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Sample records for a-induced aromatase activation

  1. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  2. Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Shin, Y G; Kim, I H; Pezzuto, J M

    1999-06-01

    In searching for potent cancer chemopreventive agents from synthetic or natural products, 28 randomly selected flavonoids were screened for inhibitory effects against partially purified aromatase prepared from human placenta. Over 50% of the flavonoids significantly inhibited aromatase activity, with greatest activity being demonstrated with apigenin (IC50: 0.9 microg/mL), chrysin (IC50: 1.1 microg/mL), and hesperetin (IC50: 1.0 microg/mL).

  3. Aromatase Activity and Bone Loss in Men

    PubMed Central

    Merlotti, Daniela; Gennari, Luigi; Stolakis, Konstantinos; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase is a specific component of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system responsible for the transformation of androgen precursors into estrogens. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP19A1 gene located at chromosome 15q21.2, that is, expressed in ovary and testis, but also in many extraglandular sites such as the placenta, brain, adipose tissue, and bone. The activity of aromatase regulates the concentrations of estrogens with endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effects on target issues including bone. Importantly, extraglandular aromatization of circulating androgen precursors is the major source of estrogen in men. Clinical and experimental evidences clearly indicate that aromatase activity and estrogen production are necessary for longitudinal bone growth, the attainment of peak bone mass, pubertal growth spurt, epiphyseal closure, and normal bone remodeling in young individuals. Moreover, with aging, individual differences in aromatase activity may significantly affect bone loss and fracture risk in men. PMID:21772971

  4. Natural compounds with aromatase inhibitory activity: an update.

    PubMed

    Balunas, Marcy J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2010-08-01

    Several synthetic aromatase inhibitors are currently in clinical use for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, these treatments may lead to untoward side effects and so the search for new aromatase inhibitors continues, especially those for which the activity is promoter-specific, targeting the breast-specific promoters I.3 and II. Recently, numerous natural compounds have been found to inhibit aromatase in noncellular, cellular, and IN VIVO studies. These investigations, covering the last two years, as well as additional studies that have focused on the evaluation of natural compounds as promoter-specific aromatase inhibitors or as aromatase inducers, are described in this review.

  5. Developmental regulation of aromatase activity in the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Lephart, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The brain of all mammalian species studied thus far contain an enzymatic activity (aromatase) that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. The activity is highest during prenatal development and contributes to the establishment of sex differences which determine adult gonadotropin secretion patterns and reproductive behavior. The studies presented in this dissertation represent a systematic effort to elucidate the mechanism(s) that control the initiation of and contribute to maintaining rat hypothalamic aromatase activity during pre- and postnatal development. Aromatase enzyme activity was measured by the {sup 3}H{sub 2}O release assay or by traditional estrogen product isolation. Brain aromatase mRNA was detected by hybridization to a cDNA encoding rat aromatase cytochrome P-450. In both males and females the time of puberty was associated with a decline in hypothalamic aromatase activity. This decline may represent a factor underlying the peri-pubertal decrease in the sensitivity to gonadal steroid feedback that accompanies completion of puberty. The results also indicate that androgens regulate brain aromatase levels during both the prepubertal and peri-pubertal stages of sexual development and that this regulation is transiently lost in young adults. Utilizing a hypothalamic organotypic culture system, aromatase activity in vitro was maintained for as long as two days. The results of studies of a variety of hormonal and metabolic regulators suggest that prenatal aromatase activity is regulated by factor(s) that function independently from the classical cyclic AMP and protein kinase C trans-membrane signaling pathways.

  6. Natural Product Compounds with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Several synthetic aromatase inhibitors are currently in clinical use for the treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, these treatments may lead to untoward side effects and so a search for new aromatase inhibitors continues, especially those for which the activity is promoter-specific, targeting the breast-specific promoters I.3 and II. Recently, numerous natural product compounds have been found to inhibit aromatase in non-cellular, cellular, and in vivo studies. These investigations, covering the last two years, as well as additional studies that have focused on the evaluation of natural product compounds as promoter-specific aromatase inhibitors or as aromatase inducers, are described in this review. PMID:20635310

  7. Flavonoid inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity in human preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D R; Kurzer, M S

    1993-09-01

    Eleven flavonoid compounds were compared with aminoglutethimide (AG), a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor, for their abilities to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity in a human preadipocyte cell culture system. Flavonoids exerting no effect on aromatase activity were catechin, daidzein, equol, genistein, beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), quercetin and rutin. The synthetic flavonoid, alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), was the most potent aromatase inhibitor, with an I50 value of 0.5 microM. Three naturally-occurring flavonoids, chrysin, flavone, and genistein 4'-methyl ether (Biochanin A) showed I50 values of 4.6, 68, and 113 microM, respectively, while AG showed an I50 value of 7.4 microM. Kinetic analyses showed that both AG and the flavonoids acted as competitive inhibitors of aromatase. The Ki values, indicating the effectiveness of inhibition, were 0.2, 2.4, 2.4, 22, and 49 microM, for ANF, AG, chrysin, flavone, and Biochanin A, respectively. Chrysin, the most potent of the naturally-occurring flavonoids, was similar in potency and effectiveness to AG, a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor used clinically in cases of estrogen-dependent carcinoma. These data suggest that flavonoid inhibition of peripheral aromatase activity may contribute to the observed cancer-preventive hormonal effects of plant-based diets.

  8. Effects of flavonoids on aromatase activity, an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pelissero, C; Lenczowski, M J; Chinzi, D; Davail-Cuisset, B; Sumpter, J P; Fostier, A

    1996-02-01

    In the study, the inhibitory effect of flavonoids, including isoflavonic phytoestrogens, on the ovarian aromatase enzyme complex from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was assessed in vitro. Some of the compounds tested on fish were also tested on human placental aromatase activity as a comparison between the two sources of enzyme. It was found that flavone, dl-aminoglutethimide, apigenin, quercetin, 7,4'- dihydroxyflavone, alpha-naphthoflavone and equol were potent inhibitors of the ovarian aromatase activity in rainbow trout. Relative potencies (RP) of these compounds compared to flavone (assigned an effect of 1) were, respectively, 19.0, 8.7, 5.3, 3.7, 3.2 and 0.9. Two other phytoestrogens, namely biochanin A and genistein, slightly inhibited aromatase activity. Finally, 7-hydroxyflavone, formononetin, daidzein, coumestrol, chrysin, flavanone and estradiol-17beta did not inhibit ovarian aromatase activity at doses up to 1000 microM. Experiments on human placental aromatase showed inhibitory effects of dl-aminoglutethimide, flavone, flavanone and equol with RP values of 2.8. 1, 1.5 and 0.4, respectively. These results are in accordance with previous studies. The influence of the experimental procedure on IC50 values and RP is discussed.

  9. Aromatase Inhibitor Associated Musculoskeletal Symptoms are associated with Reduced Physical Activity among Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Justin C.; Mao, Jun J.; Stricker, Carrie; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Tan, Kay-See; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity has numerous health benefits for breast cancer survivors. Recent data suggest that some breast cancer survivors treated with aromatase inhibitors may experience aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms. It is unknown whether aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms are associated with reduced physical activity and what other risk factors are associated with such physical activity reductions. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at a large university-based breast cancer clinic among breast cancer survivors prescribed an aromatase inhibitor. At routine follow-up, we surveyed participants about aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms, as well as pre-aromatase inhibitor, and current, physical activity levels. Results Among 300 participants, 90 (30%) reported a reduction of physical activity since the initiation of aromatase inhibitor therapy. Those with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms were more likely to report decreased physical activity (62% versus 38%, p=0.001) compared to those without aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms. In multivariate analyses, aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms [odds ratio (OR) =2.29 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36–3.86)], and body mass index [OR=1.06 (95% CI: 1.02–1.12)] were associated with reductions in physical activity. In subgroup analysis among breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms, self-reported lower extremity joint pain [OR=1.23 (95% CI: 1.00–1.50)] and impaired lower extremity physical function [OR=1.07 (95% CI: 1.01–1.14)] were associated with reductions in physical activity. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors with aromatase inhibitor associated musculoskeletal symptoms were more likely to report reductions in physical activity since initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy compared to those without aromatase inhibitor associated

  10. Modulation of aromatase activity by diet polyphenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosário; Azevedo, Isabel; Calhau, Conceição

    2006-05-17

    Estrogens are involved in physiological actions related to reproduction, body fat distribution, and maintenance of bone mass and are also related to the pathogenesis of estrogen-dependent cancers. The aim of this work was to study the effect of polyphenols on estrogen synthesis. The effect of polyphenols and polyphenolic-rich beverages on aromatase activity was tested in JAR cells (a choriocarcinoma cell line) through the tritiated water release assay. Some of the tested polyphenols inhibited estrogen production, chrysin being the most potent. Additionally, we observed that red wine, alcohol-free red wine, green tea, and black tea (200 microL/mL) significantly decreased aromatase activity. No effect on aromatase expression, as assessed by western blotting and RT-PCR, has been detected after 24 h of treatment with any of the flavonoids under study. In conclusion, polyphenols are able to modulate aromatase activity and, consequently, estrogen synthesis. The knowledge of such interference may help to clarify some of the biological properties attributed to polyphenols and may be useful in prevention/treatment of estrogen-dependent disorders.

  11. The control of preoptic aromatase activity by afferent inputs in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Absil, P; Baillien, M; Ball, G F; Panzica, G C; Balthazart, J

    2001-11-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms that control aromatase activity in the quail preoptic area, a brain region that plays a key role in the control of reproduction. Aromatase and aromatase mRNA synthesis in the preoptic area are enhanced by testosterone and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors of the alpha subtype are not regularly colocalized with aromatase. Estradiol receptors of the beta subtype are present in the preoptic area but it is not yet known whether these receptors are colocalized with aromatase. The regulation by estrogen of aromatase activity may be, in part, trans-synaptically mediated, in a manner that is reminiscent of the ways in which steroids control the activity of gonadotropic hormone releasing hormone neurons. Aromatase-immunoreactive neurons are surrounded by dense networks of vasotocin-immunoreactive and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers and punctate structures. These inputs are in part steroid-sensitive and could therefore mediate the effects of steroids on aromatase activity. In vivo pharmacological experiments indicate that catecholaminergic depletions significantly affect aromatase activity presumably by modulating aromatase transcription. In addition, in vitro studies on brain homogenates or on preoptic-hypothalamic explants show that aromatase activity can be rapidly modulated by a variety of dopaminergic compounds. These effects do not appear to be mediated by the membrane dopamine receptors and could involve changes in the phosphorylation state of the enzyme. Together, these results provide converging evidence for a direct control of aromatase activity by catecholamines consistent with the anatomical data indicating the presence of a catecholaminergic innervation of aromatase cells. These dopamine-induced changes in aromatase activity are observed after several hours or days and presumably result from changes in aromatase transcription but rapid non-genomic controls have also been

  12. The effects of dietary phytoestrogens on aromatase activity in human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Katie M; Holloway, Alison C; Crankshaw, Denis J; Agarwal, Sanjay K; Foster, Warren G

    2005-01-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens have been reported to inhibit aromatase activity in placental microsomes, but the effects in the human endometrium are unknown. Aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of androgens to estrogens, has recently been shown to be expressed in the endometrium of women with endometriosis and is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of this disease. Therefore, the objective of this study was to screen dietary phytoestrogens for their ability to inhibit aromatase activity in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and identify potential novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of endometriosis. The inhibition of aromatase activity by direct interaction with the dietary phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, chrysin, and naringenin was tested in a cell free assay. Furthermore, test compound effects on aromatase activity in ESC cultures were also examined. Genistein and daidzein were inactive in the human recombinant aromatase assay whereas naringenin and chrysin inhibited aromatase activity. However, genistein (1 nM to 1 mM) stimulated aromatase activity in ESC whereas other phytoestrogens had no effect. Immunopositive aromatase cells were demonstrated in genistein-treated ESC but not in untreated control cultures. Taken together, our data suggest that genistein can increase aromatase activity in ESC likely via increased enzyme expression.

  13. Placental and embryonic tissues exhibit aromatase activity in the viviparous lizard Niveoscincus metallicus.

    PubMed

    Parsley, Laura M; Wapstra, Erik; Jones, Susan M

    2014-05-01

    Aromatase is a key regulator of circulating testosterone (T) and 17-β-oestradiol (E2), two steroids which are critical to the development, maintenance and function of reproductive tissues. The role of aromatase in sexual differentiation in oviparous (egg-laying) reptiles is well understood, yet has never been explored in viviparous (live-bearing) reptiles. As a first step towards understanding the functions of aromatase during gestation in viviparous reptiles, we measured aromatase activity in maternal and embryonic tissues at three stages of gestation in the viviparous skink, Niveoscincus metallicus. Maternal ovaries and adrenals maintained high aromatase activity throughout gestation. During the early phases of embryonic development, placental aromatase activity was comparable to that in maternal ovaries, but declined significantly at progressive stages of gestation. Aromatase activity in the developing brains and gonads of embryos was comparable with measurements in oviparous reptiles. Aromatase activity in the developing brains peaked mid development, and declined to low levels in late stage embryos. Aromatase activity in the embryonic gonads was low at embryonic stage 29-34, but increased significantly at mid-development and then remained high in late stage embryos. We conclude that ovarian estrogen synthesis is supplemented by placental aromatase activity and that maternal adrenals provide an auxiliary source of sex steroid. The pattern of change in aromatase activity in embryonic brains and gonads suggests that brain aromatase is important during sexual differentiation, and that embryonic gonads are increasingly steroidogenic as development progresses. Our data indicate vital roles of aromatase in gestation and development in viviparous lizards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) flavonoids on aromatase (estrogen synthase) activity.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosário; Becker, Hans; Azevedo, Isabel; Calhau, Conceiçáo

    2006-04-19

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol, and 8-prenylnaringenin on the activity and expression of the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). The effect of different kinds of beer containing these prenylflavonoids was also tested. Aromatase activity was determined by measuring the release of tritiated water during the conversion of [(3)H]androstenedione to estrone. Aromatase expression was determined by RT-PCR. This assay was carried out in choriocarcinoma-derived JAR cells. The tested prenylflavonoids were able to inhibit estrogen formation, and their IC(50) values were determined, although no effect on aromatase expression was found. Lager beer, alcohol-free beer, stout beer, and xanthohumol-rich stout beer (200 microL/mL) significantly decreased aromatase activity. In conclusion, prenylflavonoids are able to modulate aromatase activity, decreasing estrogen synthesis, with relevance for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent disorders such as breast cancer.

  15. White button mushroom phytochemicals inhibit aromatase activity and breast cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Grube, B J; Eng, E T; Kao, Y C; Kwon, A; Chen, S

    2001-12-01

    Estrogen is a major factor in the development of breast cancer. In situ estrogen production by aromatase/estrogen synthetase in breast cancer plays a dominant role in tumor proliferation. Because natural compounds such as flavones and isoflavones have been shown to be inhibitors of aromatase, it is thought that vegetables that contain these phytochemicals can inhibit aromatase activity and suppress breast cancer cell proliferation. Heat-stable extracts were prepared from vegetables and screened for their ability to inhibit aromatase activity in a human placental microsome assay. The white button mushroom (species Agaricus bisporus) suppressed aromatase activity dose dependently. Enzyme kinetics demonstrated mixed inhibition, suggesting the presence of multiple inhibitors or more than one inhibitory mechanism. "In cell" aromatase activity and cell proliferation were measured using MCF-7aro, an aromatase-transfected breast cancer cell line. Phytochemicals in the mushroom aqueous extract inhibited aromatase activity and proliferation of MCF-7aro cells. These results suggest that diets high in mushrooms may modulate the aromatase activity and function in chemoprevention in postmenopausal women by reducing the in situ production of estrogen.

  16. Design and Synthesis of Norendoxifen Analogues with Dual Aromatase Inhibitory and Estrogen Receptor Modulatory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C.; Flockhart, David A.; Cushman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Both selective estrogen receptor modulators and aromatase inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of breast cancer. Compounds with both aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor modulatory activities could have special advantages for treatment of breast cancer. Our previous efforts led to the discovery of norendoxifen as the first compound with dual aromatase inhibitory and estrogen receptor binding activities. To optimize its efficacy and aromatase selectivity versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes, a series of structurally related norendoxifen analogues were designed and synthesized. The most potent compound, 4'-hydroxynorendoxifen (10), displayed elevated inhibitory potency against aromatase and enhanced affinity for estrogen receptors when compared to norendoxifen. The selectivity of 10 for aromatase versus other cytochrome P450 enzymes was also superior to norendoxifen. 4'-Hydroxynorendoxifen is therefore an interesting lead for further development to obtain new anticancer agents of potential value for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:25751283

  17. Nelumal A, the active principle of Ligularia nelumbifolia, is a novel aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Nde, Chantal Magne; Clyne, Colin

    2014-06-01

    Nelumal A, the active principle of Ligularia nelumbifolia was preliminarily tested as an aromatase inhibitors in HEK293 cells transfected with aromatase cDNA and using anastrazole as the reference drug. This screening revealed that it showed an appreciable level of inhibition. Subsequent experiments aimed to evaluate the aromatase activity and expression in KGN cells confirmed that the title natural product, after an incubation of 48 h, compared favourably with anastrazole (1 microM) in the concentration range 10-30 microM. Moreover, nelumal A (30 microM) abolished the aromatase mRNA expression in the same cell line.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAIN AND OVARY AROMATASE ACTIVITY AND ISOFORM-SPECIFIC AROMATASE MRNA EXPRESSION IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) - JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that some chemicals present in the environment have the capacity to inhibit, or potentially induce, aromatase activity. This study compared aromatase activities and isoform-specific mRNA expression in brain and ovary tissue from non-exposed fathead minn...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAIN AND OVARY AROMATASE ACTIVITY AND ISOFORM-SPECIFIC AROMATASE MRNA EXPRESSION IN THE FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) - JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is growing evidence that some chemicals present in the environment have the capacity to inhibit, or potentially induce, aromatase activity. This study compared aromatase activities and isoform-specific mRNA expression in brain and ovary tissue from non-exposed fathead minn...

  20. Modulation of aromatase activity as a mode of action for endocrine disrupting chemicals in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lesley J; Gutjahr-Gobell, Ruth E; Zaroogian, Gerald E; Horowitz, Doranne Borsay; Laws, Susan C

    2014-02-01

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase. Because brain aromatase activity in fish is up to 1000 times that in mammals, fish may be especially susceptible to negative effects from environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that impact aromatase activity. In this study, the effects of estradiol (E2), ethynylestradiol (EE2), octylphenol (OP), and androstatrienedione (ATD) on reproduction and aromatase activity in brains and gonads from the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) was investigated. The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship between changes in aromatase activity and reproductive output in a marine fish, as well as compare aromatase activity to two commonly used indicators of EDC exposure, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). Results with E2, EE2, and ATD indicate that aromatase activity in cunner brain and ovary are affected differently by exposure to these EDCs. In the case of E2 and EE2, male brain aromatase activity was signficantly increased by these treatments, female brain aromatase activity was unaffected, and ovarian aromatase activity was significantly decreased. Treatment with the aromatase inhibitor ATD resulted in significantly decreased aromatase activity in male and female brain, but had no significant impact on ovarian aromatase activity. Regardless of test chemical, a decrease or an increase in male brain aromatase activity relative to controls was associated with decreased egg production in cunner and was also correlated with significant changes in GSI in both sexes. E2 and EE2 significantly elevated plasma VTG in males and females, while ATD had no significant effect. Treatment of cunner with OP had no significant effect on any measured endpoint. Overall, results with these exposures indicate EDCs that impact

  1. Optimization of the aromatase inhibitory activities of pyridylthiazole analogues of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Mayhoub, Abdelrahman S; Marler, Laura; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Pezzuto, John M; Cushman, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Aromatase is an established target not only for breast cancer chemotherapy, but also for breast cancer chemoprevention. The moderate and non-selective aromatase inhibitory activity of resveratrol (1) was improved about 100-fold by replacement of the ethylenic bridge with a thiadiazole and the phenyl rings with pyridines (e.g., compound 3). The aromatase inhibitory activity was enhanced over 6000-fold by using a 1,3-thiazole as the central ring and modifying the substituents on the 'A' ring to target the Met374 residue of aromatase. On the other hand, targeting the hydroxyl group of Thr310 by a hydrogen-bond acceptor on the 'B' ring did not improve the aromatase inhibitory activity.

  2. Synthesis and aromatase inhibitory activity of novel pyridine-containing isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Woo; Hackett, John C; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2004-07-29

    Aromatase, a cytochrome P450 hemoprotein that is responsible for estrogen biosynthesis by conversion of androgens into estrogens, has been an attractive target in the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. As a result, a number of synthetic steroidal or nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors have been successfully developed. In addition, there are several classes of natural products that exert potent activities in aromatase inhibition, with the flavonoids being most prominent. Previous studies have exploited flavone and flavanone scaffolds for the development of new aromatase inhibitors. In this paper, we describe the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a novel series of 2-(4'-pyridylmethyl)thioisoflavones as the first example of synthetic isoflavone-based aromatase inhibitors.

  3. Multiple mechanisms control brain aromatase activity at the genomic and non-genomic level.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Charlier, Thierry D; Cornil, Charlotte A; Ball, Gregory F

    2003-09-01

    Evidence has recently accumulated indicating that aromatase activity in the preoptic area is modulated in parallel by both slow (hours to days) genomic and rapid (minutes to hours) non-genomic mechanisms. We review here these two types of control mechanisms and their potential contribution to various aspects of brain physiology in quail. High levels of aromatase mRNA, protein and activity (AA) are present in the preoptic area of this species where the transcription of aromatase is controlled mainly by steroids. Estrogens acting in synergy with androgens play a key role in this control and both androgen and estrogen receptors (ER; alpha and beta subtypes) are present in the preoptic area even if they are not necessarily co-localized in the same cells as aromatase. Steroids have more pronounced effects on aromatase transcription in males than in females and this sex difference could be caused, in part, by a sexually differentiated expression of the steroid receptor coactivator 1 in this area. The changes in aromatase concentration presumably control seasonal variations as well as sex differences in brain estrogen production. Aromatase activity in hypothalamic homogenates is also rapidly (within minutes) down-regulated by exposure to conditions that enhance protein phosphorylation such as the presence of high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and ATP. Similarly, pharmacological manipulations such as treatment with thapsigargin or stimulation of various neurotransmitter receptors (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA), kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)) leading to enhanced intracellular calcium concentrations depress within minutes the aromatase activity measured in quail preoptic explants. The effects of receptor stimulation are presumably direct: electrophysiological data confirm the presence of these receptors in the membrane of aromatase-expressing cells. Inhibitors of protein kinases interfere with these processes and Western

  4. Combining computational and biochemical studies for a rationale on the anti-aromatase activity of natural polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco A C; Dinis, Teresa C P; Colombo, Giorgio; Sá e Melo, M Luisa

    2007-12-01

    Aromatase, an enzyme of the cytochrome P450 family, is a very important pharmacological target, particularly for the treatment of breast cancer. The anti-aromatase activity of a set of natural polyphenolic compounds was evaluated in vitro. Strong aromatase inhibitors including flavones, flavanones, resveratrol, and oleuropein, with activities comparable to that of the reference anti-aromatase drug aminoglutethimide, were identified. Through the application of molecular modeling techniques based on grid-independent descriptors and molecular interaction fields, the major physicochemical features associated with inhibitory activity were disclosed, and a putative virtual active site of aromatase was proposed. Docking of the inhibitors into a 3D homology model structure of the enzyme defined a common binding mode for the small molecules under investigation. The good correlation between computational and biological results provides the first rationalization of the anti-aromatase activity of polyphenolic compounds. Moreover, the information generated in this approach should be further exploited for the design of new aromatase inhibitors.

  5. Biochemical and computational insights into the anti-aromatase activity of natural catechol estrogens.

    PubMed

    Neves, Marco A C; Dinis, Teresa C P; Colombo, Giorgio; Luisa Sá E Melo, M

    2008-05-01

    High levels of endogenous estrogens are associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Estrogen levels are mainly increased by the activity of the aromatase enzyme and reduced by oxidative/conjugative metabolic pathways. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that catechol estrogen metabolites are potent aromatase inhibitors, thus establishing a link between aromatase activity and the processes involved in estrogen metabolism. In particular, the anti-aromatase activity of a set of natural hydroxyl and methoxyl estrogen metabolites was investigated using biochemical methods and subsequently compared with the anti-aromatase potency of estradiol and two reference aromatase inhibitors. Catechol estrogens proved to be strong inhibitors with an anti-aromatase potency two orders of magnitude higher than estradiol. A competitive inhibition mechanism was found for the most potent molecule, 2-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE(2)) and a rational model identifying the interaction determinants of the metabolites with the enzyme is proposed based on ab initio quantum-mechanical calculations. A strong relationship between activity and electrostatic properties was found for catechol estrogens. Moreover, our results suggest that natural catechol estrogens may be involved in the control mechanisms of estrogen production.

  6. The correlation of aromatase activity and obesity in women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Shen, Shanmei; Tan, Yong; Xia, Dong; Xia, Yanjie; Cao, Yunxia; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Xiaoke; Wang, Hongwei; Yi, Long; Gao, Qian; Wang, Yong

    2015-03-22

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on the association of aromatase activity assessed by estradiol-to-testosterone ratio (E2/T) with body mass index (BMI) in women. This was a cohort study in five centers for reproductive medicine in China. Data were collected from July 2012 to December 2013. PCOS patients (n = 785) and non PCOS, healthy, age-matched controls (n = 297) were included. Plasma sex hormones including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by ELISA, together with BMI and E2/T being calculated, on the third day of the menstrual cycle. Aromatase activity in PCOS patients with different BMI, T and E2 levels were compared. E2/T was significantly lower (P < 0.05) while BMI was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in PCOS than non-PCOS. No significant difference was observed in E2/T among different BMI subgroups of either PCOS or control. Ovarian aromatase activity was decreased in PCOS patients which was independent of BMI. Hyperestrogen promoted ovarian aromatase activity, while hyperandrogen inhibited such activity, both in a dose-dependent, biphasic manner. Ovarian aromatase activity was lower in PCOS, which was independent of BMI. New therapeutic strategies can be developed by targeting aromatase activity for treating PCOS women, especially those with obesity.

  7. Clotrimazole exposure modulates aromatase activity in gonads and brain during gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Eriksson, Hanna; Söderqvist, Anneli; Lindberg, Richard H; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2009-01-31

    Clotrimazole is a pharmaceutical used for treatment of fungal infections. It has been found in surface waters outside municipal wastewater treatment plants but data are scarce regarding its effects on aquatic organisms. It is known that clotrimazole and other imidazole fungicides are inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase (CYP 19). Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and is suggested to be involved in the sex differentiation in amphibians. The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of larval exposure to clotrimazole on aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus tropicalis frogs. Another purpose was to determine if larval exposure to ethynylestradiol (EE(2)), at a concentration known to cause male-to-female sex reversal, affects aromatase activity in brain and gonads during gonadal differentiation. Tadpoles were exposed from shortly after hatching (Nieuwkoop and Faber developmental stages 47-48) until complete metamorphosis (NF stage 66) to 6, 41, and 375 nM clotrimazole or 100 nM (nominal) EE(2). Aromatase activity was measured in the brain and gonad/kidney complex of tadpoles during gonadal differentiation (NF stage 56) and, in the clotrimazole experiment, also at metamorphosis. In clotrimazole-exposed tadpoles gonadal aromatase activity increased over exposure time in the 41 and 375 nM groups but did not differ significantly from the control group. Gonadal aromatase activity was increased in both sexes exposed to 41 and 375 nM clotrimazole at metamorphosis. Brain aromatase activity was decreased in tadpoles (NF stage 56) exposed to 375 nM clotrimazole, but at metamorphosis no differences were seen between groups or between sexes. No effects of clotrimazole on sex ratio or gonadal histology were noted at completed metamorphosis. EE(2)-exposed tadpoles had a slightly decreased gonadal aromatase activity, though not significantly different from control group, and there was no effect of EE(2) on brain aromatase

  8. Suppression of aromatase activity in vitro by PCBs 28 and 105 and Aroclor 1221.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Amanda J; Cooke, Gerard M

    2004-08-30

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in vitro were investigated using a commercially available microsomal fraction obtained from baculovirus infected insects that had been transfected with the human CYP19 gene and cytochrome P450 reductase. The assay measured the conversion of tritiated testosterone to estradiol in Tris buffer at pH 7.4. When aroclors, commercial preparations of PCBs, were added to aromatase assays at a 10 microM concentration, Aroclor 1221 caused a reduction in the aromatase activity, whereas other aroclors (1016, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 5432, 5442 and 5460) were without effect. Further investigation of the effect of Aroclor 1221 on aromatase activity showed that the inhibition was dose dependent. When a reconstituted mixture (RM) of PCBs that represented the congeneric content of human milk was investigated, no inhibition of aromatase activity at the maximum treatment of 15.0 microM was observed. None of the congeners present in the reconstituted mixture, except PCB 28 and 105, affected P450 arom activity. PCB 28 showed a statistically significant inhibition of aromatase activity (P<0.05) at 1.5 and 15 microM and a significant inhibition of aromatase activity by PCB 105 was also observed, but only at 15 microM. In three separate kinetic analyses the Km(app) for aromatase was 64, 89 and 69 nM (mean 74 nM). In addition, PCB 28 resulted in an increase in the Km(app) without a significant effect on Vmax(app), suggesting competitive inhibition by this congener. This conclusion was supported by slope (Km(app)/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) and intercept (1/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) replots. The slope replots gave Ki(app) values for PCB 28 of 0.9, 1.3 and 2.0 microM (mean 1.4 microM), whereas intercept replots were almost horizontal. Thus, PCB 28 is a competitive inhibitor of aromatase with a Ki(app) value approximately 20-fold the Km(app) value. Based on these studies, we conclude that

  9. A novel method for measuring aromatase activity in tissue samples by determining estradiol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Rascle, J B; Colombel, S; Al Khansa, I; Freyberger, A; Bars, R

    2011-07-01

    Increasing scrutiny of endocrine disrupters has led to changes to European pesticide and biocide legislation and to the introduction of the Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program by the US EPA. One element of endocrine disrupter identification is to determine its effects on aromatase, but most available assays are limited as they depend on tritiated water production to indicate enzyme activity. Whilst acceptable for determining aromatase effects using a cell-free approach, this method is unreliable for cell or tissue-based investigations as other cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities can similarly produce tritiated water and consequently confound interpretation of the aromatase data. To address this lack of specificity an assay directly measuring the final estrogen product by incubating rat tissue protein with testosterone and measuring the resultant estradiol concentration was developed. Using this approach we demonstrated marked increases in enzyme activity in pregnant rat ovary samples and dose-related inhibitions when incubating non-pregnant rat ovary samples with known aromatase inhibitors. Hepatic aromatase activity was investigated using our method and by tritiated water production with microsomes from rats dosed with the antiandrogen 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane. Additional cytochrome P-450s were also measured. Treatment-related increased tritiated water production and general hepatic enzyme activity were recorded but estradiol was not increased, indicating that the increased tritiated water was due to general enzyme activity and not aromatase activity. A simple and specific method has been developed that can detect aromatase inhibition and induction, which when applied to tissue samples, provides a means of generating relevant animal data concerning chemical effects on the aromatase enzyme.

  10. Leptin induces CREB-dependent aromatase activation through COX-2 expression in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Jin, Sun Woo; Kim, Yong An; Khanal, Tilak; Lee, Gi Ho; Kim, Se Jong; Rhee, Sang Dal; Chung, Young Chul; Hwang, Young Jung; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-08-01

    Leptin plays a key role in the control of adipocyte formation, as well as in the associated regulation of energy intake and expenditure. The goal of this study was to determine if leptin-induced aromatase enhances estrogen production and induces tumor cell growth stimulation. To this end, breast cancer cells were incubated with leptin in the absence or presence of inhibitor pretreatment, and changes in aromatase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels. Transient transfection assays were performed to examine the aromatase and COX-2 gene promoter activities and immunoblot analysis was used to examine protein expression. Leptin induced aromatase expression, estradiol production, and promoter activity in breast cancer cells. Protein levels of phospho-STAT3, PKA, Akt, ERK, and JNK were increased by leptin. Leptin also significantly increased cAMP levels, cAMP response element (CRE) activation, and CREB phosphorylation. In addition, leptin induced COX-2 expression, promoter activity, and increased the production of prostaglandin E2. Finally, a COX-2 inhibitor and aromatase inhibitor suppressed leptin-induced cell proliferation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Together, our data show that leptin increased aromatase expression in breast cancer cells, which was correlated with COX-2 upregulation, mediated through CRE activation and cooperation among multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sexual dimorphism of brain aromatase activity in medaka: induction of a female phenotype by estradiol.

    PubMed

    Melo, A C; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-03-01

    In this study we identified sex-dependent dimorphism of brain aromatase in the teleost medaka and examined its regulation by sex steriods. We first investigated differential distribution of brain aromatase activity in sexually mature male and female medaka in serial coronal sections of the brain and identified the hypothalamic nuclei contained in each section using the brain atlas of medaka. In the brain of male medaka, high levels of activity are localized in sections containing the preoptic (POA) and suprachiasmatic nuclei (SC) (63-75 fmol/hr) and low levels in the nuclei periventricular dorsalis (HD), ventralis (HV), and caudalis (Hc), nuclei diffusus of lobulus inferiores (NDIL), and nuclei tuberi anteriores (TA) and posteriores (TP) (< 25 fmol/hr). In the brain of female medaka high aromatase activity is localized in sections containing the HD, HV, Hc, NDIL, TA, and TP (85-80 fmol/hr) and highly variable levels in the POA and SC (23-70 fmol/hr). The concentration and time dependency of the exposure of male medaka to estradiol on the total brain aromatase activity and morphologic sex characteristics were determined next. Estradiol increased the activity of brain aromatase in a concentration-dependent manner at 2.5 and 25 microg/L, but the increase was lower at higher concentrations of the hormone. The effect was time dependent, gradually increasing up to the fifth day of exposure, after which it reached a plateau. Estradiol induction of brain aromatase analyzed using Lineweaver-Burke plots of saturation assays revealed a non-first-order reaction. The results indicate that a positive feedback mechanism regulates brain aromatase and imply that the sexual dimorphic distribution of aromatase may be highly sensitive to physiologic cues and environmental perturbations in fish.

  12. Sexual dimorphism of brain aromatase activity in medaka: induction of a female phenotype by estradiol.

    PubMed Central

    Melo, A C; Ramsdell, J S

    2001-01-01

    In this study we identified sex-dependent dimorphism of brain aromatase in the teleost medaka and examined its regulation by sex steriods. We first investigated differential distribution of brain aromatase activity in sexually mature male and female medaka in serial coronal sections of the brain and identified the hypothalamic nuclei contained in each section using the brain atlas of medaka. In the brain of male medaka, high levels of activity are localized in sections containing the preoptic (POA) and suprachiasmatic nuclei (SC) (63-75 fmol/hr) and low levels in the nuclei periventricular dorsalis (HD), ventralis (HV), and caudalis (Hc), nuclei diffusus of lobulus inferiores (NDIL), and nuclei tuberi anteriores (TA) and posteriores (TP) (< 25 fmol/hr). In the brain of female medaka high aromatase activity is localized in sections containing the HD, HV, Hc, NDIL, TA, and TP (85-80 fmol/hr) and highly variable levels in the POA and SC (23-70 fmol/hr). The concentration and time dependency of the exposure of male medaka to estradiol on the total brain aromatase activity and morphologic sex characteristics were determined next. Estradiol increased the activity of brain aromatase in a concentration-dependent manner at 2.5 and 25 microg/L, but the increase was lower at higher concentrations of the hormone. The effect was time dependent, gradually increasing up to the fifth day of exposure, after which it reached a plateau. Estradiol induction of brain aromatase analyzed using Lineweaver-Burke plots of saturation assays revealed a non-first-order reaction. The results indicate that a positive feedback mechanism regulates brain aromatase and imply that the sexual dimorphic distribution of aromatase may be highly sensitive to physiologic cues and environmental perturbations in fish. PMID:11333187

  13. Identification of aromatase activity in rodent pituitary cell strains.

    PubMed

    Callard, G V; Petro, Z; Tashjian, A H

    1983-07-01

    To date, biochemical evidence has been presented for hypophysial aromatization in only one species, a teleost fish, although the pituitary glands of several mammals have been reported to be aromatase negative. To reinvestigate this problem, established clonal strains of rodent pituitary cells (GH3, GH4C1, and AtT20/D16) were incubated at 37 C for 6-48 h in serum-less medium containing [7-3H]androstenedione. Radiolabeled metabolites were isolated by solvent extraction, thin layer chromatography, and phenolic partition. The authenticity of the estrogenic products in both cells and incubation medium was verified by methylation and recrystallization to constant specific activity. Measurement of androgen metabolites was also validated by recrystallization of selected samples. Authentic estrone and 17 beta-estradiol were identified in cultures of the two PRL- and GH-secreting clones, and there were strain differences in the quantity of estrogen produced (GH3 greater than GH4C1). Under the same conditions, aromatization was not detectable in the ACTH-secreting line (AtT20/D16). A time-yield analysis of androgen metabolism in GH4C1 cells showed that aromatization was linear for 12 h after labeling, but that substrate was diverted mainly to 5 alpha-reducing pathways. Large amounts of highly polar metabolites accumulated 24 and 48 h after the addition of [3H]androgen, and subsequent hydrolysis revealed that these were sulfo- and glucuronoconjugates. The metabolic fate of estrogen in GH4C1 cultures was investigated indirectly by adding a radioinert estrone trap together with the radiolabeled androgen substrate and was also tested in separate cultures by adding [3H]estrone and [3H]estradiol directly. Although the two estrogens were interconverted, there was no evidence that formed or added estrogen was extensively metabolized or conjugated. We conclude that the expression of aromatase activity in hypophysial cells is not a property of all transformed lines but may be dictated

  14. Inhibitory effects of pharmacological doses of melatonin on aromatase activity and expression in rat glioma cells.

    PubMed

    González, A; Martínez-Campa, C; Mediavilla, M D; Alonso-González, C; Sánchez-Barceló, E J; Cos, S

    2007-09-17

    Melatonin exerts oncostatic effects on different kinds of neoplasias, especially on oestrogen-dependent tumours. Recently, it has been described that melatonin, on the basis of its antioxidant properties, inhibits the growth of glioma cells. Glioma cells express oestrogen receptors and have the ability to synthesise oestrogens from androgens. In the present study, we demonstrate that pharmacological concentrations of melatonin decreases the growth of C6 glioma cells and reduces the local biosynthesis of oestrogens, through the inhibition of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into oestrogens. These results are supported by three types of evidence. Firstly, melatonin counteracts the growth stimulatory effects of testosterone on glioma cells, which is dependent on the local synthesis of oestrogens from testosterone. Secondly, we found that melatonin reduces the aromatase activity of C6 cells, measured by the tritiated water release assay. Finally, by (RT)-PCR, we found that melatonin downregulates aromatase mRNA steady-state levels in these glioma cells. We conclude that melatonin inhibits the local production of oestrogens decreasing aromatase activity and expression. By analogy to the implications of aromatase in other forms of oestrogen-sensitive tumours, it is conceivable that the modulation of the aromatase by pharmacological melatonin may play a role in the growth of glioblastomas.

  15. Tamoxifen metabolites as active inhibitors of aromatase in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Desta, Zeruesenay; Flockhart, David A

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of tamoxifen action in the treatment of breast cancer is believed to be via active metabolites that act as potent estrogen receptor antagonists. Attempts to identify relationships between active metabolite concentrations and clinical outcomes have produced mixed results. Since anti-estrogenic effects may be brought about not only by estrogen antagonism, but also by reduced estrogen synthesis, we tested the ability of tamoxifen and its principal metabolites to inhibit aromatase in vitro. The activity of human aromatase in both recombinant and placental microsomal preparations was measured using the rate of generation of a fluorescent metabolite in the presence and absence of multiple concentrations of tamoxifen, endoxifen, N-desmethyl-tamoxifen, and Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen. Aromatase inhibition was further characterized by measuring the inhibition of testosterone metabolism to estradiol. The biochemical mechanisms of inhibition were documented and their inhibitory potency was compared. Using recombinant human aromatase, endoxifen, and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen were able to inhibit aromatase activity with K (i) values of 4.0 and 15.9 μM, respectively. Detailed characterization of inhibition by endoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen indicated non-competitive kinetics for both inhibitors. Similarly, endoxifen-inhibited testosterone metabolism via a non-competitive mechanism. No appreciable inhibition by tamoxifen or Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen was observed at similar concentrations. The relative inhibitory potency was: endoxifen > N-desmethyl-tamoxifen > Z-4-hydroxy-tamoxifen > tamoxifen. Similar data were obtained in human placental microsomes. Endoxifen and N-desmethyl-tamoxifen were found to be potent inhibitors of aromatase. Inhibition by these tamoxifen metabolites may contribute to the variability in clinical effects of tamoxifen in patients with breast cancer. Relationships between tamoxifen metabolite concentrations and clinical outcomes may be complex

  16. Perinatal aromatase activity in male and female rats: effect of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    McGivern, R F; Roselli, C E; Handa, R J

    1988-12-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure has been shown to produce long-term feminizing and demasculinizing effects on male rat behaviors which are organizationally dependent upon perinatal androgen levels. Such exposure has previously been shown to suppress the normal surge of testosterone during the critical prenatal period. Since defeminization of male rat behavior is dependent upon estrogen derived from the aromatization of testosterone in brain, brain aromatase activity was measured during the perinatal period in males and females exposed to alcohol beginning on Day 14 of gestation. Aromatase activity was measured in whole hypothalamus of fetuses from Day 16 through 20 of gestation and in the hypothalamic preoptic area and amygdala of animals 6-12 hr postparturition. Hypothalamic aromatase activity was elevated in fetal alcohol exposed males compared to controls on Days 18 and 19 of gestation and on postnatal Day 1. No effect of prenatal alcohol exposure was found in females. A sex effect in aromatase activity in the amygdala was evident on Day 1 when activity was found to be greater in males than females. Overall, these findings indicate that fetal alcohol exposure will elevate regional brain aromatase activity in males, but not females during the perinatal period of neurobehavioral sexual differentiation.

  17. Equine cytochrome P450 aromatase exhibits an estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Almadhidi, J; Moslemi, S; Drosdowsky, M A; Séralini, G E

    1996-09-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthetase) is a steroidogenic enzyme complex which catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens (termed aromatization). This enzyme was purified from adult equine testis to homogeneity by five chromatographic steps. The ability of purified and reconstituted equine aromatase to exhibit an estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity was tested and compared to testosterone aromatization. Enzymatic activities were assessed by tritiated water release from labelled estradiol and testosterone. Kinetic analysis of estradiol 2-hydroxylation showed an apparent K(m) of 23 microM and a V(max) of 18 nmol/min/mg, whereas the values for testosterone aromatization were a K(m) of 15.7 nM and a V(max) of 34.6 pmol/min/mg. A specific antiserum raised against purified testicular equine P450arom and known to inhibit aromatase activity [1] was also found to inhibit the estrogen hydroxylase activity of equine placental microsomes in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 15 microl serum: 0.5 ml incubate. The estrogen hydroxylase activity was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by two classes of aromatase inhibitors, i.e. steroidal-- (4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 7alpha-([4-aminophenyl]thio)-androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione)--and non-steroidal--(fadrozole and miconazole). The IC50 values were approximately 300 and 890 nM for 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and 7alpha-([4-aminophenyl]thio)-androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione, and 92 and 285 nM, for fadrozole and miconazole, respectively. Furthermore, 4-hydroxyandrostenedione caused a time-dependent inactivation of estrogen hydroxylase activity. We conclude that equine aromatase is able to use estradiol as a substrate, and converts it to catechol estradiol in vitro, possibly using the active site of aromatization. This is the first demonstration that equine aromatase functions as an estrogen 2-hydroxylase, in addition to transforming androgens into estrogen.

  18. Aromatase activity in the ovary and brain of the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) exposed to paper mill effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Edward F; Davis, William P; Guillette, Louis J

    2002-01-01

    Studies have shown that female mosquitofish living downstream of a paper mill located on the Fenholloway River, Florida, have masculinized secondary sex characteristics, including altered anal fin development and reproductive behavior. Masculinization can be caused by exposure to androgens in the water or from an alteration in aromatase activity in the fish. We hypothesized that aromatase activity would be inhibited by a component(s) of the paper mill effluent. Aromatase inhibition could masculinize the hormonal profile and, subsequently, secondary sex characteristics of the exposed females. Therefore, we predicted that ovarian and brain aromatase activity would be lower in the female mosquitofish from the Fenholloway River compared with the reference site, the Econfina River. Adult females were collected and standard length, body mass, anal fin length, and segment number were measured. Ovarian and brain aromatase activity were determined using a tritiated water assay. Fenholloway females had masculinized anal fin development as indicated by an increase in the number of segments in the longest anal fin ray (p < 0.0001), yet the length of the ray did not differ between sites (p = 0.95). Fenholloway females exhibited higher ovarian (p = 0.0039) and brain (p = 0.0003) aromatase activity compared with reference site fish. These data do not support aromatase inhibition as the mechanism for masculinization, suggesting that the masculinization of the Fenholloway female mosquitofish is due to androgenic contaminants. Future studies should examine the relationship between aromatase enzyme activity and exposure to environmental androgens. PMID:12060840

  19. No evidence for the in vivo activity of aromatase-inhibiting flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, N; Joshi, S C; Ahotupa, M; Li, X; Ammälä, J; Mäkelä, S; Santti, R

    2001-09-01

    Measurements of the aromatase-inhibiting and antioxidative capacities of flavonoids in vitro showed that slight changes in flavonoid structure may result in marked changes in biological activity. Several flavonoids such as 7-hydroxyflavone and chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) were shown to inhibit the formation of 3H-17beta-estradiol from 3H-androstenedione (IC(50)<1.0 microM) in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells and in human embryonic kidney cells HEK 293 transfected with human aromatase gene (Arom+HEK 293). Flavone and quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) showed no inhibition (IC(50)>100 microM). None of the requirements for optimal antioxidative capacity (2,3-double bond with 4'-hydroxy group, 3-hydroxyl group, 5,7-dihydroxy structure and the orthodihydroxy structure in the B-ring) is relevant for the maximum inhibition of aromatase by flavonoids. After oral administration to immature rats at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, which considerably exceeds amounts found in daily human diets, neither aromatase-inhibiting nonestrogenic flavonoids, such as chrysin, nor estrogenic flavonoids, such as naringenin and apigenin, induced uterine growth or reduced estrogen- or androgen-induced uterine growth. The inability of flavonoids to inhibit aromatase and, consequently, uterine growth in short-term tests may be due to their relatively poor absorption and/or bioavailability.

  20. Effects of Aromatase Inhibition and Androgen Activity on Serotonin and Behavior in Male Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Robertson, Nicola; Colemen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Aggression in humans and animals has been linked to androgens and serotonin function. To further our understanding of the effect of androgens on serotonin and aggression in male macaques, we sought to manipulate circulating androgens and the activity of aromatase; and to then determine behavior and the endogenous availability of serotonin. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with [1] placebo, [2] testosterone (T), [3] T+Dutasteride (5a reductase inhibitor; AvodartTM), [4] T+Letrozole (non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor; FemeraTM), [5] Flutamide+ATD (androgen antagonist plus steroidal aromatase inhibitor) or [6] dihydrotestosterone (DHT)+ATD (n=5/group). Behavioral observations were made during treatments. At the end of the treatment period, each animal was sedated with propofol and administered a bolus of fenfluramine (5 mg/kg). Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin proportional to endogenous availability and in turn, serotonin stimulates the secretion of prolactin. Therefore, serum prolactin concentrations reflect endogenous serotonin. Fenfluramine significantly increased serotonin/prolactin in all groups (p <0.0001). Fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin in the T-treated group was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.0001). Castration partially reduced the serotonin/prolactin response; and Letrozole partially blocked the effect of T. Complete inhibition of aromatase with ATD, a non-competitve inhibitor, significantly and similarly reduced the fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin response in the presence or absence of DHT. Neither aggressive behavior nor yawning (indicators of androgen activity) correlated with serotonin/prolactin, but posited aromatase activity correlated significantly with prolactin (p<0.0008; r2 =0.95). In summary, androgens induced aggressive behavior but they did not regulate serotonin. Altogether, the data suggest that aromatase activity supports

  1. REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

  2. REPRODUCTION AND AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE MARINE FISH CUNNER (TAUTOGOLABROUS ADSPERSUS) EXPOSED TO ATRAZINE AND OCTYLPHENOL IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that reproduction in fish is altered by exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that modify aromatase activity. Aromatase, a product of the CYP19 gene, is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the androgens androst...

  3. X-ray structure of human aromatase reveals an androgen-specific active site.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2010-02-28

    Aromatase is a unique cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens for the synthesis of estrogens. All human estrogens are synthesized via this enzymatic aromatization pathway. Aromatase inhibitors thus constitute a frontline therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Despite decades of intense investigation, this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has eluded all structure determination efforts. We have determined the crystal structure of the highly active aromatase purified from human placenta, in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione. The structure shows the binding mode of androstenedione in the catalytically active oxidized high-spin ferric state of the enzyme. Hydrogen bond-forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains that complement the puckering of the steroid backbone provide the molecular basis for the exclusive androgenic specificity of aromatase. Locations of catalytic residues and water molecules shed new light on the mechanism of the aromatization step. The structure also suggests a membrane integration model indicative of the passage of steroids through the lipid bilayer.

  4. X-ray Structure of Human Aromatase Reveals An Androgen-Specific Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase is a unique cytochrome P450 that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens for the synthesis of estrogens. All human estrogens are synthesized via this enzymatic aromatization pathway. Aromatase inhibitors thus constitute a frontline therapy for estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Despite decades of intense investigation, this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has eluded all structure determination efforts. We have determined the crystal structure of the highly active aromatase purified from human placenta, in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione. The structure shows the binding mode of androstenedione in the catalytically active oxidized high-spin ferric state of the enzyme. Hydrogen bond forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains that complement the puckering of the steroid backbone provide the molecular basis for the exclusive androgenic specificity of aromatase. Locations of catalytic residues and water molecules shed new light on the mechanism of the aromatization step. The structure also suggests a membrane integration model indicative of the passage of steroids through the lipid bilayer. PMID:19808095

  5. Probing the origins of aromatase inhibitory activity of disubstituted coumarins via QSAR and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Suvannang, Naravut; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) of imidazole derivatives of 4,7-disubstituted coumarins as inhibitors of aromatase, a potential therapeutic protein target for the treatment of breast cancer. Herein, a series of 3,7- and 4,7-disubstituted coumarin derivatives (1-34) with R1 and R2 substituents bearing aromatase inhibitory activity were modeled as a function of molecular and quantum chemical descriptors derived from low-energy conformer geometrically optimized at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. Insights on origins of aromatase inhibitory activity was afforded by the computed set of 7 descriptors comprising of F10[N-O], Inflammat-50, Psychotic-80, H-047, BELe1, B10[C-O] and MAXDP. Such significant descriptors were used for QSAR model construction and results indicated that model 4 afforded the best statistical performance. Good predictive performance were achieved as verified from the internal (comprising the training and the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOO-CV) sets) and external sets affording the following statistical parameters: R (2) Tr = 0.9576 and RMSETr = 0.0958 for the training set; Q (2) CV = 0.9239 and RMSECV = 0.1304 for the LOO-CV set as well as Q (2) Ext = 0.7268 and RMSEExt = 0.2927 for the external set. Significant descriptors showed correlation with functional substituents, particularly, R1 in governing high potency as aromatase inhibitor. Molecular docking calculations suggest that key residues interacting with the coumarins were predominantly lipophilic or non-polar while a few were polar and positively-charged. Findings illuminated herein serve as the impetus that can be used to rationally guide the design of new aromatase inhibitors.

  6. The effect of opiates on the activity of human placental aromatase/CYP19.

    PubMed

    Zharikova, Olga L; Deshmukh, Sujal V; Kumar, Meena; Vargas, Ricardo; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2007-01-15

    Aromatase, cytochrome P450 19, is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens by the human placenta. It is also the major placental enzyme that metabolizes the opiates L-acetylmethadol (LAAM), methadone, and buprenorphine (BUP). Methadone and BUP are used in treatment of the opiate addict and are competitive inhibitors of testosterone conversion to estradiol (E(2)) and 16alpha-hydroxytestosterone (16-OHT) to estriol (E(3)) by aromatase. The aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of 20 opiates, which can be administered to pregnant patients for therapeutic indications or abused, on E(2) and E(3) formation by placental aromatase. Data obtained indicated that the opiates increased, inhibited, or had no effect on aromatase activity. Their effect on E(3) formation was more pronounced than that on E(2) due to the lower affinity of 16-OHT than testosterone to aromatase. The K(i) values for the opiates that inhibited E(3) formation were sufentanil, 7 +/- 1 microM; LAAM, 13 +/- 8 microM; fentanyl, 25 +/- 5 microM; oxycodone, 92 +/- 22 microM; codeine, 218 +/- 69 microM; (+)-pentazocine, 225 +/- 73 microM. The agonists morphine, heroin, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, propoxyphene, meperidine, levorphanol, dextrorphan, and (-)-pentazocine and the antagonists naloxone and naltrexone caused an increase in E(3) formation by 124-160% of control but had no effect on E(2) formation. Moreover, oxycodone and codeine did not inhibit E(2) formation and the IC(50) values for fentanyl, sufentanil, and (+)-pentazocine were >1000 microM. It is unlikely that the acute administration of the opiates that inhibit estrogen formation would affect maternal and/or neonatal outcome. However, the effects of abusing any of them during the entire pregnancy are unclear at this time.

  7. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  8. Effects of Pharmaceuticals Used for Breast Cancer Treatment on Reproduction and Aromatase Activity in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted with the marine fish cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) to evaluate whether four pharmaceuticals used in breast cancer treatment have an impact on reproduction or aromatase activity. Tamoxifen binds to estrogen receptors, while anastrozole, let...

  9. Design, synthesis and aromatase inhibitory activities of novel indole-imidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Shi, Hong-Fan; Zhao, Jing-Feng; He, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2013-03-15

    A series of novel indole-imidazole derivatives have been prepared and evaluated in vitro on the aromatase inhibitory activities. The results suggested that proton or a small electron-withdrawing group at para-position of the phenyl ring would enhance the inhibitory activities and any bulky group should be avoided in order to keep a relative small volume for this kind of molecules.

  10. Aromatase inhibitory activity of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives and QSAR study

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Pingaew, Ratchanok; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Sitthimonchai, Somkid; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2017-01-01

    A series of 2-amino(chloro)-3-chloro-1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (1-11) were investigated for their aromatase inhibitory activities. 1,4-Naphthoquinones 1 and 4 were found to be the most potent compounds affording IC50 values 5.2 times lower than the reference drug, ketoconazole. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model provided good predictive performance (R2CV = 0.9783 and RMSECV = 0.0748) and indicated mass (Mor04m and H8m), electronegativity (Mor08e), van der Waals volume (G1v) and structural information content index (SIC2) descriptors as key descriptors governing the activity. To investigate the effects of structural modifications on aromatase inhibitory activity, the model was employed to predict the activities of an additional set of 39 structurally modified compounds constructed in silico. The prediction suggested that the 2,3-disubstitution of 1,4-naphthoquinone ring with halogen atoms (i.e., Br, I and F) is the most effective modification for potent activity (1a, 1b and 1c). Importantly, compound 1b was predicted to be more potent than its parent compound 1 (11.90-fold) and the reference drug, letrozole (1.03-fold). The study suggests the 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives as promising compounds to be further developed as a novel class of aromatase inhibitors. PMID:28827987

  11. Synthesis of aromatase inhibitors and dual aromatase steroid sulfatase inhibitors by linking an arylsulfamate motif to 4-(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ylamino)benzonitrile: SAR, crystal structures, in vitro and in vivo activities.

    PubMed

    Bubert, Christian; Woo, L W Lawrence; Sutcliffe, Oliver B; Mahon, Mary F; Chander, Surinder K; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2008-11-01

    4-(((4-Cyanophenyl)(4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)amino)methyl)phenyl sulfamate (6 a) was the first dual aromatase-sulfatase inhibitor (DASI) reported. Several series of its derivatives with various linker systems between the steroid sulfatase (STS) and the aromatase inhibitory pharmacophores were synthesised and evaluated in JEG-3 cells. The X-ray crystal structures of the aromatase inhibitors, DASI precursors 42 d and 60, and DASI 43 h were determined. Nearly all derivatives show improved in vitro aromatase inhibition over 6 a but decreased STS inhibition. The best aromatase inhibitor is 42 e (IC(50)=0.26 nM) and the best DASI is 43 e (IC(50 aromatase)=0.45 nM, IC(50 STS)=1200 nM). SAR for aromatase inhibition shows that compounds containing an alkylene- and thioether-based linker system are more potent than those that are ether-, sulfone-, or sulfonamide-based, and that the length of the linker has a limited effect on aromatase inhibition beyond two methylene units. Compounds 43 d-f were studied in vivo (10 mg kg(-1), single, p.o.). The most potent DASI is 43 e, which inhibited PMSG-induced plasma estradiol levels by 92 % and liver STS activity by 98 % 3 h after dosing. These results further strengthen the concept of designing and developing DASIs for potential treatment of hormone-related cancers.

  12. Effects of nutrition relevant mixtures of phytoestrogens on steroidogenesis, aromatase, estrogen, and androgen activity.

    PubMed

    Taxvig, Camilla; Elleby, Anders; Sonne-Hansen, Katrine; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Nellemann, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens (PEs) are naturally occurring plant components produced in a large range of plants. They can induce biologic responses in vertebrates by mimicking or modulating the action or production of endogenous hormones. This study examined mixtures of 12 food relevant PEs for effects on steroid hormone production, aromatase activity, estrogenic activity, and for interaction with the androgen receptor. The results show that a mixture of all tested PEs increased estradiol production and decreased testosterone production in H295R human adrenal corticocarcinoma cells, indicating an induced aromatase activity. Furthermore, exposure of the H295R cells to isoflavonoids caused a decrease in testosterone production, and various mixtures of PEs significantly stimulated MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell growth and induced aromatase activity in JEG-3 choriocarcinoma cells. The estrogenic effect in the MCF7 cells of the isoflavonoid mixture and coumestrol was supported by an observed increase in progesterone receptor protein expression as well as a decreased ERalpha expression. Overall, the results support that nutrition-relevant concentrations of PEs both alone and in mixtures possess various endocrine disrupting effects, all of which need to be considered when assessing the effects on human health.

  13. Aromatase activity modulation by lindane and bisphenol-A in human placental JEG-3 and transfected kidney E293 cells.

    PubMed

    Nativelle-Serpentini, C; Richard, S; Séralini, G-E; Sourdaine, P

    2003-08-01

    Aromatase is the cytochrome P-450 involved in converting androgens to estrogens. The cytochrome P-450 family plays a central role in the oxidative metabolism of compounds including environmental pollutants. Since lindane and bisphenol-A (BPA) are two well-characterized endocrine disruptors that have been detected in animals and humans, it was important to learn whether they could affect aromatase activity and consequently estrogen biosynthesis. The present study investigates the effects of BPA and lindane on cytotoxicity, aromatase activity and mRNA levels in human placental JEG-3 cells and transfected human embryonal kidney 293 cells. Both cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of lindane (25, 50 and 75 microM) and bisphenol-A (25, 50 and 100 microM) over different time periods (10 min-18 h). As a result, none of these concentrations showed cytotoxicity. After short pre-incubation times (10 min-6 h), aromatase activity was enhanced by both compounds. Longer time incubation (18 h), however, produced dose-related inhibition. Lindane and BPA had no significant effects on CYP19 mRNA levels. Therefore, lindane and BPA modulate aromatase activity suggesting an interaction with the cytochrome P-450 aromatase. This study highlights the endocrine-modulating properties of lindane and bisphenol-A.

  14. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    PubMed Central

    Cornil, Charlotte A.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction. PMID:21878510

  15. Aromatase is expressed and active in the rainbow trout oocyte during final oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Gohin, Maella; Bodinier, Pascal; Fostier, Alexis; Chesnel, Franck; Bobe, Julien

    2011-07-01

    While it is generally well accepted that the ovarian follicular sites of estradiol-17β (E2) synthesis are restricted to somatic cells, the possible contribution of the germinal compartment has received little or no attention in teleosts. In order to demonstrate the expression of ovarian aromatase in the oocyte, cyp19a1a mRNA was studied in ovarian follicles by in situ hybridization. In addition, the expression of cyp19a1a was studied in both somatic and germinal compartments of the ovarian follicle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during final oocyte maturation (i.e., maturational competence acquisition and subsequent meiosis resumption) by real-time PCR. The enzymatic activity of ovarian aromatase was also studied in both somatic and germinal compartments of the ovarian follicle. Finally, E2 levels were monitored in follicle-enclosed oocytes throughout the pre-ovulatory period. We were able to demonstrate a significant ovarian aromatase expression and activity in the late vitellogenic oocyte. Furthermore, a dramatic decrease in aromatase expression and activity occurs in the oocyte during late oogenesis, concomitantly with the trend observed in surrounding follicular layers. We also report an unexpected increase of E2 levels in the oocyte during the pre-ovulatory period. To our knowledge, these observations are reported for the first time in any teleost species. Together, our data support the hypothesis of the participation of the germinal compartment in follicular estrogen synthesis and a biological role of E2 during oocyte and/or early embryo development.

  16. Xanthones from the Botanical Dietary Supplement Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) with Aromatase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Twelve xanthone constituents of the botanical dietary supplement, mangosteen (the pericarp of Garcinia mangostina) were screened using a non-cellular, enzyme-based microsomal aromatase inhibition assay. Of these compounds, garcinone D (3), garcinone E (5)α-mangostin (8), and γ-mangostin (9) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory activity. In a follow-up cell-based assay using SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells that express high levels of aromatase, the most potent of these four xanthones was γ-mangostin (9). Because xanthones may be consumed in substantial amounts from commercially available mangosteen products, the consequences of frequent intake of mangosteen botanical dietary supplements requires further investigation to determine their possible role in breast cancer chemoprevention. PMID:18558747

  17. Zoledronic acid inhibits aromatase activity and phosphorylation: potential mechanism for additive zoledronic acid and letrozole drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Schech, Amanda J; Nemieboka, Brandon E; Brodie, Angela H

    2012-11-01

    Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate originally indicated for use in osteoporosis, has been reported to exert a direct effect on breast cancer cells, although the mechanism of this effect is currently unknown. Data from the ABCSG-12 and ZO-FAST clinical trials suggest that treatment with the combination of ZA and aromatase inhibitors (AI) result in increased disease free survival in breast cancer patients over AI alone. To determine whether the mechanism of this combination involved inhibition of aromatase, AC-1 cells (MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with an aromatase construct) were treated simultaneously with combinations of ZA and AI letrozole. This combination significantly increased inhibition of aromatase activity of AC-1 cells when compared to letrozole alone. Treatment of 1 nM letrozole in combination with 1 μM or 10 μM ZA resulted in an additive drug interaction on inhibition of cell viability, as measured by MTT assay. Treatment with ZA was found to inhibit phosphorylation of aromatase on serine residues. Zoledronic acid was also shown to be more effective in inhibiting cell viability in aromatase transfected AC-1 cells when compared to inhibition of cell viability observed in non-transfected MCF-7. Estradiol was able to partially rescue the effect of 1 μM and 10 μM ZA on cell viability following treatment for 72 h, as shown by a shift to the right in the estradiol dose-response curve. In conclusion, these results indicate that the combination of ZA and letrozole results in an additive inhibition of cell viability. Furthermore, ZA alone can inhibit aromatase activity through inhibition of serine phosphorylation events important for aromatase enzymatic activity and contributes to inhibition of cell viability.

  18. Effects of incubation temperature and estrogen exposure on aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of embryonic alligators.

