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Sample records for a-induced cell death

  1. Bacoside A Induces Tumor Cell Death in Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines through Catastrophic Macropinocytosis

    PubMed Central

    John, Sebastian; Sivakumar, K. C.; Mishra, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive type of brain tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent evidences have shown that the “biomechanical imbalances” induced in GBM patient-derived glioblastoma cells (GC) and in vivo via the administration of synthetic small molecules, may effectively inhibit disease progression and prolong survival of GBM animal models. This novel concept associated with de novo anti-GBM drug development has however suffered obstacles in adequate clinical utility due to the appearance of unrelated toxicity in the prolonged therapeutic windows. Here, we took a “drug repurposing approach” to trigger similar physico-chemical disturbances in the GBM tumor cells, wherein, the candidate therapeutic agent has been previously well established for its neuro-protective roles, safety, efficacy, prolonged tolerance and excellent brain bioavailability in human subjects and mouse models. In this study, we show that the extracts of an Indian traditional medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (BM) and its bioactive component Bacoside A can generate dosage associated tumor specific disturbances in the hydrostatic pressure balance of the cell via a mechanism involving excessive phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIA (CaMKIIA/CaMK2A) enzyme that is further involved in the release of calcium from the smooth endoplasmic reticular networks. High intracellular calcium stimulated massive macropinocytotic extracellular fluid intake causing cell hypertrophy in the initial stages, excessive macropinosome enlargement and fluid accumulation associated organellar congestion, cell swelling, cell rounding and membrane rupture of glioblastoma cells; with all these events culminating into a non-apoptotic, physical non-homeostasis associated glioblastoma tumor cell death. These results identify glioblastoma tumor cells to be a specific target of the tested herbal medicine and therefore can be exploited as a safe anti-GBM therapeutic

  2. Bacoside A Induces Tumor Cell Death in Human Glioblastoma Cell Lines through Catastrophic Macropinocytosis.

    PubMed

    John, Sebastian; Sivakumar, K C; Mishra, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive type of brain tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Recent evidences have shown that the "biomechanical imbalances" induced in GBM patient-derived glioblastoma cells (GC) and in vivo via the administration of synthetic small molecules, may effectively inhibit disease progression and prolong survival of GBM animal models. This novel concept associated with de novo anti-GBM drug development has however suffered obstacles in adequate clinical utility due to the appearance of unrelated toxicity in the prolonged therapeutic windows. Here, we took a "drug repurposing approach" to trigger similar physico-chemical disturbances in the GBM tumor cells, wherein, the candidate therapeutic agent has been previously well established for its neuro-protective roles, safety, efficacy, prolonged tolerance and excellent brain bioavailability in human subjects and mouse models. In this study, we show that the extracts of an Indian traditional medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (BM) and its bioactive component Bacoside A can generate dosage associated tumor specific disturbances in the hydrostatic pressure balance of the cell via a mechanism involving excessive phosphorylation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIA (CaMKIIA/CaMK2A) enzyme that is further involved in the release of calcium from the smooth endoplasmic reticular networks. High intracellular calcium stimulated massive macropinocytotic extracellular fluid intake causing cell hypertrophy in the initial stages, excessive macropinosome enlargement and fluid accumulation associated organellar congestion, cell swelling, cell rounding and membrane rupture of glioblastoma cells; with all these events culminating into a non-apoptotic, physical non-homeostasis associated glioblastoma tumor cell death. These results identify glioblastoma tumor cells to be a specific target of the tested herbal medicine and therefore can be exploited as a safe anti-GBM therapeutic.

  3. Withaferin A Induces Cell Death Selectively in Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cells but Not in Normal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Yukihiro; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Fukushima, Kohshiro; Mukai, Satomi; Ohno, Shouichi; Ozaki, Yuki; Yabuta, Norikazu; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Withaferin A (WA), a major bioactive component of the Indian herb Withania somnifera, induces cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) in multiple types of tumor cells, but the molecular mechanism underlying this cytotoxicity remains elusive. We report here that 2 μM WA induced cell death selectively in androgen-insensitive PC-3 and DU-145 prostate adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its toxicity was less severe in androgen-sensitive LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells and normal human fibroblasts (TIG-1 and KD). WA also killed PC-3 cells in spheroid-forming medium. DNA microarray analysis revealed that WA significantly increased mRNA levels of c-Fos and 11 heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in LNCaP and TIG-1. Western analysis revealed increased expression of c-Fos and reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein c-FLIP(L). Expression of HSPs such as HSPA6 and Hsp70 was conspicuously elevated; however, because siRNA-mediated depletion of HSF-1, an HSP-inducing transcription factor, reduced PC-3 cell viability, it is likely that these heat-shock genes were involved in protecting against cell death. Moreover, WA induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PC-3 and DU-145, but not in normal fibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy revealed that WA disrupted the vimentin cytoskeleton, possibly inducing the ROS generation, c-Fos expression and c-FLIP(L) suppression. These observations suggest that multiple events followed by disruption of the vimentin cytoskeleton play pivotal roles in WA-mediated cell death. PMID:26230090

  4. RNA interference-mediated silencing of mutant superoxide dismutase rescues cyclosporin A-induced death in cultured neuroblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Michele M.; Pasinelli, Piera; Kazantsev, Aleksey G.; Brown, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder resulting from selective death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord. In ≈25% of familial ALS cases, the disease is caused by dominantly acting point mutations in the gene encoding cytosolic Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In cell culture and in rodent models of ALS, mutant SOD1 proteins exhibit dose-dependent toxicity; thus, agents that reduce mutant protein expression would be powerful therapeutic tools. A wealth of recent evidence has demonstrated that the mechanism of RNA-mediated interference (RNAi) can be exploited to achieve potent and specific gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. We have evaluated the utility of RNAi for selective silencing of mutant SOD1 expression in cultured cells and have identified small interfering RNAs capable of specifically inhibiting expression of ALS-linked mutant, but not wild-type, SOD1. We have investigated the functional effects of RNAi-mediated silencing of mutant SOD1 in cultured murine neuroblastoma cells. In this model, stable expression of mutant, but not wild-type, human SOD1 sensitizes cells to cytotoxic stimuli. We find that silencing of mutant SOD1 protects these cells against cyclosporin A-induced cell death. These results demonstrate a positive physiological effect caused by RNAi-mediated silencing of a dominant disease allele. The present study further supports the therapeutic potential of RNAi-based methods for the treatment of inherited human diseases, including ALS. PMID:14981234

  5. Dictyostelium cell death

    PubMed Central

    Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L.; Golstein, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Cell death in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell death, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell death, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of “paddle” cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell death process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent death indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell death pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells. PMID:12654899

  6. Programmed cell death

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  7. Ectopic expression of H2AX protein promotes TrkA-induced cell death via modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Eun Joo; Kim, Deok Ryong, E-mail: drkim@gnu.ac.kr

    2011-01-21

    Research highlights: {yields} We established TrkA-inducible U2OS cells stably expressing GFP-H2AX proteins. {yields} GFP-H2AX was colocalized with TrkA in the cytoplasm. {yields} {gamma}H2AX production was significantly increased upon activation of TrkA and suppressed by TrkA inhibitor or JNK inhibitor. {yields} Ectopic expression of H2AX promoted TrkA-mediated cell death through the modulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation and JNK activity upon DNA damage. -- Abstract: We previously reported that TrkA overexpression causes accumulation of {gamma}H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, subsequently leading to massive cell death in U2OS cells. To further investigate how cytoplasmic H2AX is associated with TrkA-induced cell death, we establishedmore » TrkA-inducible cells stably expressing GFP-tagged H2AX. We found that TrkA co-localizes with ectopically expressed GFP-H2AX proteins in the cytoplasm, especially at the juxta-nuclear membranes, which supports our previous results about a functional connection between TrkA and {gamma}H2AX in TrkA-induced cell death. {gamma}H2AX production from GFP-H2AX proteins was significantly increased when TrkA was overexpressed. Moreover, ectopic expression of H2AX activated TrkA-mediated signal pathways via up-regulation of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation. In addition, suppression of TrkA tyrosine-490 phosphorylation under a certain condition was removed by ectopic expression of H2AX, indicating a functional role of H2AX in the maintenance of TrkA activity. Indeed, TrkA-induced cell death was highly elevated by ectopic H2AX expression, and it was further accelerated by DNA damage via JNK activation. These all results suggest that cytoplasmic H2AX could play an important role in TrkA-mediated cell death by modulating TrkA upon DNA damage.« less

  8. Dead Cert: Measuring Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Marfell, Brooke J; Scott, Adrian P; Boughaba, Jeanne A; Chojnowski, Grace; Christensen, Melinda E; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-12-01

    Many cells in the body die at specific times to facilitate healthy development or because they have become old, damaged, or infected. Defects in cells that result in their inappropriate survival or untimely death can negatively impact development or contribute to a variety of human pathologies, including cancer, AIDS, autoimmune disorders, and chronic infection. Cell death may also occur following exposure to environmental toxins or cytotoxic chemicals. Although this is often harmful, it can be beneficial in some cases, such as in the treatment of cancer. The ability to objectively measure cell death in a laboratory setting is therefore essential to understanding and investigating the causes and treatments of many human diseases and disorders. Often, it is sufficient to know the extent of cell death in a sample; however, the mechanism of death may also have implications for disease progression, treatment, and the outcomes of experimental investigations. There are a myriad of assays available for measuring the known forms of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, necroptosis, anoikis, and pyroptosis. Here, we introduce a range of assays for measuring cell death in cultured cells, and we outline basic techniques for distinguishing healthy cells from apoptotic or necrotic cells-the two most common forms of cell death. We also provide personal insight into where these assays may be useful and how they may or may not be used to distinguish apoptotic cell death from other death modalities. © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. Glutathione Efflux and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Glutathione (GSH) depletion is a central signaling event that regulates the activation of cell death pathways. GSH depletion is often taken as a marker of oxidative stress and thus, as a consequence of its antioxidant properties scavenging reactive species of both oxygen and nitrogen (ROS/RNS). Recent Advances: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that GSH loss is an active phenomenon regulating the redox signaling events modulating cell death activation and progression. Critical Issues: In this work, we review the role of GSH depletion by its efflux, as an important event regulating alterations in the cellular redox balance during cell death independent from oxidative stress and ROS/RNS formation. We discuss the mechanisms involved in GSH efflux during cell death progression and the redox signaling events by which GSH depletion regulates the activation of the cell death machinery. Future Directions: The evidence summarized here clearly places GSH transport as a central mechanism mediating redox signaling during cell death progression. Future studies should be directed toward identifying the molecular identity of GSH transporters mediating GSH extrusion during cell death, and addressing the lack of sensitive approaches to quantify GSH efflux. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1694–1713. PMID:22656858

  10. Cell death proteomics database: consolidating proteomics data on cell death.

    PubMed

    Arntzen, Magnus Ø; Bull, Vibeke H; Thiede, Bernd

    2013-05-03

    Programmed cell death is a ubiquitous process of utmost importance for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. More than 10 different types of programmed cell death forms have been discovered. Several proteomics analyses have been performed to gain insight in proteins involved in the different forms of programmed cell death. To consolidate these studies, we have developed the cell death proteomics (CDP) database, which comprehends data from apoptosis, autophagy, cytotoxic granule-mediated cell death, excitotoxicity, mitotic catastrophe, paraptosis, pyroptosis, and Wallerian degeneration. The CDP database is available as a web-based database to compare protein identifications and quantitative information across different experimental setups. The proteomics data of 73 publications were integrated and unified with protein annotations from UniProt-KB and gene ontology (GO). Currently, more than 6,500 records of more than 3,700 proteins are included in the CDP. Comparing apoptosis and autophagy using overrepresentation analysis of GO terms, the majority of enriched processes were found in both, but also some clear differences were perceived. Furthermore, the analysis revealed differences and similarities of the proteome between autophagosomal and overall autophagy. The CDP database represents a useful tool to consolidate data from proteome analyses of programmed cell death and is available at http://celldeathproteomics.uio.no.

  11. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Angel L.; Mena, Salvador; Estrela, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy. PMID:24212662

  12. Cell Death in C. elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Malin, Jennifer Zuckerman; Shaham, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Cell death is a common and important feature of animal development, and cell death defects underlie many human disease states. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven fertile ground for uncovering molecular and cellular processes controlling programmed cell death. A core pathway consisting of the conserved proteins EGL-1/BH3-only, CED-9/BCL2, CED-4/APAF1, and CED-3/caspase promotes most cell death in the nematode, and a conserved set of proteins ensures the engulfment and degradation of dying cells. Multiple regulatory pathways control cell death onset in C. elegans, and many reveal similarities with tumor formation pathways in mammals, supporting the idea that cell death plays key roles in malignant progression. Nonetheless, a number of observations suggest that our understanding of developmental cell death in C. elegans is incomplete. The interaction between dying and engulfing cells seems to be more complex than originally appreciated, and it appears that key aspects of cell death initiation are not fully understood. It has also become apparent that the conserved apoptotic pathway is dispensable for the demise of the C. elegans linker cell, leading to the discovery of a previously unexplored gene program promoting cell death. Here, we review studies that formed the foundation of cell death research in C. elegans and describe new observations that expand, and in some cases remodel, this edifice. We raise the possibility that, in some cells, more than one death program may be needed to ensure cell death fidelity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Aaronson, Stuart A; Abrams, John M; Adam, Dieter; Agostinis, Patrizia; Alnemri, Emad S; Altucci, Lucia; Amelio, Ivano; Andrews, David W; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Antonov, Alexey V; Arama, Eli; Baehrecke, Eric H; Barlev, Nickolai A; Bazan, Nicolas G; Bernassola, Francesca; Bertrand, Mathieu J M; Bianchi, Katiuscia; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V; Blomgren, Klas; Borner, Christoph; Boya, Patricia; Brenner, Catherine; Campanella, Michelangelo; Candi, Eleonora; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Cecconi, Francesco; Chan, Francis K-M; Chandel, Navdeep S; Cheng, Emily H; Chipuk, Jerry E; Cidlowski, John A; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M; Conrad, Marcus; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R; Czabotar, Peter E; D'Angiolella, Vincenzo; Dawson, Ted M; Dawson, Valina L; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; De Maria, Ruggero; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Di Daniele, Nicola; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Dixit, Vishva M; Dixon, Scott J; Duckett, Colin S; Dynlacht, Brian D; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Elrod, John W; Fimia, Gian Maria; Fulda, Simone; García-Sáez, Ana J; Garg, Abhishek D; Garrido, Carmen; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Golstein, Pierre; Gottlieb, Eyal; Green, Douglas R; Greene, Lloyd A; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Gross, Atan; Hajnoczky, Gyorgy; Hardwick, J Marie; Harris, Isaac S; Hengartner, Michael O; Hetz, Claudio; Ichijo, Hidenori; Jäättelä, Marja; Joseph, Bertrand; Jost, Philipp J; Juin, Philippe P; Kaiser, William J; Karin, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas; Kepp, Oliver; Kimchi, Adi; Kitsis, Richard N; Klionsky, Daniel J; Knight, Richard A; Kumar, Sharad; Lee, Sam W; Lemasters, John J; Levine, Beth; Linkermann, Andreas; Lipton, Stuart A; Lockshin, Richard A; López-Otín, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W; Luedde, Tom; Lugli, Enrico; MacFarlane, Marion; Madeo, Frank; Malewicz, Michal; Malorni, Walter; Manic, Gwenola; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Seamus J; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Medema, Jan Paul; Mehlen, Patrick; Meier, Pascal; Melino, Sonia; Miao, Edward A; Molkentin, Jeffery D; Moll, Ute M; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Nagata, Shigekazu; Nuñez, Gabriel; Oberst, Andrew; Oren, Moshe; Overholtzer, Michael; Pagano, Michele; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pasparakis, Manolis; Penninger, Josef M; Pereira, David M; Pervaiz, Shazib; Peter, Marcus E; Piacentini, Mauro; Pinton, Paolo; Prehn, Jochen H M; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rehm, Markus; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rodrigues, Cecilia M P; Rubinsztein, David C; Rudel, Thomas; Ryan, Kevin M; Sayan, Emre; Scorrano, Luca; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yufang; Silke, John; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Sistigu, Antonella; Stockwell, Brent R; Strasser, Andreas; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Tait, Stephen W G; Tang, Daolin; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Thorburn, Andrew; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Turk, Boris; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Villunger, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W; Vousden, Karen H; Vucic, Domagoj; Wagner, Erwin F; Walczak, Henning; Wallach, David; Wang, Ying; Wells, James A; Wood, Will; Yuan, Junying; Zakeri, Zahra; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Zitvogel, Laurence; Melino, Gerry; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell death, autophagy-dependent cell death, immunogenic cell death, cellular senescence, and mitotic catastrophe, we discuss the utility of neologisms that refer to highly specialized instances of these processes. The mission of the NCCD is to provide a widely accepted nomenclature on cell death in support of the continued development of the field.

  14. What cell death does in development.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Zahra; Penaloza, Carlos G; Smith, Kyle; Ye, Yixia; Lockshin, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Cell death is prominent in gametogenesis and shapes and sculpts embryos. In non-mammalian embryos one sees little or no cell death prior to the maternal-zygotic transition, but, in mammalian embryos, characteristic deaths of one or two cells occur at the end of compaction and are apparently necessary for the separation of the trophoblast from the inner cell mass. Considerable sculpting of the embryo occurs by cell deaths during organogenesis, and appropriate cell numbers, especially in the CNS and in the immune system, are generated by massive overproduction of cells and selection of a few, with death of the rest. The timing, identity, and genetic control of specific cells that die have been well documented in Caenorhabditis, but in other embryos the stochastic nature of the deaths limit our ability to do more than identify the regions in which cells will die. Complete disruption of the cell death machinery can be lethal, but many mutations of the regulatory machinery yield only modest or no phenotypes, indicating substantial redundancy and compensation of regulatory mechanisms. Most of the deaths are apoptotic and are identified by techniques used to recognize apoptosis, but techniques identifying lysosomes (whether in dying or involuting cells or in the phagocytes that invade the tissue) also reveal patterns of cell death. Aberrant cell deaths that produce known phenotypes are typically localized, indicating that the mechanism of activating a programmed death in a specific region, rather than the mechanism of death, is aberrant. These results lead us to conclude that we need to know much more about the conversations among cells that lead cells to commit suicide.

  15. [Methuosis: a novel type of cell death].

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongbing; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Qin; Li, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Cell death is a major physiological or pathological phenomenon in life activities. The classic forms of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Recently, a novel type of cell death has been observed and termed as methuosis, in which excessive stimuli can induce cytoplasmic uptake and accumulation of small bubbles that gradually merge into giant vacuoles, eventually leading to decreased cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane rupture and cell death. In this article, we describe the nomenclature, morphological characteristics and underlying mechanisms of methuosis, compare methuosis with autophagy, oncosis and paraptosis, and review the related researches.

  16. Programmed Cell Death During Caenorhabditis elegans Development

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Barbara; Wu, Yi-Chun; Xue, Ding

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death is an integral component of Caenorhabditis elegans development. Genetic and reverse genetic studies in C. elegans have led to the identification of many genes and conserved cell death pathways that are important for the specification of which cells should live or die, the activation of the suicide program, and the dismantling and removal of dying cells. Molecular, cell biological, and biochemical studies have revealed the underlying mechanisms that control these three phases of programmed cell death. In particular, the interplay of transcriptional regulatory cascades and networks involving multiple transcriptional regulators is crucial in activating the expression of the key death-inducing gene egl-1 and, in some cases, the ced-3 gene in cells destined to die. A protein interaction cascade involving EGL-1, CED-9, CED-4, and CED-3 results in the activation of the key cell death protease CED-3, which is tightly controlled by multiple positive and negative regulators. The activation of the CED-3 caspase then initiates the cell disassembly process by cleaving and activating or inactivating crucial CED-3 substrates; leading to activation of multiple cell death execution events, including nuclear DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial elimination, phosphatidylserine externalization, inactivation of survival signals, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Further studies of programmed cell death in C. elegans will continue to advance our understanding of how programmed cell death is regulated, activated, and executed in general. PMID:27516615

  17. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  18. Ap4A induces apoptosis in human cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, A; Alexandrov, I; Prudowski, I; McLennan, A; Kisselev, L

    1999-07-30

    Diadenosine oligophosphates (Ap(n)A) have been proposed as intracellular and extracellular signaling molecules in animal cells. The ratio of diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate to diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap3A/Ap4A) is sensitive to the cellular status and alters when cultured cells undergo differentiation or are treated with interferons. In cells undergoing apoptosis induced by DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor VP16, the concentration of Ap3A decreases significantly while that of Ap4A increases. Here, we have examined the effects of exogenously added Ap3A and Ap4A on apoptosis and morphological differentiation. Penetration of Ap(n)A into cells was achieved by cold shock. Ap4A at 10 microM induced programmed cell death in human HL60, U937 and Jurkat cells and mouse VMRO cells and this effect appeared to require Ap4A breakdown as hydrolysis-resistant analogues of Ap4A were inactive. On its own, Ap3A induced neither apoptosis nor cell differentiation but did display strong synergism with the protein kinase C activators 12-deoxyphorbol-13-O-phenylacetate and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-O-phenylacetate-20-acetate in inducing differentiation of HL60 cells. We propose that Ap4A and Ap3A are physiological antagonists in determination of the cellular status: Ap4A induces apoptosis whereas Ap3A is a co-inductor of differentiation. In both cases, the mechanism of signal transduction remains unknown.

  19. Cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell death and survival

    PubMed Central

    Komissarov, Alexey A.; Rafieva, Lola M.; Kostrov, Sergey V.

    2016-01-01

    Cytoplasmic vacuolization (also called cytoplasmic vacuolation) is a well-known morphological phenomenon observed in mammalian cells after exposure to bacterial or viral pathogens as well as to various natural and artificial low-molecular-weight compounds. Vacuolization often accompanies cell death; however, its role in cell death processes remains unclear. This can be attributed to studying vacuolization at the level of morphology for many years. At the same time, new data on the molecular mechanisms of the vacuole formation and structure have become available. In addition, numerous examples of the association between vacuolization and previously unknown cell death types have been reported. Here, we review these data to make a deeper insight into the role of cytoplasmic vacuolization in cell death and survival. PMID:27331412

  20. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V

    2011-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.

  1. Cell Death and Cell Death Responses in Liver Disease: Mechanisms and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Luedde, Tom; Kaplowitz, Neil; Schwabe, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hepatocellular death is present in almost all types of human liver disease and is used as a sensitive parameter for the detection of acute and chronic liver disease of viral, toxic, metabolic, or autoimmune origin. Clinical data and animal models suggest that hepatocyte death is the key trigger of liver disease progression, manifested by the subsequent development of inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Modes of hepatocellular death differ substantially between liver diseases. Different modes of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis trigger specific cell death responses and promote progression of liver disease through distinct mechanisms. In this review, we first discuss molecular mechanisms by which different modes of cell death, damage-associated molecular patterns, and specific cell death responses contribute to the development of liver disease. We then review the clinical relevance of cell death, focusing on biomarkers; the contribution of cell death to drug-induced, viral, and fatty liver disease and liver cancer; and evidence for cell death pathways as therapeutic targets. PMID:25046161

  2. How Kidney Cell Death Induces Renal Necroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Kumar, Santhosh V; Lech, Maciej; Desai, Jyaysi; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The nephrons of the kidney are independent functional units harboring cells of a low turnover during homeostasis. As such, physiological renal cell death is a rather rare event and dead cells are flushed away rapidly with the urinary flow. Renal cell necrosis occurs in acute kidney injuries such as thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, or tubular necrosis. All of these are associated with intense intrarenal inflammation, which contributes to further renal cell loss, an autoamplifying process referred to as necroinflammation. But how does renal cell necrosis trigger inflammation? Here, we discuss the role of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mitochondrial (mito)-DAMPs, and alarmins, as well as their respective pattern recognition receptors. The capacity of DAMPs and alarmins to trigger cytokine and chemokine release initiates the recruitment of leukocytes into the kidney that further amplify necroinflammation. Infiltrating neutrophils often undergo neutrophil extracellular trap formation associated with neutrophil death or necroptosis, which implies a release of histones, which act not only as DAMPs but also elicit direct cytotoxic effects on renal cells, namely endothelial cells. Proinflammatory macrophages and eventually cytotoxic T cells further drive kidney cell death and inflammation. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of necroinflammation may help to identify the best therapeutic targets to limit nephron loss in kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cell death pathways of particulate matter toxicity.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Milena Simões; de Oliveira Galvão, Marcos Felipe; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2017-12-01

    Humans are exposed to various complex mixtures of particulate matter (PM) from different sources. Long-term exposure to high levels of these particulates has been linked to a diverse range of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases that have resulted in hospital admission. The evaluation of the effects of PM exposure on the mechanisms related to cell death has been a challenge for many researchers. Therefore, in this review, we have discussed the effects of airborne PM exposure on mechanisms related to cell death. For this purpose, we have compiled literature data on PM sources, the effects of exposure, and the assays and models used for evaluation, in order to establish comparisons between various studies. The analysis of this collected data suggested divergent responses to PM exposure that resulted in different cell death types (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis). In addition, PM induced oxidative stress within cells, which appeared to be an important factor in the determination of cell fate. When the levels of reactive oxygen species were overpowering, the cellular fate was directed toward cell death. This may be the underlying mechanism of the development or exacerbation of respiratory diseases, such as emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. In addition, PM was shown to cause DNA damage and the resulting mutations increased the risk of cancer. Furthermore, several conditions should be considered in the assessment of cell death in PM-exposed models, including the cell culture line, PM composition, and the interaction of the different cells types in in vivo models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunological consequences of kidney cell death.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Maysa; von Mässenhausen, Anne; Hugo, Christian; Oberbauer, Rainer; Linkermann, Andreas

    2018-01-25

    Death of renal cells is central to the pathophysiology of acute tubular necrosis, autoimmunity, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, cystic kidney disease, urosepsis, delayed graft function and transplant rejection. By means of regulated necrosis, immunogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and highly reactive organelles such as lysosomes, peroxisomes and mitochondria are released from the dying cells, thereby causing an overwhelming immunologic response. The rupture of the plasma membrane exhibits the "point of no return" for the immunogenicity of regulated cell death, explaining why apoptosis, a highly organized cell death subroutine with long-lasting plasma membrane integrity, elicits hardly any immune response. Ferroptosis, an iron-dependent necrotic type cell death, results in the release of DAMPs and large amounts of lipid peroxides. In contrast, anti-inflammatory cytokines are actively released from cells that die by necroptosis, limiting the DAMP-induced immune response to a surrounding microenvironment, whereas at the same time, inflammasome-associated caspases drive maturation of intracellularly expressed interleukin-1β (IL-1β). In a distinct setting, additionally interleukin-18 (IL-18) is expressed during pyroptosis, initiated by gasdermin-mediated plasma membrane rupture. As all of these pathways are druggable, we provide an overview of regulated necrosis in kidney diseases with a focus on immunogenicity and potential therapeutic interventions.

  6. Plasma membrane changes during programmed cell deaths

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingying; Chen, Xin; Gueydan, Cyril; Han, Jiahuai

    2018-01-01

    Ruptured and intact plasma membranes are classically considered as hallmarks of necrotic and apoptotic cell death, respectively. As such, apoptosis is usually considered a non-inflammatory process while necrosis triggers inflammation. Recent studies on necroptosis and pyroptosis, two types of programmed necrosis, revealed that plasma membrane rupture is mediated by MLKL channels during necroptosis but depends on non-selective gasdermin D (GSDMD) pores during pyroptosis. Importantly, the morphology of dying cells executed by MLKL channels can be distinguished from that executed by GSDMD pores. Interestingly, it was found recently that secondary necrosis of apoptotic cells, a previously believed non-regulated form of cell lysis that occurs after apoptosis, can be programmed and executed by plasma membrane pore formation like that of pyroptosis. In addition, pyroptosis is associated with pyroptotic bodies, which have some similarities to apoptotic bodies. Therefore, different cell death programs induce distinctive reshuffling processes of the plasma membrane. Given the fact that the nature of released intracellular contents plays a crucial role in dying/dead cell-induced immunogenicity, not only membrane rupture or integrity but also the nature of plasma membrane breakdown would determine the fate of a cell as well as its ability to elicit an immune response. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the field of apoptosis, necroptosis and pyroptosis, with an emphasis on the mechanisms underlying plasma membrane changes observed on dying cells and their implication in cell death-elicited immunogenicity. PMID:29076500

  7. Cell death and cell lysis are separable events during pyroptosis

    PubMed Central

    DiPeso, Lucian; Ji, Daisy X; Vance, Russell E; Price, Jordan V

    2017-01-01

    Although much insight has been gained into the mechanisms by which activation of the inflammasome can trigger pyroptosis in mammalian cells, the precise kinetics of the end stages of pyroptosis have not been well characterized. Using time-lapse fluorescent imaging to analyze the kinetics of pyroptosis in individual murine macrophages, we observed distinct stages of cell death and cell lysis. Our data demonstrate that cell membrane permeability resulting from gasdermin D pore formation is coincident with the cessation of cell movement, loss of mitochondrial activity, and cell swelling, events that can be uncoupled from cell lysis. We propose a model of pyroptosis in which cell death can occur independently of cell lysis. The uncoupling of cell death from cell lysis may allow for better control of cytosolic contents upon activation of the inflammasome. PMID:29147575

  8. The deaths of a cell: how language and metaphor influence the science of cell death.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Andrew S

    2014-12-01

    Multicellular development and tissue maintenance involve the regular elimination of damaged and healthy cells. The science of this genetically regulated cell death is particularly rich in metaphors: 'programmed cell death' or 'cell suicide' is considered an 'altruistic' act on the part of a cell for the benefit of the organism as a whole. It is also considered a form of 'social control' exerted by the body/organism over its component cells. This paper analyzes the various functions of these metaphors and critical discussion about them within the scientific community. Bodies such as the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) have been charged with bringing order to the language of cell death to facilitate scientific progress. While the NCCD recommends adopting more objective biochemical terminology to describe the mechanisms of cell death, the metaphors in question retain an important function by highlighting the broader context within which cell death occurs. Scientific metaphors act as conceptual 'tools' which fulfill various roles, from highlighting a phenomenon as of particular interest, situating it in a particular context, or suggesting explanatory causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell death pathways associated with PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Reiners, John J., Jr.

    2006-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy leads to both direct and indirect tumor cell death. The latter also involves the consequences of vascular shut-down and immunologic effects. While these factors are a major factor in tumor eradication, there is usually an element of direct cell killing that can reduce the cell population by as much as 2-3 logs. Necrosis was initially believed to represent the predominant PDT death mechanism. An apoptotic response to PDT was first reported by Oleinick in 1991, using a sensitizer that targets the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Apoptosis leads to fragmentation of DNA and of cells into apoptotic bodies that are removed by phagocytosis. Inflammatory effects are minimized, and the auto- catalytic elements of the process can amplify the death signal. In this study, we examined consequences of Bcl-2 photodamage by a porphycene sensitizer that targets the ER and causes photodamage to the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Death patterns after Bcl-2 inactivation by a small-molecular antagonist were also assessed. In addition to apoptosis, we also characterized a hitherto undescribed PDT effect, the initiation of autophagy. Autophagy was initially identified as a cell survival pathway, allowing the recycling of components as nutrients become scarce. We propose that autophagy can also represent both a potential survival pathway after PDT damage to cellular organelles, as well as a cell-death pathway. Recent literature reports indicate that autophagy, as well as apoptosis, can be evoked after down-regulation of Bcl-2, a result consistent with results reported here.

  10. Hemoglobins, programmed cell death and somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hill, Robert D; Huang, Shuanglong; Stasolla, Claudio

    2013-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a universal process in all multicellular organisms. It is a critical component in a diverse number of processes ranging from growth and differentiation to response to stress. Somatic embryogenesis is one such process where PCD is significantly involved. Nitric oxide is increasingly being recognized as playing a significant role in regulating PCD in both mammalian and plant systems. Plant hemoglobins scavenge NO, and evidence is accumulating that events that modify NO levels in plants also affect hemoglobin expression. Here, we review the process of PCD, describing the involvement of NO and plant hemoglobins in the process. NO is an effector of cell death in both plants and vertebrates, triggering the cascade of events leading to targeted cell death that is a part of an organism's response to stress or to tissue differentiation and development. Expression of specific hemoglobins can alter this response in plants by scavenging the NO, thus, interrupting the death process. Somatic embryogenesis is used as a model system to demonstrate how cell-specific expression of different classes of hemoglobins can alter the embryogenic process, affecting hormone synthesis, cell metabolite levels and genes associated with PCD and embryogenic competence. We propose that plant hemoglobins influence somatic embryogenesis and PCD through cell-specific expression of a distinct plant hemoglobin. It is based on the premise that both embryogenic competence and PCD are strongly influenced by cellular NO levels. Increases in cellular NO levels result in elevated Zn(2+) and reactive-oxygen species associated with PCD, but they also result in decreased expression of MYC2, a transcription factor that is a negative effector of indoleacetic acid synthesis, a hormone that positively influences embryogenic competence. Cell-specific hemoglobin expression reduces NO levels as a result of NO scavenging, resulting in cell survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  11. Regulated Forms of Cell Death in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, A. Pedro; Heller, Jens; Daskalov, Asen; Videira, Arnaldo; Glass, N. Louise

    2017-01-01

    Cell death occurs in all domains of life. While some cells die in an uncontrolled way due to exposure to external cues, other cells die in a regulated manner as part of a genetically encoded developmental program. Like other eukaryotic species, fungi undergo programmed cell death (PCD) in response to various triggers. For example, exposure to external stress conditions can activate PCD pathways in fungi. Calcium redistribution between the extracellular space, the cytoplasm and intracellular storage organelles appears to be pivotal for this kind of cell death. PCD is also part of the fungal life cycle, in which it occurs during sexual and asexual reproduction, aging, and as part of development associated with infection in phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, a fungal non-self-recognition mechanism termed heterokaryon incompatibility (HI) also involves PCD. Some of the molecular players mediating PCD during HI show remarkable similarities to major constituents involved in innate immunity in metazoans and plants. In this review we discuss recent research on fungal PCD mechanisms in comparison to more characterized mechanisms in metazoans. We highlight the role of PCD in fungi in response to exogenic compounds, fungal development and non-self-recognition processes and discuss identified intracellular signaling pathways and molecules that regulate fungal PCD. PMID:28983298

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Min, Kyoung Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in cellular stress that initiates a specialized response designated as the unfolded protein response. ER stress has been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as diabetes, ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth. We show that withaferin A induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in several types of human cancer cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Treatment of Caki cells with withaferin A induced a number of signature ER stress markers, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2 α), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78. In addition, withaferin A caused up-regulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting the induction of ER stress. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited withaferin A-mediated ER stress proteins and cell death, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate withaferin A-induced ER stress. Furthermore, CHOP siRNA or inhibition of caspase-4 activity attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting an important role of the ER stress response in mediating withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. UV-Induced cell death in plants.

    PubMed

    Nawkar, Ganesh M; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-14

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD).

  14. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  15. Cell death induced by hydroxyapatite on L929 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Inayat-Hussain, S H; Rajab, N F; Roslie, H; Hussin, A A; Ali, A M; Annuar, B O

    2004-05-01

    Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.

  16. Programmed cell death in seeds of angiosperms.

    PubMed

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-12-01

    During the diversification of angiosperms, seeds have evolved structural, chemical, molecular and physiologically developing changes that specially affect the nucellus and endosperm. All through seed evolution, programmed cell death (PCD) has played a fundamental role. However, examples of PCD during seed development are limited. The present review examines PCD in integuments, nucellus, suspensor and endosperm in those representative examples of seeds studied to date. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Decoding cell death signals in liver inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Catherine; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2013-09-01

    Inflammation can be either beneficial or detrimental to the liver, depending on multiple factors. Mild (i.e., limited in intensity and destined to resolve) inflammatory responses have indeed been shown to exert consistent hepatoprotective effects, contributing to tissue repair and promoting the re-establishment of homeostasis. Conversely, excessive (i.e., disproportionate in intensity and permanent) inflammation may induce a massive loss of hepatocytes and hence exacerbate the severity of various hepatic conditions, including ischemia-reperfusion injury, systemic metabolic alterations (e.g., obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disorders), alcoholic hepatitis, intoxication by xenobiotics and infection, de facto being associated with irreversible liver damage, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis. Both liver-resident cells (e.g., Kupffer cells, hepatic stellate cells, sinusoidal endothelial cells) and cells that are recruited in response to injury (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells) emit pro-inflammatory signals including - but not limited to - cytokines, chemokines, lipid messengers, and reactive oxygen species that contribute to the apoptotic or necrotic demise of hepatocytes. In turn, dying hepatocytes release damage-associated molecular patterns that-upon binding to evolutionary conserved pattern recognition receptors-activate cells of the innate immune system to further stimulate inflammatory responses, hence establishing a highly hepatotoxic feedforward cycle of inflammation and cell death. In this review, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms that account for the most deleterious effect of hepatic inflammation at the cellular level, that is, the initiation of a massive cell death response among hepatocytes. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Curcumin induces autophagic cell death in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Veeran, Sethuraman; Shu, Benshui; Cui, Gaofeng; Fu, Shengjiao; Zhong, Guohua

    2017-06-01

    The increasing interest in the role of autophagy (type II cell death) in the regulation of insect toxicology has propelled study of investigating autophagic cell death pathways. Turmeric, the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa (Mañjaḷ in Tamil, India and Jiānghuáng in Chinese) have been traditionally used for the pest control either alone or combination with other botanical pesticides. However, the mechanisms by which Curcuma longa or curcumin exerts cytotoxicity in pests are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the potency of Curcuma longa (curcumin) as a natural pesticide employing Sf9 insect line. Autophagy induction effect of curcumin on Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was investigated using various techniques including cell proliferation assay, morphology analysis with inverted phase contrast microscope and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis. Autophagy was evaluated using the fluorescent dye monodansylcadaverine (MDC). Cell death measurement was examined using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) within the concentrations of 5-15μg/mL. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the Sf9 cells and induced autophagic cell death in a time and dose dependent manner. Staining the cells with MDC showed the presence of autophagic vacuoles while increased in a dose and time dependent manner. At the ultrastructural level transmission electron microscopy, cells revealed massive autophagy vacuole accumulation and absence of chromatin condensation. Protein expression levels of ATG8-I and ATG8-II, well-established markers of autophagy related protein were elevated in a time dependent manner after curcumin treatment. The present study proves that curcumin induces autophagic cell death in Sf9 insect cell line and this is the first report of cytotoxic effect of curcumin in insect cells and that will be utilized as natural pesticides in future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inhibition of caspases prevents ototoxic and ongoing hair cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsui, Jonathan I.; Ogilvie, Judith M.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory hair cells die after acoustic trauma or ototoxic insults, but the signal transduction pathways that mediate hair cell death are not known. Here we identify several important signaling events that regulate the death of vestibular hair cells. Chick utricles were cultured in media supplemented with the ototoxic antibiotic neomycin and selected pharmacological agents that influence signaling molecules in cell death pathways. Hair cells that were treated with neomycin exhibited classically defined apoptotic morphologies such as condensed nuclei and fragmented DNA. Inhibition of protein synthesis (via treatment with cycloheximide) increased hair cell survival after treatment with neomycin, suggesting that hair cell death requires de novo protein synthesis. Finally, the inhibition of caspases promoted hair cell survival after neomycin treatment. Sensory hair cells in avian vestibular organs also undergo continual cell death and replacement throughout mature life. It is unclear whether the loss of hair cells stimulates the proliferation of supporting cells or whether the production of new cells triggers the death of hair cells. We examined the effects of caspase inhibition on spontaneous hair cell death in the chick utricle. Caspase inhibitors reduced the amount of ongoing hair cell death and ongoing supporting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In isolated sensory epithelia, however, caspase inhibitors did not affect supporting cell proliferation directly. Our data indicate that ongoing hair cell death stimulates supporting cell proliferation in the mature utricle.

  20. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  1. Antioxidant gene therapy against neuronal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Annadurai, Anandhan; Wang, Fang; Skotak, Maciej; Chandra, Namas; Li, Ming; Pappa, Aglaia; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Razo, Luz Maria Del; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Franco, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a common hallmark of neuronal cell death associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, as well as brain stroke/ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Increased accumulation of reactive species of both oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) has been implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, energy impairment, alterations in metal homeostasis and accumulation of aggregated proteins observed in neurodegenerative disorders, which lead to the activation/modulation of cell death mechanisms that include apoptotic, necrotic and autophagic pathways. Thus, the design of novel antioxidant strategies to selectively target oxidative stress and redox imbalance might represent important therapeutic approaches against neurological disorders. This work reviews the evidence demonstrating the ability of genetically encoded antioxidant systems to selectively counteract neuronal cell loss in neurodegenerative diseases and ischemic brain damage. Because gene therapy approaches to treat inherited and acquired disorders offer many unique advantages over conventional therapeutic approaches, we discussed basic research/clinical evidence and the potential of virus-mediated gene delivery techniques for antioxidant gene therapy. PMID:24333264

  2. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast.

    PubMed

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J Michael; Hill, R Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J Marie

    2004-11-15

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human Drp1, Dnm1, promotes mitochondrial fragmentation/degradation and cell death following treatment with several death stimuli. Two Dnm1-interacting factors also regulate yeast cell death. The WD40 repeat protein Mdv1/Net2 promotes cell death, consistent with its role in mitochondrial fission. In contrast to its fission function in healthy cells, Fis1 unexpectedly inhibits Dnm1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cysteine protease-dependent cell death in yeast. Furthermore, the ability of yeast Fis1 to inhibit mitochondrial fission and cell death can be functionally replaced by human Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Together, these findings indicate that yeast and mammalian cells have a conserved programmed death pathway regulated by a common molecular component, Drp1/Dnm1, that is inhibited by a Bcl-2-like function.

  3. Cell Death and DAMPs in Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Rui; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Billiar, Timothy R; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    Cell death and inflammation are key pathologic responses of acute pancreatitis (AP), the leading cause of hospital admissions for gastrointestinal disorders. It is becoming increasingly clear that damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of AP by linking local tissue damage to systemic inflammation syndrome. Endogenous DAMPs released from dead, dying or injured cells initiate and extend sterile inflammation via specific pattern recognition receptors. Inhibition of the release and activity of DAMPs (for example, high mobility group box 1, DNA, histones and adenosine triphosphate) provides significant protection against experimental AP. Moreover, increased serum levels of DAMPs in patients with AP correlate with disease severity. These findings provide novel insight into the mechanism, diagnosis and management of AP. DAMPs might be an attractive therapeutic target in AP. PMID:25105302

  4. Cell death induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Iurlaro, Raffaella; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle with multiple functions. The synthesis of transmembrane proteins and proteins that are to be secreted occurs in this organelle. Many conditions that impose stress on cells, including hypoxia, starvation, infections and changes in secretory needs, challenge the folding capacity of the cell and promote endoplasmic reticulum stress. The cellular response involves the activation of sensors that transduce signaling cascades with the aim of restoring homeostasis. This is known as the unfolded protein response, which also intersects with the integrated stress response that reduces protein synthesis through inactivation of the initiation factor eIF2α. Central to the unfolded protein response are the sensors PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, as well as other signaling nodes such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK) and the downstream transcription factors XBP1, ATF4 and CHOP. These proteins aim to restore homeostasis, but they can also induce cell death, which has been shown to occur by necroptosis and, more commonly, through the regulation of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bim, Noxa and Puma) that leads to mitochondrial apoptosis. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum stress and proteotoxic stress have been shown to induce TRAIL receptors and activation of caspase-8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a common feature in the pathology of numerous diseases because it plays a role in neurodegeneration, stroke, cancer, metabolic diseases and inflammation. Understanding how cells react to endoplasmic reticulum stress can accelerate discovery of drugs against these diseases. © 2015 FEBS.

  5. Ferroptosis and Cell Death Analysis by Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daishi; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Savaskan, Nicolai

    2017-01-01

    Cell death and its recently discovered regulated form ferroptosis are characterized by distinct morphological, electrophysiological, and pharmacological features. In particular ferroptosis can be induced by experimental compounds and clinical drugs (i.e., erastin, sulfasalazine, sorafenib, and artesunate) in various cell types and cancer cells. Pharmacologically, this cell death process can be inhibited by iron chelators and lipid peroxidation inhibitors. Relevance of this specific cell death form has been found in different pathological conditions such as cancer, neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration, and ischemia. Distinguishing cell viability and cell death is essential for experimental and clinical applications and a key component in flow cytometry experiments. Dead cells can compromise the integrity of the data by nonspecific binding of antibodies and dyes. Therefore it is essential that dead cells are robustly and reproducibly identified and characterized by means of cytometry application. Here we describe a procedure to detect and quantify cell death and its specific form ferroptosis based on standard flow cytometry techniques.

  6. Morphodynamics of a growing microbial colony driven by cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Pushpita; Levine, Herbert

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial cells can often self-organize into multicellular structures with complex spatiotemporal morphology. In this work, we study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a growing microbial colony in the presence of cell death. We present an individual-based model of nonmotile bacterial cells which grow and proliferate by consuming diffusing nutrients on a semisolid two-dimensional surface. The colony spreads by growth forces and sliding motility of cells and undergoes cell death followed by subsequent disintegration of the dead cells in the medium. We model cell death by considering two possible situations: In one of the cases, cell death occurs in response to the limitation of local nutrients, while the other case corresponds to an active death process, known as apoptotic or programmed cell death. We demonstrate how the colony morphology is influenced by the presence of cell death. Our results show that cell death facilitates transitions from roughly circular to highly branched structures at the periphery of an expanding colony. Interestingly, our results also reveal that for the colonies which are growing in higher initial nutrient concentrations, cell death occurs much earlier compared to the colonies which are growing in lower initial nutrient concentrations. This work provides new insights into the branched patterning of growing bacterial colonies as a consequence of complex interplay among the biochemical and mechanical effects.

  7. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  8. Methods for assessing autophagy and autophagic cell death.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Ezgi; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, M Chiara; Criollo, Alfredo; Vitale, Ilio; Hangen, Emilie; Modjtahedi, Nazanine; Kroemer, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Autophagic (or type 2) cell death is characterized by the massive accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (autophagosomes) in the cytoplasm of cells that lack signs of apoptosis (type 1 cell death). Here we detail and critically assess a series of methods to promote and inhibit autophagy via pharmacological and genetic manipulations. We also review the techniques currently available to detect autophagy, including transmission electron microscopy, half-life assessments of long-lived proteins, detection of LC3 maturation/aggregation, fluorescence microscopy, and colocalization of mitochondrion- or endoplasmic reticulum-specific markers with lysosomal proteins. Massive autophagic vacuolization may cause cellular stress and represent a frustrated attempt of adaptation. In this case, cell death occurs with (or in spite of) autophagy. When cell death occurs through autophagy, on the contrary, the inhibition of the autophagic process should prevent cellular demise. Accordingly, we describe a strategy for discriminating cell death with autophagy from cell death through autophagy.

  9. Can deaths in police cells be prevented? Experience from Norway and death rates in other countries.

    PubMed

    Aasebø, Willy; Orskaug, Gunnar; Erikssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To describe the changes in death rates and causes of deaths in Norwegian police cells during the last 2 decades. To review reports on death rates in police cells that have been published in medical journals and elsewhere, and discuss the difficulties of comparing death rates between countries. Data on deaths in Norwegian police cells were collected retrospectively in 2002 and 2012 for two time periods: 1993-2001 (period 1) and 2003-2012 (period 2). Several databases were searched to find reports on deaths in police cells from as many countries as possible. The death rates in Norwegian police cells reduced significantly from 0.83 deaths per year per million inhabitants (DYM) in period 1 to 0.22 DYM in period 2 (p < 0.05). The most common cause of death in period 1 was alcohol intoxication including intracranial bleeding in persons with high blood alcohol levels, and the number declined from 16 persons in period 1 to 1 person in period 2 (p = 0.032). The median death rate in the surveyed Western countries was 0.44 DYM (range: 0.14-1.46 DYM). The number of deaths in Norwegian police cells reduced by about 75% over a period of approximately 10 years. This is probably mainly due to individuals with severe alcohol intoxication no longer being placed in police cells. However, there remain large methodology difficulties in comparing deaths rates between countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven, looking from the "Death Row" exercise yard, facing north (note cell block fifteen to the right and cell block fourteen in the distance_ - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Arabidopsis ACCELERATED CELL DEATH2 Modulates Programmed Cell DeathW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Nan; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2006-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast protein ACCELERATED CELL DEATH2 (ACD2) modulates the amount of programmed cell death (PCD) triggered by Pseudomonas syringae and protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) treatment. In vitro, ACD2 can reduce red chlorophyll catabolite, a chlorophyll derivative. We find that ACD2 shields root protoplasts that lack chlorophyll from light- and PPIX-induced PCD. Thus, chlorophyll catabolism is not obligatory for ACD2 anti-PCD function. Upon P. syringae infection, ACD2 levels and localization change in cells undergoing PCD and in their close neighbors. Thus, ACD2 shifts from being largely in chloroplasts to partitioning to chloroplasts, mitochondria, and, to a small extent, cytosol. ACD2 protects cells from PCD that requires the early mitochondrial oxidative burst. Later, the chloroplasts of dying cells generate NO, which only slightly affects cell viability. Finally, the mitochondria in dying cells have dramatically altered movements and cellular distribution. Overproduction of both ACD2 (localized to mitochondria and chloroplasts) and ascorbate peroxidase (localized to chloroplasts) greatly reduces P. syringae–induced PCD, suggesting a pro-PCD role for mitochondrial and chloroplast events. During infection, ACD2 may bind to and/or reduce PCD-inducing porphyrin-related molecules in mitochondria and possibly chloroplasts that generate reactive oxygen species, cause altered organelle behavior, and activate a cascade of PCD-inducing events. PMID:16387834

  12. Die Another Day: Inhibition of Cell Death Pathways by Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Brune, Wolfram; Andoniou, Christopher E

    2017-09-02

    Multicellular organisms have evolved multiple genetically programmed cell death pathways that are essential for homeostasis. The finding that many viruses encode cell death inhibitors suggested that cellular suicide also functions as a first line of defence against invading pathogens. This theory was confirmed by studying viral mutants that lack certain cell death inhibitors. Cytomegaloviruses, a family of species-specific viruses, have proved particularly useful in this respect. Cytomegaloviruses are known to encode multiple death inhibitors that are required for efficient viral replication. Here, we outline the mechanisms used by the host cell to detect cytomegalovirus infection and discuss the methods employed by the cytomegalovirus family to prevent death of the host cell. In addition to enhancing our understanding of cytomegalovirus pathogenesis we detail how this research has provided significant insights into the cross-talk that exists between the various cell death pathways.

  13. Death of mitochondria during programmed cell death of leaf mesophyll cells.

    PubMed

    Selga, Tūrs; Selga, Maija; Pāvila, Vineta

    2005-12-01

    The role of plant mitochondria in the programmed cell death (PCD) is widely discussed. However, spectrum and sequence of mitochondrial structural changes during different types of PCD in leaves are poorly described. Pea, cucumber and rye plants were grown under controlled growing conditions. A part of them were sprinkled with ethylene releaser to accelerate cell death. During yellowing the palisade parenchyma mitochondria were attracted to nuclear envelope. Mitochondrial matrix became electron translucent. Mitochondria entered vacuole by invagination of tonoplast and formed multivesicular bodies. Ethephon treatment increased the frequency of sticking of mitochondria to the nuclear envelope or chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Mitochondria divided by different mechanisms and became enclosed in Golgi and ER derived authopagic vacuoles or in the central vacuole. Several fold increase of the diameter of cristae became typical. In all cases mitochondria were attached to nuclear envelope. It can be considered as structural mechanism of promoting of PCD.

  14. Transglutaminase induction by various cell death and apoptosis pathways.

    PubMed

    Fesus, L; Madi, A; Balajthy, Z; Nemes, Z; Szondy, Z

    1996-10-31

    Clarification of the molecular details of forms of natural cell death, including apoptosis, has become one of the most challenging issues of contemporary biomedical sciences. One of the effector elements of various cell death pathways is the covalent cross-linking of cellular proteins by transglutaminases. This review will discuss the accumulating data related to the induction and regulation of these enzymes, particularly of tissue type transglutaminase, in the molecular program of cell death. A wide range of signalling pathways can lead to the parallel induction of apoptosis and transglutaminase, providing a handle for better understanding the exact molecular interactions responsible for the mechanism of regulated cell death.

  15. Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Yusuke; Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Nakazawa, Toru; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Miller, Joan W.; Vavvas, Demetrios G.

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor cells exhibit caspase activation; however, there is a paradox that caspase inhibition alone does not provide a sufficient protection against photoreceptor cell loss, suggesting that other mechanisms of cell death are involved. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-apoptotic forms of cell death, such as autophagy and necrosis, are also regulated by specific molecular machinery, such as those mediated by autophagy-related proteins and receptor-interacting protein kinases, respectively. Here we summarize the current knowledge of cell death signaling and its roles in photoreceptor cell death after RD and other retinal degenerative diseases. A body of studies indicate that not only apoptotic but also autophagic and necrotic signaling are involved in photoreceptor cell death, and that combined targeting of these pathways may be an effective neuroprotective strategy for retinal diseases associated with photoreceptor cell loss. PMID:23994436

  16. Cell death at the intestinal epithelial front line.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Maria Eugenia; Grabinger, Thomas; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents the largest epithelial surface in our body. This single-cell-layer epithelium mediates important functions in the absorption of nutrients and in the maintenance of barrier function, preventing luminal microorganisms from invading the body. Due to its constant regeneration the intestinal epithelium is a tissue not only with very high proliferation rates but also with very prominent physiological and pathophysiological cell death induction. The normal physiological differentiation and maturation of intestinal epithelial cells leads to their shedding and apoptotic cell death within a few days, without disturbing the epithelial barrier integrity. In contrast excessive intestinal epithelial cell death induced by irradiation, drugs and inflammation severely impairs the vital functions of this tissue. In this review we discuss cell death processes in the intestinal epithelium in health and disease, with special emphasis on cell death triggered by the tumour necrosis factor receptor family. © 2015 FEBS.

  17. Patterns of cell death in the perinatal mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Morgan; Shah, Charisma; Morse, Kiriana A; Miloro, Stephen A; Holmes, Melissa M; Ahern, Todd H; Forger, Nancy G

    2017-01-01

    The importance of cell death in brain development has long been appreciated, but many basic questions remain, such as what initiates or terminates the cell death period. One obstacle has been the lack of quantitative data defining exactly when cell death occurs. We recently created a "cell death atlas," using the detection of activated caspase-3 (AC3) to quantify apoptosis in the postnatal mouse ventral forebrain and hypothalamus, and found that the highest rates of cell death were seen at the earliest postnatal ages in most regions. Here we have extended these analyses to prenatal ages and additional brain regions. We quantified cell death in 16 forebrain regions across nine perinatal ages from embryonic day (E) 17 to postnatal day (P) 11 and found that cell death peaks just after birth in most regions. We found greater cell death in several regions in offspring delivered vaginally on the day of parturition compared with those of the same postconception age but still in utero at the time of collection. We also found massive cell death in the oriens layer of the hippocampus on P1 and in regions surrounding the anterior crossing of the corpus callosum on E18 as well as the persistence of large numbers of cells in those regions in adult mice lacking the pro-death Bax gene. Together these findings suggest that birth may be an important trigger of neuronal cell death and identify transient cell groups that may undergo wholesale elimination perinatally. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:47-64, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The slow cell death response when screening chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Blois, Joseph; Smith, Adam; Josephson, Lee

    2011-09-01

    To examine the correlation between cell death and a common surrogate of death used in screening assays, we compared cell death responses to those obtained with the sulforhodamine B (SRB) cell protein-based "cytotoxicity" assay. With the SRB assay, the Hill equation was used to obtain an IC50 and final cell mass, or cell mass present at infinite agent concentrations, with eight adherent cell lines and four agents (32 agent/cell combinations). Cells were treated with high agent concentrations (well above the SRB IC50) and the death response determined as the time-dependent decrease in cells failing to bind both annexin V and vital fluorochromes by flow cytometry. Death kinetics were categorized as fast (5/32) (similar to the reference nonadherent Jurkat line), slow (17/32), or none (10/32), despite positive responses in the SRB assay in all cases. With slow cell death, a single exposure to a chemotherapeutic agent caused a slow, progressive increase in dead (necrotic) and dying (apoptotic) cells for at least 72 h. Cell death (defined by annexin and/or fluorochrome binding) did not correlate with the standard SRB "cytotoxicity" assay. With the slow cell death response, a single exposure to an agent caused a slow conversion from vital to apoptotic and necrotic cells over at least 72 h (the longest time point examined). Here, increasing the time of exposure to agent concentrations modestly above the SRB IC50 provides a method of maximizing cell kill. If tumors respond similarly, sustained low doses of chemotherapeutic agents, rather than a log-kill, maximum tolerated dose strategy may be an optimal strategy of maximizing tumor cell death.

