; Jaros, J.; Kelsy, J.; Kendall, H.; Lee, I.; Lia, V.; Lintern, L.; Liu, M.; Manly, S.; Masuda, H.; Moore, T.; Nagamine, T.; Ohishi, N.; Osborne, L.; Ross, D.; Russell, J.; Serbo, V.; Sinev, N.; Sinnott, J.; Skarpaas, K. Viii; Smy, M.; Snyder, J.; Strauss, M.; Dong, S.; Suekane, F.; Taylor, F.; Trandafir, A.; Usher, T.; Verdier, R.; Watts, S.; Weiss, E.; Yashima, J.; Yuta, H.; Zapalac, G.

    1997-02-01

    The SLD collaboration completed construction of a new CCD vertex detector (VXD3) in January 1996 and started data taking in April 1996 with the new system. VXD3 is an upgrade of the original CCD vertex detector, VXD2, which had successfully operated in SLD for three years. VXD3 consists of 96 large area CCDs, each having 3.2 million 20 μm × 20 μm pixels. By reducing the detector material and lengthening the lever arm, VXD3 is expected to improve secondary vertex resolution by about a factor of two compared with VXD2. The new three-layered structure enables stand-alone tracking without any ambiguity and its extended size along the beam direction improves the polar-angle coverage to |cos θ| < 0.85. An overview of this detector system and its initial performance are described.

  7. MPA Portable: A Stand-Alone Software Package for Analyzing Metaproteome Samples on the Go.

    PubMed

    Muth, Thilo; Kohrs, Fabian; Heyer, Robert; Benndorf, Dirk; Rapp, Erdmann; Reichl, Udo; Martens, Lennart; Renard, Bernhard Y

    2018-01-02

    Metaproteomics, the mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins from multispecies samples faces severe challenges concerning data analysis and results interpretation. To overcome these shortcomings, we here introduce the MetaProteomeAnalyzer (MPA) Portable software. In contrast to the original server-based MPA application, this newly developed tool no longer requires computational expertise for installation and is now independent of any relational database system. In addition, MPA Portable now supports state-of-the-art database search engines and a convenient command line interface for high-performance data processing tasks. While search engine results can easily be combined to increase the protein identification yield, an additional two-step workflow is implemented to provide sufficient analysis resolution for further postprocessing steps, such as protein grouping as well as taxonomic and functional annotation. Our new application has been developed with a focus on intuitive usability, adherence to data standards, and adaptation to Web-based workflow platforms. The open source software package can be found at https://github.com/compomics/meta-proteome-analyzer .

  8. Comparing memory-efficient genome assemblers on stand-alone and cloud infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios; Kalnis, Panos; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem in bioinformatics is genome assembly. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies produce large volumes of fragmented genome reads, which require large amounts of memory to assemble the complete genome efficiently. With recent improvements in DNA sequencing technologies, it is expected that the memory footprint required for the assembly process will increase dramatically and will emerge as a limiting factor in processing widely available NGS-generated reads. In this report, we compare current memory-efficient techniques for genome assembly with respect to quality, memory consumption and execution time. Our experiments prove that it is possible to generate draft assemblies of reasonable quality on conventional multi-purpose computers with very limited available memory by choosing suitable assembly methods. Our study reveals the minimum memory requirements for different assembly programs even when data volume exceeds memory capacity by orders of magnitude. By combining existing methodologies, we propose two general assembly strategies that can improve short-read assembly approaches and result in reduction of the memory footprint. Finally, we discuss the possibility of utilizing cloud infrastructures for genome assembly and we comment on some findings regarding suitable computational resources for assembly.

  9. Stand-alone development system using a KIM-1 microcomputer module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickum, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A small microprocessor-based system designed to: contain all or most of the interface hardware, designed to be easy to access and modify the hardware, to be capable of being strapped to the seat of a small general aviation aircraft, and to be independent of the aircraft power system is described. The system is used to develop a low cost Loran C sensor processor, but is designed such that the Loran interface boards may be removed and other hardware interfaces inserted into the same connectors. This flexibility is achieved through memory-mapping techniques into the microprocessor.

  10. Insights into the Value of a "Stand-Alone" Course for Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegarty, Kathryn; Thomas, Ian; Kriewaldt, Cathryn; Holdsworth, Sarah; Bekessy, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Education for sustainability (EfS) is emerging as an urgent imperative and challenge for higher education. But what exactly does it mean to put sustainability into higher education? How do we bring sustainability themes into university curriculum, across the enormous diversity of academic disciplines? This paper describes the experience of…

  11. Stand-alone lumbar cage subsidence: A biomechanical sensitivity study of cage design and placement.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Echenique, Andrea; Cegoñino, José; Chueca, Raúl; Pérez-Del Palomar, Amaya

    2018-08-01

    Spinal degeneration and instability are commonly treated with interbody fusion cages either alone or supplemented with posterior instrumentation with the aim to immobilise the segment and restore intervertebral height. The purpose of this work is to establish a tool which may help to understand the effects of intervertebral cage design and placement on the biomechanical response of a patient-specific model to help reducing post-surgical complications such as subsidence and segment instability. A 3D lumbar functional spinal unit (FSU) finite element model was created and a parametric model of an interbody cage was designed and introduced in the FSU. A Drucker-Prager Cap plasticity formulation was used to predict plastic strains and bone failure in the vertebrae. The effect of varying cage size, cross-sectional area, apparent stiffness and positioning was evaluated under 500 N preload followed by 7.5 Nm multidirectional rotation and the results were compared with the intact model. The most influential cage parameters on the FSU were size, curvature congruence with the endplates and cage placement. Segmental stiffness was higher when increasing the cross-sectional cage area in all loading directions and when the cage was anteriorly placed in all directions but extension. In general, the facet joint forces were reduced by increasing segmental stiffness. However, these forces were higher than in the intact model in most of the cases due to the displacement of the instantaneous centre of rotation. The highest plastic deformations took place at the caudal vertebra under flexion and increased for cages with greater stiffness. Thus, wider cages and a more anteriorly placement would increase the volume of failed bone and, therefore, the risk of subsidence. Cage geometry plays a crucial role in the success of lumbar surgery. General considerations such as larger cages may be applied as a guideline, but parameters such as curvature or cage placement should be determined for each specific patient. This model provides a proof-of-concept of a tool for the preoperative evaluation of lumbar surgical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lidar stand-alone retrieval of atmospheric aerosol microphysical properties during SLOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Samaras, Stefanos; Böckmann, Christine; Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Jose; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Román, Roberto; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    Two cases from SLOPE campaign at Granada are analyzed in terms of particle microphysical properties using novel software developed at Potsdam University. Multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements of particle extinction and backscatter coefficients as well as linear particle depolarization ratios are used as input for the software. The result of the retrieval is a 2-dimensional particle volume distribution as a function of radius and aspect ratio, from which the particle microphysical properties are obtained.

  13. The Politics of Education: Why Stand-Alone Youth Work Degrees Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessant, Judith

    2007-01-01

    While the demand in Australia for youth workers is growing, the education of youth workers in universities is being "rationalised" because these institutions have been fiscally squeezed by successive federal governments. What are the consequences for youth workers, young people and society as a whole if the move towards…

  14. Demonstration of a stand-alone cylindrical fiber coil for optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxton, Steven R.; Bravo, Tyler; Madsen, Christi K.

    2015-08-01

    The design, fabrication and measurement of a cylindrical fiber coil structure is presented that has applications for compact fiber-optic amplifiers. A multimode fiber is used as a surrogate for a dual clad, rare-earth doped fiber for coil fabrication and optical testing. A ray trace algorithm, written in Python, was used to simulate the behavior of light travelling along the waveguide path. An in-house fabrication method was developed using 3D printed parts designed in SolidWorks and assembled with Arduino-controlled stepper motors for coil winding. Ultraviolet-cured epoxy was used to bind the coils into a rigid cylinder. Bend losses are introduced by the coil, and a measurement of the losses for two coil lengths was obtained experimentally. The measurements confirm that bend losses through a multimode fiber, representative of pump light propagating in a dual-clad rare-earth doped fiber, are relatively wavelength independent over a large spectral range and that higher order modes are extinguished quickly while lower order modes transmit through the windings with relatively low loss.

  15. NASA preprototype redox storage system for a photovoltaic stand-alone application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.

    1981-01-01

    A 1-kW preprototype redox storage system that has undergone characterization tests and been operated as the storage device for a 5-kW (peak) photovoltaic array is described and performance data are presented. Loss mechanisms are discussed, and simple design changes leading to appreciable increases in efficiency are suggested. The effects on system performance of nonequilibrium between the predominant species of complexed chromic ion in the negative electrode reactant solution are summarized. It is noted that with the aid of the prototype system, control concepts have been shown to be valid and trouble free and some insight has been gained into interactions at the mutual interfaces of the redox system, the photovoltaic array, the load, and the control devices.

  16. Analysis of a Stand-Alone Power System for Remote-Site Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    ratio ......................... 7.5 C at rated output .................... 0.41 Bade material ......... ........... laminated wood composite Hub Material...steel lifting cables or slings and spreader bars are required (3) continental overland travel requires a flatbed truck with over-size travel permits

  17. Comparison of two stand-alone CADe systems at multiple operating points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Chen, Weijie; Pezeshk, Aria; Petrick, Nicholas

    2015-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CADe) systems are typically designed to work at a given operating point: The device displays a mark if and only if the level of suspiciousness of a region of interest is above a fixed threshold. To compare the standalone performances of two systems, one approach is to select the parameters of the systems to yield a target false-positive rate that defines the operating point, and to compare the sensitivities at that operating point. Increasingly, CADe developers offer multiple operating points, which necessitates the comparison of two CADe systems involving multiple comparisons. To control the Type I error, multiple-comparison correction is needed for keeping the family-wise error rate (FWER) less than a given alpha-level. The sensitivities of a single modality at different operating points are correlated. In addition, the sensitivities of the two modalities at the same or different operating points are also likely to be correlated. It has been shown in the literature that when test statistics are correlated, well-known methods for controlling the FWER are conservative. In this study, we compared the FWER and power of three methods, namely the Bonferroni, step-up, and adjusted step-up methods in comparing the sensitivities of two CADe systems at multiple operating points, where the adjusted step-up method uses the estimated correlations. Our results indicate that the adjusted step-up method has a substantial advantage over other the two methods both in terms of the FWER and power.

  18. A Structural Weight Estimation Program (SWEEP) for Aircraft. Volume 11 - Flexible Airloads Stand-Alone Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    stiffness, lb-in. I Integer used to designate wing strip number 2 I Airplanw pitching moment of inertia, slug ft 2 I Airplane yawing moment of inertia...slug ft J Integer used to designated wing-loading distribution, i.e., J-l, loading due to angle of attack J=2> loading due to flap deflection J-3...moment at intersection of load reference line and body interface station (for vertical tail), in.-lb Integer used to designate type of wing airload

  19. SABERS. Stand-Alone ADIC Binary Exploitation Resources System. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    XXXQ S X3W3 w P-’ 00S00 z~ ML Z.14.J SM C . >C.> 3c Q . . . a.E.C HL 0 c Ccc4 z _,> 0o~. 0 0) "XI 8-4 zw0 Ŕ >e 0 - 0 SMK " CELh uw C WnI-EW e cm (A...Recognizer ----- TOINT ASCII to Integer Converter * - ACESS Access Control Word Recognizer "* -.. STRAIN Input Constraint Processor S----GETBND Input...exclude the screen cursor from these areas. The code for the routine is found in the file ACESS.FLX. STRAIN STRAIN recognizes the various forms of user

  20. Can History Stand Alone? Drawbacks and Blind Spots of a "Disciplinary" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Stephen J.; Barton, Keith C.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: Over the past quarter-century, many historians, politicians, and educators have argued for an increase in the amount of history taught in schools, for a clear separation of history and social studies, and for an emphasis on disciplinary structures and norms as the proper focus for the subject. Unfortunately, discussions of…

  1. Measuring Usability Compliance of a Stand-Alone Educational Tablet: The Users' Perspective, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijani, Olawale Kazeem

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed usability compliance of Opón-Ìmò Technology Enhanced Learning System (OTELS), Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated: students' satisfaction with the OTELS; its efficiency; retentiveness; learnability and capacity to reduce errors. Being a survey study, samples were drawn from six secondary schools across the three…

  2. Networking Microcomputers in the Writing Center: Alternative Pedagogical Applications to Using Stand Alones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Andrea W.; Herrmann, John

    To illustrate the capabilities of local area networking (LAN) and integrated software programs, this paper reviews current software programs relevant to writing instruction. It is argued that the technology exists for students sitting at one microcomputer to be able to effectively carry out all phases of the writing process from gathering online…

  3. Stand-alone error characterisation of microwave satellite soil moisture using a Fourier method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Error characterisation of satellite-retrieved soil moisture (SM) is crucial for maximizing their utility in research and applications in hydro-meteorology and climatology. Error characteristics can provide insights for retrieval development and validation, and inform suitable strategies for data fus...

  4. Applying Rhetorical Genre Studies to a Stand-Alone Online Professional Writing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Heather Brook; Jenkins, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This program profile explains and illustrates a pedagogical application of Rhetorical Genre Studies (RGS) to a one-semester, upper-division online Professional Writing course. We explain our use of a heuristic, which we liken to "night-vision goggles," that enables students to systematically analyze field data that they gather from a…

  5. Implicit, Stand-Alone or Integrated Skills Education for Undergraduates: A Longitudinal Analysis of Programme Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacVaugh, Jason; Jones, Anna; Auty, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal investigation into the effectiveness of skills education programmes within business and management undergraduate degree courses. During the period between 2005 and 2011, a large business school in the south-west of England was developed and implemented two distinct approaches to skills education.…

  6. Sizing and economic analysis of stand alone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, N. D.; Rahman, H. A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a design steps in sizing of standalone photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage using intuitive method. The main advantage of this method is it uses a direct mathematical approach to find system’s size based on daily load consumption and average irradiation data. The keys of system design are to satisfy a pre-determined load requirement and maintain hydrogen storage’s state of charge during low solar irradiation period. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, a case study is conducted using Kuala Lumpur’s generated meteorological data and rural area’s typical daily load profile of 2.215 kWh. In addition, an economic analysis is performed to appraise the proposed system feasibility. The finding shows that the levelized cost of energy for proposed system is RM 1.98 kWh. However, based on sizing results obtained using a published method with AGM battery as back-up supply, the system cost is lower and more economically viable. The feasibility of PV system with hydrogen storage can be improved if the efficiency of hydrogen storage technologies significantly increases in the future. Hence, a sensitivity analysis is performed to verify the effect of electrolyzer and fuel cell efficiencies towards levelized cost of energy. Efficiencies of electrolyzer and fuel cell available in current market are validated using laboratory’s experimental data. This finding is needed to envisage the applicability of photovoltaic system with hydrogen storage as a future power supply source in Malaysia.

  7. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  8. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1998-06-16

    An illumination source is disclosed comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  9. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, S.W.

    1997-02-25

    Disclosed is an illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interstices thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon. 1 fig.

  10. Porous silicon with embedded tritium as a stand-alone prime power source for optoelectronic applications

    DOEpatents

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1998-01-01

    An illumination source comprising a porous silicon having a source of electrons on the surface and/or interticies thereof having a total porosity in the range of from about 50 v/o to about 90 v/o. Also disclosed are a tritiated porous silicon and a photovoltaic device and an illumination source of tritiated porous silicon.

  11. Solar photovoltaics: Stand alone applications. [NASA Lewis Research Center research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyo, J. N.

    1980-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center involvement in space photovoltaic research and development and in using photovoltaics for terrestrial applications is described with emphasis on applications in which the normal source of power may be a diesel generator, batteries, or other types of power not connected to a utility grid. Once an application is processed, technology is developed and demonstrated with a user who participates in the cost and furnishes the site. Projects completed related to instruments, communication, refrigeration, and highways, are described as well as warning systems, weather stations, fire lookouts, and village power systems. A commercially available photovoltaic powered electric fence charger is the result of Lewis research and development.

  12. Review of stand-alone photovoltaic application projects sponsored by US DOE and US AID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bifano, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Experience with dc photovoltaic systems (without backup power) and ranging in output from 23 to 3,500 peak watts, in a wide range of environmental conditions and with a wide range of insolation, is described. Cooperation of NASA with other government agencies resulted in the installation of an air pollution monitor in New Jersey, a seismic sensor in Hawaii, power for lookout towers in national forests in California, an electric power system for a Papago Indian village in Arizona, and a power system for a grain mill and water pump in Tangaye, Upper Volta. Significant operational results are discussed and system reliability is assessed for the 20 experimental systems installed since 1976. Additional systems to be installed overseas are highlighted, and economic factors are considered.

  13. NASA preprototype redox storage system for a photovoltaic stand-alone application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N. H.

    1981-01-01

    A 1 kW preprototype redox storage system underwent characterization tests and was operated as the storage device for a 5 kW (peak) photovoltaic array. The system is described and performance data are presented. Loss mechanisms are discussed and simple design changes leading to significant increases in efficiency are suggested. The effects on system performance of nonequilibrium between the predominant species of complexed chromic ion in the negative electrode reactant solution are indicated.

  14. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  15. Bifacial PV cell with reflector for stand-alone mast for sensor powering purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Michael L.; Thorsteinsson, Sune; Poulsen, Peter B.; Riedel, N.; Rødder, Peter M.; Rødder, Kristin

    2017-09-01

    Reflectors to bifacial PV-cells are simulated and prototyped in this work. The aim is to optimize the reflector to specific latitudes, and particularly northern latitudes. Specifically, by using minimum semiconductor area the reflector must be able to deliver the electrical power required at the condition of minimum solar travel above the horizon, worst weather condition etc. We will test a bifacial PV-module with a retroreflector, and compare the output with simulations combined with local solar data.

  16. A stand-alone compact EUV microscope based on gas-puff target source.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Alfio; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Węgrzyński, Łukasz; Fok, Tomasz; Bartnik, Andrzej; Parkman, Tomáš; Vondrová, Šárka; Turňová, Jana; Jankiewicz, Bartłomiej J; Bartosewicz, Bartosz; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2017-02-01

    We report on a very compact desk-top transmission extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscope based on a laser-plasma source with a double stream gas-puff target, capable of acquiring magnified images of objects with a spatial (half-pitch) resolution of sub-50 nm. A multilayer ellipsoidal condenser is used to focus and spectrally narrow the radiation from the plasma, producing a quasi-monochromatic EUV radiation (λ = 13.8 nm) illuminating the object, whereas a Fresnel zone plate objective forms the image. Design details, development, characterization and optimization of the EUV source and the microscope are described and discussed. Test object and other samples were imaged to demonstrate superior resolution compared to visible light microscopy. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  17. Analysis and optimization of hybrid excitation permanent magnet synchronous generator for stand-alone power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijun; Qu, Zheng; Tang, Shaofei; Pang, Mingqi; Zhang, Mingju

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic design and permanent magnet shape optimization for permanent magnet synchronous generator with hybrid excitation are investigated. Based on generator structure and principle, design outline is presented for obtaining high efficiency and low voltage fluctuation. In order to realize rapid design, equivalent magnetic circuits for permanent magnet and iron poles are developed. At the same time, finite element analysis is employed. Furthermore, by means of design of experiment (DOE) method, permanent magnet is optimized to reduce voltage waveform distortion. Finally, the validity of proposed design methods is validated by the analytical and experimental results.

  18. Development and evaluation of a stand-alone web-based CAL program. A case study.

    PubMed

    Perryer, G; Walmsley, A D; Barclay, C W; Shaw, L; Smith, A J

    2000-08-01

    The use of web browser technology allows the construction of computer-aided learning programs which will have a familiar interface to dentists. This paper reports on the evaluation of a web-based CAL program which covered the topic of tooth wear with an emphasis on the rôle of erosion in its aetiology. Evaluation of the software was made by 50 dentists contacted by an electronic mailing list. They completed a questionnaire which evaluated aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives. The average age of the dentists was 39 years (range 24-70) and 82% were male. The average time of use was 1 h 10 min (range 15 min to 3 h). A significant change in their knowledge of tooth wear before and after using the program was recorded. Both the use of patient cases and leaflets scored highly with other aspects such as treatment planning and patient advice receiving high marks. All dentists commented that they had gained greater knowledge with particular reference to treatment and advice of tooth wear problems. 34 dentists (68%) found the web interface easy to use. Negative comments were mainly attributed to the quality of the pictures (4/50) which were corrected in the final release version. Respondents were asked to compare the program to other educational media on the same subject. 80% rated this CAL program as better than video, and 14% claimed it was as good as video. 84% rated it better than books, and 14% said it was as good as books. 98% preferred it to audio tapes and 86% preferred it to journals. The average amount that they would pay for a CAL package such as "tooth wear" would be 42 ECU. It is concluded that web browser software is a suitable medium for the use of a CAL program and this is reflected in its ease of use by dentists.

  19. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-11-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  20. Effects of Teaching Critical Thinking to Saudi Female University Students Using a Stand-Alone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghamdi, Amani K. Hamdan; Deraney, Philline M.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching critical thinking, an educational goal widely discussed in the last 30 years (Halpern, 1993), is an essential element of professional and higher education as it promotes reasoned judgments under "conditions of uncertainty," a hallmark of professionalism (Levine, 2010; Shulman, 2005; Perry, 1970). In this study, the researchers…

  1. Methods to Fabricate and Improve Stand-alone and Integrated Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, Frank (Inventor); Nikzad, Shouleh (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide for fabricating a filter, for electromagnetic radiation, in at least three ways, including (1) fabricating integrated thin film filters directly on a detector; (2) fabricating a free standing thin film filter that may be used with a detector; and (3) treating an existing filter to improve the filter's properties.

  2. Stand-alone health insurance tax credits aren't enough.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L; Trude, S

    2001-07-01

    Using health insurance tax credits to help reduce the ranks of the nearly 43 million uninsured Americans has attracted broad bipartisan support in Congress. But tax credits alone will not help many sick or older people obtain affordable coverage, according to an expert panel at an April 10, 2001, conference sponsored by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). To make tax credits a viable option for eligible people, the individual insurance market would need significant reforms or a better way to spread risk-similar to large employers-over a large and varied population. This Issue Brief highlights critical issues policy makers should consider when crafting tax credit proposals, including the use of purchasing pools.

  3. The Small, Stand-Alone Early College: Impact on High School Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2016-01-01

    North Carolina's Early College model is the subject of an IES-funded eleven-year longitudinal experimental study that utilized a lottery process to assign early college applicants to either treatment or control groups. This paper presents findings related to high school outcomes. The primary goal of the early college model is to increase the…

  4. Stand alone totally endoscopic epimyocardial ablation in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation and significant atrial dilatation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Florian Mathias; Pecha, Simon; Conradi, Lenard; Reichenspurner, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    To analyze safety and efficacy of surgical totally endoscopic epimyocardial ablation in patients (pts) turned down for interventional catheter therapy due to long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (pAF) combined with significant atrial dilatation (> 5 cm). Since December 2010, 15 pts were referred for surgical ablation due to persistent AF combined with biatrial dilatation (left atrium [LA] 5.0 ± 0.6 cm). Mean age was 52 ± 6 years, body mass index (BMI) 38 ± 6, duration of AF 2.8 ± 1.2 years, left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD) 5.8 cm ± 0.6 cm. Ablation was performed via a bilateral endoscopic approach using bipolar RF energy application. Monitoring was achieved by an event recorder (Reveal XT Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) or repeated 24-hours Holter electrocardiogram. All pts successfully received bilateral pulmonary vein isolation + box lesion + trigonal lesion + left atrial appendage resection. Mean duration of procedure was 235 ± 70 minutes. There was no intraoperative complication; however, one patient had persistent left phrenic nerve palsy. Mean hospital stay was 4 ± 2 days, mean follow-up time was 21 ± 11 months. Incidence of sinus rhythm (SR) was 67, 73, and 80% at discharge, three months, and 12 months follow-up. Mean LA diameter was reduced from 58.1 mm ± 6.0 mm preoperative to 49.7 mm ± 5.4 mm (p = 0.004) at 12 months follow-up. Incidence of SR was 86% at latest follow-up (mean time 21 months). All pts currently in SR (13/15 = 86%) are of class I or III antiarrhythmic drugs. Totally endoscopic left atrial ablation including left atrial resection can safely be performed. It achieved excellent rates of SR restoration in patients with long-standing persistent AF combined with significant atrial dilatation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  6. Multiple-taper spectral analysis: A stand-alone C-subroutine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, Jonathan M.; Park, Jeffrey

    1995-03-01

    A simple set of subroutines in ANSI-C are presented for multiple taper spectrum estimation. The multitaper approach provides an optimal spectrum estimate by minimizing spectral leakage while reducing the variance of the estimate by averaging orthogonal eigenspectrum estimates. The orthogonal tapers are Slepian nπ prolate functions used as tapers on the windowed time series. Because the taper functions are orthogonal, combining them to achieve an average spectrum does not introduce spurious correlations as standard smoothed single-taper estimates do. Furthermore, estimates of the degrees of freedom and F-test values at each frequency provide diagnostics for determining levels of confidence in narrow band (single frequency) periodicities. The program provided is portable and has been tested on both Unix and Macintosh systems.

  7. X-ray microbeam stand-alone facility for cultured cells irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bożek, Sebastian; Bielecki, Jakub; Wiecheć, Anna; Lekki, Janusz; Stachura, Zbigniew; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Lipiec, Ewelina; Tkocz, Konrad; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.