    PubMed Central

    Milnes, Matthew R; Roberts, Robert N; Guillette, Louis J

    2002-01-01

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiation of species that exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). During the temperature-sensitive period (TSP) of sex determination, we compared aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of putative male and female alligator embryos to determine if aromatase activity in the embryonic brain could provide the hormonal environment necessary for ovarian development in a TSD species. In addition, we assessed the pattern of aromatase activity in the brain and gonads of embryos treated with estradiol-17beta (E(2)) and incubated at male-producing temperatures to compare enzyme activity in E(2) sex-reversed females to control males and females. This has particular significance regarding wildlife species living in areas contaminated with suspected environmental estrogens. Gonadal aromatase activity remained low during the early stages of the TSP in both sexes and increased late in the TSP only in females. Aromatase activity in the brain increased prior to gonadal differentiation in both sexes. These results suggest that aromatase activity in the brain is not directly responsible for mediating differentiation of the gonad. E(2) exposure at male-producing temperatures resulted in sex-reversed females that had intermediate gonad function and masculinized brain activity. This study indicates the need to examine multiple end points and to determine the persistence of developmental alterations in contaminant-exposed wildlife populations. PMID:12060834

  19. Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs)

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, Rocio F. Scholten, Deborah E.A.; Marsh, Goeran; Jong, Paul C. de; Berg, Martin van den

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC{sub 50} values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K{sub i}/K{sub i}' of 7.68/0,02 {mu}M and 5.01/0.04 {mu}M respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show

  20. Inhibition of human placental aromatase activity by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs).

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rocío F; Scholten, Deborah E A; Marsh, Göran; de Jong, Paul C; van den Berg, Martin

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardants in many different polymers, resins and substrates. Due to their widespread production and use, their high binding affinity to particles, and their lipophilic properties, several PBDE congeners can bioaccumulate in the environment. As a result, PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and various wildlife samples, such as birds, seals, and whales. Furthermore, certain OH-PBDEs and their methoxylated derivatives (MeO-PBDEs) are natural products in the marine environment. Recently, our laboratory focused on the possible effects on steroidogenesis of PBDEs and OH-PBDEs, e.g. in the human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) cell line indicating that some OH-PBDEs can significantly influence steroidogenic enzymes like CYP19 (aromatase) and CYP17. In the present study, human placental microsomes have been used to study the possible interaction of twenty two OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs with aromatase, the enzyme that mediates the conversion of androgens into estrogens. All OH-PBDE derivates showed significant inhibition of placental aromatase activity with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range, while the MeO-PBDEs did not have any effect on this enzyme activity. Enzyme kinetics studies indicated that two OH-PBDEs, 5-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (5-OH-BDE47) and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47), had a mixed-type inhibition of aromatase activity with apparent K(i)/K(i)' of 7.68/0,02 microM and 5.01/0.04 microM respectively. For comparison, some structurally related compounds, a dihydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which is a natural product (2,2'-dihyroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diOH-BB80)) and its non-bromo derivative were also included in the study. Again inhibition of aromatase activity could be measured, but their potency was significantly less than those observed for the OH-PBDEs. These results show that a

  1. Steroidal inhibitors as chemical probes of the active site of aromatase.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeir, R W; Moh, P P; Ebrahimian, S; Darby, M V

    1993-03-01

    Androstenedione analogs containing 7 alpha-substituents have proven to be potent inhibitors of aromatase in human placental microsomes, in MCF-7 mammary cell cultures, and in JAr choriocarcinoma cells. Recent investigations have focused on the use of mechanism-based inhibitors, such as 7 alpha-substituted 1,4-androstadienediones, to biochemically probe the active site of aromatase. Inhibition kinetics were determined under initial velocity conditions using purified human placental cytochrome P450arom protein in a reconstituted system. Derivatives of 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione exhibited high affinity in the purified enzyme system. 7 alpha-(4'-Amino)phenylthio-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, abbreviated 7 alpha-APTADD, demonstrated rapid time-dependent, first-order inactivation of reconstituted aromatase activity only in the presence of NADPH. The apparent Kinact for 7 alpha-APTADD is 11.8 nM, the first-order rate of inactivation is 2.72 x 10(-3) sec-1, and the half-time of inactivation at infinite inhibitor concentration is 4.25 min. The values for the rate constant and half-time of inactivation are similar to those observed in the placental microsomal assay system. Further studies were performed with radioiodinated 7 alpha-(4'-iodo)phenylthio-1,4-androstadienedione, 7 alpha-IPTADD, and the reconstituted aromatase system. Incubations with [125I] 7 alpha-IPTADD were followed by protein precipitation, solvent extraction, and column chromatography. Analysis of the isolated cytochrome P450arom by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography demonstrated the presence of only one radioactive band, which corresponded to the protein staining band for cytochrome P450arom. HPLC radiochromatographic analysis of the isolated cytochrome P450aroM confirmed the presence of only one radioactive peak coeluting with the u.v. peak for cytochrome P450arom. Peptide mapping analysis by reverse-phase HPLC of digested inhibitor-cytochrome P450arom complex

  2. Effects of organochlorine compounds on cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in an immortal sea turtle cell line.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jennifer M; McClellan-Green, Patricia

    2004-01-01

    Many classes of environmental contaminants affect the reproductive function of animals through interactions with the endocrine system. The primary components affected by endocrine active compounds (EACs) are the steroid receptors and the enzymes responsible for steroidogenesis. This study sought to develop an in vitro model for assessing EAC effects in sea turtles by examining their ability to alter cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) activity. Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. This enzyme is critical in the sexual differentiation of reptiles which demonstrate temperature-dependent sex determination. An immortal testis cell line GST-TS from a green sea turtle was grown in culture at 30 degrees C in RPMI 1640 media. The cells were exposed to three known aromatase inducers; dexamethasone (Dex), 8Br-cyclic AMP, or human chronic gonadotropin (HCG) and one aromatase inhibitor 4-androstenol-dione (4-OHA). In addition, the GST-TS cells were exposed to 0.1-30 microM atrazine and 3-100 microM 4,4'-DDE. The inducing compounds that have been shown to increase aromatase activity in other systems failed to induce aromatase activity in the GST-TS cells, yet exposure to the inhibiting compound, 4-OHA, did result in a significant reduction. Atrazine (0.1, 1.0 and 10 microM) significantly induced aromatase activity following a 24 h exposure, and 4,4'-DDE inhibited the activity but only at cytotoxic concentrations (100 microM). Based on these results, this in vitro model can be useful in examining the endocrine effects of EACs in sea turtles.

  3. Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Rasmussen, Thomas Hoj; Gjermandsen, Irene Marianne; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2002-02-15

    Twenty-four pesticides were tested for interactions with the estrogen receptor (ER) and the androgen receptor (AR) in transactivation assays. Estrogen-like effects on MCF-7 cell proliferation and effects on CYP19 aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were also investigated. Pesticides (endosulfan, methiocarb, methomyl, pirimicarb, propamocarb, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, tolchlofos-methyl, vinclozolin, iprodion, fenarimol, prochloraz, fosetyl-aluminum, chlorothalonil, daminozid, paclobutrazol, chlormequat chlorid, and ethephon) were selected according to their frequent use in Danish greenhouses. In addition, the metabolite mercaptodimethur sulfoxide, the herbicide tribenuron-methyl, and the organochlorine dieldrin, were included. Several of the pesticides, dieldrin, endosulfan, methiocarb, and fenarimol, acted both as estrogen agonists and androgen antagonists. Prochloraz reacted as both an estrogen and an androgen antagonist. Furthermore, fenarimol and prochloraz were potent aromatase inhibitors while endosulfan was a weak inhibitor. Hence, these three pesticides possess at least three different ways to potentially disturb sex hormone actions. In addition, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, tolclofos-methyl, and tribenuron-methyl induced weak responses in one or both estrogenicity assays. Upon cotreatment with 17beta-estradiol, the response was potentiated by endosulfan in the proliferation assay and by pirimicarb, propamocarb, and daminozid in the ER transactivation assay. Vinclozolin reacted as a potent AR antagonist and dichlorvos as a very weak one. Methomyl, pirimicarb, propamocarb, and iprodion weakly stimulated aromatase activity. Although the potencies of the pesticides to react as hormone agonists or antagonists are low compared to the natural ligands, the integrated response in the organism might be amplified by the ability of the pesticides to act via several mechanism and the frequent simultaneous exposure to

  4. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships of steroid aromatase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, Tudor I.; García, Angel E.

    1996-06-01

    Inhibition of aromatase, a cytochrome P450 that converts androgens to estrogens, is relevant in the therapeutic control of breast cancer. We investigate this inhibition using a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) method known as Comparative Molecular Field Analysis, CoMFA [Cramer III, R.D. et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 110 (1988) 5959]. We analyzed the data for 50 steroid inhibitors [Numazawa, M. et al., J. Med. Chem., 37 (1994) 2198, and references cited therein] assayed against androstenedione on human placental microsomes. An initial CoMFA resulted in a three-component model for log(1/Ki), with an explained variance r2 of 0.885, and a cross-validated q2 of 0.673. Chemometric studies were performed using GOLPE [Baroni, M. et al., Quant. Struct.-Act. Relatsh., 12 (1993) 9]. The CoMFA/GOLPE model is discussed in terms of robustness, predictivity, explanatory power and simplicity. After randomized exclusion of 25 or 10 compounds (repeated 25 times), the q2 for one component was 0.62 and 0.61, respectively, while r2 was 0.674. We demonstrate that the predictive r2 based on the mean activity (Ym) of the training set is misleading, while the test set Ym-based predictive r2 index gives a more accurate estimate of external predictivity. Using CoMFA, the observed differences in aromatase inhibition among C6-substituted steroids are rationalized at the atomic level. The CoMFA fields are consistent with known, potent inhibitors of aromatase, not included in the model. When positioned in the same alignment, these compounds have distinct features that overlap with the steric and electrostatic fields obtained in the CoMFA model. The presence of two hydrophobic binding pockets near the aromatase active site is discussed: a steric bulk tolerant one, common for C4, C6-alpha and C7-alpha substitutents, and a smaller one at the C6-beta region.

  5. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    SciTech Connect

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  6. New aromatase inhibitors. Synthesis and biological activity of pyridyl-substituted tetralone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bayer, H; Batzl, C; Hartmann, R W; Mannschreck, A

    1991-09-01

    The (E)-2-(4-pyridylmethylene)-1-tetralones 1-7 (1, H; 2, 5-OCH3; 3, 6-OCH3; 4, 7-OCH3; 5, 5-OH; 6, 6-OH; 7, 7-OH) were obtained by aldol condensation of the corresponding 1-tetralones with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, and in the case of the OH compounds 5 and 7 subsequent ether cleavage of the OCH3-substituted 2-(4-pyridylmethylene)-1-tetralones. Catalytic hydrogenation of 1-4 gave the 2-(4-pyridylmethyl)-1-tetralones 8-11 (8, H; 9, 5-OCH3; 10, 6-OCH3; 11, 7-OCH3). Subsequent ether cleavage of 9-11 led to the corresponding OH compounds 12-14 (12, 5-OH; 13, 6-OH; 14, 7-OH). The enantiomers of 11 and 12 were separated semipreparatively by HPLC on triacetylcellulose. All compounds (1-14) showed an inhibition of human placental aromatase exhibiting relative potencies from 2.2 to 213 [compounds 6 and (+)-12, respectively; aromatase inhibitory potency of aminoglutethimide (AG) = 1]. The compounds exhibited no or only a weak inhibition of desmolase [cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme; maximum activity shown by 12, 23% inhibition (25 microM); AG, 53% inhibition (25 microM)]. In vivo, however, the compounds were not superior to AG as far as the reduction of the plasma estradiol concentration and the mammary carcinoma (MC) inhibiting properties are concerned (PMSG-primed SD rats as well as DMBA-induced MC of the SD rat, pre- and postmenopausal experiments, and the transplantable MXT-MC of the BD2F1 mouse). This is due to a fast decrease of the plasma E2 concentration inhibiting effect as could be shown by a kinetic experiment. In addition, select compounds inhibited rat ovarian aromatase much less than human placental aromatase (12, factor of 10). Estrogenic effects as a cause for the poor in vivo activity of the test compounds could be excluded, since they did not show affinity for the estrogen receptor.

  7. Pomegranate Ellagitannin-Derived Compounds Exhibit Anti-proliferative and Anti-aromatase Activity in Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Lynn S.; Zhang, Yanjun; Seeram, Navindra P.; Heber, David; Chen, Shiuan

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen stimulates the proliferation of breast cancer cells and the growth of estrogen-responsive tumors. The aromatase enzyme, which converts androgen to estrogen, plays a key role in breast carcinogenesis. The pomegranate fruit, a rich source of ellagitannins (ETs), has attracted recent attention due to its anti-cancer and anti-atherosclerotic properties. On consumption, pomegranate ETs hydrolyze, releasing ellagic acid (EA) which is then converted to 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (‘urolithin’) derivatives by gut microflora. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-aromatase activity and inhibition of testosterone-induced breast cancer cell proliferation by ellagitannin (ET)-derived compounds isolated from pomegranates. A panel of ten ET-derived compounds including EA, gallagic acid (GA), and urolithins A and B (and their acetylated, methylated and sulfated analogs prepared in our laboratory) were examined for ability to inhibit aromatase activity and testosterone-induced breast cancer cell proliferation. Using a microsomal aromatase assay, we screened the panel of ET-derived compounds and identified six with anti-aromatase activity. Among these, urolithin B (UB) was shown to most effectively inhibit aromatase activity in a live-cell assay. Kinetic analysis of UB demonstrated mixed inhibition, suggesting more than one inhibitory mechanism. Proliferation assays also determined that UB significantly inhibited testosterone-induced MCF-7aro cell proliferation. The remaining test compounds also exhibited anti-proliferative activity, but to a lesser degree than UB. These studies suggest that pomegranate ET-derived compounds have potential for the prevention of estrogen-responsive breast cancers. PMID:20051378

  8. Evidence for an Elevated Aspartate pKa in the Active Site of Human Aromatase*

    PubMed Central

    Di Nardo, Giovanna; Breitner, Maximilian; Bandino, Andrea; Ghosh, Debashis; Jennings, Gareth K.; Hackett, John C.; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, is of significant mechanistic and therapeutic interest. Crystal structures and computational studies of this enzyme shed light on the critical role of Asp309 in substrate binding and catalysis. These studies predicted an elevated pKa for Asp309 and proposed that protonation of this residue was required for function. In this study, UV-visible absorption, circular dichroism, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and enzyme kinetics were used to study the impact of pH on aromatase structure and androstenedione binding. Spectroscopic studies demonstrate that androstenedione binding is pH-dependent, whereas, in contrast, the D309N mutant retains its ability to bind to androstenedione across the entire pH range studied. Neither pH nor mutation perturbed the secondary structure or heme environment. The origin of the observed pH dependence was further narrowed to the protonation equilibria of Asp309 with a parallel set of spectroscopic studies using exemestane and anastrozole. Because exemestane interacts with Asp309 based on its co-crystal structure with the enzyme, its binding is pH-dependent. Aromatase binding to anastrozole is pH-independent, consistent with the hypothesis that this ligand exploits a distinct set of interactions in the active site. In summary, we assign the apparent pKa of 8.2 observed for androstenedione binding to the side chain of Asp309. To our knowledge, this work represents the first experimental assignment of a pKa value to a residue in a cytochrome P450. This value is in agreement with theoretical calculations (7.7–8.1) despite the reliance of the computational methods on the conformational snapshots provided by crystal structures. PMID:25425647

  9. Prediction of aromatase inhibitory activity using the efficient linear method (ELM).

    PubMed

    Shoombuatong, Watshara; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibition is an effective treatment strategy for breast cancer. Currently, several in silico methods have been developed for the prediction of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) using artificial neural network (ANN) or support vector machine (SVM). In spite of this, there are ample opportunities for further improvements by developing a simple and interpretable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Herein, an efficient linear method (ELM) is proposed for constructing a highly predictive QSAR model containing a spontaneous feature importance estimator. Briefly, ELM is a linear-based model with optimal parameters derived from genetic algorithm. Results showed that the simple ELM method displayed robust performance with 10-fold cross-validation MCC values of 0.64 and 0.56 for steroidal and non-steroidal AIs, respectively. Comparative analyses with other machine learning methods (i.e. ANN, SVM and decision tree) were also performed. A thorough analysis of informative molecular descriptors for both steroidal and non-steroidal AIs provided insights into the mechanism of action of compounds. Our findings suggest that the shape and polarizability of compounds may govern the inhibitory activity of both steroidal and non-steroidal types whereas the terminal primary C(sp3) functional group and electronegativity may be required for non-steroidal AIs. The R code of the ELM method is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1274030.

  10. Prediction of aromatase inhibitory activity using the efficient linear method (ELM)

    PubMed Central

    Shoombuatong, Watshara; Prachayasittikul, Veda; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase inhibition is an effective treatment strategy for breast cancer. Currently, several in silico methods have been developed for the prediction of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) using artificial neural network (ANN) or support vector machine (SVM). In spite of this, there are ample opportunities for further improvements by developing a simple and interpretable quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Herein, an efficient linear method (ELM) is proposed for constructing a highly predictive QSAR model containing a spontaneous feature importance estimator. Briefly, ELM is a linear-based model with optimal parameters derived from genetic algorithm. Results showed that the simple ELM method displayed robust performance with 10-fold cross-validation MCC values of 0.64 and 0.56 for steroidal and non-steroidal AIs, respectively. Comparative analyses with other machine learning methods (i.e. ANN, SVM and decision tree) were also performed. A thorough analysis of informative molecular descriptors for both steroidal and non-steroidal AIs provided insights into the mechanism of action of compounds. Our findings suggest that the shape and polarizability of compounds may govern the inhibitory activity of both steroidal and non-steroidal types whereas the terminal primary C(sp3) functional group and electronegativity may be required for non-steroidal AIs. The R code of the ELM method is available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1274030. PMID:26535037

  11. Gossypol enantiomers potently inhibit human placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and aromatase activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yaoyao; Mao, Baiping; Li, Linxi; Guan, Hongguo; Su, Ying; Li, Xiaoheng; Lian, Qingquan; Huang, Ping; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Gossypol is a chemical isolated from cotton seeds. It exists as (+) or (-) enantiomer and has been tested for anticancer, abortion-inducing, and male contraception. Progesterone formed from pregnenolone by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) and estradiol from androgen by aromatase (CYP19A1) are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy or associated with some cancers. In this study we compared the potencies of (+)- and (-)-gossypol enantiomers in the inhibition of HSD3B1 and aromatase activities as well as progesterone and estradiol production in human placental JEG-3 cells. (+) Gossypol showed potent inhibition on human placental HSD3B1 with IC50 value of 2.3 μM, while (-) gossypol weakly inhibited it with IC50 over 100 μM. In contrast, (-) gossypol moderately inhibited CYP19A1 activity with IC50 of 23 μM, while (+) gossypol had no inhibition when the highest concentration (100 μM) was tested. (+) Gossypol enantiomer competitively inhibited HSD3B1 against substrate pregnenolone and showed mixed mode against NAD(+). (-) Gossypol competitively inhibited CYP19A1 against substrate testosterone. Gossypol enantiomers showed different potency related to their inhibition on human HSD3B1 and CYP19A1. Whether gossypol enantiomer is used alone or in combination relies on its application and beneficial effects.

  12. Aromatase Activity in Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), Exposed to 17B-Trenbolone or 17B-estradiol in a Tier II Two-Generation Test

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that alter fish reproduction will also modulate activity of the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase. There are two distinct isozymes of aromatase that have been characterized in fish, one predominating in brains and a...

  13. Aromatase Activity in Sheepshead Minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), Exposed to 17B-Trenbolone or 17B-estradiol in a Tier II Two-Generation Test

    EPA Science Inventory

    We tested the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that alter fish reproduction will also modulate activity of the steroidogenic enzyme aromatase. There are two distinct isozymes of aromatase that have been characterized in fish, one predominating in brains and a...

  14. QSAR modeling of aromatase inhibitory activity of 1-substituted 1,2,3-triazole analogs of letrozole.

    PubMed

    Nantasenamat, Chanin; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Prachayasittikul, Supaluk; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2013-11-01

    Aromatase is an estrogen biosynthesis enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 family that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of converting androgens to estrogens. As it is pertinent toward tumor cell growth promotion, aromatase is a lucrative therapeutic target for breast cancer. In the pursuit of robust aromatase inhibitors, a set of fifty-four 1-substituted mono- and bis-benzonitrile or phenyl analogs of 1,2,3-triazole letrozole were employed in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study using multiple linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM). Such QSAR models were developed using a set of descriptors providing coverage of the general characteristics of a molecule encompassing molecular size, flexibility, polarity, solubility, charge and electronic properties. Important physicochemical properties giving rise to good aromatase inhibition were obtained by means of exploring its chemical space as a function of the calculated molecular descriptors. The optimal subset of 3 descriptors (i.e. number of rings, ALogP and HOMO-LUMO) was further used for QSAR model construction. The predicted pIC₅₀ values were in strong correlation with their experimental values displaying correlation coefficient values in the range of 0.72-0.83 for the cross-validated set (QCV) while the external test set (Q(Ext)) afforded values in the range of 0.65-0.66. Insights gained from the present study are anticipated to provide pertinent information contributing to the origins of aromatase inhibitory activity and therefore aid in our on-going quest for aromatase inhibitors with robust properties.

  15. Increased adipose tissue aromatase activity improves insulin sensitivity and reduces adipose tissue inflammation in male mice.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Claes; Hammarstedt, Ann; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Saarinen, Niina; Ryberg, Henrik; Windahl, Sara H; Farman, Helen H; Jansson, John-Olov; Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia; Smith, Ulf; Zhang, Fu-Ping; Poutanen, Matti; Hedjazifar, Shahram; Sjögren, Klara

    2017-10-01

    Females are, in general, more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate whether this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model overexpressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Importantly, male Ap2-arom mice were more insulin sensitive compared with WT mice and exhibited increased serum adiponectin levels and upregulated expression of Glut4 and Irs1 in WAT. The expression of markers of macrophages and immune cell infiltration was markedly decreased in WAT of male Ap2-arom mice. The adipogenesis was enhanced in male Ap2-arom mice, supported by elevated Pparg expression in WAT and enhanced differentiation of preadipocyte into mature adipocytes. In summary, increased adipose tissue aromatase activity reduces adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin sensitivity in male mice. We propose that estrogen increases insulin sensitivity via a local effect in WAT on adiponectin expression, adipose tissue inflammation, and adipogenesis. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Experience modulates both aromatase activity and the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to testosterone in black-headed gulls.

    PubMed

    Ros, Albert F H; Franco, Aldina M A; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-04-20

    In young black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus), exposure to testosterone increases the sensitivity of agonistic behaviour to a subsequent exposure to this hormone. The aim of this paper is twofold: to analyze whether social experience, gained during testosterone exposure, mediates this increase in hormonal sensitivity (priming), and whether this in turn is mediated by an increase in central aromatase activity. To this end, we performed three experiments. In the first juvenile gulls were exposed to two consecutive treatments with testosterone (T1 and T2), with more than a week interval in between. During T1, half of the birds were housed in social isolation (Iso) and the other half in groups (Soc). All birds were re-housed in a new social situation during the second treatment. The increase in social behaviour during T2 was significantly more rapid in Soc than Iso birds. In experiment 2 we show that 17beta-estradiol treatment facilitates the behaviour measured in experiment 1. In experiment 3 we used a set-up comparable with that of experiment 1, but birds were sacrificed early in the T2 period. Aromatase activity in the preoptic area and the hypothalamus was measured using the tritiated water releasing method. In some parts of the preoptic area and hypothalamus aromatase activity was higher in Soc birds relative to Iso birds. The results indicate that social experience can modulate the increase of social behaviour to testosterone via modulation of aromatase activity and independently of actual hormone levels.

  17. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [(3)H](2)O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks. © 2013

  18. A novel nonradioactive method for measuring aromatase activity using a human ovarian granulosa-like tumor cell line and an estrone ELISA.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Ken; Araki, Naohiro; Yanase, Toshihiko; Nawata, Hajime; Iida, Mitsuru

    2004-12-01

    Aromatase is a key enzyme in steroidogenesis and plays an important role in sexual differentiation, fertility, and carcinogenesis. Importantly, a variety of chemicals in the environment may influence its activity and thereby disrupt endocrine function. In the current studies, we developed a novel nonradioactive method for measuring aromatase activity that uses a specific ELISA for estrone along with KGN human ovary granulosa-like carcinoma cells. This cell line has relatively high aromatase activity, and because it lacks 17alpha-hydroxylase, it secretes little or no androstenedione, 17beta-estradiol, or estrone. Therefore, aromatase activity can be assayed simply by measuring the production of estrone in the culture medium after addition of the substrate, androstenedione. Furthermore, by making a slight change in the commercial ELISA kit and optimizing the experimental conditions, we developed a sensitive aromatase assay that could measure a wide range of estrone concentrations with very low interference by androgens. We used this assay to investigate the effects of 23 chemicals that have been previously reported to affect aromatase activity in vitro. We confirmed that 17 of 23 test chemicals had inhibitory or inducible effects, although the specific effects of some were different than previously reported. In conclusion, we have developed a simple, sensitive, and nonradioactive assay that can be used for large-scale screening of compounds that can disrupt endocrine function by influencing aromatase activity.

  19. Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhanced aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    George, F.W.; Ojeda, S.R.

    1987-08-01

    The authors have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed from (1..beta..-/sup 3/H)testosterone) is low prior to birth and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone, ovine luteinizing hormone, or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenouse cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation.

  20. Vasoactive intestinal peptide enhances aromatase activity in the neonatal rat ovary before development of primary follicles or responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone.

    PubMed Central

    George, F W; Ojeda, S R

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated the factors that regulate aromatase activity in fetal-neonatal rat ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity (assessed by measuring the amount of 3H2O) formed from [1 beta-3H]testosterone) is low prior to birth (less than 0.5 pmol/hr per mg of protein) and increases to values greater than 30 pmol/hr per mg of protein between days 8 and 12 after birth. The appearance of ovarian aromatase (postnatal days 2-4) coincides with the development of primordial follicles. Fetal-neonatal ovaries maintained in serum-free organ culture do not develop aromatase activity at the expected time. Ovine follicle-stimulating hormone (0.1-1 microgram/ml), ovine luteinizing hormone (0.1 microgram/ml), or their combination failed to induce the enzyme activity in cultured fetal ovaries, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone is effective in preventing the decline in aromatase activity when postnatal day 8 ovaries are placed in culture. In contrast to follicle-stimulating hormone, dibutyryl-cAMP markedly enhances ovarian aromatase in cultured fetal ovaries. Likewise, enhancement of endogenous cAMP formation with forskolin or cholera toxin caused an increase in enzyme activity within 24 hr. Vasoactive intestinal peptide, a peptide known to occur in ovarian nerves, caused a dose-dependent increase in aromatase activity in fetal ovaries prior to folliculogenesis. Of related peptides tested, only the peptide having N-terminal histidine and C-terminal isoleucine amide was capable of inducing aromatase activity in fetal ovaries. The fact that VIP can induce aromatase activity in fetal rat ovaries prior to follicle formation and prior to responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone suggests that this neuropeptide may play a critical role in ovarian differentiation. Images PMID:3039508

  1. Potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity and DNA damage in swallows from the Rio Grande and Somerville, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sitzlar, M.A.; Mora, M.A.; Fleming, J.G.W.; Bazer, F.W.; Bickham, J.W.; Matson, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and cave swallows (P. fulva) were sampled during the breeding season at several locations in the Rio Grande, Texas, to evaluate the potential effects of environmental contaminants on P450 aromatase activity in brain and gonads and DNA damage in blood cells. The tritiated water-release aromatase assay was used to measure aromatase activity and flow cytometry was used to measure DNA damage in nucleated blood cells. There were no significant differences in brain and gonadal aromatase activities or in estimates of DNA damage (HPCV values) among cave swallow colonies from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) and Somerville. However, both brain and gonadal aromatase activities were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in male cliff swallows from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Also, DNA damage estimates were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in cliff swallows (males and females combined) from Laredo than in those from Somerville. Contaminants of current high use in the LRGV, such as atrazine, and some of the highly persistent organochlorines, such as toxaphene and DDE, could be potentially associated with modulation of aromatase activity in avian tissues. Previous studies have indicated possible DNA damage in cliff swallows. We did not observe any differences in aromatase activity or DNA damage in cave swallows that could be associated with contaminant exposure. Also, the differences in aromatase activity and DNA damage between male cliff swallows from Laredo and Somerville could not be explained by contaminants measured at each site in previous studies. Our study provides baseline information on brain and gonadal aromatase activity in swallows that could be useful in future studies. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  2. Facile synthesis of chrysin-derivatives with promising activities as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Hamdoon A; Ba, Lalla A; Burkholz, Torsten; Schumann, Elena; Diesel, Britta; Zapp, Josef; Kiemer, Alexandra K; Ries, Christina; Hartmann, Rolf W; Hosny, Mohammed; Jacob, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Flavones such as chrysin show structural similarities to androgens, the substrates of human aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens. Aromatase is a key target in the treatment of hormone-dependent tumors, including breast cancer. Flavone-based aromatase inhibitors are of growing interest, and chrysin in particular provides a (natural) lead structure. This paper reports multicomponent synthesis as a means for facile modification of the chrysin core structure in order to add functional elements. A Mannich-type reaction was used to synthesize a range of mono- and disubstituted chrysin derivatives, some of which are more effective aromatase inhibitors than the benchmark compound, aminoglutethimide. Similarly, the reaction of chrysin with various isonitriles and acetylene dicarboxylates results in a new class of flavone derivatives, tricyclic pyrano-flavones which also inhibit human aromatase. Multicomponent reactions involving flavones therefore enable the synthesis of a variety of derivatives, some of which may be useful as anticancer agents.

  3. Effect of sildenafil on human aromatase activity: From in vitro structural analysis to catalysis and inhibition in cells.

    PubMed

    Baravalle, Roberta; Valetti, Francesca; Catucci, Gianluca; Gambarotta, Giovanna; Chiesa, Mario; Maurelli, Sara; Giamello, Elio; Barone, Ines; Catalano, Stefania; Andò, Sebastiano; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Aromatase catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens and is a well-known target for breast cancer therapy. As it has been suggested that its activity is affected by inhibitors of phosphodiesterase-5, this work investigates the potential interaction of sildenafil with aromatase. This is carried out both at molecular level through structural and kinetics assays applied to the purified enzyme, and at cellular level using neuronal and breast cancer cell lines. Sildenafil is found to bind to aromatase with a KD of 0.58±0.05μM acting as a partial and mixed inhibitor with a maximal inhibition of 35±2%. Hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy and docking studies show that sildenafil binds to the heme iron via its 6th axial water ligand. These results also provide information on the starting molecular scaffold for the development of new generations of drugs designed to inhibit aromatase as well as phosphodiesterase-5, a new emerging target for breast cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structure-activity relationships of 2alpha-substituted androstenedione analogs as aromatase inhibitors and their aromatization reactions.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako; Hasegawa, Chie; Takahashi, Madoka

    2005-12-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione (1a, AD) to estrone through three sequential oxygenations of the 19-methyl group. To gain insight into the spatial nature of the AD binding (active) site of aromatase in relation to the catalytic function of the enzyme, we tested for the ability of 2alpha-substituted (halogeno, alkyl, hydroxy, and alkoxy) ADs (1b-1i) to inhibit aromatase in human placental microsomes as well as their ability to serve as a substrate for the enzyme. All of the steroids inhibited the enzyme in a competitive manner with the apparent K(i)'s ranging from 45 to 1150 nM. 2alpha-Halogeno (F, Cl, and Br) and 2alpha-alkyl (CH3 and CH2CH3) steroids 1b-1f were powerful to good inhibitors (Ki=45-171 nM) whereas steroids 1g-1i, having an oxygen function (hydroxy or alkoxy) at C-2alpha, were poor inhibitors (Ki=670-1150 nM). Aromatization of some of the steroids with placental microsomes was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating that the aromatization rate of the bromide 1d was about two-fold that of the natural substrate AD and that of 2alpha-methoxide 1h was similar to that of AD. Kinetic analysis of the aromatization of androgens revealed that a good substrate was not essentially a good inhibitor for aromatase.

  5. The role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent signaling via cyclic AMP response element activation on aromatase up-regulation by o,p'-DDT in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Im, Ji Hye; Park, Bonghwan; Yang, Ji Hye; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2010-10-20

    o,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) is a DDT isomer and xenoestrogen that can induce inflammation and cancer. However, the effect of o,p'-DDT on aromatase is unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of o,p'-DDT on aromatase expression in human breast cancer cells. We also examined whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in o,p'-DDT-mediated aromatase expression. Treatment with o,p'-DDT-induced aromatase protein expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells; enhancing aromatase gene expression, and enzyme and promoter activity. Treatment with ICI 182.780, a estrogen receptor antagonist, did not affect the inductive effects of o,p'-DDT on aromatase expression. In addition, o,p'-DDT increased COX-2 protein levels markedly, increased COX-2 mRNA expression and promoter activity, enhanced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), induced cyclic AMP response element (CRE) activation, and cAMP levels and binding of CREB. o,p'-DDT also increased the phosphorylation of PKA, Akt, ERK, and JNK in their signaling pathways in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, o,p'-DDT induction of aromatase was inhibited by various inhibitors [COX-2 (by NS-398), PKA (H-89), PI3-K/Akt (LY 294002), EP2 (AH6809), and EP4 receptor (AH23848)]. Together, these results suggest that o,p'-DDT increases aromatase, and that o,p'-DDT-induced aromatase is correlated with COX-2 up-regulation, mediated via the CRE activation and PKA and PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways in breast cancer cells.

  6. Aromatase expression in ovarian epithelial cancers.

    PubMed

    Cunat, S; Rabenoelina, F; Daurès, J-P; Katsaros, D; Sasano, H; Miller, W R; Maudelonde, T; Pujol, P

    2005-01-01

    Our study focused on aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) expression in ovarian epithelial normal and cancer cells and tissues. Aromatase mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR in ovarian epithelial cancer cell lines, in human ovarian surface epithelial (HOSE) cell primary cultures, and in ovarian tissue specimens (n=94), including normal ovaries, ovarian cysts and cancers. Aromatase mRNA was found to be expressed in HOSE cells, in BG1, PEO4 and PEO14, but not in SKOV3 and NIH:OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. Correlation analysis of aromatase expression was performed according to clinical, histological and biological parameters. Aromatase expression in ovarian tissue specimens was higher in normal ovaries and cysts than in cancers (P<0.0001). Using laser capture microdissection in normal postmenopausal ovaries, aromatase was found to be predominantly expressed in epithelial cells as compared to stromal component. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), aromatase was also detected in the epithelium component. There was an inverse correlation between aromatase and ERalpha expression in ovarian tissues (P<0.001, r=-0.34). In the cancer group, no significant differences in aromatase expression were observed according to tumor histotype, grade, stage and survival. Aromatase activity was evaluated in ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) cell lines by the tritiated water assay and the effects of third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) on aromatase activity and growth were studied. Letrozole and exemestane were able to completely inhibit aromatase activity in BG1 and PEO14 cell lines. Interestingly, both AI showed an antiproliferative effect on the estrogen responsive BG1 cell line co-expressing aromatase and ERalpha. Aromatase expression was found in ovarian epithelial normal tissues and in some ovarian epithelial cancer cells and tissues. This finding raises the possibility that some tumors may respond to estrogen and provides a basis for ascertaining an antimitogenic

  7. Estrogen secreting adrenal adenocarcinoma in an 18-month-old boy: aromatase activity, protein expression, mRNA and utilization of gonadal type promoter.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, T; Yasuda, T; Noda, H; Wada, K; Kazukawa, I; Someya, T; Minamitani, K; Minagawa, M; Wataki, K; Matsunaga, T; Ohnuma, N; Kohno, Y; Harada, N

    2000-12-01

    We examined clinical, endocrinological and molecular biological aspects of an estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma in an 18-month-old male to clarify the pathogenesis of this condition. An 18-month-old boy was referred for evaluation of progressive bilateral gynecomastia and appearance of pubic hair. The patient had elevated plasma estradiol (349 pg/ml) and testosterone (260 ng/dl) levels that completely suppressed FSH and LH levels, and was subsequently diagnosed with an adrenal tumor on the right side. After removal of a 300-g adenocarcinoma, gynecomastia regressed and essentially normal hormone levels were restored. Aromatase activity in the tumor tissue determined by the 3H-water method was 71.0-104.4 pmol/min/mg protein. High levels of aromatase protein and mRNA in the tumor tissue were also demonstrated, while neither aromatase activity nor protein was detected in normal adrenal glands. To investigate the regulation of aromatase expression in the adrenal carcinoma, we examined the usage of alternate promoters responsible for aromatase gene transcription. In the present case, the amounts of aromatase mRNA utilizing gonadal types of exon 1c (1.3) and 1d (II) were significantly higher than those that using other exon 1s. This result suggested that the utilization of a gonadal-type exon 1 might be involved in the over-production of aromatase in estrogen-secreting adrenal carcinoma.

  8. New aromatase inhibitors. Synthesis and biological activity of aryl-substituted pyrrolizine and indolizine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sonnet, P; Dallemagne, P; Guillon, J; Enguehard, C; Stiebing, S; Tanguy, J; Bureau, R; Rault, S; Auvray, P; Moslemi, S; Sourdaine, P; Séralini, G E

    2000-05-01

    We report herein the design and the synthesis of some aryl-substituted pyrrolizine and indolizine derivatives, on the basis of a hypothetical pharmacophore structure designed to fit the catalytic site of the human cytochrome P450 aromatase. The in vitro biological evaluation of these compounds allowed us to point out two new potent non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors, MR 20494 and MR 20492, with IC50 values in the range of 0.1 microM.

  9. Modulation of Aromatase by Phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Lephart, Edwin D.

    2015-01-01

    The aromatase enzyme catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in many human tissues. Estrogens are known to stimulate cellular proliferation associated with certain cancers and protect against adverse symptoms during the peri- and postmenopausal intervals. Phytoestrogens are a group of plant derived naturally occurring compounds that have chemical structures similar to estrogen. Since phytoestrogens are known to be constituents of animal/human food sources, these compounds have received increased research attention. Phytoestrogens may contribute to decreased cancer risk by the inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity and CYP19 gene expression in human tissues. This review covers (a) the aromatase enzyme (historical descriptions on function, activity, and gene characteristics), (b) phytoestrogens in their classifications and applications to human health, and (c) a chronological coverage of aromatase activity modulated by phytoestrogens from the early 1980s to 2015. In general, phytoestrogens act as aromatase inhibitors by (a) decreasing aromatase gene expression, (b) inhibiting the aromatase enzyme itself, or (c) in some cases acting at both levels of regulation. The findings presented herein are consistent with estrogen's impact on health and phytoestrogen's potential as anticancer treatments, but well-controlled, large-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness of phytoestrogens on breast cancer and age-related diseases. PMID:26798508

  10. Novel highly potent and selective nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors: synthesis, biological evaluation and structure-activity relationships investigation.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Silvia; Zimmer, Christina; Belluti, Federica; Rampa, Angela; Hartmann, Rolf W; Recanatini, Maurizio; Bisi, Alessandra

    2010-07-22

    In further pursuing our search for potent and selective aromatase inhibitors, a new series of molecules was designed and synthesized, exploring possible structural modifications of a previously identified xanthone scaffold. Among them, highly potent compounds, with inhibitory activity in the low nanomolar range, were found. In particular, substitution of the heterocyclic oxygen atom in the xanthone core by a sulfur atom and/or increase in structure flexibility seemed to be favorable for the interaction with the enzyme.

  11. Inhibitory effect of Rhus verniciflua Stokes extract on human aromatase activity; butin is its major bioactive component.

    PubMed

    Park, Myeong Hyeon; Kim, In Sook; Kim, Sun-A; Na, Chun-Soo; Hong, Cheol Yi; Dong, Mi-Sook; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Rhus verniciflua Stokes has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In this study, the effect of R. verniciflua extract on human aromatase (cytochrome P450 19, CYP19) activity was investigated to elucidate the mechanism for the effect of R. verniciflua extract on androgen hormone levels. Androstenedione was used as a substrate and incubated with R. verniciflua extract in cDNA-expressed CYP19 supersomes in the presence of NADPH, and estrone formation was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. R. verniciflua extract was assessed at concentrations of 10-1000 μg/mL. The resulting data showed that R. verniciflua extract inhibited CYP19-mediated estrone formation in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 136 μg/mL. Subsequently, polyphenolic compounds from R. verniciflua extract were tested to identify the ingredients responsible for the aromatase inhibitory effects by R. verniciflua extract. As a result, butin showed aromatase inhibitory effect in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 9.6 μM, whereas the inhibition by other compounds was negligible. These results suggest that R. verniciflua extract could modulate androgen hormone levels via the inhibition of CYP19 activity and butin is a major ingredient responsible for this activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aromatase activity in hindbrain vocal control region of a teleost fish: divergence amoung males with alternative reproductive tactics

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, B. A.; Greco, C.; Bass, A. H.

    1999-01-01

    Type I male midshipman fish acoustically court females, whereas type II males do not but instead sneak or satellite spawn to compete with type I males for fertilizations. 'Singing' type I males diverge from type II males and females in the organization of an expansive hindbrain pacemaker–motoneuron circuit that establishes the physical attributes of vocalizations. Here, levels of aromatase activity were determined in homogenates of brain by measuring the conversion of 3H-androstenedione (AE) to 3H-oestrone (E1) and 3H-oestradiol (E2). Levels were highest in the telencephalon–preoptic area and similar for all morphs. Lower levels were in a region including the diencephalon, midbrain and cerebellum, although levels were significantly higher in females compared with type I males. In the vocal hindbrain region, aromatase levels were three- to five-fold higher in type II males and females than in type I males, and in castrated type II males than in castrated type I males. Conversion of testosterone to oestrogen in type II males and females may effectively prevent testosterone-induced maturation of the vocal system that characterizes type I males. Aromatase may thus be a key enzyme regulating the expression of individual-specific brain circuitry and behaviours among members of one sex.

  13. Impact of the estrus cycle and reduction in estrogen levels with aromatase inhibition, on renal function and nitric oxide activity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Santmyire, Beth R; Venkat, Vasuki; Beinder, Ernst; Baylis, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Estradiol increases mRNA and/or protein expression of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in a variety of tissues including kidney. In this study we determined the relationship between cyclical variations in estradiol levels and renal function and total NO production in the virgin female rat. In addition, we used an aromatase inhibitor (Anastrozole), to inhibit synthesis of estradiol from testosterone. Estradiol levels were higher in proestrus vs. diestrus, and were markedly suppressed by 7 days treatment with aromatase inhibitor. There was no difference in total NO production (from urinary and plasma nitrate+nitrite=NO(X)) between proestrus and diestrus but aromatase inhibition resulted in increases in total NO production. The renal cortical NOS activity and protein abundance also increased in aromatase-inhibited female rats. There were no differences in blood pressure (BP) in any group but the renal vascular resistance (RVR) was low in proestrus, increased in diestrus and did not change further after aromatase inhibition. In summary, the cyclical changes in renal function correlate with estradiol but not NO levels. Pharmacologic castration with aromatase inhibition leads to a marked increase in total and renal NOS. This contrasts to earlier work where surgical castration causes decreased NOS.

  14. Higher order organization of human placental aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Jiang, Wenhua; Lo, Jessica; Egbuta, Chinaza

    2011-07-01

    Aromatase (CYP19A1) is an integral membrane enzyme that catalyzes the removal of the 19-methyl group and aromatization of the A-ring of androgens. All human estrogens are synthesized from their androgenic precursors by this unique cytochrome P450. The crystal structure of active aromatase purified from human placenta has recently been determined in complex with its natural substrate androstenedione in the high-spin ferric state of heme. Hydrogen bond forming interactions and tight packing hydrophobic side chains closely complement puckering of the steroid backbone, thereby providing the molecular basis for the androgenic specificity of aromatase. In the crystal, aromatase molecules are linked by a head-to-tail intermolecular interaction via a surface loop between helix D and helix E of one aromatase molecule that penetrates the heme-proximal cavity of the neighboring, crystallographically related molecule, thus forming in tandem a polymeric aromatase chain. This intermolecular interaction is similar to the aromatase-cytochrome P450 reductase coupling and is driven by electrostatics between the negative potential surface of the D-E loop region and the positively charged heme-proximal cavity. This loop-to-proximal site link in aromatase is rather unique--there are only a few of examples of somewhat similar intermolecular interactions in the entire P450 structure database. Furthermore, the amino acids involved in the intermolecular contact appear to be specific for aromatase. Higher order organization of aromatase monomers may have implications in lipid integration and catalysis.

  15. Seasonal aromatase activity in the brain of the male red-sided garter snake.

    PubMed

    Krohmer, Randolph W; Boyle, Michael H; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I; Mason, Robert T

    2010-08-01

    We investigated regional and seasonal variations in neural aromatase activity (AA), the enzyme that converts androgens into estrogens, to examine a possible indirect role of testosterone (T) in mediating spring reproductive behavior of red-sided garter snakes, a species exhibiting a dissociated reproductive pattern. Neural AA in male snakes varied significantly among brain regions. Additionally, there were significant interactions between brain region and season. In the spring, actively courting males had greater AA in the olfactory region (O) compared to the septum/anterior-hypothalamus preoptic area (S/AHPOA), nucleus sphericus (NS) and midbrain (Mb). Fall animals collected as they returned to the den prior to winter dormancy had significantly greater AA in the S/AHPOA compared to all other regions. These findings were consistent using either regional (gross) dissection or punch microdissection, which allowed us to separate the S and AHPOA. There were no significant differences in AA production between the S and AHPOA. This study provides the first documentation of seasonal and regional variations in AA in a snake brain and suggests that aromatization of androgens may play a role in regulating reproduction in red-sided garter snakes. During spring mating, elevated AA in the O may activate pathways essential for detection of courtship pheromones, while increased AA in the S and AHPOA of fall animals suggests that circulating androgens play an indirect role in programming critical neural pathways involved in reproduction. Thus, as in many other vertebrates, estrogenic metabolites of testosterone may be a critical hormonal component regulating reproductive behavior in this dissociated breeder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

  17. Modulation of Aromatase Activity as a Mode of Action for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in a Marine Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    The steroidogenic enzyme aromatase catalyzes the conversion of androgens (androstenedione and testosterone) to estrogens (estrone and estradiol) and therefore plays a central role in reproduction. In contrast to most vertebrates, teleost fish have two distinct forms of aromatase....

  18. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  19. Rapid changes in brain aromatase activity in the female quail brain following expression of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    de Bournonville, Catherine; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2017-10-09

    In male quail, estrogens produced in the brain (neuroestrogens) exert a dual action on male sexual behavior: they increase sexual motivation within minutes via mechanisms activated at the membrane but facilitate sexual performance by slower, presumably nuclear-initiated, mechanisms. Recent work indicates that neuroestrogens are also implicated in the control of female sexual motivation despite the presence of high circulating concentrations of estrogens of ovarian origin. Interestingly aromatase activity (AA) in the male brain is regulated in time domains corresponding to the slow "genomic" and faster "non-genomic" modes of action of estrogens. Furthermore, rapid changes in brain AA are observed in males after sexual interactions with a female. In this study, we investigated whether similar rapid changes in brain AA are observed in females allowed to interact sexually with males. A significant decrease in AA was observed in the medial preoptic nucleus after interactions that lasted 2, 5 or 10 min but this decrease was no longer significant after 15 min of interaction. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a progressive decline of average AA was observed between 2 and 15 min but it never reached statistical significance. AA in this nucleus was however negatively correlated with the sexual receptivity of the female. These data indicate that sexual interactions affect brain AA in females as in males in an anatomically specific manner and suggest that rapid changes in brain estrogens production could also modulate female sexual behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Activities of 3β-HSD and Aromatase in Slices of Developing and Adult Zebra Finch Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Helen; Schlinger, Barney A.

    2009-01-01

    Sex steroids influence the development and function of the songbird brain. Developmentally, the neural circuitry underlying song undergoes masculine differentiation under the influence of estradiol. In adults, estradiol stimulates song behavior and the seasonal growth of song control circuits. There is good reason to believe that these neuroactive estrogens are synthesized in the brain. At all ages, estrogens could act at the lateral ventricle, during migration, or where song nuclei exist or will form. We investigated the activity of two critical steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3βHSD) and aromatase, using a slice culture system. Sagittal brain slices were collected from juvenile (posthatch day 20) and adult zebra finches containing either the lateral ventricle, where neurons are born, or the telencephalic song nuclei HVC and RA. The slices were incubated with 3H dehydroepiandrosterone or 3H-androstenedione. Activity was determined by isolating certain products of 3βHSD (5α-androstanedione, 5β-androstanedione, estrone, and estradiol) and aromatase (estrone and estradiol). Activities of both 3βHSD and aromatase were detected in all slices and were confirmed using specific enzyme inhibitors. We found no significant difference in activity between adult males and females in either region for either enzyme. Juvenile female slices containing the lateral ventricle, however, showed greater levels of 3βHSD activity than did similar slices from age-matched males. Determination of the activity of these critical steroidogenic enzymes in slice culture has implications for the role of neurosteroids in brain development. PMID:16919626

  1. Development of a Novel Tissue Specific Aromatase Activity Regulation Therapeutic Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), especially tamoxifen , have been clinically used. Although tamoxifen is a powerful blocking drug for estrogen...now believed that tamoxifen can slightly increase the risk of uterine cancer. While tamoxifen has been clinically used as the first line therapeutic...TERMS Aromatase, tissue specific delivery, siRNA, liquid cationic liposom, lipid nanoparticles 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  2. AroER tri-screen is a biologically relevant assay for endocrine disrupting chemicals modulating the activity of aromatase and/or the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiuan; Zhou, Dujin; Hsin, Li-Yu; Kanaya, Noriko; Wong, Cynthie; Yip, Richard; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Witt, Kristine; Teng, Christina

    2014-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the biosynthesis, metabolism, and functions of steroid hormones, including estrogens and androgens. Aromatase enzyme converts androgen to estrogen. Thus, EDCs against aromatase significantly impact estrogen- and/or androgen-dependent functions, including the development of breast cancer. The current study aimed to develop a biologically relevant cell-based high-throughput screening assay to identify EDCs that act as aromatase inhibitors (AIs), estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, and/or ER antagonists. The AroER tri-screen assay was developed by stable transfection of ER-positive, aromatase-expressing MCF-7 breast cancer cells with an estrogen responsive element (ERE) driven luciferase reporter plasmid. The AroER tri-screen can identify: estrogenic EDCs, which increase luciferase signal without 17β-estradiol (E2); anti-estrogenic EDCs, which inhibit the E2-induced luciferase signal; and AI-like EDCs, which suppress a testosterone-induced luciferase signal. The assay was first optimized in a 96-well plate format and then miniaturized into a 1536-well plate format. The AroER tri-screen was demonstrated to be suitable for high-throughput screening in the 1536-well plate format, with a 6.9-fold signal-to-background ratio, a 5.4% coefficient of variation, and a screening window coefficient (Z-factor) of 0.78. The assay suggested that bisphenol A (BPA) functions mainly as an ER agonist. Results from screening the 446 drugs in the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection revealed 106 compounds that modulated ER and/or aromatase activities. Among these, two AIs (bifonazole and oxiconazole) and one ER agonist (paroxetine) were confirmed through alternative aromatase and ER activity assays. These findings indicate that AroER tri-screen is a useful high-throughput screening system for identifying ER ligands and aromatase-inhibiting chemicals.

  3. Increased androgen receptor activity and cell proliferation in aromatase inhibitor-resistant breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Rika; Hanamura, Toru; Suzuki, Takashi; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Shibahara, Yukiko; Niwa, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Ohnuki, Koji; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Hirakawa, Hisashi; Ishida, Takanori; Sasano, Hironobu; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Hayashi, Shin-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are commonly used to treat postmenopausal estrogen-receptor (ER)-positive breast carcinoma. However, resistance to AI is sometimes acquired, and the molecular mechanisms underlying such resistance are largely unclear. Recent studies suggest that AI treatment increases androgen activity during estrogen deprivation in breast carcinoma, but the role of the androgen receptor (AR) in breast carcinoma is still a matter of controversy. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential correlation between the AR- and AI-resistant breast carcinoma. To this end, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of 21 pairs of primary breast carcinoma and corresponding AI-resistant recurrent tissue samples and established two stable variant cell lines from ER-positive T-47D breast carcinoma cell line as AI-resistance models and used them in in vitro experiments. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Ki-67 were significantly higher and ER and progesterone receptor (PR) were lower in recurrent lesions compared to the corresponding primary lesions. Variant cell lines overexpressed AR and PSA and exhibited neither growth response to estrogen nor expression of ER. Androgen markedly induced the proliferation of these cell lines. In addition, the expression profile of androgen-induced genes was markedly different between variant and parental cell lines as determined by microarray analysis. These results suggest that in some cases of ER-positive breast carcinoma, tumor cells possibly change from ER-dependent to AR-dependent, rendering them resistant to AI. AR inhibitors may thus be effective in a selected group of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels.

    PubMed

    Defarge, Nicolas; Takács, Eszter; Lozano, Verónica Laura; Mesnage, Robin; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Székács, András

    2016-02-26

    Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18-2000 times for co-formulants, 8-141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine-POEA and alkyl polyglucoside-APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone.

  5. Co-Formulants in Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Disrupt Aromatase Activity in Human Cells below Toxic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Defarge, Nicolas; Takács, Eszter; Lozano, Verónica Laura; Mesnage, Robin; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Székács, András

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide formulations contain declared active ingredients and co-formulants presented as inert and confidential compounds. We tested the endocrine disruption of co-formulants in six glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH), the most used pesticides worldwide. All co-formulants and formulations were comparably cytotoxic well below the agricultural dilution of 1% (18–2000 times for co-formulants, 8–141 times for formulations), and not the declared active ingredient glyphosate (G) alone. The endocrine-disrupting effects of all these compounds were measured on aromatase activity, a key enzyme in the balance of sex hormones, below the toxicity threshold. Aromatase activity was decreased both by the co-formulants alone (polyethoxylated tallow amine—POEA and alkyl polyglucoside—APG) and by the formulations, from concentrations 800 times lower than the agricultural dilutions; while G exerted an effect only at 1/3 of the agricultural dilution. It was demonstrated for the first time that endocrine disruption by GBH could not only be due to the declared active ingredient but also to co-formulants. These results could explain numerous in vivo results with GBHs not seen with G alone; moreover, they challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for GBHs exposures, currently calculated from toxicity tests of the declared active ingredient alone. PMID:26927151

  6. Induction and inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) activity by natural and synthetic flavonoid compounds in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, J Thomas; Hordijk, Joost; Denison, Michael S; Springsteel, Mark F; Nantz, Michael H; van den Berg, Martin

    2004-11-01

    Flavonoids and related structures (e.g., flavones, isoflavones, flavanones, catechins) exert various biological effects, including anticarcinogenic, antioxidant and (anti-)estrogenic effects, and modulation of sex hormone homeostasis. A key enzyme in the synthesis of estrogens from androgens is aromatase (cytochrome P450 19; CYP19). We investigated the effects of various natural and synthetic flavonoids on the catalytic activity and promoter-specific expression of aromatase in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells. Natural flavones were consistently more potent inhibitors than flavanones. IC(50) values for 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, and apigenin were 4, 7, and 20 microM, respectively; for the flavanones 7-hydroxyflavanone and naringenin the IC(50) values were 65 and 85 microM, respectively. The steroidal aromatase inhibitor (positive control) 4-hydroxyandrostenedione had an IC(50) of 20 nM. The inhibition by apigenin and naringenin coincided with some degree of cytotoxicity at 100 microM. The natural flavonoid derivative rotenone (IC(50) 0.3 microM) was the most potent aromatase inhibitor tested. Several synthetic flavonoid and structurally related quinolin-4-one analogs inhibited aromatase activity. The most potent inhibitor was 4'-tert-butyl-quinolin-4-one (IC(50) 2 microM), followed by two 2-pyridinyl-substituted alpha-naphthoflavones (IC(50)s 5 and >30 microM). The two 2-pyridinyl-substituted gamma-naphthoflavones consistently produced biphasic concentration-response curves, causing about 1.5-fold aromatase induction at concentrations below 1 microM and inhibition above that level (IC(50)s 7 and >30 microM). The natural flavone quercetin and isoflavone genistein induced aromatase activity 4- and 2.5-fold induction, respectively, at 10 microM. This coincided with increased intracellular cAMP concentrations and increased levels of the cAMP-dependent pII and to a lesser extent 1.3 promoter-specific aromatase transcripts. These results shed light on the

  7. Higher Estrogen Levels During Pregnancy in Andean Than European Residents of High Altitude Suggest Differences in Aromatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Shelton M.; Julian, Colleen G.; Vargas, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Context: Uteroplacental hypoxia has been reported to lower estrogen levels in preeclampsia as the result of reduced aromatase activity. Objective: We asked whether the chronic hypoxia of residence at high altitude in the absence of preeclampsia lowered estrogen, whether such effects differed in Andean vs European high-altitude residents, and whether such effects were related to uterine artery diameter or blood flow. Design, Setting, and Participants: Studies at weeks 20 and 36 of pregnancy were conducted in 108 healthy Bolivian low- (400 m, n = 53) or high-altitude (3600 m, n = 55) residents of European (n = 28 low and 26 high altitude) or Andean (n = 25 low and 29 high altitude) ancestry. All groups were similar in age, nonpregnant body mass index, and pregnancy weight gain. Results: High-altitude residence increased circulating progesterone, cortisol, estrone, 17β-estradiol, and estriol levels (all P < .01). High-altitude Andeans vs Europeans at week 36 had higher progesterone, estrone, 17β-estradiol, and estriol levels as well as product to substrate ratios for the reactions catalyzed by aromatase, whereas week 36 cortisol levels were greater in the European than Andean women (all P < .05). Lower cortisol, higher estriol (both P < .01), and trends for higher progesterone and 17β-estradiol levels were associated with greater uterine artery diameters and blood flow at high altitude. Conclusions: Chronic hypoxia does not lower but rather raises estrogen levels in multigenerational Andeans vs shorter-term Europeans, possibly as the result of greater aromatase activity. Because hypoxia alone does not lower estrogen, other attributes of the disease may be responsible for the lower estrogen levels seen previously in preeclamptic women. PMID:24684460

  8. Perfluorinated chemicals: Differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA > PFOS ≫ PFNA > PFOA > PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57–80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells. - Highlights: • Eight perfluorinated chemicals of different chain lengths have been selected. • Long chain ones – PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA – were cytotoxic in placenta cells. • The uptake of long chain perfluorinated chemicals by cells was comparatively higher. • PFOS, PFOA and the short chain PFBS significantly inhibited aromatase activity. • A mixture of perfluorinated chemicals significantly altered placenta cell

  9. Aromatase Inhibitory Activity of Geranylated Coumarins, Mammeasins C and D, Isolated from the Flowers of Mammea siamensis.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Shibatani, Kanae; Sueyoshi, Mayumi; Chaipech, Saowanee; Pongpiriyadacha, Yutana; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu; Morikawa, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    A methanol extract of the flowers of Mammea siamensis (Calophyllaceae) was found to inhibit enzymatic activity against aromatase (IC50=16.5 µg/mL). From the extract, two new geranylated coumarins, mammeasins C (1) and D (2), were isolated together with seven coumarins: 8-hydroxy-5-methyl-7-(3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,6-dienyl)-9-(2-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4,5-dihydropyrano[4,3,2-de]chromen-2-one (9), 8-hydroxy-5-methyl-7-(3,7-dimethyl-octa-2,6-dienyl)-9-(3-methyl-1-oxobutyl)-4,5-dihydropyrano[4,3,2-de]chromen-2-one (10), mammeas A/AA (14), A/AB (15), A/AA cyclo D (18), E/BA (23), and E/BC cyclo D (25). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Among the isolates including 17 previously reported coumarins, 1 (IC50=2.7 µM), 2 (3.6 µM), and mammea B/AB cyclo D (21, 3.1 µM) showed relatively strong inhibitory activities comparable to the activity of the synthetic nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor aminoglutethimide (2.0 µM).

  10. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  11. Effects of chloro-s-triazine herbicides and metabolites on aromatase activity in various human cell lines and on vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, J T; Letcher, R J; Heneweer, M; Giesy, J P; van den Berg, M

    2001-01-01

    We investigated a potential mechanism for the estrogenic properties of three chloro-s-triazine herbicides and six metabolites in vitro in several cell systems. We determined effects on human aromatase (CYP19), the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, in H295R (adrenocortical carcinoma), JEG-3 (placental choriocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast cancer) cells; we determined effects on estrogen receptor-mediated induction of vitellogenin in primary hepatocyte cultures of adult male carp (Cyprinus carpio). In addition to atrazine, simazine, and propazine, two metabolites--atrazine-desethyl and atrazine-desisopropyl--induced aromatase activity in H295R cells concentration-dependently (0.3-30 microM) and with potencies similar to those of the parent triazines. After a 24-hr exposure to 30 microM of the triazines, an apparent maximum induction of about 2- to 2.5-fold was achieved. The induction responses were confirmed by similar increases in CYP19 mRNA levels, determined by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In JEG-3 cells, where basal aromatase expression is about 15-fold greater than in H295R cells, the induction responses were similar but less pronounced; aromatase expression in MCF-7 cells was neither detectable nor inducible under our culture conditions. The fully dealkylated metabolite atrazine-desethyl-desisopropyl and the three hydroxylated metabolites (2-OH-atrazine-desethyl, -desisopropyl, and -desethyl-desisopropyl) did not induce aromatase activity. None of the triazine herbicides nor their metabolites induced vitellogenin production in male carp hepatocytes; nor did they antagonize the induction of vitellogenin by 100 nM (EC(50) 17beta-estradiol. These findings together with other reports indicate that the estrogenic effects associated with the triazine herbicides in vivo are not estrogen receptor-mediated, but may be explained partly by their ability to induce aromatase in vitro. PMID:11675267

  12. Synthesis and biochemical studies of 7 alpha-substituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones as enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitors of aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimian, S; Chen, H H; Brueggemeier, R W

    1993-09-01

    Several 7 alpha-thiosubstituted derivatives of androstenedione have demonstrated effective inhibition of aromatase, the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex responsible for the biosynthesis of estrogens. Introduction of an additional double bond in the A ring resulted in 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (7 alpha-APTADD), a potent inhibitor that inactivated aromatase by an enzyme-catalyzed process. Additional 7 alpha-thiosubstituted androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione derivatives were designed to further examine enzyme-catalyzed inactivation. Two halogenated and one unsubstituted 7 alpha-phenylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones were synthesized via an acid-catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of substituted thiophenols with androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. Two 7 alpha-naphthylthioandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-diones were synthesized via either acid-catalyzed or based-catalyzed conjugate Michael addition of substituted thionaphthols with androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione. These agents were evaluated for aromatase inhibitory activity in the human placental microsomal preparation. Under initial velocity assay conditions of low product formation, the inhibitors demonstrated potent inhibition of aromatase, with apparent Ki's ranging from 12 to 27 nM. Furthermore, these compounds produced time-dependent, first-order inactivation of aromatase in the presence of NADPH, whereas no aromatase inactivation was observed in the absence of NADPH. This enzyme-activated irreversible inhibition, also referred to as mechanism-based inhibition, can be prevented by the substrate androstenedione. Thus, the apparent Ki values for these inhibitors are consistent with earlier studies on 7 alpha-substituted competitive inhibitors that indicate bulky substituents can be accommodated at the 7 alpha-position.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The relationship of bone-tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression to mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity in intact female and ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Smeester, B A; O'Brien, E E; Michlitsch, K S; Lee, J-H; Beitz, A J

    2016-06-02

    Recently, our group established a relationship between tumor-induced spinal cord astrocyte activation and aromatase expression and the development of bone tumor nociception in male mice. As an extension of this work, we now report on the association of tumor-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cold hypersensitivity to changes in spinal cord dorsal horn GFAP and aromatase expression in intact (INT) female mice and the effect of ovariectomy on these parameters. Implantation of fibrosarcoma cells produced robust mechanical hyperalgesia in INT animals, while ovariectomized (OVX) females had significantly less mechanical hyperalgesia. Cold hypersensitivity was apparent by post-implantation day 7 in INT and OVX females compared to their saline-injected controls and increased throughout the experiment. The decrease in mechanical hyperalgesia in OVX females was mirrored by significant decreases in spinal astrocyte activity in laminae I-II, III-IV, V-VI and X and aromatase expression in laminae V-VI and X in the dorsal horn of tumor-bearing animals. Administration of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole reduced tumor-induced hyperalgesia in INT females only suggesting that the tumor-induced increase in aromatase expression and its associated increase in spinal estrogen play a role in the development of bone tumor-induced hyperalgesia. Finally, intrathecal (i.t.) administration of 17β-estradiol caused a significant increase in tumor-induced hyperalgesia in INT tumor-bearing females. Since i.t. 17β-estradiol increases tumor pain and ovariectomy significantly decreases tumor pain, as well as spinal aromatase, estrogen may play a critical role in the spinal cord response to the changing tumor environment and the development of tumor-induced nociception.