  19. RNA Viruses: ROS-Mediated Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Reshi, Mohammad Latif; Su, Yi-Che; Hong, Jiann-Ruey

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well known for being both beneficial and deleterious. The main thrust of this review is to investigate the role of ROS in ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus pathogenesis. Much evidences has accumulated over the past decade, suggesting that patients infected with RNA viruses are under chronic oxidative stress. Changes to the body's antioxidant defense system, in relation to SOD, ascorbic acid, selenium, carotenoids, and glutathione, have been reported in various tissues of RNA-virus infected patients. This review focuses on RNA viruses and retroviruses, giving particular attention to the human influenza virus, Hepatitis c virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the aquatic Betanodavirus. Oxidative stress via RNA virus infections can contribute to several aspects of viral disease pathogenesis including apoptosis, loss of immune function, viral replication, inflammatory response, and loss of body weight. We focus on how ROS production is correlated with host cell death. Moreover, ROS may play an important role as a signal molecule in the regulation of viral replication and organelle function, potentially providing new insights in the prevention and treatment of RNA viruses and retrovirus infections. PMID:24899897

  20. Programmed cell death as a defence against infection

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Ine; Rayamajhi, Manira; Miao, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells can die from physical trauma, resulting in necrosis. Alternately, they can die via programmed cell death upon stimulation of specific signalling pathways. Here we discuss the utility of four cell death pathways in innate immune defence against bacterial and viral infection: apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and NETosis. We describe the interactions that interweave different programmed cell death pathways, which create complex signalling networks that cross-guard each other in the evolutionary arms race with pathogens. Finally, we describe how the resulting cell corpses — apoptotic bodies, pore-induced intracellular traps (PITs) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) — promote clearance of infection. PMID:28138137

  1. Autophagy promotes caspase-dependent cell death during Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Nilufar; McMillan, Stephanie C; Chaudhary, Roopali; Mok, Jane; Reed, Bruce H

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between autophagic cell death and apoptosis is a poorly understood aspect of programmed cell death (PCD). We have examined this relationship by studying the elimination of an extra-embryonic tissue, known as the amnioserosa (AS), during Drosophila development. The AS becomes autophagic during the final stages of embryogenesis; ultimately, however, the elimination of the AS involves caspase-dependent nuclear fragmentation, tissue dissociation and engulfment by phagocytic macrophages. Mutants that are defective in the activation or execution of caspase-dependent PCD fail to degrade and eliminate the AS but show no abatement in AS autophagy. Sustained autophagy does not, therefore, necessarily result in cell death. Surprisingly, the downregulation of autophagy also results in a persistent AS phenotype and reduced cell death. Conversely, upregulation of autophagy results in caspase-dependent premature AS dissociation. These observations are consistent with the interpretation that autophagy is a prerequisite for caspase-dependent cell death in the AS.

  2. Colourful death: six-parameter classification of cell death by flow cytometry--dead cells tell tales.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Luis E; Maueröder, Christian; Chaurio, Ricardo; Berens, Christian; Herrmann, Martin; Janko, Christina

    2013-08-01

    The response of the immune system against dying and dead cells strongly depends on the cell death phenotype. Beside other forms of cell death, two clearly distinct populations, early apoptotic and secondary necrotic cells, have been shown to induce anti-inflammation/tolerance and inflammation/immune priming, respectively. Cytofluorometry is a powerful technique to detect morphological and phenotypical changes occurring during cell death. Here, we describe a new technique using AnnexinA5, propidiumiodide, DiIC1(5) and Hoechst 33342 to sub-classify populations of apoptotic and/or necrotic cells. The method allows the fast and reliable identification of several different phases and pathways of cell death by analysing the following cell death associated changes in a single tube: cellular granularity and shrinkage, phosphatidylserine exposure, ion selectivity of the plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA content. The clear characterisation of cell death is of major importance for instance in immunization studies, in experimental therapeutic settings, and in the exploration of cell-death associated diseases. It also enables the analysis of immunological properties of distinct populations of dying cells and the pathways involved in this process.

  3. Independent controls for neocortical neuron production and histogenetic cell death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verney, C.; Takahashi, T.; Bhide, P. G.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr

    2000-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of cells eliminated by histogenetic cell death during the first 2 postnatal weeks in areas 1, 3 and 40 of the mouse parietal neocortex. For each layer and for the subcortical white matter in each neocortical area, the number of dying cells per mm(2) was calculated and the proportionate cell death for each day of the 2-week interval was estimated. The data show that cell death proceeds essentially uniformly across the neocortical areas and layers and that it does not follow either the spatiotemporal gradient of cell cycle progression in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the cerebral wall, the source of neocortical neurons, or the 'inside-out' neocortical neuronogenetic sequence. Therefore, we infer that the control mechanisms of neocortical histogenetic cell death are independent of mechanisms controlling neuronogenesis or neuronal migration but may be associated with the ingrowth, expansion and a system-wide matching of neuronal connectivity. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Further considerations on in vitro skeletal muscle cell death

    PubMed Central

    Battistelli, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present review discusses the apoptotic behavior induced by chemical and physical triggers in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, comparing myoblast to myotube sensitivity, and investigating it by means of morphological, biochemical and cytofluorimetric analyses. After all treatments, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, in cells exposed to staurosporine, etoposide and UVB radiation, apoptotic and normal nuclei within the same fibercould be revealed. The presence of nuclear-dependent “territorial” death domains in the syncytium could explain a delayed cell death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. Moreover, autophagic granules abundantly appeared in myotubes after each treatment. Autophagy could protect muscle cell integrity against chemical and physical stimuli, making C2C12 myotubes, more resistant to cell death induction. PMID:24596689

  5. Sorafenib-induced defective autophagy promotes cell death by necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Kharaziha, Pedram; Chioureas, Dimitris; Baltatzis, George; Fonseca, Pedro; Rodriguez, Patricia; Gogvadze, Vladimir; Lennartsson, Lena; Björklund, Ann-Charlotte; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Grandér, Dan; Egevad, Lars; Nilsson, Sten; Panaretakis, Theocharis

    2015-11-10

    Autophagy is one of the main cytoprotective mechanisms that cancer cells deploy to withstand the cytotoxic stress and survive the lethal damage induced by anti-cancer drugs. However, under specific conditions, autophagy may, directly or indirectly, induce cell death. In our study, treatment of the Atg5-deficient DU145 prostate cancer cells, with the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, sorafenib, induces mitochondrial damage, autophagy and cell death. Molecular inhibition of autophagy by silencing ULK1 and Beclin1 rescues DU145 cells from cell death indicating that, in this setting, autophagy promotes cell death. Re-expression of Atg5 restores the lipidation of LC3 and rescues DU145 and MEF atg5-/- cells from sorafenib-induced cell death. Despite the lack of Atg5 expression and LC3 lipidation, DU145 cells form autophagosomes as demonstrated by transmission and immuno-electron microscopy, and the formation of LC3 positive foci. However, the lack of cellular content in the autophagosomes, the accumulation of long-lived proteins, the presence of GFP-RFP-LC3 positive foci and the accumulated p62 protein levels indicate that these autophagosomes may not be fully functional. DU145 cells treated with sorafenib undergo a caspase-independent cell death that is inhibited by the RIPK1 inhibitor, necrostatin-1. Furthermore, treatment with sorafenib induces the interaction of RIPK1 with p62, as demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and a proximity ligation assay. Silencing of p62 decreases the RIPK1 protein levels and renders necrostatin-1 ineffective in blocking sorafenib-induced cell death. In summary, the formation of Atg5-deficient autophagosomes in response to sorafenib promotes the interaction of p62 with RIPK leading to cell death by necroptosis.

  6. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair

    PubMed Central

    Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function. PMID:26687129

  7. Stem cell death and survival in heart regeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Kalvelyte, Audrone; Stulpinas, Aurimas; de Carvalho, Katherine Athayde Teixeira; Guarita-Souza, Luiz Cesar; Foldes, Gabor

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of mortality and morbidity. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis disrupts cardiac function and leads to cardiac decompensation and terminal heart failure. Delineating the regulatory signaling pathways that orchestrate cell survival in the heart has significant therapeutic implications. Cardiac tissue has limited capacity to regenerate and repair. Stem cell therapy is a successful approach for repairing and regenerating ischemic cardiac tissue; however, transplanted cells display very high death percentage, a problem that affects success of tissue regeneration. Stem cells display multipotency or pluripotency and undergo self-renewal, however these events are negatively influenced by upregulation of cell death machinery that induces the significant decrease in survival and differentiation signals upon cardiovascular injury. While efforts to identify cell types and molecular pathways that promote cardiac tissue regeneration have been productive, studies that focus on blocking the extensive cell death after transplantation are limited. The control of cell death includes multiple networks rather than one crucial pathway, which underlies the challenge of identifying the interaction between various cellular and biochemical components. This review is aimed at exploiting the molecular mechanisms by which stem cells resist death signals to develop into mature and healthy cardiac cells. Specifically, we focus on a number of factors that control death and survival of stem cells upon transplantation and ultimately affect cardiac regeneration. We also discuss potential survival enhancing strategies and how they could be meaningful in the design of targeted therapies that improve cardiac function.

  8. Necroptosis: an emerging type of cell death in liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Waqar Khalid; Jun, Dae Won

    2014-09-21

    Cell death has been extensively evaluated for decades and it is well recognized that pharmacological interventions directed to inhibit cell death can prevent significant cell loss and can thus improve an organ's physiological function. For long, only apoptosis was considered as a sole form of programmed cell death. Recently necroptosis, a RIP1/RIP3-dependent programmed cell death, has been identified as an apoptotic backup cell death mechanism with necrotic morphology. The evidences of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by blocking necroptosis have been extensively reported in recent past. However, only a few studies reported the evidence of necroptosis and protective effects achieved by inhibiting necroptosis in liver related disease conditions. Although the number of necroptosis initiators is increasing; however, interestingly, it is still unclear that what actually triggers necroptosis in different liver diseases or if there is always a different necroptosis initiator in each specific disease condition followed by specific downstream signaling molecules. Understanding the precise mechanism of necroptosis as well as counteracting other cell death pathways in liver diseases could provide a useful insight towards achieving extensive therapeutic significance. By targeting necroptosis and/or other parallel death pathways, a significant cell loss and thus a decrement in an organ's physiological function can be prevented.

  9. Host-Cell Survival and Death During Chlamydia Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Songmin; Pettengill, Matthew; Ojcius, David M.; Häcker, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Different Chlamydia trachomatis strains are responsible for prevalent bacterial sexually-transmitted disease and represent the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Factors that predispose individuals to disease and mechanisms by which chlamydiae cause inflammation and tissue damage remain unclear. Results from recent studies indicate that prolonged survival and subsequent death of infected cells and their effect on immune effector cells during chlamydial infection may be important in determining the outcome. Survival of infected cells is favored at early times of infection through inhibition of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Death at later times displays features of both apoptosis and necrosis, but pro-apoptotic caspases are not involved. Most studies on chlamydial modulation of host-cell death until now have been performed in cell lines. The consequences for pathogenesis and the immune response will require animal models of chlamydial infection, preferably mice with targeted deletions of genes that play a role in cell survival and death. PMID:18843378

  10. Mechanical Stress Promotes Cisplatin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Riad, Sandra; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (CisPt) is a commonly used platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent. Its efficacy is limited due to drug resistance and multiple side effects, thereby warranting a new approach to improving the pharmacological effect of CisPt. A newly developed mathematical hypothesis suggested that mechanical loading, when coupled with a chemotherapeutic drug such as CisPt and immune cells, would boost tumor cell death. The current study investigated the aforementioned mathematical hypothesis by exposing human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to CisPt, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and mechanical stress individually and in combination. HepG2 cells were also treated with a mixture of CisPt and carnosine with and without mechanical stress to examine one possible mechanism employed by mechanical stress to enhance CisPt effects. Carnosine is a dipeptide that reportedly sequesters platinum-based drugs away from their pharmacological target-site. Mechanical stress was achieved using an orbital shaker that produced 300 rpm with a horizontal circular motion. Our results demonstrated that mechanical stress promoted CisPt-induced death of HepG2 cells (~35% more cell death). Moreover, results showed that CisPt-induced death was compromised when CisPt was left to mix with carnosine 24 hours preceding treatment. Mechanical stress, however, ameliorated cell death (20% more cell death). PMID:25685789

  11. Ferroptosis is Involved in Acetaminophen Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Lőrincz, Tamás; Jemnitz, Katalin; Kardon, Tamás; Mandl, József; Szarka, András

    2015-09-01

    The recently described form of programmed cell death, ferroptosis can be induced by agents causing GSH depletion or the inhibition of GPX4. Ferroptosis clearly shows distinct morphologic, biochemical and genetic features from apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy. Since NAPQI the highly reactive metabolite of the widely applied analgesic and antipyretic, acetaminophen induces a cell death which can be characterized by GSH depletion, GPX inhibition and caspase independency the involvement of ferroptosis in acetaminophen induced cell death has been investigated. The specific ferroptosis inhibitor ferrostatin-1 failed to elevate the viability of acetaminophen treated HepG2 cells. It should be noticed that these cells do not form NAPQI due to the lack of phase I enzyme expression therefore GSH depletion cannot be observed. However in the case of acetaminophen treated primary mouse hepatocytes the significant elevation of cell viability could be observed upon ferrostatin-1 treatment. Similar to ferrostatin-1 treatment, the addition of the RIP1 kinase inhibitor necrostatin-1 could also elevate the viability of acetaminophen treated primary hepatocytes. Ferrostatin-1 has no influence on the expression of CYP2E1 or on the cellular GSH level which suggest that the protective effect of ferrostatin-1 in APAP induced cell death is not based on the reduced metabolism of APAP to NAPQI or on altered NAPQI conjugation by cellular GSH. Our results suggest that beyond necroptosis and apoptosis a third programmed cell death, ferroptosis is also involved in acetaminophen induced cell death in primary hepatocytes.

  12. Sickle cell trait and sudden death--bringing it home.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    Sickle cell trait continues to be the leading cause of sudden death for young African Americans in military basic training and civilian organized sports. The syndrome may have caused the death of up to 10 college football players since 1974 and, as recently as 2000, was suspected as the cause of death of three U.S. Army recruits. The penal military-style boot camps in the United States and the recent death of two teenagers with sickle cell trait merits renewed vigor in the education of athletic instructors, the military and the public about conditions associated with sudden death in individuals with sickle cell trait. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:17393956

  13. Polyoma small T antigen triggers cell death via mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Arun T Pores; Andrabi, Shaida; Cizmecioglu, Onur; Zhu, Cailei; Livingston, David M.; Higgins, Jonathan M.G; Schaffhausen, Brian S; Roberts, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Polyoma small T antigen (PyST), an early gene product of the polyoma virus, has been shown to cause cell death in a number of mammalian cells in a protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent manner. In the current study, using a cell line featuring regulated expression of PyST, we found that PyST arrests cells in mitosis. Live-cell and immunofluorescence studies showed that the majority of the PyST-expressing cells were arrested in prometaphase with almost no cells progressing beyond metaphase. These cells exhibited defects in chromosomal congression, sister chromatid cohesion and spindle positioning, resulting in the activation of the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC). Prolonged mitotic arrest then led to cell death via mitotic catastrophe. Cell cycle inhibitors that block cells in G1/S prevented PyST-induced death. PyST-induced cell death that occurs during M is not dependent on p53 status. These data suggested, and our results confirmed that, PP2A inhibition could be used to preferentially kill cancer cells with p53 mutations that proliferate normally in the presence of cell cycle inhibitors. PMID:24998850

  14. Detecting cell death with optical coherence tomography and envelope statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Yang, Victor X. D.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-02-01

    Currently no standard clinical or preclinical noninvasive method exists to monitor cell death based on morphological changes at the cellular level. In our past work we have demonstrated that quantitative high frequency ultrasound imaging can detect cell death in vitro and in vivo. In this study we apply quantitative methods previously used with high frequency ultrasound to optical coherence tomography (OCT) to detect cell death. The ultimate goal of this work is to use these methods for optically-based clinical and preclinical cancer treatment monitoring. Optical coherence tomography data were acquired from acute myeloid leukemia cells undergoing three modes of cell death. Significant increases in integrated backscatter were observed for cells undergoing apoptosis and mitotic arrest, while necrotic cells induced a decrease. These changes appear to be linked to structural changes observed in histology obtained from the cell samples. Signal envelope statistics were analyzed from fittings of the generalized gamma distribution to histograms of envelope intensities. The parameters from this distribution demonstrated sensitivities to morphological changes in the cell samples. These results indicate that OCT integrated backscatter and first order envelope statistics can be used to detect and potentially differentiate between modes of cell death in vitro.

  15. Contribution of TMEM16F to pyroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2018-02-20

    Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of programmed cell death that is caused by infection with intracellular pathogens and activation of canonical or noncanonical inflammasomes. The purinergic receptor P2X 7 is activated by the noncanonical inflammasome and contributes essentially to pyroptotic cell death. The Ca 2+ activated phospholipid scramblase and ion channel TMEM16F has been shown earlier to control cellular effects downstream of purinergic P2X 7 receptors that ultimately lead to cell death. As pyroptotic cell death is accompanied by an increases in intracellular Ca 2+ , we asked whether TMEM16F is activated during pyroptosis. The N-terminal cleavage product of gasdermin D (GD-N) is an executioner of pyroptosis by forming large plasma membrane pores. Expression of GD-N enhanced basal Ca 2+ levels and induced cell death. We observed that GD-N induced cell death in HEK293 and HAP1 cells, which was depending on expression of endogenous TMEM16F. GD-N activated large whole cell currents that were suppressed by knockdown or inhibition of TMEM16F. The results suggest that whole cell currents induced by the pore forming domain of gasdermin-D, are at least in part due to activation of TMEM16F. Knockdown of other TMEM16 paralogues expressed in HAP1 cells suggest TMEM16F as a crucial element during pyroptosis and excluded a role of other TMEM16 proteins. Thus TMEM16F supports pyroptosis and other forms of inflammatory cell death such as ferroptosis. Its potent inhibition by tannic acid may be part of the anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids.

  16. Diagnosis of Cell Death by Means of Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zelig, Udi; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Moreh, Raymond; Mordechai, Shaul; Nathan, Ilana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been established as a fast spectroscopic method for biochemical analysis of cells and tissues. In this research we aimed to investigate FTIR's utility for identifying and characterizing different modes of cell death, using leukemic cell lines as a model system. CCRF-CEM and U937 leukemia cells were treated with arabinoside and doxorubicin apoptosis inducers, as well as with potassium cyanide, saponin, freezing-thawing, and H2O2 necrosis inducers. Cell death mode was determined by various gold standard biochemical methods in parallel with FTIR-microscope measurements. Both cell death modes exhibit large spectral changes in lipid absorbance during apoptosis and necrosis; however, these changes are similar and thus cannot be used to distinguish apoptosis from necrosis. In contrast to the above confounding factor, our results reveal that apoptosis and necrosis can still be distinguished by the degree of DNA opaqueness to infrared light. Moreover, these two cell death modes also can be differentiated by their infrared absorbance, which relates to the secondary structure of total cellular protein. In light of these findings, we conclude that, because of its capacity to monitor multiple biomolecular parameters, FTIR spectroscopy enables unambiguous and easy analysis of cell death modes and may be useful for biochemical and medical applications. PMID:19804743

  17. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the X c - system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by X c - inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Understanding cell cycle and cell death regulation provides novel weapons against human diseases.

    PubMed

    Wiman, K G; Zhivotovsky, B

    2017-05-01

    Cell division, cell differentiation and cell death are the three principal physiological processes that regulate tissue homoeostasis in multicellular organisms. The growth and survival of cells as well as the integrity of the genome are regulated by a complex network of pathways, in which cell cycle checkpoints, DNA repair and programmed cell death have critical roles. Disruption of genomic integrity and impaired regulation of cell death may both lead to uncontrolled cell growth. Compromised cell death can also favour genomic instability. It is becoming increasingly clear that dysregulation of cell cycle and cell death processes plays an important role in the development of major disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, infection, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Research achievements in these fields have led to the development of novel approaches for treatment of various conditions associated with abnormalities in the regulation of cell cycle progression or cell death. A better understanding of how cellular life-and-death processes are regulated is essential for this development. To highlight these important advances, the Third Nobel Conference entitled 'The Cell Cycle and Cell Death in Disease' was organized at Karolinska Institutet in 2016. In this review we will summarize current understanding of cell cycle progression and cell death and discuss some of the recent advances in therapeutic applications in pathological conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders and inflammation. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  19. Accelerated Tumor Cell Death by Anglogenic Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    Loudy DE , Wallace CD, 32A: 2413-2422, 1996 Montgomery LR, Nestok BR: Microautoradiographic quan- 24 . Claffet K.P, Robinson GS: Regulation of VEGF/VPF...colonic epithelial cells, and B cells. IL-6 produc- ing prostate cancer ( De Marzo et al., 1999). The hypo- tion is generally correlated with cell...glutathione S-transferase of malignancy (Giri et al., 2001), again suggesting a "vi- (GSTP1) ( De Marzo et al., 1999). In vivo study of H202 cious

  20. Vacuolar processing enzyme: an executor of plant cell death.

    PubMed

    Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Nakaune, Satoru; Kuroyanagi, Miwa; Nishimura, Mikio

    2005-08-01

    Apoptotic cell death in animals is regulated by cysteine proteinases called caspases. Recently, vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) was identified as a plant caspase. VPE deficiency prevents cell death during hypersensitive response and cell death of limited cell layers at the early stage of embryogenesis. Because plants do not have macrophages, dying cells must degrade their materials by themselves. VPE plays an essential role in the regulation of the lytic system of plants during the processes of defense and development. VPE is localized in the vacuoles, unlike animal caspases, which are localized in the cytosol. Thus, plants might have evolved a regulated cellular suicide strategy that, unlike animal apoptosis, is mediated by VPE and the vacuoles.

  1. Porcine circovirus-2 capsid protein induces cell death in PK15 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, Rupali; Dardari, Rkia, E-mail: rdardari@ucalgary.ca; Chaiyakul, Mark

    Studies have shown that Porcine circovirus (PCV)-2 induces apoptosis in PK15 cells. Here we report that cell death is induced in PCV2b-infected PK15 cells that express Capsid (Cap) protein and this effect is enhanced in interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-treated cells. We further show that transient PCV2a and 2b-Cap protein expression induces cell death in PK15 cells at rate similar to PCV2 infection, regardless of Cap protein localization. These data suggest that Cap protein may have the capacity to trigger different signaling pathways involved in cell death. Although further investigation is needed to gain deeper insights into the nature of the pathwaysmore » involved in Cap-induced cell death, this study provides evidence that PCV2-induced cell death in kidney epithelial PK15 cells can be mapped to the Cap protein and establishes the need for future research regarding the role of Cap-induced cell death in PCV2 pathogenesis. - Highlights: • IFN-γ enhances PCV2 replication that leads to cell death in PK15 cells. • IFN-γ enhances nuclear localization of the PCV2 Capsid protein. • Transient PCV2a and 2b-Capsid protein expression induces cell death. • Cell death is not dictated by specific Capsid protein sub-localization.« less

  2. Cylindromatosis mediates neuronal cell death in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ganjam, Goutham K; Terpolilli, Nicole Angela; Diemert, Sebastian; Eisenbach, Ina; Hoffmann, Lena; Reuther, Christina; Herden, Christiane; Roth, Joachim; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Culmsee, Carsten

    2018-01-19

    The tumor-suppressor cylindromatosis (CYLD) is a deubiquitinating enzyme and key regulator of cell proliferation and inflammation. A genome-wide siRNA screen linked CYLD to receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase-mediated necroptosis; however, the exact mechanisms of CYLD-mediated cell death remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the precise role of CYLD in models of neuronal cell death in vitro and evaluated whether CYLD deletion affects brain injury in vivo. In vitro, downregulation of CYLD increased RIP1 ubiquitination, prevented RIP1/RIP3 complex formation, and protected neuronal cells from oxidative death. Similar protective effects were achieved by siRNA silencing of RIP1 or RIP3 or by pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 with necrostatin-1. In vivo, CYLD knockout mice were protected from trauma-induced brain damage compared to wild-type littermate controls. These findings unravel the mechanisms of CYLD-mediated cell death signaling in damaged neurons in vitro and suggest a cell death-mediating role of CYLD in vivo.

  3. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R

    2012-12-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors-fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutic approaches to preventing cell death in Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Anna; Stockwell, Brent R.

    2012-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases affect the lives of millions of patients and their families. Due to the complexity of these diseases and our limited understanding of their pathogenesis, the design of therapeutic agents that can effectively treat these diseases has been challenging. Huntington disease (HD) is one of several neurological disorders with few therapeutic options. HD, like numerous other neurodegenerative diseases, involves extensive neuronal cell loss. One potential strategy to combat HD and other neurodegenerative disorders is to intervene in the execution of neuronal cell death. Inhibiting neuronal cell death pathways may slow the development of neurodegeneration. However, discovering small molecule inhibitors of neuronal cell death remains a significant challenge. Here, we review candidate therapeutic targets controlling cell death mechanisms that have been the focus of research in HD, as well as an emerging strategy that has been applied to developing small molecule inhibitors—fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD). FBDD has been successfully used in both industry and academia to identify selective and potent small molecule inhibitors, with a focus on challenging proteins that are not amenable to traditional high-throughput screening approaches. FBDD has been used to generate potent leads, pre-clinical candidates, and has led to the development of an FDA approved drug. This approach can be valuable for identifying modulators of cell-death-regulating proteins; such compounds may prove to be the key to halting the progression of HD and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22967354

  5. Cardiac Glycoside Glucoevatromonoside Induces Cancer Type-Specific Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Naira F. Z.; Cerella, Claudia; Lee, Jin-Young; Mazumder, Aloran; Kim, Kyung Rok; de Carvalho, Annelise; Munkert, Jennifer; Pádua, Rodrigo M.; Kreis, Wolfgang; Kim, Kyu-Won; Christov, Christo; Dicato, Mario; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Han, Byung Woo; Braga, Fernão C.; Simões, Cláudia M. O.; Diederich, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV) out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC) and high-affinity binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking. GEV-induced cell death was caspase-independent, as investigated by a multiparametric approach, and culminates in severe morphological alterations in A549 cells, monitored by transmission electron microscopy, live cell imaging and flow cytometry. This non-canonical cell death was not preceded or accompanied by exacerbation of autophagy. In the presence of GEV, markers of autophagic flux (e.g. LC3I-II conversion) were impacted, even in presence of bafilomycin A1. Cell death induction remained unaffected by calpain, cathepsin, parthanatos, or necroptosis inhibitors. Interestingly, GEV triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells, witnessing cancer-type specific cell death induction. Differential cell cycle modulation by this CG led to a G2/M arrest, cyclin B1 and p53 downregulation in A549, but not in U937 cells. We further extended the anti-cancer potential of GEV to 3D cell culture using clonogenic and spheroid formation assays and validated our findings in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. Altogether, GEV shows an interesting anticancer profile with the ability to exert cytotoxic effects via induction of different cell death modalities. PMID:29545747

  6. Omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid induces pyroptosis cell death in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pizato, Nathalia; Luzete, Beatriz Christina; Kiffer, Larissa Fernanda Melo Vasconcelos; Corrêa, Luís Henrique; de Oliveira Santos, Igor; Assumpção, José Antônio Fagundes; Ito, Marina Kiyomi; Magalhães, Kelly Grace

    2018-01-31

    The implication of inflammation in pathophysiology of several type of cancers has been under intense investigation. Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate inflammation and present anticancer effects, promoting cancer cell death. Pyroptosis is an inflammation related cell death and so far, the function of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in pyroptosis cell death has not been described. This study investigated the role of DHA in triggering pyroptosis activation in breast cancer cells. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were supplemented with DHA and inflammation cell death was analyzed. DHA-treated breast cancer cells triggered increased caspase-1and gasdermin D activation, enhanced IL-1β secretion, translocated HMGB1 towards the cytoplasm, and membrane pore formation when compared to untreated cells, suggesting DHA induces pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells. Moreover, caspase-1 inhibitor (YVAD) could protect breast cancer cells from DHA-induced pyroptotic cell death. In addition, membrane pore formation showed to be a lysosomal damage and ROS formation-depended event in breast cancer cells. DHA triggered pyroptosis cell death in MDA-MB-231by activating several pyroptosis markers in these cells. This is the first study that shows the effect of DHA triggering pyroptosis programmed cell death in breast cancer cells and it could improve the understanding of the omega-3 supplementation during breast cancer treatment.

  7. Technological advances in real-time tracking of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Skommer, Joanna; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Cell population can be viewed as a quantum system, which like Schrödinger’s cat exists as a combination of survival- and death-allowing states. Tracking and understanding cell-to-cell variability in processes of high spatio-temporal complexity such as cell death is at the core of current systems biology approaches. As probabilistic modeling tools attempt to impute information inaccessible by current experimental approaches, advances in technologies for single-cell imaging and omics (proteomics, genomics, metabolomics) should go hand in hand with the computational efforts. Over the last few years we have made exciting technological advances that allow studies of cell death dynamically in real-time and with the unprecedented accuracy. These approaches are based on innovative fluorescent assays and recombinant proteins, bioelectrical properties of cells, and more recently also on state-of-the-art optical spectroscopy. Here, we review current status of the most innovative analytical technologies for dynamic tracking of cell death, and address the interdisciplinary promises and future challenges of these methods. PMID:20519963

  8. Cell Death During Crisis Is Mediated by Mitotic Telomere Deprotection

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Makoto T.; Cesare, Anthony J.; Rivera, Teresa; Karlseder, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Tumour formation is blocked by two barriers, replicative senescence and crisis1. Senescence is triggered by short telomeres and is bypassed by disruption of tumour suppressive pathways. After senescence bypass, cells undergo crisis, during which almost all of the cells in the population die. Cells that escape crisis harbor unstable genomes and other parameters of transformation. The mechanism of cell death during crisis remained elusive. We show that cells in crisis undergo spontaneous mitotic arrest, resulting in death during mitosis or in the following cell cycle. The phenotype was induced by loss of p53 function, and suppressed by telomerase overexpression. Telomere fusions triggered mitotic arrest in p53-compromised non-crisis cells, indicating such fusions as the underlying cause. Exacerbation of mitotic telomere deprotection by partial TRF2 knockdown2 increased the ratio of cells that died during mitotic arrest and sensitized cancer cells to mitotic poisons. We propose a crisis pathway wherein chromosome fusions induce mitotic arrest, resulting in mitotic telomere deprotection and cell death, thereby eliminating precancerous cells from the population. PMID:26108857

  9. Jasmonic Acid Signaling Modulates Ozone-Induced Hypersensitive Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mulpuri V.; Lee, Hyung-il; Creelman, Robert A.; Mullet, John E.; Davis, Keith R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)–, jasmonic acid (JA)–, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O3) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)–like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O3-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O3-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O3-induced H2O2 content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O3-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O3 exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O3 of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O3-induced HR-like cell death. PMID:11006337

  10. Jasmonic acid signaling modulates ozone-induced hypersensitive cell death.

    PubMed

    Rao, M V; Lee, H; Creelman, R A; Mullet, J E; Davis, K R

    2000-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-talk between salicylic acid (SA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and ethylene-dependent signaling pathways regulates plant responses to both abiotic and biotic stress factors. Earlier studies demonstrated that ozone (O(3)) exposure activates a hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death pathway in the Arabidopsis ecotype Cvi-0. We now have confirmed the role of SA and JA signaling in influencing O(3)-induced cell death. Expression of salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) in Cvi-0 reduced O(3)-induced cell death. Methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) pretreatment of Cvi-0 decreased O(3)-induced H(2)O(2) content and SA concentrations and completely abolished O(3)-induced cell death. Cvi-0 synthesized as much JA as did Col-0 in response to O(3) exposure but exhibited much less sensitivity to exogenous Me-JA. Analyses of the responses to O(3) of the JA-signaling mutants jar1 and fad3/7/8 also demonstrated an antagonistic relationship between JA- and SA-signaling pathways in controlling the magnitude of O(3)-induced HR-like cell death.

  11. Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Bauer, Maria Anna; Zimmermann, Andreas; Aguilera, Andrés; Austriaco, Nicanor; Ayscough, Kathryn; Balzan, Rena; Bar-Nun, Shoshana; Barrientos, Antonio; Belenky, Peter; Blondel, Marc; Braun, Ralf J; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C; Büttner, Sabrina; Cavalieri, Duccio; Chang, Michael; Cooper, Katrina F; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor; Cullin, Christophe; Dawes, Ian; Dengjel, Jörn; Dickman, Martin B; Eisenberg, Tobias; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fasel, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Gargouri, Ali; Giannattasio, Sergio; Goffrini, Paola; Gourlay, Campbell W; Grant, Chris M; Greenwood, Michael T; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Heger, Thomas; Heinisch, Jürgen; Herker, Eva; Herrmann, Johannes M; Hofer, Sebastian; Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kainz, Katharina; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Ludovico, Paula; Manon, Stéphen; Martegani, Enzo; Mazzoni, Cristina; Megeney, Lynn A; Meisinger, Chris; Nielsen, Jens; Nyström, Thomas; Osiewacz, Heinz D; Outeiro, Tiago F; Park, Hay-Oak; Pendl, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Picot, Stephane; Polčic, Peter; Powers, Ted; Ramsdale, Mark; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Schaffrath, Raffael; Segovia, Maria; Severin, Fedor F; Sharon, Amir; Sigrist, Stephan J; Sommer-Ruck, Cornelia; Sousa, Maria João; Thevelein, Johan M; Thevissen, Karin; Titorenko, Vladimir; Toledano, Michel B; Tuite, Mick; Vögtle, F-Nora; Westermann, Benedikt; Winderickx, Joris; Wissing, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Zhang, Zhaojie J; Zhao, Richard Y; Zhou, Bing; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cel-lular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the defi-nition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differ-ential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death rou-tines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the au-thors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the pro-gress of this vibrant field of research.

  12. Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Bauer, Maria Anna; Zimmermann, Andreas; Aguilera, Andrés; Austriaco, Nicanor; Ayscough, Kathryn; Balzan, Rena; Bar-Nun, Shoshana; Barrientos, Antonio; Belenky, Peter; Blondel, Marc; Braun, Ralf J.; Breitenbach, Michael; Burhans, William C.; Büttner, Sabrina; Cavalieri, Duccio; Chang, Michael; Cooper, Katrina F.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Costa, Vítor; Cullin, Christophe; Dawes, Ian; Dengjel, Jörn; Dickman, Martin B.; Eisenberg, Tobias; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Fasel, Nicolas; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Gargouri, Ali; Giannattasio, Sergio; Goffrini, Paola; Gourlay, Campbell W.; Grant, Chris M.; Greenwood, Michael T.; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Heger, Thomas; Heinisch, Jürgen; Herker, Eva; Herrmann, Johannes M.; Hofer, Sebastian; Jiménez-Ruiz, Antonio; Jungwirth, Helmut; Kainz, Katharina; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Ludovico, Paula; Manon, Stéphen; Martegani, Enzo; Mazzoni, Cristina; Megeney, Lynn A.; Meisinger, Chris; Nielsen, Jens; Nyström, Thomas; Osiewacz, Heinz D.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Park, Hay-Oak; Pendl, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina; Picot, Stephane; Polčic, Peter; Powers, Ted; Ramsdale, Mark; Rinnerthaler, Mark; Rockenfeller, Patrick; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Schaffrath, Raffael; Segovia, Maria; Severin, Fedor F.; Sharon, Amir; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Sommer-Ruck, Cornelia; Sousa, Maria João; Thevelein, Johan M.; Thevissen, Karin; Titorenko, Vladimir; Toledano, Michel B.; Tuite, Mick; Vögtle, F.-Nora; Westermann, Benedikt; Winderickx, Joris; Wissing, Silke; Wölfl, Stefan; Zhang, Zhaojie J.; Zhao, Richard Y.; Zhou, Bing; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cellular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the definition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death routines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the authors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the progress of this vibrant field of research. PMID:29354647

  13. Coordination of cell death and the cell cycle: linking proliferation to death through private and communal couplers.

    PubMed

    Abrams, John M; White, Michael A

    2004-12-01

    In development and in the adult, complex signaling pathways operate within and between cells to coordinate proliferation and cell death. These networks can be viewed as coupling devices that link engines driving the cell cycle and the initiation of apoptosis. We propose three simple frameworks for modeling the effects of proliferative drive on apoptotic propensity. This perspective offers a potentially useful foundation for predicting group behaviors of cells in normal and pathological settings.

  14. C/EBPβ LIP augments cell death by inducing osteoglycin.

    PubMed

    Wassermann-Dozorets, Rina; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2017-04-06

    Many types of tumor cell are devoid of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan osteoglycin (Ogn), but its role in tumor biology is poorly studied. Here we show that RNAi of Ogn attenuates stress-triggered cell death, whereas its overexpression increases cell death. We found that the transcription factor C/EBPβ regulates the expression of Ogn. C/EBPβ is expressed as a full-length, active form (LAP) and as a truncated, dominant-negative form (LIP), and the LIP/LAP ratio is positively correlated with the extent of cell death under stress. For example, we reported that drug-resistant tumor cells lack LIP altogether, and its supplementation abolished their resistance to chemotherapy and to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Here we further show that elevated LIP/LAP ratio robustly increased Ogn expression and cell death under stress by modulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein 1 pathway (MAPK/AP-1). Our findings suggest that LIP deficiency renders tumor cell resistant to ER stress by preventing the induction of Ogn.

  15. Zinc as a paracrine effector in pancreatic islet cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, B J; Kim, Y H; Kim, S; Kim, J W; Koh, J Y; Oh, S H; Lee, M K; Kim, K W; Lee, M S

    2000-03-01

    Because of a huge amount of Zn2+ in secretory granules of pancreatic islet beta-cells, Zn2+ released in certain conditions might affect the function or survival of islet cells. We studied potential paracrine effects of endogenous Zn2+ on beta-cell death. Zn2+ induced insulinoma/islet cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Chelation of released endogenous Zn2+ by CaEDTA significantly decreased streptozotocin (STZ)-induced islet cell death in an in vitro culture system simulating in vivo circumstances but not in the conventional culture system. Zn2+ chelation in vivo by continuous CaEDTA infusion significantly decreased the incidence of diabetes after STZ administration. N-(6-methoxy-quinolyl)-para-toluene-sulfonamide staining revealed that Zn2+ was densely deposited in degenerating islet cells 24 h after STZ treatment, which was decreased by CaEDTA infusion. We show here that Zn2+ is not a passive element for insulin storage but an active participant in islet cell death in certain conditions, which in time might contribute to the development of diabetes in aged people.

  16. Programmed Cell Death-1/Programmed Death-ligand 1 Pathway: A New Target for Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Chun-Sheng

    2017-04-20

    Sepsis remains a leading cause of death in many Intensive Care Units worldwide. Immunosuppression has been a primary focus of sepsis research as a key pathophysiological mechanism. Given the important role of the negative costimulatory molecules programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in the occurrence of immunosuppression during sepsis, we reviewed literatures related to the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway to examine its potential as a new target for sepsis treatment. Studies of the association between PD-1/PD-L1 and sepsis published up to January 31, 2017, were obtained by searching the PubMed database. English language studies, including those based on animal models, clinical research, and reviews, with data related to PD-1/PD-L1 and sepsis, were evaluated. Immunomodulatory therapeutics could reverse the deactivation of immune cells caused by sepsis and restore immune cell activation and function. Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway could reduce the exhaustion of T-cells and enhance the proliferation and activation of T-cells. The anti-PD-1/PD-L1 pathway shows promise as a new target for sepsis treatment. This review provides a basis for clinical trials and future studies aimed at revaluating the efficacy and safety of this targeted approach.

  17. How does metabolism affect cell death in cancer?

    PubMed

    Villa, Elodie; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland

    2016-07-01

    In cancer research, identifying a specificity of tumor cells compared with 'normal' proliferating cells for targeted therapy is often considered the Holy Grail for researchers and clinicians. Although diverse in origin, most cancer cells share characteristics including the ability to escape cell death mechanisms and the utilization of different methods of energy production. In the current paradigm, aerobic glycolysis is considered the central metabolic characteristic of cancer cells (Warburg effect). However, recent data indicate that cancer cells also show significant changes in other metabolic pathways. Indeed, it was recently suggested that Kreb's cycle, pentose phosphate pathway intermediates, and essential and nonessential amino acids have key roles. Renewed interest in the fact that cancer cells have to reprogram their metabolism in order to proliferate or resist treatment must take into consideration the ability of tumor cells to adapt their metabolism to the local microenvironment (low oxygen, low nutrients). This variety of metabolic sources might be either a strength, resulting in infinite possibilities for adaptation and increased ability to resist chemotherapy-induced death, or a weakness that could be targeted to kill cancer cells. Here, we discuss recent insights showing how energetic metabolism may regulate cell death and how this might be relevant for cancer treatment. © 2015 FEBS.

  18. Accelerated Tumor Cell Death by Angiogenic Modifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    factors; extracellular matrix; 3-D cell culture; cancer metastasis Running title: Tumor-Stroma Interaction Abbreviations: BSP, bone sialoprotein ; ECM...such as osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), osteonectin (ON or SPARC), 18 osteoprotegerin (OPG), PTHrP, M-CSF, RANK and...Waltregny, D., Bellahcene, A., Van Riet, I., Fisher, L. W., Young, M., Fernandez, P. and et al. Prognostic value of bone sialoprotein expression in

  19. Love is a battlefield: programmed cell death during fertilization.

    PubMed

    Heydlauff, Juliane; Groß-Hardt, Rita

    2014-03-01

    Plant development and growth is sustained by the constant generation of tremendous amounts of cells, which become integrated into various types of tissues and organs. What is all too often overlooked is that this thriving life also requires the targeted degeneration of selected cells, which undergo cell death according to genetically encoded programmes or environmental stimuli. The side-by-side existence of generation and demise is particularly evident in the haploid phase of the flowering plants cycle. Here, the lifespan of terminally differentiated accessory cells contrasts with that of germ cells, which by definition live on to form the next generation. In fact, with research in recent years it is becoming increasingly clear that the gametophytes of flowering plants constitute an attractive and powerful system for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying selective cell death.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Farrugia, Gianluca; Balzan, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed. PMID:22737670

  1. Necroptosis: an alternative cell death program defending against cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dongshi; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is resistance to programmed cell death, which maintains the survival of cells en route to oncogenic transformation and underlies therapeutic resistance. Recent studies demonstrate that programmed cell death is not confined to caspase-dependent apoptosis, but includes necroptosis, a form of necrotic death governed by Receptor-Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, and Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like (MLKL). Necroptosis serves as a critical cell-killing mechanism in response to severe stress and blocked apoptosis, and can be induced by inflammatory cytokines or chemotherapeutic drugs. Genetic or epigenetic alterations of necroptosis regulators such as RIP3 and cylindromatosis (CYLD), are frequently found in human tumors. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis elicits a more robust immune response that may function as a defensive mechanism by eliminating tumor-causing mutations and viruses. Furthermore, several classes of anticancer agents currently under clinical development, such as SMAC and BH3 mimetics, can promote necroptosis in addition to apoptosis. A more complete understanding of the interplay among necroptosis, apoptosis, and other cell death modalities is critical for developing new therapeutic strategies to enhance killing of tumor cells. PMID:26968619

  2. Necroptosis: an alternative cell death program defending against cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongshi; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Lin

    2016-04-01

    One of the hallmarks of cancer is resistance to programmed cell death, which maintains the survival of cells en route to oncogenic transformation and underlies therapeutic resistance. Recent studies demonstrate that programmed cell death is not confined to caspase-dependent apoptosis, but includes necroptosis, a form of necrotic death governed by Receptor-Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1), RIP3, and Mixed Lineage Kinase Domain-Like (MLKL) protein. Necroptosis serves as a critical cell-killing mechanism in response to severe stress and blocked apoptosis, and can be induced by inflammatory cytokines or chemotherapeutic drugs. Genetic or epigenetic alterations of necroptosis regulators such as RIP3 and cylindromatosis (CYLD), are frequently found in human tumors. Unlike apoptosis, necroptosis elicits a more robust immune response that may function as a defensive mechanism by eliminating tumor-causing mutations and viruses. Furthermore, several classes of anticancer agents currently under clinical development, such as SMAC and BH3 mimetics, can promote necroptosis in addition to apoptosis. A more complete understanding of the interplay among necroptosis, apoptosis, and other cell death modalities is critical for developing new therapeutic strategies to enhance killing of tumor cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thiol-redox signaling, dopaminergic cell death, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Garcia, Aracely; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Franco, Rodrigo

    2012-12-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been widely associated with oxidative stress. However, the mechanisms by which redox signaling regulates cell death progression remain elusive. Early studies demonstrated that depletion of glutathione (GSH), the most abundant low-molecular-weight thiol and major antioxidant defense in cells, is one of the earliest biochemical events associated with PD, prompting researchers to determine the role of oxidative stress in dopaminergic cell death. Since then, the concept of oxidative stress has evolved into redox signaling, and its complexity is highlighted by the discovery of a variety of thiol-based redox-dependent processes regulating not only oxidative damage, but also the activation of a myriad of signaling/enzymatic mechanisms. GSH and GSH-based antioxidant systems are important regulators of neurodegeneration associated with PD. In addition, thiol-based redox systems, such as peroxiredoxins, thioredoxins, metallothioneins, methionine sulfoxide reductases, transcription factors, as well as oxidative modifications in protein thiols (cysteines), including cysteine hydroxylation, glutathionylation, and nitrosylation, have been demonstrated to regulate dopaminergic cell loss. In this review, we summarize major advances in the understanding of the role of thiol-redox signaling in dopaminergic cell death in experimental PD. Future research is still required to clearly understand how integrated thiol-redox signaling regulates the activation of the cell death machinery, and the knowledge generated should open new avenues for the design of novel therapeutic approaches against PD.

  4. Sensory hair cell death and regeneration in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Jerry D.; Rajadinakaran, Gopinath; Smith, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory hair cells are specialized mechanotransductive receptors required for hearing and vestibular function. Loss of hair cells in humans and other mammals is permanent and causes reduced hearing and balance. In the early 1980’s, it was shown that hair cells continue to be added to the inner ear sensory epithelia in cartilaginous and bony fishes. Soon thereafter, hair cell regeneration was documented in the chick cochlea following acoustic trauma. Since then, research using chick and other avian models has led to great insights into hair cell death and regeneration. However, with the rise of the zebrafish as a model organism for studying disease and developmental processes, there has been an increased interest in studying sensory hair cell death and regeneration in its lateral line and inner ears. Advances derived from studies in zebrafish and other fish species include understanding the effect of ototoxins on hair cells and finding otoprotectants to mitigate ototoxin damage, the role of cellular proliferation vs. direct transdifferentiation during hair cell regeneration, and elucidating cellular pathways involved in the regeneration process. This review will summarize research on hair cell death and regeneration using fish models, indicate the potential strengths and weaknesses of these models, and discuss several emerging areas of future studies. PMID:25954154

  5. Regulation of programmed cell death or apoptosis in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Y J

    1997-01-01

    Intimal thickening caused by accumulation of cells, lipids, and connective tissue characterizes atherosclerosis, an arterial disease that leads to cardiac and cerebral infarction. Apoptosis, or genetically programmed cell death, is important for the development and morphogenesis of organs and tissues. As in other tissues, cells of cardiovascular tissues can undergo apoptosis. Increased apoptosis has been found in both human and animal atherosclerotic lesions, mediating tissue turnover and lesion development. In addition to vascular cells, many activated immune cells, mainly macrophages and T cells, are present in atherosclerotic lesions, where these cells produce biologically active substances such as the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interferon-gamma. Simultaneous exposure to these cytokines may trigger apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. The products of death-regulating genes including Fas/Fas ligand, members of IL-1 beta cysteinyl protease (caspase) family, the tumor suppressive gene p53, and the protooncogene c-myc have been found in vascular cells and may participate in the regulation of vascular apoptosis during the development of atherosclerosis. Abnormal occurrence of apoptosis may take place in atherosclerotic lesions, including attenuation or acceleration of the apoptotic death process. The former may cause an increase in the cellularity of the lesions, and the latter can reduce cellular components important for maintaining the integrity and stability of the plaques. Clarification of the molecular mechanism that regulates apoptosis may help design a new strategy for treatment of patients with atherosclerosis and its major complications, heart attack and stroke.

  6. Cell death in Tetrahymena thermophila: new observations on culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Christensen, S T; Sørensen, H; Beyer, N H; Kristiansen, K; Rasmussen, L; Rasmussen, M I

    2001-01-01

    We previously suggested that the cell fate of the protozoan ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, effectively relates to a quorum-sensing mechanism where cell-released factors support cell survival and proliferation. The cells have to be present above a critical initial density in a chemically defined nutrient medium in order to release a sufficient level of these factors to allow a new colony to flourish. At a relatively high rate of metabolism and/or macromolecular synthesis and below this critical density, cells began to die abruptly within 30 min of inoculation, and this death took the form of an explosive disintegration lasting less than 50 milliseconds. The cells died at any location in the culture, and the frequency of cell death was always lower in well-filled vials than those with medium/air interface. Cell death was inhibited by the addition of Actinomycin D or through modifications of the culture conditions either by reducing the oxygen tension or by decreasing the temperature of the growth medium. In addition, plastic caps in well-filled vials release substances, which promote cell survival. The fate of low-density cultures is related to certain 'physical' conditions, in addition to the availability of oxygen within closed culture systems. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  7. The inducers of immunogenic cell death for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuying

    2018-01-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising treatment modality that acts by selectively harnessing the host immune defenses against cancer. An effective immune response is often needed to eliminate tumors following treatment which can trigger the immunogenicity of dying tumor cells. Some treatment modalities (such as photodynamic therapy, high hydrostatic pressure or radiotherapy) and agents (some chemotherapeutic agents, oncolytic viruses) have been used to endow tumor cells with immunogenicity and/or increase their immunogenicity. These treatments and agents can boost the antitumor capacity by inducing immune responses against tumor neoantigens. Immunogenic cell death is a manner of cell death that can induce the emission of immunogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs are sufficient for immunocompetent hosts to trigger the immune system. This review focuses on the latest developments in the treatment modalities and agents that can induce and/or enhance the immunogenicity of cancer cells.

  8. Trial watch: Immunogenic cell death induction by anticancer chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Garg, Abhishek D; More, Sanket; Rufo, Nicole; Mece, Odeta; Sassano, Maria Livia; Agostinis, Patrizia; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The expression "immunogenic cell death" (ICD) refers to a functionally unique form of cell death that facilitates (instead of suppressing) a T cell-dependent immune response specific for dead cell-derived antigens. ICD critically relies on the activation of adaptive responses in dying cells, culminating with the exposure or secretion of immunostimulatory molecules commonly referred to as "damage-associated molecular patterns". Only a few agents can elicit bona fide ICD, including some clinically established chemotherapeutics such as doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, bleomycin, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and oxaliplatin. In this Trial Watch, we discuss recent progress on the development of ICD-inducing chemotherapeutic regimens, focusing on studies that evaluate clinical efficacy in conjunction with immunological biomarkers.

  9. Differential Roles of the ChiB Chitinase in Autolysis and Cell Death of Aspergillus nidulans▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Kwon, Nak-Jung; Kim, Young Hwan; Park, Hee-Soo; Kwon, Gi-Seok; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2009-01-01

    Autolysis is a natural event that occurs in most filamentous fungi. Such self-degradation of fungal cells becomes a predominant phenomenon in the absence of the regulator of G protein signaling FlbA in Aspergillus nidulans. Among a number of potential hydrolytic enzymes in the A. nidulans genome, the secreted endochitinase ChiB was shown to play a major role in autolysis. In this report, we investigate the roles of ChiB in fungal autolysis and cell death processes through genetic, biochemical, and cellular analyses using a set of critical mutants. Determination of mycelial mass revealed that, while the flbA deletion (ΔflbA) mutant autolyzed completely after a 3-day incubation, the ΔflbA ΔchiB double mutant escaped from hyphal disintegration. These results indicate that ChiB is necessary for the ΔflbA-induced autolysis. However, importantly, both ΔflbA and ΔflbA ΔchiB strains displayed dramatically reduced cell viability compared to the wild type. These imply that ChiB is dispensable for cell death and that autolysis and cell death are separate processes. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the proteins that accumulate at high levels in the ΔflbA and ΔflbA ΔchiB mutants identify chitinase (ChiB), dipeptidyl peptidase V (DppV), O-glycosyl compound hydrolase, β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (NagA), and myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (InoB). Functional characterization of these four genes reveals that the deletion of nagA results in reduced cell death. A working model bridging G protein signaling and players in autolysis/cell death is proposed. PMID:19286987

  10. Mangiferin induces cell death against rhabdomyosarcoma through sustained oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Padma, Vishwanadha Vijaya; Kalaiselvi, Palanisamy; Yuvaraj, Rangasamy; Rabeeth, M

    2015-06-01

    Embryonic rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) is the most prevalent type of cancer among children. The present study aimed to investigate cell death induced by mangiferin in RD cells. The Inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) value of mangiferin was determined by an MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay. Cell death induced by mangiferin against RD cells was determined through lactate dehydrogenase and nitric oxide release, intracellular calcium levels, reactive oxygen species generation, antioxidant status, mitochondrial calcium level, and mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining was performed to determine early/late apoptotic event. Mangiferin induced cell death in RD cells with an IC 50 value of 70 μM. The cytotoxic effect was reflected in a dose-dependent increase in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and nitric oxide release during mangiferin treatment. Mangiferin caused dose dependent increase in reactive oxygen species generation, intracellular calcium levels with subsequent decrease in antioxidant status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione) and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in RD cells. Further data from fluorescence microscopy suggest that mangiferin caused cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation along with the occurrence of a late event of apoptosis. Results of the present study shows that mangiferin can act as a promising chemopreventive agent against RD by inducing sustained oxidative stress.

  11. Non-apoptotic cell death in animal development.

    PubMed

    Kutscher, Lena M; Shaham, Shai

    2017-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important process in the development of multicellular organisms. Apoptosis, a form of PCD characterized morphologically by chromatin condensation, membrane blebbing, and cytoplasm compaction, and molecularly by the activation of caspase proteases, has been extensively investigated. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, mice, and the developing chick have revealed, however, that developmental PCD also occurs through other mechanisms, morphologically and molecularly distinct from apoptosis. Some non-apoptotic PCD pathways, including those regulating germ cell death in Drosophila, still appear to employ caspases. However, another prominent cell death program, linker cell-type death (LCD), is morphologically conserved, and independent of the key genes that drive apoptosis, functioning, at least in part, through the ubiquitin proteasome system. These non-apoptotic processes may serve as backup programs when caspases are inactivated or unavailable, or, more likely, as freestanding cell culling programs. Non-apoptotic PCD has been documented extensively in the developing nervous system, and during the formation of germline and somatic gonadal structures, suggesting that preservation of these mechanisms is likely under strong selective pressure. Here, we discuss our current understanding of non-apoptotic PCD in animal development, and explore possible roles for LCD and other non-apoptotic developmental pathways in vertebrates. We raise the possibility that during vertebrate development, apoptosis may not be the major PCD mechanism.

  12. Cell death in response to antimetabolites directed at thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Karen W; Berger, Franklin G

    2008-02-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is an indispensable enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of TMP during DNA replication and cell growth, and has, therefore, been an important target for several classes of antimetabolites used in cancer chemotherapy. While most investigations of the action of TS-directed agents have focused on apoptosis as the primary means of cell death, little is known regarding the role, if any, of non-apoptotic mechanisms. In the present study, we have examined the mode of cell death induced by several TS inhibitors. Apoptosis and necrosis in response to TS inhibitors was assessed. The roles of caspases and the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) in drug-induced cell death were analyzed. Finally, drug-mediated changes in expression of several proteins involved in regulation of apoptosis were analyzed. Though human colon tumor cells exposed to TS inhibitors undergo classical apoptosis, it is not the predominant mechanism of response; rather, a necrosis-like mechanism prevails. The apoptotic response to TS inhibitors is caspase-dependent, and is promoted by NFkappaB. In contrast, the necrosis-like response is independent of both caspases and NFkappaB. Exposure to TS inhibitors induces PARP cleavage, but does not alter expression of the pro or activated forms of caspases-3 or caspases-8, Fas, or FasL. Treatment with the death-inducing cytokine TNFalpha, like TS inhibitors, results in a limited extent of apoptosis that is both caspase- and NFkappaB-dependent; however, unlike TS inhibitors, the cytokine does not induce necrosis. Classical apoptosis occurs to a limited extent in human colon tumor cells exposed to TS inhibitors, with caspase-independent necrosis being the prinicipal mechanism of cell death. We suggest that the role of necrosis and necrosis-like mechanisms should be considered in future studies of the action of TS-directed antimetabolites, as well as other chemotherapeutic agents.

  13. Curcumin Attenuates Staurosporine-Mediated Death of Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Burugula, Balabharathi; Ganesh, Bhagyalaxmi S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Staurosporine (SS) causes retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death in vivo, but the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. Since previous studies on RGC-5 cells indicated that SS induces cell death by elevating proteases, this study was undertaken to investigate whether SS induces RGC loss by elevating proteases in the retina, and curcumin prevents SS-mediated death of RGCs. Methods. Transformed mouse retinal ganglion-like cells (RGC-5) were treated with 2.0 μM SS and various doses of curcumin. Two optimal doses of SS (12.5 and 100 nM) and curcumin (2.5 and 10 μM) were injected into the vitreous of C57BL/6 mice. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) activities were assessed by zymography assays. Viability of RGC-5 cells was assessed by MTT assays. RGC and amacrine cell loss in vivo was assessed by immunostaining with Brn3a and ChAT antibodies, respectively. Frozen retinal cross sections were immunostained for nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Results. Staurosporine induced uPA and tPA levels in RGC-5 cells, and MMP-9, uPA, and tPA levels in the retinas and promoted the death of RGC-5 cells in vitro and RGCs and amacrine cells in vivo. In contrast, curcumin attenuated RGC and amacrine cell loss, despite elevated levels of proteases. An NF-κB inhibitory peptide reversed curcumin-mediated protective effect on RGC-5 cells, but did not inhibit protease levels. Curcumin did not inhibit protease levels in vivo, but attenuated RGC and amacrine cell loss by restoring NF-κB expression. Conclusions. The results show that curcumin attenuates RGC and amacrine cell death despite elevated levels of proteases and raises the possibility that it may be used as a plausible adjuvant therapeutic agent to prevent the loss of these cells in retinal degenerative conditions. PMID:21498608

  14. Cell death monitoring using quantitative optical coherence tomography methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Yang, Victor X. D.; Kolios, Michael C.; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2011-03-01

    Cell death is characterized by a series of predictable morphological changes, which modify the light scattering properties of cells. We present a multi-parametric approach to detecting changes in subcellular morphology related to cell death using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical coherence tomography data were acquired from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells undergoing apoptosis over a period of 48 hours. Integrated backscatter (IB) and spectral slope (SS) were computed from OCT backscatter spectra and statistical parameters were extracted from a generalized gamma (GG) distribution fit to OCT signal intensity histograms. The IB increased by 2-fold over 48 hours with significant increases observed as early as 4 hours. The SS increased in steepness by 2.5-fold with significant changes at 12 hours, while the GG parameters were sensitive to apoptotic changes at 24 to 48 hours. Histology slides indicated nuclear condensation and fragmentation at 24 hours, suggesting the late scattering changes could be related to nuclear structure. A second series of measurements from AML cells treated with cisplatin, colchicine or ionizing radiation suggested that the GG parameters could potentially differentiate between modes of cell death. Distinct cellular morphology was observed in histology slides obtained from cells treated under each condition.