    2017-03-01

    The article describes an X-ray microbeam standalone facility dedicated for irradiation of living cultured cells. The article can serve as an advice for such facilities construction, as it begins from engineering details, through mathematical modeling and experimental procedures, ending up with preliminary experimental results and conclusions. The presented system consists of an open type X-ray tube with microfocusing down to about 2 μm, an X-ray focusing system with optical elements arranged in the nested Kirckpatrick-Baez (or Montel) geometry, a sample stand and an optical microscope with a scientific digital CCD camera. For the beam visualisation an X-ray sensitive CCD camera and a spectral detector are used, as well as a scintillator screen combined with the microscope. A method of precise one by one irradiation of previously chosen cells is presented, as well as a fast method of uniform irradiation of a chosen sample area. Mathematical models of beam and cell with calculations of kerma and dose are presented. The experiments on dose-effect relationship, kinetics of DNA double strand breaks repair, as well as micronuclei observation were performed on PC-3 (Prostate Cancer) cultured cells. The cells were seeded and irradiated on Mylar foil, which covered a hole drilled in the Petri dish. DNA lesions were visualised with γ-H2AX marker combined with Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent dye.

  8. Continuous stand-alone controllable aerosol/cloud droplet dryer for atmospheric sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjogren, S.; Frank, G. P.; Berghof, M. I. A.; Martinsson, B. G.

    2013-02-01

    We describe a general-purpose dryer designed for continuous sampling of atmospheric aerosol, where a specified relative humidity (RH) of the sample flow (lower than the atmospheric humidity) is required. It is often prescribed to measure the properties of dried aerosol, for instance for monitoring networks. The specific purpose of our dryer is to dry cloud droplets (maximum diameter approximately 25 μm, highly charged, up to 5 × 102 charges). One criterion is to minimise losses from the droplet size distribution entering the dryer as well as on the residual dry particle size distribution exiting the dryer. This is achieved by using a straight vertical downwards path from the aerosol inlet mounted above the dryer, and removing humidity to a dry, closed loop airflow on the other side of a semi-permeable GORE-TEX membrane (total area 0.134 m2). The water vapour transfer coefficient, k, was measured to be 4.6 × 10-7 kg m-2 s-1% RH-1 in the laboratory (temperature 294 K) and is used for design purposes. A net water vapour transfer rate of up to 1.2 × 10-6 kg s-1 was achieved in the field. This corresponds to drying a 5.7 L min-1 (0.35 m3 h-1) aerosol sample flow from 100% RH to 27% RH at 293 K (with a drying air total flow of 8.7 L min-1). The system was used outdoors from 9 May until 20 October 2010, on the mountain Brocken (51.80° N, 10.67° E, 1142 m a.s.l.) in the Harz region in central Germany. Sample air relative humidity of less than 30% was obtained 72% of the time period. The total availability of the measurement system was >94% during these five months.

  9. Incorporation of a stand-alone elective course in animal law within animal and veterinary science curricula.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    Animal law is a burgeoning area of interest within the legal profession, but to date it seems to have received little attention as a discrete discipline area for animal and veterinary scientists. Given the increased focus on animal welfare both within curricula and among the public, it would be remiss of educators not to consider this allied subject, especially since it provides those tools necessary for implementing welfare standards and reducing cruelty. Recommended subject matter, teaching modality, and methods of assessment have been outlined in this article. Such a course should take a multidisciplinary approach and highlight contentious areas of animal law and trends within the wider societal framework of human-animal interactions. From a pedagogical standpoint, a variety of teaching methods and assessment techniques should be included. A problem-based learning approach to encourage the assimilation of facts and promote higher-order learning is favored. The purpose of this article is to provide some guidance on the structure of such a course based on the author's experience in teaching animal law to veterinary and animal science undergraduates in Australia.

  10. Applications of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation disinfection in health care facilities: effective adjunct, but not stand-alone technology.

    PubMed

    Memarzadeh, Farhad; Olmsted, Russell N; Bartley, Judene M

    2010-06-01

    This review evaluates the applicability and relative contribution of ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) to disinfection of air in health care facilities. A section addressing the use of UVGI for environmental surfaces is also included. The germicidal susceptibility of biologic agents is addressed, but with emphasis on application in health care facilities. The balance of scientific evidence indicates that UVGI should be considered as a disinfection application in a health care setting only in conjunction with other well-established elements, such as appropriate heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; dynamic removal of contaminants from the air; and preventive maintenance in combination with through cleaning of the care environment. We conclude that although UVGI is microbiocidal, it is not "ready for prime time" as a primary intervention to kill or inactivate infectious microorganisms; rather, it should be considered an adjunct. Other factors, such as careful design of the built environment, installation and effective operation of the HVAC system, and a high level of attention to traditional cleaning and disinfection, must be assessed before a health care facility can decide to rely solely on UVGI to meet indoor air quality requirements for health care facilities. More targeted and multiparameter studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and incremental benefit of UVGI for mitigating reservoirs of microorganisms and ultimately preventing cross-transmission of pathogens that lead to health care-associated infections. (c) 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration

    PubMed Central

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a tsunami typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time tsunami MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model produced by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the tsunami waves. PMID:28429754

  12. Study of a thermoelectric system equipped with a maximum power point tracker for stand-alone electric generation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favarel, C.; Champier, D.; Bédécarrats, J. P.; Kousksou, T.; Strub, F.

    2012-06-01

    According to the International Energy Agency, 1.4 billion people are without electricity in the poorest countries and 2.5 billion people rely on biomass to meet their energy needs for cooking in developing countries. The use of cooking stoves equipped with small thermoelectric generator to provide electricity for basic needs (LED, cell phone and radio charging device) is probably a solution for houses far from the power grid. The cost of connecting every house with a landline is a lot higher than dropping thermoelectric generator in each house. Thermoelectric generators have very low efficiency but for isolated houses, they might become really competitive. Our laboratory works in collaboration with plane`te-bois (a non governmental organization) which has developed energy-efficient multifunction (cooking and hot water) stoves based on traditional stoves designs. A prototype of a thermoelectric generator (Bismuth Telluride) has been designed to convert a small part of the energy heating the sanitary water into electricity. This generator can produce up to 10 watts on an adapted load. Storing this energy in a battery is necessary as the cooking stove only works a few hours each day. As the working point of the stove varies a lot during the use it is also necessary to regulate the electrical power. An electric DC DC converter has been developed with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) in order to have a good efficiency of the electronic part of the thermoelectric generator. The theoretical efficiency of the MMPT converter is discussed. First results obtained with a hot gas generator simulating the exhaust of the combustion chamber of a cooking stove are presented in the paper.

  13. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    SciTech Connect

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Bahri, M.

    2016-07-25

    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to developmore » an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.« less

  14. A GUI Based Software for Sizing Stand Alone AC Coupled Hybrid PV-Diesel Power System under Malaysia Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syafiqah Syahirah Mohamed, Nor; Amalina Banu Mohamat Adek, Noor; Hamid, Nurul Farhana Abd

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of Graphical User Interface (GUI) software for sizing main component in AC coupled photovoltaic (PV) hybrid power system based on Malaysia climate. This software provides guideline for PV system integrator to design effectively the size of components and system configuration to match the system and load requirement with geographical condition. The concept of the proposed software is balancing the annual average renewable energy generation and load demand. In this study, the PV to diesel generator (DG) ratio is introduced by considering the hybrid system energy contribution. The GUI software is able to size the main components in the PV hybrid system to meet with the set target of energy contribution ratio. The rated powers of the components to be defined are PV array, grid-tie inverter, bi-directional inverter, battery storage and DG. GUI is used to perform all the system sizing procedures to make it user friendly interface as a sizing tool for AC coupled PV hybrid system. The GUI will be done by using Visual Studio 2015 based on the real data under Malaysia Climate.

  15. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed F; Elarini, Mahdi M; Othman, Ahmed M

    2014-05-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt.

  16. A new technique based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for optimal sizing of stand-alone photovoltaic system

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed F.; Elarini, Mahdi M.; Othman, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most recent optimization techniques applied to the optimal design of photovoltaic system to supply an isolated load demand is the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC). The proposed methodology is applied to optimize the cost of the PV system including photovoltaic, a battery bank, a battery charger controller, and inverter. Two objective functions are proposed: the first one is the PV module output power which is to be maximized and the second one is the life cycle cost (LCC) which is to be minimized. The analysis is performed based on measured solar radiation and ambient temperature measured at Helwan city, Egypt. A comparison between ABC algorithm and Genetic Algorithm (GA) optimal results is done. Another location is selected which is Zagazig city to check the validity of ABC algorithm in any location. The ABC is more optimal than GA. The results encouraged the use of the PV systems to electrify the rural sites of Egypt. PMID:25685507

  17. Impact and Effectiveness of a Stand-Alone NRT Starter Kit in a Statewide Tobacco Cessation Program.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Amy N; Schillo, Barbara A; Keller, Paula A; Lachter, Randi B; Lien, Rebecca K; Zook, Heather G

    2018-01-01

    To examine 2-week nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) starter kit quit outcomes and predictors and the impact of adding this new service on treatment reach. Observational study of a 1-year cohort of QUITPLAN Services enrollees using registration and utilization data and follow-up outcome survey data of a subset of enrollees who received NRT starter kits. ClearWay Minnesota's QUITPLAN Services provides a quit line that is available to uninsured and underinsured Minnesotans and NRT starter kits (a free 2-week supply of patches, gum, or lozenges) that are available to all Minnesota tobacco users. A total of 15 536 adult QUITPLAN Services enrollees and 818 seven-month follow-up survey NRT starter kit respondents. Treatment reach for all services and tobacco quit outcomes and predictors for starter kit recipients. Descriptive analyses, χ 2 analyses, and logistic regression. Treatment reach increased 3-fold after adding the 2-week NRT starter kit service option to QUITPLAN Services compared to the prior year (1.86% vs 0.59%). Among all participants enrolling in QUITPLAN services during a 1-year period, 83.8% (13 026/15 536) registered for a starter kit. Among starter kit respondents, 25.6% reported being quit for 30 days at the 7-month follow-up. After controlling for other factors, using all NRT and selecting more cessation services predicted quitting. An NRT starter kit brought more tobacco users to QUITPLAN services, demonstrating interest in cessation services separate from phone counseling. The starter kit produced high quit rates, comparable to the quit line in the same time period. Cessation service providers may want to consider introducing starter kits to reach more tobacco users and ultimately improve population health.

  18. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a tsunami typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time tsunami MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model produced by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the tsunami waves.

  19. Effects of Medical Device Regulations on the Development of Stand-Alone Medical Software: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Blagec, Kathrin; Jungwirth, David; Haluza, Daniela; Samwald, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Medical device regulations which aim to ensure safety standards do not only apply to hardware devices but also to standalone medical software, e.g. mobile apps. To explore the effects of these regulations on the development and distribution of medical standalone software. We invited a convenience sample of 130 domain experts to participate in an online survey about the impact of current regulations on the development and distribution of medical standalone software. 21 respondents completed the questionnaire. Participants reported slight positive effects on usability, reliability, and data security of their products, whereas the ability to modify already deployed software and customization by end users were negatively impacted. The additional time and costs needed to go through the regulatory process were perceived as the greatest obstacles in developing and distributing medical software. Further research is needed to compare positive effects on software quality with negative impacts on market access and innovation. Strategies for avoiding over-regulation while still ensuring safety standards need to be devised.

  20. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: A Preliminary Feasibility Demonstration.

    PubMed

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia; Wei, Yong; Mannucci, Anthony J

    2017-04-21

    It is well known that tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances can be studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario. Using the VARION algorithm we compute TEC variations at 56 GPS receivers in Hawaii as induced by the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes of up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric perturbations (TIDs) moving away from the earthquake epicenter at an approximate speed of 316 m/s. We perform a wavelet analysis to analyze localized variations of power in the TEC time series and we find perturbation periods consistent with a tsunami typical deep ocean period. Finally, we present comparisons with the real-time tsunami MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) model produced by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research and we observe variations in TEC that correlate in time and space with the tsunami waves.

  1. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with global forest data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESM). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first generation Dynamic Vegetation Models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second generation DVMs, that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to a range of forest types around the globe, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 yr. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents a preferable alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody biomass turnover, typically used in current ESMs.

  2. Stand alone, low current measurements on possible sensing platforms via Arduino Uno microcontroller with modified commercially available sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Meghan; Henson, Gabriel; Senevirathne, Indrajith

    Advent of cost-effective solid-state sensors has spurred an immense interest in microcontrollers, in particular Arduino microcontrollers. These include serious engineering and physical science applications due to their versatility and robustness. An Arduino microcontroller coupled with a commercially available sensor has been used to methodically measure, record, and explore low currents, low voltages, and corresponding dissipated power towards assessing secondary physical properties in a select set of engineered systems. System was assembled via breadboard, wire, and simple soldering with an Arduino Uno with ATmega328P microcontroller connected to a PC. The microcontroller was programmed with Arduino software while the bootloader was used to upload the code. High-side measurement INA169 current shunt monitor was used to measure corresponding low to ultra-low currents and voltages. A collection of measurements was obtained via the sensor and was compared with measurements from standardized devices to assess reliability and uncertainty. Some sensors were modified/hacked to improve the sensitivity of the measurements.

  3. Nanosatellite High-Precision Magnetic Missions Enabled by Advances in a Stand-Alone Scalar/Vector Absolute Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Leger, J. M.; Vigneron, P.; Jager, T.; Bertrand, F.; Coisson, P.; Deram, P.; Boness, A.; Tomasini, L.; Faure, B.

    2017-12-01

    Satellites of the ESA Swarm mission currently in operation carry a new generation of Absolute Scalar Magnetometers (ASM), which nominally deliver 1 Hz scalar for calibrating the relative flux gate magnetometers that complete the magnetometry payload (together with star cameras, STR, for attitude restitution) and providing extremely accurate scalar measurements of the magnetic field for science investigations. These ASM instruments, however, can also operate in two additional modes, a high-frequency 250 Hz scalar mode and a 1 Hz absolute dual-purpose scalar/vector mode. The 250 Hz scalar mode already allowed the detection of until now very poorly documented extremely low frequency whistler signals produced by lightning in the atmosphere, while the 1 Hz scalar/vector mode has provided data that, combined with attitude restitution from the STR, could be used to produce scientifically relevant core field and lithospheric field models. Both ASM modes have thus now been fully validated for science applications. Efforts towards developing an improved and miniaturized version of this instrument is now well under way with CNES support in the context of the preparation of a 12U nanosatellite mission (NanoMagSat) proposed to be launched to complement the Swarm satellite constellation. This advanced miniaturized ASM could potentially operate in an even more useful mode, simultaneously providing high frequency (possibly beyond 500 Hz) absolute scalar data and self-calibrated 1 Hz vector data, thus providing scientifically valuable data for multiple science applications. In this presentation, we will illustrate the science such an instrument taken on board a nanosatellite could enable, and report on the current status of the NanoMagSat project that intends to take advantage of it.

  4. Factors Influencing the Presence of Ethics and CSR Stand-Alone Courses in the Accounting Masters Curricula: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrán Jorge, Manuel; Andrades Peña, Francisco Javier; Muriel de los Reyes, María José

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a web-content analysis of the curriculum and subjects of the top accounting and auditing masters identified in the Eduniversal 2012-2013 ratings of the best business schools in the world. The main aim of this study is to analyze the influence exerted by different factors on the extent to which accounting programs are…

  5. Life, Learning, and Standing Alone: The Adaptation Process of Wives of South Korean Students to New Circumstances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jun, JuSung

    Adjustment experiences of South Korean graduate students' wives living in Georgia were examined from a feminist viewpoint. The adaptive process, its cultural meaning, and related social ramifications, was hypothesized to be an example of transformative learning. These two questions guided the study: (1) how did South Korean students' wives adapt…

  6. 49 CFR 1109.4 - Mandatory mediation in rate cases to be considered under the stand-alone cost methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) The mediator will work with the parties to try to reach a settlement of all or some of their dispute or to narrow the issues in dispute, and reach stipulations that may be incorporated into any adjudication before the Board if mediation does not fully resolve the dispute. If the parties reach a...

  7. Technology transfer initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, Wayne; Schroer, Bernard J.; Ziemke, M. Carl

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) technology transfer activities with the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the period of April 1993 through December 1993. Early in 1993, the MSFC/TUO and UAH conceived of the concept of developing stand-alone, integrated data packages on MSFC technology that would serve industrial needs previously determined to be critical. Furthermore, after reviewing over 500 problem statements received by MSFC, it became obvious that many of these requests could be satisfied by a standard type of response. As a result, UAH has developed two critical area response (CAR) packages: CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements and modular manufacturing and simulation. Publicity included news releases, seminars, articles and conference papers. The Huntsville Chamber of Commerce established the Technology Transfer Subcommittee with the charge to identify approaches for the Chamber to assist its members, as well as non-members, access to the technologies at the federal laboratories in North Alabama. The Birmingham Chamber of Commerce has expressed interest in establishing a similar technology transfer program. This report concludes with a section containing a tabulation of the problem statements, including CAR packages, submitted to MSFC from January 1992 through December 1993.

  8. Ports Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  9. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-11-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  10. SCB initiator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Renlund, Anita M.; Stanton, Philip L.

    1994-01-01

    A detonator for high explosives initiated by mechanical impact includes a cylindrical barrel, a layer of flyer material mechanically covering the barrel at one end, and a semiconductor bridge ignitor including a pair of electrically conductive pads connected by a semiconductor bridge. The bridge is in operational contact with the layer, whereby ignition of said bridge forces a portion of the layer through the barrel to detonate the explosive. Input means are provided for igniting the semiconductor bridge ignitor.

  11. Analysis of Summertime Convective Initiation in Central Alabama Using the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Robert S.; Case, Jonathan L.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    During the summer months in the southeastern United States, convective initiation presents a frequent challenge to operational forecasters. Thunderstorm development has traditionally been referred to as random due to their disorganized, sporadic appearance and lack of atmospheric forcing. Horizontal variations in land surface characteristics such as soil moisture, soil type, land and vegetation cover could possibly be a focus mechanism for afternoon convection during the summer months. The NASA Land Information System (LIS) provides a stand-alone land surface modeling framework that incorporates these varying soil and vegetation properties, antecedent precipitation, and atmospheric forcing to represent the soil state at high resolution. The use of LIS as a diagnostic tool may help forecasters to identify boundaries in land surface characteristics that could correlate to favored regions of convection initiation. The NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) team has been collaborating with the National Weather Service Office in Birmingham, AL to help incorporate LIS products into their operational forecasting methods. This paper highlights selected convective case dates from summer 2009 when synoptic forcing was weak, and identifies any boundaries in land surface characteristics that may have contributed to convective initiation. The LIS output depicts the effects of increased sensible heat flux from urban areas on the development of convection, as well as convection along gradients in land surface characteristics and surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. These features may promote mesoscale circulations and/or feedback processes that can either enhance or inhibit convection. With this output previously unavailable to operational forecasters, LIS provides a new tool to forecasters in order to help eliminate the randomness of summertime convective initiation.

  12. Openness initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need tomore » make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.« less

  13. EUROANDRILL Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florindo, Fabio; Steering Committee, Euroandrill

    2010-05-01

    EuroANDRILL is a new initiative to create a European network with the goal to increase future involvement of European countries in the ANDRILL [ANtarctic geological DRILLing] Programme. Antarctica has been heavily glaciated for approximately 34 million years, but its ice sheets have fluctuated considerably and are one of the major driving forces for changes in climate throughout the Cenozoic Era. The spatial scale and temporal pattern of these fluctuations is subject to considerable debate. Understanding the response of large ice masses to climatic forcing is of vital importance because ice volume variations drive global sea level changes and also alter the capacity of ice sheets and sea-ice to act as major heat sinks/insulators. It is particularly important to assess the stability of the cryosphere in the face of rising CO2 levels, as modelling of the climate shift from a warm, vegetated Antarctica to a cold, ice-covered state 34 million years ago suggests a powerful greenhouse gas influence. As Antarctica is the major driver of Earth's climate and sea level, much effort has been expended in deriving models of its behaviour. Some of these models have been successfully validated against modern conditions. EuroANDRILL will provide a coherent, integrated platform for European leadership and involvement in the international ANDRILL programme. The coordination and networking provided by EuroANDRILL will seek to expand participation by European nations, institutions, and individual scientists in the study of the geologic history of the polar regions and their paleoclimatic significance. During the IPY, ANDRILL has been a highly visible and successful programme. This programme seeks to expand on this legacy beyond the IPY and make these contributions sustainable in the European Research Area through networking of research projects and future planning efforts, which establish Europe as a key player in future polar sediment and rock drilling. EuroANDRILL is set up under

  14. Novel recA-Independent Horizontal Gene Transfer in Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Anthony W; Roussel-Rossin, Chloé; Dupont, Claire; Raleigh, Elisabeth A

    2015-01-01

    In bacteria, mechanisms that incorporate DNA into a genome without strand-transfer proteins such as RecA play a major role in generating novelty by horizontal gene transfer. We describe a new illegitimate recombination event in Escherichia coli K-12: RecA-independent homologous replacements, with very large (megabase-length) donor patches replacing recipient DNA. A previously uncharacterized gene (yjiP) increases the frequency of RecA-independent replacement recombination. To show this, we used conjugal DNA transfer, combining a classical conjugation donor, HfrH, with modern genome engineering methods and whole genome sequencing analysis to enable interrogation of genetic dependence of integration mechanisms and characterization of recombination products. As in classical experiments, genomic DNA transfer begins at a unique position in the donor, entering the recipient via conjugation; antibiotic resistance markers are then used to select recombinant progeny. Different configurations of this system were used to compare known mechanisms for stable DNA incorporation, including homologous recombination, F'-plasmid formation, and genome duplication. A genome island of interest known as the immigration control region was specifically replaced in a minority of recombinants, at a frequency of 3 X 10(-12) CFU/recipient per hour.

  15. Characterizing RecA-Independent Induction of Shiga toxin2-Encoding Phages by EDTA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Imamovic, Lejla; Muniesa, Maite

    2012-01-01

    Background The bacteriophage life cycle has an important role in Shiga toxin (Stx) expression. The induction of Shiga toxin-encoding phages (Stx phages) increases toxin production as a result of replication of the phage genome, and phage lysis of the host cell also provides a means of Stx toxin to exit the cell. Previous studies suggested that prophage induction might also occur in the absence of SOS response, independently of RecA. Methodology/Principal Findings The influence of EDTA on RecA-independent Stx2 phage induction was assessed, in laboratory lysogens and in EHEC strains carrying Stx2 phages in their genome, by Real-Time PCR. RecA-independent mechanisms described for phage λ induction (RcsA and DsrA) were not involved in Stx2 phage induction. In addition, mutations in the pathway for the stress response of the bacterial envelope to EDTA did not contribute to Stx2 phage induction. The effect of EDTA on Stx phage induction is due to its chelating properties, which was also confirmed by the use of citrate, another chelating agent. Our results indicate that EDTA affects Stx2 phage induction by disruption of the bacterial outer membrane due to chelation of Mg2+. In all the conditions evaluated, the pH value had a decisive role in Stx2 phage induction. Conclusions/Significance Chelating agents, such as EDTA and citrate, induce Stx phages, which raises concerns due to their frequent use in food and pharmaceutical products. This study contributes to our understanding of the phenomenon of induction and release of Stx phages as an important factor in the pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and in the emergence of new pathogenic strains. PMID:22393404

  16. A Power Regulation and Droop Mode Control Method for a Stand-Alone Load Fed from a PV-Current Source Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khayamy, Mehdy; Ojo, Olorunfemi

    2015-04-01

    A current source inverter fed from photovoltaic cells is proposed to power an autonomous load when operating under either power regulation or voltage and frequency drooping modes. Input-output linearization technique is applied to the overall nonlinear system to achieve a globally stable system under feasible operating conditions. After obtaining the steady-state model that demarcates the modes of operation, computer Simulation results for variations in irradiance and the load power of the controlled system are generated in which an acceptable dynamic response of the power generator system under the two modes of operation is observed.

  17. Real-Time Detection of Tsunami Ionospheric Disturbances with a Stand-Alone GNSS Receiver: An Integration of GPS and Galileo Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastano, Giorgio; Komjathy, Attila; Verkhoglyadova, Olga; Wei, Yong; Mazzoni, Augusto; Crespi, Mattia

    2017-04-01

    Tsunamis can produce gravity waves that propagate up to the ionosphere generating disturbed electron densities in the E and F regions. These ionospheric disturbances are studied in detail using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) measurements collected by continuously operating ground-based receivers from the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Here, we present results using a new approach, named VARION (Variometric Approach for Real-Time Ionosphere Observation), and for the first time, we estimate slant TEC (sTEC) variations in a real-time scenario from GPS and Galileo constellations. Specifically, we study the 2016 New Zealand tsunami event using GNSS receivers with multi-constellation tracking capabilities located in the Pacific region. We compare sTEC estimates obtained using GPS and Galileo constellations. The efficiency of the real-time sTEC estimation using the VARION algorithm has been demonstrated for the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami event. TEC variations induced by the tsunami event are computed using 56 GPS receivers in Hawai'i. We observe TEC perturbations with amplitudes up to 0.25 TEC units and traveling ionospheric disturbances moving away from the epicenter at a speed of about 316 m/s. We present comparisons with the real-time tsunami model MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) provided by the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research. We observe variations in TEC that correlate well in time and space with the propagating tsunami waves. We conclude that the integration of different satellite constellations is a crucial step forward to increasing the reliability of real-time tsunami detection systems using ground-based GNSS receivers as an augmentation to existing tsunami early warning systems.