  14. Aromatase inhibitory, radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities of depsidones and diaryl ethers from the endophytic fungus Corynespora cassiicola L36.

    PubMed

    Chomcheon, Porntep; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Kengtong, Surapong; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2009-02-01

    Isolation of a broth extract of the endophytic fungus Corynespora cassiicola L36 afforded three compounds, corynesidones A (1) and B (3), and corynether A (5), together with a known diaryl ether 7. Compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 were relatively non-toxic against cancer cells, and inactive toward normal cell line, MRC-5. Corynesidone B (3) exhibited potent radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay, whose activity was comparable to ascorbic acid. Based on the ORAC assay, compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 showed potent antioxidant activity. However, the isolated natural substances and their methylated derivatives (1-8) neither inhibited superoxide anion radical formation in the XXO assay nor suppressed TPA-induced superoxide anion generation in HL-60 cell line. Corynesidone A (1) inhibited aromatase activity with an IC(50) value of 5.30 microM.

  15. Synthesis of Casimiroin and Optimization of Its Quinone Reductase 2 and Aromatase Inhibitory Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Arup; Reddy, P.V. Narasimha; Sturdy, Megan; Marler, Laura; Pegan, Scott D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Pezzuto, John M.; Cushman, Mark

    2009-08-07

    An efficient method has been developed to synthesize casimiroin (1), a component of the edible fruit of Casimiroa edulis, on a multigram scale in good overall yield. The route was versatile enough to provide an array of compound 1 analogues that were evaluated as QR2 and aromatase inhibitors. In addition, X-ray crystallography studies of QR2 in complex with compound 1 and one of its more potent analogues has provided insight into the mechanism of action of this new series of QR2 inhibitors. The initial biological investigations suggest that compound 1 and its analogues merit further investigation as potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents.

  16. Synthesis of Casimiroin and Optimization of Its Quinone Reductase 2 and Aromatase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Arup; Narasimha Reddy, P. V.; Sturdy, Megan; Marler, Laura; Pegan, Scott D.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Pezzuto, John M.; Cushman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    An efficient method has been developed to synthesize casimiroin (1), a component of the edible fruit of Casimiroa edulis, on a multigram scale in good overall yield. The route was versatile enough to provide an array of compound 1 analogues that were evaluated as QR2 and aromatase inhibitors. In addition, X-ray crystallography studies of QR2 in complex with compound 1 and one of its more potent analogs has provided insight into the mechanism of action of this new series of QR2 inhibitors. The initial biological investigations suggest that compound 1 and its analogues merit further investigation as potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:19265439

  17. [Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity during Fulvestrant Therapy for Aromatase Inhibitor-Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenichi; Fujisaki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Shuhei; Adachi, Keita; Nagashima, Saki; Masuo, Yuki; Tomita, Ryouichi; Gonda, Kenji; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Matsuo, Sadanori; Umeda, Nao

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the clinical significance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) during fulvestrant therapy for aromatase inhibitor (AI)-resistant metastatic breast cancer. IDO activity can be measured by the tryptophan (Trp)/kynurenine (Kyn) ratio. Trp and Kyn were measured with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Patients with AI resistant metastatic breast cancer had a 28.6% response rate to fulvestrant therapy, and the clinical benefit rate was 76.2%. AI-resistant metastatic breast cancer patients with distant metastases had a lower serum Trp/Kyn level than patients who had local recurrences. During fulvestrant therapy, IDO activity significantly decreased in the fulvestrant responder group compared to that in the fulvestrant non-responder group. During fulvestrant therapy, the IDO activity correlated with the number of metastatic lesions. These results suggest that measuring the Trp/Kyn ratio is useful for evaluating immunological metastatic status during endocrine therapy.

  18. Differential responsiveness of luteinized human granulosa cells to gonadotropins and insulin-like growth factor I for induction of aromatase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Christman, G.M.; Randolph, J.F. Jr.; Peegel, H.; Menon, K.M. )

    1991-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro responsiveness of cultured luteinized human granulosa cells over time to insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), human follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) for the induction of aromatase activity. Granulosa cells were retrieved from preovulatory follicles in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Cells were cultured for a period of 72 hours or 10 days. The ability of hCG, human FSH, and/or IGF-I to induce aromatase activity was assayed by the stereospecific release of tritium from (1B-3H)androstenedione. Short-term cultures (72 hours) demonstrated a marked rise in aromatase activity in response to human FSH and IGF-I, whereas a smaller response to hCG was observed. In contrast, 10-day cultures demonstrated responsiveness predominantly to hCG rather than human FSH for the induction of aromatase activity with no remarkable effect of IGF-I. Luteinized human granulosa cells undergo a transformation from an initial human FSH and IGF-I responsive state to an hCG responsive state in long-term cultures.

  19. Follicle-stimulating hormone-induced aromatase in immature rat Sertoli cells requires an active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway and is inhibited via the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Claudia A; Millena, Ana C; Reddy, Sheila; Finlay, Sheila; Vizcarra, Jorge; Khan, Shafiq A; Davis, John S

    2006-03-01

    Postnatal development and function of testicular Sertoli cells are regulated primarily by FSH. During this early period of development, estrogens play a role in proliferation of somatic cells, which contributes significantly to testicular development. Growth factors like epidermal growth factor (EGF) are produced in the testis and play a role in regulation of estradiol production and male fertility. Although these divergent factors modulate gonadal function, little is known about their mechanism of action in Sertoli cells. The present study investigates the intracellular events that take place down-stream of FSH and EGF receptors in Sertoli cells isolated from immature (10-d-old) rats, and examines which intracellular signals may be involved in their effects on aromatase activity and estradiol production in immature rat Sertoli cells. Primary cultures of rat Sertoli cells were treated with FSH in combination with EGF and signaling pathway-specific inhibitors. Levels of estradiol production, aromatase mRNA (Cyp19a1), and aromatase protein (CYP19A1) were determined. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the effects of FSH and EGF on levels of activated (phosphorylated) AKT1 and p42 ERK2 and p44 ERK1, also named MAPK1 and MAPK3, respectively. The stimulatory actions of FSH on aromatase mRNA, aromatase protein, and estradiol production were blocked by inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT1 signaling pathway. In contrast, inhibition of ERK signaling augmented the stimulatory effects of FSH on estradiol production, aromatase mRNA, and protein levels. Furthermore, EGF inhibited the expression of aromatase mRNA and protein in response to FSH, and these inhibitory effects of EGF were critically dependent on the activation of the ERK signaling pathway. We conclude that an active phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /AKT signaling pathway is required for the stimulatory actions of FSH, whereas an active ERK/MAPK pathway inhibits estradiol production and

  20. Aromatase inhibitors: structural features and biochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanyan; Chen, Shiuan

    2006-11-01

    Aromatase is the enzyme synthesizing estrogens from androgens. In estrogen-dependent breast tumors, estrogens induce the expression of growth factors responsible for cancer cell proliferation. In situ estrogen synthesis by aromatase "is thought to play a key role in the promotion of breast cancer growth. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide new approaches for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer by inhibiting estrogen biosynthesis. Through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical techniques, aromatase has been found to be expressed in many endocrine tissues and tumors originating from these tissues. Unexpectedly, this enzyme is now known to also be expressed in liver, lung, and colon cancers. Such findings suggest a potential role for endocrine manipulation of these types of cancer using AIs. Three Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved AIs, anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin), effectively challenging tamoxifen, have been used as first-line drugs in the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer, and possibly other aromatase-expressing cancers. In addition, natural anti-aromatase chemicals, such as flavones and coumarins, have been identified. Efforts to develop new lines of AIs derived from these phytochemicals have been initiated in several laboratories. Finally, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the structure-function relationship of aromatase. Such information has helped the examination of binding characteristics of AIs, the evaluation of reaction mechanism of aromatase, and the explanation of the molecular basis for a low catalytic activity of the natural variant, M364T.

  1. Effects of Neonicotinoids on Promoter-Specific Expression and Activity of Aromatase (CYP19) in Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma (H295R) and Primary Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) Cells.

    PubMed

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Denison, Michael S; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (CYP19; cytochrome P450 19) in humans undergoes highly tissue- and promoter-specific regulation. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, aromatase is over-expressed via several normally inactive promoters (PII, I.3, I.7). Aromatase biosynthesizes estrogens, which stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation. The placenta produces estrogens required for healthy pregnancy and the major placental CYP19 promoter is I.1. Exposure to certain pesticides, such as atrazine, is associated with increased CYP19 expression, but little is known about the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on CYP19. We developed sensitive and robust RT-qPCR methods to detect the promoter-specific expression of CYP19 in human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) and primary umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, and determined the potential promoter-specific disruption of CYP19 expression by atrazine and the commonly used neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. In H295R cells, atrazine concentration-dependently increased PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase catalytic activity. Thiacloprid and thiamethoxam induced PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase activity at relatively low concentrations (0.1-1.0 µM), exhibiting non-monotonic concentration-response curves with a decline in gene induction and catalytic activity at higher concentrations. In HUVEC cells, atrazine slightly induced overall (promoter-indistinct) CYP19 expression (30 µM) and aromatase activity (≥ 3 µM), without increasing I.1 promoter activity. None of the neonicotinoids increased CYP19 expression or aromatase activity in HUVEC cells. Considering the importance of promoter-specific (over)expression of CYP19 in disease (breast cancer) or during sensitive developmental periods (pregnancy), our newly developed RT-qPCR methods will be helpful tools in assessing the risk that neonicotinoids and other chemicals may pose to exposed women. © The Author 2015

  2. Aromatase gene expression in the stallion.

    PubMed

    Lemazurier, E; Sourdaine, P; Nativelle, C; Plainfossé, B; Séralini, G

    2001-06-10

    Adult stallion secretes very high estrogen levels in its testicular vein and semen, and the responsible enzyme cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450 arom) is known to be present mainly in Leydig cells. We studied in further details the distribution of equine aromatase in various adult tissues including the brain (hypothalamic area), liver, kidney, small intestine, muscle, bulbourethral gland and testes. The aromatase mRNA was essentially detected by RT-PCR in testis (169+/-14 amol of aromatase mRNA per microg of total RNA) and was barely detectable in brain, or below 0.1 amol/microg RNA in other tissues. This range of expression was confirmed by ELISA (50+/-7 pg/microg total protein) in the testis, and by immunoblot, evidencing a 53 kDA specific protein band in testis and brain only. The corresponding aromatase activity was well detected, by 3H(2)O release from 1beta, 2beta(3)H-androstenedione, in testis and brain (200+/-23 and 25+/-6 pmol/min per mg, respectively) and below 3 pmol product formed/min per mg in other tissues. This study indicates that the testis, among the tissues analyzed, is the major source of aromatase in the adult stallion, and that the aromatase gene expression is specifically enhanced at this level, and is responsible for the high estrogen synthesis observed. Moreover, the study of aromatase in one colt testis has shown lower levels of transcripts, protein and enzyme activity, evidencing that aromatase is regulated during the development and may serve as a useful marker of testicular function. As the second organ where aromatase mRNA and activity are both well detected is brain, this study also underlines the possible role of neurosteroids in stallion on behaviour, brain function or central endocrine control.

  3. Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α-induced nuclear factor κB activation and aromatase activity by capsaicin and its analog capsazepine.

    PubMed

    Luqman, Suaib; Meena, Abha; Marler, Laura E; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M

    2011-11-01

    Target-specific drugs, including natural products, offer promise for the amelioration of cancer and other human ailments. Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient present in chilies (Capsicum annuum L.), and capsazepine, a synthetic analog of capsaicin (collectively referred to as vanilloids), are known to possess a variety of pharmacological and physiological properties. In our continuous effort to discover and characterize cancer chemopreventive agents from natural products, we investigated the effect of vanilloids on nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) activation using stably transfected 293/NFκB-Luc human embryonic kidney cells induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and on aromatase activity. Capsaicin and capsazepine blocked TNFα-induced NFκB activation in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of 0.68 and 4.2 μM, respectively. No significant cytotoxicity was observed at the highest concentrations tested (53.1 μM for capsazepine and 65.5 μM for capsaicin). In addition, these vanilloids inhibited aromatase activity with IC(50) values of 13.6 and 8.8 μM, respectively. Computer-aided molecular docking studies showed docking scores indicative of good binding affinity of vanilloids with aromatase and NFκB. The highly conserved residues for capsaicin and capsazepine binding with NFκB p50 were Ser299 and Ile278 (H-bond 2.81Å) and with NFκB p100 were Ser6, Arg82, Val86, Arg90 (H-bond 2.89Å), Gly4, and Ser2 (H-bond 2.81Å). The amino acids Trp224, Arg435, and Val373 (H-bond 2.80Å) were found to be important for the binding of capsaicin and capsazepine with aromatase. Based on these findings, aromatase and NFκB are suggested as valid targets for these compounds; additional investigation of chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic potential is required.

  4. Development of a new class of aromatase inhibitors: Design, synthesis and inhibitory activity of 3-phenylchroman-4-one (isoflavanone) derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bonfield, Kevin; Amato, Erica; Bankemper, Tony; Agard, Hannah; Steller, Jeffrey; Keeler, James M.; Roy, David; McCallum, Adam; Paula, Stefan; Ma, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19) catalyzes the aromatization reaction of androgen substrates to estrogens, the last and rate-limiting step in estrogen biosynthesis. Inhibition of aromatase is a new and promising approach to treat hormone-dependent breast cancer. We present here the design and development of isoflavanone derivatives as potential aromatase inhibitors. Structural modifications were performed on the A and B rings of isoflavanones via microwave-assisted, gold-catalyzed annulation reactions of hydroxyaldehydes and alkynes. The in vitro aromatase inhibition of these compounds was determined by fluorescence-based assays utilizing recombinant human aromatase (baculovirus/insect cell-expressed). The compounds 3-(4-phenoxyphenyl)chroman-4-one (1h), 6-methoxy-3-phenylchroman-4-one (2a) and 3-(pyridin-3-yl)chroman-4-one (3b) exhibited potent inhibitory effects against aromatase with IC50 values of 2.4 μM, 0.26 μM and 5.8 μM, respectively. Docking simulations were employed to investigate crucial enzyme/inhibitor interactions such as hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding and heme iron coordination. This report provides useful information on aromatase inhibition and serves as a starting point for the development of new flavonoid aromatase inhibitors. PMID:22444875

  5. Natural products as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Balunas, Marcy J; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2008-08-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein.

  6. The effects of the standardized extracts of Ginkgo biloba on steroidogenesis pathways and aromatase activity in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aromatase inhibitors that block estrogen synthesis are a proven first-line hormonal therapy for postmenopausal breast cancer. Although it is known that standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) induces anti-carcinogenic effects like the aromatase inhibitors, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis have not been studied yet. Therefore, the effects of EGb761 on steroidogenesis and aromatase activity was studied using a H295R cell model, which was a good in vitro model to predict effects on human adrenal steroidogenesis. Methods Cortisol, aldosterone, testosterone, and 17β-estradiol were evaluated in the H295R cells by competitive enzyme-linked immunospecific assay after exposure to EGb761. Real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate effects on critical genes in steroid hormone production, specifically cytochrome P450 (CYP11/ 17/19/21) and the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1/4). Finally, aromatase activities were measured with a tritiated water-release assay and by western blotting analysis. Results H295R cells exposed to EGb761 (10 and 100 μg/mL) showed a significant decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone, but no change in aldosterone or cortisol. Genes (CYP19 and 17β-HSD1) related to the estrogen steroidogenesis were significantly decreased by EGb761. EGb761 treatment of H295R cells resulted in a significant decrease of aromatase activity as measured by the direct and indirect assays. The coding sequence/ Exon PII of CYP19 gene transcript and protein level of CYP19 were significantly decreased by EGb761. Conclusions These results suggest that EGb761 could regulate steroidogenesis-related genes such as CYP19 and 17β-HSD1, and lead to a decrease in 17β-estradiol and testosterone. The present study provides good information on potential therapeutic effects of EGb761 on estrogen dependent breast cancer. PMID:27188280

  7. Rapid increase in aggressive behavior precedes the decrease in brain aromatase activity during socially mediated sex change in Lythrypnus dalli.

    PubMed

    Black, Michael P; Balthazart, Jacques; Baillien, Michelle; Grober, Matthew S

    2011-01-01

    In the bluebanded goby, Lythrypnus dalli, removal of the male from a social group results in a rapid behavioral response where one female becomes dominant and changes sex to male. In a previous study, within hours of male removal, aromatase activity in the brain (bAA) of dominant females was almost 50% lower than that of control females from a group in which the male had not been removed. For those females that displayed increased aggressive behavior after the male was removed, the larger the increase in aggressive behavior, the greater the reduction in bAA. To investigate whether decreased bAA leads to increased aggression, the present study used a more rapid time course of behavioral profiling and bAA assay, looking within minutes of male removal from the group. There were no significant differences in bAA between control females (large females from groups with the male still present), females that doubled their aggressive behavior by 10 or 20 min after male removal, or females that did not double their aggressive behavior within 30 min after male removal. Further, individual variation in bAA and aggressive behavior were not correlated in these fish. Whole brain decreases in aromatase activity thus appear to follow, rather than precede, rapid increases in aggressive behavior, which provides one potential mechanism underlying the rapid increase in androgens that follows aggressive interactions in many vertebrate species. For fish species that change sex from female to male, this increase in androgens could subsequently facilitate sex change.

  8. Active site acidic residues and structural analysis of modelled human aromatase: A potential drug target for breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, J. Narashima; Nagaraju, M.; Sastry, G. Madhavi; Rao, A. Raghuram; Sastry, G.␣Narahari

    2005-12-01

    This study sheds new light on the role of acidic residues present in the active site cavity of human aromatase. Eight acidic residues (E129, D222, E245, E302, D309, E379, D380 and D476) lining the cavity are identified and studied using comparative modeling, docking, molecular dynamics as well as statistical techniques. The structural environment of these acidic residues is studied to assess the stability of the corresponding carboxylate anions. Results indicate that the environment of the residues E245, E302 and D222 is most suitable for carboxylate ion formation in the uncomplexed form. However, the stability of D309, D222 and D476 anions is seen to increase on complexation to steroidal substrates. In particular, the interaction between D309 and T310, which assists proton transfer, is found to be formed following androgen/nor-androgen complexation. The residue D309 is found to be clamped in the presence of substrate which is not observed in the case of the other residues although they exhibit changes in properties following substrate binding. Information entropic analysis indicates that the residues D309, D222 and D476 have more conformational flexibility compared to E302 and E245 prior to substrate binding. Interaction similar to that between D476 and D309, which is expected to assist androgen aromatization, is proposed between E302 and E245. The inhibition of aromatase activity by 4-hydroxy androstenedione (formestane) is attributed to a critical hydrogen bond formation between the hydroxy moiety and T310/D309 as well as the large distance from D476. The results corroborate well with earlier site directed mutagenesis studies.

  9. Perfluorinated chemicals: differential toxicity, inhibition of aromatase activity and alteration of cellular lipids in human placental cells.

    PubMed

    Gorrochategui, Eva; Pérez-Albaladejo, Elisabet; Casas, Josefina; Lacorte, Sílvia; Porte, Cinta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of eight perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), namely, perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was assessed in the human placental choriocarcinoma cell line JEG-3. Only the long chain PFCs--PFOS, PFDoA, PFNA, PFOA--showed significant cytotoxicity in JEG-3 cells with EC50 values in the range of 107 to 647 μM. The observed cytotoxicity was to some extent related to a higher uptake of the longer chain PFCs by cells (PFDoA>PFOS≫PFNA>PFOA>PFHxA). Moreover, this work evidences a high potential of PFOS, PFOA and PFBS to act as aromatase inhibitors in placental cells with IC50s in the range of 57-80 μM, the inhibitory effect of PFBS being particularly important despite the rather low uptake of the compound by cells. Finally, exposure of JEG-3 cells to a mixture of the eight PFCs (0.6 μM each) led to a relative increase (up to 3.4-fold) of several lipid classes, including phosphatidylcholines (PCs), plasmalogen PC and lyso plasmalogen PC, which suggests an interference of PFCs with membrane lipids. Overall, this work highlights the ability of the PFC mixture to alter cellular lipid pattern at concentrations well below those that generate toxicity, and the potential of the short chain PFBS, often considered a safe substitute of PFOS, to significantly inhibit aromatase activity in placental cells.

  10. Combined inhibition of aromatase activity and dihydrotestosterone supplementation attenuates renal injury in male streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Manigrasso, Michaele B; Sawyer, R Taylor; Hutchens, Zachary M; Flynn, Elizabeth R; Maric-Bilkan, Christine

    2012-05-01

    Our previous studies showed that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats have increased estradiol and decreased testosterone levels that correlate with renal injury (Xu Q, Wells CC, Garman GH, Asico L, Escano CS, Maric C. Hypertension 51: 1218-1224, 2008). We further showed that either supplementing dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or inhibiting estradiol biosynthesis in these diabetic rats was only partially renoprotective (Manigrasso MB, Sawyer RT, Marbury DC, Flynn ER, Maric C. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301: F634-F640, 2011; Xu Q, Prabhu A, Xu S, Manigrassso MB, Maric C. Am J Physiol 297: F307-F315, 2009). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the combined therapy of DHT supplementation and inhibition of estradiol synthesis would afford better renoprotection than either treatment alone. The study was performed in 12-wk-old male nondiabetic (ND), STZ-induced diabetic (D), and STZ-induced diabetic rats that received the combined therapy of 0.75 mg/day of DHT along with 0.15 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole (Dta), for 12 wk. Treatment with the combined therapy resulted in attenuation of albuminuria by 84%, glomerulosclerosis by 55%, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis by 62%. In addition, the combined treatment decreased the density of renal cortical CD68-positive cells by 70% and decreased protein expression of transforming growth factor-β protein expression by 60%, collagen type IV by 65%, TNF-α by 55%, and IL-6 by 60%. We conclude that the combined treatment of DHT and blocking aromatase activity in diabetic male STZ-induced diabetic rats provides superior treatment than either treatment alone in the prevention of diabetic renal disease.

  11. Potential effect of Olea europea leaves, Sonchus oleraceus leaves and Mangifera indica peel extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes and CYP19A1 expression in MCF-7 cell line: Comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shaban, N Z; Hegazy, W A; Abdel-Rahman, S M; Awed, O M; Khalil, S A

    2016-08-29

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) provide novel approaches to the adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers. In this study, different plant extracts from Olea europaea leaves (OLE), Sonchus oleraceus L. (SOE) and Mangifera indica peels (MPE) were prepared to identify phytoconstituents and measure antioxidant capacities. The effects of these three extracts on aromatase activity in human placental microsomes were evaluated. Additionally, the effects of these extracts on tissue-specific promoter expression of CYP19A1 gene in cell culture model (MCF-7) were assessed using qRT-PCR. Results showed a concentration-dependent decrease in aromatase activity after treatment with OLE and MPE, whereas, SOE showed a biphasic effect. The differential effects of OLE, SOE and MPE on aromatase expression showed that OLE seems to be the most potent suppressor followed by SOE and then MPE. These findings indicate that OLE has effective inhibitory action on aromatase at both the enzymatic and expression levels, in addition to its cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cells. Also, MPE may be has the potential to be used as a tissue-specific aromatase inhibitor (selective aromatase inhibitor) and it may be promising to develop a new therapeutic agent against ER+ breast cancer.

  12. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levina, Inna S.

    1998-11-01

    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C19-steroids into C18-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  13. Aromatase inhibitors from Urtica dioica roots.

    PubMed

    Gansser, D; Spiteller, G

    1995-04-01

    Methanolic extracts of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) roots were investigated for aromatase inhibition. Enzyme inhibition was detected only after appropriate chromatographic separation. Inhibitory effects on aromatase could be demonstrated in vitro for a variety of compounds belonging to different classes. The following compounds developed weak to moderate activity: secoisolariciresinol, oleanolic and ursolic acid, (9Z,11E)-13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, and 14-octacosanol (5). Inhibitory effects on aromatase have been known to date neither for pentacyclic triterpenes nor for secondary fatty alcohols. The potential physiological significance of the above findings is discussed. Compound 5 is a previously unknown constituent of plants.

  14. Understanding the mechanisms of aromatase inhibitor resistance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have a central role in the treatment of breast cancer; however, resistance is a major obstacle to optimal management. Evidence from endocrine, molecular and pathological measurements in clinical material taken before and after therapy with AIs and data from clinical trials in which AIs have been given as treatment either alone or in combination with other targeted agents suggest diverse causes for resistance. These include inherent tumour insensitivity to oestrogen, ineffective inhibition of aromatase, sources of oestrogenic hormones independent of aromatase, activation of signalling by non-endocrine pathways, enhanced cell survival and selection of hormone-insensitive cellular clones during treatment. PMID:22277572

  15. EFFECTS OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND ESTROGEN EXPOSURE ON AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN AND GONADS OF EMBRYONIC ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiatio...

  16. EFFECTS OF INCUBATION TEMPERATURE AND ESTROGEN EXPOSURE ON AROMATASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN AND GONADS OF EMBRYONIC ALLIGATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During embryogenesis, incubation temperature and the hormonal environment influence gonadal differentiation of some reptiles, including all crocodilians. Current evidence suggests that aromatase, the enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens, has a role in sexual differentiatio...

  17. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of 1- and 2-substituted-1,2,3-triazole letrozole-based analogues as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Jérémie; Soultan, Al Haliffa; Richard, Ryan; Touré, Mamadou Mansour; Picot, Nadia; Richard, Rémi; Cuperlović-Culf, Miroslava; Robichaud, Gilles A; Touaibia, Mohamed

    2011-09-01

    A series of bis- and mono-benzonitrile or phenyl analogues of letrozole 1, bearing (1,2,3 and 1,2,5)-triazole or imidazole, were synthesized and screened for their anti-aromatase activities. The unsubstituted 1,2,3-triazole 10a derivative displayed inhibitory activity comparable with that of the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole 1. Compound 10a, bearing a 1,2,3-triazole, is also 10000-times more tightly binding than the corresponding analogue 25 bearing a 1,2,5-triazole, which confirms the importance of a nitrogen atom at position 3 or 4 of the 5-membered ring needed for high activity. The effect on human epithelial adrenocortical carcinoma cell line (H295R) proliferation was also evaluated. The compound 10j (IC(50) = 4.64 μM), a letrozole 1 analogue bearing para-cyanophenoxymethylene-1,2,3-triazole decreased proliferation rates of H295R cells by 76 and 99% in 24 and 72 h respectively. Computer calculations, using quantum ab initio structures, suggest a possible correlation between anti-aromatase activity and the distance between the nitrogen in position 3 or 4 of triazole nitrogen and the cyano group nitrogen.

  18. Binding characteristics of aromatase inhibitors and phytoestrogens to human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Kao, Y C; Laughton, C A

    1997-04-01

    We have evaluated the binding characteristics of three steroidal inhibitors [4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OHA), 7alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthio-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (7alpha-APTADD), and bridge (2,19-methyleneoxy) androstene-3,17-dione (MDL 101,003)], four nonsteroidal inhibitors [aminoglutethimide (AG), CGS 20267, ICI D1033, and vorozole (R83842)], and two flavone phytoestrogens (chrysin, and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone) to aromatase through a combination of computer modeling and inhibitory profile studies on the wild-type and six aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y). We have generated two aromatase models based on the x-ray structures of cytochrome P450-cam and cytochrome P450bm3, respectively. A major difference between the cytochrome P450cam-based and cytochrome P450bm3-based models is in the predicted lengths of helices F and G. In the cytochrome P450cam-based model, helices F and G lie antiparallel and extend across the active-site face of the molecule from one edge to the center, so that the carboxyl-terminal residues of helix F and the N-terminal residues of helix G make a major contribution to the structure of the active site. In the cytochrome P450bm3-based model, both helices are longer and so extend almost all the way across the active-site face of the molecule. Considering the size of the androgen substrate, we evaluated our results mainly based on the cytochrome P450cam model. The mutations involved in this study are thought to be at or near the proposed active site pocket. The inhibitory profile analysis has produced very interesting results and provided a molecular basis as to how seven aromatase inhibitors with different structures bind to the active site of aromatase. Furthermore, the investigation reveals that phytoestrogens bind to the active site of aromatase in a different orientation from that in the estrogen receptor.

  19. Aromatase inhibitors: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Séralini, G; Moslemi, S

    2001-06-10

    For the cellular physiology of sex steroid sensitive cells, the androgen/estrogen ratio may be more important than only one hormone action per se, in both sexes. This ratio is controlled in vertebrates by aromatase; its gene expression can be inhibited in different ways, and this is crucial for the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer, or gynecomastia in males for instance. To reach this goal, new steroidal and non-steroidal inhibitors are continuously being developed, and some of them are used as first or second line agents. Aromatase inhibition is also an essential tool for studying the role of estrogens in the adult, or during development. Aromatase inhibitors have shown in particular that estrogens are essential also in males for skeletal maturation and bone mineralization, development of masculine dendritic morphology in male brain linked to mating behaviour, and testicular function. Testosterone is often the prohormone converted in situ in active estrogens, at these levels. Several strategies can be used for aromatase inhibition. The first ones employed were blind screening or deductions from in vivo observations, which led for instance to the discovery of the role of aminoglutethimide in aromatase inhibition. Subsequently, in the years 1975-1990, the molecular modeling of compounds to mimic the substrate shape of the enzyme constituted the major idea. Hundreds of chemicals were synthesized by numerous authors, ranging from the well-known and very efficient 4-OHA to complicated imidazole or indane derivatives tested by sophisticated comparative molecular field analyses. Reticulum-bound active aromatase has not as yet been X-ray analyzed. Thus, aromatase inhibitors were also used more recently to probe and understand the active site conformation of the enzyme and its modelization was obtained from comparisons with bacterial-related cytochromes. We developed a mammalian model considerably closer to human aromatase in order to study the

  20. Aromatase and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brodie, A; Sabnis, G; Jelovac, D

    2006-12-01

    Several aromatase inhibitors and also new antiestrogens are now available for treating breast cancer. We have developed a model to compare the antitumor efficacy of these agents and to explore strategies for their optimal use. Results from the model have been predictive of clinical outcome. In this model, tumors are grown in ovariectomized, immunodeficient mice from MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with the aromatase gene (MCF-7Ca). The possibility that blockade of estrogen action and estrogen synthesis may be synergistic was explored by treating mice with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and the antiestrogen tamoxifen alone and in combination. The results indicated that letrozole alone was better than all other treatments. In addition, when tamoxifen treatment was no longer effective, tumor growth was significantly reduced in mice switched to letrozole treatment. However, tumors ultimately began to grow during continued treatment. To investigate the mechanisms by which tumors eventually adapt and grow during letrozole treatment, we determined the expression of signaling proteins in tumors during the course of letrozole treatment compared to the tumors of control mice. Tumors initially up-regulated the ER while responding to treatment, but subsequently receptor levels decreased in tumors unresponsive to letrozole. Also, Her-2 and adapter proteins (p-Shc and Grb-2) as well as all of the signaling proteins in the MAPK cascade (p-Raf, p-Mekl/2, and p-MAPK), but not in the Pl3/Akt pathway, were increased in tumors no longer responsive to letrozole. To investigate whether sensitivity to letrozole could be regained, cells were isolated from the letrozole resistant tumors (LTLT) and treated with inhibitors of the MAPKinase pathway (PD98059 and UO126). These compounds reduced MAPK activity and increased ER expression. EGFR/Her-2 inhibitors, gefitinib and AEE78S although not effective in the parental MCF-70a cells, restored the sensitivity of LTLT cells to

  1. Aromatase and cyclooxygenases: enzymes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeier, Robert W; Richards, Jeanette A; Petrel, Trevor A

    2003-09-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthase) is the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex that converts C19 androgens to C18 estrogens. Aromatase activity has been demonstrated in breast tissue in vitro, and expression of aromatase is highest in or near breast tumor sites. Thus, local regulation of aromatase by both endogenous factors as well as exogenous medicinal agents will influence the levels of estrogen available for breast cancer growth. The prostaglandin PGE2 increases intracellular cAMP levels and stimulates estrogen biosynthesis, and previous studies in our laboratories have shown a strong linear association between aromatase (CYP19) expression and expression of the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) in breast cancer specimens. To further investigate the pathways regulating COX and CYP19 gene expression, studies were performed in normal breast stromal cells, in breast cancer cells from patients, and in breast cancer cell lines using selective pharmacological agents. Enhanced COX enzyme levels results in increased production of prostaglandins, such as PGE2. This prostaglandin increased aromatase activity in breast stromal cells, and studies with selective agonists and antagonists showed that this regulation of signaling pathways occurs through the EP1 and EP2 receptor subtypes. COX-2 gene expression was enhanced in breast cancer cell lines by ligands for the various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), and differential regulation was observed between hormone-dependent and -independent breast cancer cells. Thus, the regulation of both enzymes in breast cancer involves complex paracrine interactions, resulting in significant consequences on the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  2. Mutations of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor that do not activate the phosphoinositide cascade allow hCG to induce aromatase expression in immature rat granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Andric, Nebojsa; Ascoli, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Using primary cultures of immature rat granulosa cells and adenoviral infections we expressed two mutants of the human lutropin receptor (hLHR) that do not activate the phosphoinositide cascade. One mutant (hLFF) has the extracellular domain of the hLHR and the transmembrane and intracellular domains of the hFSHR. The other (hLHR-L457D) has a leucine to aspartate mutation in residue 457 of transmembrane helix 3. When expressed in immature rat granulosa cells the hLHR stimulates cAMP and inositol phosphate accumulation, transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), elicits a transient increase in Akt phosphorylation, and a sustained increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation but aromatase expression is not enhanced. When expressed at comparable densities, hLFF and hLHR-L457D support cAMP accumulation and transient Akt phosphorylation but do not support inositol phosphate accumulation, EGFR transactivation or a sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Cells expressing either of these two mutants respond to hCG with increased aromatase expression. We also show that addition of hCG to cells expressing the hLHR antagonizes the effects of hFSH on aromatase expression whereas addition of hCG to cells expressing the hLHR-L457D mutant does not. These results show that activation of the phosphoinositide cascade is upstream of EGFR transactivation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation and that this pathway is a negative regulator of aromatase expression in granulosa cells. PMID:18313839

  3. Brain and gonadal aromatase activity and steroid hormone levels in female and polymorphic males of the peacock blenny Salaria pavo.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Teles, Magda; Alpedrinha, João; Oliveira, Rui F

    2008-11-01

    In the peacock blenny Salaria pavo large males with well-developed secondary sexual characters establish nests and attract females while small "sneaker" males mimic female sexual displays in order to approach the nests of larger males and parasitically fertilize eggs. These alternative reproductive tactics are sequential, as sneakers irreversibly switch into nesting males. This transition involves major morphologic and behavioral changes and is likely to be mediated by hormones. This study focuses on the role of aromatase, an enzyme that catalyses the conversion of androgens into estrogens, in the regulation of male sexual polymorphism in S. pavo. For this, sex steroid plasma levels and aromatase activity (AA) in gonads, whole brain and brain macroareas were determined in sneakers, transitional males (i.e. sneakers undergoing the transition into nesting males), nesting males and females collected in the field. AA was much higher in ovarian tissue than in testicular tissue and accordingly circulating estradiol levels were highest in females. This supports the view that elevated AA and estradiol levels are associated with the development of a functional ovary. Transitional males are in a non-reproductive phase and had underdeveloped testes when compared with sneakers and nesting males. Testicular AA was approximately 10 times higher in transitional males when compared with sneakers and nesting males, suggesting high AA has a suppressive effect on testicular development. Nesting males had significantly higher plasma levels of both testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone when compared with the other male morphs and previous studies demonstrated that these androgens suppress female-like displays in sneakers. In the brain, AA was highest in macroareas presumably containing hypothalamic nuclei traditionally associated with the regulation of reproductive behaviors. Overall, females presented the highest levels of brain AA. In male morphs AA increased from sneakers, to

  4. Maintenance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at elevated temperature inhibits cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in isolated ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Watts, Marianne; Pankhurst, Ned W; King, Henry R

    2004-02-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) broodstock were transferred from natural (12-16 degrees C) to controlled temperatures of 14, 18 or 22 degrees C for 3 months during vitellogenesis. Fertility and survival were significantly reduced in eggs from broodstock held at 22 degrees C relative to 14 or 18 degrees C. Endocrine mechanisms were disrupted after only one month at 22 degrees C, as evidenced by decreased plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) and increased plasma testosterone (T) levels and, at later stages, decreased levels of plasma 17beta-estradiol (E2). In vitro incubations of isolated ovarian follicles were carried out at monthly intervals, with follicles exposed to human chorionic gonadotropin, N-2-0-dibutyryladenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate, and the gonadal steroid precursors 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and T. After one month of exposure to controlled temperature, T synthesis was generally enhanced in response to all treatments at all temperatures, but E2 synthesis was inhibited at 22 degrees C, suggesting temperature impairment of cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) synthesis or activity. The effect became less marked as follicles matured suggesting that temperature sensitivity is stage dependent. The results of this study suggest that the inhibitory effects of elevated temperature on E2 and Vtg synthesis, and subsequent egg development found in the present and earlier studies, arise at least partly, from temperature modulation of P450arom.

  5. Grape seed extract is an aromatase inhibitor and a suppressor of aromatase expression.

    PubMed

    Kijima, Ikuko; Phung, Sheryl; Hur, Gene; Kwok, Sum-Ling; Chen, Shiuan

    2006-06-01

    Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen. It is expressed at higher levels in breast cancer tissues than normal breast tissues. Grape seed extract (GSE) contains high levels of procyanidin dimers that have been shown in our laboratory to be potent inhibitors of aromatase. In this study, GSE was found to inhibit aromatase activity in a dose-dependent manner and reduce androgen-dependent tumor growth in an aromatase-transfected MCF-7 (MCF-7aro) breast cancer xenograft model, agreeing with our previous findings. We have also examined the effect of GSE on aromatase expression. Reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that treatment with 60 mug/mL of GSE suppressed the levels of exon I.3-, exon PII-, and exon I.6-containing aromatase mRNAs in MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells. The levels of exon I.1-containing mRNA, however, did not change with GSE treatment. Transient transfection experiments with luciferase-aromatase promoter I.3/II or I.4 reporter vectors showed the suppression of the promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. The GSE treatment also led to the down-regulation of two transcription factors, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein-1 (CREB-1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). CREB-1 and GR are known to up-regulate aromatase gene expression through promoters I.3/II and I.4, respectively. We believe that these results are exciting in that they show GSE to be potentially useful in the prevention/treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer through the inhibition of aromatase activity as well as its expression.

  6. Sex change in the protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli: a review in gonadal development, estradiol, estrogen receptor, aromatase activity and gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Du, J L; Yueh, W S; Lin, B Y; Huang, J D; Lee, C Y; Lee, M F; Lau, E L; Lee, F Y; Morrey, C; Nagahama, Y; Chang, C F

    2001-12-01

    Black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli Bleeker, a marine protandrous hermaphrodite, is functional male for the first two years of life but begins to sexually change to female after the third year. Testicular tissue and ovarian tissue was separated by connective tissue in the bisexual gonad. This sex pattern provides a very good model to study the endocrine mechanism of sex change in fish. The annual profiles of plasma estradiol, vitellogenin and 11-ketotestosterone concentrations in males were significantly different from those in the three-year-old females. Significantly high levels of plasma estradiol during the prespawning/spawning season and low levels of plasma 11-ketotestosterone during the spawning season were observed in the inversing females. No difference of plasma testosterone levels was observed in males and females. Oral administration of estradiol stimulated high levels of gonadal aromatase activity, plasma gonadotropin II levels and sex change in the two-year-old fish. Exogenous estradiol administered for 5-6 months induced a reversible sex change in one- and two-year-old fish. The sensitive period for estradiol treatment of sex change is from early prespawning to spawning season. Implantation with testosterone for more than a year could not block the natural sex change in three-year-old fish. Exogenous aromatase inhibitors (1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione or fadrozole) suppressed aromatase activity in the brain. Oral administration with aromatase inhibitors for a year further inhibited the natural sex change in three-year-old black porgy and all fish became functional male with spermiation. Estrogen receptor alpha gene in the ovarian tissue of bisexual gonad is significantly less expressed than that in the vitellogenic ovary of female on the basis of reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction. There was no difference in the annual profiles of the plasma gonadotropin II levels in the males and natural inversing females. Plasma gonadotropin II

  7. Natural Products as Aromatase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2010-01-01

    With the clinical success of several synthetic aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the treatment of postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, researchers have also been investigating also the potential of natural products as AIs. Natural products from terrestrial and marine organisms provide a chemically diverse array of compounds not always available through current synthetic chemistry techniques. Natural products that have been used traditionally for nutritional or medicinal purposes (e.g., botanical dietary supplements) may also afford AIs with reduced side effects. A thorough review of the literature regarding natural product extracts and secondary metabolites of plant, microbial, and marine origin that have been shown to exhibit aromatase inhibitory activity is presented herein. PMID:18690828

  8. Molecular basis for the interaction of four different classes of substrates and inhibitors with human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanyan; Cho, Michael; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Chen, Shiuan

    2008-03-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) converts androgen to estrogen. In this study, the interactions of four classes of compounds, 17beta-estradiol (the product of aromatase), 17-methyltestosterone (a synthetic androgen), dibenzylfluorescein (a synthetic substrate of aromatase), and coumestrol (a phytoestrogen), with aromatase were investigated through spectral analysis using purified human recombinant aromatase and site-directed mutagenesis studies using CHO cells expressing wild-type human aromatase or five aromatase mutants, E302D, D309A, T310S, S478T and H480Q. Spectral analysis showed that a type I binding spectrum was produced by the binding of 17-methyltestosterone to aromatase and a novel binding spectrum of aromatase was induced by dibenzylfluorescein. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that residues S478 and H480 in the beta-4 sheet play an important role in the binding of all four compounds. Computer-assisted docking of these compounds into the three-dimensional model of aromatase revealed that: (1) weak interaction between 17beta-estradiol and the beta-4 sheet of aromatase facilitates the release of 17beta-estradiol from the active site of aromatase; (2) 17-methyl group of 17-methyltestosterone affects its binding to aromatase; (3) dibenzylfluorescein binds to the active site of aromatase with its O-dealkylation site near the heme iron and residue T310; and (4) coumestrol binds to aromatase in a manner such that rings A and C of coumestrol mimic rings A and B of steroid. These structure-function studies help us to evaluate the structural model of aromatase, and to accelerate the structure-based design for new aromatase inhibitors.

  9. Effects of phenol on ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo and antioxidant metabolism in common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumana; Majumder, Suravi; Gupta, Shreyasi; Dutta, Sharmistha; Mukherjee, Dilip

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cyp19a mRNA expression and P450 aromatase activity were measured in vivo in common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to phenol for 96 h. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and parameters of antioxidant defense system in serum ovary and liver of this fish after long-term phenol exposure were also studied. In vivo exposure of fish to sublethal dose of phenol for 96 h caused marked attenuation of ovarian cyp19a1a gene expression and P450 aromatase activity. Production of ROS like hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in serum, liver and ovary in fish exposed to phenol for 15 days elevated significantly from day 1 to day 7 with no further significant increase thereafter compared to their respective control values. Total superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in serum and ovary decreased gradually and significantly from day 1 to day 4, which then increased significantly for the rest of the exposure days. Liver SOD activity seemed to be distinctly responsive to phenol. SOD activity in liver of phenol-exposed fish started to increase gradually from day 1 to 4 with no further increase thereafter. Catalase activities in all the tissues showed significant inhibition up to day 4 which then increased gradually and significantly up to day 15 of phenol exposure compared to their respective control values. From our results, it appears that sublethal dose of phenol has the endocrine disruptive potential and effect is mediated via inhibition of ovarian P450arom gene expression and aromatase activity in vivo. Sublethal dose of phenol also caused oxidative stress, and antioxidant systems are very much effective to prevent the damages caused by the generation of ROS.

  10. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor.

    PubMed

    Mak, P; Cruz, F D; Chen, S

    1999-11-01

    Endocrine disruptors are hormone mimics that modify hormonal action in humans and animals. It is thought that some endocrine disruptors modify estrogen and androgen action in humans and animals by suppressing aromatase activity. Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the key enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We have developed a novel aromatase inhibitor screening method that allows us to identify antiaromatase activity of various environmental chemicals. The screen was developed by coexpressing the human aromatase and the mouse androgen receptor in yeast cells, which carry the androgen-responsive ss-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Functional expression of aromatase in yeast has been demonstrated using the [3H]-water release assay with intact cells as well as with yeast microsomes. The aromatase activity could be blocked by known aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide (AG). Yeast-produced androgen receptors were able to transactivate a yeast basal promoter linked to an androgen-responsive element in response to androgens. The resultant triple yeast transformant responded to the treatment of testosterone, androstenedione, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). In the absence of the aromatase inhibitor AG, transcriptional activation was observed only for the nonaromatizable androgen 5 alpha-DHT. However, the two aromatizable androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) induced the reporter activity in the presence of AG. Using this yeast-based assay, we confirmed that two flavones, chrysin and alpha-naphtholflavone, are inhibitors of aromatase. Thus, this yeast system allows us to develop a high-throughput screening method, without using radioactive substrate, to identify aromatase inhibitors as well as new ligands (nonaromatizable androgen mimics) for the androgen receptors. In addition, this screening method also allows us to distinguish nonandrogenic aromatase inhibitors from inhibitors with androgenic activity. This yeast

  11. Relationships between rapid changes in local aromatase activity and estradiol concentrations in male and female quail brain.

    PubMed

    Dickens, M J; de Bournonville, C; Balthazart, J; Cornil, C A

    2014-02-01

    Estradiol-17β (E2) synthesized in the brain plays a critical role in the activation of sexual behavior in many vertebrate species. Because E2 concentrations depend on aromatization of testosterone, changes in aromatase enzymatic activity (AA) are often utilized as a proxy to describe E2 concentrations. Utilizing two types of stimuli (sexual interactions and acute restraint stress) that have been demonstrated to reliably alter AA within minutes in opposite directions (sexual interactions=decrease, stress=increase), we tested in Japanese quail whether rapid changes in AA are paralleled by changes in E2 concentrations in discrete brain areas. In males, E2 in the pooled medial preoptic nucleus/medial portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (POM/BST) positively correlated with AA following sexual interactions. However, following acute stress, E2 decreased significantly (approximately 2-fold) in the male POM/BST despite a significant increase in AA. In females, AA positively correlated with E2 in both the POM/BST and mediobasal hypothalamus supporting a role for local, as opposed to ovarian, production regulating brain E2 concentrations. In addition, correlations of individual E2 in POM/BST and measurements of female sexual behavior suggested a role for local E2 synthesis in female receptivity. These data demonstrate that local E2 in the male brain changes in response to stimuli on a time course suggestive of potential non-genomic effects on brain and behavior. Overall, this study highlights the complex mechanisms regulating local E2 concentrations including rapid stimulus-driven changes in production and stress-induced changes in catabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytochemicals for breast cancer prevention by targeting aromatase.

    PubMed

    Adams, Lynn S; Chen, Shiuan

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP19) and is the rate limiting enzyme in the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Suppression of in situ estrogen production through aromatase inhibition is the current treatment strategy for hormone-responsive breast cancers. Drugs that inhibit aromatase have been developed and are currently utilized as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer in post-menopausal women with hormone dependent breast cancer. Natural compounds have been studied extensively for important biologic effects such as antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-viral effects. A significant number of studies have also investigated the aromatase inhibitory properties of a variety of plant extracts and phytochemicals. The identification of natural compounds that inhibit aromatase could be useful both from a chemopreventive standpoint and in the development of new aromatase inhibitory drugs. This review will discuss whole food extracts and the common classes of phytochemicals which have been investigated for potential aromatase inhibitory activity. We will review reported aromatase inhibition, kinetic data and possible structural variations that may inhibit or enhance the interaction of phytochemicals with the aromatase enzyme.

  13. Nuclear receptor co-activators and HER-2/neu are upregulated in breast cancer patients during neo-adjuvant treatment with aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Flågeng, M Hauglid; Moi, L L Haugan; Dixon, J M; Geisler, J; Lien, E A; Miller, W R; Lønning, P E; Mellgren, G

    2009-10-20

    Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is poorly understood. Characterisation of the molecular response to aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer tissue may provide important information regarding development of oestrogen hypersensitivity. We examined the expression levels of nuclear receptor co-regulators, the orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homologue-1 and HER-2/neu growth factor receptor using real-time RT-PCR before and after 13-16 weeks of primary medical treatment with the aromatase inhibitors anastrozole or letrozole. mRNA expression of the steroid receptor co-activator 1 (SRC-1) and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) was correlated (P=0.002), and both co-activators increased during treatment in the patient group as a whole (P=0.008 and P=0.032, respectively), as well as in the subgroup of patients achieving an objective treatment response (P=0.002 and P=0.006). Although we recorded no significant change in SRC-3/amplified in breast cancer 1 level, the expression correlated positively to the change of SRC-1 (P=0.002). Notably, we recorded an increase in HER-2/neu levels during therapy in the total patient group (18 out of 26; P=0.016), but in particular among responders (15 out of 21; P=0.008). Our results show an upregulation of co-activator mRNA and HER-2/neu during treatment with aromatase inhibitors. These mechanisms may represent an early adaption of the breast cancer cells to oestrogen deprivation in vivo.

  14. Differential Regulation of Aromatase Isoforms and Tissue Responses to Environmental Chemicals in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As in mammals, aromatase plays a basic role in fish reproduction. Unlike most mammals, with only one form of aromatase, fish have two distinct forms. One isoform, P450aromA, predominates in ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity controls circulating levels of estrogens and is critic...

  15. Differential Regulation of Aromatase Isoforms and Tissue Responses to Environmental Chemicals in Fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    As in mammals, aromatase plays a basic role in fish reproduction. Unlike most mammals, with only one form of aromatase, fish have two distinct forms. One isoform, P450aromA, predominates in ovaries. Ovarian aromatase activity controls circulating levels of estrogens and is critic...

  16. Coactivation of liver receptor homologue-1 by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha on aromatase promoter II and its inhibition by activated retinoid X receptor suggest a novel target for breast-specific antiestrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Safi, Rachid; Kovacic, Agnes; Gaillard, Stéphanie; Murata, Yoko; Simpson, Evan R; McDonnell, Donald P; Clyne, Colin D

    2005-12-15

    Aromatase inhibitors target the production of estrogen in breast adipose tissue, but in doing so, also decrease estrogen formation in bone and other sites, giving rise to deleterious side effects, such as bone loss and arthralgia. Thus, it would be clinically useful to selectively inhibit aromatase production in breast. In this regard, we have determined that the orphan nuclear receptor liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1) is a specific transcriptional activator of aromatase gene expression in human breast preadipocytes but not in other tissues of postmenopausal women. In this study, we show that the coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) is a physiologically relevant modulator of LRH-1, and that its transcriptional activity can be inhibited effectively using receptor-interacting peptide antagonists that prevent PGC-1alpha recruitment. Interestingly, we note that all of these peptides also interact in an agonist-dependent manner with retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), suggesting that these two receptors may compete for limiting cofactors within target cells. In support of this hypothesis, we show that 9-cis-retinoic acid, acting through RXR, inhibits both the basal and PGC-1alpha-induced transcriptional activity of LRH-1. The importance of this finding was confirmed by showing that LRH-1-dependent, PGC-1alpha-stimulated regulation of aromatase gene expression in primary human breast preadipocytes was effectively suppressed by RXR agonists. We infer from these data that LRH-1 is a bona fide target whose inhibition would selectively block aromatase expression in breast, while sparing other sites of expression.

  17. Anti-Aromatase Activity of the Constituents from Damiana (Turnera diffusa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. Ex Schult) has traditionally been used as an herbal aphrodisiac. Aim of the study: The study was aimed to investigate the anti-aromatse activity and the estrogenic activity of the constituents isolated from T. diffusa. Material and me...

  18. [Progress in study of the structure, catalytic mechanism and inhibitors of aromatase].

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Shen, Zhong-Hua; Cheng, Fei-Xiong; Liu, Gui-Xia; Li, Wei-Hua; Tang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Aromatase is a key enzyme responsible for in vivo estrogen biosynthesis. Inhibition of the activity of the aromatase has become an alterative way for treatment of breast cancer. In this review, the structure and catalytic mechanism of the aromatase is briefly introduced followed by thorough review of the progress in the study of the steroidal and non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors. This review is focused on the natural compounds that exhibit the aromatase inhibition, which include flavonoids, xanthones, coumarins, and sesquiterpenes. The structure-activity relationship of these compounds is also discussed.

  19. New 7,8-benzoflavanones as potent aromatase inhibitors: synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Samir; Fagnere, Catherine; Pouget, Christelle; Buxeraud, Jacques; Chulia, Albert-José

    2008-02-01

    Some natural compounds such as flavonoids are known to possess a moderate inhibitory activity against aromatase, this enzyme being an interesting target for hormone-dependent breast cancer treatment. It has been demonstrated that the modulation of flavonoid skeleton could increase anti-aromatase effect. Therefore, new 7,8-benzoflavanones were synthesized and tested for their activity toward aromatase inhibition. It was observed that the introduction of a benzo ring at position C-7 and C-8 on flavanone skeleton led to new potent aromatase inhibitors, the resulting 7,8-benzoflavanones being until nine times more potent than aminogluthetimide (the first aromatase inhibitor used clinically).

  20. Recent developments in steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors for the chemoprevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Irshad; Shagufta

    2015-09-18

    Aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme complex present in breast tissues, plays a significant role in the biosynthesis of important endogenous estrogens from androgens. The source of estrogen production in breast cancer tissues is intra-tumoral aromatase, and inhibition of aromatase may inhibit the growth stimulation effect of estrogens in breast cancer tissues. Consequently, aromatase is considered a useful therapeutic target in the treatment and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Recently, different natural products and synthetic compounds have been rapidly developed, studied, and evaluated for aromatase inhibitory activity. Aromatase inhibitors are classified into two categories on the basis of their chemical structures, i.e., steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. This review highlights the synthetic steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors reported in the literature in the last few years and will aid medicinal chemists in the design and synthesis of novel and pharmacologically-potent aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer.

  1. The potency and clinical efficacy of aromatase inhibitors across the breast cancer continuum

    PubMed Central

    Lønning, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    The strategy of using estrogen suppression to treat breast cancer led to the development of aromatase inhibitors, including the third-generation nonsteroidal compounds anastrozole and letrozole, and the steroidal compound exemestane. Aromatase inhibitors potently inhibit aromatase activity and also suppress estrogen levels in plasma and tissue. In clinical studies in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, third-generation aromatase inhibitors were shown superior to tamoxifen for the treatment of metastatic disease. Studies of adjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors include (i) head-to-head studies of 5 years of the aromatase inhibitor versus 5 years of tamoxifen monotherapy; (ii) sequential therapy of 2–3 years of tamoxifen followed by an aromatase inhibitor (or the opposite sequence) versus 5 years of tamoxifen monotherapy; (iii) extended therapy with an aromatase inhibitor after 5 years of tamoxifen; and (iv) sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor versus aromatase inhibitor monotherapy. Recent results from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination and Breast International Group 1–98 trials advocate using an aromatase inhibitor upfront. This article examines the clinical data with aromatase inhibitors, following a brief summary of their pharmacology. PMID:20616198

  2. Aromatase and leiomyoma of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Shozu, Makio; Murakami, Kouich; Inoue, Masaki

    2004-02-01

    In leiomyoma of the uterus, both aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) type I are overexpressed compared with myometrium. This suggests that leiomyoma cells convert circulating androstenedione into estrone (via aromatase), then into the active form of estrogen, estradiol (via 17beta-HSD type I). In vitro experiments and several clinical findings support the notion that in situ estrogen plays a role in leiomyoma growth under hypoestrogenemic conditions, such as natural menopause and therapy with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. GnRH agonists abolish estrogen production both in situ in leiomyoma and in the ovary, leading to quick and profound regression of the leiomyoma. Aromatase inhibitors also inhibit estrogen synthesis in both leiomyoma and the ovary and may be used therapeutically. Certain doses of competitive aromatase inhibitors would completely inhibit estrogen production in leiomyoma, whereas ovarian production of estrogen would continue at reduced levels. This may lead to advantageous therapeutic conditions in which leiomyoma regresses without adverse symptoms related to estrogen depletion because levels of ovarian estrogen would be insufficient to support leiomyoma growth but sufficient to prevent symptoms associated with deficiency. This article discusses the potential uses of aromatase inhibitors.

  3. The use of a unique co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis as a screening tool for endocrine disruptors: The effects of neonicotinoids on aromatase activity and hormone production.

    PubMed

    Caron-Beaudoin, Elyse; Viau, Rachel; Hudon-Thibeault, Andrée-Anne; Vaillancourt, Cathy; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Estrogen biosynthesis during pregnancy is dependent on the collaboration between the fetus producing the androgen precursors, and the placenta expressing the enzyme aromatase (CYP19). Disruption of estrogen production by contaminants may result in serious pregnancy outcomes. We used our recently developed in vitro co-culture model of fetoplacental steroidogenesis to screen the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides on the catalytic activity of aromatase and the production of steroid hormones. A co-culture of H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells with fetal characteristics and BeWo human choriocarcinoma cells which display characteristics of the villous cytotrophoblast was exposed for 24h to various concentrations of three neonicotinoids: thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid. Aromatase catalytic activity was determined in both cell lines using the tritiated water-release assay. Hormone production was measured by ELISA. The three neonicotinoids induced aromatase activity in our fetoplacental co-culture and concordingly, estradiol and estrone production were increased. In contrast, estriol production was strongly inhibited by the neonicotinoids. All three pesticides induced the expression of CYP3A7 in H295R cells, and this induction was reversed by co-treatment of H295R cells with exogenous estriol. CYP3A7 is normally expressed in fetal liver and is a key enzyme involved in estriol synthesis. We suggest that neonicotinoids are metabolized by CYP3A7, thus impeding the 16α-hydroxylation of fetal DHEA(-sulfate), which is normally converted to estriol by placental aromatase. We successfully used the fetoplacental co-culture as a physiologically relevant tool to highlight the potential effects of neonicotinoids on estrogen production, aromatase activity and CYP3A7 expression during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Promoter-specific effects of metformin on aromatase transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Samarajeewa, Nirukshi U; Ham, Seungmin; Yang, Fangyuan; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

    2011-07-01

    Phase III aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are proving successful in the treatment of hormone-dependent postmenopausal breast cancer. Side-effects associated with total body aromatase inhibition have prompted new research into the development of breast-specific AIs. The identification of tissue- and disease-specific usage of aromatase promoters has made the inhibition of aromatase at the transcriptional level an interesting approach. We have previously demonstrated that AMPK-activating drugs, including metformin, were potent inhibitors of aromatase expression in primary human breast adipose stromal cells (hASCs). This study examines the promoter-specific effects of metformin on inhibiting aromatase expression in hASCs. Tumour-associated promoters PII/PI.3 were activated using forskolin (FSK)/phorbol ester (PMA), whereas normal adipose associated promoter PI.4 was activated using dexamethasone (DEX)/tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα). Results demonstrate that metformin significantly decreased the FSK/PMA-, but not the DEX/TNFα-mediated expression of total aromatase at concentrations of 10, 20, and 50 μM (P ≤ 0.05). Using PCR to amplify promoter-specific transcripts of aromatase, it appears that the inhibition of the FSK/PMA-mediated expression of aromatase is due to decreases in PII/PI.3-specific transcripts, whereas no effect of metformin is observed on any promoter-specific transcript, including PI.4, in DEX/TNFα-treated hASCs. This report therefore supports the hypothesis that metformin would act as a breast-specific inhibitor of aromatase expression in the context of postmenopausal breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aromatase, Aromatase Inhibitors, and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chumsri, Saranya; Howes, Timothy; Bao, Ting; Sabnis, Gauri; Brodie, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are known to be important in the growth of breast cancers in both pre- and postmenopausal women. As the number of breast cancer patients increases with age, the majority of breast cancer patients are postmenopausal women. Although estrogens are no longer made in the ovaries after menopause, peripheral tissues produce sufficient concentrations to stimulate tumor growth. As aromatase catalyzes the final and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of estrogen, inhibitors of this enzyme are effective targeted therapy for breast cancer. Three aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are now FDA approved and have been shown to be more effective than the antiestrogen tamoxifen and are well tolerated. AIs are now a standard treatment for postmenopausal patients. AIs are effective in adjuvant and first-line metastatic setting. This review describes the development of AIs and their current use in breast cancer. Recent research focuses on elucidating mechanisms of acquired resistance that may develop in some patients with long term AI treatment and also on innate resistance. Preclinical data in resistance models demonstrated that the crosstalk between ER and other signaling pathways particularly MAPK and PI3K/Akt is an important resistant mechanism. Blockade of these other signaling pathways is an attractive strategy to circumvent the resistance to AI therapy in breast cancer. Several clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate the role of these novel targeted therapies to reverse resistance to AIs. PMID:21335088

  6. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression is controlled by tissue-specific promoters. Aromatase mRNA is primarily transcribed from promoter I.4 in normal breast tissue and physiological levels of aromatase are found in breast adipose stromal fibroblasts. Under the conditions of breast cancer, as a result of the activation of a distinct set of aromatase promoters (I.3, II, and I.7) aromatase expression is enhanced leading to local overproduction of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Aromatase is considered as a potential target for endocrine treatment of breast cancer but due to nonspecific reduction of aromatase activity in other tissues, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are associated with undesirable side effects such as bone loss, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Inhibition of aromatase expression by inactivating breast tumor-specific aromatase promoters can selectively block estrogen production at the tumor site. Although several synthetic chemical compounds and nuclear receptor ligands are known to inhibit the activity of the tumor-specific aromatase promoters, further development of more specific and efficacious drugs without adverse effects is still warranted. Plants are rich in chemopreventive agents that have a great potential to be used in chemotherapy for hormone dependent breast cancer which could serve as a source for natural AIs. In this brief review, we summarize the studies on phytochemicals such as biochanin A, genistein, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol, and grape seed extracts related to their effect on the activation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters and discuss their aromatase inhibitory potential to be used as safer chemotherapeutic agents for specific hormone

  7. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shabana I; Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Ikhlas A; Walker, Larry A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2011-06-21

    Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression is controlled by tissue-specific promoters. Aromatase mRNA is primarily transcribed from promoter I.4 in normal breast tissue and physiological levels of aromatase are found in breast adipose stromal fibroblasts. Under the conditions of breast cancer, as a result of the activation of a distinct set of aromatase promoters (I.3, II, and I.7) aromatase expression is enhanced leading to local overproduction of estrogen that promotes breast cancer. Aromatase is considered as a potential target for endocrine treatment of breast cancer but due to nonspecific reduction of aromatase activity in other tissues, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are associated with undesirable side effects such as bone loss, and abnormal lipid metabolism. Inhibition of aromatase expression by inactivating breast tumor-specific aromatase promoters can selectively block estrogen production at the tumor site. Although several synthetic chemical compounds and nuclear receptor ligands are known to inhibit the activity of the tumor-specific aromatase promoters, further development of more specific and efficacious drugs without adverse effects is still warranted. Plants are rich in chemopreventive agents that have a great potential to be used in chemotherapy for hormone dependent breast cancer which could serve as a source for natural AIs. In this brief review, we summarize the studies on phytochemicals such as biochanin A, genistein, quercetin, isoliquiritigenin, resveratrol, and grape seed extracts related to their effect on the activation of breast cancer-associated aromatase promoters and discuss their aromatase inhibitory potential to be used as safer chemotherapeutic agents for specific hormone

  8. Effect of Buthus martensi Karsch on aromatase activity and cytokine-inducted NOS and NO production in osteoblasts and leukaemic cell line FLG 29.1.