  15. Metal-accelerated oxidation in plant cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Czuba, M.

    1993-05-01

    Cadmium and mercury toxicity is further enhanced by external oxidizing conditions O[sub 3] or inherent plant processes. Lepidium sativum L, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., or Phaseolus vulgaris L, were grown inpeat-lite to maturity under continuous cadmium exposure followed by one oxidant (O[sub 3]-6 hr. 30 pphm) exposure, with or without foliar calcium pretreatments. In comparison, Daucus carota, L and other species grown in a 71-V suspension, with or without 2,4-D were exposed continuously to low levels of methylmercury during exponential growth and analyzed in aggregates of distinct populations. Proteins were extracted and analyzed. Mechanisms of toxicity and eventual cell death aremore » Ca-mediated and involve chloroplast, stomatal-water relations and changes in oxidant-anti-oxidant components in cells. Whether the metal-accelerated oxidative damage proceeds to cell death, depends on the species and its differential biotransformation system and cell association component.« less

  16. Programmed cell death-1 and programmed cell death ligand-1 antibodies-induced dysthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Jaafar; Fernandez, Eugenio; Alwan, Heba; Philippe, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies blocking the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) are a group of immune checkpoints inhibitors (ICIs) with proven antitumor efficacy. However, their use is complicated by immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including endocrine adverse events (eAEs). We review the incidence, time to onset and resolution rate of dysthyroidism induced by PD-1/PD-L1 Ab, and the clinical, biological and radiological findings. We aim to discuss the potential mechanisms of PD-1/PD-L1 Ab-induced dysthyroidism, and to propose a management algorithm. We performed a literature search of available clinical trials regarding PD-1/PD-L1 Ab in the PubMed database. We selected all English language clinical trials that included at least 100 patients. We also present selected case series or reports, retrospective studies and reviews related to this issue. In patients treated with PD-1 Ab, hypothyroidism occurred in 2-10.1% and hyperthyroidism occurred in 0.9-7.8%. When thyroiditis was reported separately, it occurred in 0.34-2.6%. Higher rates were reported when PD-1 Ab were associated with other ICI or chemotherapy. The median time to onset of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism after PD-1 Ab initiation was 23-45 days and 2-3.5 months, respectively. Regarding PD-L1 Ab, hypothyroidism occurred in 0-10% and hyperthyroidism in 0.5-2% of treated patients. The average time to onset of dysthyroidism after PD-L1 Ab was variable and ranged from 1 day after treatment initiation to 31 months. Dysthyroidism occurs in up to 10% of patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 Ab. Hypothyroidism and reversible destructive thyroiditis are the most frequent endocrine adverse events (eAE) in PD-1/PD-L1 treated patients. Immune and non-immune mechanisms are potentially involved, independently of the presence of thyroid antibodies. © 2018 The authors.

  17. PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN EXTRAOCULAR MUSCLE TENDON/SCLERA PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the occurrence of natural cell death in the periocular mesenchyme of mouse embryos.

    Methods: Vital staining with LysoTracker Red and Nile blue sulphate as well as terminal nick end labeling (TUNEL) were utiliz...

  18. Dictyostelium cell death: early emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells.

    PubMed

    Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Adam, Myriam; Luciani, Marie-Françoise; de Chastellier, Chantal; Blanton, Richard L; Golstein, Pierre

    2003-03-31

    Cell death in the stalk of Dictyostelium discoideum, a prototypic vacuolar cell death, can be studied in vitro using cells differentiating as a monolayer. To identify early events, we examined potentially dying cells at a time when the classical signs of Dictyostelium cell death, such as heavy vacuolization and membrane lesions, were not yet apparent. We observed that most cells proceeded through a stereotyped series of differentiation stages, including the emergence of "paddle" cells showing high motility and strikingly marked subcellular compartmentalization with actin segregation. Paddle cell emergence and subsequent demise with paddle-to-round cell transition may be critical to the cell death process, as they were contemporary with irreversibility assessed through time-lapse videos and clonogenicity tests. Paddle cell demise was not related to formation of the cellulose shell because cells where the cellulose-synthase gene had been inactivated underwent death indistinguishable from that of parental cells. A major subcellular alteration at the paddle-to-round cell transition was the disappearance of F-actin. The Dictyostelium vacuolar cell death pathway thus does not require cellulose synthesis and includes early actin rearrangements (F-actin segregation, then depolymerization), contemporary with irreversibility, corresponding to the emergence and demise of highly polarized paddle cells.

  19. Delineating the cell death mechanisms associated with skin electroporation.

    PubMed

    Schultheis, Katherine; Smith, Trevor R F; Kiosses, William B; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Wong, Amelia; Oh, Janet; Broderick, Kate Elizabeth

    2018-06-28

    The immune responses elicited following delivery of DNA vaccines to the skin has previously been shown to be significantly enhanced by the addition of electroporation (EP) to the treatment protocol. Principally, EP increases the transfection of pDNA into the resident skin cells. In addition to increasing the levels of in vivo transfection, the physical insult induced by EP is associated with activation of innate pathways which are believed to mediate an adjuvant effect, further enhancing DNA vaccine responses. Here, we have investigated the possible mechanisms associated with this adjuvant effect, primarily focusing on the cell death pathways associated with the skin EP procedure independent of pDNA delivery. Using the minimally invasive CELLECTRA®-3P intradermal electroporation device that penetrates the epidermal and dermal layers of the skin, we have investigated apoptotic and necrotic cell death in relation to the vicinity of the electrode needles and electric field generated. Employing the well-established TUNEL assay, we detected apoptosis beginning as early as one hour after EP and peaking at the 4 hour time point. The majority of the apoptotic events were detected in the epidermal region directly adjacent to the electrode needle. Using a novel propidium iodide in vivo necrotic cell death assay, we detected necrotic events concentrated in the epidermal region adjacent to the electrode. Furthermore, we detected up-regulation of calreticulin expression on skin cells after EP, thus labeling these cells for uptake by dendritic cells and macrophages. These results allow us to delineate the cell death mechanisms occurring in the skin following intradermal EP independently of pDNA delivery. We believe these events contribute to the adjuvant effect observed following electroporation at the skin treatment site.

  20. Delayed innocent bystander cell death following hypoxia in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C-L; Kim, E; Crowder, C M

    2014-01-01

    After hypoxia, cells may die immediately or have a protracted course, living or dying depending on an incompletely understood set of cell autonomous and nonautonomous factors. In stroke, for example, some neurons are thought to die from direct hypoxic injury by cell autonomous primary mechanisms, whereas other so called innocent bystander neurons die from factors released from the primarily injured cells. A major limitation in identifying these factors is the inability of current in vivo models to selectively target a set of cells for hypoxic injury so that the primarily injured cells and the innocent bystanders are clearly delineated. In order to develop such a model, we generated transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains where 2–3% of somatic cells were made selectively sensitive to hypoxia. This was accomplished by cell type-specific wild-type rescue in either pharyngeal myocytes or GABAergic neurons of a hypoxia resistance-producing translation factor mutation. Surprisingly, hypoxic targeting of these relatively small subsets of non-essential cells produced widespread innocent bystander cell injury, behavioral dysfunction and eventual organismal death. The hypoxic injury phenotypes of the myocyte or neuron sensitized strains were virtually identical. Using this model, we show that the C. elegans insulin receptor/FOXO transcription factor pathway improves survival when activated only after hypoxic injury and blocks innocent bystander death. PMID:24317200

  1. Delayed innocent bystander cell death following hypoxia in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sun, C-L; Kim, E; Crowder, C M

    2014-04-01

    After hypoxia, cells may die immediately or have a protracted course, living or dying depending on an incompletely understood set of cell autonomous and nonautonomous factors. In stroke, for example, some neurons are thought to die from direct hypoxic injury by cell autonomous primary mechanisms, whereas other so called innocent bystander neurons die from factors released from the primarily injured cells. A major limitation in identifying these factors is the inability of current in vivo models to selectively target a set of cells for hypoxic injury so that the primarily injured cells and the innocent bystanders are clearly delineated. In order to develop such a model, we generated transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strains where 2-3% of somatic cells were made selectively sensitive to hypoxia. This was accomplished by cell type-specific wild-type rescue in either pharyngeal myocytes or GABAergic neurons of a hypoxia resistance-producing translation factor mutation. Surprisingly, hypoxic targeting of these relatively small subsets of non-essential cells produced widespread innocent bystander cell injury, behavioral dysfunction and eventual organismal death. The hypoxic injury phenotypes of the myocyte or neuron sensitized strains were virtually identical. Using this model, we show that the C. elegans insulin receptor/FOXO transcription factor pathway improves survival when activated only after hypoxic injury and blocks innocent bystander death.

  2. Die another way – non-apoptotic mechanisms of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Stephen W. G.; Ichim, Gabriel; Green, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regulated, programmed cell death is crucial for all multicellular organisms. Cell death is essential in many processes, including tissue sculpting during embryogenesis, development of the immune system and destruction of damaged cells. The best-studied form of programmed cell death is apoptosis, a process that requires activation of caspase proteases. Recently it has been appreciated that various non-apoptotic forms of cell death also exist, such as necroptosis and pyroptosis. These non-apoptotic cell death modalities can be either triggered independently of apoptosis or are engaged should apoptosis fail to execute. In this Commentary, we discuss several regulated non-apoptotic forms of cell death including necroptosis, autophagic cell death, pyroptosis and caspase-independent cell death. We outline what we know about their mechanism, potential roles in vivo and define outstanding questions. Finally, we review data arguing that the means by which a cell dies actually matters, focusing our discussion on inflammatory aspects of cell death. PMID:24833670

  3. Rational development of a cytotoxic peptide to trigger cell death.

    PubMed

    Boohaker, Rebecca J; Zhang, Ge; Lee, Michael W; Nemec, Kathleen N; Santra, Santimukul; Perez, J Manuel; Khaled, Annette R

    2012-07-02

    Defects in the apoptotic machinery can contribute to tumor formation and resistance to treatment, creating a need to identify new agents that kill cancer cells by alternative mechanisms. To this end, we examined the cytotoxic properties of a novel peptide, CT20p, derived from the C-terminal, alpha-9 helix of Bax, an amphipathic domain with putative membrane binding properties. Like many antimicrobial peptides, CT20p contains clusters of hydrophobic and cationic residues that could enable the peptide to associate with lipid membranes. CT20p caused the release of calcein from mitochondrial-like lipid vesicles without disrupting vesicle integrity and, when expressed as a fusion protein in cells, localized to mitochondria. The amphipathic nature of CT20p allowed it to be encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) that have the capacity to harbor targeting molecules, dyes or drugs. The resulting CT20p-NPs proved an effective killer, in vitro, of colon and breast cancer cells, and in vivo, using a murine breast cancer tumor model. By introducing CT20p to Bax deficient cells, we demonstrated that the peptide's lethal activity was independent of endogenous Bax. CT20p also caused an increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential that was followed by plasma membrane rupture and cell death, without the characteristic membrane asymmetry associated with apoptosis. We determined that cell death triggered by the CT20p-NPs was minimally dependent on effector caspases and resistant to Bcl-2 overexpression, suggesting that it acts independently of the intrinsic apoptotic death pathway. Furthermore, use of CT20p with the apoptosis-inducing drug, cisplatin, resulted in additive toxicity. These results reveal the novel features of CT20p that allow nanoparticle-mediated delivery to tumors and the potential application in combination therapies to activate multiple death pathways in cancer cells.

  4. Apoptosis in fish: environmental factors and programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    AnvariFar, Hossein; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat; Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Ouraji, Hossein; Jalali, M Ali; Üçüncü, Sema İşisağ

    2017-06-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, is a critical component in maintaining homeostasis and growth in all tissues and plays a significant role in immunity and cytotoxicity. In contrast to necrosis or traumatic cell death, apoptosis is a well-controlled and vital process characterized mainly by cytoplasmic shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, membrane blebbing and apoptotic bodies. Our understanding of apoptosis is partly based on observations in invertebrates but mainly in mammals. Despite the great advantages of fish models in studying vertebrate development and diseases and the tremendous interest observed in recent years, reports on apoptosis in fish are still limited. Although apoptotic machinery is well conserved between aquatic and terrestrial organisms throughout the history of evolution, some differences exist in key components of apoptotic pathways. Core parts of apoptotic machinery in fish are virtually expressed as equivalent to the mammalian models. Some differences are, however, evident, such as the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis including lack of a C-terminal region in the Fas-associated protein with a death domain in fish. Aquatic species inhabit a complex and highly fluctuating environment, making these species good examples to reveal features of apoptosis that may not be easily investigated in mammals. Therefore, in order to gain a wider view on programmed cell death in fish, interactions between the main environmental factors, chemicals and apoptosis are discussed in this review. It is indicated that apoptosis can be induced in fish by exposure to environmental stressors during different stages of the fish life cycle.

  5. A Conserved Core of Programmed Cell Death Indicator Genes Discriminates Developmentally and Environmentally Induced Programmed Cell Death in Plants.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Van Bel, Michiel; Van Hautegem, Tom; Fendrych, Matyáš; Huysmans, Marlies; Simaskova, Maria; van Durme, Matthias; Buscaill, Pierre; Rivas, Susana; Coll, Nuria S.; Coppens, Frederik; Maere, Steven; Nowack, Moritz K.

    2015-12-01

    A plethora of diverse programmed cell death (PCD) processes has been described in living organisms. In animals and plants, different forms of PCD play crucial roles in development, immunity, and responses to the environment. While the molecular control of some animal PCD forms such as apoptosis is known in great detail, we still know comparatively little about the regulation of the diverse types of plant PCD. In part, this deficiency in molecular understanding is caused by the lack of reliable reporters to detect PCD processes. Here, we addressed this issue by using a combination of bioinformatics approaches to identify commonly regulated genes during diverse plant PCD processes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Our results indicate that the transcriptional signatures of developmentally controlled cell death are largely distinct from the ones associated with environmentally induced cell death. Moreover, different cases of developmental PCD share a set of cell death-associated genes. Most of these genes are evolutionary conserved within the green plant lineage, arguing for an evolutionary conserved core machinery of developmental PCD. Based on this information, we established an array of specific promoter-reporter lines for developmental PCD in Arabidopsis. These PCD indicators represent a powerful resource that can be used in addition to established morphological and biochemical methods to detect and analyze PCD processes in vivo and in planta. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Trial Watch: Immunogenic cell death inducers for anticancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pol, Jonathan; Vacchelli, Erika; Aranda, Fernando; Castoldi, Francesca; Eggermont, Alexander; Cremer, Isabelle; Sautès-Fridman, Catherine; Fucikova, Jitka; Galon, Jérôme; Spisek, Radek; Tartour, Eric; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    The term "immunogenic cell death" (ICD) is now employed to indicate a functionally peculiar form of apoptosis that is sufficient for immunocompetent hosts to mount an adaptive immune response against dead cell-associated antigens. Several drugs have been ascribed with the ability to provoke ICD when employed as standalone therapeutic interventions. These include various chemotherapeutics routinely employed in the clinic (e.g., doxorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin, mitoxantrone, bleomycin, bortezomib, cyclophosphamide and oxaliplatin) as well as some anticancer agents that are still under preclinical or clinical development (e.g., some microtubular inhibitors of the epothilone family). In addition, a few drugs are able to convert otherwise non-immunogenic instances of cell death into bona fide ICD, and may therefore be employed as chemotherapeutic adjuvants within combinatorial regimens. This is the case of cardiac glycosides, like digoxin and digitoxin, and zoledronic acid. Here, we discuss recent developments on anticancer chemotherapy based on ICD inducers.

  7. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biology and cell death.

    PubMed

    Bertazza, Loris; Mocellin, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was the first cytokine to be used in humans for cancer therapy. However, its role in the treatment of cancer patients is debated. Most uncertainties in this field stem from the knowledge that the pathways directly activated or indirectly affected upon TNF engagement with its receptors can ultimately lead to very different outcomes in terms of cell survival. In this article, we summarize the fundamental molecular biology aspects of this cytokine. Such a basis is a prerequisite to critically approach the sometimes conflicting preclinical and clinical findings regarding the relationship between TNF, tumor biology and anticancer therapy. Although the last decade has witnessed remarkable advances in this field, we still do not know in detail how cells choose between life and death after TNF stimulation. Understanding this mechanism will not only shed new light on the physiological significance of TNF-driven programmed cell death but also help investigators maximize the anticancer potential of this cytokine.

  8. Cell death and survival signalling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Tucka, Joanna; Bennett, Martin; Littlewood, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    The loss of cells is an important factor in many diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system. Whereas apoptosis is an essential process in development and tissue homeostasis, its occurrence is often associated with various pathologies. Apoptosis of neurons that fail to make appropriate connections is essential for the selection of correct neural signalling in the developing embryo, but its appearance in adults is often associated with neurodegenerative disease. Similarly, in the cardiovascular system, remodeling of the mammalian outflow tract during the transition from a single to dual series circulation with four chambers is accompanied by a precise pattern of cell death, but apoptosis of cardiomyocytes contributes to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart. In many cases, it is unclear whether apoptosis represents a causative association or merely a consequence of the disease itself. There are many excellent reviews on cell death in the cardiovascular system (1-5); in this review we outline the critical signalling pathways that promote the survival of cardiovascular cells, and their relevance to both physiological cell death and disease.

  9. Megasporogenesis and programmed cell death in Tillandsia (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Papini, Alessio; Mosti, Stefano; Milocani, Eva; Tani, Gabriele; Di Falco, Pietro; Brighigna, Luigi

    2011-10-01

    The degeneration of three of four meiotic products is a very common process in the female gender of oogamous eukaryotes. In Tillandsia (and many other angiosperms), the surviving megaspore has a callose-free wall in chalazal position while the other three megaspores are completely embedded in callose. Therefore, nutrients and signals can reach more easily the functional megaspore from the nucellus through the chalazal pole with respect to the other megaspores. The abortion of three of four megaspores was already recognized as the result of a programmed cell death (PCD) process. We investigated the process to understand the modality of this specific type of PCD and its relationship to the asymmetric callose deposition around the tetrad. The decision on which of the four megaspores will be the supernumerary megaspores in angiosperms, and hence destined to undergo programmed cell death, appears to be linked to the callose layer deposition around the tetrad. During supernumerary megaspores degeneration, events leading to the deletion of the cells do not appear to belong to a single type of cell death. The first morphological signs are typical of autophagy, including the formation of autophagosomes. The TUNEL positivity and a change in morphology of mitochondria and chloroplasts indicate the passage to an apoptotic-like PCD phase, while the cellular remnants undergo a final process resembling at least partially (ER swelling) necrotic morphological syndromes, eventually leading to a mainly lipidic cell corpse still separated from the functional megaspore by a callose layer.

  10. Canthin-6-one induces cell death, cell cycle arrest and differentiation in human myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Vieira Torquato, Heron F; Ribeiro-Filho, Antonio C; Buri, Marcus V; Araújo Júnior, Roberto T; Pimenta, Renata; de Oliveira, José Salvador R; Filho, Valdir C; Macho, Antonio; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos T

    2017-04-01

    Canthin-6-one is a natural product isolated from various plant genera and from fungi with potential antitumor activity. In the present study, we evaluate the antitumor effects of canthin-6-one in human myeloid leukemia lineages. Kasumi-1 lineage was used as a model for acute myeloid leukemia. Cells were treated with canthin-6-one and cell death, cell cycle and differentiation were evaluated in both total cells (Lin + ) and leukemia stem cell population (CD34 + CD38 - Lin -/low ). Among the human lineages tested, Kasumi-1 was the most sensitive to canthin-6-one. Canthin-6-one induced cell death with apoptotic (caspase activation, decrease of mitochondrial potential) and necrotic (lysosomal permeabilization, double labeling of annexin V/propidium iodide) characteristics. Moreover, canthin-6-one induced cell cycle arrest at G 0 /G 1 (7μM) and G 2 (45μM) evidenced by DNA content, BrdU incorporation and cyclin B1/histone 3 quantification. Canthin-6-one also promoted differentiation of Kasumi-1, evidenced by an increase in the expression of myeloid markers (CD11b and CD15) and the transcription factor PU.1. Furthermore, a reduction of the leukemic stem cell population and clonogenic capability of stem cells were observed. These results show that canthin-6-one can affect Kasumi-1 cells by promoting cell death, cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation depending on concentration used. Canthin-6-one presents an interesting cytotoxic activity against leukemic cells and represents a promising scaffold for the development of molecules for anti-leukemic applications, especially by its anti-leukemic stem cell activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sigma-2 ligands and PARP inhibitors synergistically trigger cell death in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Elizabeth S.; Mankoff, Julia; Makvandi, Mehran

    The sigma-2 receptor is overexpressed in proliferating cells compared to quiescent cells and has been used as a target for imaging solid tumors by positron emission tomography. Recent work has suggested that the sigma-2 receptor may also be an effective therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of enzymes involved in DNA damage response. In this study, we looked for potential synergy of cytotoxicity between PARP inhibitors and sigma-2 receptor ligands in breast cancer cell lines. We showed that the PARP inhibitor, YUN3-6, sensitized mouse breast cancer cell line, EMT6, to sigma-2 receptor ligand (SV119,more » WC-26, and RHM-138) induced cell death determined by cell viability assay and colony forming assay. The PARP inhibitor, olaparib, sensitized tumor cells to a different sigma-2 receptor ligand SW43-induced apoptosis and cell death in human triple negative cell line, MDA-MB-231. Olaparib inhibited PARP activity and cell proliferation, and arrested cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle in MDA-MB-231 cells. Subsequently cells became sensitized to SW43 induced cell death. In conclusion, the combination of sigma-2 receptor ligands and PARP inhibitors appears to hold promise for synergistically triggering cell death in certain types of breast cancer cells and merits further investigation. - Highlights: • PARPi, YUN3-6 and olaparib, and σ2 ligands, SV119 and SW43, were evaluated. • Mouse and human breast cancer cells, EMT6 and MDA-MB-231 respectively, were used. • YUN3-6 and SV119 synergistically triggered cell death in EMT6 cells. • Olaparib and SW43 additively triggered cell death in MDA-MB-231 cells. • Olaparib arrested cells in G2/M in MDA-MB-231 cells.« less

  12. Melatonin ameliorates oxidative stress, modulates death receptor pathway proteins, and protects the rat cerebrum against bisphenol-A-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    El-Missiry, Mohamed A; Othman, Azza I; Al-Abdan, Monera A; El-Sayed, Aml A

    2014-12-15

    Epidemiological reports have indicated a correlation between the increasing of bisphenol-A (BPA) levels in the environment and the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, the protective effect of melatonin on oxidative stress and the death receptor apoptotic proteins in the cerebrum of the bisphenol-A-treated rats were examined. Adult male rats were orally administered melatonin (10mg/kg bw) concurrently with BPA (50mg/kg bw) 3 days a week for 6 weeks. BPA exposure resulted in significant elevations of oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased malondialdehyde level and the decreased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in the cerebrum. BPA caused an upregulation of p53 and CD95-Fas and activation of capsases-3 and 8, resulting in cerebral cell apoptosis. Melatonin significantly attenuated the BPA-evoked brain oxidative stress, modulated apoptotic-regulating proteins and protected against apoptosis. These data suggest that melatonin modulated important steps in the death receptor apoptotic pathway which likely related to its redox control properties. Melatonin is a promising pharmacological agent for preventing the potential neurotoxicity of BPA following occupational or environmental exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Apoptotic induction of skin cancer cell death by plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Thuncharoen, Walairat; Chulasiri, Malin; Nilwarangkoon, Sirinun; Nakamura, Yukio; Watanapokasin, Ramida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of plant extracts on cancer apoptotic induction. Human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cell line, obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA), was maintained in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 37 degrees C, 5% carbon dioxide (CO2). Plant extract solutions were obtained from S & J international enterprises public company limited. These plant extracts include 50% hydroglycol extracts from Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M.Smith (torch ginger; EE), Rosa damascene (damask rose; DR) and Rafflesia kerrii Meijer (bua phut; RM). The cell viability, time and dose dependency were determined by MTT (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. A431 cells were treated with the plant extracts and stained with Hoechst 33342 fluorescent staining dye. Cell viability was demonstrated by the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50). The anti-proliferative effects were shown to be dependent on time and dose. Typical characteristics of apoptosis which are cell morphological changes and chromatin condensation were clearly observed. The plant extracts was shown to be effective for anti-proliferation and induction of apoptosis cell death in skin cancer cells. Therefore, mechanisms underlying the cell death and its potential use for treatment of skin cancer will be further studied.

  14. Hypoxia promotes luteal cell death in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ryo; Komiyama, Junichi; Tasaki, Yukari; Acosta, Tomas J; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2008-03-01

    Low oxygen caused by a decreasing blood supply is known to induce various responses of cells, including apoptosis. The present study was conducted to examine whether low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia) induce luteal cell apoptosis in cattle. Bovine midluteal cells incubated under hypoxia (3% O(2)) showed significantly more cell death than did those incubated under normoxia (20% O(2)) at 24 and 48 h of culture, and had significantly lower progesterone (P4) levels starting at 8 h. Characteristic features of apoptosis, such as shrunken nuclei and DNA fragmentation, were observed in cells cultured under hypoxia for 48 h. Hypoxia increased the mRNA expressions of BNIP3 and caspase 3 at 24 and 48 h of culture. Hypoxia had no significant effect on the expressions of BCL2 and BAX mRNA. Hypoxia also increased BNIP3 protein, and activated caspase-3. Treatment of P4 attenuated cell death, caspase-3 mRNA expression, and caspase-3 activity under hypoxia. Overall results of the present study indicate that hypoxia induces luteal cell apoptosis by enhancing the expression of proapoptotic protein, BNIP3, and by activating caspase-3, and that the induction of apoptosis by hypoxia is partially caused by a decrease in P4 production. Because hypoxia suppresses P4 synthesis in bovine luteal cells, we suggest that oxygen deficiency caused by a decreasing blood supply in bovine corpus luteum is one of the major factors contributing to both functional and structural luteolysis.

  15. Mechanism of cell death resulting from DNA interstrand cross-linking in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Osawa, T; Davies, D; Hartley, J A

    2011-01-01

    DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are critical cytotoxic lesions produced by cancer chemotherapeutic agents such as the nitrogen mustards and platinum drugs; however, the exact mechanism of ICL-induced cell death is unclear. Here, we show a novel mechanism of p53-independent apoptotic cell death involving prolonged cell-cycle (G2) arrest, ICL repair involving HR, transient mitosis, incomplete cytokinesis, and gross chromosomal abnormalities resulting from ICLs in mammalian cells. This characteristic ‘giant' cell death, observed by using time-lapse video microscopy, was reduced in ICL repair ERCC1- and XRCC3-deficient cells. Collectively, the results illustrate the coordination of ICL-induced cellular responses, including cell-cycle arrest, DNA damage repair, and cell death. PMID:21814285

  16. Cytokines in immunogenic cell death: Applications for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Showalter, Anne; Limaye, Arati; Oyer, Jeremiah L; Igarashi, Robert; Kittipatarin, Christina; Copik, Alicja J; Khaled, Annette R

    2017-09-01

    Despite advances in treatments like chemotherapy and radiotherapy, metastatic cancer remains a leading cause of death for cancer patients. While many chemotherapeutic agents can efficiently eliminate cancer cells, long-term protection against cancer is not achieved and many patients experience cancer recurrence. Mobilizing and stimulating the immune system against tumor cells is one of the most effective ways to protect against cancers that recur and/or metastasize. Activated tumor specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can seek out and destroy metastatic tumor cells and reduce tumor lesions. Natural Killer (NK) cells are a front-line defense against drug-resistant tumors and can provide tumoricidal activity to enhance tumor immune surveillance. Cytokines like IFN-γ or TNF play a crucial role in creating an immunogenic microenvironment and therefore are key players in the fight against metastatic cancer. To this end, a group of anthracyclines or treatments like photodynamic therapy (PDT) exert their effects on cancer cells in a manner that activates the immune system. This process, known as immunogenic cell death (ICD), is characterized by the release of membrane-bound and soluble factors that boost the function of immune cells. This review will explore different types of ICD inducers, some in clinical trials, to demonstrate that optimizing the cytokine response brought about by treatments with ICD-inducing agents is central to promoting anti-cancer immunity that provides long-lasting protection against disease recurrence and metastasis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death is amplified by TRAIL in human leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marrero, Maria Teresa; Estevez, Sara; Negrin, Gledy

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ayanin diacetate as apoptotic inducer in leukemia cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death was prevented by caspase inhibitors and by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways are involved in the mechanism of action. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Death receptors are up-regulated and TRAIL enhances apoptotic cell death. -- Abstract: Here we demonstrate that the semi-synthetic flavonoid ayanin diacetate induces cell death selectively in leukemia cells without affecting the proliferation of normal lymphocytes. Incubation of human leukemia cells with ayanin diacetate induced G{sub 2}-M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which was prevented by the non-specific caspase inhibitormore » z-VAD-fmk and reduced by the overexpression of Bcl-x{sub L}. Ayanin diacetate-induced cell death was found to be associated with: (i) loss of inner mitochondrial membrane potential, (ii) the release of cytochrome c, (iii) the activation of multiple caspases, (iv) cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and (v) the up-regulation of death receptors for TRAIL, DR4 and DR5. Moreover, the combined treatment with ayanin diacetate and TRAIL amplified cell death, compared to single treatments. These results provide a basis for further exploring the potential applications of this combination for the treatment of cancer.« less

  18. Cell birth, cell death, cell diversity and DNA breaks: how do they all fit together?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, E. C.; Nowakowski, R. S.; Caviness, V. S. Jr; Herrup, K.

    2000-01-01

    Substantial death of migrating and differentiating neurons occurs within the developing CNS of mice that are deficient in genes required for repair of double-stranded DNA breaks. These findings suggest that large-scale, yet previously unrecognized, double-stranded DNA breaks occur normally in early postmitotic and differentiating neurons. Moreover, they imply that cell death occurs if the breaks are not repaired. The cause and natural function of such breaks remains a mystery; however, their occurrence has significant implications. They might be detected by histological methods that are sensitive to DNA fragmentation and mistakenly interpreted to indicate cell death when no relationship exists. In a broader context, there is now renewed speculation that DNA recombination might be occurring during neuronal development, similar to DNA recombination in developing lymphocytes. If this is true, the target gene(s) of recombination and their significance remain to be determined.

  19. Licochalcone A induces apoptosis in KB human oral cancer cells via a caspase-dependent FasL signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JAE-SUNG; PARK, MI-RA; LEE, SOOK-YOUNG; KIM, DO KYOUNG; MOON, SUNG-MIN; KIM, CHUN SUNG; CHO, SEUNG SIK; YOON, GOO; IM, HEE-JEONG; YOU, JAE-SEEK; OH, JI-SU; KIM, SU-GWAN

    2014-01-01

    Licochalcone A (Lico-A) is a natural phenol licorice compound with multiple bioactivities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and osteogenesis-inducing properties. In the present study, we investigated the Lico-A-induced apoptotic effects and examined the associated apoptosis pathway in KB human oral cancer cells. Lico-A decreased the number of viable KB oral cancer cells. However, Lico-A did not have an effect on primary normal human oral keratinocytes. In addition, the IC50 value of Lico-A was determined to be ~50 μM following dose-dependent stimulation. KB oral cancer cells stimulated with Lico-A for 24 h showed chromatin condensation by DAPI staining, genomic DNA fragmentation by agarose gel electrophoresis and a gradually increased apoptotic cell population by FACS analysis. These data suggest that Lico-A induces apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells. Additionally, Lico-A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells was mediated by the expression of factor associated suicide ligand (FasL) and activated caspase-8 and −3 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Furthermore, in the KB oral cancer cells co-stimulation with a caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-fmk) and Lico-A significantly abolished the apoptotic phenomena. Our findings demonstrated that Lico-A-induced apoptosis in KB oral cancer cells involves the extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway, which involves a caspase-dependent FasL-mediated death receptor pathway. Our data suggest that Lico-A be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for the management of oral cancer. PMID:24337492

  20. Zanthoxylum fruit extract from Japanese pepper promotes autophagic cell death in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Reo; Kono, Toru; Bochimoto, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Oketani, Kaori; Sakamaki, Yuichi; Okubo, Naoto; Nakagawa, Koji; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2016-10-25

    Zanthoxylum fruit, obtained from the Japanese pepper plant (Zanthoxylum piperitum De Candolle), and its extract (Zanthoxylum fruit extract, ZFE) have multiple physiological activities (e.g., antiviral activity). However, the potential anticancer activity of ZFE has not been fully examined. In this study, we investigated the ability of ZFE to induce autophagic cell death (ACD). ZFE caused remarkable autophagy-like cytoplasmic vacuolization, inhibited cell proliferation, and ultimately induced cell death in the human cancer cell lines DLD-1, HepG2, and Caco-2, but not in A549, MCF-7, or WiDr cells. ZFE increased the level of LC3-II protein, a marker of autophagy. Knockdown of ATG5 using siRNA inhibited ZFE-induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death. Moreover, in cancer cells that could be induced to undergo cell death by ZFE, the extract increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 attenuated both vacuolization and cell death. Based on morphology and expression of marker proteins, ZFE-induced cell death was neither apoptosis nor necrosis. Normal intestinal cells were not affected by ZFE. Taken together, our findings show that ZFE induces JNK-dependent ACD, which appears to be the main mechanism underlying its anticancer activity, suggesting a promising starting point for anticancer drug development.

  1. Targeting the programmed cell death 1: programmed cell death ligand 1 pathway reverses T cell exhaustion in patients with sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A major pathophysiologic mechanism in sepsis is impaired host immunity which results in failure to eradicate invading pathogens and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Although many immunosuppressive mechanisms exist, increased expression of the inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) are thought to play key roles. The newly recognized phenomenon of T cell exhaustion is mediated in part by PD-1 effects on T cells. This study tested the ability of anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1 antibodies to prevent apoptosis and improve lymphocyte function in septic patients. Methods Blood was obtained from 43 septic and 15 non-septic critically-ill patients. Effects of anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, or isotype-control antibody on lymphocyte apoptosis and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were quantitated by flow cytometry. Results Lymphocytes from septic patients produced decreased IFN-γ and IL-2 and had increased CD8 T cell expression of PD-1 and decreased PD-L1 expression compared to non-septic patients (P<0.05). Monocytes from septic patients had increased PD-L1 and decreased HLA-DR expression compared to non-septic patients (P<0.01). CD8 T cell expression of PD-1 increased over time in ICU as PD-L1, IFN-γ, and IL2 decreased. In addition, donors with the highest CD8 PD-1 expression together with the lowest CD8 PD-L1 expression also had lower levels of HLA-DR expression in monocytes, and an increased rate of secondary infections, suggestive of a more immune exhausted phenotype. Treatment of cells from septic patients with anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibody decreased apoptosis and increased IFN-γ and IL-2 production in septic patients; (P<0.01). The percentage of CD4 T cells that were PD-1 positive correlated with the degree of cellular apoptosis (P<0.01). Conclusions In vitro blockade of the PD-1:PD-L1 pathway decreases apoptosis and improves immune cell function in septic patients. The current results

  2. Vacuolar processing enzyme in plant programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Hatsugai, Noriyuki; Yamada, Kenji; Goto-Yamada, Shino; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2015-01-01

    Vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE) is a cysteine proteinase originally identified as the proteinase responsible for the maturation and activation of vacuolar proteins in plants, and it is known to be an ortholog of animal asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP/VPE/legumain). VPE has been shown to exhibit enzymatic properties similar to that of caspase 1, which is a cysteine protease that mediates the programmed cell death (PCD) pathway in animals. Although there is limited sequence identity between VPE and caspase 1, their predicted three-dimensional structures revealed that the essential amino-acid residues for these enzymes form similar pockets for the substrate peptide YVAD. In contrast to the cytosolic localization of caspases, VPE is localized in vacuoles. VPE provokes vacuolar rupture, initiating the proteolytic cascade leading to PCD in the plant immune response. It has become apparent that the VPE-dependent PCD pathway is involved not only in the immune response, but also in the responses to a variety of stress inducers and in the development of various tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the contribution of VPE to plant PCD and its role in vacuole-mediated cell death, and it also compares VPE with the animal cell death executor caspase 1. PMID:25914711

  3. Embryonic death and the creation of human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Landry, Donald W; Zucker, Howard A

    2004-11-01

    The creation of human embryonic stem cells through the destruction of a human embryo pits the value of a potential therapeutic tool against that of an early human life. This contest of values has resulted in a polarized debate that neglects areas of common interest and perspective. We suggest that a common ground for pursuing research on human embryonic stem cells can be found by reconsidering the death of the human embryo and by applying to this research the ethical norms of essential organ donation.

  4. Autophagy Protects Against Aminochrome-Induced Cell Death in Substantia Nigra-Derived Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Irmgard; Muñoz, Patricia; Huenchuguala, Sandro; Couve, Eduardo; Sanders, Laurie H.; Greenamyre, John Timothy; Caviedes, Pablo; Segura-Aguilar, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Aminochrome, the precursor of neuromelanin, has been proposed to be involved in the neurodegeneration neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. We aimed to study the mechanism of aminochrome-dependent cell death in a cell line derived from rat substantia nigra. We found that aminochrome (50μM), in the presence of NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase, EC 1.6.99.2 (DT)-diaphorase inhibitor dicoumarol (DIC) (100μM), induces significant cell death (62 ± 3%; p < 0.01), increase in caspase-3 activation (p < 0.001), release of cytochrome C, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (p < 0.01), damage of mitochondrial DNA, damage of mitochondria determined with transmission electron microscopy, a dramatic morphological change characterized as cell shrinkage, and significant increase in number of autophagic vacuoles. To determine the role of autophagy on aminochrome-induced cell death, we incubated the cells in the presence of vinblastine and rapamycin. Interestingly, 10μM vinblastine induces a 5.9-fold (p < 0.001) and twofold (p < 0.01) significant increase in cell death when the cells were incubated with 30μM aminochrome in the absence and presence of DIC, respectively, whereas 10μM rapamycin preincubated 24 h before addition of 50μM aminochrome in the absence and the presence of 100μM DIC induces a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in cell death. In conclusion, autophagy seems to be an important protective mechanism against two different aminochrome-induced cell deaths that initially showed apoptotic features. The cell death induced by aminochrome when DT-diaphorase is inhibited requires activation of mitochondrial pathway, whereas the cell death induced by aminochrome alone requires inhibition of autophagy-dependent degrading of damaged organelles and recycling through lysosomes. PMID:21427056

  5. Molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus pathogenesis: focus on cell death.

    PubMed

    Falasca, L; Agrati, C; Petrosillo, N; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, M R; Ippolito, G; Piacentini, M

    2015-08-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the Filoviridae family and is responsible for a severe disease characterized by the sudden onset of fever and malaise accompanied by other non-specific signs and symptoms; in 30-50% of cases hemorrhagic symptoms are present. Multiorgan dysfunction occurs in severe forms with a mortality up to 90%. The EBOV first attacks macrophages and dendritic immune cells. The innate immune reaction is characterized by a cytokine storm, with secretion of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, which induces a huge number of contradictory signals and hurts the immune cells, as well as other tissues. Other highly pathogenic viruses also trigger cytokine storms, but Filoviruses are thought to be particularly lethal because they affect a wide array of tissues. In addition to the immune system, EBOV attacks the spleen and kidneys, where it kills cells that help the body to regulate its fluid and chemical balance and that make proteins that help the blood to clot. In addition, EBOV causes liver, lungs and kidneys to shut down their functions and the blood vessels to leak fluid into surrounding tissues. In this review, we analyze the molecular mechanisms at the basis of Ebola pathogenesis with a particular focus on the cell death pathways induced by the virus. We also discuss how the treatment of the infection can benefit from the recent experience of blocking/modulating cell death in human degenerative diseases.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus pathogenesis: focus on cell death

    PubMed Central

    Falasca, L; Agrati, C; Petrosillo, N; Di Caro, A; Capobianchi, M R; Ippolito, G; Piacentini, M

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) belongs to the Filoviridae family and is responsible for a severe disease characterized by the sudden onset of fever and malaise accompanied by other non-specific signs and symptoms; in 30–50% of cases hemorrhagic symptoms are present. Multiorgan dysfunction occurs in severe forms with a mortality up to 90%. The EBOV first attacks macrophages and dendritic immune cells. The innate immune reaction is characterized by a cytokine storm, with secretion of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, which induces a huge number of contradictory signals and hurts the immune cells, as well as other tissues. Other highly pathogenic viruses also trigger cytokine storms, but Filoviruses are thought to be particularly lethal because they affect a wide array of tissues. In addition to the immune system, EBOV attacks the spleen and kidneys, where it kills cells that help the body to regulate its fluid and chemical balance and that make proteins that help the blood to clot. In addition, EBOV causes liver, lungs and kidneys to shut down their functions and the blood vessels to leak fluid into surrounding tissues. In this review, we analyze the molecular mechanisms at the basis of Ebola pathogenesis with a particular focus on the cell death pathways induced by the virus. We also discuss how the treatment of the infection can benefit from the recent experience of blocking/modulating cell death in human degenerative diseases. PMID:26024394

  7. The molecular basis of retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Almasieh, Mohammadali; Wilson, Ariel M; Morquette, Barbara; Cueva Vargas, Jorge Luis; Di Polo, Adriana

    2012-03-01

    Glaucoma is a group of diseases characterized by progressive optic nerve degeneration that results in visual field loss and irreversible blindness. A crucial element in the pathophysiology of all forms of glaucoma is the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), a population of CNS neurons with their soma in the inner retina and axons in the optic nerve. Strategies that delay or halt RGC loss have been recognized as potentially beneficial to preserve vision in glaucoma; however, the success of these approaches depends on an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that lead to RGC dysfunction and death. In recent years, there has been an exponential increase in valuable information regarding the molecular basis of RGC death stemming from animal models of acute and chronic optic nerve injury as well as experimental glaucoma. The emerging landscape is complex and points at a variety of molecular signals - acting alone or in cooperation - to promote RGC death. These include: axonal transport failure, neurotrophic factor deprivation, toxic pro-neurotrophins, activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals, mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxic damage, oxidative stress, misbehaving reactive glia and loss of synaptic connectivity. Collectively, this body of work has considerably updated and expanded our view of how RGCs might die in glaucoma and has revealed novel, potential targets for neuroprotection. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Crystalline structure of pulverized dental calculus induces cell death in oral epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ziauddin, S M; Yoshimura, A; Montenegro Raudales, J L; Ozaki, Y; Higuchi, K; Ukai, T; Kaneko, T; Miyazaki, T; Latz, E; Hara, Y

    2018-06-01

    Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit attached to the tooth surface. We have shown that cellular uptake of dental calculus triggers nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation, leading to the processing of the interleukin-1β precursor into its mature form in mouse and human phagocytes. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome also induced a lytic form of programmed cell death, pyroptosis, in these cells. However, the effects of dental calculus on other cell types in periodontal tissue have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether dental calculus can induce cell death in oral epithelial cells. HSC-2 human oral squamous carcinoma cells, HOMK107 human primary oral epithelial cells and immortalized mouse macrophages were exposed to dental calculus or 1 of its components, hydroxyapatite crystals. For inhibition assays, the cells were exposed to dental calculus in the presence or absence of cytochalasin D (endocytosis inhibitor), z-YVAD-fmk (caspase-1 inhibitor) or glyburide (NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor). Cytotoxicity was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and staining with propidium iodide. Tumor necrosis factor-α production was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Oral epithelial barrier function was examined by permeability assay. Dental calculus induced cell death in HSC-2 cells, as judged by LDH release and propidium iodide staining. Dental calculus also induced LDH release from HOMK107 cells. Following heat treatment, dental calculus lost its capacity to induce tumor necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages, but could induce LDH release in HSC-2 cells, indicating a major role of inorganic components in cell death. Hydroxyapatite crystals also induced cell death in both HSC-2 and HOMK107 cells, as judged by LDH release, indicating the capacity of crystal particles to induce cell death. Cell death induced by dental

  9. Live-cell visualization of gasdermin D-driven pyroptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Rathkey, Joseph K; Benson, Bryan L; Chirieleison, Steven M; Yang, Jie; Xiao, Tsan S; Dubyak, George R; Huang, Alex Y; Abbott, Derek W

    2017-09-01

    Pyroptosis is a form of cell death important in defenses against pathogens that can also result in a potent and sometimes pathological inflammatory response. During pyroptosis, GSDMD (gasdermin D), the pore-forming effector protein, is cleaved, forms oligomers, and inserts into the membranes of the cell, resulting in rapid cell death. However, the potent cell death induction caused by GSDMD has complicated our ability to understand the biology of this protein. Studies aimed at visualizing GSDMD have relied on expression of GSDMD fragments in epithelial cell lines that naturally lack GSDMD expression and also lack the proteases necessary to cleave GSDMD. In this work, we performed mutagenesis and molecular modeling to strategically place tags and fluorescent proteins within GSDMD that support native pyroptosis and facilitate live-cell imaging of pyroptotic cell death. Here, we demonstrate that these fusion proteins are cleaved by caspases-1 and -11 at Asp-276. Mutations that disrupted the predicted p30-p20 autoinhibitory interface resulted in GSDMD aggregation, supporting the oligomerizing activity of these mutations. Furthermore, we show that these novel GSDMD fusions execute inflammasome-dependent pyroptotic cell death in response to multiple stimuli and allow for visualization of the morphological changes associated with pyroptotic cell death in real time. This work therefore provides new tools that not only expand the molecular understanding of pyroptosis but also enable its direct visualization. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Cell Death Control by Matrix Metalloproteinases1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Dirk; Sieferer, Elke; Pfannstiel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that play important roles in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix in animals, the proteases responsible for dynamic modifications of the plant cell wall are largely unknown. A possible involvement of MMPs was addressed by cloning and functional characterization of Sl2-MMP and Sl3-MMP from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The two tomato MMPs were found to resemble mammalian homologs with respect to gelatinolytic activity, substrate preference for hydrophobic amino acids on both sides of the scissile bond, and catalytic properties. In transgenic tomato seedlings silenced for Sl2/3-MMP expression, necrotic lesions were observed at the base of the hypocotyl. Cell death initiated in the epidermis and proceeded to include outer cortical cell layers. In later developmental stages, necrosis spread, covering the entire stem and extending into the leaves of MMP-silenced plants. The subtilisin-like protease P69B was identified as a substrate of Sl2- and Sl3-MMP. P69B was shown to colocalize with Sl-MMPs in the apoplast of the tomato hypocotyl, it exhibited increased stability in transgenic plants silenced for Sl-MMP activity, and it was cleaved and inactivated by Sl-MMPs in vitro. The induction of cell death in Sl2/3-MMP-silenced plants depended on P69B, indicating that Sl2- and Sl3-MMP act upstream of P69B in an extracellular proteolytic cascade that contributes to the regulation of cell death in tomato. PMID:27208293

  11. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 triggers necrotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Forveille, Sabrina; Zhou, Heng; Sauvat, Allan; Bezu, Lucillia; Müller, Kevin; Liu, Peng; Zitvogel, Laurence; Pierron, Gérard; Rekdal, Øystein; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 has been designed for killing human cancer cells and turned out to stimulate anti-cancer immune responses when locally injected into tumors established in immunocompetent mice. Here, we investigated the question whether LTX-315 induces apoptosis or necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy or morphometric analysis of chromatin-stained tumor cells revealed that LTX-315 failed to induce apoptotic nuclear condensation and rather induced a necrotic phenotype. Accordingly, LTX-315 failed to stimulate the activation of caspase-3, and inhibition of caspases by means of Z-VAD-fmk was unable to reduce cell killing by LTX-315. In addition, 2 prominent inhibitors of regulated necrosis (necroptosis), namely, necrostatin-1 and cycosporin A, failed to reduce LTX-315-induced cell death. In conclusion, it appears that LTX-315 triggers unregulated necrosis, which may contribute to its pro-inflammatory and pro-immune effects. PMID:26566869

  12. Programmed Cell Death and Caspase Functions During Neural Development.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshifumi; Miura, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental component of nervous system development. PCD serves as the mechanism for quantitative matching of the number of projecting neurons and their target cells through direct competition for neurotrophic factors in the vertebrate peripheral nervous system. In addition, PCD plays roles in regulating neural cell numbers, canceling developmental errors or noise, and tissue remodeling processes. These findings are mainly derived from genetic studies that prevent cells from dying by apoptosis, which is a major form of PCD and is executed by activation of evolutionarily conserved cysteine protease caspases. Recent studies suggest that caspase activation can be coordinated in time and space at multiple levels, which might underlie nonapoptotic roles of caspases in neural development in addition to apoptotic roles. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Topological defects in epithelia govern cell death and extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saw, Thuan Beng; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Nier, Vincent; Kocgozlu, Leyla; Thampi, Sumesh; Toyama, Yusuke; Marcq, Philippe; Lim, Chwee Teck; Yeomans, Julia M.; Ladoux, Benoit

    2017-04-01

    Epithelial tissues (epithelia) remove excess cells through extrusion, preventing the accumulation of unnecessary or pathological cells. The extrusion process can be triggered by apoptotic signalling, oncogenic transformation and overcrowding of cells. Despite the important linkage of cell extrusion to developmental, homeostatic and pathological processes such as cancer metastasis, its underlying mechanism and connections to the intrinsic mechanics of the epithelium are largely unexplored. We approach this problem by modelling the epithelium as an active nematic liquid crystal (that has a long range directional order), and comparing numerical simulations to strain rate and stress measurements within monolayers of MDCK (Madin Darby canine kidney) cells. Here we show that apoptotic cell extrusion is provoked by singularities in cell alignments in the form of comet-shaped topological defects. We find a universal correlation between extrusion sites and positions of nematic defects in the cell orientation field in different epithelium types. The results confirm the active nematic nature of epithelia, and demonstrate that defect-induced isotropic stresses are the primary precursors of mechanotransductive responses in cells, including YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription factor activity, caspase-3-mediated cell death, and extrusions. Importantly, the defect-driven extrusion mechanism depends on intercellular junctions, because the weakening of cell-cell interactions in an α-catenin knockdown monolayer reduces the defect size and increases both the number of defects and extrusion rates, as is also predicted by our model. We further demonstrate the ability to control extrusion hotspots by geometrically inducing defects through microcontact printing of patterned monolayers. On the basis of these results, we propose a mechanism for apoptotic cell extrusion: spontaneously formed topological defects in epithelia govern cell fate. This will be important in predicting

  14. Mitochondrial control of cell death induced by hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Criollo, Alfredo; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Maiuri, M Chiara; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Lavandero, Sergio; Kroemer, Guido

    2007-01-01

    HeLa and HCT116 cells respond differentially to sorbitol, an osmolyte able to induce hypertonic stress. In these models, sorbitol promoted the phenotypic manifestations of early apoptosis followed by complete loss of viability in a time-, dose-, and cell type-specific fashion, by eliciting distinct yet partially overlapping molecular pathways. In HCT116 but not in HeLa cells, sorbitol caused the mitochondrial release of the caspase-independent death effector AIF, whereas in both cell lines cytochrome c was retained in mitochondria. Despite cytochrome c retention, HeLa cells exhibited the progressive activation of caspase-3, presumably due to the prior activation of caspase-8. Accordingly, caspase inhibition prevented sorbitol-induced killing in HeLa, but only partially in HCT116 cells. Both the knock-out of Bax in HCT116 cells and the knock-down of Bax in A549 cells by RNA interference reduced the AIF release and/or the mitochondrial alterations. While the knock-down of Bcl-2/Bcl-X(L) sensitized to sorbitol-induced killing, overexpression of a Bcl-2 variant that specifically localizes to mitochondria (but not of the wild-type nor of a endoplasmic reticulum-targeted form) strongly inhibited sorbitol effects. Thus, hyperosmotic stress kills cells by triggering different molecular pathways, which converge at mitochondria where pro- and anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family exert their control.

  15. Aeromonas hydrophila exotoxin induces cytoplasmic vacuolation and cell death in VERO cells.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Angela; Picerno, Isa; Visalli, Giuseppa; Chirico, Cristina; Spataro, Pasquale; Cannavò, Giuseppe; Scoglio, Maria E

    2005-07-01

    Many organisms are able to cause cell vacuolation, but it is unclear if this can be considered a step of apoptosis or necrosis, or a distinct form of cell death. In this study VERO cells were used to evaluate the relationship between vacuolation and cell death pattern caused by exotoxins produced by environmental strains of A. hydrophila. Cell damage has been evaluated morphologically as well as biochemically. Cytotoxic and vacuolating titres were strictly correlated and the vacuolation has to be considered an early indicator of cytotoxicity that causes cell apoptosis or necrosis in relation to the dose. Signs of apoptosis (chromatin condensation and blebbing) were observed at low concentration and TGase activity, referable to apoptosis induction, confirms morphological observations. In fact, putrescine incorporation was related both to cytotoxin concentration and time of incubation. Moreover, the observed doubling cells with necrotic features permit us to suppose that cell sensitivity and death pattern could change during the different phases of cellular cycle.

  16. Two programmed cell death systems in Escherichia coli: an apoptotic-like death is inhibited by the mazEF-mediated death pathway.

    PubMed

    Erental, Ariel; Sharon, Idith; Engelberg-Kulka, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the classical form of programmed cell death (PCD) is apoptosis, which has as its specific characteristics DNA fragmentation and membrane depolarization. In Escherichia coli a different PCD system has been reported. It is mediated by the toxin-antitoxin system module mazEF. The E. coli mazEF module is one of the most thoroughly studied toxin-antitoxin systems. mazF encodes a stable toxin, MazF, and mazE encodes a labile antitoxin, MazE, which prevents the lethal effect of MazF. mazEF-mediated cell death is a population phenomenon requiring the quorum-sensing pentapeptide NNWNN designated Extracellular Death Factor (EDF). mazEF is triggered by several stressful conditions, including severe damage to the DNA. Here, using confocal microscopy and FACS analysis, we show that under conditions of severe DNA damage, the triggered mazEF-mediated cell death pathway leads to the inhibition of a second cell death pathway. The latter is an apoptotic-like death (ALD); ALD is mediated by recA and lexA. The mazEF-mediated pathway reduces recA mRNA levels. Based on these results, we offer a molecular model for the maintenance of an altruistic characteristic in cell populations. In our model, the ALD pathway is inhibited by the altruistic EDF-mazEF-mediated death pathway.

  17. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL AND HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ON MOUSE LIMB BUD MESENCHYME DIFFERENTIATION AND CELL DEATH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the morphological defects associated with embryonic alcohol exposure are a result of cell death. During limb development, ethanol administration produces cell death in the limb and digital defects, including postaxial ectrodactyly. Because an accumulation of reactive oxyg...

  18. The importance of being dead: cell death mechanisms assessment in anti-sarcoma therapy.

    PubMed

    Rello-Varona, Santiago; Herrero-Martín, David; Lagares-Tena, Laura; López-Alemany, Roser; Mulet-Margalef, Núria; Huertas-Martínez, Juan; Garcia-Monclús, Silvia; García Del Muro, Xavier; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Tirado, Oscar Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Cell death can occur through different mechanisms, defined by their nature and physiological implications. Correct assessment of cell death is crucial for cancer therapy success. Sarcomas are a large and diverse group of neoplasias from mesenchymal origin. Among cell death types, apoptosis is by far the most studied in sarcomas. Albeit very promising in other fields, regulated necrosis and other cell death circumstances (as so-called "autophagic cell death" or "mitotic catastrophe") have not been yet properly addressed in sarcomas. Cell death is usually quantified in sarcomas by unspecific assays and in most cases the precise sequence of events remains poorly characterized. In this review, our main objective is to put into context the most recent sarcoma cell death findings in the more general landscape of different cell death modalities.

  19. Altered Cytochrome c Display Precedes Apoptotic Cell Death in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Varkey, Johnson; Chen, Po; Jemmerson, Ronald; Abrams, John M.

    1999-01-01

    Drosophila affords a genetically well-defined system to study apoptosis in vivo. It offers a powerful extension to in vitro models that have implicated a requirement for cytochrome c in caspase activation and apoptosis. We found that an overt alteration in cytochrome c anticipates programmed cell death (PCD) in Drosophila tissues, occurring at a time that considerably precedes other known indicators of apoptosis. The altered configuration is manifested by display of an otherwise hidden epitope and occurs without release of the protein into the cytosol. Conditional expression of the Drosophila death activators, reaper or grim, provoked apoptogenic cytochrome c display and, surprisingly, caspase activity was necessary and sufficient to induce this alteration. In cell-free studies, cytosolic caspase activation was triggered by mitochondria from apoptotic cells but identical preparations from healthy cells were inactive. Our observations provide compelling validation of an early role for altered cytochrome c in PCD and suggest propagation of apoptotic physiology through reciprocal, feed-forward amplification involving cytochrome c and caspases. PMID:10037791

  20. Statins and Voriconazole Induce Programmed Cell Death in Acanthamoeba castellanii

    PubMed Central

    López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Reyes-Batlle, María; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E.; Maciver, Sutherland K.; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are facultative pathogens of humans, causing a sight-threatening keratitis and a life-threatening encephalitis. In order to treat those infections properly, it is necessary to target the treatment not only to the trophozoite but also to the cyst. Furthermore, it may be advantageous to avoid parasite killing by necrosis, which may induce local inflammation. We must also avoid toxicity of host tissue. Many drugs which target eukaryotes are known to induce programmed cell death (PCD), but this process is poorly characterized in Acanthamoeba. Here, we study the processes of programmed cell death in Acanthamoeba, induced by several drugs, such as statins and voriconazole. We tested atorvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin, and voriconazole at the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) and IC90s that we have previously established. In order to evaluate this phenomenon, we investigated the DNA fragmentation, one of the main characteristics of PCD, with quantitative and qualitative techniques. Also, the changes related to phosphatidylserine exposure on the external cell membrane and cell permeability were studied. Finally, because caspases are key to PCD pathways, caspase activity was evaluated in Acanthamoeba. All the drugs assayed in this study induced PCD in Acanthamoeba. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study where PCD induced by drugs is described quantitatively and qualitatively in Acanthamoeba. PMID:25733513

  1. Caspases in retinal ganglion cell death and axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chloe N; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann; Blanch, Richard J; Ahmed, Zubair

    2017-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) are terminally differentiated CNS neurons that possess limited endogenous regenerative capacity after injury and thus RGC death causes permanent visual loss. RGC die by caspase-dependent mechanisms, including apoptosis, during development, after ocular injury and in progressive degenerative diseases of the eye and optic nerve, such as glaucoma, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy and multiple sclerosis. Inhibition of caspases through genetic or pharmacological approaches can arrest the apoptotic cascade and protect a proportion of RGC. Novel findings have also highlighted a pyroptotic role of inflammatory caspases in RGC death. In this review, we discuss the molecular signalling mechanisms of apoptotic and inflammatory caspase responses in RGC specifically, their involvement in RGC degeneration and explore their potential as therapeutic targets. PMID:29675270

  2. The Life and Death of a Plant Cell.

    PubMed

    Kabbage, Mehdi; Kessens, Ryan; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Williams, Brett

    2017-04-28

    Like all eukaryotic organisms, plants possess an innate program for controlled cellular demise termed programmed cell death (PCD). Despite the functional conservation of PCD across broad evolutionary distances, an understanding of the molecular machinery underpinning this fundamental program in plants remains largely elusive. As in mammalian PCD, the regulation of plant PCD is critical to development, homeostasis, and proper responses to stress. Evidence is emerging that autophagy is key to the regulation of PCD in plants and that it can dictate the outcomes of PCD execution under various scenarios. Here, we provide a broad and comparative overview of PCD processes in plants, with an emphasis on stress-induced PCD. We also discuss the implications of the paradox that is functional conservation of apoptotic hallmarks in plants in the absence of core mammalian apoptosis regulators, what that means, and whether an equivalent form of death occurs in plants.