  18. Outcome of stand-alone thoracoscopic epicardial left atrial posterior box isolation with bipolar radiofrequency energy for longstanding persistent atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Compier, M G; Braun, J; Tjon, A; Zeppenfeld, K; Klautz, R J M; Schalij, M J; Trines, S A

    2016-02-01

    Catheter ablation of longstanding (> 1 year) persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with poor outcome. This might be due to remodelling and fibrosis formation, mainly located in the posterior left atrial (LA) wall. Therefore, we adopted a thoracoscopic epicardial box isolation of the posterior left atrium using bipolar RF energy with intraoperative testing of conduction block. Bilateral thoracoscopic box isolation was performed with a bipolar RF clamp. Entrance block was defined as absence of a conducted electrogram within the box, while exit block was confirmed by pacing at 10.0 V/2 ms. Ablation outcome was evaluated after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months with 12-lead ECGs and 24-hour Holter recordings. Twenty-five consecutive patients were included (58 ± 7 years, persistent AF duration 1.8 ± 0.9 years). Entrance block was achieved in all patients and exit block confirmed if sinus rhythm was achieved. After 17 ± 7 months, 76 % of the patients (n = 19) were free of AF recurrence. One patient died within 1 month and was considered an ablation failure. Four patients with AF recurrences regained sinus rhythm with additional catheter ablation or antiarrhythmic drugs. Treatment of longstanding persistent AF with thoracoscopic epicardial LA posterior box isolation using bipolar RF energy with intraoperative testing of conduction block is feasible and highly effective.

  19. On-site Rapid Detection of Trace Non-volatile Inorganic Explosives by Stand-alone Ion Mobility Spectrometry via Acid-enhanced Evaporization

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Liying; Hua, Lei; Wang, Weiguo; Zhou, Qinghua; Li, Haiyang

    2014-01-01

    New techniques for the field detection of inorganic improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are urgently developed. Although ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been proved to be the most effective method for screening organic explosives, it still faces a major challenge to detect inorganic explosives owing to their low volatilities. Herein, we proposed a strategy for detecting trace inorganic explosives by thermal desorption ion mobility spectrometry (TD-IMS) with sample-to-sample analysis time less than 5 s based on in-situ acidification on the sampling swabs. The responses for typical oxidizers in inorganic explosives, such as KNO3, KClO3 and KClO4 were at least enhanced by a factor of 3000 and their limits of detection were found to be subnanogram. The common organic explosives and their mixtures with inorganic oxidizers were detected, indicating that the acidification process did not affect the detection of organic explosives. Moreover, the typical inorganic explosives such as black powders, firecrackers and match head could be sensitively detected as well. These results demonstrated that this method could be easily employed in the current deployed IMS for on-site sensitive detection of either inorganic explosives or organic ones. PMID:25318960

  20. Post-Synthetic Polymerization of UiO-66-NH2 Nanoparticles and Polyurethane Oligomer toward Stand-Alone Membranes for Dye Removal and Separation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bing-Jian; Jiang, Wei-Ling; Dong, Ying; Liu, Zhi-Xian; Dong, Yu-Bin

    2016-07-18

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are widely used as porous materials in the fields of adsorption and separation. However, their practical application is largely hindered by limitations to their processability. Herein, new UiO-66-Urea-based flexible membranes with MOF loadings of 50 (1), 60 (2), and 70 wt % (3) were designed and prepared by post-synthetic polymerization of UiO-66-NH2 nanoparticles and a polyurethane oligomer under mild conditions. The adsorption behavior of membrane 3 towards four hydrophilic dyes, namely, eosin Y (EY), rhodamine B (RB), malachite green (MG), and methylene blue (MB), in aqueous solution was studied in detail. It exhibits strong adsorption of EY and RB but weak adsorption of MG and MB in aqueous solution. Owing to the selective adsorption of these hydrophilic dyes, membrane 3 can remove EY and RB from aqueous solution and completely separate EY/MB, RB/MG, and RB/MB mixtures in aqueous solution. In addition, the membrane is uniformly textured, easily handled, and can be reused for dye adsorption and separation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. PhytoCRISP-Ex: a web-based and stand-alone application to find specific target sequences for CRISPR/CAS editing.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Achal; Murik, Omer; Bowler, Chris; Tirichine, Leila

    2016-07-01

    With the emerging interest in phytoplankton research, the need to establish genetic tools for the functional characterization of genes is indispensable. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is now well recognized as an efficient and accurate reverse genetic tool for genome editing. Several computational tools have been published allowing researchers to find candidate target sequences for the engineering of the CRISPR vectors, while searching possible off-targets for the predicted candidates. These tools provide built-in genome databases of common model organisms that are used for CRISPR target prediction. Although their predictions are highly sensitive, the applicability to non-model genomes, most notably protists, makes their design inadequate. This motivated us to design a new CRISPR target finding tool, PhytoCRISP-Ex. Our software offers CRIPSR target predictions using an extended list of phytoplankton genomes and also delivers a user-friendly standalone application that can be used for any genome. The software attempts to integrate, for the first time, most available phytoplankton genomes information and provide a web-based platform for Cas9 target prediction within them with high sensitivity. By offering a standalone version, PhytoCRISP-Ex maintains an independence to be used with any organism and widens its applicability in high throughput pipelines. PhytoCRISP-Ex out pars all the existing tools by computing the availability of restriction sites over the most probable Cas9 cleavage sites, which can be ideal for mutant screens. PhytoCRISP-Ex is a simple, fast and accurate web interface with 13 pre-indexed and presently updating phytoplankton genomes. The software was also designed as a UNIX-based standalone application that allows the user to search for target sequences in the genomes of a variety of other species.

  2. CAD-based stand-alone spacecraft radiation exposure analysis system: An application of the early man-tended Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, M. H.; Golightly, M. J.; Hardy, A. C.

    1993-01-01

    Major improvements have been completed in the approach to analyses and simulation of spacecraft radiation shielding and exposure. A computer-aided design (CAD)-based system has been developed for determining the amount of shielding provided by a spacecraft and simulating transmission of an incident radiation environment to any point within or external to the vehicle. Shielding analysis is performed using a customized ray-tracing subroutine contained within a standard engineering modeling software package. This improved shielding analysis technique has been used in several vehicle design programs such as a Mars transfer habitat, pressurized lunar rover, and the redesigned international Space Station. Results of analysis performed for the Space Station astronaut exposure assessment are provided to demonastrate the applicability and versatility of the system.

  3. A Stand-Alone Demography and Landscape Structure Module for Earth System Models: Integration with Inventory Data from Temperate and Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, L.; Basso, B.; Hinckley, E. L. S.; Robertson, G. P.; Matson, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the coming century, the proportion of total rainfall that falls in heavy storm events is expected to increase in many areas, especially in the US Midwest, a major agricultural region. These changes in rainfall patterns may have consequences for hydrologic flow and nutrient losses, especially in agricultural soils, with potentially negative consequences for receiving ground- and surface waters. We used a tracer experiment to examine how more extreme rainfall patterns may affect the movement of water and solutes through an agricultural soil profile in the upper Midwest, and to what extent tillage may moderate these effects. Two rainfall patterns were created with 5m x 5m rainout shelters at the Kellogg Biological Station LTER site in replicated plots with either conventional tillage or no-till management. Control rainfall treatments received water 3x per week, and extreme rainfall treatments received the same total amount of water but once every two weeks, to simulate less frequent but larger storms. In April 2015, potassium bromide (KBr) was added as a conservative tracer of water flow to all plots, and Br- concentrations in soil water at 1.2m depth were measured weekly from April through July. Soil water Br- concentrations increased and peaked more quickly under the extreme rainfall treatment, suggesting increased infiltration and solute transfer to depth compared to soils exposed to control rainfall patterns. Soil water Br- also increased and peaked more quickly in no-till than in conventional tillage treatments, indicating differences in flow paths between management systems. Soil moisture measured every 15 minutes at 10, 40, and 100cm depths corroborates tracer experiment results: rainfall events simulated in extreme rainfall treatments led to large increases in deep soil moisture, while the smaller rainfall events simulated under control conditions did not. Deep soil moisture in no-till treatments also increased sooner after water application as compared to in conventional soils. Our results suggest that exposure to more extreme rainfall patterns will likely increase infiltration depth and nutrient losses in agricultural soils. In particular, soils under no-till management, which leads to development of preferential flow paths, may be particularly vulnerable to vertical nutrient losses.

  4. Stand-alone polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy instrument optimized for the study of catalytic processes at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Kestell, John D.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Ye, Xinyi

    This article describes the design and construction of a compact, “user-friendly” polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) of Brookhaven National Laboratory, which allows studying surfaces at pressures ranging from ultra-high vacuum to 100 Torr. Surface infrared spectroscopy is ideally suited for studying these processes as the vibrational frequencies of the IR chromophores are sensitive to the nature of the bonding environment on the surface. Relying on the surface selection rules, by modulating the polarization of incident light, it is possible to separate the contributions from the isotropic gas or solution phase, frommore » the surface bound species. A spectral frequency range between 1000 cm -1 and 4000 cm -1 can be acquired. While typical spectra with a good signal to noise ratio can be obtained at elevated pressures of gases in ~2 min at 4 cm -1 resolution, we have also acquired higher resolution spectra at 0.25 cm -1 with longer acquisition times. By way of verification, CO uptake on a heavily oxidized Ru(0001) sample was studied. As part of this test study, the presence of CO adsorbed on Ru bridge sites was confirmed, in agreement with previous ambient pressure X ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In terms of instrument performance, it was also determined that the gas phase contribution from CO could be completely removed even up to pressures close to 100 Torr. A second test study demonstrated the use of the technique for studying morphological properties of a spin coated polymer on a conductive surface. Note that this is a novel application of this technique. In this experiment, the polarization of incident light was modulated manually (vs. through a photoelastic modulator). It was demonstrated, in good agreement with the literature, that the polymer chains preferentially lie parallel with the surface. This PM-IRRAS system is small, modular, and easily reconfigurable. It also features a “vacuum suitcase” that allows for the integration of the PM-IRRAS system with the rest of the suite of instrumentation at our laboratory available to external users through the CFN user proposal system.« less

  5. Stand-alone polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy instrument optimized for the study of catalytic processes at elevated pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestell, John D.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Ye, Xinyi; Nam, Chang-Yong; Stacchiola, Dario; Sadowski, Jerzy; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes the design and construction of a compact, "user-friendly" polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) of Brookhaven National Laboratory, which allows studying surfaces at pressures ranging from ultra-high vacuum to 100 Torr. Surface infrared spectroscopy is ideally suited for studying these processes as the vibrational frequencies of the IR chromophores are sensitive to the nature of the bonding environment on the surface. Relying on the surface selection rules, by modulating the polarization of incident light, it is possible to separate the contributions from the isotropic gas or solution phase, from the surface bound species. A spectral frequency range between 1000 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 can be acquired. While typical spectra with a good signal to noise ratio can be obtained at elevated pressures of gases in ˜2 min at 4 cm-1 resolution, we have also acquired higher resolution spectra at 0.25 cm-1 with longer acquisition times. By way of verification, CO uptake on a heavily oxidized Ru(0001) sample was studied. As part of this test study, the presence of CO adsorbed on Ru bridge sites was confirmed, in agreement with previous ambient pressure X ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In terms of instrument performance, it was also determined that the gas phase contribution from CO could be completely removed even up to pressures close to 100 Torr. A second test study demonstrated the use of the technique for studying morphological properties of a spin coated polymer on a conductive surface. Note that this is a novel application of this technique. In this experiment, the polarization of incident light was modulated manually (vs. through a photoelastic modulator). It was demonstrated, in good agreement with the literature, that the polymer chains preferentially lie parallel with the surface. This PM-IRRAS system is small, modular, and easily reconfigurable. It also features a "vacuum suitcase" that allows for the integration of the PM-IRRAS system with the rest of the suite of instrumentation at our laboratory available to external users through the CFN user proposal system.

  6. Development of a Low-Cost, Stand-Alone Microterminal for Support of Testing and Instruction. Final Report for Period January 1977-February 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffen, Dale A.; And Others

    A study was undertaken to develop a microterminal for use in a computer-based instructional system. Objectives were to use new microprocessor technology to produce one terminal that is more effective and efficient than either the management terminal or the plasma type interactive terminal presently in use by the Air Force Advanced Instructional…

  7. Transitioning couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) from stand-alone weekend services into routine antenatal and VCT services in government clinics in Zambia's two largest cities.

    PubMed

    Inambao, Mubiana; Kilembe, William; Canary, Lauren A; Czaicki, Nancy L; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Chavuma, Roy; Wall, Kristin M; Tichacek, Amanda; Pulerwitz, Julie; Thior, Ibou; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan A

    2017-01-01

    Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple's voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia's two largest cities from 2009-2015 is described. Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO) subsidies were offered for overtime pay. Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for 'partner testing' with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities. A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended.

  8. A stand-alone tree demography and landscape structure module for Earth system models: integration with inventory data from temperate and boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverd, V.; Smith, B.; Nieradzik, L. P.; Briggs, P. R.

    2014-08-01

    Poorly constrained rates of biomass turnover are a key limitation of Earth system models (ESMs). In light of this, we recently proposed a new approach encoded in a model called Populations-Order-Physiology (POP), for the simulation of woody ecosystem stand dynamics, demography and disturbance-mediated heterogeneity. POP is suitable for continental to global applications and designed for coupling to the terrestrial ecosystem component of any ESM. POP bridges the gap between first-generation dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) with simple large-area parameterisations of woody biomass (typically used in current ESMs) and complex second-generation DVMs that explicitly simulate demographic processes and landscape heterogeneity of forests. The key simplification in the POP approach, compared with second-generation DVMs, is to compute physiological processes such as assimilation at grid-scale (with CABLE (Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange) or a similar land surface model), but to partition the grid-scale biomass increment among age classes defined at sub-grid-scale, each subject to its own dynamics. POP was successfully demonstrated along a savanna transect in northern Australia, replicating the effects of strong rainfall and fire disturbance gradients on observed stand productivity and structure. Here, we extend the application of POP to wide-ranging temporal and boreal forests, employing paired observations of stem biomass and density from forest inventory data to calibrate model parameters governing stand demography and biomass evolution. The calibrated POP model is then coupled to the CABLE land surface model, and the combined model (CABLE-POP) is evaluated against leaf-stem allometry observations from forest stands ranging in age from 3 to 200 year. Results indicate that simulated biomass pools conform well with observed allometry. We conclude that POP represents an ecologically plausible and efficient alternative to large-area parameterisations of woody biomass turnover, typically used in current ESMs.

  9. Stand-alone polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy instrument optimized for the study of catalytic processes at elevated pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Kestell, John D.; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Ye, Xinyi; ...

    2017-10-01

    This article describes the design and construction of a compact, “user-friendly” polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) instrument at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) of Brookhaven National Laboratory, which allows studying surfaces at pressures ranging from ultra-high vacuum to 100 Torr. Surface infrared spectroscopy is ideally suited for studying these processes as the vibrational frequencies of the IR chromophores are sensitive to the nature of the bonding environment on the surface. Relying on the surface selection rules, by modulating the polarization of incident light, it is possible to separate the contributions from the isotropic gas or solution phase, frommore » the surface bound species. A spectral frequency range between 1000 cm -1 and 4000 cm -1 can be acquired. While typical spectra with a good signal to noise ratio can be obtained at elevated pressures of gases in ~2 min at 4 cm -1 resolution, we have also acquired higher resolution spectra at 0.25 cm -1 with longer acquisition times. By way of verification, CO uptake on a heavily oxidized Ru(0001) sample was studied. As part of this test study, the presence of CO adsorbed on Ru bridge sites was confirmed, in agreement with previous ambient pressure X ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. In terms of instrument performance, it was also determined that the gas phase contribution from CO could be completely removed even up to pressures close to 100 Torr. A second test study demonstrated the use of the technique for studying morphological properties of a spin coated polymer on a conductive surface. Note that this is a novel application of this technique. In this experiment, the polarization of incident light was modulated manually (vs. through a photoelastic modulator). It was demonstrated, in good agreement with the literature, that the polymer chains preferentially lie parallel with the surface. This PM-IRRAS system is small, modular, and easily reconfigurable. It also features a “vacuum suitcase” that allows for the integration of the PM-IRRAS system with the rest of the suite of instrumentation at our laboratory available to external users through the CFN user proposal system.« less

  10. Impact of air-sea drag coefficient for latent heat flux on large scale climate in coupled and atmosphere stand-alone simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Olivier; Braconnot, Pascale; Marti, Olivier; Gential, Luc

    2018-05-01

    The turbulent fluxes across the ocean/atmosphere interface represent one of the principal driving forces of the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Despite decades of effort and improvements, representation of these fluxes still presents a challenge due to the small-scale acting turbulent processes compared to the resolved scales of the models. Beyond this subgrid parameterization issue, a comprehensive understanding of the impact of air-sea interactions on the climate system is still lacking. In this paper we investigates the large-scale impacts of the transfer coefficient used to compute turbulent heat fluxes with the IPSL-CM4 climate model in which the surface bulk formula is modified. Analyzing both atmosphere and coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM, OAGCM) simulations allows us to study the direct effect and the mechanisms of adjustment to this modification. We focus on the representation of latent heat flux in the tropics. We show that the heat transfer coefficients are highly similar for a given parameterization between AGCM and OAGCM simulations. Although the same areas are impacted in both kind of simulations, the differences in surface heat fluxes are substantial. A regional modification of heat transfer coefficient has more impact than uniform modification in AGCM simulations while in OAGCM simulations, the opposite is observed. By studying the global energetics and the atmospheric circulation response to the modification, we highlight the role of the ocean in dampening a large part of the disturbance. Modification of the heat exchange coefficient modifies the way the coupled system works due to the link between atmospheric circulation and SST, and the different feedbacks between ocean and atmosphere. The adjustment that takes place implies a balance of net incoming solar radiation that is the same in all simulations. As there is no change in model physics other than drag coefficient, we obtain similar latent heat flux between coupled simulations with different atmospheric circulations. Finally, we analyze the impact of model tuning and show that it can offset part of the feedbacks.

  11. Educational Games as Stand-Alone Learning Tools and Their Motivational Effect on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Perceived Learning Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Ferrer, José Ramón

    2017-01-01

    According to different authors, computer games not only teach contents and skills, but also do so in a more efficient manner, allowing long-lasting learning. However, there is still little consensus on this matter as different studies put their educational benefits into question, especially when used without instructional support. An empirical…

  12. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materialsmore » include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.« less

  13. A High-Value, Low-Cost Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure System for Low-Resource Settings: Technical Assessment and Initial Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jocelyn; Machen, Heather; Kawaza, Kondwani; Mwanza, Zondiwe; Iniguez, Suzanne; Lang, Hans; Gest, Alfred; Kennedy, Neil; Miros, Robert; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Molyneux, Elizabeth; Oden, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of global child mortality. In the developing world, nasal oxygen therapy is often the only treatment option for babies who are suffering from respiratory distress. Without the added pressure of bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (bCPAP) which helps maintain alveoli open, babies struggle to breathe and can suffer serious complications, and frequently death. A stand-alone bCPAP device can cost $6,000, too expensive for most developing world hospitals. Here, we describe the design and technical evaluation of a new, rugged bCPAP system that can be made in small volume for a cost-of-goods of approximately $350. Moreover, because of its simple design—consumer-grade pumps, medical tubing, and regulators—it requires only the simple replacement of a <$1 diaphragm approximately every 2 years for maintenance. The low-cost bCPAP device delivers pressure and flow equivalent to those of a reference bCPAP system used in the developed world. We describe the initial clinical cases of a child with bronchiolitis and a neonate with respiratory distress who were treated successfully with the new bCPAP device. PMID:23372661

  14. Drift dynamics in a coupled model initialized for decadal forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Cassou, Christophe; Ruprich-Robert, Yohan; Fernandez, Elodie; Terray, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    , can be viewed for the coupled model as an efficient way to rapidly adjust to its own biased climate mean state. Weak cold ENSO events tend to occur the second year of the forecast due to the so-called discharge-recharge mechanism while the spurious oscillatory behavior is progressively damped. The latter mechanism is much more pronounced in retrospective forecasts initialized from the NOEQ configuration for which the ENSO flip-flop is still detectable at leadtime 4 year. Associated atmospheric teleconnections interfere worldwide with regional drifts, especially in the North Pacific and more remotely in the North Atlantic. In the latter basin, the drift can be interpreted as the model response to intrinsic atmospheric circulation biases found in the stand-alone atmosphere component of the model, which project onto the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation. A fast adjustment (up to ~5-year leadtime) occurs leading to a rapid slackening of both the vertical (Atlantic meridional overturning circulation) and horizontal circulations, especially in the subpolar gyre. Slower adjustment of the entire water masses distribution in the North Atlantic then takes over involving several mechanisms. We show that a weak feedback is locally present between the atmospheric circulation and the ocean drift that controls the timescale of the setting of the coupled model biases.

  15. The Plus 50 Initiative Evaluation: Initiative Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Community Colleges (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), with funding from The Atlantic Philanthropies, created the Plus 50 Initiative (2008-2012). This initiative was designed to build the capacity of community colleges nationwide to develop programming that engages the plus 50 learner. This report contains: (1) An overview of the Plus 50…

  16. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  17. On Education and Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luntley, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I take up Peters' invitation to think of education in terms of initiation. I argue that the concept of initiation demands much closer scrutiny and analysis in order to provide a substantive thesis about education. A key challenge concerns how we conceive of the initiate. The very idea of initiation suggests that, in some interesting…

  18. Initial Feasibility Report on Decentralized Small Cogeneration for Navy Shore Bases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    PURPA ), they generally had stand-alone generating capacity sufficient to meet all the electrical needs of the building A’’ ".w...electric utilties since the enactment of PURPA . An example of a recent small cogeneration application uses the 60-kW Thermo Electron cogeneration...utilities are naturally not enthusias- tic about cogeneration. However, PURPA was enacted to ensure that cogenerators receive just, reasonable, and

  19. Space Exploration Initiative: Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurdy, Howard E.

    1992-01-01

    This chronology gives an overview of the human space exploration initiative from 1956 through 1989. Details are given for the political milestones of the initiative, including information on presidential mandates and NASA Administrator appointments.

  20. Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Dioxin Exposure Initiative (DEI) is no longer active. This page contains a summary of the dioxin exposure initiative with illustrations, contact and background information.Originally supported by scientist Matthew Lorber, who retired in Mar 2017.

  1. Capacity Initiatives, Volume 2

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-07-01

    This is the second in a series of pamphlets detailing capacity initiatives that : offer solutions for improving the Nation's aviation system capacity. Based on : the application and refinement of new systems and procedures, these initiatives : promis...

  2. Western Mountain Initiative

    Science.gov Websites

    Home About WMI People Publications News Media Research Links Western Mountain Initiative The Western Mountain Initiative is a team of USGS, US Forest Service, and university scientists working to

  3. Prioritizing Scientific Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahcall, John N.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the way in which a limited number of astronomy research initiatives were chosen and prioritized based on a consensus of members from the Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee. A list of recommended equipment initiatives and estimated costs is provided. (KR)

  4. AC Initiation System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An ac initiation system is described which uses three ac transmission signals interlocked for safety by frequency, phase, and power discrimination...The ac initiation system is pre-armed by the application of two ac signals have the proper phases, and activates a load when an ac power signal of the proper frequency and power level is applied. (Author)

  5. The Fostering Hope Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Steven; Winters, Katie; Dean, Joyce; Seymour, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Fostering Hope Initiative is a neighborhood-based Collective Impact initiative that promotes optimum child and youth development by supporting vulnerable families, encouraging connections between neighbors, strengthening systems to ensure collective impact, and advocating for family-friendly public policy. This article describes the…

  6. The Education and Public Engagement (EPE) Component of the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI): Enabling Near Real-Time Data Use in Undergraduate Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S. M.; Companion, C.; Crowley, M.; deCharon, A.; Fundis, A. T.; Kilb, D. L.; Levenson, S.; Lichtenwalner, C. S.; McCurdy, A.; McDonnell, J. D.; Overoye, D.; Risien, C. M.; Rude, A.; Wieclawek, J., III

    2011-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is constructing observational and computer infrastructure that will provide sustained ocean measurements to study climate variability, ocean circulation, ecosystem dynamics, air-sea exchange, seafloor processes, and plate-scale geodynamics over the next ~25-30 years. To accomplish this, the Consortium for Ocean Leadership established four Implementing Organizations: (1) Regional Scale Nodes; (2) Coastal and Global Scale Nodes; (3) Cyberinfrastructure (CI); and (4) Education and Public Engagement (EPE). The EPE, which we represent, was just recently established to provide a new layer of cyber-interactivity for educators to bring near real-time data, images and videos of our Earth's oceans into their learning environments. Our focus over the next four years is engaging educators of undergraduates and free-choice learners. Demonstration projects of the OOI capabilities will use an Integrated Education Toolkit to access OOI data through the Cyberinfrastructure's On Demand Measurement Processing capability. We will present our plans to develop six education infrastructure software modules: Education Web Services (middleware), Visualization Tools, Concept Map and Lab/Lesson Builders, Collaboration Tools, and an Education Resources Database. The software release of these tools is staggered to coincide with other major OOI releases. The first release will include stand-alone versions of the first four EPE modules (Fall 2012). Next, all six EPE modules will be integrated within the OOI cyber-framework (Fall 2013). The last release will include advanced capabilities for all six modules within a collaborative network that leverages the CI's Integrated Observatory Network (Fall 2014). We are looking for undergraduate and informal science educators to provide feedback and guidance on the project, please contact us if you are interested in partnering with us.

  7. Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Midwest Clean Diesel Initiative (MCDI) is a collaboration of federal, state and local agencies, along with communities, non-profit organizations and private companies working together by reducing exposure to emissions from diesel engines

  8. Global Methane Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Global Methane Initiative promotes cost-effective, near-term methane recovery through partnerships between developed and developing countries, with participation from the private sector, development banks, and nongovernmental organizations.

  9. Collaborative Procurement Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    GPP's Clean Energy Collaborative Procurement Initiative provides a platform for deploying clean energy technologies across multiple government and educational organizations for maximum impact on installed solar system capacity and local economic activity.

  10. Research Programs & Initiatives

    Cancer.gov

    CGH develops international initiatives and collaborates with other NCI divisions, NCI-designated Cancer Centers, and other countries to support cancer control planning, encourage capacity building, and support cancer research and research networks.