    PubMed

    Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Kap-Sung; Park, Su-Yeon; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Soo; Chang, Young-Chae; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2006-01-01

    Among the different scorpion species, Buthus martensi Karsch, a widely distributed scorpion species in Asia especially in Korea, has received a lot of attention. Indeed, over the past decade, more than 70 different peptides, toxins, or homologues have been isolated. It may prove a valuable resource for identifying potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. The recent observation has suggested that the aromatase is a possible local modulator of bone remodeling in osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. In the present study, therefore, the effect of Buthus martensi Karsch (BMK) extract, traditional immunosuppressive Korean aqua-acupuncture water, on the bone function of human osteoblastic cells was studied. To provide insights into the effect of BMK on aromatase activity in bone-derived cells, we examined the human leukaemic cell line FLG 29.1, which is induced to differentiate toward the osteoclastic phenotype by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, and the primary first-passage osteoblastic cells (hOB). Gene expression of the aromatase was not affected by Buthus martensi Karsch in FLG 29.1 and hOB cells. However, enzyme activity was stimulated in a time-dependent fashion by 10.0 microg/ml BMK and by either 1-50 nM TPA or 0.01-0.5 ng/ml TGF-beta1, with maximal responses after 2-3 hr exposure. On the other hand, BMK strongly inhibited interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha-induced Nitricoxide (NO) synthase expression with little effect on constitutive NO synthase expression. BMK extracts (10 microg/ml) inhibited cytokine-induced iNOS and nNOS expression. BMK (10 microg/ml) did not affect the ecNOS expression, indicating the extracts are not working on the constitutive NOS expression. BMK strongly inhibited the cytokine-induced NO production (p < 0.01). BMK also showed significant inhibition on NO production in both induced by TNF-alpha+IL-1beta. NO donors, sodium nitroprusside, and NONOate

  9. Aromatase excess in cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary.

    PubMed

    Bulun, Serdar E; Chen, Dong; Lu, Meiling; Zhao, Hong; Cheng, Youhong; Demura, Masashi; Yilmaz, Bertan; Martin, Regina; Utsunomiya, Hiroki; Thung, Steven; Su, Emily; Marsh, Erica; Hakim, Amy; Yin, Ping; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Amin, Sanober; Imir, Gonca; Gurates, Bilgin; Attar, Erkut; Reierstad, Scott; Innes, Joy; Lin, Zhihong

    2007-01-01

    Pathogenesis and growth of three common women's cancers (breast, endometrium and ovary) are linked to estrogen. A single gene encodes the key enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis named aromatase, inhibition of which effectively eliminates estrogen production in the entire body. Aromatase inhibitors successfully treat breast cancer, whereas their roles in endometrial and ovarian cancers are less clear. Ovary, testis, adipose tissue, skin, hypothalamus and placenta express aromatase normally, whereas breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers overexpress aromatase and produce local estrogen exerting paracrine and intracrine effects. Tissue-specific promoters distributed over a 93-kb regulatory region upstream of a common coding region alternatively control aromatase expression. A distinct set of transcription factors regulates each promoter in a signaling pathway- and tissue-specific manner. In cancers of breast, endometrium and ovary, aromatase expression is primarly regulated by increased activity of the proximally located promoter I.3/II region. Promoters I.3 and II lie 215 bp from each other and are coordinately stimulated by PGE(2) via a cAMP-PKA-dependent pathway. In breast adipose fibroblasts exposed to PGE(2) secreted by malignant epithelial cells, PKC is also activated, and this potentiates cAMP-PKA-dependent induction of aromatase. Thus, inflammatory substances such as PGE(2) may play important roles in inducing local production of estrogen that promotes tumor growth.

  10. Aromatase inhibitors and apoptotic inducers: Design, synthesis, anticancer activity and molecular modeling studies of novel phenothiazine derivatives carrying sulfonamide moiety as hybrid molecules.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mostafa M; Alsaid, Mansour S; Samir, Nermin; Abdel-Latif, Ghada A; Soliman, Aiten M; Ragab, Fatma A; Abou El Ella, Dalal A

    2017-07-07

    Hybrid molecules are used as anticancer agents to improve effectiveness and diminish drug resistance. So, the current study aimed to introduce twenty novel phenothiazine sulfonamide hybrids 5-22, 24 and 25 of promising anticancer activity. Compounds 11 and 13 revealed more potent anticancer properties (IC50 8.1 and 8.8 μM) than that of the reference drug (doxorubicin, IC50 = 9.8 μM) against human breast cancer cell line (T47D). To determine the mechanism of their anticancer activity, compounds 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 14, 16, 17, 19 and 22 that showed promising activity on T47D, were evaluated for their aromatase inhibitory effect. The study results disclose that the most potent aromatase inhibitors 11 and 13 showed the lowest IC50 (5.67 μM and 6.7 μM), respectively on the target enzyme. Accordingly, the apoptotic effect of the most potent compound 11 was extensively investigated and showed a marked increase in Bax level up to 55,000 folds, and down-regulation in Bcl2 to 5.24*10(-4) folds, in comparison to the control. Furthermore, the effect of compound 11 on caspases 3, 8 and 9 was evaluated and was found to increase their levels by 20, 34, and 8.9 folds, respectively, which indicates the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Also, the effect of compound 11 on the cell cycle and its cytotoxic effect were examined. Moreover, a molecular docking and computer aided ADMET studies were adopted to confirm their mechanism of action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone scan alterations in aromatase inhibitor-treated patients.

    PubMed

    De Geeter, Frank; Van den Bruel, Annick; De Cuypere, Eveline; Langlois, Michel

    2015-01-01

    We report bone scan changes in 3 patients receiving aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant treatment for postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Compared with bone scans before treatment, repeated scans after at least 10 months of aromatase inhibitor treatment showed increased activity in the peripheral skeleton and the skull. In 2 patients, these alterations could be correlated with increased markers of bone turnover. They probably result from high bone turnover induced by estrogen depletion caused by aromatase inhibitors. This effect should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of a bone scan pattern suggestive of hyperparathyroidism, which was ruled out.

  12. Metformin Reverses Development of Pulmonary Hypertension via Aromatase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dean, Afshan; Nilsen, Margaret; Loughlin, Lynn; Salt, Ian P; MacLean, Margaret R

    2016-08-01

    Females are more susceptible to pulmonary arterial hypertension than males, although the reasons remain unclear. The hypoglycemic drug, metformin, is reported to have multiple actions, including the inhibition of aromatase and stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Inhibition of aromatase using anastrazole is protective in experimental pulmonary hypertension but whether metformin attenuates pulmonary hypertension through this mechanism remains unknown. We investigated whether metformin affected aromatase activity and if it could reduce the development of pulmonary hypertension in the sugen 5416/hypoxic rat model. We also investigated its influence on proliferation in human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. Metformin reversed right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, and decreased pulmonary vascular remodeling in the rat. Furthermore, metformin increased rat lung AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, decreased lung and circulating estrogen levels, levels of aromatase, the estrogen metabolizing enzyme; cytochrome P450 1B1 and its transcription factor; the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells, metformin decreased proliferation and decreased estrogen synthesis by decreasing aromatase activity through the PII promoter site of Cyp19a1 Thus, we report for the first time that metformin can reverse pulmonary hypertension through inhibition of aromatase and estrogen synthesis in a manner likely to be mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase.

  13. A yeast screen system for aromatase inhibitors and ligands for androgen receptor: yeast cells transformed with aromatase and androgen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Cruz, F D; Chen, S

    1999-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are hormone mimics that modify hormonal action in humans and animals. It is thought that some endocrine disruptors modify estrogen and androgen action in humans and animals by suppressing aromatase activity. Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the key enzyme that converts C19 androgens to aromatic C18 estrogenic steroids. We have developed a novel aromatase inhibitor screening method that allows us to identify antiaromatase activity of various environmental chemicals. The screen was developed by coexpressing the human aromatase and the mouse androgen receptor in yeast cells, which carry the androgen-responsive ss-galactosidase reporter plasmid. Functional expression of aromatase in yeast has been demonstrated using the [3H]-water release assay with intact cells as well as with yeast microsomes. The aromatase activity could be blocked by known aromatase inhibitors such as aminoglutethimide (AG). Yeast-produced androgen receptors were able to transactivate a yeast basal promoter linked to an androgen-responsive element in response to androgens. The resultant triple yeast transformant responded to the treatment of testosterone, androstenedione, or 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). In the absence of the aromatase inhibitor AG, transcriptional activation was observed only for the nonaromatizable androgen 5 alpha-DHT. However, the two aromatizable androgens (testosterone and androstenedione) induced the reporter activity in the presence of AG. Using this yeast-based assay, we confirmed that two flavones, chrysin and alpha-naphtholflavone, are inhibitors of aromatase. Thus, this yeast system allows us to develop a high-throughput screening method, without using radioactive substrate, to identify aromatase inhibitors as well as new ligands (nonaromatizable androgen mimics) for the androgen receptors. In addition, this screening method also allows us to distinguish nonandrogenic aromatase inhibitors from inhibitors with androgenic activity. This yeast

  14. Vitamin D analog EB1089 inhibits aromatase expression by dissociation of comodulator WSTF from the CYP19A1 promoter-a new regulatory pathway for aromatase.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Johan; Hansen, Susanne Kofoed; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase, encoded by the CYP19A1 gene, catalyzes the production of estrogens and inhibition of aromatase has therefore become one of the key strategies in breast cancer treatment. We have studied the effects of the vitamin D analog EB1089 on aromatase gene expression and enzyme activity in breast cancer cells. We found that EB1089 was able to decrease the gene expression and enzyme activity as well as inhibit aromatase-dependent cell growth. Furthermore, a low dose of EB1089 combined with low doses of clinically used aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane were able to effectively inhibit aromatase-dependent growth of breast cancer cells. The molecular mechanism for this effect of EB1089 on the aromatase gene expression was investigated and we found that it is mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D receptor interacting repressor (VDIR) and Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF). ChIP and Re-ChIP assays revealed that EB1089 mediates dissociation of WSTF from the CYP19A1 promoter and thereby decreases the gene expression. Regulation of aromatase via WSTF has not been reported previously. Furthermore, gene silencing of WSTF results in decreased gene expression of CYP19A1 and aromatase activity, showing that WSTF is an interesting drug target for development of new anti-cancer drugs. In summary, we report that the vitamin D analog EB1089 is able to decrease the gene expression and enzyme activity of aromatase via a novel regulatory pathway for aromatase and suggest that EB1089 may be a new treatment option for estrogen dependent breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and biochemical evaluation of novel inhibitors of aromatase (AR) using an enhanced representation of the active site of AR derived from the consideration of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Amanuel, Y

    2000-01-07

    A novel molecular modeling study, involving inhibitors bound to the iron of cytochrome P450 heme, is described for nonsteroidal inhibitors of aromatase (AR). Study of compounds such as aminoglutethimide (AG) suggests that it utilizes hydrogen bonding group(s) at the active site which would usually H-bond to the steroid C(17) carbonyl group. Interaction between AG's carbonyl groups and the area of the active site corresponding to the substrate C(3)==O group is not possible due to steric interaction. Possible reasons for the difference in activity of enantiomers of alternative inhibitors is also suggested, as well as the mode of action of the new AR inhibitor, Arimidex-whose inhibitory activity previously has not been rationalized. The present study proposes that it is able to use hydrogen bonding groups at the active site corresponding to the steroid C(17)==O and C(3)==O area, contradicting a previous study where it is postulated that azole-type compounds only use polar groups at the active site corresponding to the steroid D ring. Using the hypotheses of the modeling study, we designed and synthesized a number of novel (enantiomerically pure) inhibitors, which upon biochemical evaluation were found to be good inhibitors; the N-nonyl derivative of the S-enantiomer was found to possess 39% inhibition at 100 microM inhibitor concentration (using androstenedione as the substrate), under similar conditions, and AG possessed 20% inhibition. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Obacunone exhibits anti-proliferative and anti-aromatase activity in vitro by inhibiting the p38 MAPK signaling pathway in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Jayaprakasha, G K; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2014-10-01

    Overexpression of the aromatase enzyme CYP19 has been implicated in the onset of estrogen-dependent breast carcinogenesis. Obacunone, a natural compound present in citrus fruits, has been demonstrated for various biological activities including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we have isolated obacunone and obacunone glucoside (OG) from lemon seeds, then fractionated these compounds using chromatographic techniques and characterized them by HPLC, LC-MS, and 2D NMR spectral analysis. To investigate the mechanism of anti-cancer and anti-aromatase activities of limonoids, their cytotoxic effect was tested on human breast cancer (MCF-7) and non-malignant (MCF-12F) breast cells. MTT assays confirmed that obacunone was strongly inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation without affecting non-malignant breast cells. Treatment with obacunone increased apoptosis by up-regulating expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, as well as inducing G1 cell cycle arrest. In addition, obacunone significantly inhibited aromatase activity in an in vitro enzyme assay. Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to obacunone down-regulated expression of inflammatory molecules including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, we found that obacunone inhibited COX-2 and NF-κB by activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Finally, the uptake level of obacunone into MCF-7 cells was measured by HPLC and its structure was confirmed by LC-HR-MS. This study demonstrated that obacunone may have the potential to prevent estrogen-responsive breast cancer through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme and inflammatory pathways, as well as activation of apoptosis.

  17. Decreased expression of aromatase in the Ishikawa and RL95-2 cells by the isoflavone, puerarin, is associated with inhibition of c-jun expression and AP-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chaoqin; Li, Yanwei; Chen, Huan; Yang, Shengsheng; Xie, Guangru

    2008-12-01

    Aromatase P450 (P450(arom)) is overexpressed in endometriosis, endometrial cancers and uterine fibroids. With weak estrogen agonists/antagonists and some other enzymatic activities, isoflavones are increasingly advocated as a natural alternative to estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and are available as dietary supplements. Puerarin is major isoflavonoid compound isolated from Pueraria lobata, a Chinese medicine known as Gegen. Our clinical study shows that puerarin can be used in the treatment of endometriosis, which improves pain and infertility. Assuming that the effect of puerarin on endometriosis may result from the regulation of aromatase expression or activity, we carried out this study to test the effects of puerarin on aromatase in Ishikawa and RL95-2 cell lines. Our data have demonstrated a significant decrease of P450(arom) expression at both mRNA and protein levels by low dose puerarin treatment in both cell lines. Besides, we found that the -410/-401bp and -565/-559bp regions of aromatase promoter II contained the critical cis-acting elements, binding AP-1 and c-jun. We also found that puerarin exerted a time-course effect on the inhibition of c-jun mRNA, which parallelled that of P450(arom). To further confirm if c-jun is responsible for the P450(arom) regulation by puerarin, we knocked down c-jun expression using siRNA and it indicates that c-jun acts as a considerable transcription factor in regulating P450(arom) expression and activity. Accordingly, the suppression of P450(arom) expression and activity by puerarin treatment may associate with the downregulation of transcription factor AP-1 or c-jun.

  18. Suppression of human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity by monoclonal and recombinant antibody fragments and identification of a stable antigenic complex.

    PubMed

    Lala, Puloma; Higashiyama, Tadayoshi; Erman, Mary; Griswold, Jennifer; Wagner, Traci; Osawa, Yoshio; Ghosh, Debashis

    2004-03-01

    Human cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) is responsible for biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens. Monoclonal antibody MAb3-2C2 to P450arom specifically binds to a conformational epitope and suppresses the enzyme activity in a dose-dependent manner. The crystal structure of the Fab fragment of MAb3-2C2 has been used to engineer a recombinant single chain antibody fragment (scFv) and a homodimeric variable domain of the light chain (VL(2)). These recombinant antibody fragments have been expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Here, we show that the recombinant scFv suppresses P450arom activity with an IC(50) value similar to that of natural MAb3-2C2 F(ab')(2). The recombinant VL(2) also exhibits dose-dependent suppression of the P450arom activity, but at a reduced level, demonstrating that the homodimer is unable to fully mimic the complementarity determining region (CDR) of a variable heavy chain (VH)-VL heterodimer. We prepare and purify a stable complex of P450arom with MAb3-2C2 F(ab')(2) and show that the complex migrates and precipitates as a single molecular assembly. Efforts to crystallize P450arom for structure-function studies have yielded small single crystals. Our results suggest that formation of stable complexes with fragments of the monoclonal antibody could provide an alternative method for crystallization of P450arom.

  19. A delayed, gonadotropin-dependent and growth-factor mediated activation of the ERK1/2 cascade negatively regulates aromatase expression in granulosa cells*

    PubMed Central

    Andric, Nebojsa; Ascoli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Human CG and hFSH elicit a transient increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation lasting less than 60 min in immature granulosa cells expressing a low density of gonadotropin receptors. In cells expressing a high density of receptors hCG and hFSH elicit this fast transient increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and also a delayed and more sustained increase that is detectable after 6–9 h. Both, the early and delayed increases in ERK1/2 phosphorylation can be blocked with inhibitors of PKA, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase, metalloproteases and MEK. The delayed effect, but not the early effect, can also be blocked with an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Since the delayed increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation correlates with low aromatase expression in response to gonadotropins we tested the effects of the inhibitors mentioned on aromatase expression. These inhibitors had little or no effect on gonadotropin-induced aromatase expression in cells expressing a low density of receptors but they enhanced gonadotropin-induced aromatase expression in cells expressing a high density of receptors. Phorbol esters also induced a prolonged increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and when added together with hFSH, blocked the induction of aromatase expression by hFSH in cells expressing a low density of hFSHR. A MEK inhibitor reversed the inhibitory effect of the phorbol ester on aromatase induction. We conclude that the effects of gonadotropins on ERK1/2 phosphorylation are mediated by EGF-like growth factors and that the delayed effect is partially mediated by PKC and acts as a negative regulator of aromatase expression. PMID:16973759

  20. Aromatase Inhibitors and Other Compounds for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Risk and Prevention Aromatase Inhibitors for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk Aromatase inhibitors (drugs that lower estrogen levels) ... day. Can aromatase inhibitors lower the risk of breast cancer? Aromatase inhibitors are used mainly to treat hormone ...

  1. Molecular pharmacology of aromatase and its regulation by endogenous and exogenous agents.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeier, R W; Richards, J A; Joomprabutra, S; Bhat, A S; Whetstone, J L

    2001-12-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthase) is the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex that converts C19 androgens to C18 estrogens. Aromatase activity has been demonstrated in breast tissue in vitro, and expression of aromatase is highest in or near breast tumor sites. Thus, local regulation of aromatase by both endogenous factors as well as exogenous medicinal agents will influence the levels of estrogen available for breast cancer growth. The prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases intracellular cAMP levels and stimulates estrogen biosynthesis, and our recent studies have shown a strong linear association between CYP19 expression and the sum of COX-1 and COX-2 expression in breast cancer specimens. PGE2 can bind to four receptor subtypes, EP1-EP4, which are coupled to different intracellular signaling pathways. In primary human breast stromal cell cultures, aromatase activity was significantly induced by PGE2, dexamethasone, and agonists for the EP1 and EP2 receptor subtypes. An EP1 antagonist, SC-19220, inhibited the induction of enzyme activity by PGE2 or 17-phenyltrinor-PGE2, an EP1 agonist. Sulprostone, an EP3 agonist, did not alter aromatase activity levels. Investigations are also underway on the regulation of aromatase by exogenous medicinal agents. Selective steroidal and nonsteroidal agents are effective in inhibiting breast tissue aromatase. The benzopyranone ring system is a molecular scaffold of considerable interest, and this scaffold is found in certain flavonoid natural products that have weak aromatase inhibitory activity. Our novel synthetic route for benzopyranones utilizes readily available salicylic acids and terminal alkynes as starting materials. The synthesis of flavones with diversity on the benzopyranone moiety and at the C-2 position occurs with good to excellent yields using these reaction conditions, resulting in an initial benzopyranone library of thirty compounds exhibiting enhanced and differential aromatase inhibition. Current medicinal chemistry efforts

  2. Comparison of increased aromatase versus ERα in the generation of mammary hyperplasia and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cruz, Edgar S.; Sugimoto, Yasuro; Gallicano, G. Ian; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Furth, Priscilla A

    2011-01-01

    Factors associated with increased estrogen synthesis increase breast cancer risk. Increased aromatase and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in both normal epithelium and ductal carcinoma in situ lesions are found in conjunction with breast cancer, leading to the idea that altered estrogen signaling pathways predispose the mammary gland to cancer development. Here, we developed a transgenic mouse that conditionally expresses aromatase in the mammary gland, and used it along with a deregulated ERα expression model to investigate the molecular pathways involved in the development of mammary gland preneoplasia and carcinoma. Both increased ERα and aromatase expression led to the development of preneoplasia, but increased preneoplasia, in addition to carcinoma, was found in aromatase over-expressing mice. Increased prevalence of mammary pathological changes in mice expressing aromatase correlated with increased Cyclin E and Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 expression. Gain of both ERα and aromatase increased expression of ERα and progesterone receptor, but aromatase produced a higher increase than ERα, accompanied by higher levels of downstream target genes cyclin D1, c-Myc and RANKL. In summary, while gain of both ERα and aromatase activate abnormal growth pathways in the mammary gland, aromatase induced a wider range of abnormalities that was associated with a higher prevalence of mammary preneoplasia and cancer progression. PMID:21840986

  3. Androgen metabolism in oyster Crassostrea gigas: evidence for 17beta-HSD activities and characterization of an aromatase-like activity inhibited by pharmacological compounds and a marine pollutant.

    PubMed

    Le Curieux-Belfond, O; Moslemi, S; Mathieu, M; Séralini, G E

    2001-10-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of oyster Crassostrea gigas depends on environmental factors, but its endocrine regulations are still unknown. Sexual steroids play important roles at this level in vertebrates, and some estradiol effects have been described in invertebrates such as bivalve mollusks. To question these roles in invertebrates, we studied androgen metabolism in C. gigas. Incubations of tissue homogenates with 14C-steroids such as androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), followed by TLC and HPLC, provide evidence for 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs, conversions of A into T, T into A, E1 into E2 and E2 into E1) and aromatase-like (A into E1) activities. The latter activity was further characterized by tritiated water release assay; it was time- and temperature-dependent. Furthermore, this oyster aromatase-like activity was inhibited by 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (IC(50) 0.456 microM) and by other pharmacological compounds including specific cytochrome P450 inhibitors (MR20494, miconazole) and a marine pollutant (tributyltin).

  4. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... development, aromatase converts androgens to estrogens in the placenta, which is the link between the mother's blood supply and the fetus. This conversion in the placenta prevents androgens from directing sexual development in female ...

  5. Inhibition of peripheral aromatization in baboons by an enzyme-activated aromatase inhibitor (MDL 18,962)

    SciTech Connect

    Longcope, C.; Femino, A.; Johnston, J.O.

    1988-05-01

    The peripheral aromatization ((rho)BM) of androstenedione (A) and testosterone (T) was measured before and after administration of the aromatase inhibitor 10-(2 propynyl)estr-4-ene-3,17-dione (MDL-18,962) to five mature female baboons, Papio annubis. The measurements were made by infusing (3H)androstenedione/(14C)estrone or (3H)testosterone/(14C)estradiol for 3.5 h and collecting blood samples during the infusions and all urine for 96 h from the start of the infusion. Blood samples were analyzed for radioactivity as infused and product steroids, and the data were used to calculate MCRs. An aliquot of the pooled urine was analyzed for the glucuronides of estrone and estradiol and used to calculate the (rho)BM. MDL-18,962 was administered as a pulse in polyethylene glycol-400 (1-5 ml) either iv or via gastric tube 30 min before administration of the radiolabeled steroids. Control studies were done with and without polyethylene glycol-400 administration. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A was decreased 91.8 +/- 0.9% from the control value of 1.23 +/- 0.13% to 0.11 +/- 0.01%. At the same dose, aromatization of T was decreased 82.0 +/- 7.1%, from a control value of 0.20 +/- 0.03% to 0.037 +/- 0.018%. When MDL-18,962 was given iv at doses of 0.4, 0.1, 0.04, and 0.01 mg/kg, the values for aromatization of A were 0.16 +/- 0.03%, 0.18 +/- 0.06%, 0.37 +/- 11%, and 0.65 +/- 0.09%, respectively. The administration of MDL-18,962 via gastric tube at 4 mg/kg as a pulse decreased the aromatization of A from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.43 +/- 0.12%, an inhibition of 67.2 +/- 10.7%. When administered via gastric tube daily for 5 days at 4 mg/kg, the aromatization of A fell from 1.35 +/- 0.06% to 0.063 +/- 0.003%, an inhibition of 84.4 +/- 0.5%.

  6. Variable phenotypes associated with aromatase (CYP19) insufficiency in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lin; Ercan, Oya; Raza, Jamal; Burren, Christine P.; Creighton, Sarah M.; Auchus, Richard J.; Dattani, Mehul T.; Achermann, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Context The P450 enzyme aromatase (CYP19) plays a crucial role in the endocrine and paracrine biosynthesis of estrogens from androgens in many diverse estrogen-responsive tissues. Complete aromatase deficiency has been reported in a small number of 46,XX girls with genital ambiguity and absent pubertal development, but it is unknown whether non-classic phenotypes exist. Objective The objective of the study was to determine whether variant forms of aromatase insufficiency can occur in humans. Patients Four patients (46,XX) from three kindred with variable degrees of androgenization and pubertal failure. Methods Mutational analysis of CYP19 and assay of enzyme activity. Results Aromatase insufficiency resulting in genital ambiguity at birth, but with variable breast development at puberty (B2-B4), occurred in 46,XX patients from two kindred who harbored point mutations or single codon deletions (R435C, F234del). Absent puberty with minimal androgenization at birth was found in one girl with a deletion involving exon5 of CYP19 (exon5del), which would be predicted to lead to an in-frame deletion of 59 amino acids from the enzyme. Functional studies revealed low residual aromatase activity in the cases where breast development occurred. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that aromatase mutations can produce variable or “non-classic” phenotypes in humans. Low residual aromatase activity may be sufficient for breast and uterine development to occur at puberty, despite significant androgenization in utero. Such phenotypic variability may be influenced further by modifying factors, such as non-classic pathways of estrogen synthesis, variability in co-regulators, or differences in androgen responsiveness. PMID:17164303

  7. Sequencing of aromatase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bertelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Since the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs), anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane, these agents have been the subject of intensive research to determine their optimal use in advanced breast cancer. Not only have they replaced progestins in second-line therapy and challenged the role of tamoxifen in first-line, but there is also evidence for a lack of cross-resistance between the steroidal and nonsteroidal AIs, meaning that they may be used in sequence to obtain prolonged clinical benefit. Many questions remain, however, as to the best sequence of the two types of AIs and of the other available agents, including tamoxifen and fulvestrant, in different patient groups. PMID:16100523

  8. Aromatase inhibitor associated arthralgia: the importance of oncology provider-patient communication about side effects and potential management through physical activity.

    PubMed

    Nyrop, Kirsten A; Callahan, Leigh F; Rini, Christine; Altpeter, Mary; Hackney, Betsy; DePue, Amy; Wilson, Anne; Schechter, Arielle; Muss, Hyman B

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors on aromatase inhibitors (AI) often experience side effects of joint pain, stiffness, or achiness (arthralgia). This study presents findings from a qualitative study of survivors on an AI regarding their knowledge of potential joint pain side effects and how both AI side effects and their management through moderate physical activity could be discussed during routine visits with their oncology provider. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews were content analyzed for emergent themes. Descriptive statistics summarize sample characteristics. Our sample included 36 survivors, mean age of 67 (range 46-87); 86 % Caucasian and 70 % had education beyond high school. AI experience are as follows: 64 % anastrozole/Arimidex, 48 % letrozole/Femara, and 31 % exemestane/Aromasin. Participants expressed interest in having more information about potential joint pain side effects when the AI was prescribed so they could understand their joint symptoms when they appeared or intensified. They were relieved to learn that their joint symptoms were not unusual or "in their head." Participants would have been especially motivated to try walking as a way to manage their joint pain if physical activity had been recommended by their oncologist. Breast cancer survivors who are prescribed an AI as part of their adjuvant treatment want ongoing communication with their oncology provider about the potential for joint pain side effects and how these symptoms may be managed through regular physical activity. The prescription of an AI presents a "teachable moment" for oncologists to recommend and encourage their patients to engage in regular physical activity.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of aromatase inhibition by new A, D-ring modified steroids.

    PubMed

    Cepa, Margarida; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Tavares da Silva, Elisiário J; Roleira, Fernanda M F; Hong, Yanyan; Chen, Shiuan; Teixeira, Natércia A

    2008-09-01

    A recent approach for treatment and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer focuses on the inhibition of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of estrogen biosynthesis. Some synthetic steroids, such as formestane and exemestane, resembling the natural enzyme substrate androstenedione, revealed to be potent and useful aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and were approved for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Recently, we found that five newly synthesized steroids with chemical features in the A- and D-rings considered important for drug-receptor interaction efficiently inhibit aromatase derived from human placental microsomes. In this work, these steroids showed a similar pattern of anti-aromatase activity in several aromatase-expressing cell lines. 5alpha-androst-3-en-17-one and 3alpha,4alpha-epoxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one were revealed to be the most potent inhibitors. These compounds induced a time-dependent inhibition of aromatase, showing to be irreversible AIs. The specific interactions of these compounds with aromatase active sites were further demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis studies and evaluated by computer-aided molecular modeling. Both compounds were able to suppress hormone-dependent proliferation of MCF-7aro cells in a dose-dependent manner. These findings are important for the elucidation of a structure-activity relationship on aromatase, which may help in the development of new AIs.

  10. Exploring new chemical functionalities to improve aromatase inhibition of steroids.

    PubMed

    Varela, Carla L; Amaral, Cristina; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Costa, Saul C; Carvalho, Rui A; Costa, Giosuè; Alcaro, Stefano; Teixeira, Natércia A A; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Roleira, Fernanda M F

    2016-06-15

    In this work, new potent steroidal aromatase inhibitors both in microsomes and in breast cancer cells have been found. The synthesis of the 3,4-(ethylenedioxy)androsta-3,5-dien-17-one (12), a new steroid containing a heterocycle dioxene fused in the A-ring, led to the discovery of a new reaction for which a mechanism is proposed. New structure-activity relationships were established. Some 5β-steroids, such as compound 4β,5β-epoxyandrostan-17-one (9), showed aromatase inhibitory activity, because they adopt a similar A-ring conformation as those of androstenedione, the natural substrate of aromatase. Moreover, new chemical features to increase planarity were disclosed, specifically the 3α,4α-cyclopropane ring, as in 3α,4α-methylen-5α-androstan-17-one (5) (IC50=0.11μM), and the Δ(9-11) double bond in the C-ring, as in androsta-4,9(11)-diene-3,17-dione (13) (IC50=0.25μM). In addition, induced-fit docking (IFD) simulations and site of metabolism (SoM) predictions helped to explain the recognition of new potent steroidal aromatase inhibitors within the enzyme. These insights can be valuable tools for the understanding of the molecular recognition process by the aromatase and for the future design of new steroidal inhibitors.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sources for This Page Fukami M, Shozu M, Ogata T. Molecular bases and phenotypic determinants of aromatase ... T, Nishigaki T, Yokoya S, Binder G, Horikawa R, Ogata T. Aromatase excess syndrome: identification of cryptic duplications ...

  12. Porcine Hypothalamic Aromatase Cytochrome P450: Isoform Characterization, Sex-Dependent Activity, Regional Expression, and Regulation by Enzyme Inhibition in Neonatal Boars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Domestic pigs have three CYP19 genes encoding functional paralogues of the enzyme aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) that are expressed in the gonads, placenta and pre-implantation blastocyst. All catalyze estrogen synthesis, but the “gonadal” type enzyme is unique in also synthesizing a nonaromat...

  13. Immunolocalization of aromatase in stallion Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules.

    PubMed

    Sipahutar, Herbert; Sourdaine, Pascal; Moslemi, Safa; Plainfossé, Bruno; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2003-03-01

    High levels of plasma estrogens constitute an endocrine peculiarity of the adult stallion. This is mostly due to testicular cytochrome p450 aromatase, the only irreversible enzyme responsible for the bioconversion of androgens into estrogens. To identify more precisely the testicular aromatase synthesis sites in the stallion, testes from nine horses (2-5 years) were obtained during winter or spring. Paraplast-embedded sections were processed using rabbit anti-equine aromatase, followed by biotinylated goat anti-rabbit antibodies, and amplified with a streptavidin-peroxidase complex. Immunoreactivity was detected with diaminobenzidine. Immunofluorescence detection, using fluoroisothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibodies, was also applied. Specific aromatase immunoreactivity was observed intensely in Leydig cells but also for the first time, to a lesser extent, in the cytoplasm surrounding germ cells at the junction with Sertoli cells. Interestingly, the immunoreactivity in Sertoli cells appears to vary with the spermatogenic stages in the basal compartment (with spermatogonia) as well as in the adluminal one (with spermatids). Relative staining intensity in Leydig and Sertoli cells and testicular microsomal aromatase activity increased with age. The present study in stallions indicates that in addition to Leydig cells, Sertoli cells also appear to participate in estrogen synthesis, and this could play a paracrine role in the regulation of spermatogenesis.

  14. [Growth inhibition of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by aromatase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, M; Kitawaki, J; Yamamoto, T; Okada, H

    1991-12-01

    MCF-7 cell line is a model for estrogen-dependent tumors that have both aromatase activity and estrogen receptor. We studied the contribution of aromatase to cell growth and DNA synthesis by means of aromatase inhibitors. MCF-7 cells were cultured in phenol red-free medium containing 10% charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum and test reagents for 96 hours and pulse-labeled with [3H]thymidine for 1 hour. Physiological concentrations of estradiol, estrone, testosterone(T) and androstenedione(delta 4A) increased [3H] thymidine incorporation. Stimulation by T or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was reduced by tamoxifen, but not by androgen receptor blocker cyproterone acetate, suggesting that T and DHT stimulated cellular proliferation via estrogen receptor but not via androgen receptor. Stimulation by T or delta 4A was reduced by aromatase inhibitors (aminoglutethimide and 14 alpha-hydroxy-4-androstene-3,6,17-trione), but stimulation by nonaromatizable DHT was not reduced by aromatase inhibitors. These results have suggested that estrogens which are biosynthesized from androgens by the intracellular aromatase play a significant role in growth stimulation of MCF-7 cells and that aromatase inhibitors block this pathway. These methods are useful in assessing the ability of aromatase inhibitors to suppress cell growth.

  15. Regulation of aromatase expression in breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Bulun, S E; Lin, Z; Zhao, H; Lu, M; Amin, S; Reierstad, S; Chen, D

    2009-02-01

    Epithelial-stromal interactions play key roles for aromatase expression and estrogen production in breast cancer tissue. Upregulated aromatase expression in breast fibroblasts increases the tissue concentration of estradiol (E2), which then activates a large number of carcinogenic genes via estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) in malignant epithelial cells. This clinically pertains, since aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are the most effective hormonal treatment of ERalpha-positive breast tumors. A single gene encodes aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, the inhibition of which by an AI effectively eliminates E2 production. Since alternative promoters regulated by distinct signaling pathways control aromatase expression, it is possible to target these pathways and inhibit estrogen production in a tissue-selective fashion. We and others previously found that the majority of estrogen production in breast cancer tissue was accounted for by the aberrant activation of the proximal promoter I.3/II region. PGE(2) that is secreted in large amounts by malignant breast epithelial cells is the most potent known natural inducer of this promoter region in breast adipose fibroblasts. Signaling effectors/transcriptional regulators that mediate PGE(2) action include the activator pathways p38/CREB-ATF and JNK/jun and the inhibitory factor BRCA1 in breast adipose fibroblasts. Selective inhibition of this promoter region may treat breast cancer while permitting aromatase expression via alternative promoters in the brain and bone and thus obviate the key side effects of the current AIs. The signaling pathways that mediate the regulation of the promoter I.3/II region in undifferentiated fibroblasts in malignant breast tumors are reviewed.

  16. Neuroprotective Actions of Brain Aromatase

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Colin J.; Duncan, Kelli A.; Walters, Bradley J.

    2009-01-01

    The steroidal regulation of vertebrate neuroanatomy and neurophysiology includes a seemingly unending list of brain areas, cellular structures and behaviors modulated by these hormones. Estrogens, in particular have emerged as potent neuromodulators, exerting a range of effects including neuroprotection and perhaps neural repair. In songbirds and mammals, the brain itself appears to be the site of injury-induced estrogen synthesis via the rapid transcription and translation of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in astroglia. This induction seems to occur regardless of the nature and location of primary brain damage. The induced expression of aromatase apparently elevates local estrogen levels enough to interfere with apoptotic pathways, thereby decreasing secondary degeneration and ultimately lessening the extent of damage. There is even evidence suggesting that aromatization may affect injury-induced cytogenesis. Thus, aromatization in the brain appears to confer neuroprotection by an array of mechanisms that involve the deceleration and acceleration of degeneration and repair respectively. We are only beginning to understand the factors responsible for the injury-induced transcription of aromatase in astroglia. In contrast, much of the manner in which local and circulating estrogens may achieve their neuroprotective effects has been elucidated. However, gaps in our knowledge include issues about the cell-specific regulation of aromatase expression, steroidal influences of aromatization distinct from estrogen formation, and questions about the role of constitutive aromatase in neuroprotection. Here we describe the considerable consensus and some interesting differences in knowledge gained from studies conducted on diverse animal models, experimental paradigms and preparations towards understanding the neuroprotective actions of brain aromatase. PMID:19450619

  17. Competitive product inhibition of aromatase by natural estrogens.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Y; Yarborough, C; Osawa, Y

    1993-03-01

    In order to better understand the function of aromatase, we carried out kinetic analyses to assess the ability of natural estrogens, estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), 16 alpha-OHE1, and estriol (E3), to inhibit aromatization. Human placental microsomes (50 micrograms protein) were incubated for 5 min at 37 degrees C with [1 beta-3H]testosterone (1.24 x 10(3) dpm 3H/ng, 35-150 nM) or [1 beta-3H,4-14C]androstenedione (3.05 x 10(3) dpm 3H/ng, 3H/14C = 19.3, 7-65 nM) as substrate in the presence of NADPH, with and without natural estrogens as putative inhibitors. Aromatase activity was assessed by tritium released to water from the 1 beta-position of the substrates. Natural estrogens showed competitive product inhibition against androgen aromatization. The Ki of E1, E2, 16 alpha-OHE1, and E3 for testosterone aromatization was 1.5, 2.2, 95, and 162 microM, respectively, where the Km of aromatase was 61.8 +/- 2.0 nM (n = 5) for testosterone. The Ki of E1, E2, 16 alpha-OHE1, and E3 for androstenedione aromatization was 10.6, 5.5, 252, and 1182 microM, respectively, where the Km of aromatase was 35.4 +/- 4.1 nM (n = 4) for androstenedione. These results show that estrogen inhibit the process of androgen aromatization and indicate that natural estrogens regulate their own synthesis by the product inhibition mechanism in vivo. Since natural estrogen binds to the active site of human placental aromatase P-450 complex as competitive inhibitors, natural estrogens might be further metabolized by aromatase. This suggests that human placental estrogen 2-hydroxylase activity is catalyzed by the active site of aromatase cytochrome P-450 and also agrees with the fact that the level of catecholestrogens in maternal plasma increases during pregnancy. The relative affinities and concentration of androgens and estrogens would control estrogen and catecholestrogen biosynthesis by aromatase.

  18. Molecular modeling evaluation of non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Bheemanapalli Lakshmi; Pran Kishore, Deb; Balakumar, Chadrasekaran; Rao, Kaki Venkata; Kaur, Rajwinder; Rao, Akkinepally Raghuram; Murthy, Javali Narashima; Ravikumar, Muttineni

    2012-05-01

    A recent discovery of aromatase crystal structure triggered the efforts to design novel aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer therapy. While correlating docking scores with inhibitory potencies of known ligands, feeble robustness of scoring functions toward prediction was observed. This prompted us to develop new prediction models using stepwise regression analysis based on consensus of different docking and their scoring methods (GOLD, LIGANDFIT, and GLIDE). Quantitative structure-activity relationships were developed between the aromatase inhibitory activity (pIC(50) ) of flavonoid derivatives (n=39) and docking scores and docking descriptors. QSAR models have been validated internally [using leave-one-out cross-validated r(2)(cv) (LOO-Q2))] and externally to ensure the predictive capacity of the models. Model 2 [M2] developed using consensus of docking scores of scoring functions viz. ASP, potential of mean force and DOCK Score (r(2)(cv)=0.850, r(2) = 0.870, r(2)(pred) = 0.633, RMSE = 0.363 μm, r(2)(m(test)) =0.831, r(2)(m(overall)) =0.832) was found to be better in predicting aromatase inhibitory potency (pIC(50) ) compared to the Model 1 [M1] based on docking descriptors (r(2)(cv)= 0.848, r(2) = 0.825, r(2)(pred) =0.788, RMSE=0.421μm, r(2)(m(test)) =0.808, r(2)(m(overall)) =0.821). It has been observed that the natural flavonoids and their derivatives were less potent compared to these scaffolds with imidazolylmethyl substitution owing to the interaction of nitrogen atom of the imidazole ring toward the heme (Fe(3+) ) of the aromatase. Results confirm the potential of our methodology for the design of new potent non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors.

  19. AOP description: Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between inhibition of gonadal aromatase activity in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Sh...

  20. AOP description: Aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction (in fish)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This adverse outcome pathway details the linkage between inhibition of gonadal aromatase activity in females and the adverse effect of reduced cumulative fecundity in repeat-spawning fish species. Cumulative fecundity is the most apical endpoint considered in the OECD 229 Fish Sh...

  1. Quantitative analysis of long-form aromatase mRNA in the male and female rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tabatadze, Nino; Sato, Satoru M; Woolley, Catherine S

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies show that estrogens acutely modulate synaptic function in both sexes. These acute effects may be mediated in vivo by estrogens synthesized within the brain, which could fluctuate more rapidly than circulating estrogens. For this to be the case, brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens should be capable of synthesizing them. To investigate this question, we used quantitative real-time PCR to measure expression of mRNA for the estrogen-synthesizing enzyme, aromatase, in different brain regions of male and female rats. Importantly, because brain aromatase exists in two forms, a long form with aromatase activity and a short form with unknown function, we targeted a sequence found exclusively in long-form aromatase. With this approach, we found highest expression of aromatase mRNA in the amygdala followed closely by the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and preoptic area (POA); we found moderate levels of aromatase mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex; and aromatase mRNA was detectable in brainstem and cerebellum, but levels were very low. In the amygdala, gonadal/hormonal status regulated aromatase expression in both sexes; in the BNST and POA, castration of males down-regulated aromatase, whereas there was no effect of estradiol in ovariectomized females. In the dorsal hippocampus and cingulate cortex, there were no differences in aromatase levels between males and females or effects of gonadal/hormonal status. These findings demonstrate that long-form aromatase is expressed in brain regions that respond acutely to estrogens, such as the dorsal hippocampus, and that gonadal/hormonal regulation of aromatase differs among different brain regions.

  2. Novel inhibitor discovery against aromatase through virtual screening and molecular dynamic simulation: a computational approach in drug design

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaie, Sako; Chupani, Latifeh; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Jamalan, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of aromatase (CYTP450) as a key enzyme in the estrogen biosynthesis could result in regression of estrogen-dependent tumors and even preventing the promotion of breast cancer. Although today potent steroid and non-steroid inhibitors of aromatase are available, isoflavanone derivatives as natural compounds with least side effects have been described as the candidate for a new generation of aromatase inhibitors. 2a as an isoflavanone derivative is the most potent inhibitor of aromatase, synthesized by Bonfield et al. (2012[7]). In our computational study, the mentioned compound was used as the template for virtual screening. Between 286 selected compounds with 70 % of structural similarity to 2a, 150 of them showed lower docking energy in comparison with 2a. Compound 2a_1 with 11.2 kcal/mol had the lowest docking energy. Interaction of 2a_1 with aromatase was further investigated and compared with 2a and androstenedione (ASD) as a natural substrate of aromatase, through 20 ns of molecular dynamic simulation. Analysis of trajectories showed, while ASD interacts with aromatase through hydrogen bonds and 2a just interacts via hydrophobic forces, 2a_1 not only accommodates in the hydrophobic active site of aromatase in a suitable manner but it also makes a stable coordination with iron atom of aromatase heme group via OB. PMID:26417225

  3. Novel inhibitor discovery against aromatase through virtual screening and molecular dynamic simulation: a computational approach in drug design.

    PubMed

    Mirzaie, Sako; Chupani, Latifeh; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza; Jamalan, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of aromatase (CYTP450) as a key enzyme in the estrogen biosynthesis could result in regression of estrogen-dependent tumors and even preventing the promotion of breast cancer. Although today potent steroid and non-steroid inhibitors of aromatase are available, isoflavanone derivatives as natural compounds with least side effects have been described as the candidate for a new generation of aromatase inhibitors. 2a as an isoflavanone derivative is the most potent inhibitor of aromatase, synthesized by Bonfield et al. (2012[7]). In our computational study, the mentioned compound was used as the template for virtual screening. Between 286 selected compounds with 70 % of structural similarity to 2a, 150 of them showed lower docking energy in comparison with 2a. Compound 2a_1 with 11.2 kcal/mol had the lowest docking energy. Interaction of 2a_1 with aromatase was further investigated and compared with 2a and androstenedione (ASD) as a natural substrate of aromatase, through 20 ns of molecular dynamic simulation. Analysis of trajectories showed, while ASD interacts with aromatase through hydrogen bonds and 2a just interacts via hydrophobic forces, 2a_1 not only accommodates in the hydrophobic active site of aromatase in a suitable manner but it also makes a stable coordination with iron atom of aromatase heme group via OB.

  4. Aromatase inhibition by synthetic lactones and flavonoids in human placental microsomes and breast fibroblasts - A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Meeuwen, J.A. van Nijmeijer, S.; Mutarapat, T.; Ruchirawat, S.; Jong, P.C. de; Piersma, A.H.; Berg, M. van den

    2008-05-01

    Interference of exogenous chemicals with the aromatase enzyme can be useful as a tool to identify chemicals that could act either chemopreventive for hormone-dependent cancer or adverse endocrine disruptive. Aromatase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroids, as it converts androgens to estrogens. Certain flavonoids, plant derived chemicals, are known catalytic aromatase inhibitors. Various systems are in use to test aromatase inhibitory properties of compounds. Commonly used are microsomes derived from ovary or placental tissue characterized by high aromatase activity. To a lesser extent whole cell systems are used and specifically cell systems that are potential target tissue in breast cancer development. In this study aromatase inhibitory properties of fadrozole, 8-prenylnaringenin and a synthetic lactone (TM-7) were determined in human placental microsomes and in human primary breast fibroblasts. In addition, apigenin, chrysin, naringenin and two synthetic lactones (TM-8 and TM-9) were tested in human microsomes only. Comparison of the aromatase inhibitory potencies of these compounds between the two test systems showed that the measurement of aromatase inhibition in human placental microsomes is a good predictor of aromatase inhibition in human breast fibroblasts.

  5. Aromatase inhibition by synthetic lactones and flavonoids in human placental microsomes and breast fibroblasts--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    van Meeuwen, J A; Nijmeijer, S; Mutarapat, T; Ruchirawat, S; de Jong, P C; Piersma, A H; van den Berg, M

    2008-05-01

    Interference of exogenous chemicals with the aromatase enzyme can be useful as a tool to identify chemicals that could act either chemopreventive for hormone-dependent cancer or adverse endocrine disruptive. Aromatase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of steroids, as it converts androgens to estrogens. Certain flavonoids, plant derived chemicals, are known catalytic aromatase inhibitors. Various systems are in use to test aromatase inhibitory properties of compounds. Commonly used are microsomes derived from ovary or placental tissue characterized by high aromatase activity. To a lesser extent whole cell systems are used and specifically cell systems that are potential target tissue in breast cancer development. In this study aromatase inhibitory properties of fadrozole, 8-prenylnaringenin and a synthetic lactone (TM-7) were determined in human placental microsomes and in human primary breast fibroblasts. In addition, apigenin, chrysin, naringenin and two synthetic lactones (TM-8 and TM-9) were tested in human microsomes only. Comparison of the aromatase inhibitory potencies of these compounds between the two test systems showed that the measurement of aromatase inhibition in human placental microsomes is a good predictor of aromatase inhibition in human breast fibroblasts.

  6. Different catalytic properties and inhibitor responses of the goldfish brain and ovary aromatase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J; Mak, P; Tchoudakova, A; Callard, G; Chen, S

    2001-08-01

    The brain and ovarian aromatase isozymes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) are encoded by different CYP19 genes. This study measured aromatase activity in the goldfish brain tissues. For a direct comparison of the properties of the two aromatase isozymes, Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with brain- and ovary-derived cDNAs (respectively, p450 arom B and -A) and the properties of the expressed isozymes were compared. The kinetic parameters of the two isozymes were determined using androstenedione and testosterone as substrates and compared to those of human aromatase. Inhibition profile analyses on the two isozymes were performed using seven inhibitors [4-hydroxyandrostenedione, 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthio-1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione, bridge (2,19-methyleneoxy)androstene-3,17-dione, aminoglutethimide (AG), CGS 20267, ICI D1033, and vorozole]. Except for AG, the compounds tested were found to be much stronger inhibitors against the ovary enzyme than the brain enzyme. In addition, the ovary isoform was more sensitive to two phytoestrogens, chrysin and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, than the brain form. These studies reveal that catalytic properties of the goldfish aromatase isoforms are significantly different from those of human aromatase. In addition, differences in the K(i) values of aromatase inhibitors for the two goldfish isoforms suggest structural variance in the active sites of these isozymes.

  7. Steroidal pyrazolines evaluated as aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Mohamed M; Al-Omar, Mohamed A; Bhat, Mashooq A; Amr, Abdel-Galil E; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M

    2012-05-01

    The aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibition of synthesized heterocyclic pyrazole derivatives fused with steroidal structure for chemoprevention of cancer is reported herein. All compounds were interestingly less toxic than the reference drug (Cyproterone(®)). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds were much more potent than the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC(50) of 80 μM. In addition, all the compounds displayed potent quinone reductase-2 inhibition. Initially the acute toxicity of the compounds was assayed via the determination of their LD(50). The aromatase and quinone reductase-2 inhibitors resulting from this study have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  8. Successful use of aromatase inhibitor letrozole in NOA with an elevated FSH level: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Pan, L; Zhang, F; Pan, F; Ma, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Y

    2014-05-01

    Aromatase inhibitors inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestrogens and could reduce serum oestradiol concentrations. Letrozole is one of aromatase inhibitors frequently used in treatment of men with oligospermia. We present the case of an infertile man with small testes and an elevated FSH level, which was diagnosed as NOA, hypospermatogenesis proven by testicular biopsy. After taking letrozole for 3 months, semen analyses by computer-aided sperm analysis present that this man had normal spermatogenesis. This is the first case report of the activation of spermatogenesis, in man who was NOA with elevated FSH level, resulting from the use of the one of aromatase inhibitors.

  9. PAAn-1b and PAAn-E: two phosphorothioate antisense oligodeoxynucleotides inhibit human aromatase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Auvray, P; Sourdaine, P; Séralini, G E

    1998-12-09

    Estrogen-dependent diseases, especially breast cancers, are frequently treated with aromatase inhibitors. Another more recent strategy is the antisense technology. In this study, after predicting aromatase mRNA secondary structure, we describe the design, the efficiency, and the toxicity of two antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (PAAn-1b and PAAn-E) directed toward aromatase mRNA. Indeed, 2 microM PAAn-1b and PAAn-E encapsulated with 54 microM polyethylenimine inhibit aromatase activity by 71 and 79%, respectively, in transfected 293 cells, with IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.6 microM. The mechanism of inhibition appears to be specific after using sense and scramble oligodeoxynucleotides as controls and largely decreases aromatase mRNA and protein amounts. Moreover, PAAn-1b and PAAn-E are not cytotoxic for 293 cells. This study finally provides a new strategy for aromatase inhibition. It offers new tools for studying aromatase gene expression and its role in cancer for instance, and this could be of help for the therapy of estrogen-dependent diseases.

  10. Effects of follicle-stimulating hormone with and without luteinizing hormone on serum hormone concentrations, follicle growth, and intrafollicular estradiol and aromatase activity in gonadotropin-releasing hormone-immunized heifers.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M A; Kelly, P; Driancourt, M A; Boland, M P; Roche, J F

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the roles of FSH and LH in follicular growth, GnRH-immunized anestrous heifers (n = 17) were randomly assigned (Day 0) to one of three groups (n = 5 or 6). Group 1 received i.m. injections of 1.5 mg porcine FSH (pFSH) 4 times/day for 2 days; group 2 received i.v. injections of 150 microg pLH 6 times/day for 6 days; group 3 received both pFSH and pLH as described for groups 1 and 2. After slaughter on Day 6, measurements were made of follicle number and size, and follicular fluid concentrations of progesterone (P(4)), estradiol (E(2)), and aromatase activity. Injection of pFSH increased (P: < 0.01) the serum concentrations of FSH between 12 and 54 h. Infusion of pLH increased (P: < 0.05) mean and basal concentrations of LH and LH pulse frequency. Serum E(2) concentrations were higher (P: < 0.05) for heifers given pFSH + pLH than those given either pFSH or pLH alone. There was no difference (P: > or = 0.24) between treatments in the number of small follicles (<5 mm). Heifers given pFSH or pFSH + pLH had more (P: < or = 0.02) medium follicles (5.0-9.5 mm) than those that were given pLH alone (none present). Heifers given pFSH + pLH had more (P: = 0.04) large follicles (> or =10 mm) than those given either pLH or pFSH alone (none present). Overall, only 1 of 35 small follicles and 2 of 96 medium follicles were E(2)-active (i.e., E(2):P(4) >1.0), whereas 18 of 21 large follicles (all in the pFSH + pLH treatment) were E(2)-active; of these, 8 of 18 had aromatase activity. Concentrations of E(2) and E(2) activity in follicular fluid were correlated (r > or = 0.57; P: < 0.0001) with aromatase activity in heifers given pLH + pFSH. In conclusion, pLH failed to stimulate follicle growth greater than 5 mm; pFSH stimulated growth of medium follicles that were E(2)-inactive at slaughter and failed to increase serum E(2) concentrations; whereas pFSH + pLH stimulated growth of medium follicles and E(2)-active large follicles, and a 10- to 14-fold increase in serum E(2

  11. Brain and gonadal aromatase as potential targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a model species, the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hinfray, N; Palluel, O; Turies, C; Cousin, C; Porcher, J M; Brion, F

    2006-08-01

    Many chemicals in the aquatic environment are able to adversely affect in vitro brain and ovarian aromatase expression/activity. However, it remains to be determined if these substances elicit in vivo effect in fish. With the view to further understanding possible effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on aromatase function, we first developed methods to measure brain and ovarian aromatase expression/activity in a model species, the zebrafish, and assessed the effect of estradiol (E2) and androstatrienedione (ATD), a steroidal aromatase inhibitor. We showed that CYP19b gene was predominantly expressed in the brain whereas in the ovary CYP19a mRNA level was predominant. Moreover, aromatase activities (AA) were higher in brain than in ovary. In adult zebrafish, E2 treatment had no effect on aromatase expression/activity in brain, whereas at larval stage, E2 strongly triggered CYP19b expression. In the ovaries, E2 led to a complete inhibition of both CYP19a expression and AA. Exposure to ATD led to a total inhibition of both brain and ovarian AA but had no effect on CYP19 transcripts abundance. Together, these results provide relevant knowledge concerning the characterization of aromatase in the zebrafish, and reinforce the idea that brain and ovarian aromatase are promising markers of EDCs in fish and deserve further in vivo studies.

  12. Characterization of aromatase binding agents from the dichloromethane extract of Corydalis yanhusuo using ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jing; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhang, Min; Sun, Fang

    2010-05-14

    Aromatase represents an important target for the treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer. In the present study, nine alkaloids from the dichloromethane extract of Corydalis yanhusuo were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and tested for their aromatase binding activities using an ultrafiltration LC-MS method by investigating the differences of peak areas of compounds before and after incubations with aromatase. It was demonstrated that the quaternary protoberberine alkaloids and the tertiary protoberberine alkaloids exhibited potent aromatase binding activities. The quaternary ammonium group and the methyl group at C-13 position of tertiary protoberberine alkaloids might be necessary for the activity. The findings should provide guidance for the discovery of potential aromatase inhibitors from natural products.

  13. Changes in aromatase (CYP19) gene promoter usage in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Demura, Masashi; Demura, Yoshiki; Ameshima, Shingo; Ishizaki, Takeshi; Sasaki, Masato; Miyamori, Isamu; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Bulun, Serdar E

    2011-09-01

    In humans, aromatase (CYP19) gene expression is regulated via alternative promoters. Activation of each promoter gives rise to a CYP19 mRNA species with a unique 5'-untranslated region. Inhibition of aromatase has been reported to downregulate lung tumor growth. The genetic basis for CYP19 gene expression and aromatase activity in lung cancer remains poorly understood. We analyzed tissues from 15 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to evaluate CYP19 promoter usage and promoter-specific aromatase mRNA levels in NSCLC tumor tissues and adjacent non-malignant tissues. CYP19 promoter usage was determined by multiplex RT-PCR and aromatase mRNA levels were measured with real-time RT-PCR. In non-malignant tissues, aromatase mRNA was primarily derived from activation of CYP19 promoter I.4. Although promoter I.4 usage was also dominant in tumor tissues, I.4 activation was significantly lower compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. Activity of promoters I.3, I.1 and I.7 was significantly higher in tumor tissues compared with non-malignant tissues. In 4 of 15 cases of non-small cell lung cancer, switching from CYP19 promoter I.4 to the alternative promoters II, I.1 or I.7 was observed. In 9 cases, there were significantly higher levels of aromatase mRNA in lung tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-malignant tissues. These findings suggest aberrant activation of alternative CYP19 promoters that may lead to upregulation of local aromatase expression in some cases of NSCLC. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of alternative CYP19 promoter usage on local estrogen levels and lung tumor growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hsp90 and PKM2 Drive the Expression of Aromatase in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Breast Adipose Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Brown, Kristy A; Zahid, Heba; Balmus, Gabriel; Weiss, Robert S; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2016-07-29

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients harbor germ line mutations in the TP53 gene and are at increased risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Recently, elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, were found in the breast tissue of LFS patients. Although p53 down-regulates aromatase expression, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that LFS stromal cells expressed higher levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity and aromatase compared with wild-type stromal cells. Inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase suppressed aromatase expression. Silencing Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), a co-chaperone of Hsp90 required for its ATPase activity, led to both inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity and reduced aromatase expression. In comparison with wild-type stromal cells, increased levels of the Hsp90 client proteins, HIF-1α, and PKM2 were found in LFS stromal cells. A complex comprised of HIF-1α and PKM2 was recruited to the aromatase promoter II in LFS stromal cells. Silencing either HIF-1α or PKM2 suppressed aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. CP-31398, a p53 rescue compound, suppressed levels of Aha1, Hsp90 ATPase activity, levels of PKM2 and HIF-1α, and aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. Consistent with these in vitro findings, levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity, Aha1, HIF-1α, PKM2, and aromatase were increased in the mammary glands of p53 null versus wild-type mice. PKM2 and HIF-1α were shown to co-localize in the nucleus of stromal cells of LFS breast tissue. Taken together, our results show that the Aha1-Hsp90-PKM2/HIF-1α axis mediates the induction of aromatase in LFS. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Aromatase, estrogen receptors and brain development in fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, Pascal; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Adrio, Fátima; Diotel, Nicolas; Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Nasri, Ahmed; Vaillant, Colette; Kah, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Estrogens affect brain development of vertebrates, not only by impacting activity and morphology of existing circuits, but also by modulating embryonic and adult neurogenesis. The issue is complex as estrogens can not only originate from peripheral tissues, but also be locally produced within the brain itself due to local aromatization of androgens. In this respect, teleost fishes are quite unique because aromatase is expressed exclusively in radial glial cells, which represent pluripotent cells in the brain of all vertebrates. Expression of aromatase in the brain of fish is also strongly stimulated by estrogens and some androgens. This creates a very intriguing positive auto-regulatory loop leading to dramatic aromatase expression in sexually mature fish with elevated levels of circulating steroids. Looking at the effects of estrogens or anti-estrogens in the brain of adult zebrafish showed that estrogens inhibit rather than stimulate cell proliferation and newborn cell migration. The functional meaning of these observations is still unclear, but these data suggest that the brain of fish is experiencing constant remodeling under the influence of circulating steroids and brain-derived neurosteroids, possibly permitting a diversification of sexual strategies, notably hermaphroditism. Recent data in frogs indicate that aromatase expression is limited to neurons and do not concern radial glial cells. Thus, until now, there is no other example of vertebrates in which radial progenitors express aromatase. This raises the question of when and why these new features were gained and what are their adaptive benefits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  16. Aromatase Inhibition in a Transcriptional Network Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of chemicals in the environment have the potential to inhibit aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We examined the responses of female fathead minnow ovaries (FHM, Pimephales promelas) to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, using a transcriptional ne...

  17. Aromatase Inhibition in a Transcriptional Network Context

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of chemicals in the environment have the potential to inhibit aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We examined the responses of female fathead minnow ovaries (FHM, Pimephales promelas) to a model aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, using a transcriptional ne...

  18. The binding of lignans, flavonoids and coumestrol to CYP450 aromatase: a molecular modelling study.

    PubMed

    Karkola, Sampo; Wähälä, Kristiina

    2009-03-25

    Androgens are transformed into aromatic estrogens by CYP450 aromatase in a three-step reaction consuming three equivalents of oxygen and three equivalents of NADPH. Estrogens are substrates for nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) and play a key role in estrogen-dependent tumour cell formation and proliferation. Natural phytoestrogens are proved to be competitive inhibitors of aromatase enzyme at IC(50) values in micromolar levels. In order to understand the mechanisms involved in the binding of various phytoestrogens, we used our model of CYP450 aromatase to study the binding of phytoestrogens using molecular dynamics simulations with a bound phytoestrogen. The simulation trajectory was analysed to find the essential interactions which take place upon binding and a representative structure of the trajectory was minimized for docking studies. Sets of phytoestrogens, such as lignans, flavonoids/isoflavonoids and coumestrol, were docked into the aromatase active site and the binding modes were studied.

  19. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-03-06

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a frontline therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O{sub 2}, 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17{beta}-oestradiol and 17{beta},16{alpha}-oestriol, respectively. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme's androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors.

  20. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-01-08

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a frontline therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O(2), 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16alpha-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17beta-oestradiol and 17beta,16alpha-oestriol, respectively. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme's androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors.