  3. JNK3-Mediated Apoptotic Cell Death in Primary Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Seok; Klintworth, Heather M.; Xia, Zhengui

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of mechanisms responsible for dopaminergic neuron death is critical for understanding the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease, yet this is often quite challenging technically. Here, we describe detailed methods for culturing primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and examining the activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein Kinase (JNK) in these cultures. We utilized immunocytochemistry and computerized analysis to quantify the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons and JNK activation in dopaminergic neurons. TUNEL staining was used to quantify apoptotic cell death. siRNA was used to specifically inhibit JNK3, the neural specific isoform of JNK. Our data implicate the activation of JNK3 in rotenone-induced dopaminergic neuron apoptosis. PMID:21815073

  4. Inhibition of telomerase recruitment and cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Mai; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan; Sullivan, Kelly D; Espinosa, Joaquín M; Cech, Thomas R

    2013-11-15

    Continued proliferation of human cells requires maintenance of telomere length, usually accomplished by telomerase. Telomerase is recruited to chromosome ends by interaction with a patch of amino acids (the TEL patch, for TPP1 glutamate (E) and leucine (L)-rich patch) on the surface of telomere protein TPP1. In previous studies, interruption of this interaction by mutation prevented telomere extension in HeLa cells, but the cell culture continued to grow. We now show that the telomerase inhibitor BIBR1532 acts together with TEL patch mutations to inhibit the growth of HeLa cell lines and that apoptosis is a prominent mechanism of death of these cells. Survivor cells take over the population beginning around 40 days in culture. These cells no longer express the TEL patch mutant TPP1, apparently because of silencing of the expression cassette, a survival mechanism that would not be available to cancer cells. These results provide hope that inhibiting the binding of telomerase to the TEL patch of TPP1, perhaps together with a modest inhibition of the telomerase enzyme, could comprise an effective anticancer therapy for the ∼90% of human tumors that are telomerase-positive.

  5. Programmed cell death in C. elegans, mammals and plants.

    PubMed

    Lord, Christina E N; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N

    2012-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is the regulated removal of cells within an organism and plays a fundamental role in growth and development in nearly all eukaryotes. In animals, the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has aided in elucidating many of the pathways involved in the cell death process. Various analogous PCD processes can also be found within mammalian PCD systems, including vertebrate limb development. Plants and animals also appear to share hallmarks of PCD, both on the cellular and molecular level. Cellular events visualized during plant PCD resemble those seen in animals including: nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, cytoplasmic condensation, and plasma membrane shrinkage. Recently the molecular mechanisms involved in plant PCD have begun to be elucidated. Although few regulatory proteins have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotes, molecular features such as the participation of caspase-like proteases, Bcl-2-like family members and mitochondrial proteins appear to be conserved between plant and animal systems. Transgenic expression of mammalian and C. elegans pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in plants has been observed to dramatically influence the regulatory pathways of plant PCD. Although these genes often show little to no sequence similarity they can frequently act as functional substitutes for one another, thus suggesting that action may be more important than sequence resemblance. Here we present a summary of these findings, focusing on the similarities, between mammals, C. elegans, and plants. An emphasis will be placed on the mitochondria and its role in the cell death pathway within each organism. Through the comparison of these systems on both a cellular and molecular level we can begin to better understand PCD in plant systems, and perhaps shed light on the pathways, which are controlling the process. This manuscript adds to the field of PCD in plant systems by profiling apoptotic factors, to scale on a protein

  6. Modulating cell-to-cell variability and sensitivity to death ligands by co-drugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flusberg, Deborah A.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2013-06-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) holds promise as an anti-cancer therapeutic but efficiently induces apoptosis in only a subset of tumor cell lines. Moreover, even in clonal populations of responsive lines, only a fraction of cells dies in response to TRAIL and individual cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability in the timing of cell death. Fractional killing in these cell populations appears to arise not from genetic differences among cells but rather from differences in gene expression states, fluctuations in protein levels and the extent to which TRAIL-induced death or survival pathways become activated. In this study, we ask how cell-to-cell variability manifests in cell types with different sensitivities to TRAIL, as well as how it changes when cells are exposed to combinations of drugs. We show that individual cells that survive treatment with TRAIL can regenerate the sensitivity and death-time distribution of the parental population, demonstrating that fractional killing is a stable property of cell populations. We also show that cell-to-cell variability in the timing and probability of apoptosis in response to treatment can be tuned using combinations of drugs that together increase apoptotic sensitivity compared to treatment with one drug alone. In the case of TRAIL, modulation of cell-to-cell variability by co-drugging appears to involve a reduction in the threshold for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization.

  7. Sulbutiamine counteracts trophic factor deprivation induced apoptotic cell death in transformed retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kui Dong; Majid, Aman Shah Abdul; Kim, Kyung-A; Kang, Kyungsu; Ahn, Hong Ryul; Nho, Chu Won; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2010-11-01

    Sulbutiamine is a highly lipid soluble synthetic analogue of vitamin B(1) and is used clinically for the treatment of asthenia. The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced cell death to transformed retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5). Cells were subjected to serum deprivation for defined periods and sulbutiamine at different concentrations was added to the cultures. Various procedures (e.g. cell viability assays, apoptosis assay, reactive oxygen species analysis, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis, glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) measurement) were used to demonstrate the effect of sulbutiamine. Sulbutiamine dose-dependently attenuated apoptotic cell death induced by serum deprivation and stimulated GSH and GST activity. Moreover, sulbutiamine decreased the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and AIF. This study demonstrates for the first time that sulbutiamine is able to attenuate trophic factor deprivation induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells in culture.

  8. Isogambogenic acid induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhong; Zhou, Yongzhao; Cheng, Xia; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Li, Shucai; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Chunyan; Pei, Heying; Li, Luyuan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-01-09

    To overcome drug resistance caused by apoptosis deficiency in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there is a need to identify other means of triggering apoptosis-independent cancer cell death. We are the first to report that isogambogenic acid (iso-GNA) can induce apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human NSCLC cells. Several features of the iso-GNA-treated NSCLC cells indicated that iso-GNA induced autophagic cell death. First, there was no evidence of apoptosis or cleaved caspase 3 accumulation and activation. Second, iso-GNA treatment induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, increased LC3 conversion, caused the appearance of autophagosomes and increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins. These findings provide evidence that iso-GNA induces autophagy in NSCLC cells. Third, iso-GNA-induced cell death was inhibited by autophagic inhibitors or by selective ablation of Atg7 and Beclin 1 genes. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased iso-GNA-induced cell death by enhancing autophagy. Finally, a xenograft model provided additional evidence that iso-GNA exhibited anticancer effect through inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that iso-GNA exhibited an anticancer effect by inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells, which may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent that can be used against NSCLC in a clinical setting.

  9. Isogambogenic acid induces apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jianhong; Zhou, Yongzhao; Cheng, Xia; Fan, Yi; He, Shichao; Li, Shucai; Ye, Haoyu; Xie, Caifeng; Wu, Wenshuang; Li, Chunyan; Pei, Heying; Li, Luyuan; Wei, Zhe; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquan; Li, Weimin; Chen, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    To overcome drug resistance caused by apoptosis deficiency in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), there is a need to identify other means of triggering apoptosis-independent cancer cell death. We are the first to report that isogambogenic acid (iso-GNA) can induce apoptosis-independent autophagic cell death in human NSCLC cells. Several features of the iso-GNA-treated NSCLC cells indicated that iso-GNA induced autophagic cell death. First, there was no evidence of apoptosis or cleaved caspase 3 accumulation and activation. Second, iso-GNA treatment induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, increased LC3 conversion, caused the appearance of autophagosomes and increased the expression of autophagy-related proteins. These findings provide evidence that iso-GNA induces autophagy in NSCLC cells. Third, iso-GNA-induced cell death was inhibited by autophagic inhibitors or by selective ablation of Atg7 and Beclin 1 genes. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased iso-GNA-induced cell death by enhancing autophagy. Finally, a xenograft model provided additional evidence that iso-GNA exhibited anticancer effect through inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results demonstrated that iso-GNA exhibited an anticancer effect by inducing autophagy-dependent cell death in NSCLC cells, which may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent that can be used against NSCLC in a clinical setting. PMID:25571970

  10. Optical coherence tomography speckle decorrelation for detecting cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhat, Golnaz; Mariampillai, Adrian; Yang, Victor X. D.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2011-03-01

    We present a dynamic light scattering technique applied to optical coherence tomography (OCT) for detecting changes in intracellular motion caused by cellular reorganization during apoptosis. We have validated our method by measuring Brownian motion in microsphere suspensions and comparing the measured values to those derived based on particle diffusion calculated using the Einstein-Stokes equation. Autocorrelations of OCT signal intensities acquired from acute myeloid leukemia cells as a function of treatment time demonstrated a significant drop in the decorrelation time after 24 hours of cisplatin treatment. This corresponded with nuclear fragmentation and irregular cell shape observed in histological sections. A similar analysis conducted with multicellular tumor spheroids indicated a shorter decorrelation time in the spheroid core relative to its edges. The spheroid core corresponded to a region exhibiting signs of cell death in histological sections and increased backscatter intensity in OCT images.

  11. Only in dying, life: programmed cell death during plant development.

    PubMed

    Van Hautegem, Tom; Waters, Andrew J; Goodrich, Justin; Nowack, Moritz K

    2015-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental process of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, the actively controlled demise of cells has been recruited to fulfil a multitude of functions in development, differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and immune systems. In this review we discuss some of the multiple cases of PCD that occur as integral parts of plant development in a remarkable variety of cell types, tissues, and organs. Although research in the last decade has discovered a number of PCD regulators, mediators, and executers, we are still only beginning to understand the mechanistic complexity that tightly controls preparation, initiation, and execution of PCD as a process that is indispensable for successful vegetative and reproductive development of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. K6 linked polyubiquitylation of FADD by CHIP prevents death inducing signaling complex formation suppressing cell death.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jinho; Lee, Eun-Woo; Shin, Jihye; Seong, Daehyeon; Nam, Young Woo; Jeong, Manhyung; Lee, Seon-Hyeong; Lee, Cheolju; Song, Jaewhan

    2018-05-23

    Fas-associated death domain (FADD) is an adaptor protein recruiting complexes of caspase 8 to death ligand receptors to induce extrinsic apoptotic cell death in response to a TNF superfamily member. Although, formation of the complex of FADD and caspase 8 upon death stimuli has been studied in detail, posttranslational modifications fine-tuning these processes have yet to be identified. Here we revealed that K6-linked polyubiquitylation of FADD on lysines 149 and 153 mediated by C terminus HSC70-interacting protein (CHIP) plays an important role in preventing formation of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC), thus leading to the suppression of cell death. Cells depleted of CHIP showed higher sensitivity toward death ligands such as FasL and TRAIL, leading to upregulation of DISC formation composed of a death receptor, FADD, and caspase 8. CHIP was able to bind to FADD, induce K6-linked polyubiquitylation of FADD, and suppress DISC formation. By mass spectrometry, lysines 149 and 153 of FADD were found to be responsible for CHIP-mediated FADD ubiquitylation. FADD mutated at these sites was capable of more potent cell death induction as compared with the wild type and was no longer suppressed by CHIP. On the other hand, CHIP deficient in E3 ligase activity was not capable of suppressing FADD function and of FADD ubiquitylation. CHIP depletion in ME-180 cells induced significant sensitization of these cells toward TRAIL in xenograft analyses. These results imply that K6-linked ubiquitylation of FADD by CHIP is a crucial checkpoint in cytokine-dependent extrinsic apoptosis.

  13. Modelling the balance between quiescence and cell death in normal and tumour cell populations.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro; Ubezio, Paolo; Basse, Britta

    2006-08-01

    When considering either human adult tissues (in vivo) or cell cultures (in vitro), cell number is regulated by the relationship between quiescent cells, proliferating cells, cell death and other controls of cell cycle duration. By formulating a mathematical description we see that even small alterations of this relationship may cause a non-growing population to start growing with doubling times characteristic of human tumours. Our model consists of two age structured partial differential equations for the proliferating and quiescent cell compartments. Model parameters are death rates from and transition rates between these compartments. The partial differential equations can be solved for the steady-age distributions, giving the distribution of the cells through the cell cycle, dependent on specific model parameter values. Appropriate formulas can then be derived for various population characteristic quantities such as labelling index, proliferation fraction, doubling time and potential doubling time of the cell population. Such characteristic quantities can be estimated experimentally, although with decreasing precision from in vitro, to in vivo experimental systems and to the clinic. The model can be used to investigate the effects of a single alteration of either quiescence or cell death control on the growth of the whole population and the non-trivial dependence of the doubling time and other observable quantities on particular underlying cell cycle scenarios of death and quiescence. The model indicates that tumour evolution in vivo is a sequence of steady-states, each characterised by particular death and quiescence rate functions. We suggest that a key passage of carcinogenesis is a loss of the communication between quiescence, death and cell cycle machineries, causing a defect in their precise, cell cycle dependent relationship.

  14. Natural Compounds As Modulators of Non-apoptotic Cell Death in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guamán-Ortiz, Luis Miguel; Orellana, Maria Isabel Ramirez; Ratovitski, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Cell death is an innate capability of cells to be removed from microenvironment, if and when they are damaged by multiple stresses. Cell death is often regulated by multiple molecular pathways and mechanism, including apoptosis, autophagy, and necroptosis. The molecular network underlying these processes is often intertwined and one pathway can dynamically shift to another one acquiring certain protein components, in particular upon treatment with various drugs. The strategy to treat human cancer ultimately relies on the ability of anticancer therapeutics to induce tumor-specific cell death, while leaving normal adjacent cells undamaged. However, tumor cells often develop the resistance to the drug-induced cell death, thus representing a great challenge for the anticancer approaches. Numerous compounds originated from the natural sources and biopharmaceutical industries are applied today in clinics showing advantageous results. However, some exhibit serious toxic side effects. Thus, novel effective therapeutic approaches in treating cancers are continued to be developed. Natural compounds with anticancer activity have gained a great interest among researchers and clinicians alike since they have shown more favorable safety and efficacy then the synthetic marketed drugs. Numerous studies in vitro and in vivo have found that several natural compounds display promising anticancer potentials. This review underlines certain information regarding the role of natural compounds from plants, microorganisms and sea life forms, which are able to induce non-apoptotic cell death in tumor cells, namely autophagy and necroptosis. PMID:28367073

  15. Nitrosothiol signaling and protein nitrosation in cell death.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anand Krishnan V; Rojanasakul, Yon; Azad, Neelam

    2014-11-15

    Nitric oxide, a reactive free radical, is an important signaling molecule that can lead to a plethora of cellular effects affecting homeostasis. A well-established mechanism by which NO manifests its effect on cellular functions is the post-translational chemical modification of cysteine thiols in substrate proteins by a process known as S-nitrosation. Studies that investigate regulation of cellular functions through NO have increasingly established S-nitrosation as the primary modulatory mechanism in their respective systems. There has been a substantial increase in the number of reports citing various candidate proteins undergoing S-nitrosation, which affects cell-death and -survival pathways in a number of tissues including heart, lung, brain and blood. With an exponentially growing list of proteins being identified as substrates for S-nitrosation, it is important to assimilate this information in different cell/tissue systems in order to gain an overall view of protein regulation of both individual proteins and a class of protein substrates. This will allow for broad mapping of proteins as a function of S-nitrosation, and help delineate their global effects on pathophysiological responses including cell death and survival. This information will not only provide a much better understanding of overall functional relevance of NO in the context of various disease states, it will also facilitate the generation of novel therapeutics to combat specific diseases that are driven by NO-mediated S-nitrosation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pancreatic Beta Cell Death: Novel Potential Mechanisms in Diabetes Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Palmar, Jim; Nava, Manuel; Tomey, Daniel; Garicano, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Review Describing the diverse molecular mechanisms (particularly immunological) involved in the death of the pancreatic beta cell in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent Findings Beta cell death is the final event in a series of mechanisms that, up to date, have not been entirely clarified; it represents the pathophysiological mechanism in the natural history of diabetes mellitus. These mechanisms are not limited to an apoptotic process only, which is characteristic of the immune-mediated insulitis in type 1 diabetes mellitus. They also include the action of proinflammatory cytokines, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA fragmentation (typical of necroptosis in type 1 diabetic patients), excessive production of islet amyloid polypeptide with the consequent endoplasmic reticulum stress, disruption in autophagy mechanisms, and protein complex formation, such as the inflammasome, capable of increasing oxidative stress produced by mitochondrial damage. Summary Necroptosis, autophagy, and pyroptosis are molecular mechanisms that modulate the survival of the pancreatic beta cell, demonstrating the importance of the immune system in glucolipotoxicity processes and the potential role for immunometabolism as another component of what once known as the “ominous octet.” PMID:29670917

  17. Comparative analysis of programmed cell death pathways in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Natalie D; Badger, Jonathan H; Robson, Geoff D; Wortman, Jennifer R; Nierman, William C

    2005-12-08

    Fungi can undergo autophagic- or apoptotic-type programmed cell death (PCD) on exposure to antifungal agents, developmental signals, and stress factors. Filamentous fungi can also exhibit a form of cell death called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI) triggered by fusion between two genetically incompatible individuals. With the availability of recently sequenced genomes of Aspergillus fumigatus and several related species, we were able to define putative components of fungi-specific death pathways and the ancestral core apoptotic machinery shared by all fungi and metazoa. Phylogenetic profiling of HI-associated proteins from four Aspergilli and seven other fungal species revealed lineage-specific protein families, orphan genes, and core genes conserved across all fungi and metazoa. The Aspergilli-specific domain architectures include NACHT family NTPases, which may function as key integrators of stress and nutrient availability signals. They are often found fused to putative effector domains such as Pfs, SesB/LipA, and a newly identified domain, HET-s/LopB. Many putative HI inducers and mediators are specific to filamentous fungi and not found in unicellular yeasts. In addition to their role in HI, several of them appear to be involved in regulation of cell cycle, development and sexual differentiation. Finally, the Aspergilli possess many putative downstream components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery including several proteins not found in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our analysis identified more than 100 putative PCD associated genes in the Aspergilli, which may help expand the range of currently available treatments for aspergillosis and other invasive fungal diseases. The list includes species-specific protein families as well as conserved core components of the ancestral PCD machinery shared by fungi and metazoa.

  18. Cell death versus cell survival instructed by supramolecular cohesion of nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomb, Christina J.; Sur, Shantanu; Ortony, Julia H.; Lee, One-Sun; Matson, John B.; Boekhoven, Job; Yu, Jeong Min; Schatz, George C.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2014-02-01

    Many naturally occurring peptides containing cationic and hydrophobic domains have evolved to interact with mammalian cell membranes and have been incorporated into materials for non-viral gene delivery, cancer therapy or treatment of microbial infections. Their electrostatic attraction to the negatively charged cell surface and hydrophobic interactions with the membrane lipids enable intracellular delivery or cell lysis. Although the effects of hydrophobicity and cationic charge of soluble molecules on the cell membrane are well known, the interactions between materials with these molecular features and cells remain poorly understood. Here we report that varying the cohesive forces within nanofibres of supramolecular materials with nearly identical cationic and hydrophobic structure instruct cell death or cell survival. Weak intermolecular bonds promote cell death through disruption of lipid membranes, while materials reinforced by hydrogen bonds support cell viability. These findings provide new strategies to design biomaterials that interact with the cell membrane.

  19. Long-term treatment of anterior pituitary cells with nitric oxide induces programmed cell death.

    PubMed

    Velardez, Miguel Omar; Poliandri, Ariel Hernán; Cabilla, Jimena Paula; Bodo, Cristian Carlos Armando; Machiavelli, Leticia Inés; Duvilanski, Beatriz Haydeé

    2004-04-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a complex role in modulating programmed cell death. It can either protect the cell from apoptotic death or mediate apoptosis, depending on its concentration and the cell type and/or status. In this study, we demonstrate that long-term exposition to NO induces cell death of anterior pituitary cells from Wistar female rats. DETA NONOate (Z)-1-[2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate, 1 mm], a NO donor that releases NO for an extended period of time, decreased cellular viability and prolactin release from primary cultures of anterior pituitary cells. Morphological studies showed an increase in the number of cells with chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation at 24 and 48 h after DETA/NO exposure. DNA internucleosomal fragmentation was also observed at the same time. Reversibility of the NO effect on cellular viability and prolactin release was observed only when the cells were incubated with DETA/NO for less than 6 h. Most apoptotic cells were immunopositive for prolactin, suggesting a high susceptibility of lactotrophs to the effect of NO. The cytotoxic effect of NO is dependent of caspase-9 and caspase-3, but seems to be independent of oxidative stress or nitrosative stress. Our results show that the exposition of anterior pituitary cells to NO for long periods induces programmed cell death of anterior pituitary cells.

  20. Induction of non-apoptotic cell death by morphinone in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Risa; Hoshijima, Hiroshi; Nagasaka, Hiroshi; Chowdhury, Shahead Ali; Kikuchi, Hirotaka; Kanda, Yumiko; Kunii, Shiro; Kawase, Masami; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    As previously suggested, codeinone (oxidation product of codeine) induces non-apoptotic cell death, characterized by marginal caspase activation and the lack of DNA fragmentation in HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells, which was inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Whether, morphinone, an oxidative metabolite of morphine, also induced a similar type of cell death in HL-60 cells was investigated. Morphinone showed slightly higher cytotoxic activity against human tumor cell lines (oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, NA, Ca9-22, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, cervical carcinoma HeLa) than against normal oral human cells (gingival fibroblast HGF, pulp cells HPC, periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF). Morphinone also induced an almost undetectable level of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in the HL-60 cells. Morphinone did not activate caspase-8 or -9 in these cells. Morphinone dose-dependently activated caspase-3 in both HL-60 and HSC-2 cell lines, but to a much lesser extent than actinomycin D. Electron microscopy demonstrated that morphinone induced mitochondrial shrinkage, vacuolization and production of autophagosome and the loss of cell surface microvilli, without destruction of cell surface and nuclear membranes in the HL-60 cells. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (0.3-10 mM) slightly inhibited the morphinone-induced cytotoxicity, when corrected for its own cytotoxicity. These data suggest that morphinone induces non-apoptotic cell death in HL-60 cells.

  1. Multiple Modes of Cell Death Discovered in a Prokaryotic (Cyanobacterial) Endosymbiont

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwen; Rasmussen, Ulla; Zheng, Siping; Bao, Xiaodong; Chen, Bin; Gao, Yuan; Guan, Xiong; Larsson, John; Bergman, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-based cell death mechanism with vital roles in eukaryotes. Although there is limited consensus on similar death mode programs in prokaryotes, emerging evidence suggest that PCD events are operative. Here we present cell death events in a cyanobacterium living endophytically in the fern Azolla microphylla, suggestive of PCD. This symbiosis is characterized by some unique traits such as a synchronized development, a vertical transfer of the cyanobacterium between plant generations, and a highly eroding cyanobacterial genome. A combination of methods was used to identify cell death modes in the cyanobacterium. Light- and electron microscopy analyses showed that the proportion of cells undergoing cell death peaked at 53.6% (average 20%) of the total cell population, depending on the cell type and host developmental stage. Biochemical markers used for early and late programmed cell death events related to apoptosis (Annexin V-EGFP and TUNEL staining assays), together with visualization of cytoskeleton alterations (FITC-phalloidin staining), showed that all cyanobacterial cell categories were affected by cell death. Transmission electron microscopy revealed four modes of cell death: apoptotic-like, autophagic-like, necrotic-like and autolytic-like. Abiotic stresses further enhanced cell death in a dose and time dependent manner. The data also suggest that dynamic changes in the peptidoglycan cell wall layer and in the cytoskeleton distribution patterns may act as markers for the various cell death modes. The presence of a metacaspase homolog (domain p20) further suggests that the death modes are genetically programmed. It is therefore concluded that multiple, likely genetically programmed, cell death modes exist in cyanobacteria, a finding that may be connected with the evolution of cell death in the plant kingdom. PMID:23822984

  2. Cell death induced by flavonoid glycosides with and without copper.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Tsang, Shih-Fang; Lin, Kai-Wei; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-07-01

    The ability of flavonoid glycosides isolated from several plants to induce DNA breakage was examined using supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence of Cu(II). Among all the compounds, 1, 4, and 6 could cause significant breakages of supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of Cu(II). Cu(I) was not shown to be an essential intermediate in the process of pBR322 DNA breakage by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine. A decreased cell viability was enhanced in gastric carcinoma SCM-1 cells treating with lower concentrations of 1 and 6 when cotreated with increased concentrations of Cu(II), respectively. Treatments of SCM-1 cells with 500 microM of 1 in the presence of 300 or 500 microM of Cu(II) inhibited the Cu(II)-induced apoptosis. Compound 1 (500 microM) could prevent cell death by inhibiting the 500 microM Cu(II)-induced apoptosis and necrosis, but did not have any effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential changed by 500 microM Cu(II). Both compounds 1 and 6 could inhibit the DNA breakages caused by O2- while 1 also revealed inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of 22.7+/-6.9 microM. These results indicated that compound 1 with a higher concentration may probably mediate through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity and reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by high concentration of Cu(II) (500 microM) and prevent the following cell death.

  3. HPMA copolymer-bound doxorubicin induces immunogenic tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Sirova, M; Kabesova, M; Kovar, L; Etrych, T; Strohalm, J; Ulbrich, K; Rihova, B

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of murine EL4 T cell lymphoma with N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer conjugates of doxorubicin (Dox) leads to complete tumor regression and to the development of therapy-dependent longlasting cancer resistance. This phenomenon occurs with two types of Dox conjugates tested, despite differences in the covalent linkage of Dox to the polymer carrier. Such a cancer resistance cannot fully express in conventional treatment with free Dox, due to substantial immunotoxicity of the treatment, which was not observed in the polymer conjugates. In this study, calreticulin (CRT) translocation and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) release was observed in EL4 cells treated with a conjugate releasing Dox by a pH-dependent manner. As a result, the treated tumor cells were engulfed by dendritic cells (DC) in vitro, and induced their expression of CD80, CD86, and MHC II maturation markers. Conjugates with Dox bound via an amide bond only increased translocation of HSPs to the membrane, which led to an elevated phagocytosis but was not sufficient to induce increase of the maturation markers on DCs in vitro. Both types of conjugates induced engulfment of the target tumor cells in vivo, that was more intense than that seen with free Dox. It means that the induction of anti-tumor immunity documented upon treatment of EL4 lymphoma with HPMA-bound Dox conjugates does not rely solely on CRT-mediated cell death, but involves multiple mechanisms.

  4. Regulation of cell survival and death during Flavivirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh Roy, Sounak; Sadigh, Beata; Datan, Emmanuel; Lockshin, Richard A; Zakeri, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses, ss(+) RNA viruses, include many of mankind’s most important pathogens. Their pathogenicity derives from their ability to infect many types of cells including neurons, to replicate, and eventually to kill the cells. Flaviviruses can activate tumor necrosis factor α and both intrinsic (Bax-mediated) and extrinsic pathways to apoptosis. Thus they can use many approaches for activating these pathways. Infection can lead to necrosis if viral load is extremely high or to other types of cell death if routes to apoptosis are blocked. Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Virus can also activate autophagy. In this case the autophagy temporarily spares the infected cell, allowing a longer period of reproduction for the virus, and the autophagy further protects the cell against other stresses such as those caused by reactive oxygen species. Several of the viral proteins have been shown to induce apoptosis or autophagy on their own, independent of the presence of other viral proteins. Given the versatility of these viruses to adapt to and manipulate the metabolism, and thus to control the survival of, the infected cells, we need to understand much better how the specific viral proteins affect the pathways to apoptosis and autophagy. Only in this manner will we be able to minimize the pathology that they cause. PMID:24921001

  5. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Tony J.; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose–response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds. PMID:26422066

  6. A Versatile Cell Death Screening Assay Using Dye-Stained Cells and Multivariate Image Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Tony J; Ylanko, Jarkko; Geng, Fei; Andrews, David W

    2015-11-01

    A novel dye-based method for measuring cell death in image-based screens is presented. Unlike conventional high- and medium-throughput cell death assays that measure only one form of cell death accurately, using multivariate analysis of micrographs of cells stained with the inexpensive mix, red dye nonyl acridine orange, and a nuclear stain, it was possible to quantify cell death induced by a variety of different agonists even without a positive control. Surprisingly, using a single known cytotoxic agent as a positive control for training a multivariate classifier allowed accurate quantification of cytotoxicity for mechanistically unrelated compounds enabling generation of dose-response curves. Comparison with low throughput biochemical methods suggested that cell death was accurately distinguished from cell stress induced by low concentrations of the bioactive compounds Tunicamycin and Brefeldin A. High-throughput image-based format analyses of more than 300 kinase inhibitors correctly identified 11 as cytotoxic with only 1 false positive. The simplicity and robustness of this dye-based assay makes it particularly suited to live cell screening for toxic compounds.

  7. Targeting Programmed Cell Death Using Small-Molecule Compounds to Improve Potential Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ke, Bowen; Tian, Mao; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Bo; He, Gu

    2016-11-01

    Evasion of cell death is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, beginning with long-established apoptosis and extending to other new forms of cell death. An elaboration of cell death pathways thus will contribute to a better understanding of cancer pathogenesis and therapeutics. With the recent substantial biochemical and genetic explorations of cell death subroutines, their classification has switched from primarily morphological to more molecular definitions. According to their measurable biochemical features and intricate mechanisms, cell death subroutines can be divided into apoptosis, autophagic cell death, mitotic catastrophe, necroptosis, parthanatos, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, pyronecrosis, anoikis, cornification, entosis, and NETosis. Supportive evidence has gradually revealed the prime molecular mechanisms of each subroutine and thus providing series of possible targets in cancer therapy, while the intricate relationships between different cell death subroutines still remain to be clarified. Over the past decades, cancer drug discovery has significantly benefited from the use of small-molecule compounds to target classical modalities of cell death such as apoptosis, while newly identified cell death subroutines has also emerging their potential for cancer drug discovery in recent years. In this review, we comprehensively focus on summarizing 12 cell death subroutines and discussing their corresponding small-molecule compounds in potential cancer therapy. Together, these inspiring findings may provide more evidence to fill in the gaps between cell death subroutines and small-molecule compounds to better develop novel cancer therapeutic strategies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Inhibition of autophagy induced by proteasome inhibition increases cell death in human SHG-44 glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Ge, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Meng, Fan-Kai; Li, Wen-Chen; Luan, Yong-Xin; Ling, Feng; Luo, Yi-Nan

    2009-07-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and lysosome-dependent macroautophagy (autophagy) are two major intracellular pathways for protein degradation. Recent studies suggest that proteasome inhibitors may reduce tumor growth and activate autophagy. Due to the dual roles of autophagy in tumor cell survival and death, the effect of autophagy on the destiny of glioma cells remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate whether inhibition of the proteasome can induce autophagy and the effects of autophagy on the fate of human SHG-44 glioma cells. The proteasome inhibitor MG-132 was used to induce autophagy in SHG-44 glioma cells, and the effect of autophagy on the survival of SHG-44 glioma cells was investigated using an autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry. The expression of autophagy related proteins was determined by Western blot. MG-132 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death and cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase, and activated autophagy in SHG-44 glioma cells. The expression of autophagy-related Beclin-1 and LC3-I was significantly up-regulated and part of LC3-I was converted into LC3-II. However, when SHG-44 glioma cells were co-treated with MG-132 and 3-MA, the cells became less viable, but cell death and cell numbers at G(2)/M phase increased. Moreover, the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles was decreased, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3 was significantly down-regulated and the conversion of LC3-II from LC3-I was also inhibited. Inhibition of the proteasome can induce autophagy in human SHG-44 glioma cells, and inhibition of autophagy increases cell death. This discovery may shed new light on the effect of autophagy on modulating the fate of SHG-44 glioma cells.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica (2009) 30: 1046-1052; doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.71.

  9. Zebrafish hair cell mechanics and physiology through the lens of noise-induced hair cell death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Allison B.; Xu, Jie; Uribe, Phillip M.

    2018-05-01

    Hair cells are exquisitely sensitive to auditory stimuli, but also to damage from a variety of sources including noise trauma and ototoxic drugs. Mammals cannot regenerate cochlear hair cells, while non-mammalian vertebrates exhibit robust regenerative capacity. Our research group uses the lateral line system of larval zebrafish to explore the mechanisms underlying hair cell damage, identify protective therapies, and determine molecular drivers of innate regeneration. The lateral line system contains externally located sensory organs called neuromasts, each composed of ˜8-20 hair cells. Lateral line hair cells are homologous to vertebrate inner ear hair cells and share similar susceptibility to ototoxic damage. In the last decade, the lateral line has emerged as a powerful model system for understanding hair cell death mechanisms and for identifying novel protective compounds. Here we demonstrate that the lateral line is a tractable model for noise-induced hair cell death. We have developed a novel noise damage system capable of inducing over 50% loss of lateral line hair cells, with hair cell death occurring in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell death is greatest 72 hours post-exposure. However, early signs of hair cell damage, including changes in membrane integrity and reduced mechanotransduction, are apparent within hours of noise exposure. These features, early signs of damage followed by delayed hair cell death, are consistent with mammalian data, suggesting that noise acts similarly on zebrafish and mammalian hair cells. In our future work we will use our new model system to investigate noise damage events in real time, and to develop protective therapies for future translational research.

  10. GSK-3β: A Bifunctional Role in Cell Death Pathways.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Keith M; Bhave, Sandeep R; Ferraro, Daniel J; Jaboin, Jerry J; Hallahan, Dennis E; Thotala, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Although glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) was originally named for its ability to phosphorylate glycogen synthase and regulate glucose metabolism, this multifunctional kinase is presently known to be a key regulator of a wide range of cellular functions. GSK-3β is involved in modulating a variety of functions including cell signaling, growth metabolism, and various transcription factors that determine the survival or death of the organism. Secondary to the role of GSK-3β in various diseases including Alzheimer's disease, inflammation, diabetes, and cancer, small molecule inhibitors of GSK-3β are gaining significant attention. This paper is primarily focused on addressing the bifunctional or conflicting roles of GSK-3β in both the promotion of cell survival and of apoptosis. GSK-3β has emerged as an important molecular target for drug development.

  11. Emerging roles for lipids in non-apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Magtanong, L; Ko, P J; Dixon, S J

    2016-01-01

    Non-apoptotic regulated cell death (RCD) is essential to maintain organismal homeostasis and may be aberrantly activated during certain pathological states. Lipids are emerging as key components of several non-apoptotic RCD pathways. For example, a direct interaction between membrane phospholipids and the pore-forming protein mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is needed for the execution of necroptosis, while the oxidative destruction of membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), following the inactivation of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), is a requisite gateway to ferroptosis. Here, we review the roles of lipids in the initiation and execution of these and other forms of non-apoptotic cell death. We also consider new technologies that are allowing for the roles of lipids and lipid metabolism in RCD to be probed in increasingly sophisticated ways. In certain cases, this new knowledge may enable the development of therapies that target lipids and lipid metabolic processes to enhance or suppress specific non-apoptotic RCD pathways. PMID:26967968

  12. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Bacellar, Isabel O. L.; Tsubone, Tayana M.; Pavani, Christiane; Baptista, Mauricio S.

    2015-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS), which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research. PMID:26334268

  13. Exertional sickling deaths in Army recruits with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Ferster, Kenneth; Eichner, E Randy

    2012-01-01

    Exertional sickling from sickle cell trait (SCT) can pose a grave risk for some military recruits and is a troubling cause of death in college athletes. We report the cases of two U.S. Army recruits with undetected SCT who collapsed and soon died from metabolic complications of exertional sickling as they struggled to finish in time the 2-mile run of the Army Physical Fitness Test, having failed this test on prior attempts. These cases are similar to other military cases and to recent sickling deaths in college track and football. Research shows how and why, in the face of SCT, during intense exercise bouts, sickle cells can quickly form and lead to fulminant rhabdomyolysis that can be fatal. Increasing evidence suggests that, in the military and in sports, the proximate trigger for most cases of fatal sickling collapse is intensity. If this hypothesis is correct, that sickling collapse is an intensity syndrome, it raises vital questions about how best to train military recruits with SCT.

  14. Mechanisms of palmitate-induced cell death in human osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gunaratnam, Krishanthi; Vidal, Christopher; Boadle, Ross; Thekkedam, Chris; Duque, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Summary Lipotoxicity is an overload of lipids in non-adipose tissues that affects function and induces cell death. Lipotoxicity has been demonstrated in bone cells in vitro using osteoblasts and adipocytes in coculture. In this condition, lipotoxicity was induced by high levels of saturated fatty acids (mostly palmitate) secreted by cultured adipocytes acting in a paracrine manner. In the present study, we aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of lipotoxicity in human osteoblasts. Palmitate induced autophagy in cultured osteoblasts, which was preceded by the activation of autophagosomes that surround palmitate droplets. Palmitate also induced apoptosis though the activation of the Fas/Jun kinase (JNK) apoptotic pathway. In addition, osteoblasts could be protected from lipotoxicity by inhibiting autophagy with the phosphoinositide kinase inhibitor 3-methyladenine or by inhibiting apoptosis with the JNK inhibitor SP600125. In summary, we have identified two major molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity in osteoblasts and in doing so we have identified a new potential therapeutic approach to prevent osteoblast dysfunction and death, which are common features of age-related bone loss and osteoporosis. PMID:24285710

  15. Programmed cell death in periodontitis: recent advances and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Song, B; Zhou, T; Yang, W L; Liu, J; Shao, L Q

    2017-07-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent infectious disease, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, and is the main cause of tooth loss. Periodontitis is initiated by periodontal pathogens, while other risk factors including smoking, stress, and systemic diseases aggravate its progression. Periodontitis affects many people worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms by which pathogens and risk factors destroy the periodontium are unclear. Programmed cell death (PCD), different from necrosis, is an active cell death mediated by a cascade of gene expression events and can be mainly classified into apoptosis, autophagy, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Although PCD is involved in many inflammatory diseases, its correlation with periodontitis is unclear. After reviewing the relevant published articles, we found that apoptosis has indeed been reported to play a role in periodontitis. However, the role of autophagy in periodontitis needs further verification. Additionally, implication of necroptosis or pyroptosis in periodontitis remains unknown. Therefore, we recommend future studies, which will unravel the pivotal role of PCD in periodontitis, allowing us to prevent, diagnose, and treat the disease, as well as predict its outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Molecular Ecophysiology of Programmed Cell Death in Marine Phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidle, Kay D.

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic, prokaryotic, and eukaryotic photoautotrophs (phytoplankton) share a diverse and ancient evolutionary history, during which time they have played key roles in regulating marine food webs, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. Because phytoplankton represent the basis of marine ecosystems, the manner in which they die critically determines the flow and fate of photosynthetically fixed organic matter (and associated elements), ultimately constraining upper-ocean biogeochemistry. Programmed cell death (PCD) and associated pathway genes, which are triggered by a variety of nutrient stressors and are employed by parasitic viruses, play an integral role in determining the cell fate of diverse photoautotrophs in the modern ocean. Indeed, these multifaceted death pathways continue to shape the success and evolutionary trajectory of diverse phytoplankton lineages at sea. Research over the past two decades has employed physiological, biochemical, and genetic techniques to provide a novel, comprehensive, mechanistic understanding of the factors controlling this key process. Here, I discuss the current understanding of the genetics, activation, and regulation of PCD pathways in marine model systems; how PCD evolved in unicellular photoautotrophs; how it mechanistically interfaces with viral infection pathways; how stress signals are sensed and transduced into cellular responses; and how novel molecular and biochemical tools are revealing the impact of PCD genes on the fate of natural phytoplankton assemblages.

  17. Chloroquine synergizes with FTS to enhance cell growth inhibition and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Schmukler, Eran; Wolfson, Eya; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Sfadia, Galit; Kloog, Yoel; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    The Ras family of small GTPases transmits extracellular signals that regulate cell growth, differentiation, motility and death. Ras signaling is constitutively active in a large number of human cancers. Ras can also regulate autophagy by affecting several signaling pathways including the mTOR pathway. Autophagy is a process that regulates the balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. It is important for normal growth control, but may be defective in diseases. Previously, we have shown that Ras inhibition by FTS induces autophagy, which partially protects cancer cells and may limit the use of FTS as an anti-cancer drug. Since FTS is a non toxic drug we hypothesized that FTS and chloroquine (an autophagy inhibitor) will synergize in cell growth inhibition and cell death. Thus, in the present study, we explored the mechanism of each individual drug and their combined action. Our results demonstrate that in HCT-116 and in Panc-1 cells, FTS induces autophagy, which can be inhibited by chloroquine. Furthermore, the combined treatment synergistically decreased the number of viable cells. Interestingly, the combined treatment enhanced apoptotic cell death as indicated by increased sub-G1 cell population, increased Hoechst staining, activation of caspase 3, decrease in survivin expression and release of cytochrome c. Thus, chloroquine treatment may promote FTS-mediated inhibition of tumor cell growth and may stimulate apoptotic cell death. PMID:24368422

  18. N-Desmethyldauricine Induces Autophagic Cell Death in Apoptosis-Defective Cells via Ca2+ Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Y K; Mok, Simon W F; Chen, Juan; Michelangeli, Francesco; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Han, Yu; Qu, Yuan Q; Qiu, Alena C L; Xu, Su-Wei; Xue, Wei-Wei; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Jia Y; Javed, Masood-Ul-Hassan; Coghi, Paolo; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent K W

    2017-01-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy remains a significant problem in oncology. Mechanisms regulating programmed cell death, including apoptosis, autophagy or necrosis, in the treatment of cancers have been extensively investigated over the last few decades. Autophagy is now emerging as an important pathway in regulating cell death or survival in cancer therapy. Recent studies demonstrated variety of natural small-molecules could induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, therefore, discovery of novel autophagic enhancers from natural products could be a promising strategy for treatment of chemotherapy-resistant cancer. By computational virtual docking analysis, biochemical assays, and advanced live-cell imaging techniques, we have identified N -desmethyldauricine (LP-4), isolated from rhizoma of Menispermum dauricum DC as a novel inducer of autophagy. LP-4 was shown to induce autophagy via the Ulk-1-PERK and Ca 2+ /Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ)-AMPK-mTOR signaling cascades, via mobilizing calcium release through inhibition of SERCA, and importantly, lead to autophagic cell death in a panel of cancer cells, apoptosis-defective and apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, this study provides detailed insights into the cytotoxic mechanism of a novel autophagic compound that targeting the apoptosis resistant cancer cells, and new implication on drug discovery from natural products for drug resistant cancer therapy.

  19. BaxΔ2 sensitizes colorectal cancer cells to proteasome inhibitor-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Mañas, Adriana; Chen, Wenjing; Nelson, Adam; Yao, Qi; Xiang, Jialing

    2018-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib and carfilzomib, are FDA approved for the treatment of hemopoietic cancers, but recent studies have shown their great potential for treatment of solid tumors. BaxΔ2, a unique proapoptotic Bax isoform, promotes non-mitochondrial cell death and sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy. However, endogenous BaxΔ2 proteins are unstable and susceptible to proteasomal degradation. Here, we screened a panel of proteasome inhibitors in colorectal cancer cells with different Bax statuses. We found that all proteasome inhibitors tested were able to block BaxΔ2 degradation without affecting the level of Baxα or Bcl-2 proteins. Among the inhibitors tested, only bortezomib and carfilzomib were able to induce differential cell death corresponding to the distinct Bax statuses. BaxΔ2-positive cells had a significantly higher level of cell death at low nanomolar concentrations than Baxα-positive or Bax-negative cells. Furthermore, bortezomib-induced cell death in BaxΔ2-positive cells was predominantly dependent on the caspase 8/3 pathway, consistent with our previous studies. These results imply that BaxΔ2 can selectively sensitize cancer cells to proteasome inhibitors, enhancing their potential to treat colon cancer and other solid tumors. PMID:29291406

  20. 6-shogaol induces autophagic cell death then triggered apoptosis in colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting-Yi; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2017-09-01

    6-shogaol is a phytochemical of dietary ginger, we found that 6-shogaol could induced both autophagic and apoptotic death in human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells. Results of this study showed that 6-shogal induced cell cycle arrest, autophagy, and apoptosis in HT-29 cells in a time sequence. After 6h, 6-shogal induced apparent G2/M arrest, then the HT-29 cells formed numerous autophagosomes in each phase of the cell cycle. After 18h, increases in acidic vesicles and LAMP-1 (Lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1) showed that 6-shogaol had caused autophagic cell death. After 24h, cell shrinkage and Caspase-3/7 activities rising, suggesting that apoptotic cell death had increased. And after 48h, the result of TUNEL assay indicated the highest occurrence of apoptosis upon 6-shogaol treatment. It appeared that apoptosis is triggered by autophagy in 6-shogaol treated HT-29 cells, the damage of autophagic cell death initiated apoptosis program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. DRAM Triggers Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cell Death in CD4+ T Cells Infected with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Laforge, Mireille; Limou, Sophie; Harper, Francis; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Rodrigues, Vasco; Silvestre, Ricardo; Haloui, Houda; Zagury, Jean-Francois; Senik, Anna; Estaquier, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Productive HIV infection of CD4+ T cells leads to a caspase-independent cell death pathway associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) and cathepsin release, resulting in mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). Herein, we demonstrate that HIV infection induces damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) expression in a p53-dependent manner. Knocking down the expression of DRAM and p53 genes with specific siRNAs inhibited autophagy and LMP. However, inhibition of Atg5 and Beclin genes that prevents autophagy had a minor effect on LMP and cell death. The knock down of DRAM gene inhibited cytochrome C release, MOMP and cell death. However, knocking down DRAM, we increased viral infection and production. Our study shows for the first time the involvement of DRAM in host-pathogen interactions, which may represent a mechanism of defense via the elimination of infected cells. PMID:23658518

  2. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide’s antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide’s direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  3. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 triggers immunogenic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, H; Forveille, S; Sauvat, A; Yamazaki, T; Senovilla, L; Ma, Y; Liu, P; Yang, H; Bezu, L; Müller, K; Zitvogel, L; Rekdal, Ø; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G

    2016-01-01

    LTX-315 is a cationic amphilytic peptide that preferentially permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes, thereby causing partially BAX/BAK1-regulated, caspase-independent necrosis. Based on the observation that intratumorally injected LTX-315 stimulates a strong T lymphocyte-mediated anticancer immune response, we investigated whether LTX-315 may elicit the hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), namely (i) exposure of calreticulin on the plasma membrane surface, (ii) release of ATP into the extracellular space, (iii) exodus of HMGB1 from the nucleus, and (iv) induction of a type-1 interferon response. Using a panel of biosensor cell lines and robotized fluorescence microscopy coupled to automatic image analysis, we observed that LTX-315 induces all known ICD characteristics. This conclusion was validated by several independent methods including immunofluorescence stainings (for calreticulin), bioluminescence assays (for ATP), immunoassays (for HMGB1), and RT-PCRs (for type-1 interferon induction). When injected into established cancers, LTX-315 caused a transiently hemorrhagic focal necrosis that was accompanied by massive release of HMGB1 (from close-to-all cancer cells), as well as caspase-3 activation in a fraction of the cells. LTX-315 was at least as efficient as the positive control, the anthracycline mitoxantrone (MTX), in inducing local inflammation with infiltration by myeloid cells and T lymphocytes. Collectively, these results support the idea that LTX-315 can induce ICD, hence explaining its capacity to mediate immune-dependent therapeutic effects. PMID:26962684

  4. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 triggers immunogenic cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H; Forveille, S; Sauvat, A; Yamazaki, T; Senovilla, L; Ma, Y; Liu, P; Yang, H; Bezu, L; Müller, K; Zitvogel, L; Rekdal, Ø; Kepp, O; Kroemer, G

    2016-03-10

    LTX-315 is a cationic amphilytic peptide that preferentially permeabilizes mitochondrial membranes, thereby causing partially BAX/BAK1-regulated, caspase-independent necrosis. Based on the observation that intratumorally injected LTX-315 stimulates a strong T lymphocyte-mediated anticancer immune response, we investigated whether LTX-315 may elicit the hallmarks of immunogenic cell death (ICD), namely (i) exposure of calreticulin on the plasma membrane surface, (ii) release of ATP into the extracellular space, (iii) exodus of HMGB1 from the nucleus, and (iv) induction of a type-1 interferon response. Using a panel of biosensor cell lines and robotized fluorescence microscopy coupled to automatic image analysis, we observed that LTX-315 induces all known ICD characteristics. This conclusion was validated by several independent methods including immunofluorescence stainings (for calreticulin), bioluminescence assays (for ATP), immunoassays (for HMGB1), and RT-PCRs (for type-1 interferon induction). When injected into established cancers, LTX-315 caused a transiently hemorrhagic focal necrosis that was accompanied by massive release of HMGB1 (from close-to-all cancer cells), as well as caspase-3 activation in a fraction of the cells. LTX-315 was at least as efficient as the positive control, the anthracycline mitoxantrone (MTX), in inducing local inflammation with infiltration by myeloid cells and T lymphocytes. Collectively, these results support the idea that LTX-315 can induce ICD, hence explaining its capacity to mediate immune-dependent therapeutic effects.

  5. Cell Death Pathways and Phthalocyanine as an Efficient Agent for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mfouo-Tynga, Ivan; Abrahamse, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms of cell death can be predetermined (programmed) or not and categorized into apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic pathways. The process of Hayflick limits completes the execution of death-related mechanisms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with oxidative stress and subsequent cytodamage by oxidizing and degrading cell components. ROS are also involved in immune responses, where they stabilize and activate both hypoxia-inducible factors and phagocytic effectors. ROS production and presence enhance cytodamage and photodynamic-induced cell death. Photodynamic cancer therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic chemotherapeutic agents, photosensitizer (PS), to initiate a light-dependent and ROS-related cell death. Phthalocyanines (PCs) are third generation and stable PSs with improved photochemical abilities. They are effective inducers of cell death in various neoplastic models. The metallated PCs localize in critical cellular organelles and are better inducers of cell death than other previous generation PSs as they favor mainly apoptotic cell death events. PMID:25955645

  6. Can dead bacterial cells be defined and are genes expressed after cell death?

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T

    2012-07-01

    There is a paucity of knowledge on gene expression in dead bacterial cells. Why would this knowledge be useful? The cells are dead. However, the time duration of gene expression following cell death is often unknown, and possibly in the order of minutes. In addition, it is a challenge to determine if bacterial cells are dead, or viable but non-culturable (VBNC), and what is an agreed upon correct definition of dead bacteria. Cells in the bacterial population or community may die at different rates or times and this complicates both the viability and gene expression analysis. In this article, the definition of dead bacterial cells is discussed and its significance in continued gene expression in cells following death. The definition of living and dead has implications for possible, completely, synthetic bacterial cells that may be capable of growth and division. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. TORC1 is required to balance cell proliferation and cell death in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Kimberly C.; Pearson, Bret J.; Alvarado, Alejandro Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms are equipped with cellular mechanisms that enable them to replace differentiated cells lost to normal physiological turnover, injury, and for some such as planarians, even amputation. This process of tissue homeostasis is generally mediated by adult stem cells (ASCs), tissue-specific stem cells responsible for maintaining anatomical form and function. To do so, ASCs must modulate the balance between cell proliferation, i.e. in response to nutrients, and that of cell death, i.e. in response to starvation or injury. But how these two antagonistic processes are coordinated remains unclear. Here, we explore the role of the core components of the TOR pathway during planarian tissue homeostasis and regeneration and identified an essential function for TORC1 in these two processes. RNAi-mediated silencing of TOR in intact animals resulted in a significant increase in cell death, whereas stem cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were unaffected. Amputated animals failed to increase stem cell proliferation after wounding and displayed defects in tissue remodeling. Together, our findings suggest two distinct roles for TORC1 in planarians. TORC1 is required to modulate the balance between cell proliferation and cell death during normal cell turnover and in response to nutrients. In addition, it is required to initiate appropriate stem cell proliferation during regeneration and for proper tissue remodeling to occur to maintain scale and proportion. PMID:22445864

  8. Taxifolin synergizes Andrographolide-induced cell death by attenuation of autophagy and augmentation of caspase dependent and independent cell death in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    Alzaharna, Mazen; Alqouqa, Iyad; Cheung, Hon-Yeung

    2017-01-01

    Andrographolide (Andro) has emerged recently as a potential and effective anticancer agent with induction of apoptosis in some cancer cell lines while induction of G2/M arrest with weak apoptosis in others. Few studies have proved that Andro is also effective in combination therapy. The flavonoid Taxifolin (Taxi) has showed anti-oxidant and antiproliferative effects against different cancer cells. Therefore, the present study investigated the cytotoxic effects of Andro alone or in combination with Taxi on HeLa cells. The combination of Andro with Taxi was synergistic at all tested concentrations and combination ratios. Andro alone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis which was enhanced by the combination with Taxi and attenuated partly by using Z-Vad-Fmk. Andro induced a protective reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent autophagy which was attenuated by Taxi. The activation of p53 was involved in Andro-induced autophagy where the use of Taxi or pifithrin-α (PFT-α) decreased it while the activation of JNK was involved in the cell death of HeLa cells but not in the induction of autophagy. The mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization (MOMP) plays an important role in Andro-induced cell death in HeLa cells. Andro alone increased the MOMP which was further increased in the case of combination. This led to the increase in AIF and cytochrome c release from mitochondria which consequently increased caspase-dependent and independent cell death. In conclusion, Andro induced a protective autophagy in HeLa cells which was reduced by Taxi and the cell death was increased by increasing the MOMP and subsequently the caspase-dependent and independent cell death. PMID:28182713

  9. Ophiobolin A, a sesterpenoid fungal phytotoxin, displays different mechanisms of cell death in mammalian cells depending upon the cancer cell origin.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Rachel; Lodge, Tiffany; Evidente, Antonio; Kiss, Robert; Townley, Helen

    2017-03-01

    Herein we have undertaken a systematic analysis of the effects of the fungal derivative ophiobolin A (OphA) on eight cancer cell lines from different tissue types. The LD50 for each cell line was determined and the change in cell size determined. Flow cytometric analysis and western blotting were used to assess the cell death markers for early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis, and the involvement of the caspase signalling pathway. Alterations in calcium levels and reactive oxygen species were assessed due to their integral involvement in intracellular signalling. Subsequently, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial responses were investigated more closely. The extent of ER swelling, and the upregulation of proteins involved in the unfolded protein responses (UPR) were seen to vary according to cell line. The mitochondria were also shown to behave differently in response to the OphA in the different cell lines in terms of the change in membrane potential, the total area of mitochondria in the cell and the number of mitochondrial bifurcations. The data obtained in the present study indicate that the cancer cell lines tested are unable to successfully activate the ER stress/UPR responses, and that the mitochondria appear to be a central player in OphA-induced cancer cell death.

  10. Ophiobolin A, a sesterpenoid fungal phytotoxin, displays different mechanisms of cell death in mammalian cells depending upon the cancer cell origin

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Rachel; Lodge, Tiffany; Evidente, Antonio; Kiss, Robert; Townley, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Herein we have undertaken a systematic analysis of the effects of the fungal derivative ophiobolin A (OphA) on eight cancer cell lines from different tissue types. The LD50 for each cell line was determined and the change in cell size determined. Flow cytometric analysis and western blotting were used to assess the cell death markers for early apoptosis, late apoptosis and necrosis, and the involvement of the caspase signalling pathway. Alterations in calcium levels and reactive oxygen species were assessed due to their integral involvement in intracellular signalling. Subsequently, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial responses were investigated more closely. The extent of ER swelling, and the upregulation of proteins involved in the unfolded protein responses (UPR) were seen to vary according to cell line. The mitochondria were also shown to behave differently in response to the OphA in the different cell lines in terms of the change in membrane potential, the total area of mitochondria in the cell and the number of mitochondrial bifurcations. The data obtained in the present study indicate that the cancer cell lines tested are unable to successfully activate the ER stress/UPR responses, and that the mitochondria appear to be a central player in OphA-induced cancer cell death. PMID:28112374

  11. VX-induced cell death involves activation of caspase-3 in cultured rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Tenn, Catherine C; Wang, Yushan

    2007-05-01

    Exposure of cell cultures to organophosphorous compounds such as VX can result in cell death. However, it is not clear whether VX-induced cell death is necrotic or involves programmed cell death mechanisms. Activation of caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, is often involved in cell death, and in particular, caspase-3 activation appears to be a key event in programmed cell death processes including apoptosis. In this study, we investigated VX-induced neuronal cell death, as well as the underlying mechanism in terms of its effect on caspase-3 activity. Primary cortical neuronal cultures were prepared from gestational days 17 to 19 Sprague Dawley rat fetuses. At maturation, the cells were treated with varying concentrations of VX and cell death was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. VX induced an increase in LDH release in a concentration-dependent manner. Morphological VX-induced cell death was also characterized by using nuclear staining with propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342. VX induced a concentration- and time-dependent increase in caspase-3 activation. Caspase-3 activation was also confirmed by the proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), an endogenous caspase-3 substrate. These data suggested that in rat cortical neurons, VX-induced cell death via a programmed cell death pathway that involves changes in caspase-3 protease.