  11. About the RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The RAS Initiative, a "hub and spoke" model, connects researchers to better understand and target the more than 30% of cancers driven by mutations in RAS genes. Includes oversight and contact information.

  12. Advanced Concepts Research Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    This initiative is investigating various approaches to controlling and treating wet-weather flow (WWF) discharges in the urban watershed. WWF, including combined sewer overflow (CSO), sanitary sewer overflow (SSO) and stormwater discharges are leading causes of receiving water q...

  13. RAS Initiative - Events

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  14. The RAS Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    NCI established the RAS Initiative to explore innovative approaches for attacking the proteins encoded by mutant forms of RAS genes and to ultimately create effective, new therapies for RAS-related cancers.

  15. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Cancer.gov

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  16. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  17. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  18. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  19. Piezoelectrically Initiated Pyrotechnic Igniter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quince, Asia; Dutton, Maureen; Hicks, Robert; Burnham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This innovation consists of a pyrotechnic initiator and piezoelectric initiation system. The device will be capable of being initiated mechanically; resisting initiation by EMF, RF, and EMI (electromagnetic field, radio frequency, and electromagnetic interference, respectively); and initiating in water environments and space environments. Current devices of this nature are initiated by the mechanical action of a firing pin against a primer. Primers historically are prone to failure. These failures are commonly known as misfires or hang-fires. In many cases, the primer shows the dent where the firing pin struck the primer, but the primer failed to fire. In devices such as "T" handles, which are commonly used to initiate the blowout of canopies, loss of function of the device may result in loss of crew. In devices such as flares or smoke generators, failure can result in failure to spot a downed pilot. The piezoelectrically initiated ignition system consists of a pyrotechnic device that plugs into a mechanical system (activator), which on activation, generates a high-voltage spark. The activator, when released, will strike a stack of electrically linked piezo crystals, generating a high-voltage, low-amperage current that is then conducted to the pyro-initiator. Within the initiator, an electrode releases a spark that passes through a pyrotechnic first-fire mixture, causing it to combust. The combustion of the first-fire initiates a primary pyrotechnic or explosive powder. If used in a "T" handle, the primary would ramp the speed of burn up to the speed of sound, generating a shock wave that would cause a high explosive to go "high order." In a flare or smoke generator, the secondary would produce the heat necessary to ignite the pyrotechnic mixture. The piezo activator subsystem is redundant in that a second stack of crystals would be struck at the same time with the same activation force, doubling the probability of a first strike spark generation. If the first

  20. Diffusion controlled initial recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christen, T.; Büttiker, M.

    1998-08-01

    This work addresses nucleation rates in systems with strong initial recombination. Initial (or ``geminate'') recombination is a process where a dissociated structure (anion, vortex, kink, etc.) recombines with its twin brother (cation, antivortex, antikink) generated in the same nucleation event. Initial recombination is important if there is an asymptotically vanishing interaction force instead of a generic saddle-type activation barrier. At low temperatures, initial recombination strongly dominates homogeneous recombination. In a first part, we discuss the effect in one-, two-, and three-dimensional diffusion controlled systems with spherical symmetry. Since there is no well-defined saddle, we introduce a threshold which is to some extent arbitrary but which is restricted by physically reasonable conditions. We show that the dependence of the nucleation rate on the specific choice of this threshold is strongest for one-dimensional systems and decreases in higher dimensions. We also discuss the influence of a weak driving force, and show that the transport current is directly determined by the imbalance of the activation rate in the direction of the field and the rate against this direction. In a second part, we apply the results to the overdamped sine-Gordon system at equilibrium. It turns out that diffusive initial recombination is the essential mechanism which governs the equilibrium kink nucleation rate. We emphasize analogies between the single particle problem with initial recombination and the multidimensional kink-antikink nucleation problem.

  1. Impact of integration of sexual and reproductive health services on consultation duration times: results from the Integra Initiative.

    PubMed

    Siapka, Mariana; Obure, Carol Dayo; Mayhew, Susannah H; Sweeney, Sedona; Fenty, Justin; Vassall, Anna

    2017-11-01

    The lack of human resources is a key challenge in scaling up of HIV services in Africa's health care system. Integrating HIV services could potentially increase their effectiveness and optimize the use of limited resources and clinical staff time. We examined the impact of integration of provider initiated HIV counselling and testing (PITC) and family planning (FP counselling and FP provision) services on duration of consultation to assess the impact of PITC and FP integration on staff workload. This study was conducted in 24 health facilities in Kenya under the Integra Initiative, a non-randomized, pre/post intervention trial to evaluate the impact of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services on health and service outcomes. We compared the time spent providing PITC-only services, FP-only services and integrated PITC/FP services. We used log-linear regression to assess the impact of plausible determinants on the duration of clients' consultation times. Median consultation duration times were highest for PITC-only services (30 min), followed by integrated services (10 min) and FP-only services (8 min). Times for PITC-only and FP-only services were 69.7% higher (95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) 35.8-112.0) and 43.9% lower (95% CIs -55.4 to - 29.6) than times spent on these services when delivered as an integrated service, respectively. The reduction in consultation times with integration suggests a potential reduction in workload. The higher consultation time for PITC-only could be because more pre- and post-counselling is provided at these stand-alone services. In integrated PITC/FP services, the duration of the visit fell below that required by HIV testing guidelines, and service mix between counselling and testing substantially changed. Integration of HIV with FP services may compromise the quality of services delivered and care must be taken to clearly specify and monitor appropriate consultation duration times and procedures during the

  2. Impact of integration of sexual and reproductive health services on consultation duration times: results from the Integra Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Siapka, Mariana; Obure, Carol Dayo; Mayhew, Susannah H; Fenty, Justin; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The lack of human resources is a key challenge in scaling up of HIV services in Africa’s health care system. Integrating HIV services could potentially increase their effectiveness and optimize the use of limited resources and clinical staff time. We examined the impact of integration of provider initiated HIV counselling and testing (PITC) and family planning (FP counselling and FP provision) services on duration of consultation to assess the impact of PITC and FP integration on staff workload. This study was conducted in 24 health facilities in Kenya under the Integra Initiative, a non-randomized, pre/post intervention trial to evaluate the impact of integrated HIV and sexual and reproductive health services on health and service outcomes. We compared the time spent providing PITC-only services, FP-only services and integrated PITC/FP services. We used log-linear regression to assess the impact of plausible determinants on the duration of clients’ consultation times. Median consultation duration times were highest for PITC-only services (30 min), followed by integrated services (10 min) and FP-only services (8 min). Times for PITC-only and FP-only services were 69.7% higher (95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) 35.8–112.0) and 43.9% lower (95% CIs −55.4 to − 29.6) than times spent on these services when delivered as an integrated service, respectively. The reduction in consultation times with integration suggests a potential reduction in workload. The higher consultation time for PITC-only could be because more pre- and post-counselling is provided at these stand-alone services. In integrated PITC/FP services, the duration of the visit fell below that required by HIV testing guidelines, and service mix between counselling and testing substantially changed. Integration of HIV with FP services may compromise the quality of services delivered and care must be taken to clearly specify and monitor appropriate consultation duration times and

  3. Scottish Asthma Management Initiative.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, G; Neville, R G; McCowan, C; Smith, B; Clark, R A; Ricketts, I W

    2000-11-01

    To describe the development process of a system that links audit, research and patient care and to detail the lessons learned from establishing a Scotland wide asthma management initiative. Health Boards and practices throughout Scotland were invited to participate in an initiative which links review of care, guideline implementation, chronic disease management (CDM) approval and post-graduate education for doctors (PGEA) and nurses (PREP). Participating practices were given the materials to review 30 patients randomly selected from their asthma register. Health service resource use and drugs prescribed over a retrospective 12 month period were recorded for each patient using paper or electronic materials. All patients were invited for clinical assessment. A two-tier management system proved effective. Twelve of the 15 Scottish health authorities agreed to recognise the audit for automatic CDM approval although the negotiation process was prolonged; 566 practices from all parts of Scotland have expressed an interest in the initiative. Provision of distance learning material linked to PGEA accreditation is free to general practitioners (GP's) and is a useful incentive for participation. To date 42 GPs have completed the distance learning element. The Scottish Asthma Management Initiative has provided the opportunity for all sectors of the health service in Scotland to work together to explore innovative ways to improve the management and care of chronic disease. Participation in an initiative linked to guidelines, education and CDM approval is an excellent way to facilitate health professionals to improve care.

  4. Optimal flight initiation distance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, William E; Frederick, William G

    2007-01-07

    Decisions regarding flight initiation distance have received scant theoretical attention. A graphical model by Ydenberg and Dill (1986. The economics of fleeing from predators. Adv. Stud. Behav. 16, 229-249) that has guided research for the past 20 years specifies when escape begins. In the model, a prey detects a predator, monitors its approach until costs of escape and of remaining are equal, and then flees. The distance between predator and prey when escape is initiated (approach distance = flight initiation distance) occurs where decreasing cost of remaining and increasing cost of fleeing intersect. We argue that prey fleeing as predicted cannot maximize fitness because the best prey can do is break even during an encounter. We develop two optimality models, one applying when all expected future contribution to fitness (residual reproductive value) is lost if the prey dies, the other when any fitness gained (increase in expected RRV) during the encounter is retained after death. Both models predict optimal flight initiation distance from initial expected fitness, benefits obtainable during encounters, costs of escaping, and probability of being killed. Predictions match extensively verified predictions of Ydenberg and Dill's (1986) model. Our main conclusion is that optimality models are preferable to break-even models because they permit fitness maximization, offer many new testable predictions, and allow assessment of prey decisions in many naturally occurring situations through modification of benefit, escape cost, and risk functions.

  5. Initial Assessment of the Acceptability of a Push-Pull Aedes aegypti Control Strategy in Iquitos, Peru and Kanchanaburi, Thailand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    semi- urban , comprised mostly of permanent housing structure, shop houses, or stand-alone houses. Like all of the semi- urban settings in Thailand...locations, such as bathrooms and kitchens . Women did not discuss feeling the presence of mosquitoes in their yards or in the back of their houses...the flies away.” In fact, the use of water-filled bags to keep pest insects out of a specified area has also been described anec- dotally in other

  6. STI Program Multimedia Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Kaye, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This paper relates the experience of the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program in introducing multimedia within the STI Program framework. A discussion of multimedia technology is included to provide context for the STI Program effort. The STI Program's Multimedia Initiative is discussed in detail. Parallels and differences between multimedia and traditional information systems project development are highlighted. Challenges faced by the program in initiating its multimedia project are summarized along with lessons learned. The paper concludes with a synopsis of the benefits the program hopes to provide its users through the introduction of multimedia illustrated by examples of successful multimedia projects.

  7. Shock initiation of nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.

    1993-12-31

    The shock initiation processes of nitromethane have been examined by using a fast time-resolved emission spectroscopy at a two-stage gas gun. a broad, but strong emission has been observed in a spectral range between 350 and 700 nm from shocked nitromethane above 9 GPa. The temporal profile suggests that shocked nitromethane detonates through three characteristic periods, namely an induction period, a hock initiation period, and a thermal explosion period. This paper discusses temporal and chemical characteristics of these periods and present the temperature of the shock-detonating nitromethane at pressures between 9 and 15 GPa.

  8. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  9. Effectiveness of a grant program's efforts to promote synergy within its funded initiatives: perceptions of participants of the Southern Rural Access Program.

    PubMed

    Pathman, Donald E; Chuang, Emmeline; Weiner, Bryan J

    2008-12-18

    Foundations and public agencies commonly fund focused initiatives for individual grantees. These discrete, stand-alone initiatives can risk failure by being carried out in isolation. Fostering synergy among grantees' initiatives is one strategy proposed for promoting the success and impact of grant programs. We evaluate an explicit strategy to build synergy within the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Southern Rural Access Program (SRAP), which awarded grants to collaboratives within eight southeastern U.S. states to strengthen basic health care services in targeted rural counties. We interviewed 39 key participants of the SRAP, including the program director within each state and the principal subcontractors heading the program's funded initiatives that supported heath professionals' recruitment, retention and training, made loans to health care providers, and built networks among providers. Interews were recorded and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded the transcripts and a third investigator distilled the main points. Participants generally perceived that the SRAP yielded more synergies than other grant programs in which they had participated and that these synergies added to the program's impact. The synergies most often noted were achieved through relationship building among grantees and with outside agencies, sharing information and know-how, sharing resources, combining efforts to yield greater capacity, joining voices to advocate for common goals, and spotting gaps in services offered and then filling these gaps. The SRAP's strategies that participants felt fostered synergy included targeting funding to culturally and geographically similar states, supporting complementary types of initiatives, promoting opportunities to network through semi-annual meetings and regular conference calls, and the advocacy efforts of the program's leadership. Participants noted that synergies were sometimes hindered by turf issues and politics and the conflicting

  10. Effectiveness of a grant program's efforts to promote synergy within its funded initiatives: perceptions of participants of the Southern Rural Access Program

    PubMed Central

    Pathman, Donald E; Chuang, Emmeline; Weiner, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    Background Foundations and public agencies commonly fund focused initiatives for individual grantees. These discrete, stand-alone initiatives can risk failure by being carried out in isolation. Fostering synergy among grantees' initiatives is one strategy proposed for promoting the success and impact of grant programs. We evaluate an explicit strategy to build synergy within the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Southern Rural Access Program (SRAP), which awarded grants to collaboratives within eight southeastern U.S. states to strengthen basic health care services in targeted rural counties. Methods We interviewed 39 key participants of the SRAP, including the program director within each state and the principal subcontractors heading the program's funded initiatives that supported heath professionals' recruitment, retention and training, made loans to health care providers, and built networks among providers. Interews were recorded and transcribed. Two investigators independently coded the transcripts and a third investigator distilled the main points. Results Participants generally perceived that the SRAP yielded more synergies than other grant programs in which they had participated and that these synergies added to the program's impact. The synergies most often noted were achieved through relationship building among grantees and with outside agencies, sharing information and know-how, sharing resources, combining efforts to yield greater capacity, joining voices to advocate for common goals, and spotting gaps in services offered and then filling these gaps. The SRAP's strategies that participants felt fostered synergy included targeting funding to culturally and geographically similar states, supporting complementary types of initiatives, promoting opportunities to network through semi-annual meetings and regular conference calls, and the advocacy efforts of the program's leadership. Participants noted that synergies were sometimes hindered by turf issues and

  11. Annual Report: Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) (30 September 2013)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Syamlal, Madhava; Cottrell, Roger

    2013-09-30

    -ANOVA-UQ) for calibration and validation of CFD models. 8. A new basic data submodel in Aspen Plus format for a representative high viscosity capture solvent, 2-MPZ system. 9. An updated RM tool for CFD (REVEAL) that can create a RM from MFIX. A new lightweight, stand-alone version will be available in late 2013. 10. An updated RM integration tool to convert the RM from REVEAL into a CAPE-OPEN or ACM model for use in a process simulator. 11. An updated suite of unified steady-state and dynamic process models for solid sorbent carbon capture included bubbling fluidized bed and moving bed reactors. 12. An updated and unified set of compressor models including steady-state design point model and dynamic model with surge detection. 13. A new framework for the synthesis and optimization of coal oxycombustion power plants using advanced optimization algorithms. This release focuses on modeling and optimization of a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). 14. A new technical risk model in spreadsheet format. 15. An updated version of the sorbent kinetic/equilibrium model for parameter estimation for the 1st generation sorbent model. 16. An updated process synthesis superstructure model to determine optimal process configurations utilizing surrogate models from ALAMO for adsorption and regeneration in a solid sorbent process. 17. Validation models for NETL Carbon Capture Unit utilizing sorbent AX. Additional validation models will be available for sorbent 32D in 2014. 18. An updated hollow fiber membrane model and system example for carbon capture. 19. An updated reference power plant model in Thermoflex that includes additional steam extraction and reinjection points to enable heat integration module. 20. An updated financial risk model in spreadsheet format.« less

  12. Department-Initiated Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; De Geest, Els

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the activity of three secondary school mathematics departments in England in self-initiated states of change that led to overall improvements in students' achievements when compared to previous cohorts. This took place without intervention and without their participation in external projects. They provide examples of departments…

  13. Focusing educational initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The United States will soon be facing a critical shortage of aerospace scientists and engineers. To address this problem, Space Grant Colleges can assist in focusing interest in existing educational initiatives and in creating new educational opportunities, particularly for women and underrepresented minorities.

  14. The SEED Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teich, Carolyn R.

    2011-01-01

    Committed to fulfilling the promise of the green economy, the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) launched the Sustainability Education and Economic Development (SEED) initiative (www.theseedcenter.org) in October 2010. The project advances sustainability and clean energy workforce development practices at community colleges by…

  15. Mixed-Initiative Clustering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yifen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-initiative clustering is a task where a user and a machine work collaboratively to analyze a large set of documents. We hypothesize that a user and a machine can both learn better clustering models through enriched communication and interactive learning from each other. The first contribution or this thesis is providing a framework of…

  16. Transformative Change Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, D. D.; Kirby, C.; Witt, M. A.; Richie, D.; Mix, S.; Feldbaum, M.; Liu, S.; Mason, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Transformative Change Initiative (TCI) is dedicated to assisting community colleges to scale up innovation in the form of guided pathways, programs of study, and evidence-based strategies to improve student outcomes and program, organization, and system performance. The impetus for TCI is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and…

  17. Best Practices & Outstanding Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Training, 2011

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "Training" editors recognize innovative and successful learning and development programs and practices. They share best practices from Automatic Data Processing, Inc., Farmers Insurance Group, FedEx Express, InterContinental Hotels Group, and Oakwood Temporary Housing. They also present the outstanding initiatives of EMD Serono,…

  18. Systems 2020: Strategic Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-29

    research areas that enable agile, assured, efficient, and scalable systems engineering approaches to support the development of these systems. This...To increase development efficiency and ensure flexible solutions in the field, systems engineers need powerful, agile, interoperable, and scalable...design and development will be transformed as a result of Systems 2020, along with complementary enabling acquisition practice improvements initiated in

  19. Ontario's Student Voice Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This article describes in some detail aspects of the Student Voice initiative funded and championed by Ontario's Ministry of Education since 2008. The project enables thousands of students to make their voices heard in meaningful ways and to participate in student-led research. Some students from grades 7 to 12 become members of the Student…

  20. Near Term Capacity Initiatives

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1992-07-01

    One of the major aviation challenges in recent years has been the increase in : the number and duration of flight delays. This pamphlet offers the reader a : description of near-term capacity initiatives, their intended purpose, an : indication of wh...

  1. Initial Teaching Orthographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Godfrey

    To achieve its purpose, an initial teaching orthography (i.t.o.) should be as simple in form and substance as possible; it should be phonemic rather than phonetic. The 40 sounds distinguished by Pitmanic shorthand and some provision for schwa can serve as a basic code. The symbols can be derived from either of two major sources--standardizing the…

  2. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  3. Envisioning Effective Laptop Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, Jon M.; Britten, Jody; Ring, Gail

    2008-01-01

    A recent survey of 74 building-level school administrators in Indiana challenged many of the assumptions regarding 1:1 laptop initiatives and how 1:1 access would affect teaching and learning. It also revealed disturbing realities regarding instructional practices of teachers, as well as efforts to improve school technology integration. The intent…

  4. Dioxin Exposure Initiative Publications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following is a listing of published articles that have come out of EPA's Dioxin Exposure Initiative

    SOURCES:

      <...

    1. [Culture in initial interactions].

      PubMed

      Bossuroy, Muriel; Moro, Marie Rose

      2014-01-01

      Communication between infants and their parents is established through the initial interactions which begin at birth. These are unique to each parent-infant dyad and are structured both on the basis of the reactions, behaviour and characteristics specific to the babies as well as on the images, sensations, projections and representations of the parents. Culture and language are important elements in this context.

    2. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

      DOEpatents

      Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

      2012-10-23

      A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

    3. Next generation initiation techniques

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Warner, Tom; Derber, John; Zupanski, Milija; Cohn, Steve; Verlinde, Hans

      1993-01-01

      Four-dimensional data assimilation strategies can generally be classified as either current or next generation, depending upon whether they are used operationally or not. Current-generation data-assimilation techniques are those that are presently used routinely in operational-forecasting or research applications. They can be classified into the following categories: intermittent assimilation, Newtonian relaxation, and physical initialization. It should be noted that these techniques are the subject of continued research, and their improvement will parallel the development of next generation techniques described by the other speakers. Next generation assimilation techniques are those that are under development but are not yet used operationally. Most of these procedures are derived from control theory or variational methods and primarily represent continuous assimilation approaches, in which the data and model dynamics are 'fitted' to each other in an optimal way. Another 'next generation' category is the initialization of convective-scale models. Intermittent assimilation systems use an objective analysis to combine all observations within a time window that is centered on the analysis time. Continuous first-generation assimilation systems are usually based on the Newtonian-relaxation or 'nudging' techniques. Physical initialization procedures generally involve the use of standard or nonstandard data to force some physical process in the model during an assimilation period. Under the topic of next-generation assimilation techniques, variational approaches are currently being actively developed. Variational approaches seek to minimize a cost or penalty function which measures a model's fit to observations, background fields and other imposed constraints. Alternatively, the Kalman filter technique, which is also under investigation as a data assimilation procedure for numerical weather prediction, can yield acceptable initial conditions for mesoscale models. The

    4. Shock initiation of nitromethane

      SciTech Connect

      Yoo, C.S.; Holmes, N.C.

      1994-07-10

      The shock initiation processes of nitromethane have been examined by using a fast time-resolved emission spectroscopy at a two-stage gas gun. A broad, but strong emission has been observed in a spectral range between 350 nm and 700 nm from the shocked nitromethane above 9 GPa. The temporal profile suggests that the shocked nitromethane detonates through three characteristic periods, namely an induction period, a shock initiation period, and a thermal explosion period. In this paper we will discuss the temporal and chemical characteristics of these periods and present the temperature of the shock-detonating nitromethane at pressures between 9 and 15more » GPa. [copyright]American Institute of Physics« less

    5. Gravity wave initiated convection

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Hung, R. J.

      1990-09-01

      The vertical velocity of convection initiated by gravity waves was investigated. In one particular case, the convective motion-initiated and supported by the gravity wave-induced activity (excluding contributions made by other mechanisms) reached its maximum value about one hour before the production of the funnel clouds. In another case, both rawinsonde and geosynchronous satellite imagery were used to study the life cycles of severe convective storms. Cloud modelling with input sounding data and rapid-scan imagery from GOES were used to investigate storm cloud formation, development and dissipation in terms of growth and collapse of cloud tops, as well as, the life cycles of the penetration of overshooting turrets above the tropopause. The results based on these two approaches are presented and discussed.

    6. Lightning Initiation and Propagation

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2009-08-22

      ray (gamma ray ) and multiple-station (>24) cosmic - ray - muon detection network (TERA) pl:esently in place. Upgrade TERA with LaBr3 detectors to...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightning Initistion and Propagation Including the Role of X- Rays , Gamma Rays , and Cosmic Rays 5a... rays , gamma rays , and cosmic rays in the initiation and propagation of lightning and in the phenomenology of thunderclouds. The experimental

    7. Initiative-Oriented Training.

      DTIC Science & Technology

      1998-06-05

      Conditions, and Standards Prior to STXs 70 13. Knowledge of the Enemy Situation Prior to STXs 71 14. Frequency of MILES Free - Play Exercises 72...in addition to realistic sights, sounds, and smells. With regards to force-on-force, or free - play MILES exercises, uncertainty and initiative can...sounds, and (to some degree) smells of the battlefield; use MILES force-on-force, free - play exercises to incorporate cognitive mental Stressors and

    8. The NLM Indexing Initiative.

      PubMed Central

      Aronson, A. R.; Bodenreider, O.; Chang, H. F.; Humphrey, S. M.; Mork, J. G.; Nelson, S. J.; Rindflesch, T. C.; Wilbur, W. J.

      2000-01-01

      The objective of NLM's Indexing Initiative (IND) is to investigate methods whereby automated indexing methods partially or completely substitute for current indexing practices. The project will be considered a success if methods can be designed and implemented that result in retrieval performance that is equal to or better than the retrieval performance of systems based principally on humanly assigned index terms. We describe the current state of the project and discuss our plans for the future. PMID:11079836

    9. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

      DTIC Science & Technology

      2005-05-01

      working with great success to minimize error. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Medical Error, Patient Safety, Personal Data Terminal, Barcodes, 9...AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0536 TITLE: Medical Errors Reduction Initiative PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael L. Mutter 1To CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...The Valley Hospital Ridgewood, NJ 07450 REPORT DATE: May 2005 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command

    10. The space exploration initiative

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Priest, Pete

      1991-01-01

      A number of view graph charts are presented which outline the presentation. Outlined are reasons for going to Mars, why it is necessary to go to the Moon first, and the presidential decision on the space exploration initiative. Other representative charts are entitled: Lunar transportation system requirement drivers; Mars transportation system requirement drivers; National space policy goals; Exploration hardware needed; Mars mission profile; Science on the Moon and Mars; and Two independent reviews.

    11. Iterative initial condition reconstruction

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Schmittfull, Marcel; Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias

      2017-07-01

      Motivated by recent developments in perturbative calculations of the nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure, we present an iterative algorithm to reconstruct the initial conditions in a given volume starting from the dark matter distribution in real space. In our algorithm, objects are first moved back iteratively along estimated potential gradients, with a progressively reduced smoothing scale, until a nearly uniform catalog is obtained. The linear initial density is then estimated as the divergence of the cumulative displacement, with an optional second-order correction. This algorithm should undo nonlinear effects up to one-loop order, including the higher-order infrared resummation piece. We test the method using dark matter simulations in real space. At redshift z =0 , we find that after eight iterations the reconstructed density is more than 95% correlated with the initial density at k ≤0.35 h Mpc-1 . The reconstruction also reduces the power in the difference between reconstructed and initial fields by more than 2 orders of magnitude at k ≤0.2 h Mpc-1 , and it extends the range of scales where the full broadband shape of the power spectrum matches linear theory by a factor of 2-3. As a specific application, we consider measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale that can be improved by reducing the degradation effects of large-scale flows. In our idealized dark matter simulations, the method improves the BAO signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.7 at z =0 and by a factor of 2.5 at z =0.6 , improving standard BAO reconstruction by 70% at z =0 and 30% at z =0.6 , and matching the optimal BAO signal and signal-to-noise ratio of the linear density in the same volume. For BAO, the iterative nature of the reconstruction is the most important aspect.