  1. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Griswold, Jennifer; Erman, Mary; Pangborn, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 is the only enzyme in vertebrates known to catalyse the biosynthesis of all oestrogens from androgens1–3. Aromatase inhibitors therefore constitute a front-line therapy for oestrogen-dependent breast cancer3,4. In a three-step process, each step requiring 1 mol of O2, 1 mol of NADPH, and coupling with its redox partner cytochrome P450 reductase, aromatase converts androstenedione, testosterone and 16α-hydroxytestosterone to oestrone, 17β-oestradiol and 17β,16α-oestriol, respectively1–3. The first two steps are C19-methyl hydroxylation steps, and the third involves the aromatization of the steroid A-ring, unique to aromatase. Whereas most P450s are not highly substrate selective, it is the hallmark androgenic specificity that sets aromatase apart. The structure of this enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane has remained unknown for decades, hindering elucidation of the biochemical mechanism. Here we present the crystal structure of human placental aromatase, the only natural mammalian, full-length P450 and P450 in hormone biosynthetic pathways to be crystallized so far. Unlike the active sites of many microsomal P450s that metabolize drugs and xenobiotics, aromatase has an androgen-specific cleft that binds the androstenedione molecule snugly. Hydrophobic and polar residues exquisitely complement the steroid backbone. The locations of catalytically important residues shed light on the reaction mechanism. The relative juxtaposition of the hydrophobic amino-terminal region and the opening to the catalytic cleft shows why membrane anchoring is necessary for the lipophilic substrates to gain access to the active site. The molecular basis for the enzyme’s androgenic specificity and unique catalytic mechanism can be used for developing next-generation aromatase inhibitors. PMID:19129847

  2. A three-dimensional model of CYP19 aromatase for structure-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Karkola, Sampo; Höltje, Hans-Dieter; Wähälä, Kristiina

    2007-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP450(arom), CYP19) is an enzyme responsible for converting the aliphatic androgens androstenedione and testosterone to the aromatic estrogens estrone and estradiol, respectively. These endogenous hormones are a key factor in cancer tumor formation and proliferation through a cascade starting from estrogen binding to estrogen receptor. To interfere with the overproduction of estrogens especially in tumor tissue, it is possible to inhibit aromatase activity. This can be achieved using aromatase inhibitors. In order to design novel aromatase inhibitors, it is necessary to have an understanding of the active site of aromatase. As no crystal structure of the enzyme has yet been published, we built a homology model of aromatase using the first crystallized mammalian cytochrome enzyme, rabbit 21-progesterone hydroxylase 2C5, as a template structure. The initial model was validated with exhaustive molecular dynamics simulation with and without the natural substrate androstenedione. The resulting enzyme-substrate complex shows very good stability and only two of the residues are in disallowed regions in a Ramachandran plot.

  3. Pharmacophore mapping of flavone derivatives for aromatase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Shuchi; Islam, Md Ataul; Das, Suvadra; Mukherjee, Arup; Saha, Achintya

    2008-02-01

    Aromatase, which catalyses the final step in the steroidogenesis pathway of estrogen, has been target for the design of inhibitor in the treatment of hormone dependent breast cancer for postmenopausal women. The extensive SAR studies performed in the last 30 years to search for potent, selective and less toxic compounds, have led to the development of second and third generation of non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (AI). Besides the development of synthetic compounds, several naturally occurring and synthetic flavonoids, which are ubiquitous natural phenolic compounds and mediate the host of biological activities, are found to demonstrate inhibitory effects on aromatase. The present study explores the pharmacophores, i.e., the structural requirements of flavones (Fig. 1) for inhibition of aromatase activity, using quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and space modeling approaches. The classical QSAR studies generate the model (R (2) = 0.924, Q (2) = 0.895, s = 0.233) that shows the importance of aromatic rings A and C, along with substitutional requirements in meta and para positions of ring C for the activity. 3D QSAR of Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA, R (2) = 0.996, R(2)(cv) = 0.791) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Analysis (CoMSIA, R (2) = 0.992, R(2)(cv) = 0.806) studies show contour maps of steric and hydrophobic properties and contribution of acceptor and donor of the molecule, suggesting the presence of steric hindrance due to ring C and R''-substituent, bulky hydrophobic substitution in ring A, along with acceptors at positions 11, and alpha and gamma of imidazole ring, and donor in ring C favor the inhibitory activity. Further space modeling (CATALYST) study (R = 0.941, Delta( cost ) = 96.96, rmsd = 0.876) adjudge the presence of hydrogen bond acceptor (keto functional group), hydrophobic (ring A) and aromatic rings (steric hindrance) along with critical distance among features are important for the inhibitory activity.

  4. Identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals acting on human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Baravalle, Roberta; Ciaramella, Alberto; Baj, Francesca; Di Nardo, Giovanna; Gilardi, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    Human aromatase is the cytochrome P450 catalysing the conversion of androgens into estrogens playing a key role in the endocrine system. Due to this role, it is likely to be a target of the so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals, a series of compounds able to interfere with the hormone system with toxic effects. If on one side the toxicity of some compounds such as bisphenol A is well known, on the other side the toxic concentrations of such compounds as well as the effect of the many other molecules that are in contact with us in everyday life still need a deep investigation. The availability of biological assays able to detect the interaction of chemicals with key molecular targets of the endocrine system represents a possible solution to identify potential endocrine disrupting chemicals. Here the so-called alkali assay previously developed in our laboratory is applied to test the effect of different compounds on the activity of human aromatase. The assay is based on the detection of the alkali product that forms upon strong alkali treatment of the NADP(+) released upon enzyme turnover. Here it is applied on human aromatase and validated using anastrozole and sildenafil as known aromatase inhibitors. Out of the small library of compounds tested, resveratrol and ketoconazole resulted to inhibit aromatase activity, while bisphenol A and nicotine were found to exert an inhibitory effect at relatively high concentrations (100μM), and other molecules such as lindane and four plasticizers did not show any significant effect. These data are confirmed by quantification of the product estrone in the same reaction mixtures through ELISA. Overall, the results show that the alkali assay is suitable to screen for molecules that interfere with aromatase activity. As a consequence it can also be applied to other molecular targets of EDCs that use NAD(P)H for catalysis in a high throughput format for the fast screening of many different compounds as endocrine disrupting

  5. History of aromatase: saga of an important biological mediator and therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Santen, R J; Brodie, H; Simpson, E R; Siiteri, P K; Brodie, A

    2009-06-01

    Aromatase is the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Initial studies of its enzymatic activity and function took place in an environment focused on estrogen as a component of the birth control pill. At an early stage, investigators recognized that inhibition of this enzyme could have major practical applications for treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancer, alterations of ovarian and endometrial function, and treatment of benign disorders such as gynecomastia. Two general approaches ultimately led to the development of potent and selective aromatase inhibitors. One targeted the enzyme using analogs of natural steroidal substrates to work out the relationships between structure and function. The other approach initially sought to block adrenal function as a treatment for breast cancer but led to the serendipitous finding that a nonsteroidal P450 steroidogenesis inhibitor, aminoglutethimide, served as a potent but nonselective aromatase inhibitor. Proof of the therapeutic concept of aromatase inhibition involved a variety of studies with aminoglutethimide and the selective steroidal inhibitor, formestane. The requirement for even more potent and selective inhibitors led to intensive molecular studies to identify the structure of aromatase, to development of high-sensitivity estrogen assays, and to "mega" clinical trials of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors, letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane, which are now in clinical use in breast cancer. During these studies, unexpected findings led investigators to appreciate the important role of estrogens in males as well as in females and in multiple organs, particularly the bone and brain. These studies identified the important regulatory properties of aromatase acting in an autocrine, paracrine, intracrine, neurocrine, and juxtacrine fashion and the organ-specific enhancers and promoters controlling its transcription. The saga of these studies of aromatase and the ultimate

  6. Influence of Aromatase Absence on the Gene Expression and Histology of the Mouse Meibomian Gland

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi Darabad, Raheleh; Suzuki, Tomo; Richards, Stephen M.; Jensen, Roderick V.; Jakobiec, Frederick A.; Zakka, Fouad R.; Liu, Shaohui; Sullivan, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We hypothesize that aromatase, an enzyme that controls estrogen biosynthesis, plays a major role in the sex-related differences of the meibomian gland. To begin to test this hypothesis, we examined the influence of aromatase absence, which completely eliminates estrogen production, on glandular gene expression and histology in male and female mice. Methods. Meibomian glands were obtained from adult, age-matched wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice. Tissues were processed for histology or the isolation of total RNA, which was analyzed for differentially expressed mRNAs by using microarrays. Results. Our results show that aromatase significantly influences the expression of more than a thousand genes in the meibomian gland. The nature of this effect is primarily sex-dependent. In addition, the influence of aromatase on sex-related differences in gene expression is predominantly genotype-specific. However, many of the sex-related variations in biological process, molecular function, and cellular component ontologies, as well as in KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, are remarkably similar between WT and ArKO mice. The loss of aromatase activity has no obvious effect on the histology of meibomian glands in male or female mice. Conclusions. Our findings demonstrate that aromatase has a significant impact on gene expression in the meibomian gland. The nature of this influence is sex-dependent and genotype-specific; however, many of the sex-related variations in gene ontologies and KEGG pathways are similar between WT and ArKO mice. Consequently, it appears that aromatase, and by extension estrogen, do not play a major role in the sex-related differences of the mouse meibomian gland. PMID:23233261

  7. Aromatase expression and role of estrogens in male gonad : a review

    PubMed Central

    Carreau, Serge; Lambard, Sophie; Delalande, Christelle; Denis-Galeraud, Isabelle; Bilinska, Barbara; Bourguiba, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    The ability of the testis to convert irreversibly androgens into estrogens is related to the presence of a microsomal enzymatic complex named aromatase, which is composed of a specific glycoprotein, the cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) and an ubiquitous reductase. The aromatase gene is unique in humans and contained 18 exons, 9 of them being translated. In the rat testis we have immunolocalized the P450arom not only in Leydig cells but also in germ cells and especially in elongated spermatids. Related to the stage of germ cell maturation, we have shown that the level of P450arom mRNA transcripts decreases, it is much more abundant in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids than in mature germ cells whereas the aromatase activity is 2–4 fold greater in spermatozoa when compared to the younger germ cells. Using a highly specific quantitative competitive RT-PCR method we have evidenced that several factors direct the expression of the aromatase gene in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids, and it is obvious that promoter PII is the main one but other promoters could be concerned. In the bank-vole testis we have observed a positive correlation between a fully developed spermatogenesis and a strong immunoreactivity for both P450arom and estrogen receptor β not only in Sertoli cells but also in pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids. Our recent data obtained from ejaculated human spermatozoa demonstrate the presence of aromatase both in terms of mRNA and protein, and in addition, we suggest that aromatase could be involved in the acquisition of sperm motility. Indeed in men the congenital aromatase deficiency is associated with severe bone maturation problems and sterility. Together with the widespread distribution of estrogen receptors in testicular cells these data clearly show that estrogens play a physiological role in the regulation of spermatogenesis in mammals. PMID:12747806

  8. Sex change strategy and the aromatase genes.

    PubMed

    Gardner, L; Anderson, T; Place, A R; Dixon, B; Elizur, A

    2005-04-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is a common reproductive strategy in many teleosts. Steroid production is known to mediate both the natural and induced sex change, yet beyond this the physiology directing this process has received little attention. Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key enzyme in the hormonal pathway catalysing the conversion of sex steroids, androgens to oestrogens, and thus is highly relevant to the process of sex change. This study reports the isolation of cDNA sequences for aromatase isoforms CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 from teleost species representing three forms of sexual hermaphroditism: Lates calcarifer (protandry), Cromileptes altivelis (protogyny), and Gobiodon histrio (bi-directional). Deduced amino acid analysis of these isoforms with other reported isoforms from gonochoristic (single sex) teleosts revealed 56-95% identity within the same isoform while only 48-65% identity between isoforms irrespective of species and sexual strategy. Phylogenetic analysis supported this result separating sequences into isoform exclusive clades in spite of species apparent evolutionary distance. Furthermore, this study isolates 5' flanking regions of all above genes and describes putative cis-acting elements therein. Elements identified include steroidogenic factor 1 binding site (SF-1), oestrogen response element (ERE), progesterone response element (PRE), androgen response element (ARE), glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer responsive element (PPARalpha/RXRalpha), nuclear factor kappabeta (NF-kappabeta), SOX 5, SOX 9, and Wilms tumor suppressor (WTI). A hypothetical in vivo model was constructed for both isoforms highlighting potential roles of these putative cis-acting elements with reference to normal function and sexual hermaphroditism.

  9. Highly potent first examples of dual aromatase-steroid sulfatase inhibitors based on a biphenyl template.

    PubMed

    Woo, L W Lawrence; Jackson, Toby; Putey, Aurélien; Cozier, Gyles; Leonard, Philip; Acharya, K Ravi; Chander, Surinder K; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2010-03-11

    Single agents against multiple drug targets are of increasing interest. Hormone-dependent breast cancer (HDBC) may be more effectively treated by dual inhibition of aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS). The aromatase inhibitory pharmacophore was thus introduced into a known biphenyl STS inhibitor to give a series of novel dual aromatase-sulfatase inhibitors (DASIs). Several compounds are good aromatase or STS inhibitors and DASI 20 (IC(50): aromatase, 2.0 nM; STS, 35 nM) and its chlorinated congener 23 (IC(50): aromatase, 0.5 nM; STS, 5.5 nM) are examples that show exceptional dual potency in JEG-3 cells. Both biphenyls share a para-sulfamate-containing ring B and a ring A, which contains a triazol-1-ylmethyl meta to the biphenyl bridge and para to a nitrile. At 1 mg/kg po, 20 and 23 reduced plasma estradiol levels strongly and inhibited liver STS activity potently in vivo. 23 is nonestrogenic and potently inhibits carbonic anhydrase II (IC(50) 86 nM). A complex was crystallized and its structure was solved by X-ray crystallography. This class of DASI should encourage further development toward multitargeted therapeutic intervention in HDBC.

  10. Role of P-450 aromatase in sex determination of the diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin.

    PubMed

    Jeyasuria, P; Roosenburg, W M; Place, A R

    1994-09-15

    Sex determination in the diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin, is temperature-dependent. Eggs incubated at 31 degrees C, and above, hatch in approximately 45 days as females. Eggs incubated below 27 degrees C hatch in about 60 days as males. Sex is not reversible after hatching. Nest temperatures in the wild can be as low as 20 degrees C and as high as 37 degrees C with as much as a 10 degrees C diel cycle. The shortest incubation time measured in nature was 56 days and the longest approaching 120 days. Nests in our study site produced predominantly (> 95%) male hatchlings. Treatment of developing embryos with estrogen produces females at male producing temperatures while treatment with fadrozole (a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor) induces partial male-like gonads. Treatment with a steroidal aromatase inhibitor (4-hydroxyandrostenedione, 4-OHA) had no effect on sex determination. Both fadrozole and 4-OHA are potent competitive inhibitors (Ki approximately 40-50 nM) for terrapin in vitro aromatase activity. These findings are consistent with aromatase expression being a key step in sex determination of terrapins. We have cloned a partial single copy P-450 aromatase from the terrapin using a cDNA library constructed from ovarian mRNA. This partial clone is highly homologous to other vertebrate aromatases.

  11. Aromatase Inhibitors and Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, EDITH A.; M., Serene; Durling, Frances C.; WEILBAECHER, KATHERINE

    2009-01-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor–positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment–related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score < −2.5) and considered on an individual basis for those with osteopenia (T score < −1). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor–positive breast cancer. PMID:16986348

  12. Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Perez, Edith A; Weilbaecher, Katherine

    2006-08-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara), and exemestane (Aromasin) are significantly more effective than the selective estrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen in preventing recurrence in estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are likely to replace SERMs as first-line adjuvant therapy for many patients. However, AIs are associated with significantly more osteoporotic fractures and greater bone mineral loss. As antiresorptive agents, oral and intravenous bisphosphonates such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), ibandronate (Boniva), pamidronate (Aredia), and zoledronic acid (Zometa) have efficacy in preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer treatment-related bone loss, or skeletal complications of metastatic disease. Clinical practice guidelines recommend baseline and annual follow-up bone density monitoring for all patients initiating AI therapy. Bisphosphonate therapy should be prescribed for patients with osteoporosis (T score < -2.5) and considered on an individual basis for those with osteopenia (T score < -1). Modifiable lifestyle behaviors including adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, weight-bearing exercise, and smoking cessation should be addressed. Adverse events associated with bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal toxicity, renal toxicity, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. These safety concerns should be balanced with the potential of bisphosphonates to minimize or prevent the debilitating effects of AI-associated bone loss in patients with early, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer.

  13. Computational methods for the design of potent aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Favia, Angelo Danilo; Nicolotti, Orazio; Stefanachi, Angela; Leonetti, Francesco; Carotti, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    It has long been considered that the most significant risks for breast cancer are gender and age but, as many other tumors, this cancer has also been undeniably linked to gene mutations. The vast majority of breast cancers in postmenopausal women are estrogen-responsive, a hormone which is biosynthesized from blood-circulating androgens through an aromatization reaction, catalyzed by aromatase (AR). One strategy, therefore, to combat breast cancer, has been to find compounds that can inhibit the activity of aromatase to reduce estrogen levels. The authors provide a broad and updated overview of the general structure-activity relationships and on the latest ligand- and structure-based approaches applied to the discovery of potent, selective and safer breast cancer drugs. Specifically the authors review the most consolidated techniques, based on structure-activity relationships, pharmacophore mapping, rigid and flexible molecular docking, as well as sophisticated and reliable protocols simulating critical biological events. The recently solved X-ray structures of aromatase represent solid milestones to breathe new life into the search of newer chemotypes with reduced risks of cross-reactivity toward other CYPs and safer pharmacological profiles. We anticipate that great benefits will arrive from the wealth of information obtained by integrating genomics, site-directed mutagenesis experiments with protein modeling. Furthermore, we welcome the advent of GPU technology that, in conjunction with dedicated algorithms, grants scientists an unprecedented point of view on physiologically relevant phenomena, occurring on the µs time scale, such as ligand binding/unbinding.

  14. Discovery of novel aromatase inhibitors using a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin-zi; Lao, Ke-jing; Hu, Jie; Pang, Tao; Jiang, Zhen-zhou; Yuan, Hao-liang; Miao, Jing-shan; Chen, Xin; Ning, Shan-shan; Xiang, Hua; Guo, Yu-meng; Yan, Ming; Zhang, Lu-yong

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Aromatase is an important target for drugs to treat hormone-dependent diseases, including breast cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) aromatase assay suitable for high-throughput screening (HTS). Methods: A 384-well aromatase HTRF assay was established, and used to screen about 7000 compounds from a compound library. Anti-proliferation activity of the hit was evaluated using alamarBlue(R) assay in a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line T47D. Molecular docking was conducted to elucidate the binding mode of the hit using the Discovery Studio program. Results: The Z′ value and signal to background (S/B) ratio were 0.74 and 5.4, respectively. Among the 7000 compounds, 4 hits (XHN22, XHN26, XHN27 and triptoquinone A) were found to inhibit aromatase with IC50 values of 1.60±0.07, 2.76±0.24, 0.81±0.08 and 45.8±11.3 μmol /L, respectively. The hits XHN22, XHN26 and XHN27 shared the same chemical scaffold of 4-imidazolyl quinoline. Moreover, the most potent hit XHN27 at 10 and 50 μmol/L inhibited the proliferation of T47D cells by 45.3% and 35.2%, respectively. The docking study revealed that XHN27 docked within the active site of aromatase and might form a hydrogen bond and had a π-cation interaction with amino acid residues of the protein. Conclusion: XHN27, an imidazolyl quinoline derivative of flavonoid, is a potent aromatase inhibitor with anti-proliferation activity against breast cancer in vitro. The established assay can be used in HTS for discovering novel aromatase inhibitor. PMID:25047514

  15. Aromatase inhibitors: possible future applications.

    PubMed

    Karaer, Oznur; Oruç, Semra; Koyuncu, Faik Mümtaz

    2004-08-01

    In premenopausal women ovaries are the major sites of estrogen production, while in postmenopausal women estrogen is produced by aromatization of ovarian and adrenal androgens in extragonadal sites, mostly in adipose tissue. Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 hemoprotein-containing enzyme complex that catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol (E2). Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been developed primarily for use in either natural or surgical postmenopausal patients. In premenopausal women, the ovary can overcome the estrogen blockade by reflex increments of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), so AIs must be combined with a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to prevent the reflex LH and FSH increments. In advanced hormone-dependent breast cancer treatment, AIs have been shown to be superior to tamoxifen. Preliminary evidence also suggests superiority in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant settings and also for breast cancer prevention. AIs have been used in infertility and can increase ovulation rate. Reducing FSH dose, estrogen levels, improving response to FSH, implantation rates, and developing multiple follicles that can be used in in vitro maturation procedures are potential areas that AIs might be used in in assisted reproductive technologies (ART), besides simple ovulation induction. AIs are reported to be successful in treatment of endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent process. The use of AIs in gynecomastia, puberte precox, leiomyoma uteri, some estrogen-dependent cancers (ovarian), endometrial cancer and male infertility are reported; some of the results are promising but more clinical trials are needed. AIs are predicted to become the gold standard in the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases in reproductive medicine in the near future.

  16. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295r adrenocortical carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Letcher, Robert J. . E-mail: robert.letcher@ec.gc.ca; Sanderson, J. Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P.; Berg, Martin van den

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 {mu}M) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17{beta}-estradiol (E2, 1 {mu}M). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 {mu}M, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 {mu}M, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 {mu}M). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 {mu}M, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 {mu}M), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 {mu}M. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 {mu}M) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 {mu}M) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  17. Effects of bisphenol A-related diphenylalkanes on vitellogenin production in male carp (Cyprinus carpio) hepatocytes and aromatase (CYP19) activity in human H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Sanderson, J Thomas; Bokkers, Abraham; Giesy, John P; van den Berg, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the known xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) relative to eight BPA-related diphenylalkanes on estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated vitellogenin (vtg) production in hepatocytes from male carp (Cyprinus carpio), and on aromatase (CYP19) activity in the human adrenocortical H295R carcinoma cell line. Of the eight diphenylalkanes, only 4,4'-(hexafluoropropylidene)diphenol (BHF) and 2,2'-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methylphenyl)propane (BPRO) induced vtg, i.e., to a maximum of 3% to 4% (at 100 microM) compared with 8% for BPA relative to the maximum induction by 17beta-estradiol (E2, 1 microM). Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE) was a potent antagonist of vtg production with an IC50 of 5.5 microM, virtually 100% inhibition of vtg at 20 microM, and an inhibitive (IC50) potency about one-tenth that of the known ER antagonist tamoxifen (IC50, 0.6 microM). 2,2'-Diallyl bisphenol A, 4,4'-(1,4-phenylene-diisopropylidene)bisphenol, BPRO, and BHF were much less inhibitory with IC50 concentrations of 20-70 microM, and relative potencies of 0.03 and 0.009 with tamoxifen. Bisphenol ethoxylate showed no anti-estrogenicity (up to 100 microM), and 4,4'-isopropylidene-diphenol diacetate was only antagonistic at 100 microM. When comparing the (anti)estrogenic potencies of these bisphenol A analogues/diphenylalkanes, anti-estrogenicity occurred at lower concentrations than estrogenicity. 4,4'-Isopropylidenebis(2,6-dimethylphenol) (IC50, 2.0 microM) reduced E2-induced (EC50, 100 nM) vtg production due to concentration-dependent cytotoxicity as indicated by a parallel decrease in MTT activity and vtg, whereas the remaining diphenylalkanes did not cause any cytotoxicity relative to controls. None of the diphenylalkanes (up to 100 microM) induced EROD activity indicating that concentration-dependent, CYP1A enzyme-mediated metabolism of E2, or any Ah-receptor-mediated interaction with the ER, was not a likely explanation for the observed anti-estrogenic effects. At

  18. ALTERATIONS IN THE TRANSCRIPTOME AND PROTEOME OF ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO FADROZOLE, A MODEL AROMATASE INHIBITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fadrozole is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of aromatase activity and therefore an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) that disrupts steroidogenesis by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to 172-estradiol. While fadrozole is a therapeutic drug with generally no enviro...

  19. ALTERATIONS IN THE TRANSCRIPTOME AND PROTEOME OF ZEBRAFISH (DANIO RERIO) EXPOSED TO FADROZOLE, A MODEL AROMATASE INHIBITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fadrozole is a reversible, competitive inhibitor of aromatase activity and therefore an endocrine-disrupting compound (EDC) that disrupts steroidogenesis by inhibiting the conversion of testosterone to 172-estradiol. While fadrozole is a therapeutic drug with generally no enviro...

  20. NEW EXPERIMENTAL MODELS FOR AROMATASE INHIBITOR RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiuan; Masri, Selma; Hong, Yanyan; Wang, Xin; Phung, Sheryl; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Wu, Xiwei

    2009-01-01

    Clinical trials have demonstrated the importance of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy in the effective treatment of hormone-dependent breast cancers. In contrast to tamoxifen, an antagonist of the estrogen receptor (ER), AIs have shown to be better tolerated along with decreased recurrence rates of the disease. Currently, three third-generation AIs are being used: exemestane, letrozole and anastrozole. Our laboratory is attempting to understand several aspects of aromatase inhibitor functionality. In this paper, we first review recent findings from our structure-function studies of aromatase as well as the molecular characterization of the interaction between AIs and aromatase. Based on these studies, we propose new evidence for the interaction of letrozole and exemestane with aromatase. In addition, we will discuss recent results generated from our AI-resistant cell lines. Our laboratory has generated MCF-7aro cells that are resistant to letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane and tamoxifen. Basic functional characterization of aromatase and ERα in these resistant cell lines has been done and microarray analysis has been employed in order to better understand the mechanism responsible for AI resistance on a genome-wide scale. The results generated so far suggest the presence of at least four types of resistant cell lines. Overall, the information presented in this paper supplements our understanding of AI function, and such information can be valuable for the development of treatment strategies against AI resistant breast cancers. PMID:17611102

  1. Regulation of aromatase expression in the anterior amygdala of the developing mouse brain depends on ERβ and sex chromosome complement.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Carla Daniela; Cabrera Zapata, Lucas Ezequiel; Arevalo, María Angeles; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Cambiasso, María Julia

    2017-07-13

    During development sex differences in aromatase expression in limbic regions of mouse brain depend on sex chromosome factors. Genes on the sex chromosomes may affect the hormonal regulation of aromatase expression and this study was undertaken to explore that possibility. Male E15 anterior amygdala neuronal cultures expressed higher levels of aromatase (mRNA and protein) than female cultures. Furthermore, treatment with oestradiol (E2) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased Cyp19a1 expression and aromatase protein levels only in female neuronal cultures. The effect of E2 on aromatase expression was not imitated by oestrogen receptor (ER) α agonist PPT or the GPER agonist G1, but it was fully reproduced by DPN, a specific ligand of ERβ. By contrast, the effect of DHT on aromatase expression was not blocked by the anti-androgen flutamide, but completely abrogated by the ERβ antagonist PHTPP. Experiments using the four core genotype model showed a sex chromosome effect in ERβ expression (XY > XX) and regulation by E2 or DHT (only XX respond) in amygdala neurons. In conclusion, sex chromosome complement governs the hormonal regulation of aromatase expression through activation of ERβ in developing mouse brain.

  2. Functional genetic polymorphisms in the aromatase gene CYP19 vary the response of breast cancer patients to neoadjuvant therapy with aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liewei; Ellsworth, Katarzyna A; Moon, Irene; Pelleymounter, Linda L; Eckloff, Bruce W; Martin, Yvette N; Fridley, Brooke L; Jenkins, Gregory D; Batzler, Anthony; Suman, Vera J; Ravi, Saranya; Dixon, J Michael; Miller, William R; Wieben, Eric D; Buzdar, Aman; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Ingle, James N

    2010-01-01

    Aromatase (CYP19) is a critical enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis and aromatase inhibitors (AI) are employed widely for endocrine therapy in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP19 gene may alter the effectiveness of AI therapy in the neoadjuvant setting. Genomic DNA was obtained for sequencing from 52 women pre-AI and post-AI treatment in this setting. Additionally, genomic DNA obtained from 82 samples of breast cancer and 19 samples of normal breast tissue was subjected to resequencing. No differences in CYP19 sequence were observed between tumor and germ-line DNA in the same patient. A total of 48 SNPs were identified including 4 novel SNPs when compared with previous resequencing data. For genotype-phenotype association studies, we determined the levels of aromatase activity, estrone, estradiol, and tumor size in patients pre-AI and post-AI treatment. We defined two tightly linked SNPs (rs6493497 and rs7176005 in the 5'-flanking region of CYP19 exon 1.1) that were significantly associated with a greater change in aromatase activity after AI treatment. In a follow-up study of 200 women with early-stage breast cancer who were treated with adjuvant anastrozole, these same two SNPs were also associated with higher plasma estradiol levels in patients pre-AI and post-AI treatment. Electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter gene assays confirmed likely functional effects of these two SNPs on transcription of CYP19. Our findings indicate that two common genetic polymorphisms in the aromatase gene CYP19 vary the response of breast cancer patients to aromatase inhibitors.

  3. Aromatase inhibitors as add-on treatment for men with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Harden, Cynthia; MacLusky, Neil J

    2005-01-01

    Manipulation of neurosteroids to treat epilepsy has been an area of active research. The effect of testosterone on brain excitability and seizure threshold has been mixed; the estradiol metabolite of testosterone increases brain excitability, while the reduced metabolite of testosterone, 3alpha-androstanediol, decreases brain excitability, likely through an action at the gamma-amino butyric acid A receptor. Therefore, the metabolites of testosterone produce opposite effects on brain excitability in seizure models. Aromatase is the enzyme for the conversion of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol. Aromatase inhibitors could decrease brain excitability by decreasing local estradiol levels and therefore, could be beneficial for the treatment of epilepsy. Aromatase inhibitors are US Food and Drug Administration-approved and have a long history of safe use in menopausal women with breast cancer. This review presents the results of using anastrazole in an open-label, add-on manner in a small group of men with epilepsy in order to improve seizures. The results suggested some effect on reduction of seizures and no side effects. Testosterone levels did increase, but not to above the normal range. Letrozole used in a single case was also beneficial for seizures. It was concluded that aromatase inhibitors may be a useful adjunct to the treatment of epilepsy, but habituation to the treatment may be limiting. Many men with epilepsy have low testosterone, and aromatase inhibition may be helpful in restoring levels to normal. Modulation of reproductive hormones by aromatase inhibition as well as enhancement of the 3alpha-androstanediol pathway may be an avenue of epilepsy treatment that would not produce sedative side effects, which is often a limiting factor with standard antiseizure medications. A further interesting result is that elevated follicle stimulating hormone and luteal stimulating hormone levels were associated with seizure reduction, suggesting that they may be a

  4. Aromatase inhibitors: assessment of biochemical efficacy measured by total body aromatase inhibition and tissue estrogen suppression.

    PubMed

    Lønning, Per E; Geisler, Jürgen

    2008-02-01

    The implementation of aromatase inhibitors for treatment of early and metastatic breast cancer has been one of the major improvements in endocrine therapy of breast cancer. Measurement of endocrine effects of aromatase inhibition in vivo has been a major tool in the process of evaluating novel compounds. Biochemical efficacy of aromatase inhibitors in vivo may be determined from their effects on "total body aromatization" as well changes in plasma and tissue estrogen levels. Due to high sensitivity, tracer methods allowing calculation of whole body aromatase inhibition are still considered the gold standard. The method developed by our group in collaboration with the Royal Marsden Hospital and the results of this joint program are summarized and discussed. These studies allowed classification of the different aromatase inhibitors and their optimal dosage, selecting the best compounds for clinical evaluation. In vivo total body aromatase assessment is a work-consuming method, allowing such studies to be conducted in a limited number of patients only. In contrast, plasma estrogen measurement is a cruder but simpler method, allowing screening of larger groups of patients. As plasma estrogens arise through passive diffusion of estrogens synthesized in different body compartments, plasma estrogens, as well as total body aromatase assessment, present a rough estimate of total body tissue estrogen production, and changes associated with treatment with aromatase inhibitors reflect the effects on tissue estrogen production in general. However, plasma estrogen levels do not correlate to breast cancer tissue estrogen levels. This is due to the endocrine autonomy of breast cancer tissue with significant local estrogen production in some tumors. Thus, direct measurement of intratumor estrogens is demanded to evaluate the effects of aromatase inhibitors in malignant target tissues. Our group has developed a highly sensitive HPLC-RIA for the simultaneous measurement of estrone

  5. Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of Exemestane Hydroxylation Catalyzed by Human Aromatase Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Viciano, Ignacio; Martí, Sergio

    2016-04-07

    Human aromatase (CYP19A1) aromatizes the androgens to form estrogens via a three-step oxidative process. The estrogens are necessary in humans, mainly in women, because of the role they play in sexual and reproductive development. However, these also are involved in the development and growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer. Therefore, inhibition of the enzyme aromatase, by means of drugs known as aromatase inhibitors, is the frontline therapy for these types of cancers. Exemestane is a suicidal third-generation inhibitor of aromatase, currently used in breast cancer treatment. In this study, the hydroxylation of exemestane catalyzed by aromatase has been studied by means of hybrid QM/MM methods. The Free Energy Perturbation calculations provided a free energy of activation for the hydrogen abstraction step (rate-limiting step) of 17 kcal/mol. The results reveal that the hydroxylation of exemestane is not the inhibition stage, suggesting a possible competitive mechanism between the inhibitor and the natural substrate androstenedione in the first catalytic subcycle of the enzyme. Furthermore, the analysis of the interaction energy for the substrate and the cofactor in the active site shows that the role of the enzymatic environment during this reaction consists of a transition state stabilization by means of electrostatic effects.

  6. In vivo visualization of aromatase in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Biegon, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last and obligatory step in the biosynthesis of estrogens across species. In vivo visualization of aromatase can be performed using positron emission tomography (PET) with radiolabeled aromatase inhibitors such as [11C]vorozole. PET studies in rats, monkeys and healthy human subjects demonstrate widespread but heterogeneous aromatase availability in brain and body, which appears to be regulated in a species, sex and region-specific manner. Thus, aromatase availability is high in brain amygdala and in ovaries of all species examined to date, with males demonstrating higher levels than females in all comparable organs. However, the highest concentrations of aromatase in the human brain are found in specific nuclei of the thalamus while the highest levels in rats and monkeys are found in the amygdala. Regional brain aromatase availability is increased by androgens and inhibited by nicotine. Future studies may improve diagnosis and treatment in brain disorders and cancers overexpressing aromatase. PMID:26456904

  7. Aromatase overexpression induces malignant changes in estrogen receptor α negative MCF-10A cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Gildea, J J; Yue, W

    2013-10-31

    Estrogen is a risk factor of breast cancer. Elevated expression of aromatase (estrogen synthase) in breast tissues increases local estradiol concentrations and is associated with breast cancer development, but the causal relationship between aromatase and breast cancer has not been identified. Accumulating data suggest that both estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent and -independent effects are involved in estrogen carcinogenesis. We established a model by expressing aromatase in ERα- MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells to investigate ERα-independent effects of estrogen in the process of malignant transformation. Overexpression of aromatase significantly increased anchorage-independent growth. Parental- or vector-expressing MCF-10A cells did not form colonies under the same conditions. The anchorage-independent growth of MCF-10A(arom) cells can be completely abolished by pre-treatment with the aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. Neither MCF-10A(arom) nor MCF-10A(vector) cells grown in monolayer were affected by short-term exposure to estradiol. Enhanced motility is another characteristic of cellular transformation. Motility of MCF-10A(arom) cells was increased, which could be inhibited by letrozole. Increases in stem cell population in breast cancer tissues are associated with tumor recurrence and metastasis. CD44(high)/CD24(low) is a stem cell marker. We found that CD24 mRNA levels were reduced in MCF-10A(arom) cells compared with those in parental- and vector-transfected cells. By examining individual clones of MCF-10A(arom) with various aromatase activities, we found that the CD24 mRNA levels were inversely correlated with aromatase activity. The ability of MCF-10A(arom) cells to form mammospheres in the absence of serum was increased. Our results suggest that overexpression of aromatase in MCF-10A cells causes malignant transformation. Estrogen metabolite-mediated genotoxicity and induction of a stem cell/progenitor cell population are possible mechanisms. These

  8. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of resveratrol analogues as aromatase and quinone reductase 2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Bin; Hoshino, Juma; Jermihov, Katie; Marler, Laura; Pezzuto, John M.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Cushman, Mark

    2012-07-11

    A series of new resveratrol analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibitory activities against aromatase were evaluated. The crystal structure of human aromatase (PDB 3eqm) was used to rationalize the mechanism of action of the aromatase inhibitor 32 (IC{sub 50} 0.59 {mu}M) through docking, molecular mechanics energy minimization, and computer graphics molecular modeling, and the information was utilized to design several very potent inhibitors, including compounds 82 (IC{sub 50} 70 nM) and 84 (IC{sub 50} 36 nM). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds are much more potent than that for the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC{sub 50} of 80 {mu}M. In addition to aromatase inhibitory activity, compounds 32 and 44 also displayed potent QR2 inhibitory activity (IC{sub 50} 1.7 {mu}M and 0.27 {mu}M, respectively) and the high-resolution X-ray structures of QR2 in complex with these two compounds provide insight into their mechanism of QR2 inhibition. The aromatase and quinone reductase inhibitors resulting from these studies have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  9. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of resveratrol analogues as aromatase and quinone reductase 2 inhibitors for chemoprevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bin; Hoshino, Juma; Jermihov, Katie; Marler, Laura; Pezzuto, John M; Mesecar, Andrew D; Cushman, Mark

    2010-07-15

    A series of new resveratrol analogues were designed and synthesized and their inhibitory activities against aromatase were evaluated. The crystal structure of human aromatase (PDB 3eqm) was used to rationalize the mechanism of action of the aromatase inhibitor 32 (IC50 0.59 microM) through docking, molecular mechanics energy minimization, and computer graphics molecular modeling, and the information was utilized to design several very potent inhibitors, including compounds 82 (IC50 70 nM) and 84 (IC50 36 nM). The aromatase inhibitory activities of these compounds are much more potent than that for the lead compound resveratrol, which has an IC50 of 80 microM. In addition to aromatase inhibitory activity, compounds 32 and 44 also displayed potent QR2 inhibitory activity (IC50 1.7 microM and 0.27 microM, respectively) and the high-resolution X-ray structures of QR2 in complex with these two compounds provide insight into their mechanism of QR2 inhibition. The aromatase and quinone reductase inhibitors resulting from these studies have potential value in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of benzoxazolinonic imidazoles and derivatives as non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nativelle-Serpentini, Celine; Moslemi, Safa; Yous, Said; Park, Chang Ha; Lesieur, Daniel; Sourdaine, Pascal; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2004-04-01

    New compounds were tested in vitro on aromatase activity in human placental and equine testicular microsomes. Equine aromatase, very well characterized biochemically, is used as a comparative model to understand the mechanism of aromatase inhibition. Among 15 molecules screened, 5 of them (11-15) strongly inhibit human and equine aromatases with IC50 values ranging from 13-85nM and from 23-103nM respectively. These results were corroborated by Ki/Km values. Moreover, spectral studies showed a type II spectrum with both enzymes, which is characteristic of an interaction between the nitrogen atom of the molecule and the heme of the cytochrome P450. Compound 12, which has the lowest IC50 and Ki/Km ratio, inactivates aromatase in a dose and time-dependent manner. This might be very important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer. Finally, MTT assays on E293 cells revealed that the molecules were not cytotoxic.

  11. The vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 inhibits aromatase.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Susana; Zvelebil, Marketa; Furet, Pascal; Mueller-Vieira, Ursula; Evans, Dean B; Dowsett, Mitch; Martin, Lesley-Ann

    2009-06-01

    Endocrine therapy is well established for the treatment of breast cancer, and antiangiogenic agents are showing considerable promise. Targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways concomitantly may provide enhanced therapeutic benefit in ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, the effects of the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor PTK787/ZK222584 (PTK/ZK) were investigated using human breast cancer cell lines engineered to express aromatase. As expected in this system, estrogen (E2) or androstenedione induced a proliferative response and increased ER-mediated transcription in ER-positive cell lines expressing aromatase. However, surprisingly, in the presence of androstenedione, PTK/ZK suppressed both the androstenedione-stimulated proliferation and ER-mediated transcription. PTK/ZK alone and in the presence of E2 had no observable effect on proliferation or ER-mediated transcription. These effects result from PTK/ZK having previously unrecognized antiaromatase activity and PTK/ZK being a competitive aromatase inhibitor. Computer-assisted molecular modeling showed that PTK/ZK could potentially bind directly to aromatase. The demonstration that PTK/ZK inhibits aromatase and VEGFR indicates that agents cross-inhibiting two important classes of targets in breast cancer could be developed.

  12. SIRT1 positively regulates breast cancer associated human aromatase (CYP19A1) expression.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Kimberly R; Barbieri, Andreia; Malyarchuk, Svitlana; Saxena, Madhurima; Nedeljkovic-Kurepa, Ana; Cameron Mehl, Mathieu; Wang, Allison; Gu, Xin; Pruitt, Kevin

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer remains one of the leading causes of death in women diagnosed with cancer. In breast cancer, aberrant expression of the CYP19A1 gene, which encodes the aromatase enzyme, contributes to increased intratumoral levels of estradiol. Regardless of whether this estrogen is produced by peripheral tissues or within specific subpopulations of cells within the breast tumor, it is clear that the aromatase enzymatic activity is critical for the growth of estrogen-dependent tumors. Currently, aromatase inhibitors have proven to be highly effective in blocking the growth of estrogen-dependent forms of breast cancer. CYP19A1 transcription is tightly controlled by 10 tissue-specific promoters. In breast cancer, however, aromatase transcription is driven by multiple promoters that somehow override the tissue-specific regulation of normal tissue. Here, we explore the role that the deacetylase, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), plays in positively regulating aromatase in breast cancer. We demonstrate that the use of cambinol and the SIRT1/2 inhibitor VII, 2 small molecule inhibitors of SIRT1 and SIRT2, as well as small molecule inhibitors and small interfering RNA specific to SIRT1, all reduce the levels of aromatase mRNA. We further demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition causes a marked reduction in aromatase protein levels. Additionally, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that SIRT1 occupies the promoter regions PI.3/PII and PI.4, and its inhibition leads to increased acetylation of estrogen-related receptorα, a transcription factor that positively regulates CYP19A1 transcription in epithelial cells. Finally, we demonstrate by immunohistochemistry that SIRT1 is significantly up-regulated in invasive ductal carcinoma relative to normal tissue adjacent to tumor, further suggesting a role of SIRT1 in breast cancer. This work uncovers a new mechanism for the regulation of aromatase and provides rationale for further investigation of how the inhibition of specific

  13. MR 20492 and MR 20494: two indolizinone derivatives that strongly inhibit human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Auvray, P; Sourdaine, P; Moslemi, S; Séralini, G E; Sonnet, P; Enguehard, C; Guillon, J; Dallemagne, P; Bureau, R; Rault, S

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe the synthesis of a new family of indolizinone derivatives designed to fit an extrahydrophobic pocket within the active site of aromatase and to strongly inhibit human aromatase. This could help improve the specificity of the inhibitors. Equine aromatase, very well characterized biochemically, is used as a comparative model. Indeed, in a previous comparison between both human and equine aromatases, we described the importance of the interaction between the inhibitor and this pocket for the indane derivative MR 20814. MR 20492 and MR 20494 are more potent inhibitors of human aromatase (Ki/Km: 1.0+/-0.3 and 0.5+/-0.3, respectively). The Ki/Km for MR 20494 is slightly higher than that obtained for fadrozole (0.1+/-0.0) and Ki/Km for both indolizinone derivatives are lower than those obtained for 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (1.9+/-0.8) and MR 20814 (8.1+/-.7). These new compounds are not enzyme inactivators. Moreover, as indicated by the higher Ki/Km values obtained with equine enzyme (9.0+/-0.6 and 6.1+/-1.6 for MR 20492 and MR 20494, respectively), both human and equine aromatase active sites appear to be structurally different. Difference absorption spectra study (350-500 nm) revealed that MR20492 and MR20494 were characterized by a combination of type-I and -II spectra with both enzymes. This result could be due to the isomerization of the molecule in polar solvent (Z and E forms). The evaluation of these new molecules, as well as 4-hydroxyandrostenedione and fadrozole, on aromatase activity in transfected 293 cell cultures evidenced a strong inhibition (IC50: 0.20+/-0.03 microM, 0.20+/-0.02 microM and 0.50+/-0.40 microM for MR 20494, fadrozole and 4-OHA, respectively) except for MR 20492 (3.9+/-0.9 microM) and MR 20814 (10.5+/-0.6 microM). These results proved that these molecules formed part of a promising family of potent inhibitors and that they penetrate 293 cells, without evidencing any cytotoxicity in Hela cells with MTT assay. This is

  14. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.

    PubMed

    Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

    2003-03-01

    Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed.

  15. The red wine polyphenol resveratrol displays bilevel inhibition on aromatase in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Lee, Kai Woo; Chan, Franky L; Chen, Shiuan; Leung, Lai K

    2006-07-01

    Estrogen plays a crucial role in the development of breast cancer, and the inhibition of estrogen synthesis has been an important target for the prevention and treatment of this disease. The rate-limiting reaction of the hormone biosynthesis is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme or aromatase. It has been of genuine interest to uncover an aromatase-inhibitory compound from a dietary source. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that can be isolated from grape peel. Because of its structural resemblance to estrogen, resveratrol's agonistic and antagonistic properties on estrogen receptor have been examined and demonstrated. In the present study, the effect of resveratrol on the expression and enzyme activity of aromatase was investigated. By assaying on MCF-7 cells stably transfected with CYP19 (MCF-7aro cells), resveratrol inhibited the aromatase activity with an IC(50) value of 25 microM. Kinetic analysis indicated that both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition might be involved. The administration of 10 nmol/l testosterone-a substrate of aromatase-produced a 50% increase in the MCF-7aro cell number. This cell proliferation specifically induced by testosterone was significantly reduced by 10 microM resveratrol. In addition, 50 microM resveratrol significantly reduced the CYP19-encoding mRNA abundance in SK-BR-3 cells. The transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is tissue specific, and promoter regions I.3 and II have previously been shown to be responsible for CYP19 expression in breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol could repress the transcriptional control dictated by the promoter regulation. The present study illustrated that pharmacological dosage of resveratrol inhibited aromatase at both the enzyme and mRNA levels.

  16. Azole fungicides affect mammalian steroidogenesis by inhibiting sterol 14 alpha-demethylase and aromatase.

    PubMed Central

    Zarn, Jürg A; Brüschweiler, Beat J; Schlatter, Josef R

    2003-01-01

    Azole compounds play a key role as antifungals in agriculture and in human mycoses and as non-steroidal antiestrogens in the treatment of estrogen-responsive breast tumors in postmenopausal women. This broad use of azoles is based on their inhibition of certain pathways of steroidogenesis by high-affinity binding to the enzymes sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase. Sterol 14-alpha-demethylase is crucial for the production of meiosis-activating sterols, which recently were shown to modulate germ cell development in both sexes of mammals. Aromatase is responsible for the physiologic balance of androgens and estrogens. At high doses, azole fungicides and other azole compounds affect reproductive organs, fertility, and development in several species. These effects may be explained by inhibition of sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and/or aromatase. In fact, several azole compounds were shown to inhibit these enzymes in vitro, and there is also strong evidence for inhibiting activity in vivo. Furthermore, the specificity of the enzyme inhibition of several of these compounds is poor, both with respect to fungal versus nonfungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylases and versus other P450 enzymes including aromatase. To our knowledge, this is the first review on sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and aromatase as common targets of azole compounds and the consequence for steroidogenesis. We conclude that many azole compounds developed as inhibitors of fungal sterol 14-alpha-demethylase are inhibitors also of mammalian sterol 14-alpha-demethylase and mammalian aromatase with unknown potencies. For human health risk assessment, data on comparative potencies of azole fungicides to fungal and human enzymes are needed. PMID:12611652

  17. Aromatase inhibition exacerbates pain and reactive gliosis in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord of female rats caused by spinothalamic tract injury.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanpoor, Samar; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Haeri-Rohani, Ali; Khodagholi, Fariba; Jorjani, Masoumeh

    2014-11-01

    Central pain syndrome is characterized by severe and excruciating pain resulting from a lesion in the central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that estradiol decreases pain and that inhibitors of the enzyme aromatase, which synthesizes estradiol from aromatizable androgens, increases pain sensitivity. In this study we have assessed whether aromatase expression in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord is altered in a rat model of central pain syndrome, induced by the unilateral electrolytic lesion of the spinothalamic tract. Protein and mRNA levels of aromatase, as well as the protein and mRNA levels of estrogen receptors α and β, were increased in the dorsal horn of female rats after spinothalamic tract injury, suggesting that the injury increased estradiol synthesis and signaling in the dorsal horn. To determine whether the increased aromatase expression in this pain model may participate in the control of pain, mechanical allodynia thresholds were determined in both hind paws after the intrathecal administration of letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor. Aromatase inhibition enhanced mechanical allodynia in both hind paws. Because estradiol is known to regulate gliosis we assessed whether the spinothalamic tract injury and aromatase inhibition regulated gliosis in the dorsal horn. The proportion of microglia with a reactive phenotype and the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive astrocytes were increased by the injury in the dorsal horn. Aromatase inhibition enhanced the effect of the injury on gliosis. Furthermore, a significant a positive correlation of mechanical allodynia and gliosis in the dorsal horn was detected. These findings suggest that aromatase is up-regulated in the dorsal horn in a model of central pain syndrome and that aromatase activity in the spinal cord reduces mechanical allodynia by controlling reactive gliosis in the dorsal horn.

  18. Signaling pathways regulating aromatase and cyclooxygenases in normal and malignant breast cells.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jeanette A; Petrel, Trevor A; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2002-02-01

    Aromatase (estrogen synthase) is the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex that converts C(19) androgens to C(18) estrogens. Aromatase activity has been demonstrated in breast tissue in vitro, and expression of aromatase is highest in or near breast tumor sites. Thus, local regulation of aromatase by both endogenous factors as well as exogenous medicinal agents will influence the levels of estrogen available for breast cancer growth. The prostaglandin PGE(2) increases intracellular cAMP levels and stimulates estrogen biosynthesis, and our recent studies have shown a strong linear association between CYP19 expression and the sum of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in breast cancer specimens. Knowledge of the signaling pathways that regulate the expression and enzyme activity of aromatase and cyclooxygenases (COXs) in stromal and epithelial breast cells will aid in understanding the interrelationships of these two enzyme systems and potentially identify novel targets for regulation. The effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta), and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) on aromatase and COXs were studied in primary cultures of normal human adipose stromal cells and in cell cultures of normal immortalized human breast epithelial cells MCF-10F, estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cells MCF-7, and estrogen-unresponsive human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Levels of the constitutive COX isozyme, COX-1, were not altered by the various treatments in the cell systems studied. In breast adenocarcinoma cells, EGF and TGFbeta did not alter COX-2 levels at 24h, while TPA induced COX-2 levels by 75% in MDA-MB-231 cells. EGF and TPA in MCF-7 cells significantly increased aromatase activity while TGFbeta did not. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, TGFbeta and TPA significantly increased activity in MDA-MB-231 cells, while only a modest increase with EGF was observed. Untreated normal adipose stromal cells exhibited

  19. Inhibition of human aromatase by myosmine.

    PubMed

    Doering, Irene L; Richter, Elmar

    2009-04-01

    Myosmine, a minor tobacco alkaloid widely occurring in food products of plant and animal origin, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to estradiol by human aromatase (IC(50): 33+/-2 microM) sevenfold more potent than nicotine (IC(50): 223+/-10 microM) and may have implications for sexual hormone homoeostasis.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Aromatase Inhibitors from Brassaiopsis glomerulata (Araliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Balunas, Marcy J.; Su, Bin; Riswan, Soedarsono; Fong, Harry H.S.; Brueggemeier, Robert W.; Pezzuto, John M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The hexane- and ethyl acetate-soluble extracts of the leaves of Brassaiopsis glomerulata (Blume) Regel (Araliaceae), collected in Indonesia, were found to inhibit aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens from androgens, in both enzyme- and cell-based aromatase inhibition (AI) assays. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six known compounds of the steroid and triterpenoid classes (1–6) from the hexane extract, of which 6β-hydroxystimasta-4-en-3-one (5), was moderately active in the cell-based AI assay. Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract afforded seven pure isolates (7–13) of the modified peptide, fatty acid, monoterpenoid, and benzenoid types, including six known compounds and the new natural product, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (9). The absolute stereochemistry of 9 and the other two peptides, 7 and 8, was determined by Marfey’s analysis. Linoleic acid (10) was found to be active in the enzyme-based AI assay, while 9 and (−)-dehydrololiolide (12) showed activity in the cell-based AI assay. PMID:20161072

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Aromatase Inhibitors from Brassaiopsis glomerulata (Araliaceae).

    PubMed

    Balunas, Marcy J; Su, Bin; Riswan, Soedarsono; Fong, Harry H S; Brueggemeier, Robert W; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2009-02-19

    The hexane- and ethyl acetate-soluble extracts of the leaves of Brassaiopsis glomerulata (Blume) Regel (Araliaceae), collected in Indonesia, were found to inhibit aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens from androgens, in both enzyme- and cell-based aromatase inhibition (AI) assays. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of six known compounds of the steroid and triterpenoid classes (1-6) from the hexane extract, of which 6β-hydroxystimasta-4-en-3-one (5), was moderately active in the cell-based AI assay. Fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract afforded seven pure isolates (7-13) of the modified peptide, fatty acid, monoterpenoid, and benzenoid types, including six known compounds and the new natural product, N-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester (9). The absolute stereochemistry of 9 and the other two peptides, 7 and 8, was determined by Marfey's analysis. Linoleic acid (10) was found to be active in the enzyme-based AI assay, while 9 and (-)-dehydrololiolide (12) showed activity in the cell-based AI assay.

  2. Obesity and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk: Determining the Role of Growth Factor-Induced Aromatase Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and leptin . These all have significant tumorigenic effects in the breast and are known to...role of obesity-associated growth factor and leptin signaling on aromatase expression and activity, we will also add inhibitors to these different

  3. Sex Amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis, following Larval Exposure to an Aromatase Inhibitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. Modulation of this enzyme’s activity by xenobiotic exposure has been shown to adversely affect gonadal differentiation in a number of diverse species. We hypothesized tha...

  4. Sex Amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis, following Larval Exposure to an Aromatase Inhibitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. Modulation of this enzyme’s activity by xenobiotic exposure has been shown to adversely affect gonadal differentiation in a number of diverse species. We hypothesized tha...

  5. Placental expression and molecular characterization of aromatase cytochrome P450 in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Conley, A J; Corbin, C J; Browne, P; Mapes, S M; Place, N J; Hughes, A L; Glickman, S E

    2007-07-01

    At birth, the external genitalia of female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are the most masculinized of any known mammal, but are still sexually differentiated. Placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) is an important route of androgen metabolism protecting human female fetuses from virilization in utero. Therefore, placental P450arom expression was examined in spotted hyenas to determine levels during genital differentiation, and to compare molecular characteristics between the hyena and human placental enzymes. Hyena placental P450arom activity was determined at gestational days (GD) 31, 35, 45, 65 and 95 (term, 110), and the relative sensitivity of hyena and human placental enzyme to inhibition by the specific inhibitor, Letrozole, was also examined. Expression of hyena P450arom in placenta was localized by immuno-histochemistry, and a full-length cDNA was cloned for phylogenetic analysis. Aromatase activity increased from GD31 to a peak at 45 and 65, apparently decreasing later in gestation. This activity was more sensitive to inhibition by Letrozole than was human placental aromatase activity. Expression of P450arom was localized to syncytiotrophoblast and giant cells of mid-gestation placentas. The coding sequence of hyena P450arom was 94% and 86% identical to the canine and human enzymes respectively, as reflected by phylogenetic analyses. These data demonstrate for the first time that hyena placental aromatase activity is comparable to that of human placentas when genital differentiation is in progress. This suggests that even in female spotted hyenas clitoral differentiation is likely protected from virilization by placental androgen metabolism. Decreased placental aromatase activity in late gestation may be equally important in allowing androgen to program behaviors at birth. Although hyena P450arom is closely related to the canine enzyme, both placental anatomy and P450arom expression differ. Other hyaenids and carnivores must be investigated to

  6. EP2 and EP4 receptors regulate aromatase expression in human adipocytes and breast cancer cells. Evidence of a BRCA1 and p300 exchange.

    PubMed

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Hudis, Clifford; Chang, Sung-Hee; Hla, Timothy; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2008-02-08

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase (aromatase), a product of the CYP19 gene, catalyzes the synthesis of estrogens from androgens. Because aromatase-dependent estrogen biosynthesis has been linked to hormone-dependent breast carcinogenesis, it is important to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate CYP19 gene expression. The main objective of this study was to identify the receptors (EP) for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) that mediate the induction of CYP19 transcription in human adipocytes and breast cancer cells. Treatment with PGE(2) induced aromatase, an effect that was mimicked by either EP(2) or EP(4) agonists. Antagonists of EP(2) or EP(4) or small interference RNA-mediated down-regulation of these receptors suppressed PGE(2)-mediated induction of aromatase. PGE(2) via EP(2) and EP(4) stimulated the cAMP-->protein kinase A pathway resulting in enhanced interaction between P-CREB, p300, and the aromatase promoter I.3/II. Overexpressing a mutant form of p300 that lacks histone acetyltransferase activity suppressed PGE(2)-mediated induction of aromatase promoter activity. PGE(2) via EP(2) and EP(4) also caused a reduction in both the amounts of BRCA1 and the interaction between BRCA1 and the aromatase promoter I.3/II. Activation of the aromatase promoter by PGE(2) was suppressed by overexpressing wild-type BRCA1. Silencing of EP(2) or EP(4) also blocked PGE(2)-mediated induction of the progesterone receptor, a prototypic estrogen-response gene. In a mouse model, overexpressing COX-2 in the mammary gland, a known inducer of PGE(2) synthesis, led to increased aromatase mRNA and activity and reduced amounts of BRCA1; these effects were reversed by knocking out EP(2). Taken together, these results suggest that PGE(2) via EP(2) and EP(4) activates the cAMP-->PKA-->CREB pathway leading to enhanced CYP19 transcription and increased aromatase activity. Reciprocal changes in the interaction between BRCA1, p300, and the aromatase promoter I.3/II contributed to the inductive effects of

  7. Pharmacological concentration of resveratrol suppresses aromatase in JEG-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Leung, Lai K

    2007-09-28

    Estrogen is crucial in preparing of pregnancy, and its role in the maintenance of pregnancy has yet to be elucidated. During the course of pregnancy, the placenta is responsible for the provision of estrogen. The hormone biosynthesis is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 or aromatase. In the present study, we screened several common dietary components and identified the grape polyphenol resveratrol to be a potential inhibitor in the hormone synthesis. In a recombinant protein system resveratrol inhibited the aromatase activity with an IC(50) value of approximately 40 microM. Subsequent analysis was performed in the human placental JEG-3 cells, and 25 microM resveratrol significantly reduced the mRNA abundance in these cells. Since the transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is tissue-specific and the proximal promoter region of exon Ia has previously been shown to be crucial in CYP19 expression in placental cells, we also evaluated the promoter activity of this gene. Reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol repressed the transcriptional control of promoter Ia. The present study illustrated the possibility that dietary supplementation of resveratrol interfered with the normal functioning of placental cells.

  8. Molecular characterization and expression of equine testicular cytochrome P450 aromatase.

    PubMed

    Seralini, Gilles Eric; Tomilin, Alexey; Auvray, Pierrïck; Nativelle-Serpentini, Celine; Sourdaine, Pascal; Moslemi, Safa

    2003-02-20

    We characterized testicular equine aromatase and its expression. A 2707 bp cDNA was isolated, it encoded a polypeptide of 503 residues with a deduced molecular mass of 57.8 kDa. The sequence features were those of a cytochrome P450 aromatase, with a 78% polypeptide identity with the human counterpart. The gene has a minimal length of 74 kb comprising at least 9 exons and expresses a 2.8 kb mRNA in the testis. Transient cDNA transfections in E293 cells and in vitro translations in a reticulocyte lysate system allowed aromatase protein and activity detections. The activity increased with androstenedione as substrate in a dose-dependent manner. The isolation of testicular aromatase by a new immunoaffinity method demonstrated that the protein could exist either glycosylated or not with a 2 kDa difference. All these results taken together allow new structural studies to progress in the understanding of this cytochrome P450.

  9. Mechanism-based categorization of aromatase inhibitors: a potential discovery and screening tool.

    PubMed

    Petkov, P I; Temelkov, S; Villeneuve, D L; Ankley, G T; Mekenyan, O G

    2009-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key steroidogenic enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. There is much interest in aromatase inhibitors (AIs) both because of their use as pharmaceuticals in the treatment of estrogen-sensitive breast cancers, and because a number of environmental contaminants can act as AIs, thereby disrupting endocrine function in humans and wildlife through suppression of circulating estrogen levels. The goal of the current work was to develop a mechanism-based structure-activity relationship (SAR) categorization framework highlighting the most important chemical structural features responsible for inhibition of aromatase activity. Two main interaction mechanisms were discerned: steroidal and non-steroidal. The steroid scaffold is most prominent when the structure of the target chemical is similar to the natural substrates of aromatase - androstenedione and testosterone. Chemicals acting by non-steroidal mechanism(s) possess a heteroatom (N, O, S) able to coordinate the heme iron of the cytochrome P450, and thus interfere with steroid hydroxylation. The specific structural boundaries controlling AI for both analyzed mechanisms were defined, and a software tool was developed that allowed a decision tree (profile) to be built discriminating AIs by mechanism and potency. An input chemical follows a profiling path and the structure is examined at each step to decide whether it conforms with the structural boundaries implemented in the decision tree node. Such a system would aid drug discovery efforts, as well as provide a screening tool to detect environmental contaminants that could act as AIs.

  10. Cytotoxic effects and aromatase inhibition by xenobiotic endocrine disrupters alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Benachour, Nora; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2007-07-15

    Xenobiotics may cause long-term adverse effects in humans, especially at the embryonic level, raising questions about their levels of exposure, combined effects, and crucial endpoints. We are interested in the possible interactions between xenobiotic endocrine disrupters, cellular viability and androgen metabolism. Accordingly, we tested aroclor 1254 (A1254), atrazine (AZ), o,p'-DDT, vinclozolin (VZ), p,p'-DDE, bisphenol A (BPA), chlordecone (CD), nonylphenol (NP), tributylin oxide (TBTO), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) for cellular toxicity against human embryonic 293 cells, and activity against cellular aromatase, but also on placental microsomes and on the purified equine enzyme. Cellular viability was affected in 24 h by all the xenobiotics with a threshold at 50 microM (except for TBTO and DES, 10 microM threshold), and aromatase was inhibited at non-toxic doses. In combination synergism was observed reducing the threshold values of toxicity to 4-10 microM, and aromatase activity by 50% in some cases. In placental microsomes the most active xenobiotics rapidly inhibited microsomal aromatase in a manner independent of NADPH metabolism. Prolonged exposures to low doses in cells generally amplified by 50 times aromatase inhibition. These xenobiotics may act by inhibition of the active site or by allosteric effects on the enzyme. Bioaccumulation is a feature of some xenobiotics, especially chlordecone, DDT and DDE, and low level chronic exposures can also affect cell signaling mechanisms. This new information about the mechanism of action of these xenobiotics will assist in improved molecular design with a view to providing safer compounds for use in the (human) environment.

  11. Cytotoxic effects and aromatase inhibition by xenobiotic endocrine disrupters alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Benachour, Nora; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Seralini, Gilles-Eric . E-mail: criigen@unicaen.fr

    2007-07-15

    Xenobiotics may cause long-term adverse effects in humans, especially at the embryonic level, raising questions about their levels of exposure, combined effects, and crucial endpoints. We are interested in the possible interactions between xenobiotic endocrine disrupters, cellular viability and androgen metabolism. Accordingly, we tested aroclor 1254 (A1254), atrazine (AZ), o,p'-DDT, vinclozolin (VZ), p,p'-DDE, bisphenol A (BPA), chlordecone (CD), nonylphenol (NP), tributylin oxide (TBTO), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) for cellular toxicity against human embryonic 293 cells, and activity against cellular aromatase, but also on placental microsomes and on the purified equine enzyme. Cellular viability was affected in 24 h by all the xenobiotics with a threshold at 50 {mu}M (except for TBTO and DES, 10 {mu}M threshold), and aromatase was inhibited at non-toxic doses. In combination synergism was observed reducing the threshold values of toxicity to 4-10 {mu}M, and aromatase activity by 50% in some cases. In placental microsomes the most active xenobiotics rapidly inhibited microsomal aromatase in a manner independent of NADPH metabolism. Prolonged exposures to low doses in cells generally amplified by 50 times aromatase inhibition. These xenobiotics may act by inhibition of the active site or by allosteric effects on the enzyme. Bioaccumulation is a feature of some xenobiotics, especially chlordecone, DDT and DDE, and low level chronic exposures can also affect cell signaling mechanisms. This new information about the mechanism of action of these xenobiotics will assist in improved molecular design with a view to providing safer compounds for use in the (human) environment.