  12. Consensus guidelines for the detection of immunogenic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kepp, Oliver; Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Vacchelli, Erika; Adjemian, Sandy; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apetoh, Lionel; Aranda, Fernando; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Bloy, Norma; Bracci, Laura; Breckpot, Karine; Brough, David; Buqué, Aitziber; Castro, Maria G.; Cirone, Mara; Colombo, Maria I.; Cremer, Isabelle; Demaria, Sandra; Dini, Luciana; Eliopoulos, Aristides G.; Faggioni, Alberto; Formenti, Silvia C.; Fučíková, Jitka; Gabriele, Lucia; Gaipl, Udo S.; Galon, Jérôme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, François; Giese, Nathalia A.; Guo, Zong Sheng; Hemminki, Akseli; Herrmann, Martin; Hodge, James W.; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Honeychurch, Jamie; Hu, Hong-Min; Huang, Xing; Illidge, Tim M.; Kono, Koji; Korbelik, Mladen; Krysko, Dmitri V.; Loi, Sherene; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Lugli, Enrico; Ma, Yuting; Madeo, Frank; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Martins, Isabelle; Mavilio, Domenico; Menger, Laurie; Merendino, Nicolò; Michaud, Michael; Mignot, Gregoire; Mossman, Karen L.; Multhoff, Gabriele; Oehler, Rudolf; Palombo, Fabio; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pol, Jonathan; Proietti, Enrico; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Riganti, Chiara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Rubartelli, Anna; Sistigu, Antonella; Smyth, Mark J.; Sonnemann, Juergen; Spisek, Radek; Stagg, John; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Tartour, Eric; Thorburn, Andrew; Thorne, Stephen H.; Vandenabeele, Peter; Velotti, Francesca; Workenhe, Samuel T.; Yang, Haining; Zong, Wei-Xing; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cells have long been considered as intrinsically tolerogenic or unable to elicit immune responses specific for dead cell-associated antigens. However, multiple stimuli can trigger a functionally peculiar type of apoptotic demise that does not go unnoticed by the adaptive arm of the immune system, which we named “immunogenic cell death” (ICD). ICD is preceded or accompanied by the emission of a series of immunostimulatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in a precise spatiotemporal configuration. Several anticancer agents that have been successfully employed in the clinic for decades, including various chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy, can elicit ICD. Moreover, defects in the components that underlie the capacity of the immune system to perceive cell death as immunogenic negatively influence disease outcome among cancer patients treated with ICD inducers. Thus, ICD has profound clinical and therapeutic implications. Unfortunately, the gold-standard approach to detect ICD relies on vaccination experiments involving immunocompetent murine models and syngeneic cancer cells, an approach that is incompatible with large screening campaigns. Here, we outline strategies conceived to detect surrogate markers of ICD in vitro and to screen large chemical libraries for putative ICD inducers, based on a high-content, high-throughput platform that we recently developed. Such a platform allows for the detection of multiple DAMPs, like cell surface-exposed calreticulin, extracellular ATP and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and/or the processes that underlie their emission, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and necrotic plasma membrane permeabilization. We surmise that this technology will facilitate the development of next-generation anticancer regimens, which kill malignant cells and simultaneously convert them into a cancer-specific therapeutic vaccine. PMID:25941621

  13. Inducible nitric oxide synthase in T cells regulates T cell death and immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Vig, Monika; Srivastava, Smita; Kandpal, Usha; Sade, Hadassah; Lewis, Virginia; Sarin, Apurva; George, Anna; Bal, Vineeta; Durdik, Jeannine M.; Rath, Satyajit

    2004-01-01

    The progeny of T lymphocytes responding to immunization mostly die rapidly, leaving a few long-lived survivors functioning as immune memory. Thus, control of this choice of death versus survival is critical for immune memory. There are indications that reactive radicals may be involved in this death pathway. We now show that, in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), higher frequencies of both CD4 and CD8 memory T cells persist in response to immunization, even when iNOS+/+ APCs are used for immunization. Postactivation T cell death by neglect is reduced in iNOS–/– T cells, and levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL are increased. Inhibitors of the iNOS-peroxynitrite pathway also enhance memory responses and block postactivation death by neglect in both mouse and human T cells. However, early primary immune responses are not enhanced, which suggests that altered survival, rather than enhanced activation, is responsible for the persistent immunity observed. Thus, in primary immune responses, iNOS in activated T cells autocrinely controls their susceptibility to death by neglect to determine the level of persisting CD4 and CD8 T cell memory, and modulation of this pathway can enhance the persistence of immune memory in response to vaccination. PMID:15199408

  14. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however,more » were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells.« less

  15. GPNMB ameliorates mutant TDP-43-induced motor neuron cell death.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Ohuchi, Kazuki; Ito, Junko; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Kakita, Akiyoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2017-08-01

    Glycoprotein nonmetastatic melanoma protein B (GPNMB) aggregates are observed in the spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, but the detailed localization is still unclear. Mutations of transactive response DNA binding protein 43kDa (TDP-43) are associated with neurodegenerative diseases including ALS. In this study, we evaluated the localization of GPNMB aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients and the effect of GPNMB against mutant TDP-43 induced motor neuron cell death. GPNMB aggregates were not localized in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocyte and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba1)-positive microglia. GPNMB aggregates were localized in the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2)-positive neuron and neurofilament H non-phosphorylated (SMI-32)-positive neuron, and these were co-localized with TDP-43 aggregates in the spinal cord of ALS patients. Mock or TDP-43 (WT, M337V, and A315T) plasmids were transfected into mouse motor neuron cells (NSC34). The expression level of GPNMB was increased by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids. Recombinant GPNMB ameliorated motor neuron cell death induced by transfection of mutant TDP-43 plasmids and serum-free stress. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and phosphorylated Akt were decreased by this stress, and these expressions were increased by recombinant GPNMB. These results indicate that GPNMB has protective effects against mutant TDP-43 stress via activating the ERK1/2 and Akt pathways, and GPNMB may be a therapeutic target for TDP-43 proteinopathy in familial and sporadic ALS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  17. Berberine-induced autophagic cell death by elevating GRP78 levels in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    La, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Lichao; Li, Zhuoyu; Yang, Peng; Wang, Yingying

    2017-03-28

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis Rhizoma, has been shown to induce cancer cell autophagic death. Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is associated with stress-induced autophagy. However, the related mechanisms between berberine-induced cancer cell autophagy and GRP78 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that berberine can induce autophagic cancer cell death by elevating levels of GRP78. These results further demonstrated that berberine enhanced GRP78 by suppression of ubiquitination / proteasomal degradation of GRP78 and activation of ATF6. Moreover, fluorescence spectrum assay revealed that berberine could bind to GRP78 and form complexes. Finally, co-IP analysis showed that the ability of GRP78 to bind to VPS34 was increased with berberine treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine induces autophagic cancer cell death via enhancing GRP78 levels and the ability of GRP78 to bind to VPS34.

  18. Berberine-induced autophagic cell death by elevating GRP78 levels in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuoyu; Yang, Peng; Wang, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from Coptidis Rhizoma, has been shown to induce cancer cell autophagic death. Glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is associated with stress-induced autophagy. However, the related mechanisms between berberine-induced cancer cell autophagy and GRP78 remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that berberine can induce autophagic cancer cell death by elevating levels of GRP78. These results further demonstrated that berberine enhanced GRP78 by suppression of ubiquitination / proteasomal degradation of GRP78 and activation of ATF6. Moreover, fluorescence spectrum assay revealed that berberine could bind to GRP78 and form complexes. Finally, co-IP analysis showed that the ability of GRP78 to bind to VPS34 was increased with berberine treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine induces autophagic cancer cell death via enhancing GRP78 levels and the ability of GRP78 to bind to VPS34. PMID:28157699

  19. Increasing RpoS expression causes cell death in Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linxu; Xu, Qilong; Tu, Jiagang; Ge, Yihe; Liu, Jun; Liang, Fang Ting

    2013-01-01

    RpoS, one of the two alternative σ factors in Borrelia burgdorferi, is tightly controlled by multiple regulators and, in turn, determines expression of many critical virulence factors. Here we show that increasing RpoS expression causes cell death. The immediate effect of increasing RpoS expression was to promote bacterial division and as a consequence result in a rapid increase in cell number before causing bacterial death. No DNA fragmentation or degradation was observed during this induced cell death. Cryo-electron microscopy showed induced cells first formed blebs, which were eventually released from dying cells. Apparently blebbing initiated cell disintegration leading to cell death. These findings led us to hypothesize that increasing RpoS expression triggers intracellular programs and/or pathways that cause spirochete death. The potential biological significance of induced cell death may help B. burgdorferi regulate its population to maintain its life cycle in nature.

  20. Fas/Fas ligand regulation mediates cell death in human Ewing's sarcoma cells treated with melatonin

    PubMed Central

    García-Santos, G; Martin, V; Rodríguez-Blanco, J; Herrera, F; Casado-Zapico, S; Sánchez-Sánchez, A M; Antolín, I; Rodríguez, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, the 5-year survival rate for Ewing's sarcoma is still very low, and new therapeutic approaches are necessary. It was found previously that melatonin induces cell death in the Ewing's sarcoma cell line, SK-N-MC, by activating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Methods: Melatonin actions were analysed by metabolic viability/survival cell assays, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR for mRNA expression, western blot for protein activation/expression and electrophoretic mobility shift assay for transcription factor activation. Results: Melatonin increases the expression of Fas and its ligand Fas L, this increase being responsible for cell death induced by the indolamine. Melatonin also produces a transient increase in intracellular oxidants and activation of the redox-regulated transcription factor Nuclear factor-kappaB. Inhibition of such activation prevents cell death and Fas/Fas L upregulation. Cytotoxic effect and Fas/Fas L regulation occur in all Ewing's cell lines studied, and do not occur in the other tumour cell lines studied where melatonin does not induce cell death. Conclusion: Our data offers new insights in the study of alternative therapeutic strategies in the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma. Further attention deserves to be given to the differences in the cellular biology of sensitive tumours that could explain the cytotoxic effect of melatonin and the increase in the level of free radicals caused by this molecule, in particular cancer types. PMID:22382690

  1. Myricetin Protects Against Cytokine-Induced Cell Death in RIN-m5f β Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ye; Zhang, Zhao-Feng; Dai, Xiao-Qian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cytokine-induced cell death is recognized as a major cause of progressive β-cell loss. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and interferon γ (IFN-γ) in combination trigger a series of events that lead to β-cell death. In the past few decades, the use of myricetin as an anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective agent has gained much attention. The present study focused on the protective roles of myricetin against cytokine-induced cell death in insulin-secreting RIN-m5f β cells. The results showed that myricetin (especially at concentrations of 10 μM and 20 μM) increased cell viability and decreased cell apoptosis induced by the cytokine mixture of TNF-α (10 ng/mL), IL-1β (5 ng/mL), and IFN-γ (1000 IU/mL) for 3 days. Moreover, the cytokines increased the total and p65 subunit levels of nuclear factor κB, decreased inhibitor κB α levels, stimulated the accumulation of nitric oxide, increased cytochrome c release from mitochondria, and induced reactive oxygen species generation; myricetin (especially at the concentration of 20 μM) abolished all of these parameters. These results suggest that myricetin might have therapeutic value for preventing β-cell death. PMID:22846080

  2. Dynamic quantitative photothermal monitoring of cell death of individual human red blood cells upon glucose depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srivathsan; Chen, George Chung Kit; Andika, Marta; Agarwal, Shuchi; Chen, Peng; Olivo, Malini

    2010-09-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have been found to undergo ``programmed cell death,'' or eryptosis, and understanding this process can provide more information about apoptosis of nucleated cells. Photothermal (PT) response, a label-free photothermal noninvasive technique, is proposed as a tool to monitor the cell death process of living human RBCs upon glucose depletion. Since the physiological status of the dying cells is highly sensitive to photothermal parameters (e.g., thermal diffusivity, absorption, etc.), we applied linear PT response to continuously monitor the death mechanism of RBC when depleted of glucose. The kinetics of the assay where the cell's PT response transforms from linear to nonlinear regime is reported. In addition, quantitative monitoring was performed by extracting the relevant photothermal parameters from the PT response. Twofold increases in thermal diffusivity and size reduction were found in the linear PT response during cell death. Our results reveal that photothermal parameters change earlier than phosphatidylserine externalization (used for fluorescent studies), allowing us to detect the initial stage of eryptosis in a quantitative manner. Hence, the proposed tool, in addition to detection of eryptosis earlier than fluorescence, could also reveal physiological status of the cells through quantitative photothermal parameter extraction.

  3. OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCES CELL DEATH IN CD-1 MOUSE CRANIAL NEURAL CREST CELLS IN VITRO. J.B. Smith, K.K. Sulik, E.S. Hunter III. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.
    The induction of craniofacial defects by ethanol exposure is mediated in part by...

  4. HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) triggers autophagic tumor cell death.

    PubMed

    Aits, Sonja; Gustafsson, Lotta; Hallgren, Oskar; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Mattias; Trulsson, Maria; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Mograbi, Baharia; Svanborg, Catharina

    2009-03-01

    HAMLET, a complex of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, kills a wide range of tumor cells. Here we propose that HAMLET causes macroautophagy in tumor cells and that this contributes to their death. Cell death was accompanied by mitochondrial damage and a reduction in the level of active mTOR and HAMLET triggered extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and the formation of double-membrane-enclosed vesicles typical of macroautophagy. In addition, HAMLET caused a change from uniform (LC3-I) to granular (LC3-II) staining in LC3-GFP-transfected cells reflecting LC3 translocation during macroautophagy, and this was blocked by the macroautophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. HAMLET also caused accumulation of LC3-II detected by Western blot when lysosomal degradation was inhibited suggesting that HAMLET caused an increase in autophagic flux. To determine if macroautophagy contributed to cell death, we used RNA interference against Beclin-1 and Atg5. Suppression of Beclin-1 and Atg5 improved the survival of HAMLET-treated tumor cells and inhibited the increase in granular LC3-GFP staining. The results show that HAMLET triggers macroautophagy in tumor cells and suggest that macroautophagy contributes to HAMLET-induced tumor cell death.

  5. NFκB inhibitors induce cell death in glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Braganhol, Elizandra; Schröder, Rafael; de Souza, Luís Henrique T; Dalmolin, Rodrigo J S; Pasquali, Matheus A Bittencourt; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2011-02-01

    Identification of novel target pathways in glioblastoma (GBM) remains critical due to poor prognosis, inefficient therapies and recurrence associated with these tumors. In this work, we evaluated the role of nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NFκB) in the growth of GBM cells, and the potential of NFκB inhibitors as antiglioma agents. NFκB pathway was found overstimulated in GBM cell lines and in tumor specimens compared to normal astrocytes and healthy brain tissues, respectively. Treatment of a panel of established GBM cell lines (U138MG, U87, U373 and C6) with pharmacological NFκB inhibitors (BAY117082, parthenolide, MG132, curcumin and arsenic trioxide) and NFκB-p65 siRNA markedly decreased the viability of GBMs as compared to inhibitors of other signaling pathways such as MAPKs (ERK, JNK and p38), PKC, EGFR and PI3K/Akt. In addition, NFκB inhibitors presented a low toxicity to normal astrocytes, indicating selectivity to cancerous cells. In GBMs, mitochondrial dysfunction (membrane depolarization, bcl-xL downregulation and cytochrome c release) and arrest in the G2/M phase were observed at the early steps of NFκB inhibitors treatment. These events preceded sub-G1 detection, apoptotic body formation and caspase-3 activation. Also, NFκB was found overstimulated in cisplatin-resistant C6 cells, and treatment of GBMs with NFκB inhibitors overcame cisplatin resistance besides potentiating the effects of the chemotherapeutics, cisplatin and doxorubicin. These findings support NFκB as a potential target to cell death induction in GBMs, and that the NFκB inhibitors may be considered for in vivo testing on animal models and possibly on GBM therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  7. Contact-Independent Cell Death of Human Microglial Cells due to Pathogenic Naegleria fowleri Trophozoites

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increasse of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death. PMID:19127326

  8. TMBIM-mediated Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Qun

    2017-01-05

    Ca 2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that regulates numerous physiological activities in humans, animals, plants, and bacteria. Cytosolic Ca 2+ is kept at a low level, but subcellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi Apparatus maintain high-concentration Ca 2+ stores. Under resting conditions, store Ca 2+ homeostasis is dynamically regulated to equilibrate between active Ca 2+ uptake and passive Ca 2+ leak processes. The evolutionarily conserved Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor-1 Motif-containing (TMBIM) proteins mediate Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death. This review focuses on recent advances in functional and structural analysis of TMBIM proteins in regulation ofmore » the two related functions. The roles of TMBIM proteins in pathogen infection and cancer are also discussed with prospects for treatment.« less

  9. Pyroptosis: Gasdermin-Mediated Programmed Necrotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianjin; Gao, Wenqing; Shao, Feng

    2017-04-01

    Pyroptosis was long regarded as caspase-1-mediated monocyte death in response to certain bacterial insults. Caspase-1 is activated upon various infectious and immunological challenges through different inflammasomes. The discovery of caspase-11/4/5 function in sensing intracellular lipopolysaccharide expands the spectrum of pyroptosis mediators and also reveals that pyroptosis is not cell type specific. Recent studies identified the pyroptosis executioner, gasdermin D (GSDMD), a substrate of both caspase-1 and caspase-11/4/5. GSDMD represents a large gasdermin family bearing a novel membrane pore-forming activity. Thus, pyroptosis is redefined as gasdermin-mediated programmed necrosis. Gasdermins are associated with various genetic diseases, but their cellular function and mechanism of activation (except for GSDMD) are unknown. The gasdermin family suggests a new area of research on pyroptosis function in immunity, disease, and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. TMBIM-mediated Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qun

    Ca 2+ is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger that regulates numerous physiological activities in humans, animals, plants, and bacteria. Cytosolic Ca 2+ is kept at a low level, but subcellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi Apparatus maintain high-concentration Ca 2+ stores. Under resting conditions, store Ca 2+ homeostasis is dynamically regulated to equilibrate between active Ca 2+ uptake and passive Ca 2+ leak processes. The evolutionarily conserved Transmembrane BAX Inhibitor-1 Motif-containing (TMBIM) proteins mediate Ca 2+ homeostasis and cell death. This review focuses on recent advances in functional and structural analysis of TMBIM proteins in regulation ofmore » the two related functions. The roles of TMBIM proteins in pathogen infection and cancer are also discussed with prospects for treatment.« less

  11. Programmed cell death in trypanosomatids and other unicellular organisms.

    PubMed

    Debrabant, Alain; Lee, Nancy; Bertholet, Sylvie; Duncan, Robert; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2003-03-01

    In multicellular organisms, cellular growth and development can be controlled by programmed cell death (PCD), which is defined by a sequence of regulated events. However, PCD is thought to have evolved not only to regulate growth and development in multicellular organisms but also to have a functional role in the biology of unicellular organisms. In protozoan parasites and in other unicellular organisms, features of PCD similar to those in multicellular organisms have been reported, suggesting some commonality in the PCD pathway between unicellular and multicellular organisms. However, more extensive studies are needed to fully characterise the PCD pathway and to define the factors that control PCD in the unicellular organisms. The understanding of the PCD pathway in unicellular organisms could delineate the evolutionary origin of this pathway. Further characterisation of the PCD pathway in the unicellular parasites could provide information regarding their pathogenesis, which could be exploited to target new drugs to limit their growth and treat the disease they cause.

  12. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    PubMed Central

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  13. Crocetin shifts autophagic cell survival to death of breast cancer cells in chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ailian; Li, Jincheng

    2017-03-01

    The chemotherapy with fluorouracil is not always effective, in which some breast cancer cells may survive the fluorouracil treatment through enhanced autophagy. Crocetin is the major constituent of saffron, a Chinese traditional herb, which has recently found to have multiple pharmacological effects, including anticancer. However, the effects of Crocetin on the outcome of fluorouracil therapy for breast cancer have not been studied. Here, we showed that fluorouracil treatment inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells, in either a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay or an MTT assay. Inhibition of autophagy further suppressed breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that the breast cancer cells increased autophagic cell survival during fluorouracil treatment. However, Crocetin significantly increased the suppressive effects of fluorouracil on breast cancer cell growth, without affecting either cell apoptosis or autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy at the presence of Crocetin partially abolished the suppressive effects on breast cancer cell growth, suggesting that Crocetin may increase autophagic cell death in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells. Furthermore, Crocetin decreased Beclin-1 levels but increased ATG1 levels in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells. Together, these data suggest that Crocetin may shift autophagic cell survival to autophagic cell death in fluorouracil-treated breast cancer cells, possibly through modulation of the expression of ATG1 and Beclin-1.

  14. The synthetic purine reversine selectively induces cell death of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Marco; Palazzolo, Giacomo; Conforti, Erika; Lamorte, Giuseppe; Papini, Nadia; Creo, Pasquale; Fania, Chiara; Scaringi, Raffaella; Bergante, Sonia; Tringali, Cristina; Roncoroni, Leda; Mazzoleni, Stefania; Doneda, Luisa; Galli, Rossella; Venerando, Bruno; Tettamanti, Guido; Gelfi, Cecilia; Anastasia, Luigi

    2012-10-01

    The synthetic purine reversine has been shown to possess a dual activity as it promotes the de-differentiation of adult cells, including fibroblasts, into stem-cell-like progenitors, but it also induces cell growth arrest and ultimately cell death of cancer cells, suggesting its possible application as an anti-cancer agent. Aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underneath reversine selectivity in inducing cell death of cancer cells by a comparative analysis of its effects on several tumor cells and normal dermal fibroblasts. We found that reversine is lethal for all cancer cells studied as it induces cell endoreplication, a process that malignant cells cannot effectively oppose due to aberrations in cell cycle checkpoints. On the other hand, normal cells, like dermal fibroblasts, can control reversine activity by blocking the cell cycle, entering a reversible quiescent state. However, they can be induced to become sensitive to the molecule when key cell cycle proteins, e.g., p53, are silenced. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee, E-mail: leedneo@gmail.com; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We alsomore » found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.« less

  16. Cell death by pyroptosis drives CD4 T-cell depletion in HIV-1 infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doitsh, Gilad; Galloway, Nicole L. K.; Geng, Xin; Yang, Zhiyuan; Monroe, Kathryn M.; Zepeda, Orlando; Hunt, Peter W.; Hatano, Hiroyu; Sowinski, Stefanie; Muñoz-Arias, Isa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    The pathway causing CD4 T-cell death in HIV-infected hosts remains poorly understood although apoptosis has been proposed as a key mechanism. We now show that caspase-3-mediated apoptosis accounts for the death of only a small fraction of CD4 T cells corresponding to those that are both activated and productively infected. The remaining over 95% of quiescent lymphoid CD4 T cells die by caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis triggered by abortive viral infection. Pyroptosis corresponds to an intensely inflammatory form of programmed cell death in which cytoplasmic contents and pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, are released. This death pathway thus links the two signature events in HIV infection--CD4 T-cell depletion and chronic inflammation--and creates a pathogenic vicious cycle in which dying CD4 T cells release inflammatory signals that attract more cells to die. This cycle can be broken by caspase 1 inhibitors shown to be safe in humans, raising the possibility of a new class of `anti-AIDS' therapeutics targeting the host rather than the virus.

  17. The endoplasmic reticulum in plant immunity and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle in eukaryotic cells and a major production site of proteins destined for vacuoles, the plasma membrane, or apoplast in plants. At the ER, these secreted proteins undergo multiple processing steps, which are supervised and conducted by the ER quality control system. Notably, processing of secreted proteins can considerably elevate under stress conditions and exceed ER folding capacities. The resulting accumulation of unfolded proteins is defined as ER stress. The efficiency of cells to re-establish proper ER function is crucial for stress adaptation. Besides delivering proteins directly antagonizing and resolving stress conditions, the ER monitors synthesis of immune receptors. This indicates the significance of the ER for the establishment and function of the plant immune system. Recent studies point out the fragility of the entire system and highlight the ER as initiator of programed cell death (PCD) in plants as was reported for vertebrates. This review summarizes current knowledge on the impact of the ER on immune and PCD signaling. Understanding the integration of stress signals by the ER bears a considerable potential to optimize development and to enhance stress resistance of plants. PMID:22936941

  18. The endoplasmic reticulum in plant immunity and cell death.

    PubMed

    Eichmann, Ruth; Schäfer, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle in eukaryotic cells and a major production site of proteins destined for vacuoles, the plasma membrane, or apoplast in plants. At the ER, these secreted proteins undergo multiple processing steps, which are supervised and conducted by the ER quality control system. Notably, processing of secreted proteins can considerably elevate under stress conditions and exceed ER folding capacities. The resulting accumulation of unfolded proteins is defined as ER stress. The efficiency of cells to re-establish proper ER function is crucial for stress adaptation. Besides delivering proteins directly antagonizing and resolving stress conditions, the ER monitors synthesis of immune receptors. This indicates the significance of the ER for the establishment and function of the plant immune system. Recent studies point out the fragility of the entire system and highlight the ER as initiator of programed cell death (PCD) in plants as was reported for vertebrates. This review summarizes current knowledge on the impact of the ER on immune and PCD signaling. Understanding the integration of stress signals by the ER bears a considerable potential to optimize development and to enhance stress resistance of plants.

  19. Rapid cell death in Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Satyendra; Sharma, Arun

    2002-04-01

    Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines strain AM2 (XcgAM2), the etiological agent of bacterial pustule disease of soybean, exhibited post-exponential rapid cell death (RCD) in LB medium. X. campestris pv. malvacearum NCIM 2310 and X. campestris NCIM 2961 also displayed RCD, though less pronouncedly than XcgAM2. RCD was not observed in Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycines, or Escherichia coli DH5alpha. Incubation of the post-exponential LB-grown XcgAM2 cultures at 4 degrees C arrested the RCD. RCD was also inhibited by the addition of starch during the exponential phase of LB-growing XcgAM2. Protease negative mutants of XcgAM2 were found to be devoid of RCD behavior observed in the wild type XcgAM2. While undergoing RCD, the organism was found to transform to spherical membrane bodies. The presence of membrane bodies was confirmed by using a membrane specific fluorescent label, 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), and also by visualizing these structures under microscope. The membrane bodies of XcgAM2 were found to contain DNA, which was devoid of the indigenous plasmids of the organism. The membrane bodies were found to bind annexin V indicative of the externalization of membrane phosphatidyl serine. Nicking of DNA in XcgAM2 cultures undergoing RCD in LB medium was also detected using a TUNEL assay. The RCD in XcgAM2 appeared to have features similar to the programmed cell death in eukaryotes.

  20. Multifunctional Mitochondrial Epac1 Controls Myocardial Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Loubina; Laudette, Marion; Paula-Gomes, Sílvia; Pons, Sandrine; Conte, Caroline; Tortosa, Florence; Sicard, Pierre; Sainte-Marie, Yannis; Bisserier, Malik; Lairez, Olivier; Lucas, Alexandre; Roy, Jérôme; Ghaleh, Bijan; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Mialet-Perez, Jeanne; Lezoualc'h, Frank

    2017-02-17

    Although the second messenger cyclic AMP (cAMP) is physiologically beneficial in the heart, it largely contributes to cardiac disease progression when dysregulated. Current evidence suggests that cAMP is produced within mitochondria. However, mitochondrial cAMP signaling and its involvement in cardiac pathophysiology are far from being understood. To investigate the role of MitEpac1 (mitochondrial exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1) in ischemia/reperfusion injury. We show that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1) genetic ablation ( Epac1 -/- ) protects against experimental myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury with reduced infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. As observed in vivo, Epac1 inhibition prevents hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced adult cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Interestingly, a deleted form of Epac1 in its mitochondrial-targeting sequence protects against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cell death. Mechanistically, Epac1 favors Ca 2+ exchange between the endoplasmic reticulum and the mitochondrion, by increasing interaction with a macromolecular complex composed of the VDAC1 (voltage-dependent anion channel 1), the GRP75 (chaperone glucose-regulated protein 75), and the IP3R1 (inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1), leading to mitochondrial Ca 2+ overload and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In addition, our findings demonstrate that MitEpac1 inhibits isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 via the mitochondrial recruitment of CaMKII (Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II), which decreases nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen synthesis, thereby, reducing the antioxidant capabilities of the cardiomyocyte. Our results reveal the existence, within mitochondria, of different cAMP-Epac1 microdomains that control myocardial cell death. In addition, our findings suggest Epac1 as a promising target for the treatment of ischemia-induced myocardial damage. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Blocking CD147 induces cell death in cancer cells through impairment of glycolytic energy metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Miyako; Inoue, Masahiro; Itoh, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-12

    CD147 is a multifunctional transmembrane protein and promotes cancer progression. We found that the anti-human CD147 mouse monoclonal antibody MEM-M6/1 strongly induces necrosis-like cell death in LoVo, HT-29, WiDr, and SW620 colon cancer cells and A2058 melanoma cells, but not in WI-38 and TIG-113 normal fibroblasts. Silencing or overexpression of CD147 in LoVo cells enhanced or decreased the MEM-M6/1 induced cell death, respectively. CD147 is known to form complex with proton-linked monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which is critical for lactate transport and intracellular pH (pHi) homeostasis. In LoVo cells, CD147 and MCT-1 co-localized on the cell surface, and MEM-M6/1 inhibited themore » association of these molecules. MEM-M6/1 inhibited lactate uptake, lactate release, and reduced pHi. Further, the induction of acidification was parallel to the decrease of the glycolytic flux and intracellular ATP levels. These effects were not found in the normal fibroblasts. As cancer cells depend on glycolysis for their energy production, CD147 inhibition might induce cell death specific to cancer cells.« less

  2. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    PubMed

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dual agonist Surrobody™ simultaneously activates death receptors DR4 and DR5 to induce cancer cell death

    PubMed Central

    Milutinovic, Snezana; Kashyap, Arun K.; Yanagi, Teruki; Wimer, Carina; Zhou, Sihong; O' Neil, Ryann; Kurtzman, Aaron L.; Faynboym, Alexsandr; Xu, Li; Hannum, Charles H.; Diaz, Paul W.; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Horowitz, Michael; Horowitz, Lawrence; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Reed, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Death receptors of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) family are found on surface of most cancer cells and their activation typically kills cancer cells through the stimulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. The endogenous ligand for death receptors-4 and -5 (DR4 and DR5) is Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand, TRAIL (Apo2L). Since most untransformed cells are not susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, death receptor activators have emerged as promising cancer therapeutic agents. One strategy to stimulate death receptors in cancer patients is to use soluble human recombinant TRAIL protein, but this agent has limitations of a short half-life and decoy receptor sequestration. Another strategy that attempted to evade decoy receptor sequestration and to provide improved pharmacokinetic properties was to generate DR4 or DR5 agonist antibodies. The resulting monoclonal agonist antibodies overcame the limitations of short half-life and avoided decoy receptor sequestration, but are limited by activating only one of the two death receptors. Here, we describe a DR4 and DR5 dual agonist produced using Surrobody™ technology that activates both DR4 and DR5 to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and also avoids decoy receptor sequestration. This fully human anti-DR4/DR5 Surrobody displays superior potency to DR4- and DR5-specific antibodies, even when combined with TRAIL-sensitizing pro-apoptotic agents. Moreover, cancer cells were less likely to acquire resistance to Surrobody than either anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 mono-specific antibodies. Taken together, Surrobody shows promising preclinical pro-apoptotic activity against cancer cells, meriting further exploration of its potential as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. PMID:26516157

  4. Dual Agonist Surrobody Simultaneously Activates Death Receptors DR4 and DR5 to Induce Cancer Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Milutinovic, Snezana; Kashyap, Arun K; Yanagi, Teruki; Wimer, Carina; Zhou, Sihong; O'Neil, Ryann; Kurtzman, Aaron L; Faynboym, Alexsandr; Xu, Li; Hannum, Charles H; Diaz, Paul W; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Horowitz, Michael; Horowitz, Lawrence; Bhatt, Ramesh R; Reed, John C

    2016-01-01

    Death receptors of the TNF family are found on the surface of most cancer cells and their activation typically kills cancer cells through the stimulation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. The endogenous ligand for death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5) is TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, TRAIL (Apo2L). As most untransformed cells are not susceptible to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, death receptor activators have emerged as promising cancer therapeutic agents. One strategy to stimulate death receptors in cancer patients is to use soluble human recombinant TRAIL protein, but this agent has limitations of a short half-life and decoy receptor sequestration. Another strategy that attempted to evade decoy receptor sequestration and to provide improved pharmacokinetic properties was to generate DR4 or DR5 agonist antibodies. The resulting monoclonal agonist antibodies overcame the limitations of short half-life and avoided decoy receptor sequestration, but are limited by activating only one of the two death receptors. Here, we describe a DR4 and DR5 dual agonist produced using Surrobody technology that activates both DR4 and DR5 to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and also avoids decoy receptor sequestration. This fully human anti-DR4/DR5 Surrobody displays superior potency to DR4- and DR5-specific antibodies, even when combined with TRAIL-sensitizing proapoptotic agents. Moreover, cancer cells were less likely to acquire resistance to Surrobody than either anti-DR4 or anti-DR5 monospecific antibodies. Taken together, Surrobody shows promising preclinical proapoptotic activity against cancer cells, meriting further exploration of its potential as a novel cancer therapeutic agent. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Control of non-apoptotic nurse cell death by engulfment genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Allison K; Mondragon, Albert A; Meehan, Tracy L; McCall, Kimberly

    2017-04-03

    Programmed cell death occurs as a normal part of oocyte development in Drosophila. For each egg that is formed, 15 germline-derived nurse cells transfer their cytoplasmic contents into the oocyte and die. Disruption of apoptosis or autophagy only partially inhibits the death of the nurse cells, indicating that other mechanisms significantly contribute to nurse cell death. Recently, we demonstrated that the surrounding stretch follicle cells non-autonomously promote nurse cell death during late oogenesis and that phagocytosis genes including draper, ced-12, and the JNK pathway are crucial for this process. When phagocytosis genes are inhibited in the follicle cells, events specifically associated with death of the nurse cells are impaired. Death of the nurse cells is not completely blocked in draper mutants, suggesting that other engulfment receptors are involved. Indeed, we found that the integrin subunit, αPS3, is enriched on stretch follicle cells during late oogenesis and is required for elimination of the nurse cells. Moreover, double mutant analysis revealed that integrins act in parallel to draper. Death of nurse cells in the Drosophila ovary is a unique example of programmed cell death that is both non-apoptotic and non-cell autonomously controlled.

  6. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expressionmore » in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy. - Highlights: • AIF nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 cell death. • AIF mediated cell death induced by ionizing radiation is caspase-independent. • Caspase-independent pathway is involved in ionzing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.« less

  7. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS).We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

  8. Cytoprotective dibenzoylmethane derivatives protect cells from oxidative stress-induced necrotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Hegedűs, Csaba; Lakatos, Petra; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Patonay, Tamás; Gergely, Szabolcs; Gregus, Andrea; Bai, Péter; Haskó, György; Szabó, Éva; Virág, László

    2013-06-01

    Screening of a small in-house library of 1863 compounds identified 29 compounds that protected Jurkat cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity. From the cytoprotective compounds eleven proved to possess antioxidant activity (ABTS radical scavenger effect) and two were found to inhibit poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation), a cytotoxic pathway operating in severely injured cells. Four cytoprotective dibenzoylmethane (DBM) derivatives were investigated in more detail as they did not scavenge hydrogen peroxide nor did they inhibit PARylation. These compounds protected cells from necrotic cell death while caspase activation, a parameter of apoptotic cell death was not affected. Hydrogen peroxide activated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The cytoprotective DBMs suppressed the activation of Erk1/2 but not that of p38. Cytoprotection was confirmed in another cell type (A549 lung epithelial cells), indicating that the cytoprotective effect is not cell type specific. In conclusion we identified DBM analogs as a novel class of cytoprotective compounds inhibiting ERK1/2 kinase and protecting from necrotic cell death by a mechanism independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. M1 muscarinic receptor activation mediates cell death in M1-HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Graham, E Scott; Woo, Kerhan K; Aalderink, Miranda; Fry, Sandie; Greenwood, Jeffrey M; Glass, Michelle; Dragunow, Mike

    2013-01-01

    HEK293 cells have been used extensively to generate stable cell lines to study G protein-coupled receptors, such as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of M1 mAChRs in various cell types in vitro has been shown to be protective. To further investigate M1 mAChR-mediated cell survival, we generated stable HEK293 cell-lines expressing the human M1 mAChR. M1 mAChRs were efficiently expressed at the cell surface and efficiently internalised within 1 h by carbachol. Carbachol also induced early signalling cascades similar to previous reports. Thus, ectopically expressed M1 receptors behaved in a similar fashion to the native receptor over short time periods of analysis. However, substantial cell death was observed in HEK293-M1 cells within 24 h after carbachol application. Death was only observed in HEK cells expressing M1 receptors and fully blocked by M1 antagonists. M1 mAChR-stimulation mediated prolonged activation of the MEK-ERK pathway and resulted in prolonged induction of the transcription factor EGR-1 (>24 h). Blockade of ERK signalling with U0126 did not reduce M1 mAChR-mediated cell-death significantly but inhibited the acute induction of EGR-1. We investigated the time-course of cell death using time-lapse microscopy and xCELLigence technology. Both revealed the M1 mAChR cytotoxicity occurs within several hours of M1 activation. The xCELLigence assay also confirmed that the ERK pathway was not involved in cell-death. Interestingly, the MEK blocker did reduce carbachol-mediated cleaved caspase 3 expression in HEK293-M1 cells. The HEK293 cell line is a widely used pharmacological tool for studying G-protein coupled receptors, including mAChRs. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the longer term fate of these cells in short term signalling studies. Identifying how and why activation of the M1 mAChR signals apoptosis in these cells may lead to a better understanding of how mAChRs regulate cell-fate decisions.

  10. Mastoparan-induced programmed cell death in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Yordanova, Zhenya P.; Woltering, Ernst J.; Kapchina-Toteva, Veneta M.; Iakimova, Elena T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Under stress-promoting conditions unicellular algae can undergo programmed cell death (PCD) but the mechanisms of algal cellular suicide are still poorly understood. In this work, the involvement of caspase-like proteases, DNA cleavage and the morphological occurrence of cell death in wasp venom mastoparan (MP)-treated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied. Methods Algal cells were exposed to MP and cell death was analysed over time. Specific caspase inhibitors were employed to elucidate the possible role of caspase-like proteases. YVADase activity (presumably a vacuolar processing enzyme) was assayed by using a fluorogenic caspase-1 substrate. DNA breakdown was evaluated by DNA laddering and Comet analysis. Cellular morphology was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Key Results MP-treated C. reinhardtii cells expressed several features of necrosis (protoplast shrinkage) and vacuolar cell death (lytic vesicles, vacuolization, empty cell-walled corpse-containing remains of digested protoplast) sometimes within one single cell and in different individual cells. Nucleus compaction and DNA fragmentation were detected. YVADase activity was rapidly stimulated in response to MP but the early cell death was not inhibited by caspase inhibitors. At later time points, however, the caspase inhibitors were effective in cell-death suppression. Conditioned medium from MP-treated cells offered protection against MP-induced cell death. Conclusions In C. reinhardtii MP triggered PCD of atypical phenotype comprising features of vacuolar and necrotic cell deaths, reminiscent of the modality of hypersensitive response. It was assumed that depending on the physiological state and sensitivity of the cells to MP, the early cell-death phase might be not mediated by caspase-like enzymes, whereas later cell death may involve caspase-like-dependent proteolysis. The findings substantiate the hypothesis that, depending on the mode of induction and sensitivity of

  11. Molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death-1 dependent T cell suppression: relevance for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zuazo, Miren; Gato-Cañas, Maria; Llorente, Noelia; Ibañez-Vea, María; Arasanz, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD1) has become a significant target for cancer immunotherapy. PD1 and its receptor programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PDL1) are key regulatory physiological immune checkpoints that maintain self-tolerance in the organism by regulating the degree of activation of T and B cells amongst other immune cell types. However, cancer cells take advantage of these immunosuppressive regulatory mechanisms to escape T and B cell-mediated immunity. PD1 engagement on T cells by PDL1 on the surface of cancer cells dramatically interferes with T cell activation and the acquisition of effector capacities. Interestingly, PD1-targeted therapies have demonstrated to be highly effective in rescuing T cell anti-tumor effector functions. Amongst these the use of anti-PD1/PDL1 monoclonal antibodies are particularly efficacious in human therapies. Furthermore, clinical findings with PD1/PDL1 blockers over several cancer types demonstrate clinical benefit. Despite the successful results, the molecular mechanisms by which PD1-targeted therapies rescue T cell functions still remain elusive. Therefore, it is a key issue to uncover the molecular pathways by which these therapies exert its function in T cells. A profound knowledge of PDL1/PD1 mechanisms will surely uncover a new array of targets susceptible of therapeutic intervention. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular events underlying PD1-dependent T cell suppression in cancer. PMID:29114543

  12. Cell Death and Reproductive Regression in Female Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Galanti, Sarah E.; Huang, Stanley Ching-Cheng; Pearce, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The vitellarium is a highly proliferative organ, producing cells which are incorporated along with a fertilized ovum into the schistosome egg. Vitellarial growth fails to occur in virgin female schistosomes in single sex (female-only) infections, and involution of this tissue, which is accompanied by physical shrinkage of the entire worm, occurs when mature females sexually regress upon removal from their male partners. We have found that upon removal from their hosts into tissue culture, female parasites regress whether they are mated or not, but that cessation of egg production and a decline in expression of the vitelline gene p14 is delayed by mating. We used BrdU labeling to investigate whether there was a loss of proliferation in the vittelarium that might account for regression and found that the proliferation rate declined equally in paired and singled females once placed into culture. However, TUNEL staining and Caspase 3 activity measurements indicate that the loss of vitrellarial cellularity associated with regression is associated with profound apoptotic vitelline cell death, which is not apparent in the vitellaria of paired females immediately ex vivo, and which develops in vitro regardless of whether males are present or not. Furthermore, primordial vitellaria in virgin females have a high frequency of apoptotic cells but are characterized by a proliferation rate that is indistinguishable from that in fully developed vitellaria in mature paired females. Taken together, our data suggest that the vitelline proliferation rate is independent of pairing status. In contrast, the survival of vitelline cells, and therefore the development of the vitellarium, is highly male-dependent. Both processes are negatively affected by removal from the host regardless of whether male worms are present or not, and are unsustainable using standard tissue culture approaches. PMID:22363825

  13. Role of non-canonical Beclin 1-independent autophagy in cell death induced by resveratrol in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Scarlatti, F; Maffei, R; Beau, I; Codogno, P; Ghidoni, R

    2008-08-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in grapes and other fruit and vegetables, is a powerful chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic molecule potentially of interest for the treatment of breast cancer. The human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, which is devoid of caspase-3 activity, is refractory to apoptotic cell death after incubation with resveratrol. Here we show that resveratrol arrests cell proliferation, triggers death and decreases the number of colonies of cells that are sensitive to caspase-3-dependent apoptosis (MCF-7 casp-3) and also those that are unresponsive to it (MCF-7vc). We demonstrate that resveratrol (i) acts via multiple pathways to trigger cell death, (ii) induces caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death in MCF-7 casp-3 cells, (iii) induces only caspase-independent cell death in MCF-7vc cells and (iv) stimulates macroautophagy. Using BECN1 and hVPS34 (human vacuolar protein sorting 34) small interfering RNAs, we demonstrate that resveratrol activates Beclin 1-independent autophagy in both cell lines, whereas cell death via this uncommon form of autophagy occurs only in MCF-7vc cells. We also show that this variant form of autophagic cell death is blocked by the expression of caspase-3, but not by its enzymatic activity. In conclusion, this study reveals that non-canonical autophagy induced by resveratrol can act as a caspase-independent cell death mechanism in breast cancer cells.

  14. E4F1 deficiency results in oxidative stress–mediated cell death of leukemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hatchi, Elodie; Rodier, Genevieve; Lacroix, Matthieu; Caramel, Julie; Kirsh, Olivier; Jacquet, Chantal; Schrepfer, Emilie; Lagarrigue, Sylviane; Linares, Laetitia Karine; Lledo, Gwendaline; Tondeur, Sylvie; Dubus, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional E4F1 protein was originally discovered as a target of the E1A viral oncoprotein. Growing evidence indicates that E4F1 is involved in key signaling pathways commonly deregulated during cell transformation. In this study, we investigate the influence of E4F1 on tumorigenesis. Wild-type mice injected with fetal liver cells from mice lacking CDKN2A, the gene encoding Ink4a/Arf, developed histiocytic sarcomas (HSs), a tumor originating from the monocytic/macrophagic lineage. Cre-mediated deletion of E4F1 resulted in the death of HS cells and tumor regression in vivo and extended the lifespan of recipient animals. In murine and human HS cell lines, E4F1 inactivation resulted in mitochondrial defects and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that triggered massive cell death. Notably, these defects of E4F1 depletion were observed in HS cells but not healthy primary macrophages. Short hairpin RNA–mediated depletion of E4F1 induced mitochondrial defects and ROS-mediated death in several human myeloid leukemia cell lines. E4F1 protein is overexpressed in a large subset of human acute myeloid leukemia samples. Together, these data reveal a role for E4F1 in the survival of myeloid leukemic cells and support the notion that targeting E4F1 activities might have therapeutic interest. PMID:21708927

  15. Sulfated lentinan induced mitochondrial dysfunction leads to programmed cell death of tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Yaofeng; Shen, Lili; Qian, Yumei; Yang, Jinguang; Wang, Fenglong

    2017-04-01

    Sulphated lentinan (sLTN) is known to act as a resistance inducer by causing programmed cell death (PCD) in tobacco suspension cells. However, the underlying mechanism of this effect is largely unknown. Using tobacco BY-2 cell model, morphological and biochemical studies revealed that mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to sLNT induced PCD. Cell viability, and HO/PI fluorescence imaging and TUNEL assays confirmed a typical cell death process caused by sLNT. Acetylsalicylic acid (an ROS scavenger), diphenylene iodonium (an inhibitor of NADPH oxidases) and protonophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl hydrazone (a protonophore and an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation) inhibited sLNT-induced H 2 O 2 generation and cell death, suggesting that ROS generation linked, at least partly, to a mitochondrial dysfunction and caspase-like activation. This conclusion was further confirmed by double-stained cells with the mitochondria-specific marker MitoTracker RedCMXRos and the ROS probe H 2 DCFDA. Moreover, the sLNT-induced PCD of BY-2 cells required cellular metabolism as up-regulation of the AOX family gene transcripts and induction of the SA biosynthesis, the TCA cycle, and miETC related genes were observed. It is concluded that mitochondria play an essential role in the signaling pathway of sLNT-induced ROS generation, which possibly provided new insight into the sLNT-mediated antiviral response, including PCD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Coniferyl Aldehyde Attenuates Radiation Enteropathy by Inhibiting Cell Death and Promoting Endothelial Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yeonghoon; Jang, Jun-Ho; Lee, Yoon-Jin; Kim, Sung-Ho; Ko, Young-Gyo; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Hae-June

    2015-01-01

    Radiation enteropathy is a common complication in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced intestinal injury could be alleviated by coniferyl aldehyde (CA), an HSF1-inducing agent that increases cellular HSP70 expression. We systemically administered CA to mice with radiation enteropathy following abdominal irradiation (IR) to demonstrate the protective effects of CA against radiation-induced gastrointestinal injury. CA clearly alleviated acute radiation-induced intestinal damage, as reflected by the histopathological data and it also attenuated sub-acute enteritis. CA prevented intestinal crypt cell death and protected the microvasculature in the lamina propria during the acute and sub-acute phases of damage. CA induced HSF1 and HSP70 expression in both intestinal epithelial cells and endothelial cells in vitro. Additionally, CA protected against not only the apoptotic cell death of both endothelial and epithelial cells but also the loss of endothelial cell function following IR, indicating that CA has beneficial effects on the intestine. Our results provide novel insight into the effects of CA and suggest its role as a therapeutic candidate for radiation-induced enteropathy due to its ability to promote rapid re-proliferation of the intestinal epithelium by the synergic effects of the inhibition of cell death and the promotion of endothelial cell function. PMID:26029925

  17. Investigating the cell death mechanisms in primary prostate cancer cells using low-temperature plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Deborah; Hirst, A. M.; Packer, J. R.; Simms, M. S.; Mann, V. M.; Frame, F. M.; Maitland, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown considerable promise as a potential cancer therapy. An atmospheric pressure plasma driven with kHz kV excitation, operated with helium and oxygen admixtures is used to investigate the interaction with prostate cancer cells. The cytopathic effect was verified first in two commonly used prostate cancer cell lines (BPH-1 and PC-3 cells) and further extended to examine the effects in paired normal and tumour prostate epithelial cells cultured directly from patient tissues. Through the formation of reactive species in cell culture media, and potentially other plasma components, we observed high levels of DNA damage, together with reduced cell viability and colony-forming ability. We observed differences in response between the prostate cell lines and primary cells, particularly in terms of the mechanism of cell death. The primary cells ultimately undergo necrotic cell death in both the normal and tumour samples, in the complete absence of apoptosis. In addition, we provide the first evidence of an autophagic response in primary cells. This work highlights the importance of studying primary cultures in order to gain a more realistic insight into patient efficacy. EPSRC EP/H003797/1 & EP/K018388/1, Yorkshire Cancer Research: YCR Y257PA.

  18. Intracellular growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after macrophage cell death leads to serial killing of host cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahamed, Deeqa; Boulle, Mikael; Ganga, Yashica; Mc Arthur, Chanelle; Skroch, Steven; Oom, Lance; Catinas, Oana; Pillay, Kelly; Naicker, Myshnee; Rampersad, Sanisha; Mathonsi, Colisile; Hunter, Jessica; Wong, Emily B; Suleman, Moosa; Sreejit, Gopalkrishna; Pym, Alexander S; Lustig, Gila; Sigal, Alex

    2017-01-01

    A hallmark of pulmonary tuberculosis is the formation of macrophage-rich granulomas. These may restrict Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) growth, or progress to central necrosis and cavitation, facilitating pathogen growth. To determine factors leading to Mtb proliferation and host cell death, we used live cell imaging to track Mtb infection outcomes in individual primary human macrophages. Internalization of Mtb aggregates caused macrophage death, and phagocytosis of large aggregates was more cytotoxic than multiple small aggregates containing similar numbers of bacilli. Macrophage death did not result in clearance of Mtb. Rather, it led to accelerated intracellular Mtb growth regardless of prior activation or macrophage type. In contrast, bacillary replication was controlled in live phagocytes. Mtb grew as a clump in dead cells, and macrophages which internalized dead infected cells were very likely to die themselves, leading to a cell death cascade. This demonstrates how pathogen virulence can be achieved through numbers and aggregation states. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22028.001 PMID:28130921

  19. Glioblastoma cells deficient in DNA-dependent protein kinase are resistant to cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, George G; Sin, Fanny L F; Leung, Billy C S; Ng, Ho K; Poon, Wai S

    2005-04-01

    DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), a nuclear serine/threonine kinase, is responsible for the DNA double-strand break repair. Cells lacking or with dysfunctional DNA-PK are often associated with mis-repair, chromosome aberrations, and complex exchanges, all of which are known to contribute to the development of human cancers including glioblastoma. Two human glioblastoma cell lines were used in the experiment, M059J cells lacking the catalytic subunit of DNA-PK, and their isogenic but DNA-PK proficient counterpart, M059K. We found that M059K cells were much more sensitive to staurosporine (STS) treatment than M059J cells, as demonstrated by MTT assay, TUNEL detection, and annexin-V and propidium iodide (PI) staining. A possible mechanism responsible for the different sensitivity in these two cell lines was explored by the examination of Bcl-2, Bax, Bak, and Fas. The cell death stimulus increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and decreased pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 members (Bak and Bax) and Fas in glioblastoma cells deficient in DNA-PK. Activation of DNA-PK is known to promote cell death of human tumor cells via modulation of p53, which can down-regulate the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 member proteins, induce pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members and promote a Bax-Bak interaction. Our experiment also demonstrated that the mode of glioblastoma cell death induced by STS consisted of both apoptosis and necrosis and the percentage of cell death in both modes was similar in glioblastoma cell lines either lacking DNA-PK or containing intact DNA-PK. Taken together, our findings suggest that DNA-PK has a positive role in the regulation of apoptosis in human glioblastomas. The aberrant expression of Bcl-2 family members and Fas was, at least in part, responsible for decreased sensitivity of DNA-PK deficient glioblastoma cells to cell death stimuli. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Effect of endocannabinoid signalling on cell fate: life, death, differentiation and proliferation of brain cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Arencibia, Moises; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Molina-Holgado, Francisco

    2018-05-24

    Cell fate events are regulated by different endogenous developmental factors such as the cell micro-environment, external or remote signals and epigenetic factors. Among the many regulatory factors, endocannabinoid-associated signalling pathways are known to conduct several of these events in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain. Interestingly, endocannabinoids exert modulatory actions in both physiological and pathological conditions. Endocannabinoid signalling can promote cell survival by acting on non-transformed brain cells (neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes) and can have either a protumoural or antitumoural effect on transformed cells. Moreover, endocannabinoids are able to attenuate the detrimental effects on neurogenesis and neuroinflammation associated with ageing. Thus, the endocannabinoid system emerges as an important regulator of cell fate, controlling cell survival/cell death decisions depending on the cell type and its environment. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  1. KML001 Induces Apoptosis and Autophagic Cell Death in Prostate Cancer Cells via Oxidative Stress Pathway

    PubMed Central

    You, Dalsan; Kim, Yunlim; Jang, Myoung Jin; Lee, Chunwoo; Jeong, In Gab; Cho, Yong Mee; Hwang, Jung Jin; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of KML001 (NaAsO2, sodium metaarsenite, Kominox), an orally bioavailable arsenic compound, on the growth and death of human prostate cancer cells and its mechanism of action. Growth inhibition was assessed by cytotoxicity assays in the presence or absence of inhibitor of apoptosis, inhibitor of autophagy or antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-cysteine to study mechanism of cell death induced by KML001 in PC3, DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to study apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. The DU145 xenograft model was used to determine the efficacy of KML001 in vivo. KML001 decreased the viability of cells and increased the percentage of annexin V-positive cells dose-dependently in prostate cancer cells, and LNCaP cells were more sensitive to KML001 than PC3 or DU145 cells. Electron microscopy revealed typical apoptotic characters and autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with KML001. Exposure to KML001 in prostate cancer cells induced apoptosis and autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner. KML001 induced dose-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and scavenging the reactive oxygen species with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine reduced LC3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. KML001 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the DU145 xenograft model. In addition, significant decrease of proliferation and significant increases of apoptosis and autophagy were observed in KML001-treated tumors than in vehicle-treated tumors. Exposure of human prostate cancer cells to KML001 induced both apoptosis and autophagic cell death via oxidative stress pathway. And KML001 had an antiproliferative effect on DU145 cells in xenograft mice. PMID:26352139

  2. KML001 Induces Apoptosis and Autophagic Cell Death in Prostate Cancer Cells via Oxidative Stress Pathway.

    PubMed

    You, Dalsan; Kim, Yunlim; Jang, Myoung Jin; Lee, Chunwoo; Jeong, In Gab; Cho, Yong Mee; Hwang, Jung Jin; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Ahn, Hanjong; Kim, Choung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of KML001 (NaAsO2, sodium metaarsenite, Kominox), an orally bioavailable arsenic compound, on the growth and death of human prostate cancer cells and its mechanism of action. Growth inhibition was assessed by cytotoxicity assays in the presence or absence of inhibitor of apoptosis, inhibitor of autophagy or antioxidant N-Acetyl-L-cysteine to study mechanism of cell death induced by KML001 in PC3, DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines. Electron microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to study apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. The DU145 xenograft model was used to determine the efficacy of KML001 in vivo. KML001 decreased the viability of cells and increased the percentage of annexin V-positive cells dose-dependently in prostate cancer cells, and LNCaP cells were more sensitive to KML001 than PC3 or DU145 cells. Electron microscopy revealed typical apoptotic characters and autophagic vacuoles in cells treated with KML001. Exposure to KML001 in prostate cancer cells induced apoptosis and autophagy in a time- and dose-dependent manner. KML001 induced dose-dependent accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and scavenging the reactive oxygen species with N-Acetyl-L-cysteine reduced LC3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. KML001 significantly inhibited tumor growth in the DU145 xenograft model. In addition, significant decrease of proliferation and significant increases of apoptosis and autophagy were observed in KML001-treated tumors than in vehicle-treated tumors. Exposure of human prostate cancer cells to KML001 induced both apoptosis and autophagic cell death via oxidative stress pathway. And KML001 had an antiproliferative effect on DU145 cells in xenograft mice.