    12. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

      NASA Image and Video Library

      2013-11-13

      Alan Lindenmoyer, Manager of Commercial Crew and Cargo Program at NASA, delivers remarks panel discussion on the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

    13. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

      NASA Image and Video Library

      2013-11-13

      NASA Administrator Charles Bolden delivers remarks before a panel discussion on the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

    14. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

      NASA Image and Video Library

      2013-11-13

      Phil McAlister, Director of Commercial Spaceflight Development at NASA, delivers remarks panel discussion on the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

    15. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

      NASA Image and Video Library

      2013-11-13

      Gwynne Shotwell, President of SpaceX, delivers remarks panel discussion on the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

    16. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

      NASA Image and Video Library

      2013-11-13

      Frank Slazer, Vice President of Space Systems, Aerospace Industries Association, delivers remarks panel discussion on the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

  1. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The design of the Initial Blood Storage Experiment (IBSE) was based upon a carefully controlled comparison between identical sets of human blood cell suspensions - red cells, white cell, and platelets - one set of which was transported aboard the Columbia on a 6 day 11 hour mission, and the other held on the ground. Both sets were carried inside stainless steel dewars within specially fabricated flight hardware. Individual bags of cell suspensions were randomly assigned with respect to ground vs orbit status, dewar chamber, and specific location within the dewar. To foster optimal preservation, each cell type was held under specific optimal conditions of pH, ionic strength, solute concentration, gas tension, and temperature. An added variable in this initial experiment was provided by the use of three different polymer/plasticizer formulations for the sealed bags which held the blood cells. At termination of the experiment, aliquots of the suspensions, identified only by code, were distributed to be assayed. Assays were selected to constitute a broad survey of cellular properties and thereby maximize the chances of detection of gravitational effects. A total of 74 different outcome measurements were reported for statistical analysis. When the measurements were completed, the results were entered into the IBSE data base, at which time the data were matched with the original blood bag numbers to determine their status with respect to polymer/plasticizer type, orbit status (orbit or ground), and storage position within the experimental hardware. The data were studied by analysis of variance. Initially, type of bag and orbital status were main factors; later more detailed analyses were made on specific issues such as position in the hardware and specific plastic. If the analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance at the 5 percent level the corresponding p-value was reported.

  2. International quality improvement initiatives.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Patricia A; Connor, Jean A; Cherian, Kotturathu M; Jenkins, Kathy; Doherty, Kaitlin; Zhang, Haibo; Gaies, Michael; Pasquali, Sara; Tabbutt, Sarah; St Louis, James D; Sarris, George E; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Jonas, Richard A; Sandoval, Nestor; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Jacobs, Jeffery P; Stellin, Giovanni; Kirklin, James K; Garg, Rajnish; Vener, David F

    2017-12-01

    Across the globe, the implementation of quality improvement science and collaborative learning has positively affected the care and outcomes for children born with CHD. These efforts have advanced the collective expertise and performance of inter-professional healthcare teams. In this review, we highlight selected quality improvement initiatives and strategies impacting the field of cardiovascular care and describe implications for future practice and research. The continued leveraging of technology, commitment to data transparency, focus on team-based practice, and recognition of cultural norms and preferences ensure the success of sustainable models of global collaboration.

  3. Stirling to Flight Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, Kenneth E.; Mason, Lee S.; Ndu, Obi; Smith, Clayton; Withrow, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Flight (S2F) initiative with the objective of developing a 100-500 We Stirling generator system. Additionally, a different approach is being devised for this initiative to avoid pitfalls of the past, and apply lessons learned from the recent ASRG experience. Two key aspects of this initiative are a Stirling System Technology Maturation Effort, and a Surrogate Mission Team (SMT) intended to provide clear mission pull and requirements context. The S2F project seeks to lead directly into a DOE flight system development of a new SRG. This paper will detail the proposed S2F initiative, and provide specifics on the key efforts designed to pave a forward path for bringing Stirling technology to flight.

  4. Laser initiation of explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manpreet; Sethi, V. S.

    2002-09-01

    Through laser initiation of explosives offers many advantages like controlled threshold energy over wide range, replacement of complicated safety arming mechanisms to simple and better system, immunity to RF/EMI environment etc, but there is greater difficulty to build detonator for all purpose applications and regular field trials. The challenges are to understand the interaction of laser radiation or its induced plasma with explosives, launching and transmission of high power laser beam, coupling and focussing to desired target area. This paper looks into the details of those facts.

  5. Human Research Initiative (HRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian

    2003-01-01

    A code U initiative starting in the FY04 budget includes specific funding for 'Phase Change' and 'Multiphase Flow Research' on the ISS. NASA GRC developed a concept for two facilities based on funding/schedule constraints: 1) Two Phase Flow Facility (TphiFFy) which assumes integrating into FIR; 2) Contact Line Dynamics Experiment Facility (CLiDE) which assumes integration into MSG. Each facility will accommodate multiple experiments conducted by NRA selected PIs with an overall goal of enabling specific NASA strategic objectives. There may also be a significant ground-based component.

  6. Initiation of slug flow

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, T.J.; Woods, B.D.

    The initiation of slug flow in a horizontal pipe can be predicted either by considering the stability of a slug or by considering the stability of a stratified flow. Measurements of the shedding rate of slugs are used to define necessary conditions for the existence of a slug. Recent results show that slugs develop from an unstable stratified flow through the evolution of small wavelength waves into large wavelength waves that have the possibility of growing to form a slug. The mechanism appears to be quite different for fluids with viscosities close to water than for fluids with large viscositiesmore » (20 centipoise).« less

  7. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-13

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, presents NASA's Group Achievement Award to Gwynne Shotwell, President, SpaceX, at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Thursday, November 13, 2013. Shotwell received the award for outstanding contributions and innovative accomplishments in the completion of the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

  8. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-13

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, presents NASA's Group Achievement Award to (L-R) Frank Culbertson, Executive Vice President and General Manager, Orbital Sciences Advanced Programs Group,at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Thursday, November 13, 2013. Culbertson received the award for outstanding contributions and innovative accomplishments in the completion of the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

  9. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.M.; Lee, R.S.

    1998-05-26

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or ``flyer`` is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices. 10 figs.

  10. Global cancer research initiative

    PubMed Central

    Love, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested. PMID:21188101

  11. Combat Wound Initiative program.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  12. Precision flyer initiator

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Alan M.; Lee, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    A precision flyer initiator forms a substantially spherical detonation wave in a high explosive (HE) pellet. An explosive driver, such as a detonating cord, a wire bridge circuit or a small explosive, is detonated. A flyer material is sandwiched between the explosive driver and an end of a barrel that contains an inner channel. A projectile or "flyer" is sheared from the flyer material by the force of the explosive driver and projected through the inner channel. The flyer than strikes the HE pellet, which is supported above a second end of the barrel by a spacer ring. A gap or shock decoupling material delays the shock wave in the barrel from predetonating the HE pellet before the flyer. A spherical detonation wave is formed in the HE pellet. Thus, a shock wave traveling through the barrel fails to reach the HE pellet before the flyer strikes the HE pellet. The precision flyer initiator can be used in mining devices, well-drilling devices and anti-tank devices.

  13. Materials Genome Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) project element is a cross-Center effort that is focused on the integration of computational tools to simulate manufacturing processes and materials behavior. These computational simulations will be utilized to gain understanding of processes and materials behavior to accelerate process development and certification to more efficiently integrate new materials in existing NASA projects and to lead to the design of new materials for improved performance. This NASA effort looks to collaborate with efforts at other government agencies and universities working under the national MGI. MGI plans to develop integrated computational/experimental/ processing methodologies for accelerating discovery and insertion of materials to satisfy NASA's unique mission demands. The challenges include validated design tools that incorporate materials properties, processes, and design requirements; and materials process control to rapidly mature emerging manufacturing methods and develop certified manufacturing processes

  14. [Advanced Composites Technology Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Julian, Mark R.

    2002-01-01

    This final report closes out the W02 NASA Grant #NCC5-646. The FY02 grant for advanced technology initiatives through the Advanced Composites Technology Institute in Bridgeport, WV, at the Robert C. Byrd Institute (RCBI) Bridgeport Manufacturing Technology Center, is complete; all funding has been expended. RCBI continued to expand access to technology; develop and implement a workforce-training curriculum; improve material development; and provide prototyping and demonstrations of new and advanced composites technologies for West Virginia composites firms. The FY 02 efforts supported workforce development, technical training and the HST development effort of a super-lightweight composite carrier prototype and expanded the existing technical capabilities of the growing aerospace industry across West Virginia to provide additional support for NASA missions. Additionally, the Composites Technology and Training Center was awarded IS0 9001 - 2000 certification and Cleanroom Class 1000 certification during this report period.

  15. The Knowledge Stealing Initiative?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goshorn, Larry

    2005-01-01

    I have the honor of being on the Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) Knowledge Sharing Feedback and Assessment Team (FAA), and as such, I am privileged to receive the feedback written by many of you as attendees of the Project Management (PM) Master s Forums. It is the intent of the FAA Team and APPL leadership to use this feedback as a tool for continuous program improvement. As a retired (sort of) PM in the payload contracting industry, I'm a big supporter of NASA s Knowledge Sharing Initiative (KSI), especially the Master's Forums. I really enjoy participating in them. Unfortunately I had to miss the 8th forum in Pasadena this past Spring, but I did get the feedback package for the Assessment Team work. So here I was, reviewing twelve pages of comments, reflections, learning notes and critiques from attendees of the 8th forum.

  16. Initial Results from CALIPSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David M.; Pelon, Jacques; McCormick, M. Patrick

    2006-01-01

    CALIPSO will carry the first polarization lidar in orbit, along with infrared and visible passive imagers, and will fly in formation as part of the Afternoon Constellation (A-train). The acquisition of observations which are simultaneous and coincident with observations from other instruments of the A-train will allow numerous synergies to be realized from combining CALIPSO observations with observations from other platforms. In particular, cloud observations from the CALIPSO lidar and the CloudSat radar will complement each other, together encompassing the variety of clouds found in the atmosphere, from thin cirrus to deep convective clouds. CALIPSO has been developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES and is currently scheduled to launch, along with the CloudSat satellite, in spring 2006. This paper will present an overview of the CALIPSO mission, including initial results.

  17. On initial orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taff, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    The classical methods of initial orbit determination are brought together within a larger viewpoint. This new synthesis stresses that all such techniques follow one of three approaches. Either they seek to compute the orbital element set, or its equivalent, by attacking the differential equations of motion (Laplace), the first integrals of the equations of motion (Taff), or the solution itself (Gauss). The particular technique pursued within a given type of approach should depend upon the nature of the observational data, the amount of a priori information one is willing to presume, and the object of the exercise. This might be a binary star system, a moon, a minor planet, or an artificial satellite. The efficacy of some algorithms for each approach is discussed briefly. Unfortunately, none of them work very well. Extensions of these techniques to radars or laser radars are trivial and have provided no new insights into the overall problem.

  18. COTS Initiative Panel Discussion

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-13

    L-R: Alan Lindenmoyer, Manager of Commercial Crew and Cargo Program, NASA; Gwynne Shotwell, President, SpaceX; Frank Culbertson, Executive Vice President and General Manager, Orbital Sciences Advanced Programs Group; Frank Slazer, Vice President of Space Systems, Aerospace Industries Association and Phil McAlister, Director of Commercial Spaceflight Development at NASA, participate in a panel discussion on the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) initiative at NASA Headquarters in Washington on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. Through COTS, NASA's partners Space Exploration Technologies Corp. (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corp., developed new U.S. rockets and spacecraft, launched from U.S. soil, capable of transporting cargo to low-Earth orbit and the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Jay Westcott)

  19. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2011-11-22

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.

  20. Green Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Patrick Barry

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced withinmore » a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and

  1. Transitioning couple’s voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) from stand-alone weekend services into routine antenatal and VCT services in government clinics in Zambia’s two largest cities

    PubMed Central

    Inambao, Mubiana; Kilembe, William; Canary, Lauren A.; Czaicki, Nancy L.; Kakungu-Simpungwe, Matilda; Chavuma, Roy; Wall, Kristin M.; Tichacek, Amanda; Pulerwitz, Julie; Thior, Ibou; Chomba, Elwyn; Allen, Susan A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Most HIV infections in Africa are acquired by married/cohabiting adults and WHO recommends couple’s voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) for prevention. The handover from NGO-sponsored weekend CVCT to government-sponsored services in routine weekday antenatal care (ANC) and individual voluntary testing and counseling (VCT) services in Zambia’s two largest cities from 2009–2015 is described. Methods Government clinic counselors were trained to provide CVCT, and along with community health workers they promoted CVCT services in their clinic and surrounding areas. When client volume exceeded the capacity of on-duty staff in ANC and VCT, non-governmental organization (NGO) subsidies were offered for overtime pay. Results Implementation of routine CVCT services varied greatly by clinic and city. The 12 highest volume clinics were examined further, while 13 clinics had CVCT numbers that were too low to warrant further investigation. In Lusaka, the proportion of pregnant women whose partners were tested rose from 2.6% in 2009 to a peak of 26.2% in 2012 and 24.8% in 2015. Corresponding reports in Ndola were 2.0% in 2009, 17.0% in 2012 and 14.5% in 2015. Obstacles to CVCT included: limited space and staffing, competing priorities, record keeping not adapted for couples, and few resources for promotion and increasing male involvement. Conflicting training models for ‘partner testing’ with men and women separately vs. CVCT with joint post-test counseling led to confusion in reporting to district health authorities. Discussion A focused and sustained effort will be required to reach a meaningful number of couples with CVCT to prevent heterosexual and perinatal HIV transmission. Establishing targets and timelines, funding for dedicated and appropriately trained staff, adoption of standardized data recording instruments with couple-level indicators, and expansion of community and clinic-based promotions using proven models are recommended. PMID:29036208

  2. Molecular mechanics and dynamics characterization of an in silico mutated protein: a stand-alone lab module or support activity for in vivo and in vitro analyses of targeted proteins.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Harry; Robinson, Lucy C; Brame, Cynthia J; Messina, Troy C

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biological sciences have increasingly incorporated chemistry, physics, computer science, and mathematics to aid in the development and use of mathematical models. Such combined approaches have been used to address problems from protein structure-function relationships to the workings of complex biological systems. Computer simulations of molecular events can now be accomplished quickly and with standard computer technology. Also, simulation software is freely available for most computing platforms, and online support for the novice user is ample. We have therefore created a molecular dynamics laboratory module to enhance undergraduate student understanding of molecular events underlying organismal phenotype. This module builds on a previously described project in which students use site-directed mutagenesis to investigate functions of conserved sequence features in members of a eukaryotic protein kinase family. In this report, we detail the laboratory activities of a MD module that provide a complement to phenotypic outcomes by providing a hypothesis-driven and quantifiable measure of predicted structural changes caused by targeted mutations. We also present examples of analyses students may perform. These laboratory activities can be integrated with genetics or biochemistry experiments as described, but could also be used independently in any course that would benefit from a quantitative approach to protein structure-function relationships. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Molecular Mechanics and Dynamics Characterization of an "in silico" Mutated Protein: A Stand-Alone Lab Module or Support Activity for "in vivo" and "in vitro" Analyses of Targeted Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Harry; Robinson, Lucy C.; Brame, Cynthia J.; Messina, Troy C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the biological sciences have increasingly incorporated chemistry, physics, computer science, and mathematics to aid in the development and use of mathematical models. Such combined approaches have been used to address problems from protein structure-function relationships to the workings of complex biological systems.…

  4. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Methods and analysis Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Ethics and dissemination Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to peer-reviewed journals and construct an interactive map. PMID:25371419

  5. Estimating the incidence, prevalence and true cost of asthma in the UK: secondary analysis of national stand-alone and linked databases in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales-a study protocol.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Mome; Gupta, Ramyani; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Stoddart, Andrew; Nwaru, Bright I; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Chamberlain, George; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael; Phillips, Ceri; Strachan, David; Davies, Gwyneth; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-11-04

    Asthma is now one of the most common long-term conditions in the UK. It is therefore important to develop a comprehensive appreciation of the healthcare and societal costs in order to inform decisions on care provision and planning. We plan to build on our earlier estimates of national prevalence and costs from asthma by filling the data gaps previously identified in relation to healthcare and broadening the field of enquiry to include societal costs. This work will provide the first UK-wide estimates of the costs of asthma. In the context of asthma for the UK and its member countries (ie, England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales), we seek to: (1) produce a detailed overview of estimates of incidence, prevalence and healthcare utilisation; (2) estimate health and societal costs; (3) identify any remaining information gaps and explore the feasibility of filling these and (4) provide insights into future research that has the potential to inform changes in policy leading to the provision of more cost-effective care. Secondary analyses of data from national health surveys, primary care, prescribing, emergency care, hospital, mortality and administrative data sources will be undertaken to estimate prevalence, healthcare utilisation and outcomes from asthma. Data linkages and economic modelling will be undertaken in an attempt to populate data gaps and estimate costs. Separate prevalence and cost estimates will be calculated for each of the UK-member countries and these will then be aggregated to generate UK-wide estimates. Approvals have been obtained from the NHS Scotland Information Services Division's Privacy Advisory Committee, the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Collaboration Review System, the NHS South-East Scotland Research Ethics Service and The University of Edinburgh's Centre for Population Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee. We will produce a report for Asthma-UK, submit papers to peer-reviewed journals and construct an interactive map. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows highmore » potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  7. The PBRN Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Curro, F.A.; Vena, D.; Naftolin, F.; Terracio, L.; Thompson, V.P.

    2012-01-01

    The NIDCR-supported Practice-based Research Network initiative presents dentistry with an unprecedented opportunity by providing a pathway for modifying and advancing the profession. It encourages practitioner participation in the transfer of science into practice for the improvement of patient care. PBRNs vary in infrastructure and design, and sustaining themselves in the long term may involve clinical trial validation by regulatory agencies. This paper discusses the PBRN concept in general and uses the New York University College of Dentistry’s Practitioners Engaged in Applied Research and Learning (PEARL) Network as a model to improve patient outcomes. The PEARL Network is structured to ensure generalizability of results, data integrity, and to provide an infrastructure in which scientists can address clinical practitioner research interests. PEARL evaluates new technologies, conducts comparative effectiveness research, participates in multidisciplinary clinical studies, helps evaluate alternative models of healthcare, educates and trains future clinical faculty for academic positions, expands continuing education to include “benchmarking” as a form of continuous feedback to practitioners, adds value to dental schools’ educational programs, and collaborates with the oral health care and pharmaceutical industries and medical PBRNs to advance the dental profession and further the integration of dental research and practice into contemporary healthcare (NCT00867997, NCT01268605). PMID:22699662

  8. Glennan Microsystems Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brillson, Leonard J.

    2002-01-01

    During the 2001-2002 award period, we performed research on Pt/Ti/bare 6H-SiC and bare 4H-SiC interfaces in order to identify their electronic properties as a function of surface preparation. The overall aim of this work is to optimize the electronic properties of metal contacts to SiC as well as the active SiC material itself as a function of surface preparation and subsequent processing. Initially, this work has involved identifying bare surface, subsurface, and metal induced gap states at the metal-SiC contact and correlating energies and densities of deep levels with Schottky barrier heights. We used low energy electron-excited nanoluminescence (LEEN) spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) in order to correlate electronic states and energy bands with chemical composition, bonding, and crystal structure. A major development has been the discovery of polytype transformations that occur in 4H-SiC under standard microelectronic process conditions used to fabricate SiC devices. Our results are consistent with the stacking fault generation, defect formation, and consequent degradation of SiC recently reported for state-of-the-art ABB commercial diodes under localized electrical stress. Our results highlight the importance of -optimizing process conditions and material properties - anneal times, temperatures and doping to control such structural changes within epitaxial SiC layers. Thus far, we have established threshold times and temperatures beyond which 4H-SiC exhibits 3C-SiC transformation bands for a subset of dopant concentrations and process conditions. On the basis of this temperature time behavior, we have been able to establish an activation energy of approximately 2.5 eV for polytype transformation and dislocation motion. Work continues to establish the fundamental mechanisms underlying the polytype changes and its dependence on material parameters.

  9. National Take-Back Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ... Disposal Information Drug and Chemical Information E-commerce Initiatives Federal Agencies & Related Links Federal Register Notices National ...

  10. The national geomagnetic initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  11. The national geomagnetic initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Earth's magnetic field, through its variability over a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales, contains fundamental information on the solid Earth and geospace environment (the latter comprising the atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere). Integrated studies of the geomagnetic field have the potential to address a wide range of important processes in the deep mantle and core, asthenosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and the solar-terrestrial environment. These studies have direct applications to important societal problems, including resource assessment and exploration, natural hazard mitigation, safe navigation, and the maintenance and survivability of communications and power systems on the ground and in space. Studies of the Earth's magnetic field are supported by a variety of federal and state agencies as well as by private industry. Both basic and applied research is presently supported by several federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation (NSF), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) (through the Navy, Air Force, and Defense Mapping Agency). Although each agency has a unique, well-defined mission in geomagnetic studies, many areas of interest overlap. For example, NASA, the Navy, and USGS collaborate closely in the development of main field reference models. NASA, NSF, and the Air Force collaborate in space physics. These interagency linkages need to be strengthened. Over the past decade, new opportunities for fundamental advances in geomagnetic research have emerged as a result of three factors: well-posed, first-order scientific questions; increased interrelation of research activities dealing with geomagnetic phenomena; and recent developments in technology. These new opportunities can be exploited through a national geomagnetic initiative to define objectives and

  12. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclearmore » fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently

  13. Community Rates of Breastfeeding Initiation.

    PubMed

    Grubesic, Tony H; Durbin, Kelly M

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding initiation rates vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups, maternal age, and education level, yet there are limited data concerning the influence of geography on community rates of breastfeeding initiation. This study aimed to describe how community rates of breastfeeding initiation vary in geographic space, highlighting "hot spots" and "cool spots" of initiation and exploring the potential connections between race, socioeconomic status, and urbanization levels on these patterns. Birth certificate data from the Kentucky Department of Health for 2004-2010 were combined with county-level geographic base files, Census 2010 demographic and socioeconomic data, and Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to conduct a spatial statistical analysis of community rates of breastfeeding initiation. Between 2004 and 2010, the average rate of breastfeeding initiation for Kentucky increased from 43.84% to 49.22%. Simultaneously, the number of counties identified as breastfeeding initiation hot spots also increased, displaying a systematic geographic pattern in doing so. Cool spots of breastfeeding initiation persisted in rural, Appalachian Kentucky. Spatial regression results suggested that unemployment, income, race, education, location, and the availability of International Board Certified Lactation Consultants are connected to breastfeeding initiation. Not only do spatial analytics facilitate the identification of breastfeeding initiation hot spots and cool spots, but they can be used to better understand the landscape of breastfeeding initiation and help target breastfeeding education and/or support efforts.

  14. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuelmore » Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  15. AMCOM Hexavalent Chrome Free Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    AMCOM Hexavalent Chrome Free Initiatives 1 December 2010 SERDP-ESTCP Symposium Washington DC Mark Feathers AMCOM G-4 Environmental Division... Hexavalent Chrome Free Initiatives 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...system environmental life cycle sustainability. G-4 is actively engaged in initiatives to reduce the use of hexavalent chrome used in materials and

  16. Initiation into Adolescent Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the relationship of three domains (personality/attitudinal orientations, peer relationships, and family socialization factors) with initiation into adolescent marihuana use. (Author/DB)

  17. The ARL Scholars Portal Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an initiative of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL), the Scholars Portal Initiative, a three-year collaborative effort which seeks to provide tools for an academic community to have a single point of access on the Web to find high-quality information resources and to deliver the information and related services directly to the…

  18. Maine: Early Head Start Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…

  19. Comprehensive School Safety Initiative Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Justice, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) developed the Comprehensive School Safety Initiative in consultation with federal partners and Congress. It is a research-focused initiative designed to increase the safety of schools nationwide through the development of knowledge regarding the most effective and sustainable school safety interventions and…

  20. Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Chancellor's Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    California's education system--the largest in the United States--is an essential resource for ensuring strong economic growth in the state. The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative (referred to as the Initiative in this report), which became law in 2005, brings together community colleges, K-12 school districts, employers, organized…

  1. Secretary's Initiative on Adult Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vines, Diane Welch

    The National Adult Literacy Initiative calls for a collaborative effort among the public, private, voluntary, and military sectors to address more effectively illiteracy through adult education. One of the first points in the initiative calls for continued educational services funded by the federal government and administered by the states. Other…

  2. Aerial Refueling Clearance Initiation Request

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    and receiver agencies. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document recognizes the requirement for definitive aerial refueling agreements between...and contractual tanker support requests from one organization or nation to another. The AR Clearance Initiation Request document is not intended to...proprietary, sensitive, classified or otherwise restricted information. ARSAG documents, as prepared, are not DOD, MOD or NATO standards, but provide

  3. Nebraska: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…

  4. Two black hole initial data

    SciTech Connect

    Leski, Szymon

    2005-06-15

    The Misner initial data are a standard example of time-symmetric initial data with two apparent horizons. Compact formulae describing such data are presented in the cases of equal or nonequal masses (i.e. isometric or nonisometric horizons). The interaction energy in the 'Schwarzschild + test-particle' limit of the Misner data is analyzed.