  12. Dietary polyphenols suppress elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in the mammary gland of obese mice.

    PubMed

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Sue, Erika; Bhardwaj, Priya; Du, Baoheng; Hudis, Clifford A; Giri, Dilip; Kopelovich, Levy; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity-induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-κB activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators, and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-κB resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators [TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, COX-2] in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of aromatase. Several polyphenols (resveratrol, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate) blocked these inductive effects of stearic acid. Zyflamend, a widely used polyherbal preparation that contains numerous polyphenols, possessed similar suppressive effects. In a mouse model of obesity, treatment with Zyflamend suppressed levels of phospho-Akt, NF-κB binding activity, proinflammatory mediators, and aromatase in the mammary gland. Collectively, these results suggest that targeting the activation of NF-κB is a promising approach for reducing levels of proinflammatory mediators and aromatase in inflamed mouse mammary tissue. Further investigation in obese women is warranted.

  13. Inflammation, dysregulated metabolism and aromatase in obesity and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Heba; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer after menopause. Adipose tissue undergoes important changes in obesity due to excess storage of lipids, leading to adipocyte cell death and the recruitment of macrophages. The resultant state of chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the activation of NFkB signaling and elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. This occurs not only in the visceral and subcutaneous fat, but also in the breast fat. The regulation of aromatase in the breast adipose stromal cell in response to inflammatory mediators is under the control of complex signaling pathways, including metabolic pathways involving LKB1/AMPK, p53, HIF1α and PKM2. Interventions aimed at modifying weight, including diet and exercise, are associated with changes in adipose tissue inflammation and estrogen production that are likely to impact breast cancer risk. This review will present an overview of these topics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling inhibition of avian aromatase by azole pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, A.K.; Devillers, J.; Bhunia, S.S.; Bro, E.

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of pesticides and their metabolites on the endocrine system are of major concern to wildlife and human health. In this context, the azole pesticides have earned special attention due to their cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibition potential. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) catalyses the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. Thus, aromatase modulates the oestrogenic balance essential not only for females, but also for male physiology, including gonadal function. Its inhibition affects reproductive organs, fertility and sexual behaviour in humans and wildlife species. Several studies have shown that azole pesticides are able to inhibit human and fish aromatases but the information on birds is lacking. Consequently, it appeared to be of interest to estimate the aromatase inhibition of azoles in three different avian species, namely Gallus gallus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Taeniopygia guttata. In the absence of the crystal structure of the aromatase enzyme in these bird species, homology models for the individual avian species were constructed using the crystal structure of human aromatase (hAr) (pdb: 3EQM) that showed high sequence similarity for G. gallus (82.0%), T. guttata (81.9%) and C. japonica (81.2%). A homology model with Oncorhynchus mykiss (81.9%) was also designed for comparison purpose. The homology-modelled aromatase for each avian and fish species and crystal structure of human aromatase were selected for docking 46 structurally diverse azoles and related compounds. We showed that the docking behaviour of the chemicals on the different aromatases was broadly the same. We also demonstrated that there was an acceptable level of correlation between the binding score values and the available aromatase inhibition data. This means that the homology models derived on bird and fish species can be used to approximate the potential inhibitory effects of azoles on their aromatase. PMID

  15. Modelling inhibition of avian aromatase by azole pesticides.

    PubMed

    Saxena, A K; Devillers, J; Bhunia, S S; Bro, E

    2015-01-01

    The potential effects of pesticides and their metabolites on the endocrine system are of major concern to wildlife and human health. In this context, the azole pesticides have earned special attention due to their cytochrome P450 aromatase inhibition potential. Cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) catalyses the conversion of androstenedione and testosterone into oestrone and oestradiol, respectively. Thus, aromatase modulates the oestrogenic balance essential not only for females, but also for male physiology, including gonadal function. Its inhibition affects reproductive organs, fertility and sexual behaviour in humans and wildlife species. Several studies have shown that azole pesticides are able to inhibit human and fish aromatases but the information on birds is lacking. Consequently, it appeared to be of interest to estimate the aromatase inhibition of azoles in three different avian species, namely Gallus gallus, Coturnix coturnix japonica and Taeniopygia guttata. In the absence of the crystal structure of the aromatase enzyme in these bird species, homology models for the individual avian species were constructed using the crystal structure of human aromatase (hAr) (pdb: 3EQM) that showed high sequence similarity for G. gallus (82.0%), T. guttata (81.9%) and C. japonica (81.2%). A homology model with Oncorhynchus mykiss (81.9%) was also designed for comparison purpose. The homology-modelled aromatase for each avian and fish species and crystal structure of human aromatase were selected for docking 46 structurally diverse azoles and related compounds. We showed that the docking behaviour of the chemicals on the different aromatases was broadly the same. We also demonstrated that there was an acceptable level of correlation between the binding score values and the available aromatase inhibition data. This means that the homology models derived on bird and fish species can be used to approximate the potential inhibitory effects of azoles on their aromatase.

  16. Lead optimization of 4-imidazolylflavans: new promising aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Samir; Pouget, Christelle; Buxeraud, Jacques; Chulia, Albert José; Fagnère, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    Our previous studies have shown that several 7-substituted-4-imidazolylflavans are potent inhibitors of aromatase. These compounds were designed considering the anti-aromatase effect of some natural flavonoids and the importance of an azole ring for synthetic inhibitors such as letrozole or anastrozole towards binding to the heme iron of aromatase. In this study, we report the optimization of these lead compounds by the modulation of flavan A ring. The resulting 7,8-benzo-4-imidazolylflavans were tested in order to assess their ability to inhibit aromatase. Biological data concerning enantiomers obtained from the chiral separation of the racemate compound 4-imidazolyl-7-methoxyflavan are also presented.

  17. Aromatase inhibition by bioavailable methylated flavones.

    PubMed

    Ta, Nga; Walle, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Previous studies have shown chrysin, 7-hydroxyflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone to be the most potent flavonoid inhibitors of aromatase. However, very poor oral bioavailability is a major limitation for the successful use of dietary flavonoids as chemopreventive agents. We have recently shown that methylated flavones, including 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 7,4'-dimethoxyflavone, are much more resistant to metabolism than their unmethylated analogs and have much higher intestinal absorption. In this study, we examined these fully methylated flavones as potential aromatase inhibitors for the prevention and/or treatment of hormone-dependent cancers. Whereas 5,7-dimethoxyflavone had poor effect compared to its unmethylated analog chrysin, 7-methoxyflavone and 7,4'-dimethoxyflavone were almost equipotent to their unmethylated analogs with IC(50) values of 2-9 microM. Thus, some fully methylated flavones appear to have great potential as cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Aromatase inhibition by bioavailable methylated flavones

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Nga; Walle, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown chrysin, 7-hydroxyflavone and 7,4′-dihydroxyflavone to be the most potent flavonoid inhibitors of aromatase. However, very poor oral bioavailability is a major limitation for the successful use of dietary flavonoids as chemopreventive agents. We have recently shown that methylated flavones, including 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, 7-methoxyflavone and 7,4′-dimethoxyflavone, are much more resistant to metabolism than their unmethylated analogs and have much higher intestinal absorption. In this study, we examined these fully methylated flavones as potential aromatase inhibitors for the prevention and/or treatment of hormone-dependent cancers. Whereas 5,7-dimethoxyflavone had poor effect compared to its unmethylated analog chrysin, 7-methoxyflavone and 7,4′-dimethoxyflavone were almost equipotent to their unmethylated analogs with IC50 values of 2 to 9 μM. Thus, some fully methylated flavones appear to have great potential as cancer chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:17624765

  19. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19).

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiajia; Yuan, Yun; Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen; Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Wanli; Yuan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds-trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)-were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC50: 1μM and 0.5μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers.

  20. Tissue concentrations of estrogens and aromatase immunolocalization in interstitial pneumonia of human lung.

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Shinji; Fujishima, Fumiyoshi; Miki, Yasuhiro; Abe, Keiko; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Sato, Satoko; Kasajima, Atsuko; Fue, Misaki; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Mika; Sakakibara, Tomohiro; Maeda, Sumiko; Suzuki, Takashi; Sasano, Hironobu

    2014-07-05

    Interstitial pneumonia (IP) is characterized by various degrees of pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. Estrogens have been demonstrated to play important roles in physiological and pathological conditions of human lung, but significance of estrogens has remained unknown in human IP. Therefore, we measured estrogen concentrations and immunolocalized aromatase and estrogen receptor β (ERβ) in IP tissues. Estradiol concentration was significantly (2.8-fold) higher in IP than normal lung tissues, and aromatase activity evaluated by estradiol/testosterone ratio was also significantly (7.2-fold) elevated in IP tissues. Aromatase immunoreactivity in alveolar epithelial cells was significantly frequent in IP than normal lung or inflammatory lung disease other than IP, and it was positively associated with ERβ immunoreactivity in these cells of IP. These results suggest that estradiol concentration is locally increased in human IP tissue by aromatase, and increased estrogens may play an important role in the development of IP through ERβ in the alveolar epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Silvia; Rampa, Angela; Belluti, Federica; Bisi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are known to be important in breast cancer growth in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Although circulating estrogen concentrations are very low after menopause, peripheral tissues generate sufficient concentrations to stimulate tumor growth. As aromatase is the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, inhibitors of this enzyme represent effective targeted therapy for breast cancer. Three compounds are now FDA approved and have become the first-choice endocrine drugs for postmenopausal breast cancer patients, since they are associated with superior activity and better general tolerability when compared with the estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. Nevertheless, some questions concerning the use of aromatase inhibitors for the treatment of breast cancer still need to be addressed, mainly related to their side-effects and the development of resistance, making research in this field still appealing. Many research groups, including our own, are still dealing with the search of new compounds that possess aromatase inhibitory properties. In this review an update of the latest achievements in the field of nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors will be given.

  2. Molecular simulations of aromatase reveal new insights into the mechanism of ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiho; Czapla, Luke; Amaro, Rommie E

    2013-08-26

    CYP19A1, also known as aromatase or estrogen synthetase, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of estrogens from their corresponding androgens. Several clinically used breast cancer therapies target aromatase. In this work, explicitly solvated all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of aromatase with a model of the lipid bilayer and the transmembrane helix are performed. The dynamics of aromatase and the role of titration of an important amino acid residue involved in aromatization of androgens are investigated via two 250-ns long simulations. One simulation treats the protonated form of the catalytic aspartate 309, which appears more consistent with crystallographic data for the active site, while the simulation of the deprotonated form shows some notable conformational shifts. Ensemble-based computational solvent mapping experiments indicate possible novel druggable binding sites that could be utilized by next-generation inhibitors. In addition, the effects of protonation on the ligand positioning and channel dynamics are investigated using geometrical models that estimate the opening width of critical channels. Significant differences in channel dynamics between the protonated and deprotonated trajectories are exhibited, suggesting that the mechanism for substrate and product entry and the aromatization process may be coupled to a "locking" mechanism and channel opening. Our results may be particularly relevant in the design of novel drugs, which may be useful therapeutic treatments of cancers such as those of the breast and prostate.

  3. Reduced methadone clearance during aromatase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Thong, Nancy; Flockhart, David A

    2012-08-01

    Methadone is increasingly used in pain management and is a cornerstone in the treatment of opiate withdrawal. It is subject to highly variable clearance among patients. The complete metabolic disposition of methadone is likely to involve a number of enzymes, including specifically CYP2B6. Previous studies in vitro suggest that metabolism by aromatase may also contribute. Single-dose methadone pharmacokinetics (2 mg, intravenous) were studied in 15 healthy postmenopausal women in the presence and absence of a potent aromatase inhibitor, letrozole. A sequential design was used, involving a control period followed by treatment with letrozole (2.5 mg/d, 11 days), in which each subject served as her own control. On average, letrozole treatment reduced methadone systemic clearance by 22% (P = 0.001), increased methadone AUC by 23% (P = 0.007), and increased elimination half-life by 21% (P = 0.042). The plasma parent-to-metabolite ratio also increased (P = 0.009), and there was a linear relationship (R2 = 0.74) between change in this plasma ratio and change in methadone AUC0-∞. In contrast, there was no such association with change in apparent urinary methadone clearance. Letrozole did not change methadone distribution half-life or its volume of distribution. Overall, these data demonstrate a significant decrease in methadone clearance during coadministration of letrozole, consistent with decreased metabolism brought about by aromatase inhibition. An involvement of aromatase in the disposition of methadone may help explain the difficulty in methadone dosing and suggests a broader role for this catalyst of endogenous steroid metabolism in xenobiotic drug disposition.

  4. Colocalization of aromatase in spinal cord astrocytes: Differences in expression and relationship to mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in murine models of a painful and a non-painful bone tumor

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Elaine E; Smeester, Branden A; Michlitsch, Kyle S; Lee, Jang-Hern; Beitz, Alvin J

    2015-01-01

    While spinal cord astrocytes play a key role in the generation of cancer pain, there have been no studies that have examined the relationship of tumor-induced astrocyte activation and aromatase expression during the development of cancer pain. Here, we examined tumor-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia, and changes in GFAP and aromatase expression in murine models of painful and non-painful bone cancer. We demonstrate that implantation of fibrosarcoma cells, but not melanoma cells, produces robust mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in tumor-bearing mice compared to saline-injected controls. Secondly, this increase in mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia is mirrored by significant increases in both spinal astrocyte activity and aromatase expression in the dorsal horn of fibrosarcoma-bearing mice. Importantly, we show that aromatase is only found within a subset of astrocytes and not in neurons in the lumbar spinal cord. Finally, administration of an aromatase inhibitor reduced tumor-induced hyperalgesia in fibrosarcoma-bearing animals. We conclude that a painful fibrosarcoma tumor induces a significant increase in spinal astrocyte activation and aromatase expression and that the up-regulation of aromatase plays a role in the development of bone tumor-induced hyperalgesia. Since spinal aromatase is also upregulated, but to a lesser extent, in non-painful melanoma bone tumors, it may also be neuroprotective and responsive to the changing tumor environment. PMID:26071956

  5. Aromatase regulates aggression in the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Lin S; O'Connell, Lauren A; Hofmann, Hans A

    2013-03-15

    The roles of estrogen and androgens in male social behavior are well studied, but little is known about how these hormones contribute to behavior in a social hierarchy. Here we test the role of aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone into estradiol, in mediating aggression and reproductive behavior in male Astatotilapia burtoni, an African cichlid fish that displays remarkable plasticity in social behavior. We first measured aromatase expression in subordinate and dominant males in brain regions that regulate social behavior and found that subordinate males have higher aromatase expression than dominant males in the magnocellular and gigantocellular regions of the preoptic area. Next, we functionally tested the role of aromatase in regulating behavior by intraperitoneally injecting dominant males with either saline or fadrozole (FAD), an aromatase inhibitor, and found that FAD treatment decreases aggressive, but not reproductive, behaviors compared to saline controls. To determine the underlying physiological and molecular consequences of FAD treatment, we measured estradiol and testosterone levels from plasma and brain aromatase expression in FAD and saline treated dominant males. We found that estradiol levels decreased and testosterone levels increased in response to FAD treatment. Moreover, FAD treated males had increased aromatase expression in the gigantocellular portion of the POA, possibly a compensatory response. Overall, our results suggest aromatase is a key enzyme that promotes aggression in A. burtoni males through actions in the preoptic area.

  6. Bicalutamide and Third-Generation Aromatase Inhibitors in Testotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Anne M.; Shulman, Dorothy; Eugster, Erica A.; Rahhal, Samar; Fuqua, John S.; Pescovitz, Ora H.; Lewis, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Testotoxicosis, a form of gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, results from an activating mutation of the luteinizing hormone receptor expressed in testicular Leydig cells. Affected males experience early testosterone secretion, virilization, advancing bone age, and resultant short stature. Recently, the use of combination therapy with a potent antiandrogen agent (bicalutamide) and a third-generation aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole or letrozole) was reported to yield encouraging short-term results. We present here the results of longer-term treatment (4.5 and 5 years) with this combination therapy in 2 boys who demonstrated that it is well tolerated, slows bone-age advancement in the face of continued linear growth, and prevents progression of virilization. PMID:20713483

  7. Synthesis of Triphenylethylene Bisphenols as Aromatase Inhibitors that Also Modulate Estrogen Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Wei; Liu, Jinzhong; Skaar, Todd C.; O'Neill, Elizaveta; Yu, Ge; Flockhart, David A.; Cushman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A series of triphenylethylene bisphenol analogues of the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen were synthesized and evaluated for their abilities to inhibit aromatase, bind to estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) and estrogen receptor-β (ER-β), and antagonize the activity of β-estradiol in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The long-range goal has been to create dual aromatase inhibitor (AI)/selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). The hypothesis is that in normal tissue the estrogenic SERM activity of a dual AI/SERM could attenuate the undesired effects stemming from global estrogen depletion caused by the AI activity of a dual AI/SERM, while in breast cancer tissue the antiestrogenic SERM activity of a dual AI/SERM could act synergistically with AI activity to enhance the antiproliferative effect. The potent aromatase inhibitory activities and high ER-α and ER-β binding affinities of several of the resulting analogues, together with the facts that they antagonize β-estradiol in a functional assay in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and they have no E/Z isomers, support their further development in order to obtain dual AI/SERM agents for breast cancer treatment. PMID:26704594

  8. Presence of aromatase inhibitors in cycads.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M T; Itzhak, Y; Puett, D

    1995-07-28

    Cycads, the most primitive of the living gymnosperms, have been used and continue to be used for food and medicinal purposes by many cultures, although toxins must be removed before ingestion. In our quest to identify tropical plants that contain inhibitors of the cytochrome P-450 aromatase and thus may be efficacious in treating estrogen-dependent tumors, we have screened extracts from 5 species of cycad folia encompassing 3 genera: Cycas cairnsiana F. Muell., Cycas revoluta Thunb., Cycas rumphii Miq., Dioon spinulosum Dyer and Encephalartos ferox Bertol. All extracts were found to contain inhibitors of the human enzyme.

  9. [Estrogen formation in the central nervous system and characteristics of aromatase of rat hypothalamus].

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Y; Fukabori, Y; Honma, S

    1991-02-20

    Estrogen formation from androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and its kinetics were studied using microsomes from rat hypothalamus. [4-14C] androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and a homogenate of rat hypothalamus were incubated in the presence of NADPH at 37 degrees C for 3 hrs. The estrogen fraction was extracted from the incubation mixture with ethyl acetate, purified by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20 and Bond Elut C18, and separated into estrone and estradiol fractions by HPLC. In analysis of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives of each fraction by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the molecular ion peak of the estrone fraction appeared at m/z 344, within 2 amu of that for the TMS derivative of natural estrone. The retention time of the estrone fraction derivative was 11.6 min, the same as that of natural estrone. 14C-estrone was thus concluded to be biosynthesized from [4-14C]-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione in rat hypothalamus. The kinetics of the aromatase of rat hypothalamic tissue was studied by measuring 3H2O released from [1 beta-3H]-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and estrone as the estrogen product by measured gas chromatography selected ion monitoring (GC-SIM). High correlation was found between 3H2O release and estrone measured by GC-SIM (r = 0.97). Aromatase activity was linear with respect to incubation time and quantity of tissue. Km and Vmax were 30.3 nM and 7.98 fmol estrogen/h/mg of wet tissue, respectively. 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (4-OH-A) suppressed the activity of aromatase in both rat hypothalamic and human placental tissue in a concentration-dependent manner. Polyclonal IgG to human placental aromatase also suppressed aromatase activity of human placental tissue, but only slightly suppressed that of rat hypothalamus. The molecular structure of aromatase in rat hypothalamus was thus concluded to differ from that in human placenta.

  10. Endocrine sex reversal of gonads by the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole (CGS 20267) in Emys orbicularis, a turtle with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    PubMed

    Richard-Mercier, N; Dorizzi, M; Desvages, G; Girondot, M; Pieau, C

    1995-12-01

    In embryos of Emys orbicularis, the sexual differentiation of gonads is influenced by the incubation temperature of eggs. Estrogens administered during the thermosensitive period result in the feminization of gonads at 25 degrees (male-producing temperature), whereas an antiestrogen or aromatase inhibitors masculinize the gonads at 30 degrees (female-producing temperature). The nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor Letrozole induces gonads with different degrees of masculinization, from ovary-like to testis-like. The present study examines the endocrine function of such masculinized gonads, at the end of embryonic life. Aromatase activity (which is involved in estrogen synthesis in ovary) and the status of Müllerian ducts (the regression of which reflects the secretion of a putative anti-Müllerian hormone by the Sertoli cells) were examined. One month after treatment with Letrozole, the gonads of embryos presented various levels of aromatase activity. There was a strong correlation among aromatase activity, gonadal structure, and Müllerian duct status; high levels of aromatase (similar or close to those in control females) were found in ovary-like gonads; intermediate levels were found in gonads (masculinized ovaries or ovotestes?) exhibiting a cortex and a composite medulla containing a mixture of ovarian lacunae and testicular cord-like structures; low levels (similar or close to those in control males) were found in strongly masculinized gonads (testis-like or ovotestes). Müllerian ducts were regressing in the majority of embryos with gonads containing low levels of aromatase activity. In these individuals, gonads functioned as embryonic testes. These results confirm the implication of estrogens in gonadal differentiation. The origin of these hormones is controversial, so that the aromatase activity was compared in gonads, in the undissociated adrenal-mesonephric complex (AM), and in different parts of this complex during the thermosensitive period. At the female

  11. Estradiol as an anti-aromatase agent in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, J R; Chetrite, G S

    2006-01-01

    Estradiol (E(2)) is an important risk factor in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, a "direct effect" of E(2) in breast cancerization has not yet been demonstrated. The estrogen receptor complex can mediate the activation of oncogens, proto-oncogens, nuclear proteins and other target genes that can be involved in the transformation of normal to cancerous cells. Breast cancer cells possess all the enzymes (sulfatase, aromatase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD)) necessary for the local bioformation of E(2). In the last years, many studies have shown that treatment of breast cancer patients using anti-aromatase agents has beneficial therapeutic effects. The aromatase activity is very low in most breast cancer cells but was significantly increased in a hormone-dependent breast cancer cell line: the MCF-7aro, using the aromatase cDNA transfection and G-418 (neomycin) selection. In the present study, we explore the effect of E(2) on the aromatase activity of this cell line. The MCF-7aro cell line was a gift from Dr. S. Chen (Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, U.S.A.). For experiments the cells were stripped of endogenous steroids and incubated with physiological concentrations of [(3)H]-testosterone (5 x 10(-9)mol/l) alone or in the presence of E(2) (5 x 10(-5), 5 x 10(-7) and 5 x 10(-9)mol/l) for 24h at 37 degrees C. The cellular radioactivity uptake was determined in the ethanolic supernatant and the DNA content in the remaining pellet. [(3)H]-E(2), [(3)H]-estrone ([(3)H]-E(1)) and [(3)H]-testosterone were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. It was observed that [(3)H]-testosterone is converted mainly into [(3)H]-E(2) and not to E(1), which suggests very low or absence of oxidative 17beta-HSD (type 2) activity in these experimental conditions. The aromatase activity, corresponding to the conversion of [(3)H]-testosterone to [(3)H]-E(2) after 24h, is relatively high, since

  12. Unique Distribution of Aromatase in the Human Brain: In Vivo Studies With PET and [N-Methyl-11C]Vorozole

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.W.; Alexoff, D.; Millard, J.; Carter, P.; Hubbard, B.; King, P.; Logan, J.; Muench, L.; Pareto, D.; Schlyer, D.; Shea, C.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Xu, Y.; Fowler, J.

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition, and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-{sup 11}C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, three men and three women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5 mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90-min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (V{sub T}) values in both men and women followed the following rank order: thalamus > amygdala = preoptic area > medulla (inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum, and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region-dependent, ranging from {approx}70% blocking in thalamus andpreoptic area to {approx}10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the noninvasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain.

  13. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Y C; Zhou, C; Sherman, M; Laughton, C A; Chen, S

    1998-02-01

    Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones.

  14. Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Y C; Zhou, C; Sherman, M; Laughton, C A; Chen, S

    1998-01-01

    Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9435150

  15. Unique distribution of aromatase in the human brain: in vivo studies with PET and [N-methyl-11C]vorozole

    PubMed Central

    Biegon, Anat; Kim, Sung Won; Alexoff, David L.; Jayne, Millard; Carter, Pauline; Hubbard, Barbara; King, Payton; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Xu, Youwen; Fowler, Joanna S.

    2010-01-01

    Aromatase catalyzes the last step in estrogen biosynthesis. Brain aromatase is involved in diverse neurophysiological and behavioral functions including sexual behavior, aggression, cognition and neuroprotection. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled aromatase inhibitor [N-methyl-11C]vorozole, we characterized the tracer distribution and kinetics in the living human brain. Six young, healthy subjects, 3 men and 3 women, were administered the radiotracer alone on two separate occasions. Women were scanned in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. Specificity was confirmed by pretreatment with a pharmacological (2.5mg) dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PET data were acquired over a 90 min period and regions of interest placed over selected brain regions. Brain and plasma time activity curves, corrected for metabolites, were used to derive kinetic parameters. Distribution volume (VT) values in both men and women followed the rank order: thalamus>amygdala=preoptic area>medulla(inferior olive) > accumbens, pons, occipital and temporal cortex, putamen, cerebellum and white matter. Pretreatment with letrozole reduced VT in all regions, though the size of the reduction was region dependent; ranging from ~70% blocking in thalamus and preoptic area to ~10% in cerebellum. The high levels of aromatase in thalamus and medulla (inferior olive) appear to be unique to humans. These studies set the stage for the non-invasive assessment of aromatase involvement in various physiological and pathological processes affecting the human brain. PMID:20842717

  16. Weight gain increases human aromatase expression in mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Hong; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Pearson, Elizabeth K; Bulun, Serdar E

    2012-05-15

    Adulthood weight gain predicts estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Because local estrogen excess in the breast likely contributes to cancer development, and aromatase is the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, we investigated the role of local aromatase expression in weight gain-associated breast cancer risk in a humanized aromatase (Arom(hum)) mouse model containing the coding region and the 5'-regulatory region of the human aromatase gene. Compared with littermates on normal chow, female Arom(hum) mice on a high fat diet gained more weight, and had a larger mammary gland mass with elevated total human aromatase mRNA levels via promoters I.4 and II associated with increased levels of their regulators TNFα and C/EBPβ. There was no difference in total human aromatase mRNA levels in gonadal white adipose tissue. Our data suggest that diet-induced weight gain preferentially stimulates local aromatase expression in the breast, which may lead to local estrogen excess and breast cancer risk.

  17. Effect Of Microgravity On Aromatase Expression In Sertoli Cells.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Elisa; De Domenico, Emanuela; Botti, Flavia; Massoud, Renato; Geremia, Raffaele; Grimaldi, Paola

    2017-06-14

    Cytochrome P450-aromatase catalyzes estrogen biosynthesis from C19 steroids. In the testis, Sertoli cells express P450-aromatase and represent the primary source of estrogen during prepuberal age. This study focused on the effect of simulated microgravity (SM) on aromatase expression in primary mouse Sertoli cells. When cultured in Rotary Cell Culture System (RCCS), Sertoli cells, formed multicellular three dimensional spheroids (3D). Biological properties were first analyzed in terms of viability, cell cycle, expression of cytoskeletal components and growth factors in comparison to Sertoli cells cultured in spheroids at unit gravity (G). SM did not affect cell viability and proliferation, nor expression of the main cytoskeleton proteins and of growth factors like Kit Ligand (KL) and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). On the other hand, SM caused a strong increase in P450 aromatase mRNA and protein expression. Interestingly, P450-aromatase was no more inducible by 8-Br-cAMP. The presence of a functional aromatase was confirmed by enrichment of 17β-estradiol released in the medium by androgen precursors. We concluded that SM causes a significant upregulation of aromatase gene expression in Sertoli cells, leading to a consequent increase in 17β-estradiol secretion. High level of 17β-estradiol in the testis could have potentially adverse effects on male fertility and testicular cancer.

  18. Design and synthesis of a new type of non steroidal human aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sonnet, P; Guillon, J; Enguehard, C; Dallemagne, P; Bureau, R; Rault S Auvray, P; Moslemi, S; Sourdiane, P; Galopin, S; Séralini, G E

    1998-05-05

    The structure-activity relationship study of one of recently described aromatase inhibitors, compound 1 (MR20814), allowed us to design some related derivatives as potential new inhibitors. Among those we synthesized, chlorophenylpyridylmethylenetetrahydroindolizinone 5 (MR20492) exhibited in vitro a ten-fold higher inhibition of the enzyme (IC50 = 0.2 +/- 0.0 microM and Ki = 10.3 +/- 3.3 nM).

  19. Involvement of CRH and hCG in the induction of aromatase by cortisol in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Wang, W S; Liu, C; Li, W J; Zhu, P; Li, J N; Sun, K

    2014-01-01

    Increased estrogen production in placenta towards the end of gestation plays a pivotal role in the onset of human labor. Estrogen transforms myometrium from a quiescent to a contractile status. Glucocorticoids have been shown to induce estrogen production through the transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1)-mediated induction of aromatase transcription upon elevation of cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP) level in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. However, it is unclear how glucocorticoids activate cAMP pathway thereby inducing aromatase expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We investigated this issue in cultured primary human placental syncytiotrophoblasts prepared from placentas collected at term without labor. We demonstrated that cortisol (0.01-1 μM) dose-dependently increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) α/β subunit expression and their production in the syncytiotrophoblasts. The induction of intracellular cAMP level, Sp1 expression, Sp1 enrichment at the aromatase promoter as well as aromatase expression by cortisol could be partially attenuated by either hCG antibody (1:100) or CRH receptor antagonist α-helical-CRH (1 μM), and further attenuated by combination of hCG antibody and α-helical-CRH. Cortisol increases aromatase expression via induction of CRH and hCG production and subsequent elevation of cAMP level and enrichment of Sp1 at the aromatase promoter in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. These findings may account for the parallel increases of cortisol and estrogen production prior to the onset of parturition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Two natural products, trans-phytol and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol, inhibit the biosynthesis of estrogen in human ovarian granulosa cells by aromatase (CYP19)

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jiajia; Yuan, Yun; Lu, Danfeng; Du, Baowen; Xiong, Liang; Shi, Jiangong; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Wanli; Yuan, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2014-08-15

    Aromatase is the only enzyme in vertebrates to catalyze the biosynthesis of estrogens. Although inhibitors of aromatase have been developed for the treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer, the whole-body inhibition of aromatase causes severe adverse effects. Thus, tissue-selective aromatase inhibitors are important for the treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In this study, 63 natural products with diverse structures were examined for their effects on estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa-like KGN cells. Two compounds—trans-phytol (SA-20) and (22E)-ergosta-6,9,22-triene-3β,5α,8α-triol (SA-48)—were found to potently inhibit estrogen biosynthesis (IC{sub 50}: 1 μM and 0.5 μM, respectively). Both compounds decreased aromatase mRNA and protein expression levels in KGN cells, but had no effect on the aromatase catalytic activity in aromatase-overexpressing HEK293A cells and recombinant expressed aromatase. The two compounds decreased the expression of aromatase promoter I.3/II. Neither compound affected intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, but they inhibited the phosphorylation or protein expression of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). The effects of these two compounds on extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AKT/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway were examined. Inhibition of p38 MAPK could be the mechanism underpinning the actions of these compounds. Our results suggests that natural products structurally similar to SA-20 and SA-48 may be a new source of tissue-selective aromatase modulators, and that p38 MAPK is important in the basal control of aromatase in ovarian granulosa cells. SA-20 and SA-48 warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. - Highlights: • Two natural products inhibited estrogen biosynthesis in human ovarian granulosa cells. • They

  1. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  2. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    DOE PAGES

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; ...

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvismore » scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the

  3. Aromatase imaging with [N-methyl-C-11]vorozole PET in healthy men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, Anat; Fowler, Joanna S.; Alexoff, David L.; Kim, Sung Won; Logan, Jean; Pareto, Deborah; Schlyer, David; Wang, Gene-Jack

    2015-02-19

    Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with ¹¹C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aims to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathological situations can be studied. Methods: ¹¹C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected I.V in 13 men and 20 women (age range 23 to 67). PET data were acquired over a 90 minute period. Each subject had 4 scans, 2/day separated by 2-6 weeks, including brain and torso or pelvis scans. Young women were scanned at 2 discrete phases of the menstrual cycle (midcycle and late luteal). Men and postmenopausal women were also scanned following pretreatment with a clinical dose of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (“blocking” studies). Time activity curves were obtained and standard uptake values (SUV) calculated for major organs including brain, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, spleen, muscle, bone and male and female reproductive organs (penis, testes, uterus, ovaries). Organ and whole body radiation exposures were calculated using Olinda software. Results: Liver uptake was higher than all other organs, but was not blocked by pretreatment with letrozole. Mean SUVs in men were higher than in women, and brain uptake was blocked by letrozole. Male brain SUVs were also higher than all other organs (ranging from 0.48±0.05 in lungs to 1.5±0.13 in kidneys). Mean ovarian SUVs (3.08±0.7) were comparable to brain levels and higher than all other organs. Furthermore, ovarian SUVs In young women around the time of ovulation (midcycle) were significantly higher than those measured in the late luteal phase, while aging and cigarette smoking reduced ¹¹C-vorozole uptake. Conclusions: PET with ¹¹C-vorozole is useful for assessing physiological changes in estrogen synthesis capacity in the human body

  4. Modulation of breast cancer cell survival by aromatase inhibiting hop (Humulus lupulus L.) flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rosário; Faria, Ana; Azevedo, Isabel; Calhau, Conceição

    2007-01-01

    Hop flavonoids are being regarded as attractive molecules to prevent or treat certain forms of cancer. Studies have focused mainly on xanthohumol, the most abundant prenylated chalcone existing in hops extract. However, during the production of beer, or after its ingestion, xanthohumol originates different metabolites, among which isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol, isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin on the breast cancer Sk-Br-3 cell line proliferation, apoptosis and activity of the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthase). Aromatase activity was determined by a tritiated water assay, cell proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]thymidine incorporation, sulforhodamine B protein measurement and Ki-67 immunostaining and apoptosis was determined by TUNEL. Our results show that all tested prenylflavonoids were able to inhibit aromatase activity and thus, estrogen formation. Additionally, breast cancer cell line proliferation was decreased and apoptosis induced by all three compounds. The presence of 17beta-estradiol in treatment medium was able to revert the effect of the prenylflavonoids on cellular proliferation. These observations strengthen the idea that hop flavonoids may have anti-breast cancer effects and shed new light on a possible mechanism of action by which these effects occur, namely through their ability to decrease estrogen synthesis.

  5. Serum Amyloid A Induces Inflammation, Proliferation and Cell Death in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Sören V; Schlosser, Monika; Schildberg, Frank A; Seki, Ekihiro; De Minicis, Samuele; Uchinami, Hiroshi; Kuntzen, Christian; Knolle, Percy A; Strassburg, Christian P; Schwabe, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an evolutionary highly conserved acute phase protein that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes. However, its role in liver injury and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated so far. In this study, we determined the effects of SAA on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type of the liver. Serum amyloid A potently activated IκB kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Erk and Akt and enhanced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in primary human and rat HSCs. Serum amyloid A induced the transcription of MCP-1, RANTES and MMP9 in an NF-κB- and JNK-dependent manner. Blockade of NF-κB revealed cytotoxic effects of SAA in primary HSCs with signs of apoptosis such as caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Serum amyloid A induced HSC proliferation, which depended on JNK, Erk and Akt activity. In primary hepatocytes, SAA also activated MAP kinases, but did not induce relevant cell death after NF-κB inhibition. In two models of hepatic fibrogenesis, CCl4 treatment and bile duct ligation, hepatic mRNA levels of SAA1 and SAA3 were strongly increased. In conclusion, SAA may modulate fibrogenic responses in the liver in a positive and negative fashion by inducing inflammation, proliferation and cell death in HSCs.

  6. Serum Amyloid A Induces Inflammation, Proliferation and Cell Death in Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Siegmund, Sören V.; Schlosser, Monika; Schildberg, Frank A.; Seki, Ekihiro; De Minicis, Samuele; Uchinami, Hiroshi; Kuntzen, Christian; Knolle, Percy A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an evolutionary highly conserved acute phase protein that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes. However, its role in liver injury and fibrogenesis has not been elucidated so far. In this study, we determined the effects of SAA on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), the main fibrogenic cell type of the liver. Serum amyloid A potently activated IκB kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), Erk and Akt and enhanced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity in primary human and rat HSCs. Serum amyloid A induced the transcription of MCP-1, RANTES and MMP9 in an NF-κB- and JNK-dependent manner. Blockade of NF-κB revealed cytotoxic effects of SAA in primary HSCs with signs of apoptosis such as caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Serum amyloid A induced HSC proliferation, which depended on JNK, Erk and Akt activity. In primary hepatocytes, SAA also activated MAP kinases, but did not induce relevant cell death after NF-κB inhibition. In two models of hepatic fibrogenesis, CCl4 treatment and bile duct ligation, hepatic mRNA levels of SAA1 and SAA3 were strongly increased. In conclusion, SAA may modulate fibrogenic responses in the liver in a positive and negative fashion by inducing inflammation, proliferation and cell death in HSCs. PMID:26937641

  7. Aromatase inhibitors and their future role in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lønning, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Anastrozole is the first aromatase inhibitor to show a significant survival advantage over megestrol acetate in post-menopausal women with advanced breast cancer. The rationale for extending the use of aromatase inhibitors to the treatment of early breast cancer is based on the efficacy observed in the advanced setting, combined with good tolerability and a convenient dosing regimen. Furthermore, oestrogen deprivation by ovarian ablation (similar to oestrogen antagonism with tamoxifen) is already established as an effective adjuvant treatment in premenopausal women with modality breast cancer. Anastrozole produces a profound suppression of plasma oestrogen levels which is greater than that obtained with earlier aromatase inhibitors (formestane, aminoglutethimide) or megestrol acetate. This could account for the differences in clinical efficacy seen between anastrozole and megestrol acetate. In terms of benefits over other endocrine agents, anastrozole causes significantly less weight gain than megestrol acetate; it does not have the partial agonist activity of tamoxifen, and is unlikely to lead to tumour stimulation in patients resistant to tamoxifen or to exert proliferative effects on the endometrium. The lack of oestrogen agonist activity, however, may possibly have detrimental effects on bone mineral density and blood lipid profile. Current clinical trials are investigating the efficacy and safety of anastrozole in the early breast cancer setting. The results of these trials will help to determine whether anastrozole has any benefits over tamoxifen, the current treatment of choice in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer. PMID:9741783

  8. Influence of aromatase inhibition on the bone-protective effects of testosterone.

    PubMed

    Beck, Darren T; Yarrow, Joshua F; Beggs, Luke A; Otzel, Dana M; Ye, Fan; Conover, Christine F; Miller, Julie R; Balaez, Alexander; Combs, Sarah M; Leeper, Alicia M; Williams, Alyssa A; Lachacz, Stephanie A; Zheng, Nigel; Wronski, Thomas J; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-11-01

    The influence of the aromatase enzyme in androgen-induced bone maintenance after skeletal maturity remains somewhat unclear. Our purpose was to determine whether aromatase activity is essential to androgen-induced bone maintenance. Ten-month-old male Fisher 344 rats (n = 73) were randomly assigned to receive Sham surgery, orchiectomy (ORX), ORX + anastrozole (AN; aromatase inhibitor), ORX + testosterone-enanthate (TE, 7.0 mg/wk), ORX + TE + AN, ORX + trenbolone-enanthate (TREN; nonaromatizable, nonestrogenic testosterone analogue; 1.0 mg/wk), or ORX + TREN + AN. ORX animals exhibited histomorphometric indices of high-turnover osteopenia and reduced cancellous bone volume compared with Shams. Both TE and TREN administration suppressed cancellous bone turnover similarly and fully prevented ORX-induced cancellous bone loss. TE- and TREN-treated animals also exhibited greater femoral neck shear strength than ORX animals. AN co-administration slightly inhibited the suppression of bone resorption in TE-treated animals but did not alter TE-induced suppression of bone formation or the osteogenic effects of this androgen. In TREN-treated animals, AN co-administration produced no discernible effects on cancellous bone turnover or bone volume. ORX animals also exhibited reduced levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle mass and elevated visceral adiposity. In contrast, TE and TREN produced potent myotrophic effects in the LABC muscle and maintained fat mass at the level of Shams. AN co-administration did not alter androgen-induced effects on muscle or fat. In conclusion, androgens are able to induce direct effects on musculoskeletal and adipose tissue, independent of aromatase activity.

  9. Aromatase pathway mediates sex change in each direction

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Frederieke J; Munday, Philip L; Westcott, David A; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A; Liley, N. Robin

    2005-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase controls the androgen/oestrogen ratio by catalysing the irreversible conversion of testosterone into oestradiol (E2). Therefore, the regulation of E2 synthesis by aromatase is thought to be critical in sexual development and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that experimental manipulation of E2 levels via the aromatase pathway induces adult sex change in each direction in a hermaphroditic fish that naturally exhibits bidirectional sex change. Our results demonstrate that a single enzymatic pathway can regulate both female and male sexual differentiation, and that aromatase may be the key enzyme that transduces environmental, including social, cues to functional sex differentiation in species with environmental sex determination. PMID:16006326

  10. The Use of Aromatase Inhibitors for Ovulation Induction and Superovulation

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Context: Anovulation is likely responsible for 20% of female infertility. Although clomiphene citrate remains the first-line therapy for ovulation induction in anovulatory patients who are not estrogen-deficient and to treat unexplained infertility, there remains a discrepancy between ovulation and conception rates with its use, attributed to its antiestrogenic effects on cervical mucus and the endometrium. Alternative agents, including aromatase inhibitors, have been used that have not been associated with these side effects. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted to specifically explore the use of aromatase inhibitors for ovulation induction and superovulation. Evidence Synthesis: Recent studies have found that aromatase inhibitors may be safe and useful agents for ovulation induction in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome as well a treatment option for superovulation in patients with either unexplained infertility or endometriosis. Conclusions: Aromatase inhibitors may be an effective alternative treatment to clomiphene citrate for both ovulation induction and superovulation. PMID:23585659

  11. Estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha mediates up-regulation of aromatase expression by prostaglandin E2 in prostate stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lin; Shi, Jiandang; Wang, Chun-Yu; Zhu, Yan; Du, Xiaoling; Jiao, Hongli; Mo, Zengnan; Klocker, Helmut; Lee, Chung; Zhang, Ju

    2010-06-01

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. ERRalpha is highly expressed in the prostate, especially in prostate stromal cells. However, little is known about the regulation and function of ERRalpha, which may contribute to the progression of prostatic diseases. We previously found that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) up-regulated the expression of aromatase in prostate stromal cells. Here we show that PGE2 also up-regulates the expression of ERRalpha, which, as a transcription factor, further mediates the regulatory effects of PGE2 on the expression of aromatase. ERRalpha expression was up-regulated by PGE2 in prostate stromal cell line WPMY-1, which was mediated mainly through the protein kinase A signaling pathway by PGE2 receptor EP2. Suppression of ERRalpha activity by chlordane (an antagonist of ERRalpha) or small interfering RNA knockdown of ERRalpha blocked the increase of expression and promoter activity of aromatase induced by PGE2. Overexpression of ERRalpha significantly increased aromatase expression and promoter activity, which were further augmented by PGE2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ERRalpha directly bound to the aromatase promoter in vivo, and PGE2 enhanced the recruitment of ERRalpha and promoted transcriptional regulatory effects on aromatase expression in WPMY-1. 17Beta-estradiol concentration in WPMY-1 medium was up-regulated by ERRalpha expression, and that was further increased by PGE2. Our results provided evidence that ERRalpha contributed to local estrogen production by up-regulating aromatase expression in response to PGE2 and provided further insights into the potential role of ERRalpha in estrogen-related prostatic diseases.

  12. Increased concanavalin A-induced suppressor cell activity in humans with occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, N.; Modai, D.; Golik, A.; Weissgarten, J.; Peller, S.; Katz, A.; Averbukh, Z.; Shaked, U.

    1989-02-01

    E-rosette-forming cells (E-RFC), mitogen-induced blast transformation, OKT4+, OKT8+ cells, and their ratio were found to be normal in 10 subjects chronically exposed to lead with blood levels of 40-51 micrograms%. However, concanavalin A (Con A)-induced suppressor cell activity (SCA) in these subjects was significantly greater than in normal matched controls. The clinical relevance of this observation is not clear, but it may have some bearing on the various immunologic defects described in lead exposure.

  13. GEC-derived SFRP5 inhibits Wnt5a-induced macrophage chemotaxis and activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenghai; Bu, Xianmin; Wang, Wei; Ma, Tingxian; Ma, Haiying

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant macrophage infiltration and activation has been implicated in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis. Overexpression of Wnt5a and downregulation of SFRP5, a Wnt5a antagonist, were both observed in gastric cancers recently. This study attempted to explore whether Wnt5a/SFRP5 axis was involved in macrophage chemotaxis and activation. It was found that both Wnt5a transfection and recombinant Wnt5a (rWnt5a) treatment upregulated CCL2 expression in macrophages, involving JNK and NFκB signals. Conditioned medium from Wnt5a-treated macrophages promoted macrophage chemotaxis mainly dependent on CCL2. SFRP5 from gastric epithelial cells (GECs) inhibited Wnt5a-induced CCL2 expression and macrophage chemotaxis. In addition, Wnt5a treatment stimulated macrophages to produce inflammatory cytokines and COX-2/PGE2, which was also suppressed by SFRP5 from GECs. These results demonstrate that Wnt5a induces macrophage chemotaxis and activation, which can be blocked by GEC-derived SFRP5, suggesting that Wnt5a overproduction and SFRP5 deficiency in gastric mucosa may together play an important role in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis.

  14. Effectively nursing patients receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Wengström, Y

    2008-06-01

    Inhibiting estrogen production is a common means of preventing breast cancer recurrence. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are becoming the preferred treatment over tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. Like all adjuvant therapies, AIs have adverse events (AEs) associated with their use, many of which resemble symptoms common to menopause. Because of the greater efficacy of AIs in preventing breast cancer recurrence over tamoxifen, these AEs may be considered tolerable by many patients and often can be effectively managed and/or prevented. Educating patients about anticipated AEs may help them understand, accept, and cope with these AEs. This article reviews the AEs associated with different adjuvant AI treatments and highlights some strategies to manage them effectively. It also highlights the importance of patient education regarding AI therapy and involvement in treatment decisions, which may lead to better long-term adherence and ultimately to better outcomes.

  15. Aromatase deficiency, a rare syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Baykan, Emine Kartal; Erdoğan, Mehmet; Özen, Samim; Darcan, Şükran; Saygılı, L Füsun

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase deficiency (AD) is a rare autosomal recessive inheritance syndrome. Its worldwide incidence is unknown, and there are few case reports in the literature. Aromatase dysfunction develops due to CYP19A1 gene mutation and a decrease in estrogen synthesis. Estrogen deficiency can induce delayed epiphyseal closure, eunuchoid body habitus, osteopenia, and osteoporosis in both genders. Our patient was a 27-year-old male who presented with bone pain, recurrent bone fractures associated with minimal trauma starting in puberty, and a progressive increase in height. Laboratory tests revealed that the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were above normal, testosterone level was normal, and estrogen was undetectable. Plain bone radiography of the left wrist and hand demonstrated that the epiphyses were still unfused. Lumbar osteoporosis was detected in bone densitometry. In the genetic analysis, homozygous R375H guanine-adenine (G-A) mutation was detected in the CYP19A1 gene, and a diagnosis of AD was reached. Treatment with 25 μg transdermal estradiol was started. All family members were examined. Homozygous R375H G-A mutation was detected in the patient's younger brother. Heterozygous R375H G-A mutation was found in his mother, father, and older brother. In conclusion, this AD patient requires lifetime estrogen replacement in order to provide sufficient bone mineralization, to reduce the risk of bone fractures, and to lead a healthy life. The best method to prevent the possible complications is to diagnose the AD syndrome at early ages and to provide adequate estrogen replacement starting at puberty.

  16. Aromatase Inhibitors for Endometriosis-Associated Infertility; Do We Have Sufficient Evidence?

    PubMed Central

    Abu Hashim, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Orally active aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have gained attention for treatment of infertile women with endometriosis in whom aromatase p450 is aberrantly expressed. This review aimed to critically appraise and summarize the available evidence concerning the use of AIs for management of endometriosis-associated infertility. PubMed was searched to May 2015 with the following key words: endometriosis, infertility and aromatase. Priority was given for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) followed by other study designs. Main outcome measures were as follows: rates of clinical pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth as well as endocrine outcomes. Eighty-two abstracts were screened and six original articles were included. A RCT demonstrated that post-operative letrozole treatment did not improve spontaneous pregnancy rate. Another RCT reported no superiority of letrozole superovulation over clomiphene citrate (each combined with intrauterine insemination) in minimalmild endometriosis and previous laparoscopic treatment. Anastrozole significantly inhibited the growth of endometriotic cells and their estrogen production in culture. In assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles, dual suppression (Agonist/anastrozole) was tested in a pilot study with a pregnancy rate of 45% however, high pregnancy loss (30%) occurred. A retrospective study showed that letrozole may improve endometrial receptivity in endometriotic patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). An opposite view from an in vitro study showed lower estradiol production and aromatase expression in cultured granulosa cells from endometriotic women undergoing IVF and marked reduction under letrozole. In conclusion, current evidence is limited. More trials are warranted to enhance our knowledge and provide a clear and unequivocal evidence to guide our clinical management of infertile women with endometriosis using AIs. PMID:27695608

  17. Neural stem cell sex dimorphism in aromatase (CYP19) expression: a basis for differential neural fate

    PubMed Central

    Waldron, Jay; McCourty, Althea; Lecanu, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation and pharmacologic activation of endogenous neurogenesis are two approaches that trigger a great deal of interest as brain repair strategies. However, the success rate of clinical attempts using stem cells to restore neurologic functions altered either after traumatic brain injury or as a consequence of neurodegenerative disease remains rather disappointing. This suggests that factors affecting the fate of grafted NSCs are largely understudied and remain to be characterized. We recently reported that aging differentially affects the neurogenic properties of male and female NSCs. Although the sex steroids androgens and estrogens participate in the regulation of neurogenesis, to our knowledge, research on how gender-based differences affect the capacity of NSCs to differentiate and condition their neural fate is lacking. In the present study, we explored further the role of cell sex as a determining factor of the neural fate followed by differentiating NSCs and its relationship with a potential differential expression of aromatase (CYP19), the testosterone-metabolizing enzyme. Results Using NSCs isolated from the subventricular zone of three-month-old male and female Long-Evans rats and maintained as neurospheres, we showed that differentiation triggered by retinoic acid resulted in a neural phenotype that depends on cell sex. Differentiated male NSCs mainly expressed markers of neuronal fate, including βIII-tubulin, microtubule associated protein 2, growth-associated protein 43, and doublecortin. In contrast, female NSCs essentially expressed the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. Quantification of the expression of aromatase showed a very low level of expression in undifferentiated female NSCs, whereas aromatase expression in male NSCs was 14-fold greater than the female level. Conclusion Our results confirm our previous data that the neural phenotype acquired by differentiating NSCs largely depends on

  18. Study of substrate specificity of human aromatase by site directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Auvray, P; Nativelle, C; Bureau, R; Dallemagne, P; Séralini, G-E; Sourdaine, P

    2002-03-01

    Human aromatase is responsible for estrogen biosynthesis and is implicated, in particular, in reproduction and estrogen-dependent tumor proliferation. The molecular structure model is largely derived from the X-ray structure of bacterial cytochromes sharing only 15-20% identities with hP-450arom. In the present study, site directed mutagenesis experiments were performed to examine the role of K119, C124, I125, K130, E302, F320, D309, H475, D476, S470, I471 and I474 of aromatase in catalysis and for substrate binding. The catalytic properties of mutants, transfected in 293 cells, were evaluated using androstenedione, testosterone or nor-testosterone as substrates. In addition, inhibition profiles for these mutants with indane or indolizinone derivatives were obtained. Our results, together with computer modeling, show that catalytic properties of mutants vary in accordance with the substrate used, suggesting possible differences in substrates positioning within the active site. In this respect, importance of residues H475, D476 and K130 was discussed. These results allow us to hypothesize that E302 could be involved in the aromatization mechanism with nor-androgens, whereas D309 remains involved in androgen aromatization. This study highlights the flexibility of the substrate-enzyme complex conformation, and thus sheds new light on residues that may be responsible for substrate specificity between species or aromatase isoforms.

  19. Inhibition of aromatase and α-amylase by flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Sorghum bicolor bran extracts.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, James L; Greenspan, Phillip; Hartle, Diane K; Dowd, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    We compared the ability of simple flavonoids and proanthocyanidins in Sorghum bicolor bran extracts to inhibit enzymes in vitro. In particular, aromatase is a target for breast cancer therapy, and inhibition of α-amylase can reduce the glycemic effect of dietary starches. Proanthocyanidin-rich sumac sorghum bran extract inhibited α-amylase at a lower concentration (50% inhibitory concentration [IC₅₀]=1.4 μg/mL) than did proanthocyanidin-free black sorghum bran extract (IC₅₀=11.4 μg/mL). Sumac sorghum bran extract inhibited aromatase activity more strongly than black sorghum bran extract (IC₅₀=12.1 μg/mL vs. 18.8 μg/mL, respectively). Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which binds proanthocyanidins, reduced inhibition by sumac but not black sorghum bran extract. When separated on Sephadex LH-20, sumac sorghum proanthocyanidins inhibited both enzymes but showed reduced inhibition with BSA. Flavonoids from either cultivar had higher IC₅₀ values than proanthocyanidins, and BSA had little effect on their inhibition. Proanthocyanidins and simple flavonoids in LH-20 fractions both inhibited aromatase with mixed kinetics and affected K(m) and V(max). The results show that potential health benefits of sorghum bran may include actions of monomeric flavanoids as well as proanthocyanidins.

  20. Disruption of aromatase homeostasis as the cause of a multiplicity of ailments: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2017-04-01

    Human health is beset with a legion of ailments, which is exacerbated by lifestyle errors. Out of the numerous enzymes in human body, aromatase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme is particularly very critical. Occurring at the crossroads of multiple signalling pathways, its homeostasis is vital for optimal health. Unfortunately, medications, hormone therapy, chemical additives in food, and endocrine-disrupting personal care products are oscillating the aromatase concentration beyond the permissible level. As this enzyme converts androgens (C19) into estrogens (C18), its agitation has different outcomes in different genders and age groups. Some common pathologies associated with aromatase disruption include breast cancer, prostate cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), endometriosis, osteoporosis, ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, pituitary cancer, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, male hypogonadism, and transgender issues. Several drugs, cosmetics and pesticides act as the activators and suppressors of this enzyme. This carefully-compiled critical review is expected to increase public awareness regarding the threats resultant of the perturbations of this enzyme and to motivate researchers for further investigation of this field.

  1. Combating breast cancer with non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs): Understanding the chemico-biological interactions through comparative SAR/QSAR study.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Nilanjan; Amin, Sk Abdul; Saha, Achintya; Jha, Tarun

    2017-09-08

    It is a challenging task to design target-specific and less toxic non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) though the modeling studies for designing anti-aromatase molecules have been continuing for more than two decades to fight the dreaded estrogen-dependent breast cancer. In this article, different validated QSAR models are developed and analyzed to understand important physicochemical and structural parameters modulating the aromatase inhibitory activity of NSAIs. Physicochemical properties such as molar refractivity and dipole moment are found to be the most important parameters for controlling aromatase inhibition. This indicates the characteristic of bulky, complex and steric properties as well as, the flexibility of molecules is playing pivotal roles for aromatase inhibition. In many cases, hydrophobicity also plays important contribution. Regarding the structural point of view, some important indicator parameters are also found to be important for aromatase inhibitory activity. Though azole function is playing a crucial role by coordinating the heme moiety of the aromatase enzyme, the imidazole or the imidazolylmethyl ring systems may be better NSAIs than triazole, tetrazole or other azoles. The 4-pyridylmethyl group containing compounds are also found to be better NSAIs. The QSAR study, in a nutshell, provides a detailed understanding of the effectivity of NSAIs which is dependent mainly on the shape and size as well as the steric features of molecules and the heme-coordinator azole functions. These findings may open up a new horizon for designing new potential NSAIs that can be effective to reduce the mortality rate of breast cancer in future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Wnt5a induces renal AQP2 expression by activating calcineurin signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Fumiaki; Sohara, Eisei; Morimoto, Tetsuji; Yui, Naofumi; Nomura, Naohiro; Kikuchi, Eriko; Takahashi, Daiei; Mori, Takayasu; Vandewalle, Alain; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sasaki, Sei; Kondo, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Heritable nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is characterized by defective urine concentration mechanisms in the kidney, which are mainly caused by loss-of-function mutations in the vasopressin type 2 receptor. For the treatment of heritable NDI, novel strategies that bypass the defective vasopressin type 2 receptor are required to activate the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel. Here we show that Wnt5a regulates AQP2 protein expression, phosphorylation and trafficking, suggesting that Wnt5a is an endogenous ligand that can regulate AQP2 without the activation of the classic vasopressin/cAMP signalling pathway. Wnt5a successfully increases the apical membrane localization of AQP2 and urine osmolality in an NDI mouse model. We also demonstrate that calcineurin is a key regulator of Wnt5a-induced AQP2 activation without affecting intracellular cAMP level and PKA activity. The importance of calcineurin is further confirmed with its activator, arachidonic acid, which shows vasopressin-like effects underlining that calcineurin activators may be potential therapeutic targets for heritable NDI. PMID:27892464

  3. Impairments in aromatase expression, reproductive behavior, and sperm quality of male fish exposed to 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Guyón, Noelia F; Roggio, María A; Amé, María V; Hued, Andrea C; Valdés, María E; Giojalas, Laura C; Wunderlin, Daniel A; Bistoni, María A

    2012-05-01

    Growing evidence shows that environmental estrogen can reach levels that are high enough to exert adverse reproductive effects on wild fish populations. The authors report different parameters of male reproductive behavior, brain, and gonadal aromatase expression, as well as sperm quality in an internally fertilizing fish species (Jenynsia multidentata, Jenyns) exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E(2) ). Adult males were exposed to 0, 50, 100, and 250 ng/L E(2) over 28 d. The authors' findings demonstrate that E(2) exposure resulted in a very clear increase in brain aromatase transcript abundance at all assayed concentrations compared with control; however, no effects on gonadal aromatase expression were observed. Behavioral measures revealed increased sexual activity at 50 ng/L but not 100 or 250 ng/L E(2) . In contrast to the molecular and behavioral responses, the condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and sperm quality were unaltered by E(2) exposure. The results from the present work suggest that E(2) affects some aspects of the reproductive biology of J. multidentata. These modifications in the reproductive biology caused by exposure to E(2) could potentially lead to long-term effects at population levels that may not always be immediately evident. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the combined effect of E(2) on aromatase expression, sexual behavior, and sperm parameters in fish.

  4. Direct Regulation of Aromatase B Expression by 17β-Estradiol and Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist in Adult Radial Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lei; Esau, Crystal; Trudeau, Vance L

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450arom (cyp19) is the only enzyme that has the ability to convert androgens into estrogens. Estrogens, which are produced locally in the vertebrate brain play many fundamental roles in neuroendocrine functions, reproductive functions, socio-sexual behaviors, and neurogenesis. Radial glial cells (RGCs) are neuronal progenitor cells that are abundant in fish brains and are the exclusive site of aromatase B expression and neuroestrogen synthesis. Using a novel in vitro RGC culture preparation we studied the regulation of aromatase B by 17β-estradiol (E2) and dopamine (DA). We have established that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) by SKF 38393 up-regulates aromatase B gene expression most likely through the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). This up-regulation can be enhanced by low concentration of E2 (100 nM) through increasing the expression of D1R and the level of p-CREB protein. However, a high concentration of E2 (1 μM) and D1R agonist together failed to up-regulate aromatase B, potentially due to attenuation of esr2b expression and p-CREB levels. Furthermore, we found the up-regulation of aromatase B by E2 and DA both requires the involvement of esr1 and esr2a. The combined effect of E2 and DA agonist indicates that aromatase B in the adult teleost brain is under tight control by both steroids and neurotransmitters to precisely regulate neuroestrogen levels.

  5. Direct Regulation of Aromatase B Expression by 17β-Estradiol and Dopamine D1 Receptor Agonist in Adult Radial Glial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lei; Esau, Crystal; Trudeau, Vance L.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450arom (cyp19) is the only enzyme that has the ability to convert androgens into estrogens. Estrogens, which are produced locally in the vertebrate brain play many fundamental roles in neuroendocrine functions, reproductive functions, socio-sexual behaviors, and neurogenesis. Radial glial cells (RGCs) are neuronal progenitor cells that are abundant in fish brains and are the exclusive site of aromatase B expression and neuroestrogen synthesis. Using a novel in vitro RGC culture preparation we studied the regulation of aromatase B by 17β-estradiol (E2) and dopamine (DA). We have established that activation of the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) by SKF 38393 up-regulates aromatase B gene expression most likely through the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB). This up-regulation can be enhanced by low concentration of E2 (100 nM) through increasing the expression of D1R and the level of p-CREB protein. However, a high concentration of E2 (1 μM) and D1R agonist together failed to up-regulate aromatase B, potentially due to attenuation of esr2b expression and p-CREB levels. Furthermore, we found the up-regulation of aromatase B by E2 and DA both requires the involvement of esr1 and esr2a. The combined effect of E2 and DA agonist indicates that aromatase B in the adult teleost brain is under tight control by both steroids and neurotransmitters to precisely regulate neuroestrogen levels. PMID:26793050

  6. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced intratumoral aromatase in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ryoko; Miki, Yasuhiro; Hata, Shuko; Ishida, Takanori; Suzuki, Takashi; Ohuchi, Noriaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2017-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) inhibits estrogen receptor (ER) pathway, which may suppress estrogen-dependent cell proliferation. However, the correlation between AhR stimulation and intratumoral estrogen synthesis, especially through aromatase, has not been reported to date. In the present study, we examined this correlation in breast cancer cells. We examined AhR and aromatase immunoreactivity in 29 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma. We performed in vitro studies using three breast carcinoma cell lines, MCF-7, T47D, and MDA-MB-231. AhR stimulation induced the mRNA expression of the aromatase gene in vitro in three breast carcinoma cell lines, and increased estrogen synthesis in MCF-7 cell line. Results of microarray analysis showed that AhR-induced aromatase expression was associated with BRCA1 induction. Analysis of patients with breast cancer showed a significant positive correlation between intratumoral AhR and aromatase status. We also compared the effects of AhR stimulation on the induction of intratumoral estrogen synthesis and inhibition of the ER signaling pathway, because AhR exerts contradictory effects on estrogen action in breast carcinoma cells. AhR-induced aromatase expression persisted for a significantly longer duration than AhR-induced ER pathway inhibition. Moreover, breast carcinoma cells treated with an AhR agonist tended to show earlier cell proliferation after removing the agonist than cells not treated with the AhR agonist. The results of the present study suggest that AhR stimulates estrogen-dependent progression of breast carcinoma by inducing aromatase expression under some conditions. These results provide new insights on the possible roles of environmental toxins in breast cancer development.