  3. Cinnamic acid induces apoptotic cell death and cytoskeleton disruption in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Anticancer activities of cinnamic acid derivatives include induction of apoptosis by irreversible DNA damage leading to cell death. The present work aimed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of cinnamic acid in human melanoma cell line (HT-144) and human melanocyte cell line derived from blue nevus (NGM). Viability assay showed that the IC50 for HT-144 cells was 2.4 mM, while NGM cells were more resistant to the treatment. The growth inhibition was probably associated with DNA damage leading to DNA synthesis inhibition, as shown by BrdU incorporation assay, induction of nuclear aberrations and then apoptosis. The frequency of cell death caused by cinnamic acid was higher in HT-144 cells. Activated-caspase 3 staining showed apoptosis after 24 hours of treatment with cinnamic acid 3.2 mM in HT-144 cells, but not in NGM. We observed microtubules disorganization after cinnamic acid exposure, but this event and cell death seem to be independent according to M30 and tubulin labeling. The frequency of micronucleated HT-144 cells was higher after treatment with cinnamic acid (0.4 and 3.2 mM) when compared to the controls. Cinnamic acid 3.2 mM also increased the frequency of micronucleated NGM cells indicating genotoxic activity of the compound, but the effects were milder. Binucleation and multinucleation counting showed similar results. We conclude that cinnamic acid has effective antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells. However, the increased frequency of micronucleation in NGM cells warrants the possibility of genotoxicity and needs further investigation. PMID:23701745

  4. Cinnamic acid induces apoptotic cell death and cytoskeleton disruption in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Niero, Evandro Luís de Oliveira; Machado-Santelli, Gláucia Maria

    2013-05-23

    Anticancer activities of cinnamic acid derivatives include induction of apoptosis by irreversible DNA damage leading to cell death. The present work aimed to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of cinnamic acid in human melanoma cell line (HT-144) and human melanocyte cell line derived from blue nevus (NGM). Viability assay showed that the IC50 for HT-144 cells was 2.4 mM, while NGM cells were more resistant to the treatment. The growth inhibition was probably associated with DNA damage leading to DNA synthesis inhibition, as shown by BrdU incorporation assay, induction of nuclear aberrations and then apoptosis. The frequency of cell death caused by cinnamic acid was higher in HT-144 cells. Activated-caspase 3 staining showed apoptosis after 24 hours of treatment with cinnamic acid 3.2 mM in HT-144 cells, but not in NGM. We observed microtubules disorganization after cinnamic acid exposure, but this event and cell death seem to be independent according to M30 and tubulin labeling. The frequency of micronucleated HT-144 cells was higher after treatment with cinnamic acid (0.4 and 3.2 mM) when compared to the controls. Cinnamic acid 3.2 mM also increased the frequency of micronucleated NGM cells indicating genotoxic activity of the compound, but the effects were milder. Binucleation and multinucleation counting showed similar results. We conclude that cinnamic acid has effective antiproliferative activity against melanoma cells. However, the increased frequency of micronucleation in NGM cells warrants the possibility of genotoxicity and needs further investigation.

  5. Lysozyme activates Enterococcus faecium to induce necrotic cell death in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gröbner, Sabine; Fritz, Evelyn; Schoch, Friederike; Schaller, Martin; Berger, Alexander C; Bitzer, Michael; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2010-10-01

    Enterococci are commensal organisms in the alimentary tract. However, they can cause a variety of life-threatening infections, especially in nosocomial settings. We hypothesized that induction of cell death might enable these facultative pathogenic bacteria to evade the innate immune response and to cause infections of their host. We demonstrate that E. faecium when exposed to lysozyme induces cell death in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometric analyses of J774A.1 macrophages infected with E. faecium revealed loss of cell membrane integrity indicated by uptake of propidium iodide and decrease of the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential DeltaPsi(m). Inhibition of caspases, treatment of macrophages with cytochalasin D, or rifampicin did not prevent cells from dying, suggesting cell death mechanisms that are independent of caspase activation, bacterial uptake, and intracellular bacterial replication. Characteristics of necrotic cell death were demonstrated by both lack of procaspase 3 activation and cell shrinkage, electron microscopy, and release of lactate dehydrogenase. Pretreatment of E. faecium with lysozyme and subsequently with broad spectrum protease considerably reduced cell death, suggesting that a bacterial surface protein is causative for cell death induction. Moreover, in a mouse peritonitis model we demonstrated that E. faecium induces cell death of peritoneal macrophages in vivo. Altogether, our results show that enterococci, under specific conditions such as exposure to lysozyme, induce necrotic cell death in macrophages, which might contribute to disseminated infections by these facultative pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Inhibiting connexin channels protects against cryopreservation-induced cell death in human blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bol, M; Van Geyt, C; Baert, S; Decrock, E; Wang, N; De Bock, M; Gadicherla, A K; Randon, C; Evans, W H; Beele, H; Cornelissen, R; Leybaert, L

    2013-04-01

    Cryopreserved blood vessels are being increasingly employed in vascular reconstruction procedures but freezing/thawing is associated with significant cell death that may lead to graft failure. Vascular cells express connexin proteins that form gap junction channels and hemichannels. Gap junction channels directly connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells and may facilitate the passage of cell death messengers leading to bystander cell death. Two hemichannels form a gap junction channel but these channels are also present as free non-connected hemichannels. Hemichannels are normally closed but may open under stressful conditions and thereby promote cell death. We here investigated whether blocking gap junctions and hemichannels could prevent cell death after cryopreservation. Inclusion of Gap27, a connexin channel inhibitory peptide, during cryopreservation and thawing of human saphenous veins and femoral arteries was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and histological examination. We report that Gap27 significantly reduces cell death in human femoral arteries and saphenous veins when present during cryopreservation/thawing. In particular, smooth muscle cell death was reduced by 73% in arteries and 71% in veins, while endothelial cell death was reduced by 32% in arteries and 51% in veins. We conclude that inhibiting connexin channels during cryopreservation strongly promotes vascular cell viability. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Menadione triggers cell death through ROS-dependent mechanisms involving PARP activation without requiring apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Loor, Gabriel; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Schriewer, Jacqueline M; Chandel, Navdeep S; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T

    2010-12-15

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as redox-active signaling messengers, whereas high levels of ROS induce cellular damage. Menadione generates ROS through redox cycling, and high concentrations trigger cell death. Previous work suggests that menadione triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, whereas other studies implicate the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore as the mediator of cell death. We investigated menadione-induced cell death in genetically modified cells lacking specific death-associated proteins. In cardiomyocytes, oxidant stress was assessed using the redox sensor RoGFP, expressed in the cytosol or the mitochondrial matrix. Menadione elicited rapid oxidation in both compartments, whereas it decreased mitochondrial potential and triggered cytochrome c redistribution to the cytosol. Cell death was attenuated by N-acetylcysteine and exogenous glutathione or by overexpression of cytosolic or mitochondria-targeted catalase. By contrast, no protection was observed in cells overexpressing Cu,Zn-SOD or Mn-SOD. Overexpression of antiapoptotic Bcl-X(L) protected against staurosporine-induced cell death, but it failed to confer protection against menadione. Genetic deletion of Bax and Bak, cytochrome c, cyclophilin D, or caspase-9 conferred no protection against menadione-induced cell death. However, cells lacking PARP-1 showed a significant decrease in menadione-induced cell death. Thus, menadione induces cell death through the generation of oxidant stress in multiple subcellular compartments, yet cytochrome c, Bax/Bak, caspase-9, and cyclophilin D are dispensable for cell death in this model. These studies suggest that multiple redundant cell death pathways are activated by menadione, but that PARP plays an essential role in mediating each of them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Menadione triggers cell death through ROS-dependent mechanisms involving PARP activation without requiring apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Loor, Gabriel; Kondapalli, Jyothisri; Schriewer, Jacqueline M.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Vanden Hoek, Terry L.; Schumacker, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as redox-active signaling messengers, whereas high levels of ROS induce cellular damage. Menadione generates ROS through redox cycling, and high concentrations trigger cell death. Previous work suggests that menadione triggers cytochrome c release from mitochondria, while other studies implicate activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition poreas the mediator of cell death. We investigated menadione-induced cell death in genetically modified cells lacking specific death-associated proteins. In cardiomyocytes, oxidant stress was assessed using the redox sensor RoGFP, expressed in the cytosol or the mitochondrial matrix. Menadione elicited rapid oxidation in both compartments, while it decreased mitochondrial potential and triggered cytochrome c redistribution to the cytosol. Cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine and exogenous glutathione (GSH), or by over-expression of cytosolic or mitochondria-targeted catalase. By contrast, no protection was observed in cells over-expressing Cu, Zn-SOD or MnSOD. Over-expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-XLprotected against staurosporine-induced cell death, but it failed to confer protection against menadione. Genetic deletion of Bax and Bak, cytochrome c, cyclophilin D or caspase-9 conferred no protection against menadione-induced cell death. However, cells lacking PARP-1 showed a significant decrease in menadione-induced cell death. Thus, menadione induces cell death through the generation of oxidant stress in multiple subcellular compartments, yet cytochromec, Bax/Bak, caspase-9 and cyclophilin D are dispensable for cell death in this model. These studies suggest that multiple redundant cell death pathways are activated by menadione, but that PARP plays an essential role in mediating each of them. PMID:20937380

  9. Prior irradiation results in elevated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) in T cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Deguan; Chen, Renxiang; Wang, Yi-Wen; Fornace, Albert J; Li, Heng-Hong

    2018-05-01

    In this study we addressed the question whether radiation-induced adverse effects on T cell activation are associated with alterations of T cell checkpoint receptors. Expression levels of checkpoint receptors on T cell subpopulations were analyzed at multiple post-radiation time points ranging from one to four weeks in mice receiving a single fraction of 1 or 4 Gy of γ-ray. T cell activation associated metabolic changes were assessed. Our results showed that prior irradiation resulted in significant elevated expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) in both CD4+ and CD8+ populations, at all three post-radiation time points. T cells with elevated PD-1 mostly were either central memory or naïve cells. In addition, the feedback induction of PD-1 expression in activated T cells declined after radiation. Taken together, the elevated PD-1 level observed at weeks after radiation exposure is connected to T cell dysfunction. Recent preclinical and clinical studies have showed that a combination of radiotherapy and T cell checkpoint blockade immunotherapy including targeting the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/PD-1 axis may potentiate the antitumor response. Understanding the dynamic changes in PD-1 levels in T cells after radiation should help in the development of a more effective therapeutic strategy.

  10. RSL3 and Erastin differentially regulate redox signaling to promote Smac mimetic-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Dächert, Jasmin; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Rohde, Katharina; Fulda, Simone

    2016-09-27

    Redox mechanisms play an important role in the control of various signaling pathways. Here, we report that Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic-induced cell death is regulated by redox signaling. We show that RSL3, a glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPX) 4 inhibitor, or Erastin, an inhibitor of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, cooperate with the Smac mimetic BV6 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Addition of the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) fails to rescue ROS-induced cell death, demonstrating that RSL3/BV6- or Erastin/BV6-induced cell death occurs in a caspase-independent manner. Interestingly, the iron chelator Deferoxamine (DFO) significantly inhibits RSL3/BV6-induced cell death, whereas it is unable to rescue cell death by Erastin/BV6, showing that RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-mediated cell death depends on iron. ROS production is required for both RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, since the ROS scavenger α-tocopherol (α-Toc) rescues RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. By comparison, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of lipid peroxidation by GPX4 overexpression or ferrostatin (Fer)-1 significantly decreases RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, despite inhibition of lipid peroxidation upon exposure to RSL3/BV6 or Erastin/BV6. Of note, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Fer-1 protects from RSL3/BV6-, but not from Erastin/BV6-stimulated ROS production, indicating that other forms of ROS besides lipophilic ROS occur during Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. Taken together, RSL3/BV6 and Erastin/BV6 differentially regulate redox signaling and cell death in ALL cells. While RSL3/BV6 cotreatment induces ferroptotic cell death, Erastin/BV6 stimulates oxidative cell death independently of iron. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic targeting of redox signaling to

  11. RSL3 and Erastin differentially regulate redox signaling to promote Smac mimetic-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Dächert, Jasmin; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Rohde, Katharina; Fulda, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Redox mechanisms play an important role in the control of various signaling pathways. Here, we report that Second mitochondrial activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic-induced cell death is regulated by redox signaling. We show that RSL3, a glutathione (GSH) peroxidase (GPX) 4 inhibitor, or Erastin, an inhibitor of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, cooperate with the Smac mimetic BV6 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Addition of the caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD.fmk) fails to rescue ROS-induced cell death, demonstrating that RSL3/BV6- or Erastin/BV6-induced cell death occurs in a caspase-independent manner. Interestingly, the iron chelator Deferoxamine (DFO) significantly inhibits RSL3/BV6-induced cell death, whereas it is unable to rescue cell death by Erastin/BV6, showing that RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-mediated cell death depends on iron. ROS production is required for both RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, since the ROS scavenger α-tocopherol (α-Toc) rescues RSL3/BV6- and Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. By comparison, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of lipid peroxidation by GPX4 overexpression or ferrostatin (Fer)-1 significantly decreases RSL3/BV6-, but not Erastin/BV6-induced cell death, despite inhibition of lipid peroxidation upon exposure to RSL3/BV6 or Erastin/BV6. Of note, inhibition of lipid peroxidation by Fer-1 protects from RSL3/BV6-, but not from Erastin/BV6-stimulated ROS production, indicating that other forms of ROS besides lipophilic ROS occur during Erastin/BV6-induced cell death. Taken together, RSL3/BV6 and Erastin/BV6 differentially regulate redox signaling and cell death in ALL cells. While RSL3/BV6 cotreatment induces ferroptotic cell death, Erastin/BV6 stimulates oxidative cell death independently of iron. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic targeting of redox signaling to

  12. Lyt-2+ cells. Requirements for concanavalin A-induced proliferation and interleukin 2 production.

    PubMed

    Kern, D E; Lachmann, L B; Greenberg, P D

    1987-11-01

    The requirements for inducing Lyt-2+ T cell proliferation in response to concanavalin A (Con A) were examined. Purified Lyt-2+ or L3T4+ spleen cells of C57BL/6 origin were stimulated with Con A and syngeneic macrophages (MO) in the presence of monoclonal antibodies to T cell markers or to polymorphic determinants on major histocompatibility complex molecules, and assessed for the ability to proliferate and to produce interleukin (IL) 2. alpha I-Ab failed to inhibit the Con A response of Lyt-2+ cells at dilutions that significantly inhibited the response of L3T4+ cells. In contrast, alphaKb/Db or alpha Lyt-2.2 specifically inhibited the response of Lyt-2+ cells, but not L3T4+ cells. The ability of alpha Kb/Db and of alpha Lyt-2.2 to inhibit the response of Lyt-2+ cells was dependent upon the concentration of Con A. These data demonstrate that optimal triggering of T cell subsets to proliferate and to produce IL-2 in response to Con A requires interactions with the appropriate restricting major histocompatibility complex molecule. The role of accessory cells in Lyt-2+ Con A-induced proliferation and IL-2 production was also investigated. Purified Lyt-2+ cells and purified L3T4+ cells failed to respond to Con A in the absence of MO. IL-1 reconstituted the response when MO were limiting, but failed to restore the response of either Lyt-2+ or L3T4+ cells when T cells were rigorously purified to remove all MO. These results demonstrate that triggering Lyt-2+ T cells, like L3T4+ T cells, requires accessory cells, and that this does not merely reflect a requirement for IL-1 production. Thus, Con A-induced proliferation and IL-2 production by Lyt-2+ T cells requires intimate contact with accessory cells and interactions dependent upon the class I-restricting element.

  13. Tritrichomonas foetus Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Bovine Vaginal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, B. N.; Lucas, J. J.; Hayes, G. R.; Kumar, Ish; Beach, D. H.; Frajblat, Marcel; Gilbert, R. O.; Sommer, U.; Costello, C. E.

    2004-01-01

    Tritrichomonas foetus is a serious veterinary pathogen, causing bovine trichomoniasis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. T. foetus infects the mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract. Infection with T. foetus leads to apoptotic cell death of bovine vaginal epithelial cells (BVECs) in culture. An affinity-purified cysteine protease (CP) fraction yielding on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis a single band with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa (CP30) also induces BVEC apoptosis. Treatment of CP30 with the protease inhibitors TLCK (Nα-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone) and E-64 [l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamide-(4-guanido)-butane] greatly reduces induction of BVEC apoptosis. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of CP30 reveals a single peak with a molecular mass of 23.7 kDa. Mass spectral peptide sequence analysis of proteolytically digested CP30 reveals homologies to a previously reported cDNA clone, CP8 (D. J. Mallinson, J. Livingstone, K. M. Appleton, S. J. Lees, G. H. Coombs, and M. J. North, Microbiology 141:3077-3085, 1995). Induction of apoptosis is highly species specific, since the related human parasite Trichomonas vaginalis and associated purified CPs did not induce BVEC death. Fluorescence microscopy along with the Cell Death Detection ELISAPLUS assay and flow cytometry analyses were used to detect apoptotic nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, and changes in plasma membrane asymmetry in host cells undergoing apoptosis in response to T. foetus infection or incubation with CP30. Additionally, the activation of caspase-3 and inhibition of cell death by caspase inhibitors indicates that caspases are involved in BVEC apoptosis. These results imply that apoptosis is involved in the pathogenesis of T. foetus infection in vivo, which may have important implications for therapeutic interference with host cell death that could alter

  14. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mu-Yun; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is initiated by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and may induce cell death when irremediable. In this study, the role of ER stress in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity was elucidated for the first time. Comparable to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin, prodigiosin up-regulated signature ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP in addition to activating the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in multiple human breast carcinoma cell lines, confirming prodigiosin as an ERmore » stress inducer. Prodigiosin transcriptionally up-regulated CHOP, as evidenced by its promoting effect on the CHOP promoter activity. Of note, knockdown of CHOP effectively lowered prodigiosin's capacity to evoke PARP cleavage, reduce cell viability and suppress colony formation, highlighting an essential role of CHOP in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxic ER stress response. In addition, prodigiosin down-regulated BCL2 in a CHOP-dependent manner. Importantly, restoration of BCL2 expression blocked prodigiosin-induced PARP cleavage and greatly enhanced the survival of prodigiosin-treated cells, suggesting that CHOP-dependent BCL2 suppression mediates prodigiosin-elicited cell death. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or dominant-negative blockade of PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation impaired prodigiosin-induced CHOP up-regulation and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results identified ER stress-mediated cell death as a mode-of-action of prodigiosin's tumoricidal effect. Mechanistically, prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α branches of the UPR signaling to up-regulate CHOP, which in turn mediates BCL2 suppression to induce cell death. Highlights: ► Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent anticancer effect. ► Prodigiosin is herein identified

  15. Regulation of cell death and cell survival gene expression during ovarian follicular development and atresia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Yi; Cheung, Carmen K M; Wang, Yifang; Tsang, Benjamin K

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian ovarian follicular development and atresia is closely regulated by the cross talk of cell death and cell survival signals, which include endocrine hormones (gonadotropins) and intra-ovarian regulators (gonadal steroids, cytokines and growth factors). The fate of the follicle is dependent on a delicate balance in the expression and actions of factors promoting follicular cell proliferation, growth and differentiation and of those inducing programmed cell death (apoptosis). As an important endocrine hormone, FSH binds to its granulosa cell receptors and promotes ovarian follicle survival and growth not only by stimulating proliferation and estradiol secretion of these cells, but also inhibiting the apoptosis by up-regulating the expression of intracellular anti-apoptotic proteins, such as XIAP and FLIP. In addition, intra-ovarian regulators, such as TGF-alpha and TNF-alpha, also play an important role in the control of follicular development and atresia. In response to FSH, Estradiol-17 beta synthesized from the granulosa cells stimulates thecal expression of TGF-alpha, which in turn increases granulosa cell XIAP expression and proliferation. The death receptor and ligand, Fas and Fas ligand, are expressed in granulosa cells following gonadotropin withdrawal, culminating in caspase-mediated apoptosis and follicular atresia. In contrast, TNF-alpha has both survival and pro-apoptotic function in the follicle, depending on the receptor subtype activated, but has been shown to promote granulosa cell survival by increasing XIAP and FLIP expression via the IkappaB-NFkappaB pathway. The pro-apoptotic action of TNF-alpha is mediated through the activation of caspases, via its receptor- (i.e. Caspases-8 and -3) and mitochrondria- (i.e. Caspase-9 and -3) death pathways. In the present manuscript, we have reviewed the actions and interactions of gonadotropins and intra-ovarian regulators in the control of granulosa cell fate and ultimately follicular destiny. We have

  16. Neuroprotection by GH against excitotoxic-induced cell death in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Wu, Yilun; Arellanes-Licea, Elvira Del Carmen; Louie, Marcela; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos; Harvey, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Retinal growth hormone (GH) has been shown to promote cell survival in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) during developmental waves of apoptosis during chicken embryonic development. The possibility that it might also against excitotoxicity-induced cell death was therefore examined in the present study, which utilized quail-derived QNR/D cells as an in vitro RGC model. QNR/D cell death was induced by glutamate in the presence of BSO (buthionine sulfoxamide) (an enhancer of oxidative stress), but this was significantly reduced (P<0.01) in the presence of exogenous recombinant chicken GH (rcGH). Similarly, QNR/D cells that had been prior transfected with a GH plasmid to overexpress secreted and non-secreted GH. This treatment reduced the number of TUNEL-labeled cells and blocked their release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). In a further experiment with dissected neuroretinal explants from ED (embryonic day) 10 embryos, rcGH treatment of the explants also reduced (P<0.01) the number of glutamate-BSO-induced apoptotic cells and blocked the explant release of LDH. This neuroprotective action was likely mediated by increased STAT5 phosphorylation and increased bcl-2 production, as induced by exogenous rcGH treatment and the media from GH-overexpressing QNR/D cells. As rcGH treatment and GH-overexpression cells also increased the content of IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA this neuroprotective action of GH is likely to be mediated, at least partially, through an IGF-1 mechanism. This possibility is supported by the fact that the siRNA knockdown of GH or IGF-1 significantly reduced QNR/D cell viability, as did the immunoneutralization of IGF-1. GH is therefore neuroprotective against excitotoxicity-induced RGC cell death by anti-apoptotic actions involving IGF-1 stimulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of blue light radiation on curcumin-induced cell death of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X. B.; Leung, A. W. N.; Xia, X. S.; Yu, H. P.; Bai, D. Q.; Xiang, J. Y.; Jiang, Y.; Xu, C. S.

    2010-06-01

    In the present study, we have successfully set up a novel blue light source with the power density of 9 mW/cm2 and the wavelength of 435.8 nm and then the novel light source was used to investigate the effect of light radiation on curcumin-induced cell death. The cytotoxicity was investigated 24 h after the treatment of curcumin and blue light radiation together using MTT reduction assay. Nuclear chromatin was observed using a fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst33258 staining. The results showed blue light radiation could significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of curcumin on the MCF-7 cells and apoptosis induction. These findings demonstrated that blue light radiation could enhance curcumin-induced cell death of breast cancer cells, suggesting light radiation may be an efficient enhancer of curcumin in the management of breast cancer.

  18. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  19. METHYLMERCURY BUT NOT MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCES APOPTOTIC CELL DEATH IN PC12 CELLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Normal development of the nervous system requires the process of apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death, to remove superfluous neurons. Abnormal patterns of apoptosis may be a consequence of exposure to environmental neurotoxicants leading to a disruption in the tightly regul...

  20. MECHANISMS OF MANGANESE-INDUCED RAT PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELL DEATH AND CELL DIFFERENTIATION. (R826248)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mn is a neurotoxin that leads to a syndrome resembling Parkinson's disease after prolonged exposure to high concentrations. Our laboratory has been investigating the mechanism by which Mn induces neuronal cell death. To accomplish this, we have utilized rat pheochromocytom...

  1. Heterotrimeric G Protein Signaling Is Required for Epidermal Cell Death in Rice[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Steffens, Bianka; Sauter, Margret

    2009-01-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa) adventitious root primordia are formed at the nodes as part of normal development. Upon submergence of rice plants, adventitious roots emerge from the nodes preceded by death of epidermal cells above the root primordia. Cell death is induced by ethylene and mediated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pharmacological experiments indicated that epidermal cell death was dependent on signaling through G proteins. Treatment with GTP-γ-S induced epidermal cell death, whereas GDP-β-S partially inhibited ethylene-induced cell death. The dwarf1 (d1) mutant of rice has repressed expression of the Gα subunit RGA1 of heterotrimeric G protein. In d1 plants, cell death in response to ethylene and H2O2 was nearly completely abolished, indicating that signaling through Gα is essential. Ethylene and H2O2 were previously shown to alter gene expression in epidermal cells that undergo cell death. Transcriptional regulation was not generally affected in the d1 mutant, indicating that altered gene expression is not sufficient to trigger cell death in the absence of Gα. Analysis of genes encoding proteins related to G protein signaling revealed that four small GTPase genes, two GTPase-activating protein genes, and one GDP dissociation inhibitor gene but not RGA1 were differentially expressed in epidermal cells above adventitious roots, indicating that Gα activity is regulated posttranscriptionally. PMID:19656904

  2. Cell Death and Cancer Therapy: Don't Forget to Kill the Cancer Cell!

    PubMed

    Letai, Anthony

    2015-11-15

    In our current age of targeted therapies, there is understandably considerable attention paid to the specific molecular targets of pharmaceutical intervention. For a targeted drug to work, it must bind to a target selectively and impair its function. Monitoring biomarkers of the impaired target function can provide vital in vivo pharmacodynamic information. Moreover, genetic changes to the target are often the source of resistance to targeted agents. However, for the treatment of cancer, it is necessary that the therapy not only provide efficient binding and inhibition of the target, but also that this intervention reliably kills the cancer cell. In this CCR Focus section, four articles make the connection between therapies that target T-cell activation, autophagy, IAP proteins, and BCL-2 and the commitment of cancer cells to cell death. Before addressing those exciting classes of targeted therapies, however, an overview is provided to discuss cell death induced by what is arguably still the most successful set of drugs in the history of medical oncology, conventional chemotherapy. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Cell Death and Cancer Therapy." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Hemeoxygenase-1 Mediates an Adaptive Response to Spermidine-Induced Cell Death in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hana; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Gun-Dong; Park, Hye Rim; Park, Yong Seek

    2013-01-01

    Spermidine (SPD) is a ubiquitous polycation that is commonly distributed in living organisms. Intracellular levels of SPD are tightly regulated, and SPD controls cell proliferation and death. However, SPD undergoes oxidation in the presence of serum, producing aldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and ammonia, which exert cytotoxic effect on cells. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to have a protective effect against oxidative stress. Upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells is considered to be beneficial in the cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we demonstrate that the ubiquitous polyamine, SPD, induces HO-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SPD-induced HO-1 expression was examined by Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Involvement of reactive oxygen species, serum amine oxidase, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and transcription factor Nrf2 in the induction of HO-1 by SPD was also investigated. Furthermore, small interfering RNA knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 and treatment with the specific HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP exhibited a noteworthy increase of death of SPD-stimulated HUVECs. In conclusion, these results suggest that SPD induces PI3K/Akt-Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression in human endothelial cells, which may have a role in cytoprotection of the cells against oxidative stress-induced death. PMID:23983896

  4. Transcranial amelioration of inflammation and cell death after brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Theodore L.; Nayak, Debasis; Atanasijevic, Tatjana; Koretsky, Alan P.; Latour, Lawrence L.; McGavern, Dorian B.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly appreciated to be highly prevalent and deleterious to neurological function. At present, no effective treatment options are available, and little is known about the complex cellular response to TBI during its acute phase. To gain insights into TBI pathogenesis, we developed a novel murine closed-skull brain injury model that mirrors some pathological features associated with mild TBI in humans and used long-term intravital microscopy to study the dynamics of the injury response from its inception. Here we demonstrate that acute brain injury induces vascular damage, meningeal cell death, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that ultimately breach the glial limitans and promote spread of the injury into the parenchyma. In response, the brain elicits a neuroprotective, purinergic-receptor-dependent inflammatory response characterized by meningeal neutrophil swarming and microglial reconstitution of the damaged glial limitans. We also show that the skull bone is permeable to small-molecular-weight compounds, and use this delivery route to modulate inflammation and therapeutically ameliorate brain injury through transcranial administration of the ROS scavenger, glutathione. Our results shed light on the acute cellular response to TBI and provide a means to locally deliver therapeutic compounds to the site of injury.

  5. Regulated Cell Death of Lymphoma Cells after Graded Mitochondrial Damage is Differentially Affected by Drugs Targeting Cell Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Tomás; Folgar, Martín Gil; Salaverry, Luciana; Rey-Roldán, Estela; Alvarez, Elida M; Carreras, María C; Kornblihtt, Laura; Blanco, Guillermo A

    2018-05-01

    Collapse of the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is often considered the initiation of regulated cell death (RCD). Carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain (ETC) that facilitates the translocation of protons into the mitochondrial matrix leading to the collapse of the MMP. Several cell stress responses such as mitophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and the ubiquitin proteasome system may differentially contribute to restrain the initiation of RCD depending on the extent of mitochondrial damage. We induced graded mitochondrial damage after collapse of MMP with the mitochondrial uncoupler CCCP in Burkitt's lymphoma cells, and we evaluated the effect of several drugs targeting cell stress responses over RCD at 72 hr, using a multiparametric flow cytometry approach. CCCP caused collapse of MMP after 30 min., massive mitochondrial fission, oxidative stress and increased mitophagy within the 5-15 μM low-dose range (LDR) of CCCP. Within the 20-50 μM high-dose range (HDR), CCCP caused lysosomal destabilization and rupture, thus precluding mitophagy and autophagy. Cell death after 72 hr was below 20%, with increased mitochondrial mass (MM). The inhibitors of mitophagy 3-(2,4-dichloro-5-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-4(1H)-quinazolinone (Mdivi-1) and vincristine (VCR) increased cell death from CCCP within the LDR, while valproic acid (an inducer of mitochondrial biogenesis) also increased MM and cell death within the LDR. The proteasome inhibitor, MG132, increased cell death only in the HDR. Doxycycline, an antibiotic that disrupts mitochondrial biogenesis, had no effect on cell survival, while iodoacetamide, an inhibitor of glycolysis, increased cell death at the HDR. We conclude that mitophagy influenced RCD of lymphoma cells after MMP collapse by CCCP only within the LDR, while proteasome activity and glycolysis contributed to survival in the HDR under extensive mitochondria and lysosome damage. © 2017

  6. Calcium regulates cell death in cancer: Roles of the mitochondria and mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs).

    PubMed

    Danese, Alberto; Patergnani, Simone; Bonora, Massimo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Previati, Maurizio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Pinton, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    Until 1972, the term 'apoptosis' was used to differentiate the programmed cell death that naturally occurs in organismal development from the acute tissue death referred to as necrosis. Many studies on cell death and programmed cell death have been published and most are, at least to some degree, related to cancer. Some key proteins and molecular pathways implicated in cell death have been analyzed, whereas others are still being actively researched; therefore, an increasing number of cellular compartments and organelles are being implicated in cell death and cancer. Here, we discuss the mitochondria and subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that interact with mitochondria, the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), which have been identified as critical hubs in the regulation of cell death and tumor growth. MAMs-dependent calcium (Ca 2+ ) release from the ER allows selective Ca 2+ uptake by the mitochondria. The perturbation of Ca 2+ homeostasis in cancer cells is correlated with sustained cell proliferation and the inhibition of cell death through the modulation of Ca 2+ signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Mitochondria in Cancer, edited by Giuseppe Gasparre, Rodrigue Rossignol and Pierre Sonveaux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bcl-2 proteins and autophagy regulate mitochondrial dynamics during programmed cell death in the Drosophila ovary.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Elizabeth A; Blute, Todd A; Brachmann, Carrie Baker; McCall, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    The Bcl-2 family has been shown to regulate mitochondrial dynamics during cell death in mammals and C. elegans, but evidence for this in Drosophila has been elusive. Here, we investigate the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics during germline cell death in the Drosophila melanogaster ovary. We find that mitochondria undergo a series of events during the progression of cell death, with remodeling, cluster formation and uptake of clusters by somatic follicle cells. These mitochondrial dynamics are dependent on caspases, the Bcl-2 family, the mitochondrial fission and fusion machinery, and the autophagy machinery. Furthermore, Bcl-2 family mutants show a striking defect in cell death in the ovary. These data indicate that a mitochondrial pathway is a major mechanism for activation of cell death in Drosophila oogenesis.

  8. Modeling activity and target-dependent developmental cell death of mouse retinal ganglion cells ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Voyatzis, Sylvie; Muzerelle, Aude; Gaspar, Patricia; Nicol, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Programmed cell death is widespread during the development of the central nervous system and serves multiple purposes including the establishment of neural connections. In the mouse retina a substantial reduction of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) occurs during the first postnatal week, coinciding with the formation of retinotopic maps in the superior colliculus (SC). We previously established a retino-collicular culture preparation which recapitulates the progressive topographic ordering of RGC projections during early post-natal life. Here, we questioned whether this model could also be suitable to examine the mechanisms underlying developmental cell death of RGCs. Brn3a was used as a marker of the RGCs. A developmental decline in the number of Brn3a-immunolabelled neurons was found in the retinal explant with a timing that paralleled that observed in vivo. In contrast, the density of photoreceptors or of starburst amacrine cells increased, mimicking the evolution of these cell populations in vivo. Blockade of neural activity with tetrodotoxin increased the number of surviving Brn3a-labelled neurons in the retinal explant, as did the increase in target availability when one retinal explant was confronted with 2 or 4 collicular slices. Thus, this ex vivo model reproduces the developmental reduction of RGCs and recapitulates its regulation by neural activity and target availability. It therefore offers a simple way to analyze developmental cell death in this classic system. Using this model, we show that ephrin-A signaling does not participate to the regulation of the Brn3a population size in the retina, indicating that eprhin-A-mediated elimination of exuberant projections does not involve developmental cell death.

  9. Berberine Induces Caspase-Independent Cell Death in Colon Tumor Cells through Activation of Apoptosis-Inducing Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Liu, Liping; Shi, Yan; Cao, Hanwei; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Calcutt, M. Wade; Hu, Tianhui; Ren, Xiubao; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent; Yan, Fang

    2012-01-01

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants, is a traditional medicine for treating bacterial diarrhea and intestinal parasite infections. Although berberine has recently been shown to suppress growth of several tumor cell lines, information regarding the effect of berberine on colon tumor growth is limited. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the effects of berberine on regulating the fate of colon tumor cells, specifically the mouse immorto-Min colonic epithelial (IMCE) cells carrying the Apc min mutation, and of normal colon epithelial cells, namely young adult mouse colonic epithelium (YAMC) cells. Berberine decreased colon tumor colony formation in agar, and induced cell death and LDH release in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in IMCE cells. In contrast, YAMC cells were not sensitive to berberine-induced cell death. Berberine did not stimulate caspase activation, and PARP cleavage and berberine-induced cell death were not affected by a caspase inhibitor in IMCE cells. Rather, berberine stimulated a caspase-independent cell death mediator, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria and nuclear translocation in a ROS production-dependent manner. Amelioration of berberine-stimulated ROS production or suppression of AIF expression blocked berberine-induced cell death and LDH release in IMCE cells. Furthermore, two targets of ROS production in cells, cathepsin B release from lysosomes and PARP activation were induced by berberine. Blockage of either of these pathways decreased berberine-induced AIF activation and cell death in IMCE cells. Thus, berberine-stimulated ROS production leads to cathepsin B release and PARP activation-dependent AIF activation, resulting in caspase-independent cell death in colon tumor cells. Notably, normal colon epithelial cells are less susceptible to berberine-induced cell death, which suggests the specific inhibitory effects of berberine on colon tumor cell growth. PMID:22574158

  10. Cell death induced by the application of alternating magnetic fields to nanoparticle-loaded dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Marcos-Campos, I; Asín, L; Torres, T E; Marquina, C; Tres, A; Ibarra, M R; Goya, G F

    2011-05-20

    In this work, the capability of primary, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) to uptake iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is assessed and a strategy to induce selective cell death in these MNP-loaded DCs using external alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) is reported. No significant decrease in the cell viability of MNP-loaded DCs, compared to the control samples, was observed after five days of culture. The number of MNPs incorporated into the cytoplasm was measured by magnetometry, which confirmed that 1-5 pg of the particles were uploaded per cell. The intracellular distribution of these MNPs, assessed by transmission electron microscopy, was found to be primarily inside the endosomic structures. These cells were then subjected to an AMF for 30 min and the viability of the blank DCs (i.e. without MNPs), which were used as control samples, remained essentially unaffected. However, a remarkable decrease of viability from approximately 90% to 2-5% of DCs previously loaded with MNPs was observed after the same 30 min exposure to an AMF. The same results were obtained using MNPs having either positive (NH(2)(+)) or negative (COOH(-)) surface functional groups. In spite of the massive cell death induced by application of AMF to MNP-loaded DCs, the number of incorporated magnetic particles did not raise the temperature of the cell culture. Clear morphological changes at the cell structure after magnetic field application were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, local damage produced by the MNPs could be the main mechanism for the selective cell death of MNP-loaded DCs under an AMF. Based on the ability of these cells to evade the reticuloendothelial system, these complexes combined with an AMF should be considered as a potentially powerful tool for tumour therapy.

  11. Identification of factors that function in Drosophila salivary gland cell death during development using proteomics

    PubMed Central

    McPhee, C K; Balgley, B M; Nelson, C; Hill, J H; Batlevi, Y; Fang, X; Lee, C S; Baehrecke, E H

    2013-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors induce cell death and are used in cancer therapy, but little is known about the relationship between proteasome impairment and cell death under normal physiological conditions. Here, we investigate the relationship between proteasome function and larval salivary gland cell death during development in Drosophila. Drosophila larval salivary gland cells undergo synchronized programmed cell death requiring both caspases and autophagy (Atg) genes during development. Here, we show that ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function is reduced during normal salivary gland cell death, and that ectopic proteasome impairment in salivary gland cells leads to early DNA fragmentation and salivary gland condensation in vivo. Shotgun proteomic analyses of purified dying salivary glands identified the UPS as the top category of proteins enriched, suggesting a possible compensatory induction of these factors to maintain proteolysis during cell death. We compared the proteome following ectopic proteasome impairment to the proteome during developmental cell death in salivary gland cells. Proteins that were enriched in both populations of cells were screened for their function in salivary gland degradation using RNAi knockdown. We identified several factors, including trol, a novel gene CG11880, and the cop9 signalsome component cop9 signalsome 6, as required for Drosophila larval salivary gland degradation. PMID:22935612

  12. Differential immunomodulatory activity of tumor cell death induced by cancer therapeutic toll-like receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Klein, Johanna C; Wild, Clarissa A; Lang, Stephan; Brandau, Sven

    2016-06-01

    Synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands stimulate defined immune cell subsets and are currently tested as novel immunotherapeutic agents against cancer with, however, varying clinical efficacy. Recent data showed the expression of TLR receptors also on tumor cells. In this study we investigated immunological events associated with the induction of tumor cell death by poly(I:C) and imiquimod. A human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell line was exposed to poly(I:C) and imiquimod, which were delivered exogenously via culture medium or via electroporation. Cell death and cell biological consequences thereof were analyzed. For in vivo analyses, a human xenograft and a syngeneic immunocompetent mouse model were used. Poly(I:C) induced cell death only if delivered by electroporation into the cytosol. Cell death induced by poly(I:C) resulted in cytokine release and activation of monocytes in vitro. Monocytes activated by the supernatant of cancer cells previously exposed to poly(I:C) recruited significantly more Th1 cells than monocytes exposed to control supernatants. If delivered exogenously, imiquimod also induced tumor cell death and some release of interleukin-6, but cell death was not associated with release of Th1 cytokines, interferons, monocyte activation and Th1 recruitment. Interestingly, intratumoral injection of poly(I:C) triggered tumor cell death in tumor-bearing mice and reduced tumor growth independent of TLR signaling on host cells. Imiquimod did not affect tumor size. Our data suggest that common cancer therapeutic RNA compounds can induce functionally diverse types of cell death in tumor cells with implications for the use of TLR ligands in cancer immunotherapy.

  13. The Phytoalexin Resveratrol Regulates the Initiation of Hypersensitive Cell Death in Vitis Cell

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoli; Heene, Ernst; Qiao, Fei; Nick, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a major phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses and promotes disease resistance. The resistance of North American grapevine Vitis rupestris is correlated with a hypersensitive reaction (HR), while susceptible European Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ does not exhibit HR, but expresses basal defence. We have shown previously that in cell lines derived from the two Vitis species, the bacterial effector Harpin induced a rapid and sensitive accumulation of stilbene synthase (StSy) transcripts, followed by massive cell death in V. rupestris. In the present work, we analysed the function of the phytoalexin resveratrol, the product of StSy. We found that cv. ‘Pinot Noir’ accumulated low resveratrol and its glycoside trans-piceid, whereas V. rupestris produced massive trans-resveratrol and the toxic oxidative δ-viniferin, indicating that the preferred metabolitism of resveratrol plays role in Vitis resistance. Cellular responses to resveratrol included rapid alkalinisation, accumulation of pathogenesis-related protein 5 (PR5) transcripts, oxidative burst, actin bundling, and cell death. Microtubule disruption and induction of StSy were triggered by Harpin, but not by resveratrol. Whereas most responses proceeded with different amplitude for the two cell lines, the accumulation of resveratrol, and the competence for resveratrol-induced oxidative burst differed in quality. The data lead to a model, where resveratrol, in addition to its classical role as antimicrobial phytoalexin, represents an important regulator for initiation of HR-related cell death. PMID:22053190

  14. Barium inhibits arsenic-mediated apoptotic cell death in human squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Ichiro; Uemura, Noriyuki; Nizam, Saika; Khalequzzaman, Md; Thang, Nguyen D; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Akhand, Anwarul A; Shekhar, Hossain U; Nakajima, Tamie; Kato, Masashi

    2012-06-01

    Our fieldwork showed more than 1 μM (145.1 μg/L) barium in about 3 μM (210.7 μg/L) arsenic-polluted drinking well water (n = 72) in cancer-prone areas in Bangladesh, while the mean concentrations of nine other elements in the water were less than 3 μg/L. The types of cancer include squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). We hypothesized that barium modulates arsenic-mediated biological effects, and we examined the effect of barium (1 μM) on arsenic (3 μM)-mediated apoptotic cell death of human HSC-5 and A431 SCC cells in vitro. Arsenic promoted SCC apoptosis with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and JNK1/2 and caspase-3 activation (apoptotic pathway). In contrast, arsenic also inhibited SCC apoptosis with increased NF-κB activity and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression level and decreased JNK activity (antiapoptotic pathway). These results suggest that arsenic bidirectionally promotes apoptotic and antiapoptotic pathways in SCC cells. Interestingly, barium in the presence of arsenic increased NF-κB activity and XIAP expression and decreased JNK activity without affecting ROS production, resulting in the inhibition of the arsenic-mediated apoptotic pathway. Since the anticancer effect of arsenic is mainly dependent on cancer apoptosis, barium-mediated inhibition of arsenic-induced apoptosis may promote progression of SCC in patients in Bangladesh who keep drinking barium and arsenic-polluted water after the development of cancer. Thus, we newly showed that barium in the presence of arsenic might inhibit arsenic-mediated cancer apoptosis with the modulation of the balance between arsenic-mediated promotive and suppressive apoptotic pathways.

  15. Early induction of c-Myc is associated with neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Pil; Kudo, Wataru; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A; Lee, Hyoung-gon

    2011-11-14

    Neuronal cell cycle activation has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, while the initiating mechanism of cell cycle activation remains to be determined. Interestingly, our previous studies have shown that cell cycle activation by c-Myc (Myc) leads to neuronal cell death which suggests Myc might be a key regulator of cell cycle re-entry mediated neuronal cell death. However, the pattern of Myc expression in the process of neuronal cell death has not been addressed. To this end, we examined Myc induction by the neurotoxic agents camptothecin and amyloid-β peptide in a differentiated SH-SY5Y neuronal cell culture model. Myc expression was found to be significantly increased following either treatment and importantly, the induction of Myc preceded neuronal cell death suggesting it is an early event of neuronal cell death. Since ectopic expression of Myc in neurons causes the cell cycle activation and neurodegeneration in vivo, the current data suggest that induction of Myc by neurotoxic agents or other disease factors might be a key mediator in cell cycle activation and consequent cell death that is a feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell Death Pathways in Mutant Rhodopsin Rat Models Identifies Genotype-Specific Targets Controlling Retinal Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Viringipurampeer, Ishaq A; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y; Metcalfe, Andrew L; Bashar, Emran; Moritz, Orson L; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2018-06-18

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of inherited neurological disorders characterized by rod photoreceptor cell death, followed by secondary cone cell death leading to progressive blindness. Currently, there are no viable treatment options for RP. Due to incomplete knowledge of the molecular signaling pathways associated with RP pathogenesis, designing therapeutic strategies remains a challenge. In particular, preventing secondary cone photoreceptor cell loss is a key goal in designing potential therapies. In this study, we identified the main drivers of rod cell death and secondary cone loss in the transgenic S334ter rhodopsin rat model, tested the efficacy of specific cell death inhibitors on retinal function, and compared the effect of combining drugs to target multiple pathways in the S334ter and P23H rhodopsin rat models. The primary driver of early rod cell death in the S334ter model was a caspase-dependent process, whereas cone cell death occurred though RIP3-dependent necroptosis. In comparison, rod cell death in the P23H model was via necroptotic signaling, whereas cone cell loss occurred through inflammasome activation. Combination therapy of four drugs worked better than the individual drugs in the P23H model but not in the S334ter model. These differences imply that treatment modalities need to be tailored for each genotype. Taken together, our data demonstrate that rationally designed genotype-specific drug combinations will be an important requisite to effectively target primary rod cell loss and more importantly secondary cone survival.

  17. Using natural products to promote caspase-8-dependent cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Tewary, Poonam; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie; Sayers, Thomas J

    2017-02-01

    The selective killing of cancer cells without toxicity to normal nontransformed cells is an idealized goal of cancer therapy. Thus, there has been much interest in tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a protein that appears to selectively kill cancer cells. TRAIL has been reported to trigger apoptosis and under some circumstances, an alternate death signaling pathway termed necroptosis. The relative importance of necroptosis for cell death induction in vivo is under intensive investigation. Nonetheless, many cancer cells (particularly those freshly isolated from cancer patients) are highly resistant to TRAIL-mediated cell death. Therefore, there is an underlying interest in identifying agents that can be combined with TRAIL to improve its efficacy. There are numerous reports in which combination of TRAIL with standard antineoplastic drugs has resulted in enhanced cancer cell death in vitro. However, many of these chemotherapeutic drugs are nonspecific and associated with adverse effects, which raise serious concerns for cancer therapy in patients. By contrast, natural products have been shown to be safer and efficacious alternatives. Recently, a number of studies have suggested that certain natural products when combined with TRAIL can enhance cancer cell death. In this review, we highlight molecular pathways that might be targeted by various natural products to promote cell death, and focus on our recent work with withanolides as TRAIL sensitizers. Finally, we will suggest synergistic approaches for combining active withanolides with various forms of immunotherapy to promote cancer cell death and an effective antitumor immune response.

  18. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Ameliorate Cyclosporine A-Induced Hypertension in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, Valorie L; Bounds, Kelsey R; Chatterjee, Piyali; Manandhar, Lochana; Pakanati, Abhinandan R; Hernandez, Marcos; Aziz, Bilal; Mitchell, Brett M

    2018-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) suppresses the immune system but promotes hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and renal damage. CsA decreases regulatory T cells and this contributes to the development of hypertension. However, CsA's effects on another important regulatory immune cell subset, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), is unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting MDSCs would ameliorate the CsA-induced hypertension and vascular and renal injury and dysfunction and that CsA reduces MDSCs in mice. Daily interleukin-33 treatment, which increased MDSC levels, completely prevented CsA-induced hypertension and vascular and renal toxicity. Adoptive transfer of MDSCs from control mice into CsA-treated mice after hypertension was established dose-dependently reduced blood pressure and vascular and glomerular injury. CsA treatment of aortas and kidneys isolated from control mice for 24 hours decreased relaxation responses and increased inflammation, respectively, and these effects were prevented by the presence of MDSCs. MDSCs also prevented the CsA-induced increase in fibronectin in microvascular and glomerular endothelial cells. Last, CsA dose-dependently reduced the number of MDSCs by inhibiting calcineurin and preventing cell proliferation, as other direct calcineurin signaling pathway inhibitors had the same dose-dependent effect. These data suggest that augmenting MDSCs can reduce the cardiovascular and renal toxicity and hypertension caused by CsA. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Ketorolac Administration Attenuates Retinal Ganglion Cell Death After Axonal Injury.

    PubMed

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M; Rodriguez-Villagra, Esther; Bravo-Osuna, Irene; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Molina-Martínez, Irene; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Herrero-Vanrell, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    To assess the neuroprotective effects of ketorolac administration, in solution or delivered from biodegradable microspheres, on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Retinas were treated intravitreally with a single injection of tromethamine ketorolac solution and/or with ketorolac-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres. Ketorolac treatments were administered either 1 week before optic nerve crush (pre-ONC) or right after the ONC (simultaneous). In all cases, animals were euthanized 7 days after the ONC. As control, nonloaded microspheres or vehicle (balanced salt solution, BSS) were administered in parallel groups. All retinas were dissected as flat mounts; RGCs were immunodetected with brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3A (Brn3a), and their number was automatically quantified. The percentage of Brn3a+RGCs was 36% to 41% in all control groups (ONC with or without BSS or nonloaded microparticles). Ketorolac solution administered pre-ONC resulted in 63% survival of RGCs, while simultaneous administration promoted a 53% survival. Ketorolac-loaded microspheres were not as efficient as ketorolac solution (43% and 42% of RGC survival pre-ONC or simultaneous, respectively). The combination of ketorolac solution and ketorolac-loaded microspheres did not have an additive effect (54% and 55% survival pre-ONC and simultaneous delivery, respectively). Treatment with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac delays RGC death triggered by a traumatic axonal insult. Pretreatment seems to elicit a better output than simultaneous administration of ketorolac solution. This may be taken into account when performing procedures resulting in RGC axonal injury.

  20. A microplate assay for measuring cell death in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Tanes; Silveira, Leonardo

    2018-03-22

    The main goal of this study was to develop a straightforward and rapid microplate assay for measuring propidium iodide (PI) in C2C12 cells. The PI method proves to be an efficient quantitative assay for analyzing cell viability through PI fluorescence analysis. Importantly, the protocol takes less than 30 minutes, and the results are reproducible. C2C12 cells were exposed to an increasing concentration of palmitate for a period of 24 hours to induce cell death, and the PI fluorescence increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Evaluation of mitochondrial function and reactive oxygen species production validated the deleterious effects of palmitate treatment. Also, the microplate PI assay demonstrated high sensitivity as indicated by the detection of modest fluctuations in cell viability in response to catalase overexpression in palmitate-treated cells. The microplate PI assay, therefore, offers an accurate method to be used for in vitro studies.

  1. HAMLET triggers apoptosis but tumor cell death is independent of caspases, Bcl-2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Hallgren, O; Gustafsson, L; Irjala, H; Selivanova, G; Orrenius, S; Svanborg, C

    2006-02-01

    HAMLET (Human alpha-lactalbumin Made Lethal to Tumor cells) triggers selective tumor cell death in vitro and limits tumor progression in vivo. Dying cells show features of apoptosis but it is not clear if the apoptotic response explains tumor cell death. This study examined the contribution of apoptosis to cell death in response to HAMLET. Apoptotic changes like caspase activation, phosphatidyl serine externalization, chromatin condensation were detected in HAMLET-treated tumor cells, but caspase inhibition or Bcl-2 over-expression did not prolong cell survival and the caspase response was Bcl-2 independent. HAMLET translocates to the nuclei and binds directly to chromatin, but the death response was unrelated to the p53 status of the tumor cells. p53 deletions or gain of function mutations did not influence the HAMLET sensitivity of tumor cells. Chromatin condensation was partly caspase dependent, but apoptosis-like marginalization of chromatin was also observed. The results show that tumor cell death in response to HAMLET is independent of caspases, p53 and Bcl-2 even though HAMLET activates an apoptotic response. The use of other cell death pathways allows HAMLET to successfully circumvent fundamental anti-apoptotic strategies that are present in many tumor cells.

  2. Simulation of Cell Patterning Triggered by Cell Death and Differential Adhesion in Drosophila Wing.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Tatsuzo; Honda, Hisao; Takemura, Masahiko

    2018-02-27

    The Drosophila wing exhibits a well-ordered cell pattern, especially along the posterior margin, where hair cells are arranged in a zigzag pattern in the lateral view. Based on an experimental result observed during metamorphosis of Drosophila, we considered that a pattern of initial cells autonomously develops to the zigzag pattern through cell differentiation, intercellular communication, and cell death (apoptosis) and performed computer simulations of a cell-based model of vertex dynamics for tissues. The model describes the epithelial tissue as a monolayer cell sheet of polyhedral cells. Their vertices move according to equations of motion, minimizing the sum total of the interfacial and elastic energies of cells. The interfacial energy densities between cells are introduced consistently with an ideal zigzag cell pattern, extracted from the experimental result. The apoptosis of cells is modeled by gradually reducing their equilibrium volume to zero and by assuming that the hair cells prohibit neighboring cells from undergoing apoptosis. Based on experimental observations, we also assumed wing elongation along the proximal-distal axis. Starting with an initial cell pattern similar to the micrograph experimentally obtained just before apoptosis, we carried out the simulations according to the model mentioned above and successfully reproduced the ideal zigzag cell pattern. This elucidates a physical mechanism of patterning triggered by cell apoptosis theoretically and exemplifies, to our knowledge, a new framework to study apoptosis-induced patterning. We conclude that the zigzag cell pattern is formed by an autonomous communicative process among the participant cells. Copyright © 2018 Biophysical Society. All rights reserved.

  3. D-galactose induces necroptotic cell death in neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; He, Yangyan; Wang, Ling; Mo, Chunfen; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Li, Junhong; Liao, Zhiyong; Tang, Xiaoqiang; Xiao, Hengyi

    2011-12-01

    D-Galactose (D-gal) can induce oxidative stress in non-cancer cells and result in cell damage by disturbing glucose metabolism. However, the effect of D-gal on cancer cells is yet to be explored. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of D-gal to malignant cells specifically neuroblastoma cells. As the results, high concentrations of D-gal had significant toxicity to cancer cells, whereas the same concentrations of glucose had no; the viability loss via D-gal treatment was prominent to malignant cells (Neuro2a, SH-SY5Y, PC-3, and HepG2) comparing to non-malignant cells (NIH3T3 and LO(2)). Differing from the apoptosis induced by H(2) O(2), D-gal damaged cells showed the characters of necrotic cell death, such as trypan blue-tangible and early phase LDH leakage. Further experiments displayed that the toxic effect of D-gal can be alleviated by necroptosis inhibitor Necrostatin (Nec-1) and autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) but not by caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. D-Gal treatment can transcriptionally up-regulate the genes relevant to necroptosis (Bmf, Bnip3) and autophagy (Atg5, TIGAR) but not the genes related to apoptosis (Caspase3, Bax, and p53). D-Gal did not activate Caspase-3, but prompted puncta-like GFP-LC3 distribution, an indicator for activated autophagy. The involvement of aldose reductase (AR)-mediated polyol pathway was proved because the inhibitor of AR can attenuate the toxicity of D-gal and D-gal treatment elevates the expression of AR. This study demonstrates for the first time that D-gal can induce non-apoptotic but necroptotic cell death in neuroblastoma cells and provides a new clue for developing the strategy against apoptosis-resistant cancers. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cell death induced by Morarah and Khaltita in hepatoma cancer cells (Huh-7).

    PubMed

    Baig, Saeeda; Alamgir, Mohiuddin

    2009-10-01

    To compare the combined and isolated growth inhibitory effects of Morarah and Khaltita (herbs) on hepatoma cell lines (Huh-7), through induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Comparative controlled in-vitro study. The Molecular Biology Laboratory, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, from June to December 2006. The growth of hepatoma cell lines (Huh-7) was checked by adding Khaltita and Morarah to the cells before culture in a 24 well plate. Six wells were selected and labeled for each of the four variables (controls, Khaltita, Morarah and mixture). After 2 days, cells were studied under an inverted phase contrast microscope and fields were recorded. Approximately four fields per slide of higher intensity were selected randomly to determine the dead cell density, and the procedure was repeated 10 or more times. Frequency and percentages were calculated for dead or alive cells in controls, Morarah, Khaltita and their mixture. Chi-square was used to compare the qualitative variables. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Morarah and Khaltita were found to induce statistically significant (p < 0.001) cell death in hepatoma cell lines (Huh-7). At a magnification of 40x, the controls showed 1% dead cells compared to 91% in Morarah, 83% in Khaltita and 73% in combined mixture of Khaltita and Morarah. At magnification of 20x, the controls showed 4% dead cells compared to 44% in Morarah, 47% in Khaltita and 49% in the combined mixture of Khaltita and Morarah. Morarah and Khaltita induced cell death in cultured hepatoma cells (Huh-7).

  5. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew J; Hailey, Dale W; Stawicki, Tamara M; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B; Rubel, Edwin W; Raible, David W; Simon, Julian A; Ou, Henry C

    2013-03-06

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analog of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line.

  6. Functional mechanotransduction is required for cisplatin-induced hair cell death in the zebrafish lateral line

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Andrew J.; Hailey, Dale W.; Stawicki, Tamara M.; Wu, Patricia; Coffin, Allison B.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.; Simon, Julian A.; Ou, Henry C.

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin, one of the most commonly used anti-cancer drugs, is known to cause inner ear hair cell damage and hearing loss. Despite much investigation into mechanisms of cisplatin-induced hair cell death, little is known about the mechanism whereby cisplatin is selectively toxic to hair cells. Using hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line, we found that chemical inhibition of mechanotransduction with quinine and EGTA protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Furthermore, we found that the zebrafish mutants mariner (myo7aa) and sputnik (cad23) that lack functional mechanotransduction were resistant to cisplatin-induced hair cell death. Using a fluorescent analogue of cisplatin, we found that chemical or genetic inhibition of mechanotransduction prevented its uptake. These findings demonstrate that cisplatin-induced hair cell death is dependent on functional mechanotransduction in the zebrafish lateral line. PMID:23467357

  7. TOR-mediated autophagy regulates cell death in Drosophila neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lao, Uyen; Edgar, Bruce A

    2009-09-07

    Target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling is a regulator of cell growth. TOR activity can also enhance cell death, and the TOR inhibitor rapamycin protects cells against proapoptotic stimuli. Autophagy, which can protect against cell death, is negatively regulated by TOR, and disruption of autophagy by mutation of Atg5 or Atg7 can lead to neurodegeneration. However, the implied functional connection between TOR signaling, autophagy, and cell death or degeneration has not been rigorously tested. Using the Drosophila melanogaster visual system, we show in this study that hyperactivation of TOR leads to photoreceptor cell death in an age- and light-dependent manner and that this is because of TOR's ability to suppress autophagy. We also find that genetically inhibiting TOR or inducing autophagy suppresses cell death in Drosophila models of Huntington's disease and phospholipase C (norpA)-mediated retinal degeneration. Thus, our data indicate that TOR induces cell death by suppressing autophagy and provide direct genetic evidence that autophagy alleviates cell death in several common types of neurodegenerative disease.