  5. Characteristics code for shock initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Partom, Y.

    1986-10-01

    We developed SHIN, a characteristics code for shock initiation studies. We describe in detail the equations of state, reaction model, rate equations, and numerical difference equations that SHIN incorporates. SHIN uses the previously developed surface burning reaction model which better represents the shock initiation process in TATB, than do bulk reaction models. A large number of computed simulations prove the code is a reliable and efficient tool for shock initiation studies. A parametric study shows the effect on build-up and run distance to detonation of (1) type of boundary condtion, (2) burning velocity curve, (3) shock duration, (4) rise timemore » in ramp loading, (5) initial density (or porosity) of the explosive, (6) initial temperature, and (7) grain size. 29 refs., 65 figs.« less

  6. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  7. Initiation of parturition in humans.

    PubMed

    Drover, J W; Casper, R F

    1983-02-15

    The mechanism by which parturition is initiated in humans is largely unknown. The placenta and fetal membranes appear to play the major role in the initiation of labour, and the fetus may influence the timing of labour. Clinical observations and experiments with animals have revealed that placental neuropeptides may be able to control steroid metabolism and trigger the onset of labour, while the fetus may be able to interact with such events to initiate parturition at an appropriate time. However, further study is needed to determine the role of placental releasing factors and glycoprotein hormones and their ability to control placental steroid metabolism.

  8. Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) Clearinghouse

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes Initiative Toxicity Clearinghouse is a central location for information on criteria, toxicity data, exposure parameters and other supporting documents used in developing water quality standards in the Great Lakes watershed.

  9. Green Power Partnership Program Initiatives

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Power Partnership has a number of initiatives that focus on the collective green power efforts within specific sectors and renewable energy procurement strategies, which provide recognition opportunities for Partners and increase awareness.

  10. The Electronic Freight Management Initiative

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-04-01

    This report discusses the Electronic Freight Management initiative, a U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) sponsored research effort that partners with industry to improve the operating efficiencies, safety, and security of goods movement. The EFM...

  11. Smart roadside initiative : user manual.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-01

    This document provides the user instructions for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) applications including mobile and web-based SRI applications. These applications include smartphone-enabled information exchange and notification, and software compo...

  12. National Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure Initiative

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-09-19

    This report gives an overview of the National Intelligent Transportation Infrastructure Initiative (NITI). NITI refers to the integrated electronics, communications, and hardware and software elements that are available to support Intelligent Transpo...

  13. Intelligent Vehicle Initiative : needs assessment

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-11-01

    The aim of the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI) is to accelerate the development and availability of advanced safety and information systems for a variety of vehicle types. Public transit, through the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), is an a...

  14. Smart roadside initiative : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-09-01

    This is the Final Report for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) prototype system deployment project. The SRI prototype was implemented at weigh stations in Grass Lake, Michigan and West Friendship, Maryland. The prototype was developed to integrate ...

  15. Materials Research and Technology Initiatives

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-11-01

    This report is the departments first report on current and planned research and technology efforts in advanced materials. The report was published in support of the Administration's initiative to establish an integrated program of research designed t...

  16. The Luxembourg Space Resources Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, M.

    2017-09-01

    This keynote talk by M. Link from the Directorate of ICT and Space Affairs, Ministry of the Economy, The Government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, will provide an overview of Luxembourg's ins-space resource utilization initiative.

  17. Rpn (YhgA-Like) Proteins of Escherichia coli K-12 and Their Contribution to RecA-Independent Horizontal Transfer.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Anthony W; Ponkratz, Christine; Raleigh, Elisabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Bacteria use a variety of DNA-mobilizing enzymes to facilitate environmental niche adaptation via horizontal gene transfer. This has led to real-world problems, like the spread of antibiotic resistance, yet many mobilization proteins remain undefined. In the study described here, we investigated the uncharacterized family of YhgA-like transposase_31 (Pfam PF04754) proteins. Our primary focus was the genetic and biochemical properties of the five Escherichia coli K-12 members of this family, which we designate RpnA to RpnE, where Rpn represents r ecombination- p romoting n uclease. We employed a conjugal system developed by our lab that demanded RecA-independent recombination following transfer of chromosomal DNA. Overexpression of RpnA (YhgA), RpnB (YfcI), RpnC (YadD), and RpnD (YjiP) increased RecA-independent recombination, reduced cell viability, and induced the expression of reporter of DNA damage. For the exemplar of the family, RpnA, mutational changes in proposed catalytic residues reduced or abolished all three phenotypes in concert. In vitro , RpnA displayed magnesium-dependent, calcium-stimulated DNA endonuclease activity with little, if any, sequence specificity and a preference for double-strand cleavage. We propose that Rpn/YhgA-like family nucleases can participate in gene acquisition processes. IMPORTANCE Bacteria adapt to new environments by obtaining new genes from other bacteria. Here, we characterize a set of genes that can promote the acquisition process by a novel mechanism. Genome comparisons had suggested the horizontal spread of the genes for the YhgA-like family of proteins through bacteria. Although annotated as transposase_31, no member of the family has previously been characterized experimentally. We show that four Escherichia coli K-12 paralogs contribute to a novel RecA-independent recombination mechanism in vivo For RpnA, we demonstrate in vitro action as a magnesium-dependent, calcium-stimulated nonspecific DNA endonuclease. The

  18. The phage integrase vector pIPI03 allows RecA-independent, site-specific labelling of Staphylococcus lugdunensis strains.

    PubMed

    Heilbronner, Simon; Monk, Ian R; Foster, Timothy J

    2013-11-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase negative staphylococcus that is a commensal of man and an opportunistic pathogen. A site-specific integrative plasmid for the use in S. lugdunensis was constructed and validated. The integrase gene ccrB of bacteriophage ϕSL01 together with its attachment site was cloned into the thermosensitive plasmid pIMAY. The resulting plasmid pIPI03 integrated RecA-independently, site-specifically and irreversibly into the S. lugdunensis chromosome. Two IPTG-inducible antibiotic resistance determinants were cloned into pIPI03 and the derivatives were used to construct strains suitable for competitive growth experiments in both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consequences of BBPs Affordability Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    qÜáêíÉÉåíÜ=^ååì~ä= ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ= póãéçëáìã= tÉÇåÉëÇ~ó=pÉëëáçåë= sçäìãÉ=f= = Consequences of BBP’s Affordability Initiative Gregory Davis , Research...Initiative Gregory Davis , Research Staff Member, Institute for Defense Analyses Lawrence Goeller, Defense Acquisition Analyst, Institute for Defense...Consequences of BBP’s Affordability Initiative Gregory Davis —has been at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) since 2006, conducting research on as

  20. Quantum Measurement and Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoica, Ovidiu Cristinel

    2016-03-01

    Quantum measurement finds the observed system in a collapsed state, rather than in the state predicted by the Schrödinger equation. Yet there is a relatively spread opinion that the wavefunction collapse can be explained by unitary evolution (for instance in the decoherence approach, if we take into account the environment). In this article it is proven a mathematical result which severely restricts the initial conditions for which measurements have definite outcomes, if pure unitary evolution is assumed. This no-go theorem remains true even if we take the environment into account. The result does not forbid a unitary description of the measurement process, it only shows that such a description is possible only for very restricted initial conditions. The existence of such restrictions of the initial conditions can be understood in the four-dimensional block universe perspective, as a requirement of global self-consistency of the solutions of the Schrödinger equation.

  1. Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems (TRACS) Initial Operating Capability (IOC) documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Dana P.

    1991-01-01

    The Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems (TRACS) software package is described. TRACS offers supplemental tools for the analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements. This package provides the fundamental capability to analyze and control requirements, serves a focal point for project requirements, and integrates a system that supports efficient and consistent operations. TRACS uses relational data base technology (ORACLE) in a stand alone or in a distributed environment that can be used to coordinate the activities required to support a project through its entire life cycle. TRACS uses a set of keyword and mouse driven screens (HyperCard) which imposes adherence through a controlled user interface. The user interface provides an interactive capability to interrogate the data base and to display or print project requirement information. TRACS has a limited report capability, but can be extended with PostScript conventions.

  2. Pickens County Youth Apprenticeship Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens County School District, Easley, SC.

    This publication contains materials related to the youth apprenticeship program in computer electronics launched by Pickens Country School District, South Carolina, for students enrolled in the district's tech prep curriculum. Contents include the following: goals and objectives of the National Youth Apprenticeship Initiative; a pyramid…

  3. Big Data Initiatives for Agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NAL has developed a workspace for research groups associated with the i5k initiative, which aims to sequence the genomes of all insesct species known to be important to worldwide agriculture, food safety, medicine, and energy production; all those used as models in biology; the most abundant in worl...

  4. The sustainable wood production initiative.

    Treesearch

    Robert Deal

    2004-01-01

    To address concerns about sustainable forestry in the region, the Focused Science Delivery Program is sponsoring a three year Sustainable Wood Production Initiative. The Pacific Northwest is one of the world's major timber producing regions, and the ability of this region to produce wood on a sustained yield basis is widely recognized. Concerns relating to the...

  5. Parental Involvement Initiatives: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlin, Daniel; Flessa, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    Educational policies have increasingly promoted parental involvement as a mechanism for improving student outcomes. Few jurisdictions have provided funding for this priority. In Ontario, Canada, the province's Parents Reaching Out Grants program allows parents to apply for funding for a parental involvement initiative that addresses a local…

  6. Education Initiatives Inside Business Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cathy; Lane, James

    1998-01-01

    Looks at some emerging trends in the education marketplace, noting diverse partnerships between schools and companies, and learning moving from the campus into and beyond the workplace through electronic instructional delivery. Offers the business practitioner's perspective, describing education initiatives and knowledge tools generated by…

  7. Initiative Overview & Summary of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Funders Research Initiative, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Education Funders Research Initiative (EdFunders), a project of Philanthropy New York, is supported by a group of diverse funding organizations that have pursued an array of education reform strategies. EdFunders have come together to engage New Yorkers and focus leaders on new research into how to best prepare students for college and…

  8. Intelligent Vehicle Initiative: Business Plan

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) is embarking on a new program called the Intelligent Vehicle Initiative (IVI). The USDOT intends to jointly define the program plan and conduct the IVI in cooperation with the motor vehicle, trucking, and...

  9. The California Basic Skills Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illowsky, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the evolution and implementation of the California Basic Skills Initiative (CA BSI), a statewide effort to address ongoing basic skills and ESL needs of community college students and of all campus faculty, administrators, and staff who support these students. CA BSI strategies include assisting every college in assessing…

  10. Initiating Population Education in Baltimore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Caroline S.; McCrea, Lester C.

    1974-01-01

    After identifying the need for population education in Baltimore City Schools, the school system had the problem of initiating such a course. Working with the Planned Parenthood Association of Maryland, the school system sponsored an in-service program for teachers that resulted in the production of materials for all grades. (MA)

  11. Greenforce Initiative: Advancing Greener Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwase, Gloria; Keniry, Julian

    2011-01-01

    With support from the Bank of America Charitable Foundation and the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Wildlife Federation (NWF) and Jobs for the Future (JFF) formed the Greenforce Initiative--a two-year venture that will work with community colleges across the nation to strengthen their capacity to implement or refine quality pathways…

  12. Oaklahoma: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Oklahoma Early Childhood Program uses public and private funds to enhance and expand high quality early care and education opportunities for children birth through age 3. The George Kaiser Family Foundation initiated the pilot in 2006 by matching state general revenue with private donations. Since that time, other private funders and providers…

  13. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    PubMed

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  14. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  15. Parenting and Adolescents' Sexual Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Monica A.; Eng, Abbey L.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Manning, Wendy D.

    2009-01-01

    This study draws on social control and social learning theories to examine the role of dating-specific attitudes and practices as predictors of adolescents' sexual initiation. We include attention to the adolescent's reaction to control attempts as a further means of assessing family dynamics (i.e., frequency of dating disagreements). The study…

  16. Internet 2 Health Sciences Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The Internet 2 (I2) health sciences initiative (I2HSI) involves the formulation of applications and supporting technologies, and guidelines for their use in the health sciences. Key elements of I2HSI include use of visualization, collaboration, medical informatics, telemedicine, and educational tools that support the health sciences. Specific…

  17. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  18. Synaptic Plasticity and Translation Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Eric; Antion, Marcia D.; Banko, Jessica L.; Hou, Lingfei

    2004-01-01

    It is widely accepted that protein synthesis, including local protein synthesis at synapses, is required for several forms of synaptic plasticity. Local protein synthesis enables synapses to control synaptic strength independent of the cell body via rapid protein production from pre-existing mRNA. Therefore, regulation of translation initiation is…

  19. Seizing the Strategic Communication Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-10

    Colombia Seizes the Initiative The 2002 election brought President Alvaro Uribe Velez to office at a strategic inflection point for Colombia. The...enemy forces, supporting international, and opposing international. 79 77 Alvaro Uribe Velez...American Report 6, (Bogota: International Crisis Group, November 13, 2003), 1. 79 Alvaro Uribe Velez, Democratic Security and Defense Policy. 6

  20. Cancer initiatives in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mellstedt, H

    2006-06-01

    The coming decades will bring dramatic increases in morbidity and mortality from cancer in the developing world. The burden of cancer is increasing globally, with an expected 20 million new cases per year in 2020, half of which will be in low- and middle-income countries. Despite an already overwhelming burden of health problems, developing countries must somehow address this cancer pandemic and their alarming share of cancer illness. Many large-scale and innovative worldwide initiatives have been launched in the fight against cancer. These programs represent colossal efforts to expand resources for health education among people and healthcare workers in developing countries and to increase awareness of cancer prevention. Many novel evidence-based and culturally-relevant programs are being implemented for screening and early prevention of common cancers. Several key initiatives are supporting clinical research, guideline development, oncology training, and appropriate technology transfer, such as access to electronic medical literature. Treatment programs are expanding access and quality of radiologic and pharmacologic therapies for cancer. These initiatives represent an unprecedented level of and cooperation among international agencies, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, international foundations, scientific societies, local institutions, and industry. This review examines the scope of need in response to the increasing burden of cancer in the developing world and major initiatives that have been created to respond to these needs.

  1. Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, Arthur

    The Fayette County Better Buildings Initiative represented a comprehensive and collaborative approach to promoting and implementing energy efficiency improvements. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. The ultimate goal of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative was to implement a total of 1,067 residential energy efficiency retrofits with a minimum 15% estimated energy efficiency savings per unit. Program partners included: United States Department of Energy, Allegheny Power, and Private Industry Council of Westmoreland-Fayette, Fayette County Redevelopment Authority, and various local partners.more » The program was open to any Fayette County residents who own their home and meet the prequalifying conditions. The level of assistance offered depended upon household income and commitment to undergo a BPI – Certified Audit and implement energy efficiency measures, which aimed to result in at least a 15% reduction in energy usage. The initiative was designed to focus on implementing energy efficiency improvements in residential units, while simultaneously supporting general marketing of the benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures. Additionally, the program had components that involved recruitment and training for employment of persons in the energy sector (green jobs), as well as marketing and implementation of a commercial or community facilities component. The residential component of Fayette County’s Better Buildings Initiative involved a comprehensive approach, providing assistance to low- moderate- and market-rate homeowners. The initiative will also coordinate activities with local utility providers to further incentivize energy efficiency improvements among qualifying homeowners. The commercial component of Fayette County’s Better Building Initiative involved

  2. Initiation disruptor systems and methods of initiation disruption

    DOEpatents

    Baum, Dennis W

    2014-09-23

    A system that may be used as an initiation disruption system (IDS) according to one embodiment includes an explosive charge; a plurality of particles in a layer at least partially surrounding the explosive charge; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles. A method for disabling an object according to one embodiment includes placing the system as recited above near an object; and causing the explosive charge to initiate, thereby applying mechanical loading to the object such that the object becomes disabled. Additional systems and methods are also presented. A device according to another embodiment includes a plurality of particles bound by a binder thereby defining a sidewall having an interior for receiving an explosive; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles and binder. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  3. Climatic triggers for peatland initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Paul J.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Valdes, Paul J.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Gregoire, Lauren J.; Smith, Mark W.; Tarasov, Lev; Haywood, Alan M.; Bacon, Karen L.

    2017-04-01

    Peatlands are carbon-dense wetlands characterised by waterlogged, organic-rich soils. Modern-day peatlands have formed mainly since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), and despite covering only 3 % of the Earth's land surface are thought to store more than a third of all global soil carbon in the form of poorly decomposed plant detritus. Concern exists that this globally important carbon store may be vulnerable to near-future warming and changes in precipitation patterns, although the links between peatland development and climate are contested. The climatic and other environmental conditions that facilitate the initiation of peat are particularly poorly understood. We present the results of a novel, global study into the climate space of peat initiation since the LGM. We compiled a catalogue of radiocarbon dates of peat initiation from 942 sites that span a range of latitudes and biomes. We used the locations and ages of these peatlands to interrogate downscaled climate hindcasts at 500-yr intervals from a coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation general circulation model, HadCM3. This powerful combination of modelling and observational data provides a globally-consistent, temporally-extensive estimate of the climate spaces of peat initiation. In particular, it allows us to identify local and regional climatic changes that may have acted as triggers for peat formation. Peatlands in mid- and high-latitudes of both hemispheres, particularly in maritime locations, developed shortly after local increases in the time integral of growing season temperatures, and were seemingly not influenced by rainfall regime. Peat initiation at such sites appears to have been stimulated by temperature-driven increases in plant productivity in cold, postglacial landscapes, and was not water limited. The exception is the large peatland complex of the Western Siberian Lowlands, which was not glaciated during the last glacial period, and which appears to have been prompted instead by a strong

  4. Robonaut Mobile Autonomy: Initial Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ambrose, R. O.; Goza, S. M.; Tyree, K. S.; Huber, E. L.

    2006-01-01

    A mobile version of the NASA/DARPA Robonaut humanoid recently completed initial autonomy trials working directly with humans in cluttered environments. This compact robot combines the upper body of the Robonaut system with a Segway Robotic Mobility Platform yielding a dexterous, maneuverable humanoid ideal for interacting with human co-workers in a range of environments. This system uses stereovision to locate human teammates and tools and a navigation system that uses laser range and vision data to follow humans while avoiding obstacles. Tactile sensors provide information to grasping algorithms for efficient tool exchanges. The autonomous architecture utilizes these pre-programmed skills to form complex behaviors. The initial behavior demonstrates a robust capability to assist a human by acquiring a tool from a remotely located individual and then following the human in a cluttered environment with the tool for future use.

  5. Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Gupt, Brajesh

    2017-02-01

    Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose’s hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose’s hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.

  6. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  7. AFRL Ludwieg Tube Initial Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-11-01

    Nov 2016 14. ABSTRACT The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed and constructed a Ludwieg tube wind tunnel for hypersonic experimental ...Ludwieg tube wind tunnel for hypersonic experimental research. This wind tunnel is now operational and its initial performance has been...opening and the first expansion wave reflection was 100 ms, as expected. About 80 ms of quasi -steady pressure was obtained after the valve-opening

  8. Initiation reactions in acetylene pyrolysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zador, Judit; Fellows, Madison D.; Miller, James A.

    2017-05-10

    In gas-phase combustion systems the interest in acetylene stems largely from its role in molecular weight growth processes. The consensus is that above 1500 K acetylene pyrolysis starts mainly with the homolytic fission of the C–H bond creating an ethynyl radical and an H atom. However, below ~1500 K this reaction is too slow to initiate the chain reaction. It has been hypothesized that instead of dissociation, self-reaction initiates this process. Nevertheless, rigorous theoretical or direct experimental evidence is lacking, to an extent that even the molecular mechanism is debated in the literature. In this work we use rigorous abmore » initio transition-state theory master equation methods to calculate pressure- and temperature-dependent rate coefficients for the association of two acetylene molecules and related reactions. We establish the role of vinylidene, the high-energy isomer of acetylene in this process, compare our results with available experimental data, and assess the competition between the first-order and second-order initiation steps. As a result, we also show the effect of the rapid isomerization among the participating wells and highlight the need for time-scale analysis when phenomenological rate coefficients are compared to observed time scales in certain experiments.« less

  9. NASA's Climate Data Services Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInerney, M.; Duffy, D.; Schnase, J. L.; Webster, W. P.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the Earth's processes is based on a combination of observational data records and mathematical models. The size of NASA's space-based observational data sets is growing dramatically as new missions come online. However a potentially bigger data challenge is posed by the work of climate scientists, whose models are regularly producing data sets of hundreds of terabytes or more. It is important to understand that the 'Big Data' challenge of climate science cannot be solved with a single technological approach or an ad hoc assemblage of technologies. It will require a multi-faceted, well-integrated suite of capabilities that include cloud computing, large-scale compute-storage systems, high-performance analytics, scalable data management, and advanced deployment mechanisms in addition to the existing, well-established array of mature information technologies. It will also require a coherent organizational effort that is able to focus on the specific and sometimes unique requirements of climate science. Given that it is the knowledge that is gained from data that is of ultimate benefit to society, data publication and data analytics will play a particularly important role. In an effort to accelerate scientific discovery and innovation through broader use of climate data, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Office of Computational and Information Sciences and Technology has embarked on a determined effort to build a comprehensive, integrated data publication and analysis capability for climate science. The Climate Data Services (CDS) Initiative integrates people, expertise, and technology into a highly-focused, next-generation, one-stop climate science information service. The CDS Initiative is providing the organizational framework, processes, and protocols needed to deploy existing information technologies quickly using a combination of enterprise-level services and an expanding array of cloud services. Crucial to its effectiveness, the CDS

  10. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  11. Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Background and Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Science / Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Project began 1991 Point of contact Shari ... the goal of the WHI? The Women's Health Initiative (WHI), sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and ...

  12. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    PubMed

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  13. Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Alkesh

    1999-01-01

    This summer at NASA/MSFC, I have contributed to two projects: Interstellar Initiative Web Page Design and Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstration. In the Web Design Project, I worked on an Outline. The Web Design Outline was developed to provide a foundation for a Hierarchy Tree Structure. The Outline would help design a Website information base for future and near-term missions. The Website would give in-depth information on Propulsion Systems and Interstellar Travel. The Lenz's Law Relative Motion Demonstrator is discussed in this volume by Russell Lee.

  14. Initial treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tarsy, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    Initial treatment of early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) begins with diagnosis based on clinical evaluation supplemented by laboratory studies and brain imaging to exclude causes of secondary parkinsonism. In most cases, testing is normal and the diagnosis of PD rests on clinical criteria. In patients with mild symptoms and signs, the diagnosis of PD may not initially be apparent, and follow-up evaluation is needed to arrive at a diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made, pharmacologic treatment may not be the first step. First, patient education is essential, especially because PD is a high-profile disease for which information and misinformation are readily available to patients and families. Counseling concerning prognosis, future symptoms, future disability, and treatment must be provided. Questions from patients concerning diet, lifestyle, and exercise are especially common at this point. The decision of when to initiate treatment is the next major consideration. Much controversy but relatively little light has been brought to bear on this issue. L-dopa was the first major antiparkinson medication to be introduced and remains the "gold standard" of treatment. Next in efficacy are the dopamine agonists (DAs). A debate has raged concerning whether initial dopaminergic treatment should be with L-dopa or DAs. Physicians have been concerned about forestalling the appearance of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations, whereas patients have incorrectly understood that L-dopa and possibly other antiparkinson drugs have a finite duration of usefulness, making it important to defer treatment for as long as possible. This has created "L-dopa phobia," which may stand in the way of useful treatment. In spite of this controversy, there is uniform agreement that the appropriate time to treat is when the patient is beginning to be disabled. This varies from patient to patient and depends on age, employment status, nature of job, level of physical activity, concern about

  15. HST Replacement Battery Initial Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krol, Stan; Waldo, Greg; Hollandsworth, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) original Nickel-Hydrogen (NiH2) batteries were replaced during the Servicing Mission 4 (SM4) after 19 years and one month on orbit.The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the findings from the assessment of the initial sm4 replacement battery performance. The batteries are described, the 0 C capacity is reviewed, descriptions, charts and tables reviewing the State Of Charge (SOC) Performance, the Battery Voltage Performance, the battery impedance, the minimum voltage performance, the thermal performance, the battery current, and the battery system recharge ratio,

  16. Phillips Laboratory small satellite initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutey, Mark K.; Imler, Thomas A.; Davis, Robert J.

    1993-09-01

    The Phillips Laboratory Space Experiments Directorate in conjunction with the Air Force Space Test Program (AF STP), Defense Advanced Research and Projects Agency (DARPA) and Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO), are managing five small satellite program initiatives: Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) sponsored by SDIO, Miniature Sensor Technology Integration (MSTI) sponsored by SDIO, Technology for Autonomous Operational Survivability (TAOS) sponsored by Phillips Laboratory, TechSat sponsored by SDIO, and the Advanced Technology Standard Satellite Bus (ATSSB) sponsored by DARPA. Each of these spacecraft fulfills a unique set of program requirements. These program requirements range from a short-lived `one-of-a-kind' mission to the robust multi- mission role. Because of these diverging requirements, each program is driven to use a different design philosophy. But regardless of their design, there is the underlying fact that small satellites do not always equate to small missions. These spacecraft with their use of or ability to insert new technologies provide more capabilities and services for their respective payloads which allows the expansion of their mission role. These varying program efforts culminate in an ATSSB spacecraft bus approach that will support moderate size payloads, up to 500 pounds, in a large set of orbits while satisfying the `cheaper, faster, better' method of doing business. This technical paper provides an overview of each of the five spacecraft, focusing on the objectives, payoffs, technologies demonstrated, and program status.