  7. Aromatase inhibitors block natural sex change and induce male function in the protandrous black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli Bleeker: possible mechanism of natural sex change.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yan-Horn; Yueh, Wen-Shiun; Du, Jin-Lien; Sun, Lian-Tien; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2002-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of oral administration of aromatase inhibitors on sex change, milt volume, 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), and LH in plasma; aromatase activity in gonad, pituitary, and brain in the protandrous fish, black porgy (Acanthopagus schlegeli Bleeker). Two-year-old functional male black porgy were divided into two groups; one was fed a control diet and the other was fed a diet mixed with aromatase inhibitors (AIs; fadrozole and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione, each 10 mg/kg feed) for 8.5 mo. A significantly higher gonadosomatic index was observed in the AI group. Fish treated with AIs showed complete suppression of natural sex change. Significantly higher levels of plasma 11-KT, LH, and milt volume were shown in the AI group than the controls. Lower aromatase activity in the gonad, pituitary, forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain in concordance with the suppression of sex change was observed in the AI group. The data show that aromatase is directly involved in the mechanism of natural sex change of protandrous black porgy. AIs also enhanced male function in concordance with the elevated plasma levels of 11-KT and spermiation in milt volume.

  8. The case for aromatase inhibitors use in oncofertility patients. Should aromatase inhibitors be combined with gonadotropin treatment in breast cancer patients undergoing ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation prior to chemotherapy? A debate.

    PubMed

    Fatum, Muhammad; McVeigh, Enda; Child, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the hormone-dependent cancers that may be adversely affected by elevated oestrogen or progesterone concentrations, particularly the endocrine active (hormone receptor positive) breast cancers. Treatment for breast cancer patients aimed at fertility preservation, includes ovarian hyperstimulation, the harvest of oocytes, and subsequent cryopreservation of oocytes or embryos. Classically, gonadotrophins have been used effectively for ovulation induction, a treatment often accompanied by high blood oestrogen concentrations produced by the hyperstimulated granulosa cells. Despite the uncertainty which surrounds this issue and the lack of clear-cut clinical evidence, it is still of major concern that these ensuing high hormone levels might be associated with a high risk of recurrence of the cancer. A growing number of clinical studies have strongly suggested the benefits of using aromatase inhibitors in infertility treatment, both as single agents or as adjuncts to FSH-containing ovulation induction regimes in reproductive medicine. Combining gonadotrophins with aromatase inhibitors would augment the stimulation effect, with a reduced increase in serum concentrations of estradiol. We propose to open a debate over the use of aromatase inhibitors in combination with FSH in ovulation induction treatment of breast cancer oncofertility patients. As the safety of aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole has recently been demonstrated in several studies, and there is growing concern over the possible detrimental effects of high estradiol levels on breast cancer cells (at least in mouse models), the co-administration of letrozole in these patients would reduce both the high supraphysiologic serum levels of estradiol and the intratumoral in situ production of oestrogen. However, since it is unlikely that a well-founded evidence-based justification of this treatment will be formulated in the near future, based on well-designed prospective randomised

  9. Estrogen receptor-beta mediates the protective effects of aromatase induction in the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Hareesh B; Perla, Rao P; Kirma, Nameer B; Krishnegowda, Naveen K; Ganapathy, Manonmani; Rajhans, Rajib; Nair, Sujit S; Saikumar, Pothana; Vadlamudi, Ratna K; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancers amplified for the tyrosine kinase receptor Her-2/neu constitute ~30% of advanced breast cancer cases, and are characterized by hormone independence and aggressive growth, implicating this pathway in breast oncogenesis. The induction of Her-2/neu leads to tumor development in 60% of transgenic mice. We have previously examined the effects of estrogen in the MMTV-Her-2/neu background by generating the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mouse strain. MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase mice developed fewer mammary tumors than the Her-2/neu parental strain. Our present data show the induction of several estrogen-related genes, including the tumor suppressors BRCA1 and p53, and a decrease in several angiogenic factors. The phosphorylated forms of MAPK p42/44 and AKT were lower in the MMTV-Her-2/neu x aromatase double transgenic mice compared to the MMTV-Her-2/neu parental strain; conversely, phospho-p38 levels were higher in the double transgenic strain. The ERβ-selective antagonist THC reversed these changes. The regulation of these factors by ERβ was confirmed in clones of MCF7 breast cancer cells overexpressing Her-2/neu in combination with ERβ, suggesting that ERβ may play a direct role in regulating MAPK and AKT pathways. In summary, the data suggest that ERβ may play a major role in decreasing tumorigenesis and that it may affect breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by altering MAPK and AKT activation as well as modulation of tumor suppressor and angiogenesis factors. Treatment with selective ERβ agonist may provide therapeutic advantages for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer.

  10. Sex reversal of the amphibian, Xenopus tropicalis, following larval exposure to an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Allen W; Kosian, Patricia A; Korte, Joseph J; Holcombe, Gary W; Woodis, Kacie K; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2009-01-31

    Aromatase is a steroidogenic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. Modulation of this enzyme's activity by xenobiotic exposure has been shown to adversely affect gonad differentiation in a number of diverse species. We hypothesized that exposure to the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, during the larval development of the tropical clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, would result in masculinization of the developing female gonad. Tadpoles were exposed to fadrozole at nominal concentrations from 1 to 64 microg/L in a flow-through system from < 24 h post-fertilization (Nieuwkoop Faber (NF) stage 15-20) to metamorphosis (NF stage 66). At metamorphosis, morphologically examined gonads indicated complete masculinization of all tadpoles at concentrations of 16 microg/L and above and a significant bias in sex ratio towards males at concentrations of 1 microg/L and above. No effects on time to metamorphosis, body mass, or body length were observed. A random subsample of frogs was raised to reproductive maturity (39 weeks post-fertilization) in control water. All frogs exposed as tadpoles to 16 microg/L fadrozole or greater possessed testes at sexual maturity. Intersexed gonads characterized by the presence of both testicular and ovarian tissue were observed in 12% of frogs in the 4 microg/L treatment. No differences in estradiol, testosterone, or vitellogenin plasma concentrations were observed in exposed males or females compared to controls. Females in the 4 microg/L treatment possessed a significantly greater percentage of pre-vitellogenic oocytes than controls and were significantly smaller in body mass. No differences in sperm counts were observed in exposed males compared to controls. Results from this study demonstrate that larval exposure to an aromatase inhibitor can result in the complete masculinization of female gonads. These masculinized females are phenotypically indistinguishable from normal males at adulthood. Lower levels

  11. BENZO(A)PYRENE DECREASES BRAIN AND OVARIAN AROMATASE mRNA EXPRESSION IN FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wu; Wang, Lu; Thornton, Cammi; Scheffler, Brian E.; Willett, Kristine L.

    2008-01-01

    The higher molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) are typically associated with genotoxicity, however, newer evidence suggests that these compounds may also act as endocrine system disruptors. We hypothesized that altered expression of the P450 enzyme aromatase genes could be a target for reproductive or developmental dysfunction caused by BaP exposure. Aromatase is at least partially responsible for estrogen homeostasis by converting androgens into estrogens. In fish, there are two isoforms of aromatase, a predominantly ovarian form, CYP19A1, and a brain form, CYP19A2. CYP19 mRNA expression was measured following BaP exposure (0, 10, 100 µg/L waterborne for 10 or 15 days) in Fundulus adults, juveniles and embryos by in situ hybridization. The CYP19A1 expression was significantly decreased after BaP exposure in the 3 month old Fundulus immature oocytes, but BaP did not affect CYP19A1 expression at any stage in adult oocytes. In embryo brains, BaP significantly decreased CYP19A2 compared to controls by 3.6-fold at 14 days post-fertilization. In adults, CYP19A2 expression was decreased significantly in the pituitary and hypothalamus (81% and 85% of controls, respectively). Promoter regions of Fundulus CYP19s were cloned, and putative response elements in the CYP19A1 and CYP19A2 promoters such as CRE, AhR and ERE may be involved in BaP-mediated changes in CYP19 expression. In order to compare the mechanism of BaP-mediated inhibition with that of a known aromatase inhibitor, fish were also exposed to fadrozole (20 and 100 µg/L). Fadrozole did not significantly decrease the mRNA expression in embryos or adult Fundulus. However, aromatase enzyme activity was significantly decreased in adult ovary and brain tissues. These studies provide a greater molecular understanding of the mechanisms of action of BaP and its potential to impact reproduction or development. PMID:18571745

  12. Synthesis and PET studies of [11C-cyano]letrozole (Femara), an aromatase inhibitor drug

    SciTech Connect

    kil K. E.; Biegon A.; Kil, K.-E.; Biegon, A.; Ding, Y.-S.; Fischer, A.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Kim, S.-W.; Pareto, D.; Schueller, M.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    2008-11-10

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 family, converts androgens such as androstenedione and testosterone to estrone and estradiol respectively. Letrozole (1-[bis-(4-cyanophenyl)methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole, Femara{reg_sign}) is a high affinity aromatase inhibitor (K{sub i}=11.5 nM) which has FDA approval for breast cancer treatment. Here we report the synthesis of carbon-11 labeled letrozole and its assessment as a radiotracer for brain aromatase in the baboon. Letrozole and its precursor (4-[(4-bromophenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl]benzonitrile, 3) were prepared in two-step syntheses from 4-cyanobenzyl bromide and 4-bromobenzyl bromide, respectively. The [{sup 11}C]cyano group was introduced via the tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) catalyzed coupling of [{sup 11}C]cyanide with the bromo-precursor (3). PET studies in the baboon brain were carried out to assess regional distribution and kinetics, reproducibility of repeated measures and saturability. The free fraction of letrozole in the plasma, log D, and the [{sup 11}C-cyano]letrozole fraction in the arterial plasma were also measured. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole was synthesized in 60 min with a radiochemical yield of 79-80%, with a radiochemical purity greater than 98% and a specific activity of 4.16 {+-} 2.21 Ci/{micro}mol at the end of bombardment (n=4). PET studies in the baboon revealed initial rapid and high uptake and initial rapid clearance followed by slow clearance of carbon-11 from the brain with no difference between brain regions. The brain kinetics was not affected by co-injection of unlabeled letrozole (0.1 mg/kg). The free fraction of letrozole in plasma was 48.9% and log D was 1.84. [{sup 11}C-cyano]Letrozole is readily synthesized via a palladium catalyzed coupling reaction with [{sup 11}C]cyanide. Although it is unsuitable as a PET radiotracer for brain aromatase as revealed by the absence of regional specificity and saturability in brain regions, such as amygdala, which are known

  13. The role of aromatase inhibitors in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cathie T; Carlson, Robert W

    2003-04-01

    The role of hormonal therapy for the treatment of patients with early stage breast cancer has been evaluated in many studies. The results of these studies establish tamoxifen as the gold standard of hormonal therapy for the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive invasive breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women. Studies show tamoxifen reduces the risk of invasive breast cancer in women at increased risk for the disease, including women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Tamoxifen has adverse effects such as hot flashes, increased risk of uterine cancer in postmenopausal women, and rare occurrence of thromboembolic disease. Despite the multiple therapeutic roles of tamoxifen, alternatives are needed. Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are drugs with antiestrogenic activity. AIs function by inhibiting the peripheral conversion of adrenally synthesized androstenedione to estradiol through inhibition of the aromatase enzyme. AIs do not suppress estradiol synthesis by the ovary adequately. Therefore, AIs are effective in reducing circulating estradiol levels in postmenopausal women, but not premenopausal women. Selective nonsteroidal AIs, including anastrozole (Arimidex; AstraZeneca, Wilmington, DE) and letrozole (Femara; Novartis, East Hanover, NJ), and the steroidal AI exemestane (Aromasin; Pharmacia, Peapack, NJ) have been associated with increased specificity and improved therapeutic index compared to nonselective AIs such as aminoglutethamide. Nonsteroidal and steroidal AIs have demonstrated to be superior to megestrol acetate in second-line therapy of postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer, and selective nonsteroidal AIs have shown to be superior to tamoxifen in first-line therapy of postmenopausal women with metastatic breast cancer. The ATAC (Arimidex, tamoxifen, alone, or in combination) trial is the only published randomized trial comparing the efficacy of an AI to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of women with early breast cancer. This large

  14. Regional rearrangements in chromosome 15q21 cause formation of cryptic promoters for the CYP19 (aromatase) gene.

    PubMed

    Demura, Masashi; Martin, Regina M; Shozu, Makio; Sebastian, Siby; Takayama, Kazuto; Hsu, Wei-Tong; Schultz, Roger A; Neely, Kirk; Bryant, Michael; Mendonca, Berenice B; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Rhoads, David B; Misra, Madhusmita; Bulun, Serdar E

    2007-11-01

    Production of appropriate quantities of estrogen in various tissues is essential for human physiology. A single gene (CYP19), regulated via tissue-specific promoters, encodes the enzyme aromatase, which catalyzes the key step in estrogen biosynthesis. Aromatase excess syndrome is inherited as autosomal dominant and characterized by high systemic estrogen levels, short stature, prepubertal gynecomastia and testicular failure in males, and premature breast development and uterine pathology in females. The underlying genetic mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we characterize five distinct heterozygous rearrangements responsible for aromatase excess syndrome in three unrelated families and two individuals (nine patients). The constitutively active promoter of one of five ubiquitously expressed genes located within the 11.2 Mb region telomeric to the CYP19 gene in chromosome 15q21 cryptically upregulated aromatase expression in several tissues. Four distinct inversions reversed the transcriptional direction of the promoter of a gene (CGNL1, TMOD3, MAPK6 or TLN2), placing it upstream of the CYP19 coding region in the opposite strand, whereas a deletion moved the promoter of a fifth gene (DMXL2), normally transcribed from the same strand, closer to CYP19. The proximal breakpoints of inversions were located 17-185 kb upstream of the CYP19 coding region. Sequences at the breakpoints suggested that the inversions were caused by intrachromosomal nonhomologous recombination. Splicing the untranslated exon downstream of each promoter onto the identical junction upstream of the translation initiation site created CYP19 mRNA encoding functional aromatase protein. Taken together, small rearrangements may create cryptic promoters that direct inappropriate transcription of CYP19 or other critical genes.

  15. Aromatase inhibitors affect vaginal proliferation and steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Göransson, Emma; Nilsson, Kerstin; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2014-04-01

    Women with breast cancer who are treated with aromatase inhibitors often experience vaginal atrophy symptoms and sexual dysfunction. This work aims to study proliferation and the presence and distribution of steroid hormone receptors in vaginal biopsies in relation to vaginal atrophy and vaginal pH in women with breast cancer who are on adjuvant endocrine treatment and in healthy postmenopausal women. This is a cross-sectional study that compares postmenopausal aromatase inhibitor-treated women with breast cancer (n = 15) with tamoxifen-treated women with breast cancer (n = 16) and age-matched postmenopausal women without treatment (n = 19) or with vaginal estrogen therapy (n = 16). Immunohistochemistry was used to study proliferation and steroid hormone receptor staining intensity. Data was correlated with estrogen and androgen levels, vaginal atrophy scores, and vaginal pH. Aromatase inhibitor-treated women had a lower grade of proliferation, weaker progesterone receptor staining, and stronger androgen receptor staining, which correlated with plasma estrone levels, vaginal atrophy scores, and vaginal pH. Women with aromatase inhibitor-treated breast cancer exhibit reduced proliferation and altered steroid hormone receptor staining intensity in the vagina, which are related to clinical signs of vaginal atrophy. Although these effects are most probably attributable to estrogen suppression, a possible local inhibition of aromatase cannot be ruled out.

  16. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been introduced as a new treatment modality that could challenge clomiphene citrate as an ovulation induction regiment in patients with PCOS. Although several randomized trials have been conducted regarding their use as ovulation induction agents, only few trials are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels PMID:21693033

  17. A Novel Null Mutation in P450 Aromatase Gene (CYP19A1) Associated with Development of Hypoplastic Ovaries in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Akçurin, Sema; Türkkahraman, Doğa; Kim, Woo-Young; Durmaz, Erdem; Shin, Jae-Gook; Lee, Su-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The CYP19A1 gene product aromatase is responsible for estrogen synthesis and androgen/estrogen equilibrium in many tissues, particularly in the placenta and gonads. Aromatase deficiency can cause various clinical phenotypes resulting from excessive androgen accumulation and insufficient estrogen synthesis during the pre- and postnatal periods. In this study, our aim was to determine the clinical characteristics and CYP19A1 mutations in three patients from a large Turkish pedigree. Methods: The cases were the newborns referred to our clinic for clitoromegaly and labial fusion. Virilizing signs such as severe acne formation, voice deepening, and clitoromegaly were noted in the mothers during pregnancy. Preliminary diagnosis was aromatase deficiency. Therefore, direct DNA sequencing of CYP19A1 was performed in samples from parents (n=5) and patients (n=3). Results: In all patients, a novel homozygous insertion mutation in the fifth exon (568insC) was found to cause a frameshift in the open reading frame and to truncate the protein prior to the heme-binding region which is crucial for enzymatic activity. The parents were found to be heterozygous for this mutation. Additionally, all patients had hypoplastic ovaries instead of cystic and enlarged ovaries. Conclusion: A novel 568C insertion mutation in CYP19A1 can lead to severe aromatase deficiency. Homozygosity for this mutation is associated with the development of hypoplastic ovaries. This finding provides an important genetic marker for understanding the physiological function of aromatase in fetal ovarian development. PMID:27086564

  18. Genistein induces breast cancer-associated aromatase and stimulates estrogen-dependent tumor cell growth in in vitro breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    van Duursen, M B M; Nijmeijer, S M; de Morree, E S; de Jong, P Chr; van den Berg, M

    2011-11-18

    In breast cancer, the interaction between estrogen-producing breast adipose fibroblasts (BAFs) and estrogen-dependent epithelial tumor cells is pivotal. Local estrogen production is catalyzed by aromatase, which is differentially regulated in disease-free and tumorigenic breast tissue. The use of aromatase inhibitors to block local estrogen production has proven effective in treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. However, a major problem during breast cancer treatment is the sudden onset of menopause and many women seek for alternative medicines, such as the soy isoflavone genistein. In this study, we show that genistein can induce estrogen-dependent MCF-7 tumor cell growth and increase breast cancer-associated aromatase expression and activity in vitro. We have previously developed an in vitro breast cancer model where the positive feedback loop between primary BAFs and estrogen-dependent MCF-7 tumor cells is operational, thereby representing a more natural in vitro model for breast cancer. In this model, genistein could negate the growth inhibitory action of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole at physiologically relevant concentrations. These data suggest that soy-based supplements might affect the efficacy of breast cancer treatment with aromatase inhibitors. Considering the high number of breast cancer patients using soy supplements to treat menopausal symptoms, the increasing risk for adverse interactions with breast cancer treatment is of major concern and should be considered with care.

  19. TRPA1 Mediates Aromatase Inhibitor-Evoked Pain by the Aromatase Substrate Androstenedione.

    PubMed

    De Logu, Francesco; Tonello, Raquel; Materazzi, Serena; Nassini, Romina; Fusi, Camilla; Coppi, Elisabetta; Li Puma, Simone; Marone, Ilaria M; Sadofsky, Laura R; Morice, Alyn H; Susini, Tommaso; Terreni, Alessandro; Moneti, Gloriano; Di Tommaso, Mariarosaria; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Benemei, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) induce painful musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS), which are dependent upon the pain transducing receptor TRPA1. However, as the AI concentrations required to engage TRPA1 in mice are higher than those found in the plasma of patients, we hypothesized that additional factors may cooperate to induce AIMSS. Here we report that the aromatase substrate androstenedione, unique among several steroid hormones, targeted TRPA1 in peptidergic primary sensory neurons in rodent and human cells expressing the native or recombinant channel. Androstenedione dramatically lowered the concentration of letrozole required to engage TRPA1. Notably, addition of a minimal dose of androstenedione to physiologically ineffective doses of letrozole and oxidative stress byproducts produces AIMSS-like behaviors and neurogenic inflammatory responses in mice. Elevated androstenedione levels cooperated with low letrozole concentrations and inflammatory mediators were sufficient to provoke AIMSS-like behaviors. The generation of such painful conditions by small quantities of simultaneously administered TRPA1 agonists justifies previous failure to identify a precise link between AIs and AIMSS, underscoring the potential of channel antagonists to treat AIMSS. Cancer Res; 76(23); 7024-35. ©2016 AACR.

  20. Efficacy and mechanism of action of Proellex, an antiprogestin in aromatase overexpressing and Letrozole resistant T47D breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Akash; Mehta, Rajeshwari; Alimirah, Fatouma; Peng, Xinjian; Murillo, Genoveva; Wiehle, Ronald; Mehta, Rajendra G

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are considered as a first line therapy for ER+PR+ breast cancers. However, many patients acquire resistance to AI. In this study, we determined the response of antiprogestin CDB-4124 (Proellex) on the aromatase overexpressing and Letrozole resistant cell lines and also studies its mechanism of action in inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation. For these studies we generated aromatase overexpressing T47D (T47Darom) and respective control (T47Dcon) breast cancer cell lines by stable transfection with plasmid containing CYP19A1 gene, or empty vector respectively. Letrozole resistant cell line (T47DaromLR) was generated by incubating T47Darom for 75 weeks in the presence of 10 μM Letrozole. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT or crystal violet assays. Gene expressions were quantified by QRT-PCR whereas proteins were identified by western blot analyses, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining. Aromatase activity was determined by estradiol ELISA. The effects of Proellex on the anchorage independent growth were measured by soft agar colony formation. Statistical differences between the various groups were determined by Student's 't' test or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. Results showed that T47Darom and T47DaromLR cell lines had significantly higher aromatase expression (mRNA; 80-90 fold and protein) and as a result exhibited increased aromatization of testosterone to estradiol as compared to T47Dcon. Both these cell lines showed enhanced growth in the presence of Testosterone (50-60%). In T47DaromLR cells increased PR-B and EGFR expression as compared to T47Dcon cells was observed. Proellex and other known aromatase inhibitors (Letrozole, Anastrozole, and Exemestane) inhibited testosterone induced cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth of T47Darom cells. Cell growth inhibition was significantly greater when cells were treated with Proellex alone or in combination with other AIs as compared to AIs

  1. Possible role of the aromatase-independent steroid metabolism pathways in hormone responsive primary breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Toru; Niwa, Toshifumi; Gohno, Tatsuyuki; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuri; Ito, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) exert antiproliferative effects by reducing local estrogen production from androgens in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive breast cancer. Previous reports have shown that androgen metabolites generated by the aromatase-independent enzymes, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol), androst-5-ene-3β, and 17β-diol (A-diol), also activate estrogen receptor (ER) α. Estradiol (E2) can also reportedly be generated from estrone sulfate (E1S) pooled in the plasma. Estrogenic steroid-producing aromatase-independent pathways have thus been proposed as a mechanism of AI resistance. However, it is unclear whether these pathways are functional in clinical breast cancer. To investigate this issue, we assessed the transcriptional activities of ER in 45 ER-positive human breast cancers using the adenovirus estrogen-response element-green fluorescent protein assay and mRNA expression levels of the ER target gene, progesterone receptor, as indicators of ex vivo and in vivo ER activity, respectively. We also determined mRNA expression levels of 5α-reductase type 1 (SRD5A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3β-HSD type 1; HSD3B1), which produce 3β-diol from androgens, and of steroid sulfatase (STS) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD type 1; HSD17B1), which produce E2 or A-diol from E1S or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. SRD5A1 and HSD3B1 expression levels were positively correlated with ex vivo and in vivo ER activities. STS and HSD17B1 expression levels were positively correlated with in vivo ER activity alone. Elevated expression levels of these steroid-metabolizing enzymes in association with high in vivo ER activity were particularly notable in postmenopausal patients. Analysis of the expression levels of steroid-metabolizing enzymes revealed positive correlations between SRD5A1 and HSD3B1, and STS and HSD17B1. These findings suggest that the SRD5A1-HSD3B1 as well as the STS-HSD17B pathways, could contributes

  2. Cell-Based High-Throughput Screening for Aromatase Inhibitors in the Tox21 10K Library.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiuan; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Hsin, Li-Yu; Xia, Menghang; Shockley, Keith R; Auerbach, Scott; Kanaya, Noriko; Lu, Hannah; Svoboda, Daniel; Witt, Kristine L; Merrick, B Alex; Teng, Christina T; Tice, Raymond R

    2015-10-01

    Multiple mechanisms exist for endocrine disruption; one nonreceptor-mediated mechanism is via effects on aromatase, an enzyme critical for maintaining the normal in vivo balance of androgens and estrogens. We adapted the AroER tri-screen 96-well assay to 1536-well format to identify potential aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the U.S. Tox21 10K compound library. In this assay, screening with compound alone identifies estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonists, screening in the presence of testosterone (T) identifies AIs and/or ERα antagonists, and screening in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) identifies ERα antagonists. Screening the Tox-21 library in the presence of T resulted in finding 302 potential AIs. These compounds, along with 31 known AI actives and inactives, were rescreened using all 3 assay formats. Of the 333 compounds tested, 113 (34%; 63 actives, 50 marginal actives) were considered to be potential AIs independent of cytotoxicity and ER antagonism activity. Structure-activity analysis suggested the presence of both conventional (eg, 1, 2, 4, - triazole class) and novel AI structures. Due to their novel structures, 14 of the 63 potential AI actives, including both drugs and fungicides, were selected for confirmation in the biochemical tritiated water-release aromatase assay. Ten compounds were active in the assay; the remaining 4 were only active in high-throughput screen assay, but with low efficacy. To further characterize these 10 novel AIs, we investigated their binding characteristics. The AroER tri-screen, in high-throughput format, accurately and efficiently identified chemicals in a large and diverse chemical library that selectively interact with aromatase.

  3. Cell-Based High-Throughput Screening for Aromatase Inhibitors in the Tox21 10K Library

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiuan; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Huang, Ruili; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Hsin, Li-Yu; Xia, Menghang; Shockley, Keith R.; Auerbach, Scott; Kanaya, Noriko; Lu, Hannah; Svoboda, Daniel; Witt, Kristine L.; Merrick, B. Alex; Teng, Christina T.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mechanisms exist for endocrine disruption; one nonreceptor-mediated mechanism is via effects on aromatase, an enzyme critical for maintaining the normal in vivo balance of androgens and estrogens. We adapted the AroER tri-screen 96-well assay to 1536-well format to identify potential aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in the U.S. Tox21 10K compound library. In this assay, screening with compound alone identifies estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonists, screening in the presence of testosterone (T) identifies AIs and/or ERα antagonists, and screening in the presence of 17β-estradiol (E2) identifies ERα antagonists. Screening the Tox-21 library in the presence of T resulted in finding 302 potential AIs. These compounds, along with 31 known AI actives and inactives, were rescreened using all 3 assay formats. Of the 333 compounds tested, 113 (34%; 63 actives, 50 marginal actives) were considered to be potential AIs independent of cytotoxicity and ER antagonism activity. Structure-activity analysis suggested the presence of both conventional (eg, 1, 2, 4, - triazole class) and novel AI structures. Due to their novel structures, 14 of the 63 potential AI actives, including both drugs and fungicides, were selected for confirmation in the biochemical tritiated water-release aromatase assay. Ten compounds were active in the assay; the remaining 4 were only active in high-throughput screen assay, but with low efficacy. To further characterize these 10 novel AIs, we investigated their binding characteristics. The AroER tri-screen, in high-throughput format, accurately and efficiently identified chemicals in a large and diverse chemical library that selectively interact with aromatase. PMID:26141389

  4. Clinical utilities of aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chumsri, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    Aromatase is an enzyme that converts testosterones to estrogens. Inhibition of this enzyme has been shown to have several clinical utilities in breast cancer. Currently, there are three aromatase inhibitors (AIs) in clinical use, namely anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane. AIs have been used in various clinical settings for breast cancer, ranging from chemoprevention in breast cancer to treating breast cancer in both early stage in the adjuvant setting and metastatic disease. This article reviews mechanism of action, AI classification, and clinical utilities of AIs in various clinical settings in the context of breast cancer. PMID:26005359

  5. Aromatase (CYP19) promoter gene polymorphism and risk of nonviral hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Oppenheimer, Rowena; Zhang, Zhen Quan; Yu, Mimi C; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2011-08-01

    Experimental studies suggest that sex hormones may induce or promote the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Androgens are converted to estrogens by the CYP19 gene product, aromatase. Hepatic aromatase level and activity have been shown to be markedly elevated in HCC. Aromatase expression in liver tumors is driven by a promoter upstream of CYP19 exon I.6. First, the authors identified an A/C polymorphism in the exon I.6 promoter of the CYP19 gene. To determine whether allelic variants in the CYP19 I.6 promoter differ in their ability to drive gene expression, we carried out an in vitro reporter gene assay. Then, the authors studied the association between this polymorphism and HCC risk in 2 complementary case-control studies: 1 in high-risk southern Guangxi, China, and another in low-risk US non-Asians of Los Angeles County. Transcriptional activity was 60% higher for promoter vectors carrying the rs10459592 C allele compared with those carrying an A allele (P = .007). In both study populations, among subjects negative for at-risk serologic markers of hepatitis B or C, there was a dose-dependent association between number of high activity C allele and risk of HCC (P(trend) = .014). Risk of HCC was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR], 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-4.31) in subjects homozygous for the C allele compared with those homozygous for the A allele. This study provides epidemiologic evidence for the role of hepatic aromatization of androgen into estrogen in the development of nonviral hepatitis-related HCC. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  6. Mammographic Breast Density Response to Aromatase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Vachon, Celine M.; Suman, Vera J.; Brandt, Kathleen R.; Kosel, Matthew L.; Buzdar, Aman U.; Olson, Janet E.; Wu, Fang-Fang; Flickinger, Lynn M.; Ursin, Giske; Elliott, Catherine R.; Shepherd, Lois; Weinshilboum, Richard M.; Goss, Paul E.; Ingle, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Mammographic breast density (MBD) is decreased by tamoxifen, but the effect of aromatase inhibitors (AI) is less clear. Experimental Design We enrolled early stage postmenopausal breast cancer patients initiating adjuvant AI therapy and ascertained mammograms before and at an average 10 months of AI therapy. We matched cases to healthy postmenopausal women (controls) from a large mammography screening cohort on age, baseline body mass index, baseline MBD and interval between mammograms. We estimated change in MBD using a computer-assisted thresholding program (Cumulus) and compared differences between cases and matched controls. Results In predominantly white women (96%), we found 14% of the 387 eligible cases had a MBD reduction of at least 5% after an average of 10 months of AI therapy. MBD reductions were associated with higher baseline MBD, AI use for more than 12 months and prior postmenopausal hormone use. Comparing each case to her matched control, there was no evidence of an association of change in MBD with AI therapy (median case-control difference among 369 pairs was −0.1% (10th and 90th percentile: −5.9%, 5.2%) p=0.51). Case-control differences were similar by type of AI (p’s 0.41 and 0.56); prior use of postmenopausal hormones (p=0.85); baseline MBD (p=0.55); or length of AI therapy (p=0.08). Conclusions In postmenopausal women treated with AIs, 14% of cases had a MBD reduction of >5%, but these decreases did not differ from matched controls. These data suggest that MBD is not a clinically useful biomarker for predicting the value of AI therapy in white postmenopausal women. PMID:23468058

  7. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits p53 in human breast adipose stromal cells: a novel mechanism for the regulation of aromatase in obesity and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuyi; Docanto, Maria M; Sasano, Hironobu; Lo, Camden; Simpson, Evan R; Brown, Kristy A

    2015-02-15

    Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and the majority of these cancers are estrogen dependent. Aromatase converts androgens into estrogens and its increased expression in breast adipose stromal cells (ASC) is a major driver of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. In particular, obesity-associated and tumor-derived factors, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), have been shown to drive the expression of aromatase by stimulating the activity of the proximal promoter II (PII). The tumor-suppressor p53 is a key regulator of cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis and is frequently mutated in breast cancer. Mutations in p53 are rare in tumor-associated ASCs. Therefore, it was hypothesized that p53 is regulated by PGE2 and involved in the PGE2-mediated regulation of aromatase. Results demonstrate that PGE2 causes a significant decrease in p53 transcript and nuclear protein expression, as well as phosphorylation at Ser15 in primary human breast ASCs. Stabilization of p53 with RITA leads to a significant decrease in the PGE2-stimulated aromatase mRNA expression and activity, and PII activity. Interaction of p53 with PII was demonstrated and this interaction is decreased in the presence of PGE2. Moreover, mutation of the identified p53 response element leads to an increase in the basal activity of the promoter. Immunofluorescence on clinical samples demonstrates that p53 is decreased in tumor-associated ASCs compared with ASCs from normal breast tissue, and that there is a positive association between perinuclear (inactive) p53 and aromatase expression in these cells. Furthermore, aromatase expression is increased in breast ASCs from Li-Fraumeni patients (germline TP53 mutations) compared with non-Li-Fraumeni breast tissue. Overall, our results demonstrate that p53 is a negative regulator of aromatase in the breast and its inhibition by PGE2 provides a novel mechanism for aromatase regulation in obesity and breast cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer

  8. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico screening for new P450 19 (aromatase) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Daniela; Laggner, Christian; Steindl, Theodora M; Palusczak, Anja; Hartmann, Rolf W; Langer, Thierry

    2006-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 19 (P450 19, aromatase) constitutes a successful target for the treatment of breast cancer. This study analyzes chemical features common to P450 19 inhibitors to develop ligand-based, selective pharmacophore models for this enzyme. The HipHop and HypoRefine algorithms implemented in the Catalyst software package were employed to create both common feature and quantitative models. The common feature model for P450 19 includes two ring aromatic features in its core and two hydrogen bond acceptors at the ends. The models were used as database search queries to identify active compounds from the NCI database.

  9. Inhibition and inactivation of equine aromatase by steroidal and non-steroidal compounds. A comparison with human aromatase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, S; Seralini, G E

    1997-12-01

    In order to approach the detailed structure-function relationships of aromatase, we studied the inhibitory and inactivatory potencies of several steroidal androstenedione analogues (1: 4-hydroxyandrostenedione, 2: 4-acetoxyandrostenedione and 3: 7 alpha-(4'-amino)phenylthio-4-androstene-3, 17-dione) and non-steroidal imidazole derivatives (4: ketoconazole, 5: miconazole and 6: fadrozole) on equine aromatase in placental microsomes, a well established mammalian model. Human placental microsomes and the purified enzyme from equine testis were also used to compare inhibition by 1 and 2. In equine microsomes, all compounds tested exhibited a competitive inhibition, with Ki values of 4.1, 26 and 1.8 nM for 1, 2 and 3, and of 2400, 1.4 and 4 nM for 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The Km for androstenedione, the substrate mainly used in these studies, was 1.8 +/- 0.13 nM. The three non-steroidal derivatives did not inactivate equine aromatase, but 1 and 2 acted as comparable inactivators to a much higher degree than 3. Compound 1 inhibited in a similar manner (89-94%) purified or equine and human microsomal aromatases, whereas 2 inhibited microsomal aromatase more efficiently in the horse than in man (92% and 33% inhibition, respectively). There was only a 40% inhibition with 2 on the purified equine enzyme, which is no more in the natural membrane environment. The comparisons between equine and human microsomal aromatases allow precise functional and structural differences to be observed with these enzymes.

  10. Depsidones, aromatase inhibitors and radical scavenging agents from the marine-derived fungus Aspergillus unguis CRI282-03.

    PubMed

    Sureram, Sanya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2012-04-01

    Three new depsidones ( 1, 3, and 4), a new diaryl ether ( 5), and a new natural pyrone ( 9) (synthetically known), together with three known depsidones, nidulin ( 6), nornidulin ( 7), and 2-chlorounguinol ( 8), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus ASPERGILLUS UNGUIS CRI282-03. Aspergillusidone C ( 4) showed the most potent aromatase inhibitory activity with the IC (50) value of 0.74 µM, while depsidones 1, 3, 6- 8 inhibited aromatase with IC (50) values of 1.2-11.2 µM. It was found that the structural feature of depsidones, not their corresponding diaryl ether derivatives (e.g. 5), was important for aromatase inhibitory activity. Aspergillusidones A ( 1) and B ( 3) showed radical scavenging activity in the XXO assay with IC (50) values of 16.0 and < 15.6 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 3- 7 were mostly inactive or showed only weak cytotoxic activity against HuCCA-1, HepG2, A549, and MOLT-3 cancer cell lines.

  11. Distribution of aromatase immunoreactivity in the forebrain of red-sided garter snakes at the beginning of the winter dormancy.

    PubMed

    Krohmer, Randolph W; Bieganski, Gerald J; Baleckaitis, Daniel D; Harada, Nobuhiro; Balthazart, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Until recently, it has been difficult to identify the exact location of aromatase containing cells in the brain. The development of new antibodies has provided a sensitive tool to analyze the distribution of aromatase immunoreactive (ARO-ir) material at a cellular level of resolution. In the present study we examined, for the first time, the distribution of ARO-ir cells in the brain of a reptile, the red-sided garter snake, at the beginning of the winter dormancy. ARO-ir cells were found at all rostro-caudal levels in the red-sided garter snake brain. Although weakly stained cells were distributed throughout the brain, more intensely immunoreactive cells were primarily concentrated in the preoptic area, anterior hypothalamus, septum and nucleus sphericus. Although androgens are elevated upon emergence from hibernation in the male red-sided garter snake, initiation of courtship behavior appears to be independent of direct androgen control. To date, the only known stimulus found to initiate courtship is a period of low temperature dormancy followed by exposure to warm temperatures. Circumstantial data, however, suggest an indirect role in the activation of male copulatory behavior for estrogenic metabolites of testosterone produced in the brain by aromatization during the winter dormancy. This study provides the first documentation of the distribution of ARO-ir cells in a reptilian species and demonstrates that while the aromatase enzyme occurs in most regions of the brain, the ARO-ir cells that appear to contain the highest concentration of enzyme are clustered in brain areas classically associated with the control of courtship behavior and mating in vertebrates. These data are consistent with the idea that estrogens locally produced in the brain may participate in some way to the activation of sexual behavior in this species also. This notion should now be experimentally tested by analyzing annual changes in aromatase activity and immunoreactivity and assessing the

  12. Neurons that co-localize aromatase- and kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity may regulate the HPG axis of the Mallard drake (Anas platyrhynchos)

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Colin J.; Walters, Bradley J.; Fraley, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptin is a potent regulator of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. The activation of several vernal and pubertal behaviors involves the action of locally synthesized estradiol by hypothalamic aromatase-expressing neurons. Little is known about kisspeptin in non-mammalian systems, and its interaction with aromatase remains unexamined. The Mallard drake is a seasonal breeder and an excellent model for studying the neural mechanisms that regulate the HPG. The goals of these studies were to determine (a) if and how kisspeptin regulates the drake HPG, (b) if kisspeptin and aromatase are expressed in the Mallard brain, and (c) if kisspeptin is co-localized or in apposition with, aromatase- and gonadotropin hormone releasing hormone (GnRH) positive neurons. Central kisspeptin administration increased plasma luteinizing hormone, an effect blocked by pretreatment with the GnRH antagonist, acyline, suggesting a conservation of kisspeptin function and mechanism of action in birds and mammals. The distribution of kisspeptin in the mallard brain was examined with immunocytochemistry (ICC). Neurons that express kisspeptin-like immunoreactive (ir) protein were observed in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and in ir-fibers throughout the drake brain. Virtually all POM kisspeptin-ir soma also expressed aromatase-ir, suggesting that autocrine mechanisms may predominate in the interaction between steroid provision and kisspeptin expression. No colocalization was observed between KP-ir and GnRH-ir, although both were easily detected in close proximity in the tuberoinfundibular area. Taken together, these data suggest that in the drake, estradiol synthesized by aromatase and kisspeptin co-expressing POM neurons may regulate the HPG via an effect on GnRH secretion. PMID:20064520

  13. Insight into the binding interactions of CYP450 aromatase inhibitors with their target enzyme: a combined molecular docking and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Galeazzi, Roberta; Massaccesi, Luca

    2012-03-01

    CYP450 aromatase catalyzes the terminal and rate-determining step in estrogen synthesis, the aromatization of androgens, and its inhibition is an efficient approach to treating estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Insight into the molecular basis of the interaction at the catalytic site between CYP450 aromatase inhibitors and the enzyme itself is required in order to design new and more active compounds. Hence, a combined molecular docking-molecular dynamics study was carried out to obtain the structure of the lowest energy association complexes of aromatase with some third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and with other novel synthesized letrozole-derived compounds which showed high in vitro activity. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the role of the pharmacophore groups present in the azaheterocyclic inhibitors (NSAIs)-namely the triazolic ring and highly functionalized aromatic moieties carrying H-bond donor or acceptor groups. In particular, it was pointed out that all of them can contribute to inhibition activity by interacting with residues of the catalytic cleft, but the amino acids involved are different for each compound, even if they belong to the same class. Furthermore, the azaheterocyclic group strongly coordinates with the Fe(II) of heme cysteinate in the most active NSAI complexes, while it prefers to adopt another orientation in less active ones.

  14. A three-dimensional model of aromatase cytochrome P450.

    PubMed Central

    Graham-Lorence, S.; Amarneh, B.; White, R. E.; Peterson, J. A.; Simpson, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    P450 hemeproteins comprise a large gene superfamily that catalyzes monooxygenase reactions in the presence of a redox partner. Because the mammalian members are, without exception, membrane-bound proteins, they have resisted structure-function analysis by means of X-ray crystallographic methods. Among P450-catalyzed reactions, the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the conversion of C19 steroids to estrogens is one of the most complex and least understood. Thus, to better understand the reaction mechanism, we have constructed a three-dimensional model of P450arom not only to examine the active site and those residues potentially involved in catalysis, but to study other important structural features such as substrate recognition and redox-partner binding, which require examination of the entire molecule (excepting the putative membrane-spanning region). This model of P450arom was built based on a "core structure" identified from the structures of the soluble, bacterial P450s (P450cam, P450terp, and P450BM-P) rather than by molecular replacement, after which the less conserved elements and loops were added in a rational fashion. Minimization and dynamic simulations were used to optimize the model and the reasonableness of the structure was evaluated. From this model we have postulated a membrane-associated hydrophobic region of aliphatic and aromatic residues involved in substrate recognition, a redox-partner binding region that may be unique compared to other P450s, as well as residues involved in active site orientation of substrates and an inhibitor of P450arom, namely vorozole. We also have proposed a scheme for the reaction mechanism in which a "threonine switch" determines whether oxygen insertion into the substrate molecule involves an oxygen radical or a peroxide intermediate. PMID:7549871

  15. Ror2/Frizzled Complex Mediates Wnt5a-Induced AP-1 Activation by Regulating Dishevelled Polymerization▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nishita, Michiru; Itsukushima, Sumiyo; Nomachi, Akira; Endo, Mitsuharu; Wang, ZhiChao; Inaba, Daisuke; Qiao, Sen; Takada, Shinji; Kikuchi, Akira; Minami, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as a receptor or coreceptor for Wnt5a to mediate Wnt5a-induced activation of the Wnt/JNK pathway and inhibition of the β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt pathway. However, little is known about how Ror2 cooperates with another receptor component(s) to mediate Wnt5a signaling. We show here that Ror2 regulates Wnt5a-induced polymerization of Dishevelled (Dvl) and that this Ror2-mediated regulation of Dvl is independent of the cytoplasmic region of Ror2. Ror2 can associate with Frizzled7 (Fz7) via its extracellular cysteine-rich domain to form a receptor complex that is required for the regulation of Dvl and activation of the AP-1 promoter after Wnt5a stimulation. Suppressed expression of Fz7 indeed results in the inhibition of Wnt5a-induced polymerization of Dvl and AP-1 activation. Interestingly, both the DIX and the DEP domains of Dvl are indispensable for Dvl polymerization and subsequent AP-1 activation after Wnt5a stimulation. We further show that polymerized Dvl is colocalized with Rac1 and that suppressed expression of Rac1 inhibits Wnt5a-induced AP-1 activation. Collectively, our results indicate that Ror2/Fz receptor complex plays an important role in the Wnt5a/Rac1/AP-1 pathway by regulating the polymerization of Dvl. PMID:20457807

  16. Caught in a Network: Recovery from Aromatase Inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fadrozole is an inhibitor of aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We exposed female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, FHM) to 0 or 30 ug/L fadrozole for 8 days, and fish were then held in clean water for 8 extra days. We analyzed ex vivo steroid production, pl...

  17. Quantitative AOP-based predictions for two aromatase ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework can be used to support the use of mechanistic toxicology data as a basis for risk assessment. For certain risk contexts this includes defining, quantitative linkages between the molecular initiating event (MIE) and subsequent key events (KEs) within an AOP. One AOP for which strong, quantitative linkages have been established is aromatase inhibition leading to reproductive dysfunction in fish. A series of computational models have been linked to develop a quantitative AOP (Q-AOP). A measure of aromatase inhibition is used as the model input to estimate circulating plasma estradiol (E2) concentration and resultant circulating plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentration. To evaluate model predictions, two aromatase inhibitors, letrozole and epoxiconazole, were selected based upon their relative aromatase inhibition potency in US EPA ToxCast assays. Reproductively mature female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to varying concentrations of either letrozole (0.5, 7.5, 25, 75, 250 µg/L) or epoxiconazole (8, 25, 80, 250, 800 µg/L) in 24h flow through exposures. One additional consideration for model predictions was bioaccumulation of exposure chemicals and resultant circulating plasma concentration. To identify this, plasma from exposed minnows was extracted by supported liquid extraction (SLE) and concentrations of letrozole or epoxiconazole determined by LC-MS/MS. Plasma bioaccumulation factors (BAFplasma)

  18. Caught in a Network: Recovery from Aromatase Inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fadrozole is an inhibitor of aromatase, an enzyme critical to estrogen synthesis. We exposed female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas, FHM) to 0 or 30 ug/L fadrozole for 8 days, and fish were then held in clean water for 8 extra days. We analyzed ex vivo steroid production, pl...

  19. Comment. The Comparative and Evolutionary Biology of Vertebrate Aromatase

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aromatase is the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens from androgens. It is doubtful that there are many other genes that have such a broad and profound influence on reproduction and survival of species. The expression of this enzyme in various tissues controls both directly and indirec...

  20. Methadone: a substrate and mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP19 (aromatase).

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie Jessie; Bies, Robert; Kamden, Landry K; Desta, Zeruesenay; Flockhart, David A

    2010-08-01

    The peripheral conversion of testosterone to estradiol by aromatase is the primary source of endogenous estrogen in postmenopausal women. Studies indicating that placental aromatase is able to metabolize methadone to its primary metabolite, 2-ethylidene-1, 5-dimethyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrrolidin (EDDP), led us to test the hypothesis that methadone is able to act as an inhibitor of aromatase. Using recombinant human CYP19, we examined the ability of methadone to bring about either reversible or mechanism-based inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to estradiol. To test for reversible inhibition, racemic methadone or its metabolite EDDP or 2-ethyl-5-methyl-3, 3-diphenylpyrroline (EMDP) was incubated for 30 min with testosterone at the K(m) (4 microM). To test for mechanism-based inhibition, microsomal preincubations were performed for up to 30 min using racemic methadone (1-1000 microM), R- or S-methadone (0.5-500 microM), or EDDP or EMDP (10 and 100 microM) followed by incubation with testosterone at a V(max) concentration (50 microM). Racemic methadone, EDDP, and EMDP did not act as competitive inhibitors of CYP19. Preincubation of methadone, EDDP, or EMDP with CYP19 resulted in time- and concentration-dependent inhibition, indicating a mechanism-based reaction that destroys CYP19 activity. The K(I) and k(inact) values for racemic methadone were calculated to be 40.6 +/- 2.8 microM and 0.061 +/- 0.001 min(-1), respectively. No stereoselectivity was observed. Methadone is metabolized by CYP19 and may act as a potent inhibitor of CYP19 in vivo. These findings may contribute to variability in methadone clearance, to drug-drug interactions, and to side effects observed in individual patients.

  1. Extraction, isolation, and aromatase inhibitory evaluation of low-polar ginsenosides from Panax ginseng leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchi; Zhang, Jianxu; Liu, Chunming; Yu, Min; Li, Sainan

    2017-02-03

    A hyphenated accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique was elaborately coupled with centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), and photo-diode array detector (PDA). This approach was applied to obtain low-polar ginsenoside fractions from the leaves of Panax ginseng. The CPC fractions were isolated and analyzed using the hyphenated technique, and followed by testing and evaluation of their aromatase inhibitory effects. Subsequently, the aromatase inhibition rates of the compositions in the CPC fractions were calculated using a multivariable linear regression model. A biphasic ethyl acetate/n-butanol/ethanol/water solvent system with respective volume ratios of 10:2:2:8 was used for the ASE and CPC separation of 200g of leaves of P. ginseng raw material. The (lower) aqueous phase of the abovementioned solvent system was used as the extraction solvent. The ginsenosides were subjected to ASE, and the extraction solution was pumped into the sample loop and then directly into the CPC column. The CPC fractions were collected and monitored by an online UHPLC/PDA system at 5-min intervals. The aromatase inhibitory activities of CPC fractions were analyzed by a fluorescence method, with mathematical calculations indicating that the inhibition rates of ginsenosides Rk1, Rg5, Rs5, 20R-Rg3, and Rs4 exceeded 50.00%; indicating that the aforementioned chemical compounds have potential for further development. The results were validated by comparison with authentic standards, indicating that the method used in this research was accurate and advantageous for matrix analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA specific for human aromatase-system cytochrome P-450 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, C T; Ledesma, D B; Schulz, T Z; Simpson, E R; Mendelson, C R

    1986-01-01

    A cloned complementary DNA sequence has been isolated from a human placental cDNA library in the bacteriophage expression vector lambda gt11 after screening with polyclonal antibodies against human placental aromatase-system cytochrome P-450 (P-450Arom). A single recombinant clone, lambda hAROM1, was characterized by its ability to generate a beta-galactosidase fusion protein that reacted independently with polyclonal antibodies raised against beta-galactosidase and cytochrome P-450Arom and with monoclonal antibodies specific for cytochrome P-450Arom. The cDNA insert, which was found to be 1.8 kilobases in length, was radiolabeled and used to analyze poly(A)+ RNA isolated from human placenta and total RNA isolated from human adipose stromal cells cultured in the absence or presence of regulatory factors. The radiolabeled cDNA hybridized to several size species of mRNA in both placental and adipose stromal cell RNA fractions. Changes in the levels of adipose stromal cell RNA that hybridized to the cDNA insert were associated with comparable changes in the levels of translatable cytochrome P-450Arom mRNA and aromatase system activity. These findings are indicative that lambda hAROM1 contains DNA sequences complementary to human cytochrome P-450Arom mRNA and are suggestive that regulatory factors affect aromatase activity by altering the transcriptional activity of the cytochrome P-450Arom gene. Images PMID:3018730

  3. Aromatase inhibitor therapy and hair loss among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Gallicchio, Lisa; Calhoun, Carla; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between aromatase inhibitor therapy and hair loss or hair thinning among female breast cancer survivors. Data were analyzed from 851 female breast cancer survivors who responded to a hospital registry-based survey. Data on hair loss, hair thinning, demographic characteristics, and health habits were based on self-report; data on aromatase inhibitor therapy were collected on the survey and verified using medical record review. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between aromatase inhibitor therapy and the hair outcome variables adjusted for potential confounders, including age and chemotherapy treatment. The results showed that 22.4 % of the breast cancer survivors reported hair loss and 31.8 % reported hair thinning. In the confounder-adjusted analyses, breast cancer survivors who were within 2 years of starting aromatase inhibitor treatment at the time of survey completion were approximately two and a half times more likely to report reporting hair loss (OR 2.55; 95 % CI 1.19-5.45) or hair thinning (OR 2.33; 95 % CI 1.10-4.93) within the past 4 weeks compared to those who were never treated with an aromatase inhibitor. Current aromatase inhibitor use for two or more years at the time of the survey and prior use were significantly associated with hair thinning (current users, ≥2 years: OR 1.86; prior users: OR 1.62), but not hair loss. Findings from this study suggest that aromatase inhibitor use is associated with an increased risk of hair loss and hair thinning independent of chemotherapy and age; these side effects are likely due to the substantial decrease in estrogen concentrations resulting from treatment with this drug. Future research should focus on examining these associations in a prospective manner using more detailed and objective measures of hair loss and thinning.

  4. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placental Cells and Aromatase

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-01-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always more toxic than its active ingredient. We tested the effects of glyphosate and Roundup at lower nontoxic concentrations on aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis. The glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts aromatase activity and mRNA levels and interacts with the active site of the purified enzyme, but the effects of glyphosate are facilitated by the Roundup formulation in microsomes or in cell culture. We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation. PMID:15929894

  5. Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase.

    PubMed

    Richard, Sophie; Moslemi, Safa; Sipahutar, Herbert; Benachour, Nora; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2005-06-01

    Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide used worldwide, including on most genetically modified plants that have been designed to tolerate it. Its residues may thus enter the food chain, and glyphosate is found as a contaminant in rivers. Some agricultural workers using glyphosate have pregnancy problems, but its mechanism of action in mammals is questioned. Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always more toxic than its active ingredient. We tested the effects of glyphosate and Roundup at lower nontoxic concentrations on aromatase, the enzyme responsible for estrogen synthesis. The glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts aromatase activity and mRNA levels and interacts with the active site of the purified enzyme, but the effects of glyphosate are facilitated by the Roundup formulation in microsomes or in cell culture. We conclude that endocrine and toxic effects of Roundup, not just glyphosate, can be observed in mammals. We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation.

  6. Discovery of a new class of cinnamyl-triazole as potent and selective inhibitors of aromatase (cytochrome P450 19A1).

    PubMed

    McNulty, James; Keskar, Kunal; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C

    2014-09-15

    Synthesis of a novel class of natural product inspired cinnamyl-containing 1,4,5-triazole and the potent inhibition of human aromatase (CYP 450 19A1) by select members is described. Structure-activity data generated provides insights into the requirements for potency particularly the inclusion of an aryl bromide or chloride residue as a keto-bioisostere.

  7. Altered Gene Expression in the Brain and Ovaries of Zebrafish Exposed to the Aromatase Inhibitor Fadrosole: Microarray Analysis for Hypothesis Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A part of an overall program of research aimed at examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in fish to endocrine active chemicals acting through a variety of modes of action, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole ...

  8. Altered Gene Expression in the Brain and Ovaries of Zebrafish Exposed to the Aromatase Inhibitor Fadrosole: Microarray Analysis for Hypothesis Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A part of an overall program of research aimed at examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in fish to endocrine active chemicals acting through a variety of modes of action, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole ...

  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Brain and Ovaries of Zebrafish Exposed to the Aromatase Inhibitor Fadrozole: Microarray analysis and Hypothesis Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a research effort examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in fish to endocrine active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 25 or 100 ìg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for...

  10. Altered Gene Expression in the Brain and Ovaries of Zebrafish Exposed to the Aromatase Inhibitor Fadrozole: Microarray analysis and Hypothesis Generation

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a research effort examining system-wide responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in fish to endocrine active chemicals (EACs) with different modes of action, we exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio) to 25 or 100 ìg/L of the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole for...

  11. Vaginal Gene Expression During Treatment With Aromatase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Nilsson, Kerstin; Åkerud, Helena; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2015-12-01

    Aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment suppresses estrogen biosynthesis and causes genitourinary symptoms of menopause such as vaginal symptoms, ultimately affecting the quality of life for many postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine vaginal gene expression in women during treatment with AIs compared with estrogen-treated women. The secondary aim was to study the presence and localization of vaginal aromatase. Vaginal biopsies were collected from postmenopausal women treated with AIs and from age-matched control women treated with vaginal estrogen therapy. Differential gene expression was studied with the Affymetrix Gene Chip Gene 1.0 ST Array (Affymetrix Inc, Santa Clara, CA) system, Ingenuity pathway analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. The expression of 279 genes differed between the 2 groups; AI-treated women had low expression of genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion. Some differentially expressed genes were found to interact indirectly with the estrogen receptor alpha. In addition, aromatase protein staining was evident in the basal and the intermediate vaginal epithelium layers, and also in stromal cells with a slightly stronger staining intensity found in AI-treated women. In this study, we demonstrated that genes involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell adhesion are differentially expressed in AI-treated women. The expression of vaginal aromatase suggests that this could be the result of local and systemic inhibition of aromatase. Our results emphasize the role of estrogen for vaginal cell differentiation and proliferation and future drug candidates should be aimed at improving cell differentiation and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A retrospective study on screening and management of osteoporosis in breast cancer women treated with aromatase inhibitors in Libya

    PubMed Central

    Abushwereb, Hanan Saaddedin; Elhabash, M.; Elhamshari, S.; Eshaefi, H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Negative health effects of aromatase inhibitors (AI) treatments on bones such as osteoporosis are evidenced. This impact of the aromatase inhibitors on bone. This study aimed to improve the medical assistance given to patients under AI treatment to minimize secondary osteoporosis. Fifty Libyan postmenopausal women treated with AI to fight breast cancer were selected from attendants Tripoli Medical Center (TMC), Oncology Department during year 2014. A closed questionnaire was requested from each women including data about age, age at AI therapy, and types of AI, age at bone densitometry measurement, onset and symptoms of osteoporosis, treatment of osteoporosis and measurement of vitamin D and calcium supplement given. The study revealed a poor consideration given to apply the recommendation in cases suffering osteoporosis events. Our results suggest an active implementation of the guidelines concerning the high corporation levels that should be done between oncologist, specialist in osteoporosis, and patients to offer reliable diagnostic and post-therapy follow up. PMID:28228779

  13. A retrospective study on screening and management of osteoporosis in breast cancer women treated with aromatase inhibitors in Libya.

    PubMed

    Abushwereb, Hanan Saaddedin; Elhabash, M; Elhamshari, S; Eshaefi, H

    2016-01-01

    Negative health effects of aromatase inhibitors (AI) treatments on bones such as osteoporosis are evidenced. This impact of the aromatase inhibitors on bone. This study aimed to improve the medical assistance given to patients under AI treatment to minimize secondary osteoporosis. Fifty Libyan postmenopausal women treated with AI to fight breast cancer were selected from attendants Tripoli Medical Center (TMC), Oncology Department during year 2014. A closed questionnaire was requested from each women including data about age, age at AI therapy, and types of AI, age at bone densitometry measurement, onset and symptoms of osteoporosis, treatment of osteoporosis and measurement of vitamin D and calcium supplement given. The study revealed a poor consideration given to apply the recommendation in cases suffering osteoporosis events. Our results suggest an active implementation of the guidelines concerning the high corporation levels that should be done between oncologist, specialist in osteoporosis, and patients to offer reliable diagnostic and post-therapy follow up.

  14. Screening of aromatase inhibitors in traditional Chinese medicines by electrophoretically mediated microanalysis in a partially filled capillary.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiyan; Chen, Zilin

    2013-08-01

    An electrophoretically mediated microanalysis method with partial filling technique was developed for screening aromatase inhibitors in traditional Chinese medicine. The in-capillary enzymatic reaction was performed in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), and sodium phosphate buffer (20 mM, pH 8.0) was used as a background electrolyte. A long plug of coenzyme reduced β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 2'-phosphate hydrate dissolved in the reaction buffer was hydrodynamically injected into a fused silica capillary followed by the injection of reaction buffer, enzyme, and substrate solution. The reaction was initiated with a voltage of 5 kV applied to the capillary for 40 s. The voltage was turned off for 20 min to increase the product amount and again turned on at a constant voltage of 20 kV to separate all the components. Direct detection was performed at 260 nm. The enzyme activity was directly assayed by measuring the peak area of the produced β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and the decreased peak area indicated the aromatase inhibition. Using the Lineweaver-Burk equation, the Michaelis-Menten constant was calculated to be 50 ± 4.5 nM. The method was applied to the screening of aromatase inhibitors from 15 natural products. Seven compounds were found to have potent AR inhibitory activity.

  15. PI3Kα isoform-dependent activation of RhoA regulates Wnt5a-induced osteosarcoma cell migration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ailiang; Yan, Ting; Wang, Kun; Huang, Zhihui; Liu, Jinbo

    2017-01-01

    We have reported that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway mediated Wnt5a-induced osteosarcoma cell migration. However, the signaling pathways regulating Wnt5a/PI3K/Akt-mediated cell migration remains poorly defined in osteosarcoma cells. We evaluated the activations of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 in osteosarcoma MG-63 and U2OS cells with small G-protein activation assay. Boyden chamber assays were used to confirm the migration of cells transfected indicated constructs or siRNA specific against RhoA. A panel of inhibitors of PI3K and Akt treated osteosarcoma cells and blocked kinase activity. Western blotting and RhoA activation assay were employed to measure the effect of kinase inhibitors and activations of RhoA and Akt. We found that Wnt5a had a potent stimulatory effect on RhoA activation, but not on Rac1 and Cdc42 activations. Wnt5a-induced cell migration was largely abolished by siRNA specific against RhoA. DN-RhoA (GFP-RhoA-N19) was also capable of retarding Wnt5a-induced cell migration, but the overexpression of CA-RhoA (GFP-RhoA-V14) was not able to accelerate cell migration. The Wnt5a-induced activation of RhoA was mostly blocked by pretreatment of LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) and MK-2206 (Akt inhibitor). Furthermore, we found that the Wnt5a-induced activation of RhoA was mostly blocked by pretreatment of HS-173 (PI3Kα inhibitor). Lastly, the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Ser473) was not altered by transfection with siRNA specific against RhoA or DN-RhoA (GFP-RhoA-N19). Taken together, we demonstrate that RhoA acts as the downstream of PI3K/Akt signaling (specific PI3Kα, Akt1 and Akt2 isoforms) and mediated Wnt5a-induced the migration of osteosarcoma cells.

  16. Impact of Aromatase protein variants and drug interactions in breast cancer: a molecular docking approach.

    PubMed

    Setti, Aravind; Venugopal Rao, V; Priyamvada Devi, A; Pawar, Smita C; Naresh, B; Kalyan, C S V V

    2012-08-01

    Breast cancer is a frequently reported cancer in women all over the world. Several methods available to cure the breast cancer based on stage. This study focused on chemoprevention drugs of Aromatase, a potential target in breast cancer. Natural variants of Aromatase are very common; they have been collected and modeled, optimized the energy of mutated Aromatase protein. Reversible (Anastrozole) and irreversible (Exemestane) Aromatase inhibitors are selected and performed molecular docking studies of each drug against each variant to see the binding affinity impact on protein variant and drugs. In this comparative study, Anastrozole, a cumene derivative showed more binding affinity and Diethylstilbestrol showed weak binding affinity against among all drugs. The comparative molecular docking revealed that the binding affinity between drug and Aromatase protein variant is imprecise but fairly close; therefore the protein variants of Aromatase can be conceived to be equal for chemoprevention of breast cancer therapy.