  8. Natural small-molecule enhancers of autophagy induce autophagic cell death in apoptosis-defective cells.

    PubMed

    Law, Betty Yuen Kwan; Chan, Wai Kit; Xu, Su Wei; Wang, Jing Rong; Bai, Li Ping; Liu, Liang; Wong, Vincent Kam Wai

    2014-07-01

    Resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy is a significant problem in oncology, and the development of sensitising agents or small-molecules with new mechanisms of action to kill these cells is needed. Autophagy is a cellular process responsible for the turnover of misfolded proteins or damaged organelles, and it also recycles nutrients to maintain energy levels for cell survival. In some apoptosis-resistant cancer cells, autophagy can also enhance the efficacy of anti-cancer drugs through autophagy-mediated mechanisms of cell death. Because the modulation of autophagic processes can be therapeutically useful to circumvent chemoresistance and enhance the effects of cancer treatment, the identification of novel autophagic enhancers for use in oncology is highly desirable. Many novel anti-cancer compounds have been isolated from natural products; therefore, we worked to discover natural, anti-cancer small-molecule enhancers of autophagy. Here, we have identified a group of natural alkaloid small-molecules that function as novel autophagic enhancers. These alkaloids, including liensinine, isoliensinine, dauricine and cepharanthine, stimulated AMPK-mTOR dependent induction of autophagy and autophagic cell death in a panel of apoptosis-resistant cells. Taken together, our work provides novel insights into the biological functions, mechanisms and potential therapeutic values of alkaloids for the induction of autophagy.

  9. Cell-cycle control in the face of damage--a matter of life or death.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Paul R; Allan, Lindsey A

    2009-03-01

    Cells respond to DNA damage or defects in the mitotic spindle by activating checkpoints that arrest the cell cycle. Alternatively, damaged cells can undergo cell death by the process of apoptosis. The correct balance between these pathways is important for the maintenance of genomic integrity while preventing unnecessary cell death. Although the molecular mechanisms of the cell cycle and apoptosis have been elucidated, the links between them have not been clear. Recent work, however, indicates that common components directly link the regulation of apoptosis with cell-cycle checkpoints operating during interphase, whereas in mitosis, the control of apoptosis is directly coupled to the cell-cycle machinery. These findings shed new light on how the balance between cell-cycle progression and cell death is controlled.

  10. Combined effects of starvation and butyrate on autophagy-dependent gingival epithelial cell death.

    PubMed

    Evans, M; Murofushi, T; Tsuda, H; Mikami, Y; Zhao, N; Ochiai, K; Kurita-Ochiai, T; Yamamoto, M; Otsuka, K; Suzuki, N

    2017-06-01

    Bacteria in the dental biofilm surrounding marginal gingival grooves cause periodontal diseases. Numerous bacteria within the biofilm consume nutrients from the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, some gram-negative bacteria in mature dental biofilms produce butyrate. Thus, gingival epithelial cells in close proximity to mature dental biofilms are at risk of both starvation and exposure to butyrate. In the present study, we determined the combined effects of starvation and butyrate exposure on gingival epithelial cell death and the underlying mechanisms. The Ca9-22 cell line was used as an in vitro counterpart of gingival epithelial cells. Cell death was measured as the amount of total DNA in the dead cells using SYTOX Green dye, which penetrates through membranes of dead cells and emits fluorescence when it intercalates into double-stranded DNA. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity, the amount of autophagy, and acetylation of histone H3 were determined using western blot. Gene expression levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b (lc3b) were determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Butyrate-induced cell death occurred in a dose-dependent manner whether cells were starved or fed. However, the induction of cell death was two to four times higher when cells were placed under starvation conditions compared to when they were fed. Moreover, both starvation and butyrate exposure induced AMPK activity and autophagy. While AMPK inactivation resulted in decreased autophagy and butyrate-induced cell death under conditions of starvation, AMPK activation resulted in butyrate-induced cell death when cells were fed. Combined with the results of our previous report, which demonstrated butyrate-induced autophagy-dependent cell death, the results of this study suggest that the combination of starvation and butyrate exposure activates AMPK inducing autophagy and subsequent cell death. Notably, this combination markedly

  11. Sugar suppresses cell death caused by disruption of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Tiantian; Zhou, Zhou; Huang, Yi; Han, Chengyun; Liu, Yan; Zhu, Qi; Ren, Chunmei

    2016-09-01

    Sugar negatively regulates cell death resulting from the loss of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase that catalyzes the last step in the Tyr degradation pathway in Arabidopsis . Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) hydrolyzes fumarylacetoacetate to fumarate and acetoacetate, the final step in the tyrosine (Tyr) degradation pathway that is essential to animals. Previously, we first found that the Tyr degradation pathway plays an important role in plants. Mutation of the SSCD1 gene encoding FAH in Arabidopsis leads to spontaneous cell death under short-day conditions. In this study, we presented that the lethal phenotype of the short-day sensitive cell death1 (sscd1) seedlings was suppressed by sugars including sucrose, glucose, fructose, and maltose in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed the expression of Tyr degradation pathway genes homogentisate dioxygenase and maleylacetoacetate isomerase, and sucrose-processing genes cell-wall invertase 1 and alkaline/neutral invertase G, was up-regulated in the sscd1 mutant, however, this up-regulation could be repressed by sugar. In addition, a high concentration of sugar attenuated cell death of Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings caused by treatment with exogenous succinylacetone, an abnormal metabolite resulting from the loss of FAH in the Tyr degradation pathway. These results indicated that (1) sugar could suppress cell death in sscd1, which might be because sugar supply enhances the resistance of Arabidopsis seedlings to toxic effects of succinylacetone and reduces the accumulation of Tyr degradation intermediates, resulting in suppression of cell death; and (2) sucrose-processing genes cell-wall invertase 1 and alkaline/neutral invertase G might be involved in the cell death in sscd1. Our work provides insights into the relationship between sugar and sscd1-mediated cell death, and contributes to elucidation of the regulation of cell death resulting from the loss of FAH in plants.

  12. Vitamin K3 triggers human leukemia cell death through hydrogen peroxide generation and histone hyperacetylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changjun; Kang, Jiuhong; Zheng, Rongliang

    2005-10-01

    Vitamin K3 (VK3) is a well-known anticancer agent, but its mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, VK3 was found to simultaneously induce cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, including superoxide anion (O2*-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation, and histone hyperacetylation in human leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Catalase (CAT), an antioxidant enzyme that specifically scavenges H2O2, could significantly diminish both histone acetylation increase and cell death caused by VK3, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme that specifically eliminates O2*-, showed no effect on both of these, leading to the conclusion that H2O2 generation, but not O2*- generation, contributes to VK3-induced histone hyperacetylation and cell death. This conclusion was confirmed by the finding that enhancement of VK3-induced H2O2 generation by vitamin C (VC) could significantly promote both the histone hyperacetylation and cell death. Further studies suggested that histone hyperacetylation played an important role in VK3-induced cell death, since sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, showed no effect on ROS generation, but obviously potentiated VK3-induced histone hyperacetylation and cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of VK3, i.e., VK3 induced tumor cell death through H2O2 generation, which then further induced histone hyperacetylation.

  13. Baicalein induces cell death in murine T cell lymphoma via inhibition of thioredoxin system.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Raghavendra S; Pal, Debojyoti; Checker, Rahul; Sharma, Deepak; Sandur, Santosh K

    2017-10-01

    We have earlier demonstrated the radioprotective potential of baicalein using murine splenic lymphocytes. Here, we have studied the effect of baicalein on murine T cell lymphoma EL4 cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of action. We observed that baicalein induced a dose dependent cell death in EL4 cells in vitro and significantly reduced the frequency of cancer stem cells. Previously, we have reported that murine and human T cell lymphoma cells have increased oxidative stress tolerance capacity due to active thioredoxin system. Hence, we monitored the effect of baicalein on thioredoxin system in EL4 cells. Docking studies revealed that baicalein could bind to the active site of thioredoxin reductase. Baicalein treatment led to significant reduction in the activity of thioredoxin reductase and nuclear levels of thioredoxin-1 thereby increasing ASK1 levels and caspase-3 activity. Interestingly, CRISPR-Cas9 based knock-out of ASK1 or over-expression of thioredoxin-1 abolished anti-tumor effects of baicalein in EL4 cells. Further, baicalein administration significantly reduced intra-peritoneal tumor burden of EL4 cells in C57BL/6 mice. Thus, our study describes anti-tumor effects of baicalein in EL4 cells via inhibition of thioredoxin system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti

  15. Streptococcus sanguinis induces foam cell formation and cell death of macrophages in association with production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Okahashi, Nobuo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Sakurai, Atsuo; Terao, Yutaka; Nakata, Masanobu; Nakashima, Keisuke; Shintani, Seikou; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ooshima, Takashi; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, is a common streptococcal species implicated in infective endocarditis. Herein, we investigated the effects of infection with S. sanguinis on foam cell formation and cell death of macrophages. Infection with S. sanguinis stimulated foam cell formation of THP-1, a human macrophage cell line. At a multiplicity of infection >100, S. sanguinis-induced cell death of the macrophages. Viable bacterial infection was required to trigger cell death because heat-inactivated S. sanguinis did not induce cell death. The production of cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α from macrophages was also stimulated during bacterial infection. Inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in reduced cell death, suggesting an association of ROS with cell death. Furthermore, S. sanguinis-induced cell death appeared to be independent of activation of inflammasomes, because cleavage of procaspase-1 was not evident in infected macrophages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. "(Not) all (dead) things share the same breath": identification of cell death mechanisms in anticancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Rello-Varona, Santiago; Herrero-Martín, David; López-Alemany, Roser; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Tirado, Oscar M

    2015-03-15

    During the last decades, the knowledge of cell death mechanisms involved in anticancer therapy has grown exponentially. However, in many studies, cell death is still described in an incomplete manner. The frequent use of indirect proliferation assays, unspecific probes, or bulk analyses leads too often to misunderstandings regarding cell death events. There is a trend to focus on molecular or genetic regulations of cell demise without a proper characterization of the phenotype that is the object of this study. Sometimes, cancer researchers can feel overwhelmed or confused when faced with such a corpus of detailed insights, nomenclature rules, and debates about the accuracy of a particular probe or assay. On the basis of the information available, we propose a simple guide to distinguish forms of cell death in experimental settings using cancer cell lines. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Mitochondrial Ca2+ influx targets cardiolipin to disintegrate respiratory chain complex II for cell death induction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, M-S; Schwall, C T; Pazarentzos, E; Datler, C; Alder, N N; Grimm, S

    2014-01-01

    Massive Ca2+ influx into mitochondria is critically involved in cell death induction but it is unknown how this activates the organelle for cell destruction. Using multiple approaches including subcellular fractionation, FRET in intact cells, and in vitro reconstitutions, we show that mitochondrial Ca2+ influx prompts complex II of the respiratory chain to disintegrate, thereby releasing an enzymatically competent sub-complex that generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) for cell death induction. This Ca2+-dependent dissociation of complex II is also observed in model membrane systems, but not when cardiolipin is replaced with a lipid devoid of Ca2+ binding. Cardiolipin is known to associate with complex II and upon Ca2+ binding coalesces into separate homotypic clusters. When complex II is deprived of this lipid, it disintegrates for ROS formation and cell death. Our results reveal Ca2+ binding to cardiolipin for complex II disintegration as a pivotal step for oxidative stress and cell death induction. PMID:24948011

  18. NADPH Oxidase Activation Contributes to Heavy Ion Irradiation–Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yupei; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Weiping; Zhou, Xin; Miao, Guoying; Sun, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress plays an important role in heavy ion radiation–induced cell death. The mechanism involved in the generation of elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) is not fully illustrated. Here we show that NADPH oxidase activation is closely related to heavy ion radiation–induced cell death via excessive ROS generation. Cell death and cellular ROS can be greatly reduced in irradiated cancer cells with the preincubation of diphenyleneiodium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Most of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) family proteins (NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, and NOX5) showed increased expression after heavy ion irradiation. Meanwhile, the cytoplasmic subunit p47phox was translocated to the cell membrane and localized with NOX2 to form reactive NADPH oxidase. Our data suggest for the first time that ROS generation, as mediated by NADPH oxidase activation, could be an important contributor to heavy ion irradiation–induced cell death. PMID:28473742

  19. The cell on the edge of life and death: Crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Daniela

    2017-09-21

    Recently, the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis has attracted broader attention. Basal autophagy serves to maintain cell homeostasis, while the upregulation of this process is an element of stress response that enables the cell to survive under adverse conditions. Autophagy may also determine the fate of the cell through its interactions with cell death pathways. The protein networks that control the initiation and the execution phase of these two processes are highly interconnected. Several scenarios for the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis exist. In most cases, the activation of autophagy represents an attempt of the cell to cope with stress, and protects the cell from apoptosis or delays its initiation. Generally, the simultaneous activation of pro-survival and pro-death pathways is prevented by the mutual inhibitory crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. But in some circumstances, autophagy or the proteins of the core autophagic machinery may promote cellular demise through excessive self-digestion (so-called "autophagic cell death") or by stimulating the activation of other cell death pathways. It is controversial whether cells actually die via autophagy, which is why the term "autophagic cell death" has been under intense debate lately. This review summarizes the recent findings on the multilevel crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in aspects of common regulators, mutual inhibition of these processes, the stimulation of apoptosis by autophagy or autophagic proteins and finally the role of autophagy as a death-execution mechanism.

  20. Cannabinoid-induced cell death in endometrial cancer cells: involvement of TRPV1 receptors in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, B M; Correia-da-Silva, G; Teixeira, N A

    2018-05-01

    Among a variety of phytocannabinoids, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most promising therapeutic compounds. Besides the well-known palliative effects in cancer patients, cannabinoids have been shown to inhibit in vitro growth of tumor cells. Likewise, the major endocannabinoids (eCBs), anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), induce tumor cell death. The purpose of the present study was to characterize cannabinoid elements and evaluate the effect of cannabinoids in endometrial cancer cell viability. The presence of cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), and endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot. We also examined the effects and the underlying mechanisms induced by eCBs and phytocannabinoids in endometrial cancer cell viability. Besides TRPV1, both EC cell lines express all the constituents of the endocannabinoid system. We observed that at concentrations higher than 5 μM, eCBs and CBD induced a significant reduction in cell viability in both Ishikawa and Hec50co cells, whereas THC did not cause any effect. In Ishikawa cells, contrary to Hec50co, treatment with AEA and CBD resulted in an increase in the levels of activated caspase -3/-7, in cleaved PARP, and in reactive oxygen species generation, confirming that the reduction in cell viability observed in the MTT assay was caused by the activation of the apoptotic pathway. Finally, these effects were dependent on TRPV1 activation and intracellular calcium levels. These data indicate that cannabinoids modulate endometrial cancer cell death. Selective targeting of TPRV1 by AEA, CBD, or other stable analogues may be an attractive research area for the treatment of estrogen-dependent endometrial carcinoma. Our data further support the evaluation of CBD and CBD-rich extracts for the potential treatment of endometrial cancer, particularly, that has become non-responsive to common therapies.

  1. [Novel Anticancer Strategy Targeting Switch Mechanisms in Two Types of Cell Death: Necrosis and Apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira

    2017-01-01

     Two types of cell death, necrosis and apoptosis, are defined in terms of cell death morphological features. We have been studying the mechanisms by which cell death processes are switched during the treatment of mouse tumor FM3A with anticancer, 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR): it induces original clone F28-7 to necrosis, but its sub-clone F28-7-A to apoptosis. We identified several such switch regulators of cell death: heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), lamin-B1, cytokeratin-19, and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), by using transcriptomic, proteomic analyses and siRNA screening. For example, the inhibition of HSP90 by its inhibitor geldanamycin in F28-7 caused a shift from necrosis to apoptosis. We also observed that the knockdown of lamin-B1, cytokeratin-19, or ATF3 expression in F28-7 resulted in a shift from necrosis to apoptosis. Recently, we used microRNA (miRNA, miR) microarray analyses to investigate the miRNA expression profiles in these sister cells. The miR-351 and miR-743a were expressed at higher levels in F28-7-A than in F28-7. Higher expression of miR-351 or miR-743a in F28-7, induced by transfecting the miR mimics, resulted in a switch of cell death mode: necrosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-351 inhibitor into F28-7-A resulted in morphological changes, and mode of cell death from apoptosis to necrosis. These findings suggest that the identified cell death regulators may have key roles in switching cell death mode. Possible mechanisms involving cell death regulators in the switch of necrosis or apoptosis are discussed. We propose a novel anticancer strategy targeting the switch regulators of necrosis or apoptosis.

  2. Induction of cytosine arabinoside-resistant human myeloid leukemia cell death through autophagy regulation by hydroxychloroquine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yundeok; Eom, Ju-In; Jeung, Hoi-Kyung; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Young Sam; Min, Yoo Hong

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the autophagy inhibitor hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) on cell death of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C)-resistant human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Ara-C-sensitive (U937, AML-2) and Ara-C-resistant (U937/AR, AML-2/AR) human AML cell lines were used to evaluate HCQ-regulated cytotoxicity, autophagy, and apoptosis as well as effects on cell death-related signaling pathways. We found that HCQ-induced dose- and time-dependent cell death in Ara-C-resistant cells compared to Ara-C-sensitive cell lines. The extent of cell death and features of HCQ-induced autophagic markers including increase in microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I conversion to LC3-II, beclin-1, ATG5, as well as green fluorescent protein-LC3 positive puncta and autophagosome were remarkably greater in U937/AR cells. Also, p62/SQSTM1 was increased in response to HCQ. p62/SQSTM1 protein interacts with both LC3-II and ubiquitin protein and is degraded in autophagosomes. Therefore, a reduction of p62/SQSTM1 indicates increased autophagic degradation, whereas an increase of p62/SQSTM1 by HCQ indicates inhibited autophagic degradation. Knock down of p62/SQSTM1 using siRNA were prevented the HCQ-induced LC3-II protein level as well as significantly reduced the HCQ-induced cell death in U937/AR cells. Also, apoptotic cell death and caspase activation in U937/AR cells were increased by HCQ, provided evidence that HCQ-induced autophagy blockade. Taken together, our data show that HCQ-induced apoptotic cell death in Ara-C-resistant AML cells through autophagy regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroglobin protects astroglial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Amri, Fatma; Ghouili, Ikram; Amri, Mohamed; Carrier, Alice; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress, resulting from accumulation of reactive oxygen species, plays a critical role in astroglial cell death occurring in diverse neuropathological conditions. Numerous studies indicate that neuroglobin (Ngb) promotes neuron survival, but nothing is known regarding the action of Ngb in astroglial cell survival. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential glioprotective effect of Ngb on hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 )-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured mouse astrocytes. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of Ngb (10 -14 -10 -10  M) was found to prevent both H 2 O 2 -evoked reduction in surviving cells number and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ngb treatment abolishes H 2 O 2 -induced increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates. Concomitantly, Ngb treatment rescues H 2 O 2 -associated reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutases and catalase) and prevents the stimulation of the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin (IL) IL-6 and IL-33). Moreover, Ngb blocks the stimulation of Bax (pro-apoptotic) and the inhibition of Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) gene expression induced by H 2 O 2 , which in turn abolishes caspase 3 activation. The protective effect of Ngb upon H 2 O 2 induced activation of caspase 3 activity and cell death can be accounted for by activation of protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase transduction cascade. Finally, we demonstrate that Ngb increases Akt phosphorylation and prevents H 2 O 2 -provoked inhibition of ERK and Akt phosphorylation. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time that Ngb is a glioprotective agent that prevents H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress and apoptotic astroglial cell death. Protection of astrocytes from oxidative insult may thus contribute to the neuroprotective effect of Ngb.

  4. Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma Protect Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Tam-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Brian J.; Regan Anderson, Tarah M.; Welch, Siya Lem; Nicely, Julie; Seewaldt, Victoria L.; Ostrander, Julie H.

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is the only FDA-approved chemoprevention agent for pre-menopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer. While Tam reduces a woman's risk of developing estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms associated with risk reduction are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cytoplasmic proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) promotes Tam resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Herein, we tested for PELP1 localization in breast epithelial cells from women at high risk for developing breast cancer and found that PELP1 was localized to the cytoplasm in 36% of samples. In vitro, immortalized HMECs expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) mutant of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto) were resistant to Tam-induced death. Furthermore, PELP1-cyto signaling through estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) promoted cell survival in the presence of Tam. Overexpression of ERRγ in immortalized HMECs protected cells from Tam-induced death, while knockdown of ERRγ sensitized PELP1-cyto expressing HMECs to Tam. Moreover, Tam-induced HMEC cell death was independent of apoptosis and involved accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Expression of PELP1-cyto and ERRγ reduced Tam-induced LC3-II accumulation, and knockdown of ERRγ increased LC3-II levels in response to Tam. Additionally, PELP1-cyto expression led to the upregulation of MMP-3 and MAOB, known PELP1 and ERRγ target genes, respectively. Our data indicate that cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival in the presence of Tam. These data suggest that PELP1 localization and/or ERRγ activation could be developed as tissue biomarkers for Tam responsiveness. PMID:25789479

  5. Cytoplasmic PELP1 and ERRgamma protect human mammary epithelial cells from Tam-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Girard, Brian J; Regan Anderson, Tarah M; Welch, Siya Lem; Nicely, Julie; Seewaldt, Victoria L; Ostrander, Julie H

    2015-01-01

    Tamoxifen (Tam) is the only FDA-approved chemoprevention agent for pre-menopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer. While Tam reduces a woman's risk of developing estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, the molecular mechanisms associated with risk reduction are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that cytoplasmic proline, glutamic acid and leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) promotes Tam resistance in breast cancer cell lines. Herein, we tested for PELP1 localization in breast epithelial cells from women at high risk for developing breast cancer and found that PELP1 was localized to the cytoplasm in 36% of samples. In vitro, immortalized HMECs expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS) mutant of PELP1 (PELP1-cyto) were resistant to Tam-induced death. Furthermore, PELP1-cyto signaling through estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) promoted cell survival in the presence of Tam. Overexpression of ERRγ in immortalized HMECs protected cells from Tam-induced death, while knockdown of ERRγ sensitized PELP1-cyto expressing HMECs to Tam. Moreover, Tam-induced HMEC cell death was independent of apoptosis and involved accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Expression of PELP1-cyto and ERRγ reduced Tam-induced LC3-II accumulation, and knockdown of ERRγ increased LC3-II levels in response to Tam. Additionally, PELP1-cyto expression led to the upregulation of MMP-3 and MAOB, known PELP1 and ERRγ target genes, respectively. Our data indicate that cytoplasmic PELP1 induces signaling pathways that converge on ERRγ to promote cell survival in the presence of Tam. These data suggest that PELP1 localization and/or ERRγ activation could be developed as tissue biomarkers for Tam responsiveness.

  6. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity. PMID:28139717

  7. Semaphorin 3A is a retrograde cell death signal in developing sympathetic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Amanda B.; Abdesselem, Houari; Dickendesher, Travis L.; Imai, Fumiyasu; Yoshida, Yutaka; Giger, Roman J.; Pierchala, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During development of the peripheral nervous system, excess neurons are generated, most of which will be lost by programmed cell death due to a limited supply of neurotrophic factors from their targets. Other environmental factors, such as ‘competition factors' produced by neurons themselves, and axon guidance molecules have also been implicated in developmental cell death. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), in addition to its function as a chemorepulsive guidance cue, can also induce death of sensory neurons in vitro. The extent to which Sema3A regulates developmental cell death in vivo, however, is debated. We show that in compartmentalized cultures of rat sympathetic neurons, a Sema3A-initiated apoptosis signal is retrogradely transported from axon terminals to cell bodies to induce cell death. Sema3A-mediated apoptosis utilizes the extrinsic pathway and requires both neuropilin 1 and plexin A3. Sema3A is not retrogradely transported in older, survival factor-independent sympathetic neurons, and is much less effective at inducing apoptosis in these neurons. Importantly, deletion of either neuropilin 1 or plexin A3 significantly reduces developmental cell death in the superior cervical ganglia. Taken together, a Sema3A-initiated apoptotic signaling complex regulates the apoptosis of sympathetic neurons during the period of naturally occurring cell death. PMID:27143756

  8. Deferasirox-induced iron depletion promotes BclxL downregulation and death of proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, Diego; Gallegos-Villalobos, Angel; Fontecha-Barriuso, Miguel; Carrasco, Susana; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Lopez-Hernandez, Francisco J; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belén

    2017-01-31

    Iron deficiency has been associated with kidney injury. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator used to treat blood transfusion-related iron overload. Nephrotoxicity is the most serious and common adverse effect of deferasirox and may present as an acute or chronic kidney disease. However, scarce data are available on the molecular mechanisms of nephrotoxicity. We explored the therapeutic modulation of deferasirox-induced proximal tubular cell death in culture. Deferasirox induced dose-dependent tubular cell death and AnexxinV/7AAD staining showed features of apoptosis and necrosis. However, despite inhibiting caspase-3 activation, the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk failed to prevent deferasirox-induced cell death. Moreover, zVAD increased deferasirox-induced cell death, a feature sometimes found in necroptosis. Electron microscopy identified mitochondrial injury and features of necrosis. However, neither necrostatin-1 nor RIP3 knockdown prevented deferasirox-induced cell death. Deferasirox caused BclxL depletion and BclxL overexpression was protective. Preventing iron depletion protected from BclxL downregulation and deferasirox cytotoxicity. In conclusion, deferasirox promoted iron depletion-dependent cell death characterized by BclxL downregulation. BclxL overexpression was protective, suggesting a role for BclxL downregulation in iron depletion-induced cell death. This information may be used to develop novel nephroprotective strategies. Furthermore, it supports the concept that monitoring kidney tissue iron depletion may decrease the risk of deferasirox nephrotoxicity.

  9. 'Hints' in the killer protein gasdermin D: unveiling the secrets of gasdermins driving cell death.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shiqiao; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2017-04-01

    Pyroptosis is a lytic form of cell death distinguished from apoptosis, ferroptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, NETosis, oncosis, pyronecrosis and autophagy. Proinflammatory caspases cleave a gasdermin D (GSDMD) protein to generate a 31 kDa N-terminal domain. The cleavage relieves the intramolecular inhibition on the gasdermin-N domain, which then moves to the plasma membrane to exhibit pore-forming activity. Thus, GSDMD acts as the final and direct executor of pyroptotic cell death. Owing to the selective targeting of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane with the pore-forming that determines pyroptotic cell death, GSDMD could be a potential target to control cell death or extracellular bacterial infections. Intriguingly, other gasdermin family members also share similar N-terminal domains, but they present different cell death programs. Herein, we summarize features and functions of the novel player proteins in cell death, including GSDMD triggering pyroptosis, Gsdma3/GSDMA initiating autophagy/apoptosis and DFNA5 inducing apoptosis/secondary necrosis. The gasdermin N terminus appears to be a novel pore-forming protein. This provides novel insight into the underlying roles and mechanisms of lytic or nonlytic forms of programmed cell death, as well as their potential applications in inflammation-associated diseases.

  10. ZBP1/DAI ubiquitination and sensing of influenza vRNPs activate programmed cell death

    PubMed Central

    Kuriakose, Teneema; Malireddi, R.K. Subbarao; Mishra, Ashutosh

    2017-01-01

    Innate sensing of influenza virus infection induces activation of programmed cell death pathways. We have recently identified Z-DNA–binding protein 1 (ZBP1) as an innate sensor of influenza A virus (IAV). ZBP1-mediated IAV sensing is critical for triggering programmed cell death in the infected lungs. Surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms regulating ZBP1 activation to induce programmed cell death. Here, we report that the sensing of IAV RNA by retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) initiates ZBP1-mediated cell death via the RIG-I–MAVS–IFN-β signaling axis. IAV infection induces ubiquitination of ZBP1, suggesting potential regulation of ZBP1 function through posttranslational modifications. We further demonstrate that ZBP1 senses viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes of IAV to trigger cell death. These findings collectively indicate that ZBP1 activation requires RIG-I signaling, ubiquitination, and vRNP sensing to trigger activation of programmed cell death pathways during IAV infection. The mechanism of ZBP1 activation described here may have broader implications in the context of virus-induced cell death. PMID:28634194

  11. Niche induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Kailin R.; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Yang; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Haberman, Ann M.; Greco, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression)1,2. Contrary to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration3. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice4–6 that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbors. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through TGFβ activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviors and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis. PMID:25849774

  12. Niche-induced cell death and epithelial phagocytosis regulate hair follicle stem cell pool.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Kailin R; Rompolas, Panteleimon; Zito, Giovanni; Myung, Peggy; Sun, Thomas Y; Brown, Samara; Gonzalez, David G; Blagoev, Krastan B; Haberman, Ann M; Greco, Valentina

    2015-06-04

    Tissue homeostasis is achieved through a balance of cell production (growth) and elimination (regression). In contrast to tissue growth, the cells and molecular signals required for tissue regression remain unknown. To investigate physiological tissue regression, we use the mouse hair follicle, which cycles stereotypically between phases of growth and regression while maintaining a pool of stem cells to perpetuate tissue regeneration. Here we show by intravital microscopy in live mice that the regression phase eliminates the majority of the epithelial cells by two distinct mechanisms: terminal differentiation of suprabasal cells and a spatial gradient of apoptosis of basal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that basal epithelial cells collectively act as phagocytes to clear dying epithelial neighbours. Through cellular and genetic ablation we show that epithelial cell death is extrinsically induced through transforming growth factor (TGF)-β activation and mesenchymal crosstalk. Strikingly, our data show that regression acts to reduce the stem cell pool, as inhibition of regression results in excess basal epithelial cells with regenerative abilities. This study identifies the cellular behaviours and molecular mechanisms of regression that counterbalance growth to maintain tissue homeostasis.

  13. 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol induces neuronal cell death through necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Kazunori; Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamori, Tohru; Urano, Yasuomi; Noguchi, Noriko

    2011-07-15

    24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) produced by cholesterol 24-hydroxylase expressed mainly in neurons plays an important physiological role in the brain. Conversely, it has been reported that 24S-OHC possesses potent cytotoxicity. The molecular mechanisms of 24S-OHC-induced cell death have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary cortical neuronal cells derived from rat embryo, we characterized the form of cell death induced by 24S-OHC. SH-SY5Y cells treated with 24S-OHC exhibited neither fragmentation of the nucleus nor caspase activation, which are the typical characteristics of apoptosis. 24S-OHC-treated cells showed necrosis-like morphological changes but did not induce ATP depletion, one of the features of necrosis. When cells were treated with necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1) required for necroptosis, 24S-OHC-induced cell death was significantly suppressed. The knockdown of RIPK1 by transfection of small interfering RNA of RIPK1 effectively attenuated 24S-OHC-induced cell death. It was found that neither SH-SY5Y cells nor primary cortical neuronal cells expressed caspase-8, which was regulated for RIPK1-dependent apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that 24S-OHC induces neuronal cell death by necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis.

  14. 24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol Induces Neuronal Cell Death through Necroptosis, a Form of Programmed Necrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Kazunori; Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamori, Tohru; Urano, Yasuomi; Noguchi, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    24(S)-Hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) produced by cholesterol 24-hydroxylase expressed mainly in neurons plays an important physiological role in the brain. Conversely, it has been reported that 24S-OHC possesses potent cytotoxicity. The molecular mechanisms of 24S-OHC-induced cell death have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, using human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and primary cortical neuronal cells derived from rat embryo, we characterized the form of cell death induced by 24S-OHC. SH-SY5Y cells treated with 24S-OHC exhibited neither fragmentation of the nucleus nor caspase activation, which are the typical characteristics of apoptosis. 24S-OHC-treated cells showed necrosis-like morphological changes but did not induce ATP depletion, one of the features of necrosis. When cells were treated with necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1) required for necroptosis, 24S-OHC-induced cell death was significantly suppressed. The knockdown of RIPK1 by transfection of small interfering RNA of RIPK1 effectively attenuated 24S-OHC-induced cell death. It was found that neither SH-SY5Y cells nor primary cortical neuronal cells expressed caspase-8, which was regulated for RIPK1-dependent apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that 24S-OHC induces neuronal cell death by necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis. PMID:21613228

  15. The natural product peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth by inducing autophagic cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Qing; Key Lab in Healthy Science and Technology, Division of Life Science, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, 518055; Tou, Fangfang

    Autophagy is evolutionarily conservative in eukaryotic cells that engulf cellular long-lived proteins and organelles, and it degrades the contents through fusion with lysosomes, via which the cell acquires recycled building blocks for the synthesis of new molecules. In this study, we revealed that peiminine induces cell death and enhances autophagic flux in colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. We determined that peiminine enhances the autophagic flux by repressing the phosphorylation of mTOR through inhibiting upstream signals. Knocking down ATG5 greatly reduced the peiminine-induced cell death in wild-type HCT-116 cells, while treating Bax/Bak-deficient cells with peiminine resulted in significant cell death. In summary,more » our discoveries demonstrated that peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma cell proliferation and cell growth by inducing autophagic cell death. - Highlights: • Peiminine induces autophagy and upregulates autophagic flux. • Peiminine represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth. • Peiminine induces autophagic cell death. • Peiminine represses mTOR phosphorylation by influencing PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathway.« less

  16. Resistance to Cell Death and Its Modulation in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Ahmad R.

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that human cancers arise from various tissues of origin that initiate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) or cancer-initiating cells. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways are dysregulated in CSCs, and these cells play crucial roles in tumor initiation, progression, cell death resistance, chemo- and radiotherapy resistance, and tumor recurrence. Understanding CSC-specific signaling proteins and pathways is necessary to identify specific therapeutic targets that may lead to the development of more efficient therapies selectively targeting CSCs. Several signaling pathways—including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK), NOTCH1, and Wnt/β-catenin—and expression of the CSC markers CD133, CD24, CD44, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and ALDH1A1 maintain CSC properties. Studying such pathways may help to understand CSC biology and lead to the development of potential therapeutic interventions to render CSCs more sensitive to cell death triggered by chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Moreover, recent demonstrations of dedifferentiation of differentiated cancer cells into CSC-like cells have created significant complexity in the CSCs hypothesis. Therefore, any successful therapeutic agent or combination of drugs for cancer therapy must eliminate not only CSCs but differentiated cancer cells and the entire bulk of tumor cells. This review article expands on the CSC hypothesis and paradigm with respect to major signaling pathways and effectors that regulate CSC apoptosis resistance. Moreover, selective CSC apoptotic modulators and their therapeutic potential for making tumors more responsive to therapy are discussed. The use of novel therapies, including small-molecule inhibitors of specific proteins in signaling pathways that regulate stemness, proliferation and migration of CSCs, immunotherapy, and noncoding microRNAs may provide better means of

  17. Bovine seminal ribonuclease triggers Beclin1-mediated autophagic cell death in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Claudia; Gotte, Giovanni; Donnarumma, Federica; Picone, Delia; Donadelli, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Among the large number of variants belonging to the pancreatic-type secretory ribonuclease (RNase) superfamily, bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) is the proto-type and bovine seminal RNase (BS-RNase) represents the unique natively dimeric member. In the present manuscript, we evaluate the anti-tumoral property of these RNases in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines and in nontumorigenic cells as normal control. We demonstrate that BS-RNase stimulates a strong anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect in cancer cells, while RNase A is largely ineffective. Notably, we reveal for the first time that BS-RNase triggers Beclin1-mediated autophagic cancer cell death, providing evidences that high proliferation rate of cancer cells may render them more susceptible to autophagy by BS-RNase treatment. Notably, to improve the autophagic response of cancer cells to BS-RNase we used two different strategies: the more basic (as compared to WT enzyme) G38K mutant of BS-RNase, known to interact more strongly than wt with the acidic membrane of cancer cells, or BS-RNase oligomerization (tetramerization or formation of larger oligomers). Both mutant BS-RNase and BS-RNase oligomers potentiated autophagic cell death as compared to WT native dimer of BS-RNase, while the various RNase A oligomers remained completely ineffective. Altogether, our results shed more light on the mechanisms lying at the basis of BS-RNase antiproliferative effect in cancer cells, and support its potential use to develop new anti-cancer strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter silencing potentiates caspase-independent cell death in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, Merril C.; Peters, Amelia A.; Kenny, Paraic A.

    Highlights: •Some clinical breast cancers are associated with MCU overexpression. •MCU silencing did not alter cell death initiated with the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263. •MCU silencing potentiated caspase-independent cell death initiated by ionomycin. •MCU silencing promoted ionomycin-mediated cell death without changes in bulk Ca{sup 2+}. -- Abstract: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) transports free ionic Ca{sup 2+} into the mitochondrial matrix. We assessed MCU expression in clinical breast cancer samples using microarray analysis and the consequences of MCU silencing in a breast cancer cell line. Our results indicate that estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers are characterized by elevated levelsmore » of MCU. Silencing of MCU expression in the basal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line produced no change in proliferation or cell viability. However, distinct consequences of MCU silencing were seen on cell death pathways. Caspase-dependent cell death initiated by the Bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-263 was not altered by MCU silencing; whereas caspase-independent cell death induced by the calcium ionophore ionomycin was potentiated by MCU silencing. Measurement of cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels showed that the promotion of ionomycin-induced cell death by MCU silencing occurs independently of changes in bulk cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} levels. This study demonstrates that MCU overexpression is a feature of some breast cancers and that MCU overexpression may offer a survival advantage against some cell death pathways. MCU inhibitors may be a strategy to increase the effectiveness of therapies that act through the induction of caspase-independent cell death pathways in estrogen receptor negative and basal-like breast cancers.« less

  19. Targeting Cellular Calcium Homeostasis to Prevent Cytokine-Mediated Beta Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Clark, Amy L; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Lavagnino, Zeno; Spears, Larry D; Abreu, Damien; Mahadevan, Jana; Yagi, Takuya; Semenkovich, Clay F; Piston, David W; Urano, Fumihiko

    2017-07-17

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important mediators of islet inflammation, leading to beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Although alterations in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cytosolic free calcium levels are known to play a role in cytokine-mediated beta cell death, there are currently no treatments targeting cellular calcium homeostasis to combat type 1 diabetes. Here we show that modulation of cellular calcium homeostasis can mitigate cytokine- and ER stress-mediated beta cell death. The calcium modulating compounds, dantrolene and sitagliptin, both prevent cytokine and ER stress-induced activation of the pro-apoptotic calcium-dependent enzyme, calpain, and partly suppress beta cell death in INS1E cells and human primary islets. These agents are also able to restore cytokine-mediated suppression of functional ER calcium release. In addition, sitagliptin preserves function of the ER calcium pump, sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA), and decreases levels of the pro-apoptotic protein thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Supporting the role of TXNIP in cytokine-mediated cell death, knock down of TXNIP in INS1-E cells prevents cytokine-mediated beta cell death. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of dynamic cellular calcium homeostasis and TXNIP suppression present viable pharmacologic targets to prevent cytokine-mediated beta cell loss in diabetes.

  20. Rhinacanthus nasutus protects cultured neuronal cells against hypoxia induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Brimson, James M; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2011-07-26

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz (Acanthaceae) is an herb native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, known for its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species in cells and is a leading cause of neuronal damage. Cell death caused by hypoxia has been linked with a number of neurodegenerative diseases including some forms of dementia and stroke, as well as the build up of reactive oxygen species which can lead to diseases such as Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzeheimer's disease. In this study we used an airtight culture container and the Mitsubishi Gas Company anaeropack along with the MTT assay, LDH assay and the trypan blue exlusion assay to show that 1 and 10 µg mL⁻¹ root extract of R. nasutus is able to significantly prevent the death of HT-22 cells subjected to hypoxic conditions, and 0.1 to 10 µg mL⁻¹ had no toxic effect on HT-22 under normal conditions, whereas 100 µg mL⁻¹ reduced HT-22 cell proliferation. We also used H₂DCFDA staining to show R. nasutus can reduce reactive oxygen species production in HT-22 cells.

  1. Methylene blue photodynamic therapy induces selective and massive cell death in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ancély F; Terra, Letícia F; Wailemann, Rosangela A M; Oliveira, Talita C; Gomes, Vinícius de Morais; Mineiro, Marcela Franco; Meotti, Flávia Carla; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Baptista, Maurício S; Labriola, Leticia

    2017-03-15

    Breast cancer is the main cause of mortality among women. The disease presents high recurrence mainly due to incomplete efficacy of primary treatment in killing all cancer cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), an approach that causes tissue destruction by visible light in the presence of a photosensitizer (Ps) and oxygen, appears as a promising alternative therapy that could be used adjunct to chemotherapy and surgery for curing cancer. However, the efficacy of PDT to treat breast tumours as well as the molecular mechanisms that lead to cell death remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the cell-killing potential of PDT using methylene blue (MB-PDT) in three breast epithelial cell lines that represent non-malignant conditions and different molecular subtypes of breast tumours. Cells were incubated in the absence or presence of MB and irradiated or not at 640 nm with 4.5 J/cm 2 . We used a combination of imaging and biochemistry approaches to assess the involvement of classical autophagic and apoptotic pathways in mediating the cell-deletion induced by MB-PDT. The role of these pathways was investigated using specific inhibitors, activators and gene silencing. We observed that MB-PDT differentially induces massive cell death of tumour cells. Non-malignant cells were significantly more resistant to the therapy compared to malignant cells. Morphological and biochemical analysis of dying cells pointed to alternative mechanisms rather than classical apoptosis. MB-PDT-induced autophagy modulated cell viability depending on the cell model used. However, impairment of one of these pathways did not prevent the fatal destination of MB-PDT treated cells. Additionally, when using a physiological 3D culture model that recapitulates relevant features of normal and tumorous breast tissue morphology, we found that MB-PDT differential action in killing tumour cells was even higher than what was detected in 2D cultures. Finally, our observations underscore the potential of MB

  2. Analysis of epothilone B-induced cell death in normal ovarian cells.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Aneta; Gajek, Arkadiusz; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the mode of cell death induced by a new microtubule-stabilizing agent, epothilone B (EpoB, patupilone), and a clinically used medicine, paclitaxel (PTX), in normal ovarian cells. Using fluorescence microscopy, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis preceding Western blot analysis, as well as spectrofluorimetric and colorimetric detection, we demonstrate that, compared to EpoB, PTX induced high time-dependent morphological and biochemical changes typical of apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis followed an early increase in p53 levels. Apoptosis reached its maximum at 24-48 h. At the same time, there was a significant increase in caspase-9 and -3 activity and PARP fragmentation, which suggests that an intrinsic path was involved. Apoptosis in MM14 cells was increased more by PTX than EpoB, and also induced more necrosis responsible for inflammation (1.4-fold) than EpoB. © 2013 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. NAD+ depletion or PAR polymer formation: which plays the role of executioner in ischaemic cell death?

    PubMed

    Siegel, C; McCullough, L D

    2011-09-01

    Multiple cell death pathways are activated in cerebral ischaemia. Much of the initial injury, especially in the core of the infarct where cerebral blood flow is severely reduced, is necrotic and secondary to severe energy failure. However, there is considerable evidence that delayed cell death continues for several days, primarily in the penumbral region. As reperfusion therapies grow in number and effectiveness, restoration of blood flow early after injury may lead to a shift towards apoptosis. It is important to elucidate what are the key mediators of apoptotic cell death after stroke, as inhibition of apoptosis may have therapeutic implications. There are two well described pathways that lead to apoptotic cell death; the caspase pathway and the more recently described caspase-independent pathway triggered by poly-ADP-ribose polymers (PARP) activation. Caspase-induced cell death is initiated by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, formation of the cytosolic apoptosome, and activation of endonucleases leading to a multitude of small randomly cleaved DNA fragments. In contrast caspase-independent cell death is secondary to activation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). Mitochondrial AIF translocates to the nucleus, where it induces peripheral chromatin condensation, as well as characteristic high-molecular-weight (50 kbp) DNA fragmentation. Although caspase-independent cell death has been recognized for some time and is known to contribute to ischaemic injury, the upstream triggering events leading to activation of this pathway remain unclear. The two major theories are that ischaemia leads to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion and subsequent energy failure, or alternatively that cell death is directly triggered by a pro-apoptotic factor produced by activation of the DNA repair enzyme PARP. PARP activation is robust in the ischaemic brain producing variable lengths of poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) polymers as byproducts of PARP activation. PAR polymers

  4. Equine Airway Mast Cells are Sensitive to Cell Death Induced by Lysosomotropic Agents.

    PubMed

    Wernersson, S; Riihimäki, M; Pejler, G; Waern, I

    2017-01-01

    Mast cells are known for their detrimental effects in various inflammatory conditions. Regimens that induce selective mast cell apoptosis may therefore be of therapeutic significance. Earlier studies have demonstrated that murine- and human-cultured mast cells are highly sensitive to apoptosis induced by the lysosomotropic agent LeuLeuOMe (LLME). However, the efficacy of lysosomotropic agents for inducing apoptosis of in vivo-derived airway mast cells and the impact on mast cells in other species have not been assessed. Here we addressed whether lysosomotropic agents can induce cell death of equine in vivo-derived mast cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from horses were incubated with LLME at 15-100 μm for up to 48 h. The overall cell viability was unaffected by 15 μm LLME up to 48 h, whereas a relatively modest drop in total cell counts (~30%) was seen at the highest LLME dose used. In contrast to the relatively low effect on total cell counts, LLME efficiently and dose dependently reduced the number of mast cells in BAL fluids, with an almost complete depletion (96%) of mast cells after 24 h of incubation with 100 μm LLME. A significant but less dramatic reduction (up to ~45%) of lymphocytes was also seen, whereas macrophages and neutrophils were essentially resistant. The appearance of apoptotic bodies suggested a mechanism involving apoptosis rather than necrosis. These findings suggest that equine airway mast cells are highly sensitive to lysosomotropic agents. Possibly, lysosomotropic agents could be of therapeutic value to treat disorders involving harmful accumulation of mast cells in the airways. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  5. Inhibition of KSP by ARRY-520 Induces Cell Cycle Block and Cell Death via the Mitochondrial Pathway in AML Cells

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Bing Z.; Mak, Duncan H.; Woessner, Richard; Gross, Stefan; Schober, Wendy D.; Estrov, Zeev; Kantarjian, Hagop; Andreeff, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin spindle protein (KSP), a microtubule-associated motor protein essential for cell cycle progression, is overexpressed in many cancers and a potential anti-tumor target. We found that inhibition of KSP by a selective inhibitor, ARRY-520, blocked cell cycle progression, leading to apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines which express high levels of KSP. Knockdown of p53, overexpression of XIAP, and mutation in caspase-8 did not significantly affect sensitivity to ARRY-520, suggesting that the response is independent of p53, XIAP, and the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Although ARRY-520 induced mitotic arrest in both HL-60 and Bcl-2-overexpressing HL-60Bcl-2 cells, cell death was blunted in HL-60Bcl-2 cells, suggesting that the apoptotic program is executed through the mitochondrial pathway. Accordingly, inhibition of Bcl-2 by ABT-737 was synergistic with ARRY-520 in HL-60Bcl-2 cells. Furthermore, ARRY-520 increased Bim protein levels prior to caspase activation in HL-60 cells. ARRY-520 significantly inhibited tumor growth of xenografts in SCID mice and inhibited AML blast but not normal colony formation, supporting a critical role for KSP in proliferation of leukemic progenitor cells. These results demonstrate that ARRY-520 potently induces cell cycle block and subsequent death in leukemic cells via the mitochondrial pathway and has potential to eradicate AML progenitor cells. PMID:19458629

  6. Protein Kinase G facilitates EGFR-mediated cell death in MDA-MB-468 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Nicole M.; Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian.ceresa@louisville.edu

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase with critical implications in cell proliferation, migration, wound healing and the regulation of apoptosis. However, the EGFR has been shown to be hyper-expressed in a number of human malignancies. The MDA-MB-468 metastatic breast cell line is one example of this. This particular cell line hyper-expresses the EGFR and undergoes EGFR-mediated apoptosis in response to EGF ligand. The goal of this study was to identify the kinases that could be potential intermediates for the EGFR-mediated induction of apoptosis intracellularly. After identifying Cyclic GMP-dependent Protein Kinase G (PKG) as amore » plausible intermediate, we wanted to determine the temporal relationship of these two proteins in the induction of apoptosis. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in MDA-MB-468 cell viability, which was co-incident with increased PKG activity as measured by VASPSer239 phosphorylation. In addition, we observed a dose dependent decrease in cell viability, as well as an increase in apoptosis, in response to two different PKG agonists, 8-Bromo-cGMP and 8-pCPT-cGMP. MDA-MB-468 cells with reduced PKG activity had attenuated EGFR-mediated apoptosis. These findings indicate that PKG does not induce cell death via transphosphorylation of the EGFR. Instead, PKG activity occurs following EGFR activation. Together, these data indicate PKG as an intermediary in EGFR-mediated cell death, likely via apoptotic pathway.« less

  7. Bcl-2 Family Members and Functional Electron Transport Chain Regulate Oxygen Deprivation-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    McClintock, David S.; Santore, Matthew T.; Lee, Vivian Y.; Brunelle, Joslyn; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Zong, Wei-Xing; Thompson, Craig B.; Hay, Nissim; Chandel, Navdeep S.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying cell death during oxygen deprivation are unknown. We report here a model for oxygen deprivation-induced apoptosis. The death observed during oxygen deprivation involves a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, followed by the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9. Bcl-XL prevented oxygen deprivation-induced cell death by inhibiting the release of cytochrome c and caspase-9 activation. The ability of Bcl-XL to prevent cell death was dependent on allowing the import of glycolytic ATP into the mitochondria to generate an inner mitochondrial membrane potential through the F1F0-ATP synthase. In contrast, although activated Akt has been shown to inhibit apoptosis induced by a variety of apoptotic stimuli, it did not prevent cell death during oxygen deprivation. In addition to Bcl-XL, cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA (ρ° cells) that lack a functional electron transport chain were resistant to oxygen deprivation. Further, murine embryonic fibroblasts from bax−/− bak−/− mice did not die in response to oxygen deprivation. These data suggest that when subjected to oxygen deprivation, cells die as a result of an inability to maintain a mitochondrial membrane potential through the import of glycolytic ATP. Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members and a functional electron transport chain are required to initiate cell death in response to oxygen deprivation. PMID:11739725

  8. Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells).

    PubMed

    Hallgren, Oskar; Aits, Sonja; Brest, Patrick; Gustafsson, Lotta; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2008-01-01

    HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells) is a molecular complex derived from human milk that kills tumor cells by a process resembling programmed cell death. The complex consists of partially unfolded alpha-lactalbumin and oleic acid, and both the protein and the fatty acid are required for cell death. HAMLET has broad antitumor activity in vitro, and its therapeutic effect has been confirmed in vivo in a human glioblastoma rat xenograft model, in patients with skin papillomas and in patients with bladder cancer. The mechanisms of tumor cell death remain unclear, however. Immediately after the encounter with tumor cells, HAMLET invades the cells and causes mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, phosphatidyl serine exposure, and a low caspase response. A fraction of the cells undergoes morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, but caspase inhibition does not rescue the cells and Bcl-2 overexpression or altered p53 status does not influence the sensitivity of tumor cells to HAMLET. HAMLET also creates a state of unfolded protein overload and activates 20S proteasomes, which contributes to cell death. In parallel, HAMLET translocates to tumor cell nuclei, where high-affinity interactions with histones cause chromatin disruption, loss of transcription, and nuclear condensation. The dying cells also show morphological changes compatible with macroautophagy, and recent studies indicate that macroautophagy is involved in the cell death response to HAMLET. The results suggest that HAMLET, like a hydra with many heads, may interact with several crucial cellular organelles, thereby activating several forms of cell death, in parallel. This complexity might underlie the rapid death response of tumor cells and the broad antitumor activity of HAMLET.

  9. Dying dangerously: Necrotic cell death and chronic inflammation promote tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Michael T; Demarco, Richard A

    2004-12-01

    Extract: We all shudder about untimely deaths or those that we were not prepared for. As such we perceive such "unscheduled" deaths as dangerous. Similarly, apoptotic death (literally falling leaves) or the programmed cell death of cells in multicellular organisms ranging from slime mold and simple worms through to mammals, has a level of tidiness and well-orchestrated activities with literally hundreds if not thousands of gene products employed with either the primary or secondary purpose of coordinating the orderly death of cells throughout life. During inflammation of any sort, driven by tissue damage or injury or infection by pathogens (virus, bacteria, and parasites), apoptotic death similarly serves to quickly rid the host of damaged cells, promote removal and digestion of the infected cell, and prepare the way for tissue remodeling and repair. When this goes awry, for example during periods of chronic inflammation, tissues are subjected to the contrasting needs of driving apoptotic death whilst maintaining the barrier function of the epithelia (such as skin cells) as well as the selective permeability of mucosal sites (i.e., areas where mucus is secreted to protect the cells from their surroundings, such as gut cells protecting themselves from the gastric acids). Prudently, they need to limit and husband local resources sufficiently for the maintenance of tissue integrity and renewal. It is our provocative and novel contention that cancer in adults (and not children) most often arises in a setting of chronic inflammation and disordered cell death rather than one associated primarily with disordered cell growth as it is popularly imagined by scientists, clinicians, and the general public.

  10. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 Expression Mediates Capsaicin-Induced Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Barrantes, Ricardo; Córdova, Claudio; Gatica, Sebastian; Rodriguez, Belén; Lozano, Carlo; Marchant, Ivanny; Echeverria, Cesar; Simon, Felipe; Olivero, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family consists of a broad variety of non-selective cation channels that integrate environmental physicochemical signals for dynamic homeostatic control. Involved in a variety of cellular physiological processes, TRP channels are fundamental to the control of the cell life cycle. TRP channels from the vanilloid (TRPV) family have been directly implicated in cell death. TRPV1 is activated by pain-inducing stimuli, including inflammatory endovanilloids and pungent exovanilloids, such as capsaicin (CAP). TRPV1 activation by high doses of CAP (>10 μM) leads to necrosis, but also exhibits apoptotic characteristics. However, CAP dose-response studies are lacking in order to determine whether CAP-induced cell death occurs preferentially via necrosis or apoptosis. In addition, it is not known whether cytosolic Ca 2+ and mitochondrial dysfunction participates in CAP-induced TRPV1-mediated cell death. By using TRPV1-transfected HeLa cells, we investigated the underlying mechanisms involved in CAP-induced TRPV1-mediated cell death, the dependence of CAP dose, and the participation of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic Ca 2+ increase. Together, our results contribute to elucidate the pathophysiological steps that follow after TRPV1 stimulation with CAP. Low concentrations of CAP (1 μM) induce cell death by a mechanism involving a TRPV1-mediated rapid and transient intracellular Ca 2+ increase that stimulates plasma membrane depolarization, thereby compromising plasma membrane integrity and ultimately leading to cell death. Meanwhile, higher doses of CAP induce cell death via a TRPV1-independent mechanism, involving a slow and persistent intracellular Ca 2+ increase that induces mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane depolarization, plasma membrane loss of integrity, and ultimately, cell death.

  11. Multimodal immunogenic cancer cell death as a consequence of anticancer cytotoxic treatments

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, H; Tani, K

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death generally characterized by a morphologically homogenous entity has been considered to be essentially non-immunogenic. However, apoptotic cancer cell death, also known as type 1 programmed cell death (PCD), was recently found to be immunogenic after treatment with several chemotherapeutic agents and oncolytic viruses through the emission of various danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Extensive studies have revealed that two different types of immunogenic cell death (ICD) inducers, recently classified by their distinct actions in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, can reinitiate immune responses suppressed by the tumor microenvironment. Indeed, recent clinical studies have shown that several immunotherapeutic modalities including therapeutic cancer vaccines and oncolytic viruses, but not conventional chemotherapies, culminate in beneficial outcomes, probably because of their different mechanisms of ICD induction. Furthermore, interests in PCD of cancer cells have shifted from its classical form to novel forms involving autophagic cell death (ACD), programmed necrotic cell death (necroptosis), and pyroptosis, some of which entail immunogenicity after anticancer treatments. In this review, we provide a brief outline of the well-characterized DAMPs such as calreticulin (CRT) exposure, high-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which are induced by the morphologically distinct types of cell death. In the latter part, our review focuses on how emerging oncolytic viruses induce different forms of cell death and the combinations of oncolytic virotherapies with further immunomodulation by cyclophosphamide and other immunotherapeutic modalities foster dendritic cell (DC)-mediated induction of antitumor immunity. Accordingly, it is increasingly important to fully understand how and which ICD inducers cause multimodal ICD, which should aid the design of reasonably multifaceted anticancer modalities to

  12. Stress and death of cnidarian host cells play a role in cnidarian bleaching.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Camille W; Davy, Simon K; Weis, Virginia M

    2013-08-01

    Coral bleaching occurs when there is a breakdown of the symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and resident Symbiodinium spp. Multiple mechanisms for the bleaching process have been identified, including apoptosis and autophagy, and most previous work has focused on the Symbiodinium cell as the initiator of the bleaching cascade. In this work we show that it is possible for host cells to initiate apoptosis that can contribute to death of the Symbiodinium cell. First we found that colchicine, which results in apoptosis in other animals, causes cell death in the model anemone Aiptasia sp. but not in cultured Symbiodinium CCMP-830 cells or in cells freshly isolated from host Aiptasia (at least within the time frame of our study). In contrast, when symbiotic Aiptasia were incubated in colchicine, cell death in the resident Symbiodinium cells was observed, suggesting a host effect on symbiont mortality. Using live-cell confocal imaging of macerated symbiotic host cell isolates, we identified a pattern where the initiation of host cell death was followed by mortality of the resident Symbiodinium cells. This same pattern was observed in symbiotic host cells that were subjected to temperature stress. This research suggests that mortality of symbionts during temperature-induced bleaching can be initiated in part by host cell apoptosis.