  17. The international surface temperature initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorne, P. W.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Willett, K. M.; Allan, R.; Chandler, R. E.; Mhanda, A.; de Podesta, M.; Possolo, A.; Revadekar, J.; Rusticucci, M.; Stott, P. A.; Strouse, G. F.; Trewin, B.; Wang, X. L.; Yatagai, A.; Merchant, C.; Merlone, A.; Peterson, T. C.; Scott, E. M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of International Surface Temperature Initiative is to create an end-to-end process for analysis of air temperature data taken over the land surface of the Earth. The foundation of any analysis is the source data. Land surface air temperature records have traditionally been stored in local, organizational, national and international holdings, some of which have been available digitally but many of which are available solely on paper or as imaged files. Further, economic and geopolitical realities have often precluded open sharing of these data. The necessary first step therefore is to collate readily available holdings and augment these over time either through gaining access to previously unavailable digital data or through data rescue and digitization activities. Next, it must be recognized that these historical measurements were made primarily in support of real-time weather applications where timeliness and coverage are key. At almost every long-term station it is virtually certain that changes in instrumentation, siting or observing practices have occurred. Because none of the historical measures were made in a metrologically traceable manner there is no unambiguous way to retrieve the true climate evolution from the heterogeneous raw data holdings. Therefore it is desirable for multiple independent groups to produce adjusted data sets (so-called homogenized data) to adequately understand the data characteristics and estimate uncertainties. Then it is necessary to benchmark the performance of the contributed algorithms (equivalent to metrological software validation) through development of realistic benchmark datasets. In support of this, a series of successive benchmarking and assessment cycles are envisaged, allowing continual improvement while avoiding over-tuning of algorithms. Finally, a portal is proposed giving access to related data-products, utilizing the assessment results to provide guidance to end-users on which product is the most suited to

  18. The OpenPlanetary initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, Nicolas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Hare, Trent; Aye, Michael; Galluzzi, Valentina; van Gasselt, Stephan; Martinez, Santa; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Million, Chase; Nass, Andrea; Zinzi, Angelo

    2016-10-01

    "Open" has become attached to several concepts: science, data, and software are some of the most obvious. It is already common practice within the planetary science community to share spacecraft missions data freely and openly [1]. However, this is not historically the case for software tools, source code, and derived data sets, which are often reproduced independently by multiple individuals and groups. Sharing data, tools and overall knowledge would increase scientific return and benefits [e.g. 2], and recent projects and initiatives are helping toward this goal [e.g. 3,4,5,6].OpenPlanetary is a bottom-up initiative to address the need of the planetary science community for sharing ideas and collaborating on common planetary research and data analysis problems, new challenges, and opportunities. It started from an initial participants effort to stay connected and share information related to and beyond the ESA's first Planetary GIS Workshop [7]. It then continued during the 2nd (US) Planetary Data Workshop [8], and aggregated more people.Our objective is to build an online distributed framework enabling open collaborations within the planetary science community. We aim to co-create, curate and publish resource materials and data sets; to organise online events, to support community-based projects development; and to offer a real-time communication channel at and between conferences and workshops.We will present our current framework and resources, developing projects and ideas, and solicit for feedback and participation. OpenPlanetary is intended for research and education professionals: scientists, engineers, designers, teachers and students, as well as the general public that includes enthusiasts and citizen scientists. All are welcome to join and contribute at openplanetary.co[1] International Planetary Data Alliance, planetarydata.org. [2] Nosek et al (2015), dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aab2374. [3] Erard S. et al. (2016), EGU2016-17527. [4] Proposal for a PDS

  19. Initiation of a Relativistic Magnetron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaup, D. J.

    2003-10-01

    We report on recent results in our studies of relativistic magnetrons. Experimentally, these devices have proven to be very difficult to operate, typically cutting off too quickly after they are initialized, and therefore not delivering the power levels expected [1]. Our analysis is based on our model of a crossed-field device, consisting only of its two dominant modes, a DC background and an RF oscillating mode [2]. This approach has produced generally quantitatively correct values for the operating regime and major features of nonrelativistic devices. We have performed a fully electromagnetic, relativistic analysis of a magnetron of the A6 cylindrical configuration. We will show that when the device should generate maximum power, it enters a regime where the DC background could become potentially unstable. In particular, when a nonrelativistic planar device enters the saturation regime, the DC electron density distribution could become unstable if the vertical DC velocity would ever become equal to the magnitude of the vertical RF velocity [3]. We find that during the initiation phase, for the highest power levels of our model of the A6, near the cathode, the DC vertical velocity does become just less than, and definitely on the order of the magnitude of the vertical RF velocity. Consequently, any localized surge in the currents near the cathode, could easily destroy the smooth upward flow of the electrons, drive the DC background unstable, and thereby shut down the operation of the device. [1] Long-pulse relativistic magnetron experiments, M.R. Lopez, R.M. Gilgenbach, Y.Y. Lau, D.W. Jordan, M.D. Johnston, M.C. Jones, V.B. Neculaes, T.A. Spencer, J.W. Luginsland, M.D. Haworth, R.W.Lemke, D. Price, and L. Ludeking, Proc. of SPIE Aerosense 4720, 10-17, (2002). [2] Theoretical modeling of crossed-field electron vacuum devices, D.J. Kaup, Phys. of Plasmas 8, 2473-80 (2001). [3] Initiation and Stationary Operating States in a Crossed-Field Vacuum Electron Device, D. J

  20. Science initiative for international development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    A new initiative to use science to address global development challenges was launched by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) on 7 July. Partnerships for Enhanced Engagement in Research (PEER) will capitalize on competitively awarded investments to support and build scientific and technical capacity in the developing world, according to the agencies. USAID has allocated $7 million for PEER, which the agencies indicate could leverage an additional $25-50 million in NSFfunded research at U.S. institutions to focus on issues including climate change, disaster mitigation, water, renewable energy, and food security. The program is beginning with six pilot programs in Asia and Africa, including fostering a Bangladeshi seismological community, studying the impacts of land use on biodiversity dynamics in Burkina Faso, and examining climate change and integrated resource management around Agougou Natural Pond in Mali.

  1. On the initiation of subduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Steve; Phillips, Roger J.

    1991-01-01

    Estimates of shear resistance associated with lithospheric thrusting and convergence represent lower bounds on the force necessary to promote trench formation. Three environments proposed as preferential sites of incipient subduction are investigated: passive continental margins, transform faults/fracture zones, and extinct ridges. None of these are predicted to convert into subduction zones simply by the accumulation of local gravitational stresses. Subduction cannot initiate through the foundering of dense oceanic lithosphere immediately adjacent to passive continental margins. The attempted subduction of buoyant material at a mature trench can result in large compressional forces in both subducting and overriding plates. This is the only tectonic force sufficient to trigger the nucleation of a new subduction zone. The ubiquitous distribution of transform faults and fracture zones, combined with the common proximity of these features to mature subduction complexes, suggests that they may represent the most likely sites of trench formation if they are even marginally weaker than normal oceanic lithosphere.

  2. The International Space Weather Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nat, Gopalswamy; Joseph, Davila; Barbara, Thompson

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is a program of international cooperation aimed at understanding the external drivers of space weather. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009 and will continue with those aspects that directly affect life on Earth. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This presentation outlines the ISWI program including its organizational aspects and proposed activities. The ISWI observatory deployment and outreach activities are highly complementary to the CAWSES II activities of SCOSTEP.

  3. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) is an international scientific program to understand the external drivers of space weather. The science and applications of space weather has been brought to prominence because of the rapid development of space based technology that is useful for all human beings. The ISWI program has its roots in the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program that ran during 2007 - 2009. The primary objective of the ISWI program is to advance the space weather science by a combination of instrument deployment, analysis and interpretation of space weather data from the deployed instruments in conjunction with space data, and communicate the results to the public and students. Like the IHY, the ISWI will be a grass roots organization with key participation from national coordinators in cooperation with an international steering committee. This talk outlines the ISWI program including its organization and proposed activities.

  4. Initial Performance Assessment of CALIOP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, David; Hunt, Bill; McGill, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP, pronounced the same as "calliope") is a spaceborne two-wavelength polarizatio n lidar that has been acquiring global data since June 2006. CALIOP p rovides high resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols, and has been designed with a very large linear dynamic range to encompas s the full range of signal returns from aerosols and clouds. CALIOP is the primary instrument carried by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrar ed Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite, which was l aunched on April, 28 2006. CALIPSO was developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and the French space agency, CNES. I nitial data analysis and validation intercomparisons indicate the qua lity of data from CALIOP meets or exceeds expectations. This paper presents a description of the CALIPSO mission, the CALIOP instrument, an d an initial assessment of on-orbit measurement performance.

  5. Plug-in Hybrid Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angie; Moore, Ray; Rowden, Tim

    Our main project objective was to implement Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV) and charging infrastructure into our electric distribution service territory and help reduce barriers in the process. Our research demonstrated the desire for some to be early adopters of electric vehicles and the effects lack of education plays on others. The response of early adopters was tremendous: with the initial launch of our program we had nearly 60 residential customers interested in taking part in our program. However, our program only allowed for 15 residential participants. Our program provided assistance towards purchasing a PEV and installation of Electric Vehicle Supplymore » Equipment (EVSE). The residential participants have all come to love their PEVs and are more than enthusiastic about promoting the many benefits of driving electric.« less

  6. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Peyton, Brent

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentallymore » sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO 2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO 2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.« less

  7. Cultural initiation of medical doctors.

    PubMed

    Zsinkó-Szabó, Zoltán; Lázár, Imre

    2013-12-01

    Eighteen years experience of teaching medical anthropology at a Hungarian medical school offers insight into the dynamics of interference between the rationalist epistemological tradition of biomedicine as one of the central paradigms of modernism and the cultural relativism of medical anthropology, as cultural anthropology is considered to be one of the generators of postmodern thinking. Tracing back the informal "prehistory" of our Institute, we can reveal its psychosomatic, humanistic commitment and critical basis as having represented a kind of counterculture compared with the technocrats of state-socialist Hungary's health ideology. The historical change and socio-cultural transition in Hungary after 1989 was accompanied by changes in the medical system as well as in philosophy and in the structure of the teaching of social sciences. The developing pluralism in the medical system together with the pluralism of social ideologies allowed the substitution of the dogmatic Marxist-Leninist framework with the more pragmatic and empiricist behavioral sciences including medical sociology and medical anthropology. The conflict between the initiation function of the hard preclinical training of the first two years, and the reflective, relativistic and critical narrative on "biomedicine as culture bound entity" constructed by medical anthropology during the second year of medical training is discussed. We also submit our fieldwork data gained as a result of a two year investigation period focusing on diverse initiation types of "would be" physicians. The main proportion of our data derives from individual semi structured deep interviews together with focus group interviews carried out with medical students of upper years. Finally, the role of medical anthropology in the "rite of passage" of becoming a medical doctor is summarized, paying attention to their field work reports and the risks and gains in this process.

  8. Causes of unplanned hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Gomis Couto, A; Teruel Briones, J L; Fernández Lucas, M; Rivera Gorrin, M; Rodríguez Mendiola, N; Jiménez Álvaro, S; Quereda Rodríguez-Navarro, C

    2011-01-01

    Half of patients starting chronic hemodialysis used a transient vascular catheter as a vascular access (unplanned initiation). An objective of the Quality Management Group of the Spanish Society of Nephrology is to achieve that 80% of the patients starting hemodialysis do it with an arteriovenous fistula. We want to review the causes of non-planned hemodialysis nowadays. In 2010, 43 patients had started chronic hemodialysis in the Hospital Ramón y Cajal in Madrid (Spain). Mean age was 61 years, 79% were men, the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease was the diabetes (23%) and Charlson Comorbidity Index was 6.3 ± 2.6. The unplanned hemodialysis occurred in 20 patients (47%), without any differences with the 23 patients who began planned hemodialysis, in none of the clinical or demographic parameters analyzed. The main cause of unplanned hemodialysis was the acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or 4, previously stable, secondary to an unforeseeable intercurrent process (8 patients, 40% of the cases). One patient began after a non-recovery acute renal failure and in other 6 patients, the reason of unplanned hemodialysis initiation was not attributable to the operation Health System (in 3 cases unknown kidney chronic disease and in the other 3 cases it was patient´s responsibility). Only in 5 cases (25%), the cause could be corrigible. Most causes of unplanned hemodialysis does not come from the healthcare organization and therefore not easy to resolve it. Consequently, the objective of the Quality Group will be difficult to be achieved.

  9. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, has come to an end. The IHY was a major international event of great interest to the member States, which involved the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. We propose to continue the highly successful collaboration between the heliophysics science community and the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. One of the major thrust of the IHY was to deploy arrays of small instruments such as magnetometers, radio antennas, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, particle detectors, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of heliospheric phenomena. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) played a major role in this effort. Scientific teams were organized through UNBSS, which consisted of a lead scientist who provided the instruments or fabrication plans for instruments in the array. As a result of the this program, scientists from UNBSS member states now participate in the instrument operation, data collection, analysis, and publication of scientific results, working at the forefront of science research. As part of this project, support for local scientists, facilities and data acquisition is provided by the host nation. In addition, support at the Government level is provided for local scientists to participate. Building on momentum of the IHY, we propose to continue the highly successful collaboration with the UNBSS program to continue the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments, and to continue to coordinate the deployment and operation of new and existing instrument arrays aimed at understanding the impacts of Space Weather on Earth and the near-Earth environment. Toward this end, we propose a new program, the International Space

  10. International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph; Gopalswamy, Nathanial; Thompson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, has come to an end. The IHY was a major international event of great interest to the member States, which involved the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. We propose to continue the highly successful collaboration between the heliophysics science community and the United Nations Basic Space Science (UNBSS) program. One of the major thrust of the IHY was to deploy arrays of small instruments such as magnetometers, radio antennas, GPS receivers, all-sky cameras, particle detectors, etc. around the world to provide global measurements of heliospheric phenomena. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) played a major role in this effort. Scientific teams were organized through UNBSS, which consisted of a lead scientist who provided the instruments or fabrication plans for instruments in the array. As a result of the this program, scientists from UNBSS member states now participate in the instrument operation, data collection, analysis, and publication of scientific results, working at the forefront of science research. As part of this project, support for local scientists, facilities and data acquisition is provided by the host nation. In addition, support at the Government level is provided for local scientists to participate. Building on momentum of the IHY, we propose to continue the highly successful collaboration with the UNBSS program to continue the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments, and to continue to coordinate the deployment and operation of new and existing instrument arrays aimed at understanding the impacts of Space Weather on Earth and the near-Earth environment. Toward this end, we propose a new program, the International Space

  11. Initial report of the osteogenesis imperfecta adult natural history initiative.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Laura L; Oetgen, Matthew E; Floor, Marianne K; Huber, Mary Beth; Kennelly, Ann M; McCarter, Robert J; Rak, Melanie F; Simmonds, Barbara J; Simpson, Melissa D; Tucker, Carole A; McKiernan, Fergus E

    2015-11-14

    A better understanding of the natural history of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) in adulthood should improve health care for patients with this rare condition. The Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation established the Adult Natural History Initiative (ANHI) in 2010 to give voice to the health concerns of the adult OI community and to begin to address existing knowledge gaps for this condition. Using a web-based platform, 959 adults with self-reported OI, representing a wide range of self-reported disease severity, reported symptoms and health conditions, estimated the impact of these concerns on present and future health-related quality of life (QoL) and completed a Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) survey of health issues. Adults with OI report lower general physical health status (p < .0001), exhibit a higher prevalence of auditory (58% of sample versus 2-16% of normalized population) and musculoskeletal (64% of sample versus 1-3% of normalized population) concerns than the general population, but report generally similar mental health status. Musculoskeletal, auditory, pulmonary, endocrine, and gastrointestinal issues are particular future health-related QoL concerns for these adults. Numerous other statistically significant differences exist among adults with OI as well as between adults with OI and the referent PROMIS® population, but the clinical significance of these differences is uncertain. Adults with OI report lower general health status but are otherwise more similar to the general population than might have been expected. While reassuring, further analysis of the extensive OI-ANHI databank should help identify areas of unique clinical concern and for future research. The OI-ANHI survey experience supports an internet-based strategy for successful patient-centered outcomes research in rare disease populations.

  12. Initiation of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a synopsis of the initiation of the strong-field magnetic explosions that produce large, fast coronal mass ejections. Cartoons based on observations are used to describe the inferred basic physical processes and sequences that trigger and drive the explosion. The magnetic field that explodes is a sheared-core bipole that may or may not be embedded in surrounding strong magnetic field, and may or may not contain a flux rope before it starts to explode. We describe three different mechanisms that singly or in combination trigger the explosion: (1) runaway internal tether-cutting reconnection, (2) runaway external tether-cutting reconnection, and (3) ideal MHD instability or loss or equilibrium. For most eruptions, high-resolution, high-cadence magnetograms and chromospheric and coronal movies (such as from TRACE and/or Solar-B) of the pre-eruption region and of the onset of the eruption and flare are needed to tell which one or which combination of these mechanisms is the trigger. Whatever the trigger, it leads to the production of an erupting flux rope. Using a simple model flux rope, we demonstrate that the explosion can be driven by the magnetic pressure of the expanding flux rope, provided the shape of the expansion is "fat" enough.

  13. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  14. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  15. Strategic defense initiative: critical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    The objectives of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as outlined by President Reagan are discussed. The principal objective for SDI is as a defense against ballistic missiles. Soviet objections and a summary of US-USSR dialogue on the subject are reviewed. Most US studies have been critical of SDI. Four critical issues are addressed in depth: are defense weapons technologically feasible which have high economic leverage relative to offensive ballistic missiles; would the defense feasibility and leverage be degraded or enhanced in the technological race between weapons innovation and countermeasures; could stability be achieved during and after the transition to themore » defense dominated world envisioned by SDI proponents; would the deployment of high leverage defensive weapons increase or decrease the security of NATO Europe, and the probability of major conventional or nuclear wars. The issue of SDI may lead to a paradox that contains the seeds of catastrophe. The author concludes by warning that nuclear disarmament may eliminate the highly successful deterrent mechanism for avoiding another major world war. In a world made safe for major conventional wars by the apparent ''elimination'' of nuclear weapons, the leaders in a conventional World War III - involving unimaginable suffering, hatred, terror, and death - would be strongly motivated to introduce nuclear weapons in the crucial decisive battles. Even if diplomacy could ''eliminate'' nuclear weapons, man's knowledge of nuclear weapons can never be eliminated. The paradox is the attempt to eliminate nuclear weapons may maximize the probability of their use. (DMC)« less

  16. Delamination initiated by a defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biel, A.; Toftegaard, H.

    2016-07-01

    Composite materials in wind turbines are mainly joined with adhesives. Adhesive joining is preferable since it distributes the stresses over a larger area. This study shows how a defect can influence the fracture behaviour of adhesively joined composite. Repeated experiments are performed using double cantilever beam specimens loaded with bending moments. The specimens consist of two 8 mm thick GFRP-laminates which are joined by a 3 mm thick epoxy adhesive. A thin foil close to one of the laminates is used to start the crack. For some of the specimens a defect is created by an initial load-unload operation. During this operation, a clamp is used in order to prevent crack propagation in the main direction. For the specimens without defect, the crack propagates in the middle of the adhesive layer. For the specimens with defect, the crack directly deviates into the laminate. After about 25 mm propagation in the laminate, the crack returns to the adhesive. Compared to the adhesive the fracture energy for the laminate is significantly higher.

  17. Somerset County Renewable Energy Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Katula, Denise

    2014-05-07

    The County of Somerset, New Jersey, through the Somerset County Improvement Authority (SCIA), applied Federal funding through the U.S. Department of Energy to will apply project funds to buy-down the capital costs of equipment associated with the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems at two sites owned by the County. This Renewable Energy Initiative allows the County to take advantage of clean renewable energy, without any adverse debt impacts, and at a price that results in operating budget savings beyond what is presently available in the marketplace. This project addressed the objectives of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewablemore » Energy by making the acquisition of renewable energy more affordable for the County, thereby, encouraging other counties and local units to develop similar programs and increase the deployment of solar energy technologies. The two sites that were funded by the DOE grant are part of a much larger, ambitious, and unique renewable energy project, described in the next section.« less

  18. Critical Initial Flaw Size Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawicke, David S.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Cheston, Derrick J.

    2008-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). The USS consists of several "tuna can" segments that are approximately 216 inches in diameter, 115 inches tall, and 0.5 inches thick. A 6 inch wide by 1 inch thick flange is welded to the skin and is used to fasten adjacent tuna cans. A schematic of a "tuna can" and the location of the flange-to-skin weld are shown in Figure 1. Gussets (shown in yellow in Figure 1) are welded to the skin and flange every 10 degrees around the circumference of the "tuna can". The flange-to-skin weld is a flux core butt weld with a fillet weld on the inside surface, as illustrated in Figure 2. The welding process may create loss of fusion defects in the weld that could develop into fatigue cracks and jeopardize the structural integrity of the Ares I-X vehicle. The CIFS analysis was conducted to determine the largest crack in the weld region that will not grow to failure within 4 lifetimes, as specified by NASA standard 5001 & 5019 [1].

  19. Process Engineering Technology Center Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centeno, Martha A.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing as a world-class Spaceport Technology Center (STC). From a process engineering (PE) perspective, the facilities used for flight hardware processing at KSC are NASA's premier factories. The products of these factories are safe, successful shuttle and expendable vehicle launches carrying state-of-the-art payloads. PE is devoted to process design, process management, and process improvement, rather than product design. PE also emphasizes the relationships of workers with systems and processes. Thus, it is difficult to speak of having a laboratory for PE at KSC because the entire facility is practically a laboratory when observed from a macro level perspective. However, it becomes necessary, at times, to show and display how KSC has benefited from PE and how KSC has contributed to the development of PE; hence, it has been proposed that a Process Engineering Technology Center (PETC) be developed to offer a place with a centralized focus on PE projects, and a place where KSC's PE capabilities can be showcased, and a venue where new Process Engineering technologies can be investigated and tested. Graphics for showcasing PE capabilities have been designed, and two initial test beds for PE technology research have been identified. Specifically, one test bed will look into the use of wearable computers with head mounted displays to deliver work instructions; the other test bed will look into developing simulation models that can be assembled into one to create a hierarchical model.

  20. Simulation of Initiation in Hexanitrostilbene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Aidan; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Yarrington, Cole; Wixom, Ryan

    We report on the effect of isolated voids and pairs of nearby voids on hot spot formation, growth and chemical reaction initiation in hexanitrostilbene (HNS) crystals subjected to shock loading. Large-scale, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed using the reactive force field (ReaxFF) as implemented in the LAMMPS software. The ReaxFF force field description for HNS has been validated previously by comparing the isothermal equation of state to available diamond anvil cell (DAC) measurements and density function theory (DFT) calculations. Micron-scale molecular dynamics simulations of a supported shockwave propagating in HNS crystal along the [010] orientation are performed (up = 1.25 km/s, Us =4.0 km/s, P = 11GPa.) We compare the effect on hot spot formation and growth rate of isolated cylindrical voids up to 0.1 µm in size with that of two 50nm voids set 100nm apart. Results from the micron-scale atomistic simulations are compared with hydrodynamics simulations. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lock- heed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  1. Current Legislative Initiatives and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S. G.

    2002-05-01

    Geophysical research will be most effective in the fight against terrorism if it is done in cooperation with the expectations of local, state and federal policy makers. New tools to prevent, prepare for, and respond to acts of terrorism are coming from all fields, including geoscience. Globally, monitoring the land, oceans, atmosphere, and space for unusual and suspicious activities can help prevent terrorist acts. Closer to home, geoscience research is used to plan emergency transportation routes and identify infrastructure vulnerabilities. As important as it is for Congress and other policy makers to appreciate the promises and limitations of geophysical research, scientists need to be aware of legislative priorities and expectations. What does Congress expect from the geoscience community in the fight against terrorism and how well does reality meet these expectations? What tools do the 44 different federal agencies with stated Homeland Security missions need from geoscientists? I will address these questions with an overview of current legislative antiterrorism initiatives and policies that relate to the geoscience community.

  2. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOEpatents

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  3. The human insulin mRNA is partly translated via a cap- and eIF4A-independent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Fred, Rikard G., E-mail: Rikard.Fred@mcb.uu.se; Sandberg, Monica; Pelletier, Jerry

    this binding corresponded well with rates of cap-independent insulin biosynthesis at the different conditions. In conclusion, our studies show that insulin biosynthesis is mainly cap-dependent at a high glucose concentration, but that the cap-independent biosynthesis of insulin can constitute as much as 40-100% of all insulin biosynthesis during conditions of nitrosative stress. These data suggest that the pancreatic {beta}-cell is able to uphold basal insulin synthesis at conditions of starvation and stress via a cap- and eIF4A-independent mechanism, possibly mediated by the binding of PTB to the 5'-UTR of the human insulin mRNA.« less

  4. Catholic Health Initiatives at 10.

    PubMed

    Ross, Joyce M

    2007-01-01

    The summer of 2006 marked the 10th anniversary of the formation of Denver-based Catholic Health Initiatives (CHI). Formed in 1996 as the result of the merger of three Catholic health care systems, and soon joined by a fourth, the system integrated a diverse collection of health care facilities previously sponsored by 12 different religious congregations. It was the first Catholic health system to give laity a sponsorship role in its facilities. CHI's facilities are sponsored by a public juridic person (PJP), the Catholic Health Care Federation (CHCF). The same people who sit on the system's board also constitute CHCF. They are thus responsible for both governance and sponsorship. CHI was the first Catholic health care system to give laypersons a sponsorship role in its facilities. Establishing the PJP was a long and complex task. Eventually, the church determined that CHI's PJP should be pontifical, accountable to the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life in Rome. CHCF in 1991 became the first PJP in health care in the United States. CHI's staff, led by its first president and chief executive officer, Patricia Cahill, quickly took steps to help the new system begin to coalesce, establishing a single, systemwide pension plan, debt policy, and so forth. Also challenging was the creation of a systemwide new culture. An essential step in the development of CHI's culture was the involvement of employees in the identification of its core values: reverence, integrity, compassion, and excellence, The creation of CHI's Mission and Ministry Fund also helped give the system an identity. This fund provides grants to programs that take an innovative approach to building healthy communities, a goal expressed in CHI's mission and vision statements. The people who created CHI and nurtured it during its first decade give it high marks for faithful adherence to its mission. Even so, they acknowledge that there is always more work to be done.