  17. Acquired CYP19A1 amplification is an early specific mechanism of aromatase inhibitor resistance in ERα metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gadaleta, Raffaella Maria; Corleone, Giacomo; Fabris, Sonia; Kempe, Mannus H.; Vershure, Pernette J.; Barozzi, Iros; Vircillo, Valentina; Hong, Sung-Pil; Perone, Ylenia; Saini, Massimo; Trumpp, Andreas; Viale, Giuseppe; Neri, Antonino; Ali, Simak; Colleoni, Marco Angelo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Minucci, Saverio

    2017-01-01

    Tumor evolution is shaped by many variables, potentially involving external selective pressures induced by therapies1. After surgery, estrogen receptor (ERα) positive breast cancer (BCa) patients are treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy2 including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) and/or aromatase inhibitors (AIs)3. However, over 20% of patients relapse within 10 years and eventually progress to incurable metastatic disease4. Here we demonstrate that the choice of therapy has a fundamental influence on the genetic landscape of relapsed diseases: in this study, 21.5% of AI-treated, relapsed patients had acquired CYP19A1 gene (aromatase) amplification (CYP19A1amp). Relapsed patients also developed numerous mutations targeting key breast cancer genes including ESR1 and CYP19A1. Strikingly, CYP19A1amp cells also emerge in vitro but only in AI resistant models. CYP19A1 amplification causes increased aromatase activity and estrogen-independent ERα binding to target genes resulting in CYP19A1amp cells displaying decreased sensitivity to AI treatment. Collectively these data suggest that AI treatment itself selects for acquired CYP19A1 amplification and promotes local autocrine estrogen signalling in AI resistant metastatic patients. PMID:28112739

  18. Constitutional genetic variation at the human aromatase gene (Cyp19) and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Siegelmann-Danieli, N; Buetow, K H

    1999-01-01

    The activity of the aromatase enzyme, which converts androgens into oestrogens and has a major role in regulating oestrogen levels in the breast, is thought to be a contributing factor in the development of breast cancer. We undertook this study to assess the role of constitutional genetic variation in the human aromatase gene (Cyp19) in the development of this disease. Our genotyping of 348 cases with breast cancer and 145 controls (all Caucasian women) for a published tetranucleotide repeat polymorphism at intron 4 of the Cyp19 gene revealed the presence of six common and two rare alleles. Contingency table analysis revealed a significant difference in allelic distribution between cases and controls (χ2 5df = 13.52, P = 0.019). The allele measuring 171 bp was over-represented in cases; of 14 individuals homozygous for this allele, 13 were cases. These individuals had a higher incidence of cancer in family members and an earlier age at diagnosis than other cases. In sequencing Cyp19's coding exons and regulatory regions, we discovered a perfect association between a silent polymorphism (G→A at Val80) and the high-risk genotype. Our conclusion is that constitutional genetic variation at the Cyp19 locus is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer, with the 171-bp allele serving as the high-risk allele. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10027313

  19. 3D QSAR studies, pharmacophore modeling and virtual screening on a series of steroidal aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiding; Qiu, Kaixiong; Xie, Xiaoguang

    2014-11-14

    Aromatase inhibitors are the most important targets in treatment of estrogen-dependent cancers. In order to search for potent steroidal aromatase inhibitors (SAIs) with lower side effects and overcome cellular resistance, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on a series of SAIs to build 3D QSAR models. The reliable and predictive CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with statistical results (CoMFA: q² = 0.636, r²(ncv) = 0.988, r²(pred) = 0.658; CoMSIA: q² = 0.843, r²(ncv) = 0.989, r²(pred) = 0.601). This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that can be used to develop novel and potent SAIs. In addition, Genetic algorithm with linear assignment of hypermolecular alignment of database (GALAHAD) was used to derive 3D pharmacophore models. The selected pharmacophore model contains two acceptor atoms and four hydrophobic centers, which was used as a 3D query for virtual screening against NCI2000 database. Six hit compounds were obtained and their biological activities were further predicted by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models, which are expected to design potent and novel SAIs.

  20. Thymoquinone Defeats Diabetes-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats Targeting Antioxidant, Inflammatory and Aromatase Expression.

    PubMed

    Atta, Mustafa S; Almadaly, Essam A; El-Far, Ali H; Saleh, Rasha M; Assar, Doaa H; Al Jaouni, Soad K; Mousa, Shaker A

    2017-04-27

    Antioxidants have valuable effects on the process of spermatogenesis, particularly with diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, the present study investigated the impact and the intracellular mechanisms by which thymoquinone (TQ) works against diabetes-induced testicular deteriorations in rats. Wistar male rats (n = 60) were randomly allocated into four groups; Control, Diabetic (streptozotocin (STZ)-treated rats where diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ, 65 mg/kg), Diabetic + TQ (diabetic rats treated with TQ (50 mg/kg) orally once daily), and TQ (non-diabetic rats treated with TQ) for 12 weeks. Results revealed that TQ significantly improved the sperm parameters with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testicular tissue. Also, it increased testicular reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Interestingly, TQ induced downregulation of testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and significantly upregulated the aromatase protein expression levels in testicles in comparison with the diabetic rats. In conclusion, TQ treatment exerted a protective effect against reproductive dysfunction induced by diabetes not only through its powerful antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects but also through its downregulation of testicular iNOS and NF-κB along with upregulation of aromatase expression levels in diabetic rats.

  1. Glutathione peroxidase 1 deficiency attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury by modulation of T-cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, D H; Son, D J; Park, M H; Yoon, D Y; Han, S B; Hong, J T

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis model is well-established experimental T cell-mediated liver disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with T-cell activation and proliferation, but continued ROS exposure induces T-cell hyporesponsiveness. Because glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) is an antioxidant enzyme and is involved in T-cell development, we investigated the role of Gpx1 during Con A-induced liver injury in Gpx1 knockout (KO) mice. Male wild-type (WT) mice and Gpx1 KO mice were intravenously injected with Con A (10 mg/kg), and then killed after 8 h after Con A injection. Serum levels of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were measured to assess hepatic injury. To identify that Gpx1 affects T cell-mediated inflammation, we pretreated Gpx1 inhibitor to Human Jurkat T cells then treated Con A. Con A-induced massive liver damage in WT mice but its damage was attenuated in Gpx1 KO mice. Con A-induced Th1 cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2 were also decreased in the liver and spleen of Gpx1 KO mice compared with WT mice. In Jurkat T cells, Con A-induced mRNA levels of IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α were downregulated by pretreatment of Gpx inhibitor, mercaptosuccinic acid. We also observed that Gpx1 KO mice showed increasing oxidative stress in the liver and spleen compared with WT mice. These results suggest that Gpx1 deficiency attenuates Con A-induced liver injury by induction of T-cell hyporesponsiveness through chronic ROS exposure. PMID:27124582

  2. Effects of phytoestrogens and synthetic combinatorial libraries on aromatase, estrogen biosynthesis, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brueggemeier, R W; Gu, X; Mobley, J A; Joomprabutra, S; Bhat, A S; Whetstone, J L

    2001-12-01

    -tissue aromatase by exogenous agents such as drugs and environmental agents is being investigated. The benzopyranone-ring system is a molecular scaffold of considerable interest, and this scaffold is found in flavonoid natural products that have weak aromatase inhibitory activity. Medicinal chemistry efforts focus on diversifying the benzopyranone scaffold and utilizing combinatorial chemistry approaches to construct small benzopyranone libraries as potential aro- matase inhibitors. Several compounds in the initial libraries have demonstrated moderate aromatase inhibitory activity in screening assays.

  3. A molecular model for the interaction between vorozole and other non-steroidal inhibitors and human cytochrome P450 19 (P450 aromatase).

    PubMed

    Koymans, L M; Moereels, H; Vanden Bossche, H

    1995-06-01

    In a previous study (Vanden Bossche et al., Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 30 (1994) 43) the interaction between (+)-S-vorozole and the I-helix of cytochrome P450 19 (P450 aromatase) has been reported. In the present study we extended the "I-helix model" by incorporating the C-terminus of P450 aromatase. The crystal structures of P450 101 (P450 cam), 102 (P450 BM-3) and 108 (P450 terp) reveal that the C-terminus is structurally conserved and forms part of their respective substrate binding pocket. Furthermore, the present study is extended to the interaction between P450 aromatase and its natural substrate androstenedione and the non-steroidal inhibitors (-)-R-vorozole, (-)-S-fadrozole, R-liarozole and (-)-R-aminoglutethimide. It is found that (+)-S-vorozole, (-)-S-fadrozole and R-liarozole bind in a comparable way to P450 aromatase and interact with both the I-helix (Glu302 and Asp309) and C-terminus (Ser478 and His480). The weak activity of (-)-R-aminoglutethimide might be attributed to a lack of interaction with the C-terminus.

  4. Mechanisms of Aromatase Inhibitor-induced Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    the blood, there are neurosteroids metabolized by cytochrome P450s within first and second-order sensory neurons. These neurosteroids have been...aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapies in breast cancer is limited in many patients because they induce musculoskeletal pain; however, the effects of...AIs) are the current standard of care for endocrine treatment of breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Yet the use of AIs is limited in many

  5. Enzymic aromatization of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive and mechanism-based inhibitors of aromatase.

    PubMed

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A; Oshibe, M

    1998-01-01

    To gain insight into the relationships between the aromatase inhibitory activity of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive inhibitors, and their ability to serve as a substrate of aromatase, we studied the aromatization of a series of 6alpha- and 6beta-alkyl (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-pentyl and n-heptyl)-substituted androst-4-ene-3,17-diones (ADs) and their androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) derivatives with human placental aromatase, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the inhibitors examined, ADD and its 6alpha-alkyl derivatives with alkyl functions less than three carbons long, together with 6beta-methyl ADD, are suicide substrates of aromatase. All of the steroids, except for 6beta-n-pentyl ADD and its n-heptyl analogue as well as 6beta-n-heptyl AD, were found to be converted into the corresponding 6-alkyl oestrogens. The 6-methyl steroids were aromatized most efficiently in each series, and the aromatization rate essentially decreased in proportion to the length of the 6-alkyl chains in each series, where the 6alpha-alkyl androgens were more efficient substrates than the corresponding 6beta isomers. The Vmax of 6alpha-methyl ADD was approx. 2.5-fold that of the natural substrate AD and approx. 3-fold that of the parent ADD. On the basis of this, along with the facts that the rates of a mechanism-based inactivation of aromatase by ADD and its 6alpha-methyl derivative are similar, it is implied that alignment of 6alpha-methyl ADD in the active site could favour the pathway leading to oestrogen over the inactivation pathway, compared with that of ADD. The relative apparent Km values for the androgens obtained in this study are different from the relative Ki values obtained previously, indicating that there is a difference between the ability to serve as an inhibitor and the ability to serve as a substrate in the 6-alkyl androgen series.

  6. Enzymic aromatization of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive and mechanism-based inhibitors of aromatase.

    PubMed Central

    Numazawa, M; Yoshimura, A; Oshibe, M

    1998-01-01

    To gain insight into the relationships between the aromatase inhibitory activity of 6-alkyl-substituted androgens, potent competitive inhibitors, and their ability to serve as a substrate of aromatase, we studied the aromatization of a series of 6alpha- and 6beta-alkyl (methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-pentyl and n-heptyl)-substituted androst-4-ene-3,17-diones (ADs) and their androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD) derivatives with human placental aromatase, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among the inhibitors examined, ADD and its 6alpha-alkyl derivatives with alkyl functions less than three carbons long, together with 6beta-methyl ADD, are suicide substrates of aromatase. All of the steroids, except for 6beta-n-pentyl ADD and its n-heptyl analogue as well as 6beta-n-heptyl AD, were found to be converted into the corresponding 6-alkyl oestrogens. The 6-methyl steroids were aromatized most efficiently in each series, and the aromatization rate essentially decreased in proportion to the length of the 6-alkyl chains in each series, where the 6alpha-alkyl androgens were more efficient substrates than the corresponding 6beta isomers. The Vmax of 6alpha-methyl ADD was approx. 2.5-fold that of the natural substrate AD and approx. 3-fold that of the parent ADD. On the basis of this, along with the facts that the rates of a mechanism-based inactivation of aromatase by ADD and its 6alpha-methyl derivative are similar, it is implied that alignment of 6alpha-methyl ADD in the active site could favour the pathway leading to oestrogen over the inactivation pathway, compared with that of ADD. The relative apparent Km values for the androgens obtained in this study are different from the relative Ki values obtained previously, indicating that there is a difference between the ability to serve as an inhibitor and the ability to serve as a substrate in the 6-alkyl androgen series. PMID:9405288

  7. Effect of dioxin exposure on aromatase expression in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lan; Leung, Lai K

    2008-05-15

    Because of their persistence in the environment dioxins are one of the most concerned classes of carcinogens. Displaying both pro- and anti-agonistic properties to some hormone receptors, the pollutants are also known to be endocrine disruptors. Humans can be exposed to this pollutant through contaminated food, air, drinking water, etc. The female hormone estrogen may initiate various physiological functions, and excessive exposure to this hormone is a documented risk factor for carcinogenesis. Cyp19 (aromatase) catalyses the last step of estrogen biosynthesis, while cyp1a1 can hydroxylate and deactivate the hormone. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) on aromatase expression in the brain and adipose tissue in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats. Female rats were given 2.5 microg/kg TCDD p.o. before and after ovariectomy. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis indicated that pre-ovariectomy administration of TCDD could significantly reduce aromatase expression in the brain but increase the expression in the adipose tissue. In addition, increased plasma estrogen level and uterine weight were observed in these rats. These parameters did not change in rats with post-ovariectomy TCDD treatment. Our results suggested that the timing of exposure to the toxicant could determine the estrogenicity of TCDD. No correlation between cyp1a1 and cyp19 expression was observed.

  8. Effect of dioxin exposure on aromatase expression in ovariectomized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Lan; Leung, Lai K.

    2008-05-15

    Because of their persistence in the environment dioxins are one of the most concerned classes of carcinogens. Displaying both pro- and anti-agonistic properties to some hormone receptors, the pollutants are also known to be endocrine disruptors. Humans can be exposed to this pollutant through contaminated food, air, drinking water, etc. The female hormone estrogen may initiate various physiological functions, and excessive exposure to this hormone is a documented risk factor for carcinogenesis. Cyp19 (aromatase) catalyses the last step of estrogen biosynthesis, while cyp1a1 can hydroxylate and deactivate the hormone. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) on aromatase expression in the brain and adipose tissue in ovariectomized Sprague Dawley rats. Female rats were given 2.5 {mu}g/kg TCDD p.o. before and after ovariectomy. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis indicated that pre-ovariectomy administration of TCDD could significantly reduce aromatase expression in the brain but increase the expression in the adipose tissue. In addition, increased plasma estrogen level and uterine weight were observed in these rats. These parameters did not change in rats with post-ovariectomy TCDD treatment. Our results suggested that the timing of exposure to the toxicant could determine the estrogenicity of TCDD. No correlation between cyp1a1 and cyp19 expression was observed.

  9. Anti-tumor efficacy of new 7α-substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors in hormone-sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cristina; Varela, Carla L; Maurício, João; Sobral, Ana Filipa; Costa, Saul C; Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Correia-da-Silva, Georgina; Teixeira, Natércia

    2017-04-07

    The majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)). Although, third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are used as first-line treatment in post-menopausal women, they cause endocrine resistance and bone loss, which limits their success. Therefore, there is a demand to discover new potent molecules, with less toxicity that can circumvent these drawbacks. Our group has previously demonstrated that new 7α-substituted steroidal molecules, 7α-(2ξ,3ξ-epoxypropyl)androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (3), 7α-allylandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione (6), 7α-allylandrost-4-en-17-one (9), 7α-allyl-3-oxoandrosta-1,4-dien-17β-ol (10) and 7α-allylandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (12) are potent AIs in placental microsomes. In this work, it was investigated their anti-aromatase activity and in vitro effects in sensitive and resistant breast cancer cells. All the steroids efficiently inhibit aromatase in breast cancer cells, allowing to establish new structure-activity relationships for this class of compounds. Moreover, the new AIs can inhibit breast cancer cell growth, by causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The effects of AIs 3 and 12 on sensitive cells were dependent on aromatase inhibition and androgen receptor (AR), while for AI 9 and AI 10 were AR- and ER-dependent, respectively. In addition, it was shown that all the AIs can sensitize resistant cancer cells being their behavior similar to the sensitive cells. In summary, this study contributes to the understanding of the structural modifications in steroidal scaffold that are translated into better aromatase inhibition and anti-tumor properties, providing important information for the rational design/synthesis of more effective AIs. In addition, allowed the discovery of new potent 7α-substituted androstane molecules to inhibit tumor growth and prevent endocrine resistance.

  10. Computational Modeling to Evaluate Alternative Hypotheses for the Linkage of Aromatase Inhibition to Vitellogenin Levels in Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol (E2). In fish, E2 concentrations control hepatic synthesis of the glycolipoprotein vitellogenin (VTG), an egg yolk precursor protein essential to oocyte development and larval survival. Fathead minnows were exposed to the aromatase in...

  11. Computational Modeling to Evaluate Alternative Hypotheses for the Linkage of Aromatase Inhibition to Vitellogenin Levels in Fathead Minnows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol (E2). In fish, E2 concentrations control hepatic synthesis of the glycolipoprotein vitellogenin (VTG), an egg yolk precursor protein essential to oocyte development and larval survival. Fathead minnows were exposed to the aromatase in...

  12. Hybrid flavan-chalcones, aromatase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, from Desmos cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Bajgai, Santi Prasad; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2011-11-01

    Hybrid flavan-chalcones, desmosflavans A (1) and B (2), together with three known compounds, cardamonin (3), pinocembrin (4) and chrysin (5), were isolated from leaves of Desmos cochinchinensis. Cardamonin (3) and chrysin (5) exhibited potent antioxidant activity with 15.0 and 12.2 ORAC units. Desmosflavans A (1) and B (2), pinocembrin (4), and chrysin (5) were found to be inhibitors of aromatase with respective IC50 values of 1.8, 3.3, 0.9, and 0.8 μM. Desmosflavan A (1) inhibited lipoxygenase with the IC50 value of 4.4 μM. Desmosflavan A (1) exhibited cytotoxic activity with IC50 values of 0.29-3.75 μg/mL, while desmosflavan B (2) showed IC50 values of 1.71-27.0 μg/mL.

  13. Obesity-associated systemic interleukin-6 promotes pre-adipocyte aromatase expression via increased breast cancer cell prostaglandin E2 production.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Laura W; Brenner, Andrew J; Hursting, Stephen D; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis, particularly in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) positive, postmenopausal patients. We hypothesized that this is mediated in part by an elevation in breast cancer cell cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production that results in greater local pre-adipocyte aromatase expression. We utilized an in vitro model of the obese patient's tumor microenvironment in which cultured MCF-7 breast cancer cells and pre-adipocytes were exposed to pooled serum from obese (OB; BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) or normal weight (N; BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) postmenopausal women. Exposure to OB versus N sera significantly increased MCF-7 cell COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Pre-adipocyte aromatase expression was 89 % greater following culture in conditioned media (CM) from MCF-7 cells exposed to OB versus N sera (OB-CM and N-CM, respectively), a difference nullified by MCF-7 cell treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib. Previous analysis of the sera revealed significantly higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations in the OB versus N samples. Depletion of IL-6 from the sera neutralized the difference in pre-adipocyte aromatase expression stimulated by OB-CM versus N-CM. Finally, CM from pre-adipocyte/MCF-7 cell co-cultures exposed to OB sera stimulated greater MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell ERα activity and proliferation in comparison to N sera. This study indicates that obesity-associated systemic IL-6 indirectly enhances pre-adipocyte aromatase expression via increased breast cancer cell PGE2 production. Investigation regarding the efficacy of a COX-2 inhibitor/aromatase inhibitor combination therapy in the obese postmenopausal patient population is warranted.

  14. Aromatase inhibition 2013: clinical state of the art and questions that remain to be solved

    PubMed Central

    Lønning, Per Eystein; Eikesdal, Hans Petter

    2013-01-01

    Following their successful implementation for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer, the ‘third-generation’ aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have now become standard adjuvant endocrine treatment for postmenopausal estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. These drugs are characterized by potent aromatase inhibition, causing >98% inhibition of estrogen synthesis in vivo. A recent meta-analysis found no difference in anti-tumor efficacy between these three compounds. As of today, aromatase inhibitor monotherapy and sequential treatment using tamoxifen followed by an aromatase inhibitor for a total of 5 years are considered equipotent treatment options. However, current trials are addressing the potential benefit of extending treatment duration beyond 5 years. Regarding side effects, aromatase inhibitors are not found associated with enhanced risk of cardiovascular disease, and enhanced bone loss is prevented by adding bisphosphonates in concert for those at danger of developing osteoporosis. However, arthralgia and carpal tunnel syndrome preclude drug administration among a few patients. While recent findings have questioned the use of aromatase inhibitors among overweight and, in particular, obese patients, this problem seems to focus on premenopausal patients treated with an aromatase inhibitor and an LH-RH analog in concert, questioning the efficacy of LH-RH analogs rather than aromatase inhibitors among overweight patients. Finally, recent findings revealing a benefit from adding the mTOR inhibitor everolimus to endocrine treatment indicate targeted therapy against defined growth factor pathways to be a way forward, by reversing acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. PMID:23625614

  15. Aromatase Expression in the Hippocampus of AD Patients and 5xFAD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prange-Kiel, Janine; Dudzinski, Danuta A.; Pröls, Felicitas; Glatzel, Markus; Matschke, Jakob; Rune, Gabriele M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies show that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects against Alzheimer's disease (AD) induced neurodegeneration. The E2-synthesizing enzyme aromatase is expressed in healthy hippocampi, but although the hippocampus is severely affected in AD, little is known about the expression of hippocampal aromatase in AD. To better understand the role of hippocampal aromatase in AD, we studied its expression in postmortem material from patients with AD and in a mouse model for AD (5xFAD mice). In human hippocampi, aromatase-immunoreactivity was observed in the vast majority of principal neurons and signal quantification revealed higher expression of aromatase protein in AD patients compared to age- and sex-matched controls. The tissue-specific first exons of aromatase I.f, PII, I.3, and I.6 were detected in hippocampi of controls and AD patients by RT-PCR. In contrast, 3-month-old, female 5xFAD mice showed lower expression of aromatase mRNA and protein (measured by qRT-PCR and semiquantitative immunohistochemistry) than WT controls; no such differences were observed in male mice. Our findings stress the importance of hippocampal aromatase expression in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27298742

  16. Potential utility of natural products as regulators of breast cancer-assoicated aromatase promoters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aromatase, the key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis, converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. The enzyme is expressed in various tissues such as ovary, placenta, bone, brain, skin, and adipose tissue. Aromatase enzyme is encoded by a single gene CYP 19A1 and its expression i...

  17. Mechanism-based Categorization of Aromatase Inhibitors: A Potential Discovery and Screening Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key steroidogenic enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. There is much interest in aromatase inhibitors (AIs) because a number of environmental contaminants can act as AIs, thereby disrupting endocrine function in humans and wil...

  18. Integrated approach to explore the mechanisms of aromatase inhibition and recovery in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is a key enzyme in estradiol synthesis that catalyzes the aromatization of androgens into estrogens in ovaries. Here, we used an integrated approach to assess the mechanistic basis of the direct effects of aromatase inhibiti...

  19. Integrated approach to explore the mechanisms of aromatase inhibition and recovery in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, is a key enzyme in estradiol synthesis that catalyzes the aromatization of androgens into estrogens in ovaries. Here, we used an integrated approach to assess the mechanistic basis of the direct effects of aromatase inhibiti...

  20. Mechanism-based Categorization of Aromatase Inhibitors: A Potential Discovery and Screening Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytochrome P450 aromatase is a key steroidogenic enzyme that converts androgens to estrogens in vertebrates. There is much interest in aromatase inhibitors (AIs) because a number of environmental contaminants can act as AIs, thereby disrupting endocrine function in humans and wil...

  1. Micro-RNA378 (miR-378) regulates ovarian estradiol production by targeting aromatase.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shengyu; Linher-Melville, Katja; Yang, Burton B; Wu, De; Li, Julang

    2011-10-01

    Estradiol is a steroid hormone that not only plays an important role in ovarian follicular development but also is associated with many reproductive disorders. Owing to the importance of aromatase in the production of estradiol, the regulation of aromatase gene expression at the transcriptional level has been an extensive area of study for over two decades. However, its regulation at the posttranscriptional level has remained unclear. Here, we show that micro-RNA378 (miR-378) is spatiotemporally expressed in porcine granulosa cells, the cells that generate estradiol in the ovary during follicular development, in an inverse manner compared with the expression of aromatase. In vitro overexpression and inhibition experiments revealed that aromatase expression, and therefore estradiol production, by granulosa cells, is posttranscriptionally down-regulated by miR-378. Furthermore, site-directed mutation studies identified two binding sites in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the aromatase coding sequence that are critical for the action of miR-378. Interestingly, overexpression of the aromatase 3'-UTR enhanced aromatase expression at the protein level in granulosa cells, possibly mediated by the binding of miR-378 within this region, thereby reducing the binding of this micro-RNA to the endogenous aromatase 3'-UTR.

  2. Activin A induces skeletal muscle catabolism via p38β mitogen‐activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Zhang, Guohua; Sin, Ka Wai Thomas; Liu, Zhelong; Lin, Ren‐Kuo; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Activation of type IIB activin receptor (ActRIIB) in skeletal muscle leads to muscle atrophy because of increased muscle protein degradation. However, the intracellular signalling mechanism that mediates ActRIIB‐activated muscle catabolism is poorly defined. Methods We investigated the role of p38β mitogen‐activated protein kinases (MAPK) in mediating ActRIIB ligand activin A‐activated muscle catabolic pathways in C2C12 myotubes and in mice with perturbation of this kinase pharmacologically and genetically. Results Treatment of C2C12 myotubes with activin A or myostatin rapidly activated p38 MAPK and its effector C/EBPβ within 1 h. Paradoxically, Akt was activated at the same time through a p38 MAPK‐independent mechanism. These events were followed by up‐regulation of ubiquitin ligases atrogin1 (MAFbx) and UBR2 (E3α‐II), as well as increase in LC3‐II, a marker of autophagosome formation, leading to myofibrillar protein loss and myotube atrophy. The catabolic effects of activin A were abolished by p38α/β MAPK inhibitor SB202190. Using small interfering RNA‐mediated gene knockdown, we found that the catabolic activity of activin A was dependent on p38β MAPK specifically. Importantly, systemic administration of activin A to mice similarly activated the catabolic pathways in vivo, and this effect was blocked by SB202190. Further, activin A failed to activate the catabolic pathways in mice with muscle‐specific knockout of p38β MAPK. Interestingly, activin A up‐regulated MuRF1 in a p38 MAPK‐independent manner, and MuRF1 did not appear responsible for activin A‐induced myosin heavy chain loss and muscle atrophy. Conclusions ActRIIB‐mediated activation of muscle catabolism is dependent on p38β MAPK‐activated signalling. PMID:27897407

  3. Developing steroidal aromatase inhibitors-an effective armament to win the battle against breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mange Ram; Barmade, Mahesh A; Tamboli, Riyaj S; Murumkar, Prashant R

    2015-11-13

    Breast cancer, an emerging disease among the women population, occurs due to overexpression of estrogens. The enzyme aromatase plays a key rate limiting role in the biosynthesis of estrogens. Certain clinical advantages of the use of exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor over non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors have drawn the attention of researchers for the development of novel steroidal aromatase inhibitors.The current review is a humble attempt to compile the reports by various researchers till date on the synthesis of steroidal aromatase inhibitors. It has been tried to encompass the structural modifications carried out by various researchers in the steroid ring system by taking up the functional group modifications on rings A, B, ring A/B junction, ring-D, ring modifications, bridged derivatives and heterocyclic ring-fused derivatives in a systematic way.

  4. Nicotine Blocks Brain Estrogen Synthase (Aromatase): In Vivo Positron Emission Tomography Studies in Female Baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Biegon, A.; Biegon, A.; Kim, S.-W.; Logan, J.; Hooker, J.M.; Muench, L.; Fowler, J.S.

    2010-01-12

    Cigarette smoking and nicotine have complex effects on human physiology and behavior, including some effects similar to those elicited by inhibition of aromatase, the last enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis. We report the first in vivo primate study to determine whether there is a direct effect of nicotine administration on brain aromatase. Brain aromatase availability was examined with positron emission tomography and the selective aromatase inhibitor [{sup 11}C]vorozole in six baboons before and after exposure to IV nicotine at .015 and .03 mg/kg. Nicotine administration produced significant, dose-dependent reductions in [{sup 11}C]vorozole binding. The amygdala and preoptic area showed the largest reductions. Plasma levels of nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine were similar to those found in cigarette smokers. Nicotine interacts in vivo with primate brain aromatase in regions involved in mood, aggression, and sexual behavior.

  5. Design, synthesis, and 3D QSAR of novel potent and selective aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Leonetti, Francesco; Favia, Angelo; Rao, Angela; Aliano, Rosaria; Paluszcak, Anja; Hartmann, Rolf W; Carotti, Angelo

    2004-12-30

    The design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of new aromatase inhibitors bearing an imidazole or triazole ring linked to a fluorene (A), indenodiazine (B), or coumarin scaffold (C) are reported. Properly substituted coumarin derivatives displayed the highest aromatase inhibitory potency and selectivity over 17-alpha-hydroxylase/17-20 lyase. The modeling of the aromatase inhibition data by Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA/GOLPE 3D QSAR approach) led to the development of a PLS model with good fitting and predictive powers (n = 22, ONC = 3, r(2) = 0.949, s = 0.216, and q(2) = 0.715). The relationship between aromatase inhibition and the steric and electrostatic fields generated by the examined azole inhibitors enables a clear understanding of the nature and spatial location of the main interactions modulating the aromatase inhibitory potency.

  6. Cyclooxygenase-2 directly regulates gene expression of P450 Cyp19 aromatase promoter regions pII, pI.3 and pI.7 and estradiol production in human breast tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Prosperi, Jenifer R; Robertson, Fredika M

    2006-10-01

    The present studies evaluated the direct effects of the presence of human cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) on gene expression of specific promoter regions of the P450 Cyp19 enzyme aromatase enzyme and its product, estradiol, in Cox-2 null estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast tumor cells and in a stable clone of MCF-7 cells containing transfected Cox-2 cDNA, designated as MCF-7/Cox-2 Clone 10. Clone 10 human breast tumor cells have significantly increased gene expression of total mRNA of the P450 Cyp19 enzyme aromatase, with high levels of gene expression of specific aromatase promoter (p) regions pII, pI.3, and p1.7, with no significant change in mRNA levels of p1.4. Clone 10 human breast tumor cells produced significantly increased amounts of both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) derived from Cox-2 enzyme activity and estradiol derived from aromatase enzyme activity (p<0.01), compared to MCF-7/vector control cells. The greatest inhibition of PGE2 or estradiol production was observed by the combination of the selective Cox-2 inhibitor celecoxib (25 microM) and the aromatase inhibitor, formestane (10nM) (p<0.01). The greatest anti-proliferative effect in Cox-2 null MCF-7/vector control cells was observed with the combination of 25 microM celecoxib and 10nM formestane but not with 10 microM celecoxib, suggesting that there are Cox-2-independent mechanisms involved in the anti-proliferative effect of this agent at doses greater than 10 microM. Celecoxib (25 microM) also significantly inhibited proliferation of MCF-7/Cox-2 Clone 10 human breast tumor cells, with no further anti-proliferative activity with the addition of 10 nM formestane observed at either 24 or 48 h of treatment. These studies demonstrate that Cox-2 directly regulates gene expression of specific aromatase promoter regions and regulates aromatase enzyme activity. Agents that inhibit Cox-2 or block the biological effects of PGE2 may be useful in significantly limiting aromatase activity and proliferation of human breast

  7. Aromatase enzyme expression in acromegaly and its possible relationship with disease prognosis.

    PubMed

    Selek, Alev; Cetinarslan, Berrin; Gurbuz, Yesim; Tarkun, Ilhan; Canturk, Zeynep; Cabuk, Burak

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate aromatase enzyme expression in growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas and comparison with prolactinomas, nonfunctional adenomas, and normal pituitary tissues. Also the impact of its expression on clinical and prognostic features was evaluated. 38 acromegaly, 26 prolactinoma, and 31 nonfunctional pituitary adenoma and 11 normal pituitary gland samples from autopsies were included. Aromatase and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) were evaluated by Immunohistochemical method; demographic, pre- and postoperative features of the patients were noted. Aromatase was expressed in varying degrees in all cases in study including controls. Aromatase expression in patients with acromegaly was significantly higher than patients with prolactinoma, nonfunctional adenoma, and controls (p = 0.04, p = 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Taken together two functional adenoma groups, prolactinoma and acromegaly, aromatase expression was negatively correlated with ER-alpha (p = 0.02, r = -0.34). Also, Ki-67 immunohistochemical results were negatively correlated with aromatase expression (p = 0.03, r = -0.27) while positively correlated with ER expression (p < 0.01). Consistent with the growing evidence about testosterone effect on pituitary functions, aromatase expression was found to be higher in GH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Aromatase was expressed in all pituitary tissues including autopsy samples; however, it was highest in patients with acromegaly. In patients with acromegaly and prolactinoma, aromatase expression was negatively correlated with Ki-67 score, and also it was higher in patients with complete postoperative remission than without remission. Therefore, aromatase expression may be a good prognostic marker predominantly in acromegaly.

  8. Different in vitro metabolism of 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone by human and equine aromatases.

    PubMed

    Moslemi, S; Dintinger, T; Dehennin, L; Silberzahn, P; Gaillard, J L

    1993-06-01

    The ability of human and equine placental microsomes to aromatize 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MNT) was studied. Kinetic analysis indicates that MNT shares the androgen-binding site of human and equine placental microsomal aromatases. Human placental microsomal estrogen synthetase had about a 2.5-fold higher relative affinity for MNT than the equine placental enzyme (KiMNT/Km androstenedione of 32 versus 87). However, MNT was not metabolized by human placental microsomes, whereas it was very actively metabolized by equine placental microsomes. Further studies using purified equine cytochrome P-450arom indicated that the presence of a 7 alpha-methyl group and the absence of a C19 methyl group did not impair its conversion by the purified enzyme. The product of this reaction was separated and identified as 7 alpha-methylestradiol by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

  9. Anti-tumor effect of Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue decoction in breast cancer is related to the inhibition of aromatase and steroid sulfatase expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ning; Han, Shu-Yan; Zhou, Fei; Li, Ping-ping

    2014-07-03

    Shu-Gan-Liang-Xue Decoction (SGLXD), a traditional Chinese herbal formula used to ameliorate the hot flushes in breast cancer patients, was reported to have anti-tumor effect on breast cancer. Estrogen plays a critical role in the genesis and evolution of breast cancer. Aromatase and steroid sulfatase (STS) are key estrogen synthesis enzymes that predominantly contribute to the high local hormone concentrations. The present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effect of SGLXD on estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cell line ZR-75-1, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of SGLXD in vitro was investigated using the MTT assay. The in vivo anti-tumor effect of SGLXD was evaluated in non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized athymic nude mice. The effect of SGLXD on enzymatic activity of aromatase and STS was examined using the dual-luciferase reporter (DLR) based on bioluminescent measurements. Aromatase and STS protein level were assessed using Western blot assay. SGLXD showed dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of ZR-75-1 cells with IC50 value of 3.40 mg/mL. It also suppressed the stimulating effect on cell proliferation of testosterone and estrogen sulfates (E1S). Oral administration of 6 g/kg of SGLXD for 25 days resulted in a reduction in tumor volume in non-ovariectomized and ovariectomized nude mice. The bioluminescent measurements confirmed that SGLXD has a dual-inhibitory effect on the activity of aromatase and STS. Western blot assay demonstrated that the treatment of SGLXD resulted in a decrease in aromatase and STS protein levels both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggested that SGLXD showed anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. The anti-tumor activity of SGLXD is related to inhibition of aromatase and STS via decreasing their expression. SGLXD may be considered as a novel treatment for ER positive breast cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  10. Expression and localization of aromatase during fetal mouse testis development.

    PubMed

    Borday, Caroline; Merlet, Jorge; Racine, Chrystèle; Habert, René

    2013-01-01

    Les androgènes et les oestrogènes sont indispensables au développement et aux fonctions du testicule. Le testicule est particulièrement sensible aux perturbateurs endocriniens pendant le développement fœtal et beaucoup de perturbateurs endocriniens agissent en modifiant la balance oestrogènes/androgènes. Physiologiquement, cette balance est régulée par une cascade enzymatique qui convertit irréversiblement les androgènes en oestrogènes. Le composant principal de cette cascade est le cytochrome p450 19A1 (appelé couramment aromatase). Le but de ce travail a été d’étudier l’expression de l’aromatase testiculaire au cours du développement fœtal chez la souris.En utilisant une approche par RT-PCR et par western blot, nous avons montré que l’aromatase est exprimée dès 12,5 jours post-conception (jpc) et que l’expression est maximum à 17,5 jpc. Deux transcripts tronqués ont également été détectés par RT-PCR. La localisation cellulaire de l’aromatase a été étudiée par immunohistologie et par immunomarquage après séparation des cellules testiculaires. Cette enzyme est très fortement exprimée dans les cellules de Leydig fœtales. Elle est également exprimée dans les gonocytes mais plus faiblement et à un niveau variable selon les cellules. En revanche, elle est indétectable dans les cellules de Sertoli.En conclusion, cette étude montre pour la première fois chez la souris que 1) l’aromatase est exprimée dès le début de l’ontogenèse testiculaire, 2) elle est exprimée dans les gonocytes suggérant que ces cellules interviennent dans l’endocrinologie testiculaire et que le rapport oestrogènes/androgènes est plus important dans les gonocytes que dans le liquide interstitiel. En outre, on sait que, chez le fœtus de rat l’aromatase est essentiellement exprimée par les cellules de Sertoli. Nous proposons de prendre en compte cette différence inter-espèces comme un nouveau concept pour comprendre les diff

  11. Dehydrogenation of indoline by cytochrome P450 enzymes: a novel "aromatase" process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Ehlhardt, William J; Kulanthaivel, Palaniappan; Lanza, Diane L; Reilly, Christopher A; Yost, Garold S

    2007-08-01

    Indoline derivatives possess therapeutic potential within a variety of drug candidates. In this study, we found that indoline is aromatized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to produce indole through a novel dehydrogenation pathway. The indole products can potentially be bioactivated to toxic intermediates through an additional dehydrogenation step. For example, 3-substituted indoles like 3-methylindole and zafirlukast [4-(5-cyclopentyloxy-carbonylamino-1-methyl-indol-3-ylmethyl)-3-methoxy-N-o-tolylsulfonylbenzamide] are dehydrogenated to form 3-methyleneindolenine electrophiles, which react with protein and/or DNA nucleophilic residues to cause toxicities. Another potentially significant therapeutic consequence of indoline aromatization is that the product indoles might have dramatically different therapeutic potency than the parent indolines. In this study, indoline was indeed efficiently aromatized by human liver microsomes and by several P450s, but not by flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3. CYP3A4 had the highest aromatase activity. Four additional indoline metabolites [2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-4,5-epoxy-1H-indole (M1); N-hydroxyindole (M2), N-hydroxyindoline (M3), and M4 ([1,4,2,5]dioxadiazino[2,3-a:5,6-a']diindole)] were characterized; none was a metabolite of indole. M1 was an arene oxide from P450 oxidation, and M2, M3, and M4 were produced by FMO3. Our data indicated that indoline was oxidized to M3 and then to an intermediate indoline nitrone, which tautomerized to form M2, and subsequently dimerized to a di-indoline. This dimer was immediately oxidized by FMO3 or atmospheric oxygen to the final product, M4. No evidence was found for the P450-mediated production of an aliphatic alcohol from indoline that might dehydrate to produce indole. Therefore, P450 enzymes catalyze the novel "aromatase" metabolism of indoline to produce indole. The aromatase mechanism does not seem to occur through N-oxidation or dehydration of an alcohol but rather through a formal

  12. The planetary biology of cytochrome P450 aromatases

    PubMed Central

    Gaucher, Eric A; Graddy, Logan G; Li, Tang; Simmen, Rosalia CM; Simmen, Frank A; Schreiber, David R; Liberles, David A; Janis, Christine M; Benner, Steven A

    2004-01-01

    Background Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is emerging as a broad strategy for generating hypotheses concerning function in a post-genomic world. This strategy expands systems biology to a planetary context, necessary for a notion of fitness to underlie (as it must) any discussion of function within a biomolecular system. Results Here, we report an example of such an expansion, where tools from planetary biology were used to analyze three genes from the pig Sus scrofa that encode cytochrome P450 aromatases–enzymes that convert androgens into estrogens. The evolutionary history of the vertebrate aromatase gene family was reconstructed. Transition redundant exchange silent substitution metrics were used to interpolate dates for the divergence of family members, the paleontological record was consulted to identify changes in physiology that correlated in time with the change in molecular behavior, and new aromatase sequences from peccary were obtained. Metrics that detect changing function in proteins were then applied, including KA/KS values and those that exploit structural biology. These identified specific amino acid replacements that were associated with changing substrate and product specificity during the time of presumed adaptive change. The combined analysis suggests that aromatase paralogs arose in pigs as a result of selection for Suoidea with larger litters than their ancestors, and permitted the Suoidea to survive the global climatic trauma that began in the Eocene. Conclusions This combination of bioinformatics analysis, molecular evolution, paleontology, cladistics, global climatology, structural biology, and organic chemistry serves as a paradigm in planetary biology. As the geological, paleontological, and genomic records improve, this approach should become widely useful to make

  13. Aromatase Inhibition Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Natalie Z. M.; Faqehi, Abdullah M. M.; Upreti, Rita; Livingstone, Dawn E.; McInnes, Kerry J.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Deficiency of aromatase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of androgens to estrogens, is associated with insulin resistance in humans and mice. Objective: We hypothesized that pharmacological aromatase inhibition results in peripheral insulin resistance in humans. Design: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study. Setting: The study was conducted at a clinical research facility. Participants: Seventeen healthy male volunteers (18–50 y) participated in the study. Intervention: The intervention included oral anastrozole (1 mg daily) and placebo, each for 6 weeks with a 2-week washout period. Main Outcome Measure: Glucose disposal and rates of lipolysis were measured during a stepwise hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Data are mean (SEM). Results: Anastrozole therapy resulted in significant estradiol suppression (59.9 ± 3.6 vs 102.0 ± 5.7 pmol/L, P = < .001) and a more modest elevation of total T (25.8 ± 1.2 vs 21.4 ± 0.7 nmol/L, P = .003). Glucose infusion rate, during the low-dose insulin infusion, was lower after anastrozole administration (12.16 ± 1.33 vs 14.15 ± 1.55 μmol/kg·min, P = .024). No differences in hepatic glucose production or rate of lipolysis were observed. Conclusion: Aromatase inhibition reduces insulin sensitivity, with respect to peripheral glucose disposal, in healthy men. Local generation and action of estradiol, at the level of skeletal muscle, is likely to be an important determinant of insulin sensitivity. PMID:26967690

  14. Preparation of a novel antiserum to aromatase with high affinity and specificity: Its clinicopathological significance on breast cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Kanomata, Naoki; Matsuura, Shiro; Nomura, Tsunehisa; Kurebayashi, Junichi; Mori, Taisuke; Kitawaki, Jo; Moriya, Takuya

    2017-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been widely used for the endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, clinicopathological studies of aromatase have been limited due to unsatisfactory specificity and/or restricted availability of anti-aromatase antibodies. Here, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum with high affinity and specificity for human aromatase using a monoclonal antibody tagged immunoaffinity chromatography on an industrial production scale. Our preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of 221 invasive breast cancer cases indicated that 87.3% (193/221) had at least 5% aromatase positive cells. The histoscore for aromatase was inversely correlated with pT (p = 0.019), pN (p = 0.001), stage (p < 0.001), histologic grade (p = 0.003), lymphatic infiltration (p < 0.001), venous infiltration (p < 0.001), and Ki-67 index (p < 0.001). However, cancer aromatase expression was independent of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 statuses. This antiserum will be applicable to clinicopathological examination of aromatase in addition to ER and PgR for an appropriate use of aromatase inhibitor on the treatment of breast cancer. Further studies on the relationship between Aromatase inhibitors have been widely used for the endocrine treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal patients. However, clinicopathological studies of aromatase have been limited due to unsatisfactory specificity and/or restricted availability of anti-aromatase antibodies. Here, we have generated a polyclonal antiserum with high affinity and specificity for human aromatase using a monoclonal antibody tagged immunoaffinity chromatography on an industrial production scale. Our preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of 221 invasive breast cancer cases indicated that 87.3% (193/221) had at least 5% aromatase positive cells. The histoscore for aromatase was inversely correlated

  15. NSAID use reduces breast cancer recurrence in overweight and obese women: role of prostaglandin-aromatase interactions.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Laura W; Maximo, Ilane X F; Brenner, Andrew J; Beeram, Muralidhar; Hursting, Stephen D; Price, Ramona S; Tekmal, Rajeshwar R; Jolly, Christopher A; deGraffenried, Linda A

    2014-08-15

    Obesity is associated with a worse breast cancer prognosis and elevated levels of inflammation, including greater cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and activity in adipose-infiltrating macrophages. The product of this enzyme, the proinflammatory eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), stimulates adipose tissue aromatase expression and subsequent estrogen production, which could promote breast cancer progression. This study demonstrates that daily use of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), which inhibits COX-2 activity, is associated with reduced estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer recurrence in obese and overweight women. Retrospective review of data from ERα-positive patients with an average body mass index of >30 revealed that NSAID users had a 52% lower recurrence rate and a 28-month delay in time to recurrence. To examine the mechanisms that may be mediating this effect, we conducted in vitro studies that utilized sera from obese and normal-weight patients with breast cancer. Exposure to sera from obese patients stimulated greater macrophage COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. This was correlated with enhanced preadipocyte aromatase expression following incubation in conditioned media (CM) collected from the obese-patient, sera-exposed macrophages, an effect neutralized by COX-2 inhibition with celecoxib. In addition, CM from macrophage/preadipocyte cocultures exposed to sera from obese patients stimulated greater breast cancer cell ERα activity, proliferation, and migration compared with sera from normal-weight patients, and these differences were eliminated or reduced by the addition of an aromatase inhibitor during CM generation. Prospective studies designed to examine the clinical benefit of NSAID use in obese patients with breast cancer are warranted. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Effects of bisphenol A and triclocarban on brain-specific expression of aromatase in early zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Eunah; Genco, Maria C.; Megrelis, Laura; Ruderman, Joan V.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogen regulates numerous developmental and physiological processes. Most effects are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs), which function as ligand-regulated transcription factors. Estrogen also regulates the activity of GPR30, a membrane-associated G protein-coupled receptor. Many different types of environmental contaminants can activate ERs; some can bind GPR30 as well. There is growing concern that exposure to some of these compounds, termed xenoestrogens, is interfering with the behavior and reproductive potential of numerous wildlife species, as well as affecting human health. Here, we investigated how two common, environmentally pervasive chemicals affect the in vivo expression of a known estrogen target gene in the brain of developing zebrafish embryos, aromatase AroB, which converts androgens to estrogens. We confirm that, like estrogen, the well-studied xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA, a plastics monomer), induces strong brain-specific overexpression of aromatase. Experiments using ER- and GPR30-selective modulators argue that this induction is largely through nuclear ERs. BPA induces dramatic overexpression of AroB RNA in the same subregions of the developing brain as estrogen. The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) by itself stimulates AroB expression only slightly, but TCC strongly enhances the overexpression of AroB that is induced by exogenous estrogen. Thus, both BPA and TCC have the potential to elevate levels of aromatase and, thereby, levels of endogenous estrogens in the developing brain. In contrast to estrogen, BPA-induced AroB overexpression was suppressed by TCC. These results indicate that exposures to combinations of certain hormonally active pollutants can have outcomes that are not easily predicted from their individual effects. PMID:22006313

  17. Diversity of mechanisms involved in aromatase regulation and estrogen action in the brain.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Thierry D; Cornil, Charlotte A; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-10-01

    The mechanisms through which estrogens modulate neuronal physiology, brain morphology, and behavior in recent years have proven to be far more complex than previously thought. For example, a second nuclear estrogen receptor has been identified, a new family of coregulatory proteins regulating steroid-dependent gene transcriptions was discovered and, finally, it has become clear that estrogens have surprisingly rapid effects based on their actions on cell membranes, which in turn result in the modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. This paper presents a selective review of new findings in this area related to work in our laboratories, focusing on the role of estrogens in the activation of male sexual behavior. Two separate topics are considered. We first discuss functions of the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) that has emerged as a key limiting factor for behavioral effects of estradiol. Knocking-down its expression by antisense oligonucleotides drastically inhibits male-typical sexual behaviors. Secondly, we describe rapid regulations of brain estradiol production by calcium-dependent phosphorylations of the aromatase enzyme, themselves under the control of neurotransmitter activity. These rapid changes in estrogen bioavailability have clear behavioral consequences. Increases or decreases in estradiol concentrations respectively obtained by an acute injection of estradiol itself or of an aromatase inhibitor lead within 15-30 min to parallel changes in sexual behavior frequencies. These new controls of estrogen action offer a vast array of possibilities for discrete local controls of estrogen action. They also represent a formidable challenge for neuroendocrinologists trying to obtain an integrated view of brain function in relation to behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity of mechanisms involved in aromatase regulation and estrogen action in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Thierry D.; Cornil, Charlotte A.; Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms through which estrogens modulate neuronal physiology, brain morphology, and behavior in recent years have proven to be far more complex than previously thought. For example, a second nuclear estrogen receptor has been identified, a new family of coregulatory proteins regulating steroid-dependent gene transcriptions was discovered and, finally, it has become clear that estrogens have surprisingly rapid effects based on their actions on cell membranes, which in turn results in the modulation of intracellular signaling cascades. This paper presents a selective review of new findings in this area related to work in our laboratories, focusing on the role of estrogens in the activation of male sexual behavior. Two separate topics are considered. We first discuss functions of the steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1) that has emerged as a key limiting factor for behavioral effects of estradiol. Knocking-down its expression by antisense oligonucleotides drastically inhibits male-typical sexual behaviors. Secondly, we describe rapid regulations of brain estradiol production by calcium-dependent phosphorylations of the aromatase enzyme, themselves under the control of neurotransmitter activity. These rapid changes in estrogen bioavailability have clear behavioral consequences. Increases or decreases in estradiol concentrations respectively obtained by an acute injection of estradiol itself or of an aromatase inhibitor lead within 15-30 min to parallel changes in sexual behavior frequencies. These new controls of estrogens action offer a vast array of possibilities for discrete local controls of estrogen action. They also represent a formidable challenge for neuroendocrinologists trying to obtain an integrated view of brain function in relation to behavior. PMID:20060879

  19. Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones.

    PubMed

    Kellis, J T; Vickery, L E

    1984-09-07

    Several naturally occurring and synthetic flavones were found to inhibit the aromatization of androstenedione and testosterone to estrogens catalyzed by human placental and ovarian microsomes. These flavones include (in order of decreasing potency) 7,8-benzoflavone, chrysin, apigenin, flavone, flavanone, and quercetin; 5,6-benzoflavone was not inhibitory. 7,8-Benzoflavone and chrysin were potent competitive inhibitors and induced spectral changes in the aromatase cytochrome P-450 indicative of substrate displacement. Flavones may thus compete with steroids in their interaction with certain monooxygenases and thereby alter steroid hormone metabolism.

  20. Evaluation of a bioluminescent mouse model expressing aromatase PII-promoter-controlled luciferase as a tool for the study of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Rivest, Patricia Devine, Patrick J. Sanderson, J. Thomas

    2010-11-15

    Dysfunction of the enzyme aromatase (CYP19) is associated with endocrine pathologies such as osteoporosis, impaired fertility and development of hormone-dependent cancers. Certain endocrine disrupting chemicals affect aromatase expression and activity in vitro, but little is known about their ability to do so in vivo. We evaluated a bioluminescent mouse model (LPTA (registered)) CD-1-Tg(Cyp19-luc)-Xen) expressing luciferase under control of the gonadal aromatase pII promoter as an in vivo screening tool for chemicals that may affect aromatase expression. We studied the effects of forskolin, pregnant mare serum gonadotropin and atrazine in this model (atrazine was previously shown to induced pII-promoter-driven aromatase expression in H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells). About 2-4 out of every group of 10 male or female Cyp19-luc mice injected i.p. with 10 mg/kg forskolin had increased gonadal bioluminescence after 3-5 days compared to controls; the others appeared non-responsive. Similarly, about 4 per group of 9 individual females injected with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin had increased ovarian bioluminescence after 24 h. There was a statistically significant correlation between ovarian bioluminescence and plasma estradiol concentrations (n = 14; p = 0.022). Males exposed to a single dose of 100 mg/kg or males and females exposed to 5 daily injections of 30 mg/kg atrazine showed no change in gonadal bioluminescence over a 7 day period, but a significant interaction was found between atrazine (100 mg/kg) and time in female mice (p < 0.05; two-way ANOVA). Ex vivo luciferase activity in dissected organs was increased by forskolin in testis, epididymis and ovaries. Atrazine (30 mg/kg/day) increased (30%) luciferase activity significantly in epididymis only. In conclusion, certain individual Cyp19-luc mice are highly responsive to aromatase inducers, suggesting this model, with further optimization, may have potential as an in vivo screening tool for

  1. Differential expression of aromatase, estrogen receptor alpha and 17β-HSD associated with the processes of total testicular regression and recrudescence in the bat Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    PubMed

    Beguelini, Mateus R; Falleiros, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Rahal, Paula; Morielle-Versute, Eliana; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2014-05-15

    Despite the worldwide distribution and many unique reproductive adaptations that bats present, many aspects of their reproductive hormonal regulation have not been adequately studied, especially in species that presented patterns of total testicular regression. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the testicular expression of 17β-HSD type 1, aromatase and ERα in the bat Myotis nigricans, during the four periods of its reproductive cycle. Immunoreactivity for ERα was detected only in the cytoplasm of elongated spermatids and in the nuclei of spermatogonia and Sertoli cells. Expression of aromatase was observed in round and elongated spermatids and in Sertoli and Leydig cells. Immunoreactivity for 17β-HSD was restricted to the cytoplasm of Leydig cells. The three expression patterns varied significantly during the four periods of the reproductive cycle. Expression of ERα and aromatase in spermatids was continuous, while expression of ERα in spermatogonia occurred only in initial types (Ap). Expression of ERα and aromatase in Sertoli cells varied, with expression only in periods of spermatogenetic activities; and the same variation was observed for the expression of aromatase and 17β-HSD in Leydig cells. We, therefore, propose that the processes of total testicular regression and posterior recrudescence suffered by M. nigricans from September to January in the northwest of the São Paulo State of Brazil, are directly regulated by testosterone and estrogen. This occurs via the production of testosterone by 17β-HSD, its conversion into estrogen by aromatase, and activation/deactivation of Sertoli cells' AR and spermatogonia's ERα. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of 6- or 4-functionalized indoles via a reductive cyclization approach and evaluation as aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lézé, Marie-Pierre; Palusczak, Anja; Hartmann, Rolf W; Le Borgne, Marc

    2008-08-15

    Two new series of benzonitrile derivatives on position 6 or 4 of indole ring were successfully synthesized via a Leimgruber-Batcho reaction. All the compounds were evaluated in vitro on the inhibition of aromatase (CYP19) and 17alpha-hydroxylase-C17,20-lyase (CYP17). The racemate, 4-[(1H-imidazol-1-yl)(1H-indol-4-yl)methyl]benzonitrile 9, showed high level of inhibitory activity towards CYP19 (IC(50)=11.5 nM).

  3. LED-activated pheophorbide a induces cellular destruction of colon cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, C. S.; Leung, A. W. N.; Liu, L.; Xia, X. S.

    2010-07-01

    Pheophorbide a (Pa) from Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria Barbata and Silkworm Excreta shows an important promise in the photodynamic therapy on malignant tumor. The present study investigated that LED-activated Pa induced the cellular destruction of colon cancer HT-29 cells. The results showed that Pa resulted in a drug-dose dependent photocytotoxicity in the HT-29 cells, meaning the photocytotoxicity of Pa depends on the drug concentration (0 - 2 μM). We further investigated the apoptosis of the HT-29 cells 18 hours after photosensitization of Pa using a confocal laser scanning microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. These data demonstrated that LED-activated Pa could significantly induce the cellular destruction of the HT-29 cells.

  4. Ophiobolin A Induces Autophagy and Activates the Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis in Human Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rodolfo, Carlo; Rocco, Mariapina; Cattaneo, Lucia; Tartaglia, Maria; Sassi, Mauro; Aducci, Patrizia; Scaloni, Andrea; Marra, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Ophiobolin A, a fungal toxin from Bipolaris species known to affect different cellular processes in plants, has recently been shown to have anti-cancer activity in mammalian cells. In the present study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effect of Ophiobolin A on human melanoma A375 and CHL-1 cell lines. This cellular model was chosen because of the incidence of melanoma malignant tumor on human population and its resistance to chemical treatments. Ophyobolin A strongly reduced cell viability of melanoma cells by affecting mitochondrial functionality. The toxin induced depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial network fragmentation, leading to autophagy induction and ultimately resulting in cell death by activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Finally, a comparative proteomic investigation on A375 cells allowed to identify several Ophiobolin A down-regulated proteins, which are involved in fundamental processes for cell homeostasis and viability. PMID:27936075

  5. Jacarelhyperol A induced apoptosis in leukaemia cancer cell through inhibition the activity of Bcl-2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shoude; Yin, Jun; Li, Xia; Zhang, Jigang; Yue, Rongcai; Diao, Yanyan; Li, Honglin; Wang, Hui; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-09-22

    Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray is widely used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of hepatitis and tumours in China. However, the molecular mechanisms of its effects are unclear. Our previous research showed that extracts of H. japonicum can induce apoptosis in leukaemia cells. We also previously systematically analysed and isolated the chemical composition of H. japonicum. The fluorescence polarisation experiment was used to screen for inhibitors of Bcl-2 proteins which are proved as key proteins in apoptosis. The binding mode was modelled by molecular docking. We investigated the proliferation attenuating and apoptosis inducing effects of active compound on cancer cells by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. Activation of caspases were tested by Western blot. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK was used to investigate the caspases-dependence. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation was performed to analyse the inhibition of heterodimerization between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins with pro-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, in vivo activity was tested in a mouse xenograph tumour model. Jacarelhyperol A (Jac-A), a characteristic constituent of H. japonicum, was identified as a potential Bcl-2 inhibitor. Jac-A showed binding affinities to Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 with Ki values of 0.46 μM, 0.43 μM, and 1.69 μM, respectively. This is consistent with computational modelling results, which show that Jac-A presents a favorable binding mode with Bcl-xL in the BH3-binding pocket. In addition, Jac-A showed potential growth inhibitory activity in leukaemia cells with IC50 values from 1.52 to 6.92 μM and significantly induced apoptosis of K562 cells by promoting release of cytochrome c and activating the caspases. Jac-A also been proved that its effect is partly caspases-dependent and can disrupt the heterodimerization between anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins with pro-apoptotic proteins. Moreover, Jac-A dose-dependently inhibited human K562 cell growth in a

  6. Temperature Shift Alters DNA Methylation and Histone Modification Patterns in Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1) Gene in Species with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, Brette; Crews, David

    2016-01-01

    The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1) gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) subjected to a temperature shift during development. Shifting embryos from a male-producing temperature (MPT) to a female-producing temperature (FPT) at the beginning of the temperature-sensitive period (TSP) resulted in an increase in aromatase mRNA expression while a shift from FPT to MPT resulted in decreased expression. DNA methylation levels at CpG sites in the promoter of the aromatase gene were high (70–90%) at the beginning of TSP, but decreased in embryos that were incubated at constant FPT and those shifted from MPT to the FPT. This decrease in methylation in the promoter inversely correlated with the expected increase in aromatase expression at the FPT. The active demethylation under the FPT was especially prominent at the CpG site upstream of the gonad-specific TATA box at the beginning of TSP and spread downstream of the gene including exon1 as the gonad development progressed. In embryos incubated at FPT, the promoter region was also labeled by canonical transcriptional activation markers, H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II. A transcriptional repression marker, H3K27me3, was observed in temperature-shifted gonads of both temperature groups, but was not maintained throughout the development in either group. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation and H3K4me3 modification at the aromatase promoter may be a primary mechanism that releases a transcriptional block of aromatase to initiate a

  7. Temperature Shift Alters DNA Methylation and Histone Modification Patterns in Gonadal Aromatase (cyp19a1) Gene in Species with Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yuiko; Hannigan, Brette; Crews, David

    2016-01-01

    The environment surrounding the embryos has a profound impact on the developmental process and phenotypic outcomes of the organism. In species with temperature-dependent sex determination, gonadal sex is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs. A mechanistic link between temperature and transcriptional regulation of developmental genes, however, remains elusive. In this study, we examine the changes in DNA methylation and histone modification patterns of the aromatase (cyp19a1) gene in embryonic gonads of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta) subjected to a temperature shift during development. Shifting embryos from a male-producing temperature (MPT) to a female-producing temperature (FPT) at the beginning of the temperature-sensitive period (TSP) resulted in an increase in aromatase mRNA expression while a shift from FPT to MPT resulted in decreased expression. DNA methylation levels at CpG sites in the promoter of the aromatase gene were high (70-90%) at the beginning of TSP, but decreased in embryos that were incubated at constant FPT and those shifted from MPT to the FPT. This decrease in methylation in the promoter inversely correlated with the expected increase in aromatase expression at the FPT. The active demethylation under the FPT was especially prominent at the CpG site upstream of the gonad-specific TATA box at the beginning of TSP and spread downstream of the gene including exon1 as the gonad development progressed. In embryos incubated at FPT, the promoter region was also labeled by canonical transcriptional activation markers, H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II. A transcriptional repression marker, H3K27me3, was observed in temperature-shifted gonads of both temperature groups, but was not maintained throughout the development in either group. Our findings suggest that DNA hypomethylation and H3K4me3 modification at the aromatase promoter may be a primary mechanism that releases a transcriptional block of aromatase to initiate a

  8. Forced expression of Hnf4a induces hepatic gene activation through directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yahoo, Neda; Pournasr, Behshad; Rostamzadeh, Jalal; Fathi, Fardin

    2016-08-05

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have a diverse differentiation potential. These unique features make ES cells as an attractive source for developmental biology studies. Having the mature hepatocyte in the lab with functional activities is valuable in drug discovery studies. Overexpression of hepatocyte lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) becomes a promising approach in pluripotent cell differentiation toward liver cells. Many studies generate transgenic ES cell lines to examine the effects of specific TFs overexpression in cell differentiation. In the present report, we have addressed whether a suspension or adherent model of differentiation is an appropriate way to study the role of Hnf4a overexpression. We generated ES cells that carried a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Hnf4a using lentiviral vectors. The transduced cells were subjected to induced Hnf4a overexpression through both spontaneous and directed differentiation methods. Gene expression analysis showed substantially increased expression of hepatic gene markers, particularly Ttr and endogenous Hnf4a, in transduced cells differentiated by the directed approach. These results demonstrated that forced expression of TFs during directed differentiation would be an appropriate way to study relevant gene activation and the effects of overexpression in the context of hepatic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aurora kinase A induces papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis by promoting cofilin-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Yusufu; Jie, Tan; Jing, Zhou; Changwen, Wang; Pan, Yu; Chen, Chen; Tao, Huang

    2016-04-22

    Aurora-A (Aur-A), a member of the serine/threonine Aurora kinase family, plays an important role in ensuring genetic stability during cell division. Previous studies indicated that Aur-A possesses oncogenic activity and may be a valuable therapeutic target in cancer therapy. However, the role of Aur-A in the most common thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), remains largely unknown. In patients with PTC, cancer cell migration and invasion account for most of the metastasis, recurrence, and cancer-related deaths. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is the most important effector of actin polymerization and depolymerization, determining the direction of cell migration. Here, we assessed the correlation between Aur-A and CFL-1 in PTC with lymph node metastasis. Tissue microarray data showed that simultaneous overexpression of Aur-A and CFL-1 correlated with lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer tissue. Inhibition of Aur-A suppressed thyroid cancer cell migration in vitro and decreased lymph node metastasis in nude mice. Importantly, Aur-A increased the non-phosphorylated, active form of CFL-1 in TPC-1 cells, thus promoting cancer cell migration and thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis. Our findings indicate that the combination of Aur-A and CFL-1 may be useful as a molecular prediction model for lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer and raise the possibility of targeting Aur-A and CFL-1 for more effective treatment of thyroid cancer.

  10. Molecular basis of aromatase deficiency in an adult female with sexual infantilism and polycystic ovaries.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Y; Fisher, C R; Conte, F A; Grumbach, M M; Simpson, E R

    1993-01-01

    We identified two mutations in the CYP19 gene responsible for aromatase deficiency in an 18-year-old 46,XX female with ambiguous external genitalia at birth, primary amenorrhea and sexual infantilism, and polycystic ovaries. The coding exons, namely exons II-X, of the CYP19 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and sequenced directly. Direct sequencing of the amplified DNA from the patient revealed two single-base changes, at bp 1303 (C-->T) and bp 1310 (G-->A) in exon X, which were newly found missense mutations and resulted in codon changes of R435C and C437Y, respectively. Subcloning followed by sequencing confirmed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. The results of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of the amplified exon X DNA from the patient's mother indicate maternal inheritance of the R435C mutation. Transient expression experiments showed that the R435C mutant protein had approximately 1.1% of the activity of the wild type, whereas C437Y was totally inactive. Cysteine-437 is the conserved cysteine in the heme-binding region believed to serve as the fifth coordinating ligand of the heme iron. To our knowledge, this patient is the first adult to have described the cardinal features of a syndrome of aromatase deficiency. Recognition that such defects exist will lead to a better understanding of the role of this enzyme in human development and disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8265607