  5. SAGES quality initiative: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Lidor, Anne; Telem, Dana; Bower, Curtis; Sinha, Prashant; Orlando, Rocco; Romanelli, John

    2017-08-01

    The Medicare program has transitioned to paying healthcare providers based on the quality of care delivered, not on the quantity. In May 2015, SAGES held its first ever Quality Summit. The goal of this meeting was to provide us with the information necessary to put together a strategic plan for our Society over the next 3-5 years, and to participate actively on a national level to help develop valid measures of quality of surgery. The transition to value-based medicine requires that providers are now measured and reimbursed based on the quality of services they provide rather than the quantity of patients in their care. As of 2014, quality measures must cover 3 of the 6 available National Quality domains. Physician quality reporting system measures are created via a vigorous process which is initiated by the proposal of the quality measure and subsequent validation. Commercial, non-profit, and governmental agencies have now been engaged in the measurement of hospital performance through structural measures, process measures, and increasingly with outcomes measures. This more recent focus on outcomes measures have been linked to hospital payments through the Value-Based Purchasing program. Outcomes measures of quality drive CMS' new program, MACRA, using two formats: Merit-based incentive programs and alternative payment models. But, the quality of information now available is highly variable and difficult for the average consumer to use. Quality metrics serve to guide efforts to improve performance and for consumer education. Professional organizations such as SAGES play a central role in defining the agenda for improving quality, outcomes, and safety. The mission of SAGES is to improve the quality of patient care through education, research, innovation, and leadership, principally in gastrointestinal and endoscopic surgery.

  6. Open Geodata Initiative for Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, Vasile; Iosifescu, Ionut; Ilie, Codrina Maria; Gaitanaru, Dragos; Radu Gogu, Constantin; Hurni, Lorenz

    2013-04-01

    The concept of open data access is a very important topic nowadays. The concept assumes that all data collected or generated by public sector bodies (excepting personal data and data protected under existing privacy protection or accessibility rules) is made publicly accessible in commonly-used, machine-readable formats and can be re-used for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial. Governmental agencies are considered to be the most significant data owners and providers in modern societies. The sheer volume and wealth of this data makes apparent the potential benefits of reusing, combining, and processing governmental data. Even though metadata (information about the data) is sometimes published, administrations typically express reluctance to making their data available, for various reasons, cultural, political, legal, institutional and technical. The governmental spatial information (also called geospatial data, georeferenced data or geodata) producers in Romania are no exception -with the additional situation that even metadata is not usually available. Starting from 2013 a joint program between a Swiss partner (The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH- Zurich - Institute of Cartography and Geoinformation) and a Romanian partner (Technical University of Civil Engineering - UTCB) is developed in order to establish a new approach on the open geodata topic. The main objective of the project GEOIDEA.RO (GEodata Openness Initiative for Development and Economic Advancement in ROmania) is to improve the scientific basis for open geodata model adoption in Romania. Is our believe that publishing government geodata in Romania over the Internet,under an open license and in a reusable format can strengthen citizen engagement and yield new innovative businesses, bringing substantial social and economic gains.

  7. Advanced process control framework initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Tom; Nettles, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The semiconductor industry, one the world's most fiercely competitive industries, is driven by increasingly complex process technologies and global competition to improve cycle time, quality, and process flexibility. Due to the complexity of these problems, current process control techniques are generally nonautomated, time-consuming, reactive, nonadaptive, and focused on individual fabrication tools and processes. As the semiconductor industry moves into higher density processes, radical new approaches are required. To address the need for advanced factory-level process control in this environment, Honeywell, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), and SEMATECH formed the Advanced Process Control Framework Initiative (APCFI) joint research project. The project defines and demonstrates an Advanced Process Control (APC) approach based on SEMATECH's Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) Framework. Its scope includes the coordination of Manufacturing Execution Systems, process control tools, and wafer fabrication equipment to provide necessary process control capabilities. Moreover, it takes advantage of the CIM Framework to integrate and coordinate applications from other suppliers that provide services necessary for the overall system to function. This presentation discusses the key concept of model-based process control that differentiates the APC Framework. This major improvement over current methods enables new systematic process control by linking the knowledge of key process settings to desired product characteristics that reside in models created with commercial model development tools The unique framework-based approach facilitates integration of commercial tools and reuse of their data by tying them together in an object-based structure. The presentation also explores the perspective of each organization's involvement in the APCFI project. Each has complementary goals and expertise to contribute; Honeywell represents the supplier viewpoint, AMD represents the user

  8. Two Phase Technology Development Initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Three promising thermal technology development initiatives, vapor compression thermal control system, electronics cooling, and electrohydrodynamics applications are outlined herein. These technologies will provide thermal engineers with additional tools to meet the thermal challenges presented by increased power densities and reduced architectural options that will be available in future spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland are fabricating and testing a 'proto- flight' vapor compression based thermal control system for the Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Program. The vapor compression system will be capable of transporting approximately 400 W of heat while providing a temperature lift of 60C. The system is constructed of 'commercial off-the-shelf' hardware that is modified to meet the unique environmental requirements of the ULDB. A demonstration flight is planned for 1999 or early 2000. Goddard Space Flight Center has embarked upon a multi-discipline effort to address a number of design issues regarding spacecraft electronics. The program addressed the high priority design issues concerning the total mass of standard spacecraft electronics enclosures and the impact of design changes on thermal performance. This presentation reviews the pertinent results of the Lightweight Electronics Enclosure Program. Electronics cooling is a growing challenge to thermal engineers due to increasing power densities and spacecraft architecture. The space-flight qualification program and preliminary results of thermal performance tests of copper-water heat pipes are presented. Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) is an emerging technology that uses the secondary forces that result from the application of an electric field to a flowing fluid to enhance heat transfer and manage fluid flow. A brief review of current EHD capabilities regarding heat transfer enhancement of commercial heat exchangers and capillary pumped loops is presented. Goddard Space Flight

  9. Process Engineering Technology Center Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centeno, Martha A.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing as a world-class Spaceport Technology Center (STC). From a process engineering (PE) perspective, the facilities used for flight hardware processing at KSC are NASA's premier factories. The products of these factories are safe, successful shuttle and expendable vehicle launches carrying state-of-the-art payloads. PE is devoted to process design, process management, and process improvement, rather than product design. PE also emphasizes the relationships of workers with systems and processes. Thus, it is difficult to speak of having a laboratory for PE at K.S.C. because the entire facility is practically a laboratory when observed from a macro level perspective. However, it becomes necessary, at times, to show and display how K.S.C. has benefited from PE and how K.S.C. has contributed to the development of PE; hence, it has been proposed that a Process Engineering Technology Center (PETC) be developed to offer a place with a centralized focus on PE projects, and a place where K.S.C.'s PE capabilities can be showcased, and a venue where new Process Engineering technologies can be investigated and tested. Graphics for showcasing PE capabilities have been designed, and two initial test beds for PE technology research have been identified. Specifically, one test bed will look into the use of wearable computers with head mounted displays to deliver work instructions; the other test bed will look into developing simulation models that can be assembled into one to create a hierarchical model.

  10. The Aerosol Coarse Mode Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, W. P.; Adhikari, N.; Air, D.; Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J.

    2014-12-01

    Many areas of the world show an aerosol volume distribution with a significant coarse mode and sometimes a dominant coarse mode. The large coarse mode is usually due to dust, but sea salt aerosol can also play an important role. However, in many field campaigns, the coarse mode tends to be ignored, because it is difficult to measure. This lack of measurements leads directly to a concomitant "lack of analysis" of this mode. Because, coarse mode aerosols can have significant effects on radiative forcing, both in the shortwave and longwave spectrum, the coarse mode -- and these forcings -- should be accounted for in atmospheric models. Forcings based only on fine mode aerosols have the potential to be misleading. In this paper we describe examples of large coarse modes that occur in areas of large aerosol loading (Mexico City, Barnard et al., 2010) as well as small loadings (Sacramento, CA; Kassianov et al., 2012; and Reno, NV). We then demonstrate that: (1) the coarse mode can contribute significantly to radiative forcing, relative to the fine mode, and (2) neglecting the coarse mode may result in poor comparisons between measurements and models. Next we describe -- in general terms -- the limitations of instrumentation to measure the coarse mode. Finally, we suggest a new initiative aimed at examining coarse mode aerosol generation mechanisms; transport and deposition; chemical composition; visible and thermal IR refractive indices; morphology; microphysical behavior when deposited on snow and ice; and specific instrumentation needs. Barnard, J. C., J. D. Fast, G. Paredes-Miranda, W. P. Arnott, and A. Laskin, 2010: Technical Note: Evaluation of the WRF-Chem "Aerosol Chemical to Aerosol Optical Properties" Module using data from the MILAGRO campaign, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 7325-7340. Kassianov, E. I., M. S. Pekour, and J. C. Barnard, 2012: Aerosols in Central California: Unexpectedly large contribution of coarse mode to aerosol radiative forcing

  11. Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative

    MedlinePlus

    ... Source Code The Surgeon General's Family Health History Initiative To help focus attention on the importance of ... health campaign, called the Surgeon General's Family History Initiative, to encourage all American families to learn more ...

  12. National Nanotechnology Initiative: Driving Innovation & Competitiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    networking & IT National Nanotechnology Initiative Complex biological systems Environment Next Generation Air Transportation Systems Federal scientific ... collections Science of Science Policy Slide 9: A little history about the National Nanotechnology Initiative: The interagency program was

  13. 30 CFR 56.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiation systems. 56.6308 Section 56.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. ...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initiation systems. 57.6308 Section 57.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6308 Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiation systems. 57.6308 Section 57.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6308 Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in...

  16. 30 CFR 56.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initiation systems. 56.6308 Section 56.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation systems. 57.6308 Section 57.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Transportation-Surface and Underground § 57.6308 Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6308 - Initiation systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initiation systems. 56.6308 Section 56.6308 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Initiation systems. Initiation systems shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. ...

  19. Initiation of Coitus in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udry, J. Richard; Billy, John O. G.

    1987-01-01

    White males' initiation of coitus in early adolescence is dominated by motivational hormone effects and social attractiveness. White females' initiation of coitus is dominated by the effects of social controls. Black females' initiation of coitus is dominated by their level of pubertal development, an attractiveness variable. (Author/BJV)

  20. 75 FR 26271 - Fair Housing Initiatives Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5376-N-33] Fair Housing Initiatives... Department in selecting the highest ranked applicants to receive funds under the Fair Housing Initiatives... following initiatives; Private Enforcement, Education and Outreach, and Fair Housing Organizations. The...

  1. 40 CFR 610.12 - Program initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program initiative. 610.12 Section 610... RETROFIT DEVICES Test Procedures and Evaluation Criteria General Provisions § 610.12 Program initiative. A... being marketed may be inadequate, (b) At the EPA Administrator's initiative, or (c) Upon the application...

  2. 75 FR 12433 - National Export Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Order 13534 of March 11, 2010 National Export Initiative By the authority vested in me as President by... performance will, in turn, create good high-paying jobs. The National Export Initiative (NEI) shall be an Administration initiative to improve conditions that directly affect the private sector's ability to export. The...

  3. 75 FR 3820 - Broadband Initiatives Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service RIN 0572-ZA01 Broadband Initiatives Program... policy and application procedures for the second round of funding under the broadband initiatives (the... Act) for the Broadband Initiatives Program (BIP) which provides loans, grants, and loan/grant...

  4. Improving Initial Assessment: Guide to Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knasel, Eddy; Meed, John; Rossetti, Anna; Read, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This guide is aimed at anyone in work-based training who is responsible for learners during their first few weeks. Readers will (1) understand the value and purpose of initial assessment in key skills and Skills for Life; (2) become familiar with a range of techniques for the initial assessment; (3) plan an initial assessment system that is…

  5. Motivation and Training Initiation: Evidence from Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielniczuk, Emilia; Laguna, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Based on the self-determination theory and the model of action phases, the present study aims to provide insight into motivational factors that are important for training initiation. It investigates the relations between three types of motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic and amotivation) and training initiation: intention to initiate new…

  6. National Strategic Computing Initiative Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    23 A.6 National Nanotechnology Initiative...Initiative: https://www.nitrd.gov/nitrdgroups/index.php?title=Big_Data_(BD_SSG)  National Nanotechnology Initiative: http://www.nano.gov  Precision...computing. While not limited to neuromorphic technologies, the National Nanotechnology Initiative’s first Grand Challenge seeks to achieve brain

  7. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1993-01-01

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  8. Explosive laser light initiation of propellants

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, M.S.

    1993-05-18

    A improved initiator for artillery shell using an explosively generated laser light to uniformly initiate the propellent. A small quantity of a high explosive, when detonated, creates a high pressure and temperature, causing the surrounding noble gas to fluoresce. This fluorescence is directed into a lasing material, which lases, and directs laser light into a cavity in the propellant, uniformly initiating the propellant.

  9. 45 CFR 79.37 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial decision. 79.37 Section 79.37 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.37 Initial decision. (a) The ALJ shall issue an initial decision based only on the record, which...

  10. 10 CFR 824.13 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial decision. 824.13 Section 824.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.13 Initial decision. (a) The Hearing Officer shall issue an initial decision as soon as...

  11. 6 CFR 13.37 - Initial Decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial Decision. 13.37 Section 13.37 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.37 Initial Decision. (a) The ALJ will issue an Initial Decision based only on the record, which will contain...

  12. Initiator Status and the Divorce Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl

    1987-01-01

    Examined effect of initiator status on well-being and stress in 80 divorced parents at 6 to 12 (T1) and 18 to 24 (T2) months after the divorce. Found that initiators and noninitiators shared similar emotional responses to divorce but that initiators reported more change, stress, and personal growth at (T1), while noninitiators reported higher…

  13. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the project...

  14. Framework for Evaluating Educational Systemic Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    This paper describes the implementation of the Holistic Systemic Evaluation (HSE), a component of an Education Systemic Initiative's strategic management. The HSE provides general guidance for the implementation and continual improvement of an Education Systemic Initiative Reform (ESIR). The implementation of the education system initiative plan:…

  15. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the project...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the project...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the project...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2212 - Project initiation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project initiation. 35.2212 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2212 Project initiation. (a) The grantee shall expeditiously initiate and complete the project, in accordance with the project...

  19. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU andmore » the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new

  20. Rates of breastfeeding initiation among newborns.

    PubMed

    Maimburg, Rikke Damkjær

    2017-06-01

    Rates of breastfeeding initiation in hospitals with a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit are limited. A follow-up study with prospectively collected data in a Danish university hospital with approximately 5000 annual births was conducted. Between 1 February 2015 and 30 June 2015, 1939 newborns were enrolled in the study. Rates of frequencies for initiation of breastfeeding were calculated. High initiations rates for breastfeeding were found among term-born infants. Newborns of multiparous women had the highest initiation rate of 91.7% and newborns delivered by cesarean section had the lowest initiation rate of 73.3%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cyclosporine-resistant, Rab27a-independent Mobilization of Intracellular Preformed CD40L Mediates Antigen-specific T Cell Help In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Koguchi, Yoshinobu; Gardell, Jennifer L.; Thauland, Timothy J.; Parker, David C.

    2011-01-01

    CD40L is critically important for the initiation and maintenance of adaptive immune responses. It is generally thought that CD40L expression in CD4+ T cells is regulated transcriptionally and made from new mRNA following antigen recognition. However, recent studies with two-photon microscopy revealed that the majority of cognate interactions between effector CD4+ T cells and APCs are too short for de novo synthesis of CD40L. Given that effector and memory CD4+ T cells store preformed CD40L (pCD40L) in lysosomal compartments and that pCD40L comes to the cell surface within minutes of antigenic stimulation, we and others have proposed that pCD40L might mediate T cell-dependent activation of cognate APCs during brief encounters in vivo. However, it has not been shown that this relatively small amount of pCD40L is sufficient to activate APCs, owing to the difficulty of separating the effects of pCD40L from those of de novo CD40L and other cytokines in vitro. Here we show that pCD40L surface mobilization is resistant to cyclosporine or FK506 treatment, while de novo CD40L and cytokine expression are completely inhibited. These drugs thus provide a tool to dissect the role of pCD40L in APC activation. We find that pCD40L mediates selective activation of cognate but not bystander APCs in vitro and that mobilization of pCD40L does not depend on Rab27a, which is required for mobilization of lytic granules. Therefore, effector CD4+ T cells deliver pCD40L specifically to APCs on the same time scale as the lethal hit of CTLs but with distinct molecular machinery. PMID:21677130

  2. Adaptable Miniature Initiation System Technology (AMIST)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    exploding foil initiator ( EFI ) to detonate an insensitive secondary explosive. The in-line (no moving parts) nature of EFIs increases their...reliability over out-of-line initiation systems. Likewise, EFI fire points increase the safety factor for two main reasons: (1) firing an EFI requires a very...AFRL-MN-EG-TP-2006-7410 ADAPTABLE MINIATURE INITIATION SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY (AMIST) Kenneth Bradley Chris Martin Ed Wild Air

  3. The Dynamics of Initiative in Communication Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Human social interaction is often intermittent. Two acquainted persons can have extended periods without social interaction punctuated by periods of repeated interaction. In this case, the repeated interaction can be characterized by a seed initiative by either of the persons and a number of follow-up interactions. The tendency to initiate social interaction plays an important role in the formation of social networks and is in general not symmetric between persons. In this paper, we study the dynamics of initiative by analysing and modeling a detailed call and text message network sampled from a group of 700 individuals. We show that in an average relationship between two individuals, one part is almost twice as likely to initiate communication compared to the other part. The asymmetry has social consequences and ultimately might lead to the discontinuation of a relationship. We explain the observed asymmetry by a positive feedback mechanism where individuals already taking initiative are more likely to take initiative in the future. In general, people with many initiatives receive attention from a broader spectrum of friends than people with few initiatives. Lastly, we compare the likelihood of taking initiative with the basic personality traits of the five factor model.

  4. Initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lobo, Alfonso Garcia-Parrado; Kroon, Juan A. Valiente; School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS

    2007-01-15

    A characterization of initial data sets for the Schwarzschild spacetime is provided. This characterization is obtained by performing a 3+1 decomposition of a certain invariant characterization of the Schwarzschild spacetime given in terms of concomitants of the Weyl tensor. This procedure renders a set of necessary conditions--which can be written in terms of the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor and their concomitants--for an initial data set to be a Schwarzschild initial data set. Our approach also provides a formula for a static Killing initial data set candidate--a KID candidate. Sufficient conditions for an initial data set tomore » be a Schwarzschild initial data set are obtained by supplementing the necessary conditions with the requirement that the initial data set possesses a stationary Killing initial data set of the form given by our KID candidate. Thus, we obtain an algorithmic procedure of checking whether a given initial data set is Schwarzschildean or not.« less

  5. Review Of Internet Health Information Quality Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Dzenowagis, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Background The massive growth of health information on the Internet; the global nature of the Internet; the seismic shift taking place in the relationships of various actors in this arena, and the absence of real protection from harm for citizens who use the Internet for health purposes are seen to be real problems. One response to many of these problems has been the burgeoning output of codes of conduct by numerous organizations trying to address quality of health information. Objectives Review the major self-regulatory initiatives in the English-speaking world to develop quality and ethical standards for health information on the Internet. Compare and analyze the approaches taken by the different initiatives. Clarify the issues around the development and enforcement of standards. Methods Quality initiatives selected meet one or more of the following criteria: Self-regulatory. A reasonable constituency. Diversity (eg, of philosophy, approach and process)-to achieve balance and wide representation, and to illustrate and compare different approaches. Historic value. A wider reach than a national audience, except when its reach is a significant sector of the Internet health information industry. The initiatives were compared in 3 ways: (1) Analysis and comparison of: key concepts, mechanism, or approach. Analysis of: the obligations that a provider has to meet to comply with the given initiative, the intended beneficiaries of that initiative, and the burdens imposed on different actors. These burdens are described in terms of their effect on the long-term sustainability and maintenance of the initiative by its developers. Analysis of the enforcement mechanisms. (2) Analysis and comparison by type of sponsoring organization, the reach of the initiative, and the sources of funding of the initiative or the sponsoring organization. (3) How the various initiatives fall under 1 of 3 key mechanisms and comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of these key mechanisms

  6. Gaseous detonation initiation via wave implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott Irving

    Efficient detonation initiation is a topic of intense interest to designers of pulse detonation engines. This experimental work is the first to detonate propane-air mixtures with an imploding detonation wave and to detonate a gas mixture with a non-reflected, imploding shock. In order to do this, a unique device has been developed that is capable of generating an imploding toroidal detonation wave inside of a tube from a single ignition point without any obstruction to the tube flow path. As part of this study, an initiator that creates a large-aspect-ratio planar detonation wave in gas-phase explosive from a single ignition point has also been developed. The effectiveness of our initiation devices has been evaluated. The minimum energy required by the imploding shock for initiation was determined to scale linearly with the induction zone length, indicating the presence of a planar initiation mode. The imploding toroidal detonation initiator was found to be more effective at detonation initiation than the imploding shock initiator, using a comparable energy input to that of current initiator tubes.

  7. 15 CFR 904.271 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Hearing and Appeal Procedures Decision § 904.271 Initial decision. (a) After expiration of the period...

  8. 15 CFR 904.271 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS CIVIL PROCEDURES Hearing and Appeal Procedures Decision § 904.271 Initial decision. (a) After expiration of the period...

  9. New York City Universal Prekindergarten Frequently Asked Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springsteel, Amy; Cooper, Amy

    Universal Prekindergarten (UPK) is a New York state early childhood initiative providing 4-year-olds access to comprehensive early childhood education experiences that promote their social-emotional, creative expressive/aesthetic, physical, cognitive, linguistic, and cultural development. The UPK initiative takes the form of a stand-alone program…

  10. Technology-Capable Teachers Transitioning to Technology-Challenged Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derbel, Faiza

    2017-01-01

    Developing countries lacking capabilities, funds and human resources are compelled to improve the digital literacy rates of their task force through educational initiatives. This is the case of Tunisia where a stand-alone in-service teacher education (Ted) initiative was implemented in 2014 and 2015. The aim of this project, the Tech Age Teacher…

  11. Initiating Smokeless Tobacco Use across Reproductive Stages.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shahina; Schensul, Jean J; Nair, Saritha; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    The use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) among women is increasing in India, especially among those with limited education and resources. Preventing the initiation of SLT among women is critical since it has known negative consequences for oral and reproductive health. Most research on tobacco initiation in India focuses on adolescents. This paper addresses the unrecognized issues of post marital initiation among women of reproductive age, highlighting the importance of reproductive stages in women's tobacco initiation. The objective is to examine the correlates of SLT initiation among low income women in Mumbai from pre-marriage through early marriage, first pregnancy and beyond, using case examples to illustrate initiation during each of these stages. In 2011-2012, cross-sectional community level survey data were collected from a representative sample of 409 daily SLT-using married women aged 18-40 years in a low income community in Mumbai. Information on socio-demographics, initiation by reproductive stage, types of tobacco use, childhood exposure to tobacco, learning to use, and initiation influences and reasons were collected through a researcher-administered survey. Univariate and bivariate analysis assessed factors influencing initiation of SLT use by reproductive stage. In addition 42 narratives of tobacco use were collected from a purposive sample of pregnant and non-pregnant married women addressing the same questions in detail. Narratives were transcribed, translated, and coded for key concepts including initiation of tobacco use. Thirty-two percent of women initiated SLT use before marriage, 44% initiated after marriage but before pregnancy, 18.1% initiated during their first pregnancy and the remainder started after their first pregnancy. Mean age of marriage among women in this study was 16 years. Younger women (i.e. age at time of the interview of less than 30 years) were 0.47 [95% CI (0.32, 0.87)] percent less likely to initiate after marriage than women

  12. 39 CFR 963.18 - Initial decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial decision. 963.18 Section 963.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.18 Initial decision. Unless given orally at...

  13. Professional Development Initiative. Proposal for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University (NJ1), 2004

    2004-01-01

    With the support of the Education Cabinet, the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation launched the Professional Development Initiative in early 2004. The Initiative's Implementation Work Group focused on four key areas to enhance North Carolina's system of professional development for K-12 teachers. Those areas were: (1) Professional Development Online…

  14. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under this...

  15. 10 CFR 26.55 - Initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial authorization. 26.55 Section 26.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.55 Initial authorization. (a) Before granting authorization to an individual who has never held authorization under this...

  16. 75 FR 49510 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-02] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  17. 75 FR 28778 - Broadband Initiatives Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service RIN 0572-ZA01 Broadband Initiatives Program AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, Department of Agriculture. ACTION: Notice of Extension of filing Public... Initiatives Program (BIP), published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 3820 (January 22, 2010). Such technical...

  18. 75 FR 17944 - Credit Watch Termination Initiative

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5411-N-01] Credit Watch Termination Initiative AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION... FHA Credit Watch Termination Initiative. This notice includes a list of mortgagees which have had...

  19. Student Initiatives in Urban Elementary Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Scott; Lee, Okhee; Santau, Alexandra; Cone, Neporcha

    2010-01-01

    Student initiatives play an important role in inquiry-based science with all students, including English language learning (ELL) students. This study examined initiatives that elementary students made as they participated in an intervention to promote science learning and English language development over a three-year period. In addition, the…

  20. Multimedia Instruction Initiative: Building Faculty Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Penelope J.

    Hofstra University began a university-wide initiative to enhance classroom instruction with multimedia technology and foster collaborative approaches to learning. The Multimedia Instruction Initiative emphasized teamwork among faculty, students, and computer center support staff to develop a technology-enriched learning environment supported by…