  13. Contribution of programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 to Kupffer cell dysfunction in murine polymicrobial sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Huang, Xin; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Chen, Yaping; Hutchins, Noelle A; Ayala, Alfred

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that coinhibitory receptors appear to be important in contributing sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Our laboratory reported that mice deficient in programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 have increased bacterial clearance and improved survival in experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In response to infection, the liver clears the blood of bacteria and produces cytokines. Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages in the liver, are strategically situated to perform the above functions. However, it is not known if PD-1 expression on Kupffer cells is altered by septic stimuli, let alone if PD-1 ligation contributes to the altered microbial handling seen. Here we report that PD-1 is significantly upregulated on Kupffer cells during sepsis. PD-1-deficient septic mouse Kupffer cells displayed markedly enhanced phagocytosis and restoration of the expression of major histocompatibility complex II and CD86, but reduced CD80 expression compared with septic wild-type (WT) mouse Kupffer cells. In response to ex vivo LPS stimulation, the cytokine productive capacity of Kupffer cells derived from PD-1-/- CLP mice exhibited a marked, albeit partial, restoration of the release of IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 compared with septic WT mouse Kupffer cells. In addition, PD-1 gene deficiency decreased LPS-induced apoptosis of septic Kupffer cells, as indicated by decreased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Exploring the signal pathways involved, we found that, after ex vivo LPS stimulation, septic PD-1-/- mouse Kupffer cells exhibited an increased Akt phosphorylation and a reduced p38 phosphorylation compared with septic WT mouse Kupffer cells. Together, these results indicate that PD-1 appears to play an important role in regulating the development of Kupffer cell dysfunction seen in sepsis. Copyright © 2016 the

  14. Contribution of programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 to Kupffer cell dysfunction in murine polymicrobial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Huang, Xin; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Chen, Yaping; Hutchins, Noelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that coinhibitory receptors appear to be important in contributing sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Our laboratory reported that mice deficient in programmed cell death receptor (PD)-1 have increased bacterial clearance and improved survival in experimental sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). In response to infection, the liver clears the blood of bacteria and produces cytokines. Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages in the liver, are strategically situated to perform the above functions. However, it is not known if PD-1 expression on Kupffer cells is altered by septic stimuli, let alone if PD-1 ligation contributes to the altered microbial handling seen. Here we report that PD-1 is significantly upregulated on Kupffer cells during sepsis. PD-1-deficient septic mouse Kupffer cells displayed markedly enhanced phagocytosis and restoration of the expression of major histocompatibility complex II and CD86, but reduced CD80 expression compared with septic wild-type (WT) mouse Kupffer cells. In response to ex vivo LPS stimulation, the cytokine productive capacity of Kupffer cells derived from PD-1−/− CLP mice exhibited a marked, albeit partial, restoration of the release of IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 compared with septic WT mouse Kupffer cells. In addition, PD-1 gene deficiency decreased LPS-induced apoptosis of septic Kupffer cells, as indicated by decreased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and reduced terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling-positive cells. Exploring the signal pathways involved, we found that, after ex vivo LPS stimulation, septic PD-1−/− mouse Kupffer cells exhibited an increased Akt phosphorylation and a reduced p38 phosphorylation compared with septic WT mouse Kupffer cells. Together, these results indicate that PD-1 appears to play an important role in regulating the development of Kupffer cell dysfunction seen in sepsis. PMID:27288425

  15. Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Resveratrol Is Partially Mediated by the Autophagy Pathway in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Fangfang; Qin, Zhaoyang; Li, Fang; Zhang, Huilin; Fang, Zhenghui; Hao, Enkui

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5’ –trihydroxystilbene) is an active compound in food, such as red grapes, peanuts, and berries. Resveratrol exhibits an anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. However, the mechanism of resveratrol-induced anti-cancer effect at the molecular level remains to be elucidated. In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect of resveratrol in human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 and Caov-3) was investigated using various molecular biology techniques, such as flow cytometry, western blotting, and RNA interference, with a major focus on the potential role of autophagy in resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. We demonstrated that resveratrol induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which triggers autophagy and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol induced ATG5 expression and promoted LC3 cleavage. The apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol was attenuated by both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, which functions at the late stage of autophagy, significantly reduced resveratrol-induced cell death and caspase 3 activity in human ovarian cancer cells. We also demonstrated that targeting ATG5 by siRNA also suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. Thus, we concluded that a common pathway between autophagy and apoptosis exists in resveratrol-induced cell death in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26067645

  16. Protection of LLC-PK1 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death by modulation of ceramide level.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Myung; Lee, Youn-Sun; Choi, Heon-Kyo; Lee, Yong-Moon; Hong, Jin-Tae; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Oh, Seikwan; Yoo, Hwan-Soo

    2005-03-01

    Oxidative stress has been reported to elevate ceramide level during cell death. The purpose of the present study was to modulate cell death in relation to cellular glutathione (GSH) level and GST (glutathione S-transferase) expression by regulating the sphingolipid metabolism. LLC-PK1 cells were treated with H2O2 in the absence of serum to induce cell death. Subsequent to exposure to H2O2, LLC-PK1 cells were treated with desipramine, sphingomyelinase inhibitor, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), GSH substrate. Based on comparative visual observation with H2O2-treated control cells, it was observed that 0.5 microM of desipramine and 25 mM of NAC exhibited about 90 and 95% of cytoprotection, respectively, against H2O2-induced cell death. Desipramine and NAC lowered the release of LDH activity by 36 and 3%, respectively, when compared to 71% in H2O2-exposed cells. Cellular glutathione level in 500 microM H2O2-treated cells was reduced to 890 pmol as compared to control level of 1198 pmol per mg protein. GST P1-1 expression was decreased in H2O2-treated cells compared to healthy normal cells. In conclusion, it has been inferred that H2O2-induced cell death is closely related to cellular GSH level and GST P1-1 expression in LLC-PK1 cells and occurs via ceramide elevation by sphingomyelinase activation.

  17. The contribution of the programmed cell death machinery in innate immune cells to lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, FuNien; Perlman, Harris; Cuda, Carla M

    2017-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-factorial autoimmune disease initiated by genetic and environmental factors, which in combination trigger disease onset in susceptible individuals. Damage to the kidney as a consequence of lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most prevalent and severe outcomes, as LN affects up to 60% of SLE patients and accounts for much of SLE-associated morbidity and mortality. As remarkable strides have been made in unlocking new inflammatory mechanisms associated with signaling molecules of programmed cell death pathways, this review explores the available evidence implicating the action of these pathways specifically within dendritic cells and macrophages in the control of kidney disease. Although advancements into the underlying mechanisms responsible for inducing cell death inflammatory pathways have been made, there still exist areas of unmet need. By understanding the molecular mechanisms by which dendritic cells and macrophages contribute to LN pathogenesis, we can improve their viability as potential therapeutic targets to promote remission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A pharmacologically-based array to identify targets of cyclosporine A-induced toxicity in cultured renal proximal tubule cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sarró, Eduard, E-mail: eduard.sarro@vhir.org; Renal Physiopathology, CIBBIM-Nanomedicine, Vall d'Hebron Research Institute; Jacobs-Cachá, Conxita, E-mail: conxita.jacobs@vhir.org

    2012-01-15

    Mechanisms of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced nephrotoxicity were generally thought to be hemodynamic in origin; however, there is now accumulating evidence of a direct tubular effect. Although genomic and proteomic experiments by our group and others provided overall information on genes and proteins up- or down-regulated by CsA in proximal tubule cells (PTC), a comprehensive view of events occurring after CsA exposure remains to be described. For this purpose, we applied a pharmacologic approach based on the use of known activities of a large panel of potentially protective compounds and evaluated their efficacy in preventing CsA toxicity in cultured mouse PTC.more » Our results show that compounds that blocked protein synthesis and apoptosis, together with the CK2 inhibitor DMAT and the PI3K inhibitor apigenin, were the most efficient in preventing CsA toxicity. We also identified GSK3, MMPs and PKC pathways as potential targets to prevent CsA damage. Additionally, heparinase-I and MAPK inhibitors afforded partial but significant protection. Interestingly, antioxidants and calcium metabolism-related compounds were unable to ameliorate CsA-induced cytotoxicity. Subsequent experiments allowed us to clarify the hierarchical relationship of targeted pathways after CsA treatment, with ER stress identified as an early effector of CsA toxicity, which leads to ROS generation, phenotypical changes and cell death. In summary, this work presents a novel experimental approach to characterizing cellular responses to cytotoxics while pointing to new targets to prevent CsA-induced toxicity in proximal tubule cells. Highlights: ► We used a novel pharmacological approach to elucidate cyclosporine (CsA) toxicity. ► The ability of a broad range of compounds to prevent CsA toxicity was evaluated. ► CsA toxicity was monitored using LDH release assay and PARP cleavage. ► Protein synthesis, PI3K, GSK3, MMP, PKC and caspase inhibitors prevented CsA toxicity. ► We also

  19. Immunogenic cancer cell death selectively induced by near infrared photoimmunotherapy initiates host tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Mikako; Tomita, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuko; Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Sunmin; Tomita, Saori; Nagaya, Tadanobu; Sato, Kazuhide; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Iwai, Hidenao; Kumar, Abhishek; Haystead, Timothy; Shroff, Hari; Choyke, Peter L; Trepel, Jane B; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2017-02-07

    Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a form of cell death that activates an adaptive immune response against dead-cell-associated antigens. Cancer cells killed via ICD can elicit antitumor immunity. ICD is efficiently induced by near-infrared photo-immunotherapy (NIR-PIT) that selectively kills target-cells on which antibody-photoabsorber conjugates bind and are activated by NIR light exposure. Advanced live cell microscopies showed that NIR-PIT caused rapid and irreversible damage to the cell membrane function leading to swelling and bursting, releasing intracellular components due to the influx of water into the cell. The process also induces relocation of ICD bio markers including calreticulin, Hsp70 and Hsp90 to the cell surface and the rapid release of immunogenic signals including ATP and HMGB1 followed by maturation of immature dendritic cells. Thus, NIR-PIT is a therapy that kills tumor cells by ICD, eliciting a host immune response against tumor.

  20. [6]-Gingerol Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Death of Mutant p53-expressing Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yon Jung; Wen, Jing; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo

    2006-01-01

    [6]-Gingerol, a major phenolic compound derived from ginger, has anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. While several molecular mechanisms have been described to underlie its effects on cells in vitro and in vivo, the underlying mechanisms by which [6]-gingerol exerts anti-tumorigenic effects are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the action of [6]-gingerol on two human pancreatic cancer cell lines, HPAC expressing wild-type (wt) p53 and BxPC-3 expressing mutated p53. We found that [6]-gingerol inhibited the cell growth through cell cycle arrest at G1 phase in both cell lines. Western blot analyses indicated that [6]-gingerol decreased both Cyclin A and Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) expression. These events led to reduction in Rb phosphorylation followed by blocking of S phase entry. p53 expression was decreased by [6]-gingerol treatment in both cell lines suggesting that the induction of Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21cip1, was p53-independent. [6]-Gingerol induced mostly apoptotic death in the mutant p53-expressing cells, while no signs of early apoptosis were detected in wild type p53-expressing cells and this was related to the increased phosphorylation of AKT. These results suggest that [6]-gingerol can circumvent the resistance of mutant p53-expressing cells towards chemotherapy by inducing apoptotic cell death while it exerts cytostatic effect on wild type p53-expressing cells by inducing temporal growth arrest. PMID:17066513

  1. Reactive oxygen species induced by Streptococcus pyogenes invasion trigger apoptotic cell death in infected epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Chihiro; Nozawa, Takashi; Maruyama, Fumito; Tsumoto, Kohei; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2010-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS), one of the most common pathogens of humans, attaches and invades into human pharyngeal or skin epithelial cells. We have previously reported that induction of apoptosis is associated with GAS invasion, which induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. We demonstrate here that GAS-induced apoptosis is mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both the induction of apoptosis and ROS production markedly increased upon invasion of wild-type GAS strain JRS4 into HeLa cells; however, the apoptotic response was not observed in fibronectin-binding protein F1-disrupted mutant SAM1-infected cells. In Bcl-2-overexpressing HeLa cells (HBD98-2-4), the induction of apoptosis, ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction were significantly suppressed, whereas the numbers of invaded GAS was not different between HeLa (mock cells) and the HeLa HBD98-2-4 cells. Whereas Rac1 activation occurred during GAS invasion, ROS production in GAS-infected cells was clearly inhibited by transfection with the Rac1 mutants (L37 or V12L37), but not by the dominant active mutant (V12L61) or by the dominant negative mutant (N17). These observations indicate that GAS invasion triggers ROS production through Rac1 activation and generated ROS induced mitochondrial dysfunction leading to cellular apoptosis.

  2. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Qin, J-Z; Xin, H; Nickoloff, B J

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vacuolar and cytoskeletal dynamics during elicitor-induced programmed cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takumi; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Goh, Tatsuaki; Hayashi, Teruyuki; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Sano, Toshio; Hasezawa, Seiichiro; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Responses of plant cells to environmental stresses often involve morphological changes, differentiation and redistribution of various organelles and cytoskeletal network. Tobacco BY-2 cells provide excellent model system for in vivo imaging of these intracellular events. Treatment of the cell cycle-synchronized BY-2 cells with a proteinaceous oomycete elicitor, cryptogein, induces highly synchronous programmed cell death (PCD) and provide a model system to characterize vacuolar and cytoskeletal dynamics during the PCD. Sequential observation revealed dynamic reorganization of the vacuole and actin microfilaments during the execution of the PCD. We further characterized the effects cryptogein on mitotic microtubule organization in cell cycle-synchronized cells. Cryptogein treatment at S phase inhibited formation of the preprophase band, a cortical microtubule band that predicts the cell division site. Cortical microtubules kept their random orientation till their disruption that gradually occurred during the execution of the PCD twelve hours after the cryptogein treatment. Possible molecular mechanisms and physiological roles of the dynamic behavior of the organelles and cytoskeletal network in the pathogenic signal-induced PCD are discussed.

  4. Genetically induced cell death in bulge stem cells reveals their redundancy for hair and epidermal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Driskell, Iwona; Oeztuerk-Winder, Feride; Humphreys, Peter; Frye, Michaela

    2015-03-01

    Adult mammalian epidermis contains multiple stem cell populations in which quiescent and more proliferative stem and progenitor populations coexist. However, the precise interrelation of these populations in homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we blocked the contribution of quiescent keratin 19 (K19)-expressing bulge stem cells to hair follicle formation through genetic ablation of the essential histone methyltransferase Setd8 that is required for the maintenance of adult skin. Deletion of Setd8 eliminated the contribution of bulge cells to hair follicle regeneration through inhibition of cell division and induction of cell death, but the growth and morphology of hair follicles were unaffected. Furthermore, ablation of Setd8 in the hair follicle bulge blocked the contribution of K19-postive stem cells to wounded epidermis, but the wound healing process was unaltered. Our data indicate that quiescent bulge stem cells are dispensable for hair follicle regeneration and epidermal injury in the short term and support the hypothesis that quiescent and cycling stem cell populations are equipotent. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Mechanisms underlying 3-bromopyruvate-induced cell death in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yiming; Liu, Zhe; Zou, Xue; Lan, Yadong; Sun, Xiaojin; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Surong; Jiang, Chenchen; Liu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is an energy-depleting drug that inhibits Hexokinase II activity by alkylation during glycolysis, thereby suppressing the production of ATP and inducing cell death. As such, 3BP can potentially serve as an anti-tumorigenic agent. Our previous research showed that 3BP can induce apoptosis via AKT /protein Kinase B signaling in breast cancer cells. Here we found that 3BP can also induce colon cancer cell death by necroptosis and apoptosis at the same time and concentration in the SW480 and HT29 cell lines; in the latter, autophagy was also found to be a mechanism of cell death. In HT29 cells, combined treatment with 3BP and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) exacerbated cell death, while viability in 3BP-treated cells was enhanced by concomitant treatment with the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk) and the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin (Nec)-1. Moreover, 3BP inhibited tumor growth in a SW480 xenograft mouse model. These results indicate that 3BP can suppress tumor growth and induce cell death by multiple mechanisms at the same time and concentration in different types of colon cancer cell by depleting cellular energy stores.

  6. The engulfment receptor Draper is required for autophagy during cell death.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Christina K; Baehrecke, Eric H

    2010-11-01

    Autophagy is a process to degrade and recycle cytoplasmic contents. Autophagy is required for survival in response to starvation, but has also been associated with cell death. How autophagy functions during cell survival in some contexts and cell death in others is unknown. Drosophila larval salivary glands undergo programmed cell death requiring autophagy genes, and are cleared in the absence of known phagocytosis. Recently, we demonstrated that Draper (Drpr), the Drosophila homolog of C. elegans engulfment receptor CED-1, is required for autophagy induction: during cell death, but not during cell survival. drpr mutants fail to clear salivary glands. drpr knockdown in salivary glands prevents the induction of autophagy, and Atg1 misexpression in drpr null mutants suppresses salivary gland persistence. Surprisingly, drpr knockdown cell-autonomously prevents autophagy induction in dying salivary gland cells, but not in larval fat body cells following starvation. This is the first engulfment factor shown to function in cellular self-clearance, and the first report of a cell-death-specific autophagy regulator.

  7. Methadone induces CAD degradation and AIF-mediated necrotic-like cell death in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Perez-Alvarez, Sergio; Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Solesio, María E; Melero-Fernandez de Mera, Raquel María; Yuste, Víctor J; Galindo, María F; Jordán, Joaquín

    2011-04-01

    Methadone (d,l-methadone hydrochloride) is a full-opioid agonist, originally developed as a substitution for heroin or other opiates abusers. Nowadays methadone is also being applied as long-lasting analgesics in cancer, and it is proposed as a promising agent for leukemia therapy. Previously, we have demonstrated that high concentrations of methadone (0.5mM) induced necrotic-like cell death in SH-SY5Y cells. The pathway involved is caspase-independent but involves impairment of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and mitochondrial cytochrome c release. However, the downstream mitochondrial pathways remained unclear. Here, we studied the participation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in methadone-induced cell death. Methadone resulted in a translocation of AIF from mitochondria to the nucleus. Translocation was inhibited by cyclosporine A, but not by lack of Bax protein. Therefore the effect seems mediated by the formation of the mitochondrial transition pore, but is apparently independent of Bax. Furthermore, methadone-treated SH-SY5Y nuclei show characteristics that are typical for stage I nuclear condensation. Methadone did not induce degradation of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments or into high molecular weight DNA fragments. Absence of DNA fragmentation coincided with a considerable decrease in the levels of the caspase-actived endonuclase DNase and its chaperone-inhibitor ICAD. In conclusion, our results provide mechanistic insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie methadone-induced cell death. This knowledge may prove useful to develop novel strategies to prevent toxic side-effects of methadone thereby sustaining its use as therapeutical agent against tumors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell Wall Invertase Promotes Fruit Set under Heat Stress by Suppressing ROS-Independent Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Hua; Offler, Christina E; Ruan, Yong-Ling

    2016-09-01

    Reduced cell wall invertase (CWIN) activity has been shown to be associated with poor seed and fruit set under abiotic stress. Here, we examined whether genetically increasing native CWIN activity would sustain fruit set under long-term moderate heat stress (LMHS), an important factor limiting crop production, by using transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with its CWIN inhibitor gene silenced and focusing on ovaries and fruits at 2 d before and after pollination, respectively. We found that the increase of CWIN activity suppressed LMHS-induced programmed cell death in fruits. Surprisingly, measurement of the contents of H2O2 and malondialdehyde and the activities of a cohort of antioxidant enzymes revealed that the CWIN-mediated inhibition on programmed cell death is exerted in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner. Elevation of CWIN activity sustained Suc import into fruits and increased activities of hexokinase and fructokinase in the ovaries in response to LMHS Compared to the wild type, the CWIN-elevated transgenic plants exhibited higher transcript levels of heat shock protein genes Hsp90 and Hsp100 in ovaries and HspII17.6 in fruits under LMHS, which corresponded to a lower transcript level of a negative auxin responsive factor IAA9 but a higher expression of the auxin biosynthesis gene ToFZY6 in fruits at 2 d after pollination. Collectively, the data indicate that CWIN enhances fruit set under LMHS through suppression of programmed cell death in a reactive oxygen species-independent manner that could involve enhanced Suc import and catabolism, HSP expression, and auxin response and biosynthesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and characterization of cannabinoids that induce cell death through mitochondrial permeability transition in Cannabis leaf cells.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Yumi; Sasaki, Kaori; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fukamizu, Tomohide; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Taura, Futoshi

    2007-07-13

    Cannabinoids are secondary metabolites stored in capitate-sessile glands on leaves of Cannabis sativa. We discovered that cell death is induced in the leaf tissues exposed to cannabinoid resin secreted from the glands, and identified cannabichromenic acid (CBCA) and Delta(1)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) as unique cell death mediators from the resin. These cannabinoids effectively induced cell death in the leaf cells or suspension-cultured cells of C. sativa, whereas pretreatment with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor cyclosporin A suppressed this cell death response. Examinations using isolated mitochondria demonstrated that CBCA and THCA mediate opening of MPT pores without requiring Ca(2+) and other cytosolic factors, resulting in high amplitude mitochondrial swelling, release of mitochondrial proteins (cytochrome c and nuclease), and irreversible loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Therefore, CBCA and THCA are considered to cause serious damage to mitochondria through MPT. The mitochondrial damage was also confirmed by a marked decrease of ATP level in cannabinoid-treated suspension cells. These features are in good accord with those of necrotic cell death, whereas DNA degradation was also observed in cannabinoid-mediated cell death. However, the DNA degradation was catalyzed by nuclease(s) released from mitochondria during MPT, indicating that this reaction was not induced via a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of the DNA degradation only slightly blocked the cell death induced by cannabinoids. Based on these results, we conclude that CBCA and THCA have the ability to induce necrotic cell death via mitochondrial dysfunction in the leaf cells of C. sativa.

  10. Improving Accuracy in Arrhenius Models of Cell Death: Adding a Temperature-Dependent Time Delay.

    PubMed

    Pearce, John A

    2015-12-01

    The Arrhenius formulation for single-step irreversible unimolecular reactions has been used for many decades to describe the thermal damage and cell death processes. Arrhenius predictions are acceptably accurate for structural proteins, for some cell death assays, and for cell death at higher temperatures in most cell lines, above about 55 °C. However, in many cases--and particularly at hyperthermic temperatures, between about 43 and 55 °C--the particular intrinsic cell death or damage process under study exhibits a significant "shoulder" region that constant-rate Arrhenius models are unable to represent with acceptable accuracy. The primary limitation is that Arrhenius calculations always overestimate the cell death fraction, which leads to severely overoptimistic predictions of heating effectiveness in tumor treatment. Several more sophisticated mathematical model approaches have been suggested and show much-improved performance. But simpler models that have adequate accuracy would provide useful and practical alternatives to intricate biochemical analyses. Typical transient intrinsic cell death processes at hyperthermic temperatures consist of a slowly developing shoulder region followed by an essentially constant-rate region. The shoulder regions have been demonstrated to arise chiefly from complex functional protein signaling cascades that generate delays in the onset of the constant-rate region, but may involve heat shock protein activity as well. This paper shows that acceptably accurate and much-improved predictions in the simpler Arrhenius models can be obtained by adding a temperature-dependent time delay. Kinetic coefficients and the appropriate time delay are obtained from the constant-rate regions of the measured survival curves. The resulting predictions are seen to provide acceptably accurate results while not overestimating cell death. The method can be relatively easily incorporated into numerical models. Additionally, evidence is presented

  11. Bar represses dPax2 and decapentaplegic to regulate cell fate and morphogenetic cell death in Drosophila eye.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jongkyun; Yeom, Eunbyul; Lim, Janghoo; Choi, Kwang-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated regulation of cell fate and cell survival is crucial for normal pattern formation in developing organisms. In Drosophila compound eye development, crystalline arrays of hexagonal ommatidia are established by precise assembly of diverse cell types, including the photoreceptor cells, cone cells and interommatidial (IOM) pigment cells. The molecular basis for controlling the number of cone and IOM pigment cells during ommatidial pattern formation is not well understood. Here we present evidence that BarH1 and BarH2 homeobox genes are essential for eye patterning by inhibiting excess cone cell differentiation and promoting programmed death of IOM cells. Specifically, we show that loss of Bar from the undifferentiated retinal precursor cells leads to ectopic expression of Prospero and dPax2, two transcription factors essential for cone cell specification, resulting in excess cone cell differentiation. We also show that loss of Bar causes ectopic expression of the TGFβ homolog Decapentaplegic (Dpp) posterior to the morphogenetic furrow in the larval eye imaginal disc. The ectopic Dpp expression is not responsible for the formation of excess cone cells in Bar loss-of-function mutant eyes. Instead, it causes reduction in IOM cell death in the pupal stage by antagonizing the function of pro-apoptotic gene reaper. Taken together, this study suggests a novel regulatory mechanism in the control of developmental cell death in which the repression of Dpp by Bar in larval eye disc is essential for IOM cell death in pupal retina.

  12. Licochalcone A induces autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR inactivation and autophagy suppression enhances Licochalcone A-induced apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Pi; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Lin, Chu-Liang; Lin, Chia-Liang; Hsueh, Jung-Tsung; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien

    2015-10-06

    The use of dietary bioactive compounds in chemoprevention can potentially reverse, suppress, or even prevent cancer progression. However, the effects of licochalcone A (LicA) on apoptosis and autophagy in cervical cancer cells have not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, LicA treatment was found to significantly induce the apoptotic and autophagic capacities of cervical cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay results showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in four cervical cancer cell lines treated with LicA. We found that LicA induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in SiHa cells, with decreasing Bcl-2 expression. LicA also induced autophagy effects were examined by identifying accumulation of Atg5, Atg7, Atg12 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Treatment with autophagy-specific inhibitors (3-methyladenine and bafilomycin A1) enhanced LicA-induced apoptosis. In addition, we suggested the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of mTOR pathway by LicA. Furthermore, the inhibition of PI3K/Akt by LY294002/si-Akt or of mTOR by rapamycin augmented LicA-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Finally, the in vivo mice bearing a SiHa xenograft, LicA dosed at 10 or 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the chemotherapeutic potential of LicA for treatment of human cervical cancer.

  13. Cell death in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Pragnesh; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2017-12-01

    Nephritis is one of the most severe complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). One key characteristic of lupus nephritis (LN) is the deposition of immune complexes containing nucleic acids and/or proteins binding to nucleic acids and autoantibodies recognizing these molecules. A variety of cell death processes are implicated in the generation and externalization of modified nuclear autoantigens and in the development of LN. Among these processes, apoptosis, primary and secondary necrosis, NETosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy have been proposed to play roles in tissue damage and immune dysregulation. Cell death occurs in healthy individuals during conditions of homeostasis yet autoimmunity does not develop, at least in part, because of rapid clearance of dying cells. In SLE, accelerated cell death combined with a clearance deficiency may lead to the accumulation and externalization of nuclear autoantigens and to autoantibody production. In addition, specific types of cell death may modify autoantigens and alter their immunogenicity. These modified molecules may then become novel targets of the immune system and promote autoimmune responses in predisposed hosts. In this review, we examine various cell death pathways and discuss how enhanced cell death, impaired clearance, and post-translational modifications of proteins could contribute to the development of lupus nephritis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Extracellular acidification by lactic acid suppresses glucose deprivation-induced cell death and autophagy in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Taisuke; Sadzuka, Yasuyuki

    2018-02-19

    In solid tumors, cancer cells survive and proliferate under conditions of microenvironment stress such as poor nutrients and hypoxia due to inadequate vascularization. These stress conditions in turn activate autophagy, which is important for cancer cell survival. However, autophagy has a contrary effect of inducing cell death in cancer cells cultured in vitro under conditions of glucose deprivation. In this study, we hypothesized that supplementation of lactic acid serves as a means of cell survival under glucose-deprived conditions. At neutral pH, cell death of B16 murine melanoma cells by autophagy under glucose-deprived conditions was observed. However, supplementation of lactic acid suppressed cell death and autophagy in B16 melanoma cells when cultured in glucose-deprived conditions. Sodium lactate, which does not change extracellular pH, did not inhibit cell death, while HCl-adjusted acidic pH suppressed cell death under glucose-deprived conditions. These results suggested that an acidic pH is crucial for cell survival under glucose-deprived conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH) Aggregation Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction during Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death*

    PubMed Central

    Itakura, Masanori; Kubo, Takeya; Kaneshige, Akihiro; Harada, Naoki; Izawa, Takeshi; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamaji, Ryouichi; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-01-01

    Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a multifunctional protein that also mediates cell death under oxidative stress. We reported previously that the active-site cysteine (Cys-152) of GAPDH plays an essential role in oxidative stress-induced aggregation of GAPDH associated with cell death, and a C152A-GAPDH mutant rescues nitric oxide (NO)-induced cell death by interfering with the aggregation of wild type (WT)-GAPDH. However, the detailed mechanism underlying GAPDH aggregate-induced cell death remains elusive. Here we report that NO-induced GAPDH aggregation specifically causes mitochondrial dysfunction. First, we observed a correlation between NO-induced GAPDH aggregation and mitochondrial dysfunction, when GAPDH aggregation occurred at mitochondria in SH-SY5Y cells. In isolated mitochondria, aggregates of WT-GAPDH directly induced mitochondrial swelling and depolarization, whereas mixtures containing aggregates of C152A-GAPDH reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Additionally, treatment with cyclosporin A improved WT-GAPDH aggregate-induced swelling and depolarization. In doxycycline-inducible SH-SY5Y cells, overexpression of WT-GAPDH augmented NO-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and increased mitochondrial GAPDH aggregation, whereas induced overexpression of C152A-GAPDH significantly suppressed mitochondrial impairment. Further, NO-induced cytochrome c release into the cytosol and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria were both augmented in cells overexpressing WT-GAPDH but ameliorated in C152A-GAPDH-overexpressing cells. Interestingly, GAPDH aggregates induced necrotic cell death via a permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The expression of either WT- or C152A-GAPDH did not affect other cell death pathways associated with protein aggregation, such as proteasome inhibition, gene expression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, or autophagy. Collectively, these results suggest that NO-induced GAPDH

  16. Bubbling cell death: A hot air balloon released from the nucleus in the cold.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nan-Shan

    2016-06-01

    Cell death emanating from the nucleus is largely unknown. In our recent study, we determined that when temperature is lowered in the surrounding environment, apoptosis stops and bubbling cell death (BCD) occurs. The study concerns the severity of frostbite. When exposed to severe cold and strong ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, people may suffer serious damages to the skin and internal organs. This ultimately leads to limb amputations, organ failure, and death. BCD is defined as "formation of a single bubble from the nucleus per cell and release of this swelling bubble from the cell surface to extracellular space that causes cell death." When cells are subjected to UV irradiation and/or brief cold shock (4℃ for 5 min) and then incubated at room temperature or 4℃ for time-lapse microscopy, each cell releases an enlarging nuclear gas bubble containing nitric oxide. Certain cells may simultaneously eject hundreds or thousands of exosome-like particles. Unlike apoptosis, no phosphatidylserine flip-over, mitochondrial apoptosis, damage to Golgi complex, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation are shown in BCD. When the temperature is increased back at 37℃, bubble formation stops and apoptosis restarts. Mechanistically, proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase and p53 block the protective TNF receptor adaptor factor 2 that allows nitric oxide synthase 2 to synthesize nitric oxide and bubble formation. In this mini-review, updated knowledge in cell death and the proposed molecular mechanism for BCD are provided. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Bubbling cell death: A hot air balloon released from the nucleus in the cold

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cell death emanating from the nucleus is largely unknown. In our recent study, we determined that when temperature is lowered in the surrounding environment, apoptosis stops and bubbling cell death (BCD) occurs. The study concerns the severity of frostbite. When exposed to severe cold and strong ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, people may suffer serious damages to the skin and internal organs. This ultimately leads to limb amputations, organ failure, and death. BCD is defined as “formation of a single bubble from the nucleus per cell and release of this swelling bubble from the cell surface to extracellular space that causes cell death.” When cells are subjected to UV irradiation and/or brief cold shock (4℃ for 5 min) and then incubated at room temperature or 4℃ for time-lapse microscopy, each cell releases an enlarging nuclear gas bubble containing nitric oxide. Certain cells may simultaneously eject hundreds or thousands of exosome-like particles. Unlike apoptosis, no phosphatidylserine flip-over, mitochondrial apoptosis, damage to Golgi complex, and chromosomal DNA fragmentation are shown in BCD. When the temperature is increased back at 37℃, bubble formation stops and apoptosis restarts. Mechanistically, proapoptotic WW domain-containing oxidoreductase and p53 block the protective TNF receptor adaptor factor 2 that allows nitric oxide synthase 2 to synthesize nitric oxide and bubble formation. In this mini-review, updated knowledge in cell death and the proposed molecular mechanism for BCD are provided. PMID:27075929

  18. Histological and Finite Element Analysis of Cell Death due to Irreversible Electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Long, G.; Bakos, G.; Shires, P. K.; Gritter, L.; Crissman, J. W.; Harris, J. L.; Clymer, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Irreversible electroporation (IRE) has been shown to be an effective method of killing cells locally. In contrast to radiofrequency ablation, the mechanism by which cells are thought to die via IRE is the creation of pores in cell membranes, without substantial increase in tissue temperature. To determine the degree to which cell death is non-thermal, we evaluated IRE in porcine hepatocytes in vivo. Using pulse widths of 10μs, bursts of 3 kV square-wave pulses were applied through a custom probe to the liver of an anesthetized pig. Affected tissue was evaluated histologically via stainings of hematoxylin & eosin (H&E), nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) to monitor cell respiration and TUNEL to gauge apoptosis. Temperature was measured during the application of electroporation, and heat transfer was modeled via finite element analysis. Cell death was calculated via Arrhenius kinetics. Four distinct zones were observed within the ring return electrode; heat-fixed tissue, coagulation, necrotic, and viable. The Arrhenius damage integral estimated complete cell death only in the first zone, where the temperature exceeded 70°C, and partial or no cell death in the other zones, where maximum temperature was approximately 45°C. Except for a limited area near the electrode tip, cell death in IRE is predominantly due to a non-thermal mechanism. PMID:24000980

  19. Fluorescence imaging analysis of taxol-induced ASTC-a-1 cell death with cell swelling and cytoplasmic vacuolization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tong-sheng; Sun, Lei; Wang, Longxiang; Wang, Huiying

    2008-02-01

    Taxol (Paclitaxel), an isolated component from the bark of the Pacific yew Taxus brevifolia, exhibits a broad spectrum of clinical activity against human cancers. Taxol can promote microtubule (MT) assembly, inhibit depolymerization, and change MT dynamics, resulting in disruption of the normal reorganization of the microtubule network required for mitosis and cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism of taxol-induced cell death is still unclear. In this report, CCK-8 was used to assay the inhibition of taxol on the human lung adenocarcinoma (ASTC-a-1) cells viability, confocal fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the morphology changes of cells with taxol treatment. We for the first time describe the characteristics of taxol-induced cells swelling, cytoplasmic vacuolization and cell death. Taxol induced swelling, cytoplasmatic vacuolization and cell death without cell shrinkage and membrane rupture. These features differ from those of apoptosis and resemble the paraptosis, a novel nonapoptotic PCD.

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J., E-mail: bnickol@lumc.edu

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cellmore » killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.« less

  1. Pollen tube reuses intracellular components of nucellar cells undergoing programmed cell death in Pinus densiflora.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Rie; Terasaka, Osamu

    2011-04-01

    Through the process known as programmed cell death (PCD), nucelli of Pinus densiflora serve as the transmitting tissue for growth of the pollen tube. We sought to clarify the processes of degradation of nucellar cell components and their transport to the pollen tube during PCD in response to pollen tube penetration of such nucelli. Stimulated by pollination, synthesis of large amounts of starch grains occurred in cells in a wide region of the nucellus, but as the pollen tube penetrated the nucellus, starch grains were degraded in amyloplasts of nucellar cells. In cells undergoing PCD, electron-dense vacuoles with high membrane contrast appeared, assumed a variety of autophagic structures, expanded, and ultimately collapsed and disappeared. Vesicles and electron-dense amorphous materials were released inside the thickened walls of cells undergoing PCD, and those vesicles and materials reaching the pollen tube after passing through the extracellular matrix were taken into the tube by endocytosis. These results show that in PCD of nucellar cells, intracellular materials are degraded in amyloplasts and vacuoles, and some of the degraded material is supplied to the pollen tube by vesicular transport to support tube growth.

  2. Cell life and death in the anterior pituitary gland: role of oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Seilicovich, A

    2010-07-01

    Apoptotic processes play an important role in the maintenance of cell numbers in the anterior pituitary gland during physiological endocrine events. In this review, we summarise the regulation of apoptosis of anterior pituitary cells, particularly lactotrophs, somatotrophs and gonadotrophs, and analyse the possible mechanisms involved in oestrogen-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells. Oestrogens exert apoptotic actions in several cell types and act as modulators of pituitary cell renewal, sensitising cells to both mitogenic and apoptotic signals. Local synthesis of growth factors and cytokines induced by oestradiol as well as changes in phenotypic features that enhance the responsiveness of anterior pituitary cells to pro-apoptotic factors may account for cyclical apoptotic activity in anterior pituitary cells during the oestrous cycle. Considering that tissue homeostasis results from a balance between cell proliferation and death and that mechanisms involved in apoptosis are tightly regulated, defects in cell death processes could have a considerable physiopathological impact.

  3. An endogenous 55 kDa TNF receptor mediates cell death in a neural cell line.

    PubMed

    Sipe, K J; Srisawasdi, D; Dantzer, R; Kelley, K W; Weyhenmeyer, J A

    1996-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is associated with developmental and injury-related events in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we have examined the role of TNF on neurons using the clonal murine neuroblastoma line, N1E-115 (N1E). N1E cells represent a well-defined model for studying neuronal development since they can be maintained as either undifferentiated, mitotically active neuroblasts or as differentiated, mature neurons. Northern and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed that both undifferentiated and differentiated N1Es express transcripts for the 55 kDa TNF receptor (TNFR), but not the 75 kDa TNFR. The biological activity of the expressed TNF receptor was demonstrated by a dose dependent cytotoxicity to either recombinant murine or human TNF when the cells were incubated with the transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D. The lack of the 75 kDa receptor mRNA expression and the dose dependent response to rHuTNF, an agonist specific for the murine 55 kDa receptor, suggest that the TNF induced cytotoxicity is mediated through the 55 kDa receptor in both the undifferentiated and differentiated N1Es. Light microscopic observations, flow cytometric analysis of hypodiploid DNA, and electrophoretic analysis of nucleosomal DNA fragmentation of N1Es treated with actinomycin D and TNF revealed features characteristic of both necrotic and apoptotic cell death. These findings demonstrate that blast and mature N1E cells express the 55 kDa TNF receptor which is responsible for inducing both necrotic and apoptotic death in these cells. The observation that actinomycin D renders N1E cells susceptible to the cytotoxic effects of TNF indicates that a sensitization step, such as removal of an endogenous protective factor or viral-mediated inhibition of transcription, may be necessary for TNF cytotoxicity in neurons.

  4. Yeast Genetics for Delineating Bax/Bcl Pathway of Cell Death Regulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    differences in tosol. The cytosol also became electron dense ("cyto- the copy number of the episomal plasmid from which solic condensation"), similar to...Cell Death & Differ . 3, 229-236. (1993). The C. eheans cell death gene ccd-3 encodes a protein similar ¶Xhitc. K., Tahaoglu, E., and Steller, H. (1996...components may be used in different functional contexts. Similar modules might exist in metazoan apoptotic pathways. Even though yeast does not contain

  5. Using stochastic cell division and death to probe minimal units of cellular replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chib, Savita; Das, Suman; Venkatesan, Soumya; Sai Narain Seshasayee, Aswin; Thattai, Mukund

    2018-03-01

    The invariant cell initiation mass measured in bacterial growth experiments has been interpreted as a minimal unit of cellular replication. Here we argue that the existence of such minimal units induces a coupling between the rates of stochastic cell division and death. To probe this coupling we tracked live and dead cells in Escherichia coli populations treated with a ribosome-targeting antibiotic. We find that the growth exponent from macroscopic cell growth or decay measurements can be represented as the difference of microscopic first-order cell division and death rates. The boundary between cell growth and decay, at which the number of live cells remains constant over time, occurs at the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotic. This state appears macroscopically static but is microscopically dynamic: division and death rates exactly cancel at MIC but each is remarkably high, reaching 60% of the antibiotic-free division rate. A stochastic model of cells as collections of minimal replicating units we term ‘widgets’ reproduces both steady-state and transient features of our experiments. Sub-cellular fluctuations of widget numbers stochastically drive each new daughter cell to one of two alternate fates, division or death. First-order division or death rates emerge as eigenvalues of a stationary Markov process, and can be expressed in terms of the widget’s molecular properties. High division and death rates at MIC arise due to low mean and high relative fluctuations of widget number. Isolating cells at the threshold of irreversible death might allow molecular characterization of this minimal replication unit.

  6. LAMP-2 mediates oxidative stress-dependent cell death in Zn2+-treated lung epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xia; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Xu, Ge; Zou, Zhen

    2017-06-17

    Zinc is an essential element for the biological system. However, excessive exogenous Zn 2+ would disrupt cellular Zn 2+ homeostasis and cause toxicity. In particular, Zinc salts or ZnO nanoparticles exposure could induce respiratory injury. Although previous studies have indicated that organelle damage (including mitochondria or lysosomes) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in Zn 2+ -induced toxicity, the interplay between mitochondria/lysosomes damage and ROS production is obscure. Herein, we demonstrated that Zn 2+ could induce deglycosylation of lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2), which primarily locate in late endosomes/lysosomes, in A549 lung epithelium cells. Intriguingly, LAMP-2 knockdown further aggravated Zn 2+ -mediated ROS production and cell death, indicating LAMP-2 (not LAMP-1) was involved in Zn 2+ -induced toxicity. Our results provide a new insight that LAMP-2 contributes to the ROS clearance and cell death induced by Zn 2+ treatment, which would help us to get a better understanding of Zn 2+ -induced toxicity in respiratory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Silicon does not mitigate cell death in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells subjected to salinity without ethylene emission.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaolei; Wang, Huahua; Hu, Yanfeng; Mao, Lina; Sun, Lili; Dong, Tian; Nan, Wenbin; Bi, Yurong

    2015-02-01

    Silicon induces cell death when ethylene is suppressed in cultured tobacco BY-2 cells. There is a crosstalk between Si and ethylene signaling. Silicon (Si) is beneficial for plant growth. It alleviates both biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. How Si works in plants is still mysterious. This study investigates the mechanism of Si-induced cell death in tobacco BY-2 cell cultures when ethylene is suppressed. Results showed that K2SiO3 alleviated the damage of NaCl stress. Si treatment rapidly increased ethylene emission and the expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes. Treatments with Si + Ag and Si + aminooxyacetic acid (AOA, ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor) reduced the cell growth and increased cell damage. The treatment with Si + Ag induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation and ultimately cell death. Some nucleus of BY-2 cells treated with Si + Ag appeared TUNEL positive. The inhibition of H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) production reduced the cell death rate induced by Si + Ag treatment. Si eliminated the up-regulation of alternative pathway by Ag. These data suggest that ethylene plays an important role in Si function in plants. Without ethylene, Si not only failed to enhance plant resistance, but also elevated H2O2 generation and further induced cell death in tobacco BY-2 cells.

  8. bcl-2 transgene inhibits T cell death and perturbs thymic self-censorship.

    PubMed

    Strasser, A; Harris, A W; Cory, S

    1991-11-29

    Early death is the fate of most developing T lymphocytes. Because bcl-2 can promote cell survival, we tested its impact in mice expressing an E mu-bcl-2 transgene within the T lymphoid compartment. The T cells showed remarkably sustained viability and some spontaneous differentiation in vitro. They also resisted killing by lymphotoxic agents. Although total T cell numbers and the rate of thymic involution were unaltered, the response to immunization was enhanced, consistent with reduced death of activated T cells. No T cells reactive with self-superantigens appeared in the lymph nodes, but an excess was found in the thymus. These observations, together with previous findings on B cells, suggest that modulated bcl-2 expression is a determinant of life and death in normal lymphocytes.

  9. Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    cell system would work and, if not, identify a new system. First, wild-type caspase-8 was stably expressed in the SH -SY-5Y line . SH -SY-5Y caspase-8...little success with the SH -SY-5Y cells we sought to use the I9.2 caspase-8 deficient Jurkat cell line . Our initial data confirmed that the caspase-8...shown that TRAIL can induce apop- tosis in a variety of human tumor cell lines .3,12,13 However, a large number of prostate cancer cells exhibit a

  10. Hepatic leukemia factor promotes resistance to cell death: Implications for therapeutics and chronotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, Katrina M.; Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Weber@pnl.gov

    Physiological variation related to circadian rhythms and aberrant gene expression patterns are believed to modulate therapeutic efficacy, but the precise molecular determinants remain unclear. Here we examine the regulation of cell death by hepatic leukemia factor (HLF), which is an output regulator of circadian rhythms and is aberrantly expressed in human cancers, using an ectopic expression strategy in JB6 mouse epidermal cells and human keratinocytes. Ectopic HLF expression inhibited cell death in both JB6 cells and human keratinocytes, as induced by serum-starvation, tumor necrosis factor alpha and ionizing radiation. Microarray analysis indicates that HLF regulates a complex multi-gene transcriptional programmore » encompassing upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, downregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, and many additional changes that are consistent with an anti-death program. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ectopic expression of HLF, an established transcription factor that cycles with circadian rhythms, can recapitulate many features associated with circadian-dependent physiological variation. - Highlights: ► Circadian-dependent physiological variation impacts therapeutic efficacy. ► Hepatic leukemia factor inhibits cell death and is a candidate circadian factor. ► Hepatic leukemia factor anti-death program is conserved in murine and human cells. ► Transcriptomics indicates the anti-death program results from a systems response.« less

  11. [From dualism to multiplicity: seeing BCL-2 family proteins and cell death with new eyes].

    PubMed

    Aouacheria, Abdel

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cell death has many links to the concept of death itself, defined as the opposite of life. Achievements obtained through research on apoptosis have apparently allowed us to transcend this Manichean view. Death is no longer outside, but rather inside living systems, as a constitutive force at work within the living matter. Whereas the death of cells can be positive and breed "creation" (e.g. during morphogenesis), its dysregulation can also cause or contribute to fatal diseases including cancer. It is tempting to apply this biological discourse to illuminate the relations between life and death, taken in general terms, but does this generalization actually hold? Is this discourse not essentially a metaphor? If cell death is considered as a vital aspect of various biological processes, then are we not faced with some vitalistic conception of death? Are there one or more meanings to the word "death"? Does the power to self-destruct act in opposition to other key features of living entities, or rather in juxtaposition to them? In this article, we first describe how the field of cell death has been developed on the basis of perceived and built dichotomies, mirroring the original opposition between life and death. We detail the limitations of the current paradigm of apoptosis regulation by BCL-2 family proteins, which nicely illustrate the problem of binary thinking in biology. Last, we try to show a way out of this dualistic matrix, by drawing on the notions of multiplicity, complexity, diversity, evolution and contingency. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  12. Fork head controls the timing and tissue selectivity of steroid-induced developmental cell death

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chike; Liu, Yanling; Lehmann, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Cell death during Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis is controlled by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Elements of the signaling pathway that triggers death are known, but it is not known why some tissues, and not others, die in response to a particular hormone pulse. We found that loss of the tissue-specific transcription factor Fork head (Fkh) is both required and sufficient to specify a death response to 20E in the larval salivary glands. Loss of fkh itself is a steroid-controlled event that is mediated by the 20E-induced BR-C gene, and that renders the key death regulators hid and reaper hormone responsive. These results implicate the D. melanogaster FOXA orthologue Fkh with a novel function as a competence factor for steroid-controlled cell death. They explain how a specific tissue is singled out for death, and why this tissue survives earlier hormone pulses. More generally, they suggest that cell identity factors like Fkh play a pivotal role in the normal control of developmental cell death. PMID:17339378

  13. Fasting boosts sensitivity of human skin melanoma to cisplatin-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Antunes, Fernanda; Corazzari, Marco; National Institute for Infectious Diseases IRCCS “Lazzaro Spallanzani”

    Melanoma is one of leading cause of tumor death worldwide. Anti-cancer strategy includes combination of different chemo-therapeutic agents as well as radiation; however these treatments have limited efficacy and induce significant toxic effects on healthy cells. One of most promising novel therapeutic approach to cancer therapy is the combination of anti-cancer drugs with calorie restriction. Here we investigated the effect Cisplatin (CDDP), one of the most potent chemotherapeutic agent used to treat tumors, in association with fasting in wild type and mutated BRAF{sup V600E} melanoma cell lines. Here we show that nutrient deprivation can consistently enhance the sensitivity of tumormore » cells to cell death induction by CDDP, also of those malignancies particularly resistant to any treatment, such as oncogenic BRAF melanomas. Mechanistic studies revealed that the combined therapy induced cell death is characterized by ROS accumulation and ATF4 in the absence of ER-stress. In addition, we show that autophagy is not involved in the enhanced sensitivity of melanoma cells to combined CDDP/EBSS-induced apoptosis. While, the exposure to 2-DG further enhanced the apoptotic rate observed in SK Mel 28 cells upon treatment with both CDDP and EBSS. - Highlights: • Calorie restriction associated to chemo-therapeutic drugs enhance cell death induction in many resistant malignancies • Cisplatin in association with starvation significantly increases cell death also in those high resistant melanoma cells bearing BRAF mutations • Combined treatment also including 2-DG results in similar cell death levels in both wild type and mutated BRAF cells.« less

  14. Patterns of cell death in the embryonic antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    PubMed

    Boyan, George; Graf, Philip; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the pattern of apoptosis in the antennal epithelium during embryonic development of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. The molecular labels lachesin and annulin reveal that the antennal epithelium becomes subdivided into segment-like meristal annuli within which sensory cell clusters later differentiate. To determine whether apoptosis is involved in the development of such sensory cell clusters, we examined the expression pattern of the cell death labels acridine orange and TUNEL in the epithelium. We found stereotypic, age-dependent, wave-like patterns of cell death in the antenna. Early in embryogenesis, apoptosis is restricted to the most basal meristal annuli but subsequently spreads to encompass almost the entire antenna. Cell death then declines in more basal annuli and is only found in the tip region later in embryogenesis. Apoptosis is restricted throughout to the midregion of a given annulus and away from its border with neighboring annuli, arguing against a causal role in annular formation. Double-labeling for cell death and sensory cell differentiation reveals apoptosis occurring within bands of differentiating sensory cell clusters, matching the meristal organization of the apical antenna. Examination of the individual epithelial lineages which generate sensory cells reveals that apoptosis begins peripherally within a lineage and with age expands to encompass the differentiated sensory cell at the base. We conclude that complete lineages can undergo apoptosis and that the youngest cells in these lineages appear to die first, with the sensory neuron dying last. Lineage-based death in combination with cell death patterns in different regions of the antenna may contribute to odor-mediated behaviors in the grasshopper.

  15. Pro-Inflammatory Activated Kupffer Cells by Lipids Induce Hepatic NKT Cells Deficiency through Activation-Induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tongfang; Sui, Yongheng; Lian, Min; Li, Zhiping; Hua, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary lipids play an important role in the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) through alternation of liver innate immune response. Aims The present study was to investigate the effect of lipid on Kupffer cells phenotype and function in vivo and in vitro. And further to investigate the impact of lipid on ability of Kupffer cell lipid antigen presentation to activate NKT cells. Methods Wild type male C57BL/6 mice were fed either normal or high-fat diet. Hepatic steatosis, Kupffer cell abundance, NKT cell number and cytokine gene expression were evaluated. Antigen presentation assay was performed with Kupffer cells treated with certain fatty acids in vitro and co-cultured with NKT cells. Results High-fat diet induced hepatosteatosis, significantly increased Kupffer cells and decreased hepatic NKT cells. Lipid treatment in vivo or in vitro induced increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene expression and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in Kupffer cells. Kupffer cells expressed high levels of CD1d on cell surface and only presented exogenous lipid antigen to activate NKT cells. Ability of Kupffer cells to present antigen and activate NKT cells was enhanced after lipid treatment. In addition, pro-inflammatory activated Kupffer cells by lipid treatment induced hepatic NKT cells activation-induced apoptosis and necrosis. Conclusion High-fat diet increase Kupffer cells number and induce their pro-inflammatory status. Pro-inflammatory activated Kupfffer cells by lipid promote hepatic NKT cell over-activation and cell death, which lead to further hepatic NKT cell deficiency in the development of NAFLD. PMID:24312613

  16. Is necroptosis a death pathway in aluminum-induced neuroblastoma cell demise?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q L; Niu, Q; Ji, X L; Conti, P; Boscolo, P

    2008-01-01

    Besides being an aggravating factor secondary to major physiological alterations in degenerative diseases, aluminum has also been considered as a risk factor in the etiology. Although many in vivo and in vitro data are in favor of apoptosis and necrosis being involved in Al induced neurodegenerative processes, there is considerable evidence that very complex events may contribute to neural cell death. Necroptosis, a novel cell death pathway, was recently reported to contribute to ischemia brain injury. It is different from, but associated with, apoptosis and necrosis, the two common major pathways of cell demise. In the present study, SH-SY5Y cells were put under stress by Al, a potential degenerative cell death inducer. Nec-1, a specific inhibitor, was used to identify necroptosis. The characteristics observed in Nec-1 and Al treated SH-SY5Y cells showed that necrotic morphological changes were reduced, and a sharp decrease of necrotic rate was detected. Besides, there were Al-induced mitochondria membrane potential decreasing, reactive oxygen species remaining, and autophagosomes declining. The mechanism of Nec-1s effect on cell death may be related to caspases pathways. To our best knowledge, this is the pioneer report on necroptosis in mixed human neural cell death pathways, which might offer a novel therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases, and an extended window for neuroprotection.

  17. Tributyltin induces Yca1p-dependent cell death of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chahomchuen, Thippayarat; Akiyama, Koichi; Sekito, Takayuki; Sugimoto, Naoko; Okabe, Masaaki; Nishimoto, Sogo; Sugahara, Takuya; Kakinuma, Yoshimi

    2009-10-01

    Tributyltin chloride (TBT), an environmental pollutant, is toxic to a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Although it has been reported that TBT induces apoptotic cell death in mammalian, the action of TBT on eukaryotic microorganisms has not yet been fully investigated. In this study we examined the mechanism involved in cell death caused by TBT exposure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The median lethal concentration of TBT was 10 microM for the parent strain BY4741 and 3 microM for the pdr5Delta mutant defective in a major multidrug transporter, respectively. Fluorescence microscopic observations revealed nuclear condensation and chromatin fragmentation in cells treated with TBT indicating that cells underwent an apoptosis-like cell dearth. TBT-induced cell death was suppressed by deletion of the yca1 gene encoding a homologue of the mammalian caspase. In parallel, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced by TBT. These results suggest that TBT induces apoptosis-like cell death in yeast via an Yca1p-dependent pathway possibly downstream of the ROS production. This is the first report on TBT-induced apoptotic cell death in yeast.

  18. Attenuation of cadmium-induced necrotic cell death by necrostatin-1: Potential necrostatin-1 acting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.-S.; Yang, P.-M.; Tsai, J.-S.

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces necrotic death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells and we have established the responsible signaling pathway. Reportedly, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) rescues cells from necrotic death by mediating through the death domain receptor (DR) signaling pathway. We show here that Nec-1 also effectively attenuates necrotic death triggered by Cd. Two other treatments that cause necrotic cell death, one can (z-VAD-fmk/TNF-{alpha} on U937 cells) and the other cannot (etherynic acid (EA) on DLD-1 cells) be rescued by Nec-1, were also studied in parallel for comparison. Results show that Nec-1 is ineffectual in modulating intracellular calcium contents, calpain activity (amore » downstream protease), or reactive oxygen species production. It can counteract the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) caused by treating CHO K1 or U937 cells with necrosis-inducing agent. However, this effect was not found in EA-treated DLD-1 cells. Notably, Nec-1 elevates NF-{kappa}B activity in the presence or absence of necrosis-inducing agents. Our study shows that, in addition to DR-mediated necrosis, Nec-1 is effective in attenuating Cd-induced necrosis. It rescues cells with reduced MMP implying that mitochondrion is its major acting site.« less

  19. Role of mitochondria-associated hexokinase II in cancer cell death induced by 3-Bromopyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Weiqin; Huang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Summary It has long been observed that cancer cells rely more on glycolysis to generate ATP and actively use certain glycolytic metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Hexokinase II (HKII) is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of the mitochondria-initiated apoptotic cell death. As a potent inhibitor of hexokinase, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is known to inhibit cancer cell energy metabolism and trigger cell death, supposedly through depletion of cellular ATP. The current study showed that 3-BrPA caused a covalent modification of HKII protein and directly triggered its dissociation from mitochondria, leading to a specific release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria to cytosol and eventual cell death. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed a physical interaction between HKII and AIF. Using a competitive peptide of HKII, we showed that the dissociation of hexokinase II from mitochondria alone could cause apoptotic cell death, especially in the mitochondria-deficient ρ0 cells that highly express HKII. Interestingly, the dissociation of HKII itself did no directly affect the mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS generation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Our study suggests that the physical association between HKII and AIF is important for the normal localization of AIF in the mitochondria, and disruption of this protein complex by 3-BrPA leads to their release from the mitochondria and eventual cell death. PMID:19285479

  20. On the origin, evolution, and nature of programmed cell death: a timeline of four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ameisen, J C

    2002-04-01

    Programmed cell death is a genetically regulated process of cell suicide that is central to the development, homeostasis and integrity of multicellular organisms. Conversely, the dysregulation of mechanisms controlling cell suicide plays a role in the pathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. While great progress has been achieved in the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms of programmed cell death, a new level of complexity, with important therapeutic implications, has begun to emerge, suggesting (i) that several different self-destruction pathways may exist and operate in parallel in our cells, and (ii) that molecular effectors of cell suicide may also perform other functions unrelated to cell death induction and crucial to cell survival. In this review, I will argue that this new level of complexity, implying that there may be no such thing as a 'bona fide' genetic death program in our cells, might be better understood when considered in an evolutionary context. And a new view of the regulated cell suicide pathways emerges when one attempts to ask the question of when and how they may have become selected during evolution, at the level of ancestral single-celled organisms.

  1. MEK inhibitor U0126 interferes with immunofluorescence analysis of apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Blank, Norbert; Burger, Renate; Duerr, Birgit; Bakker, Frank; Wohlfarth, Anika; Dumitriu, Ingrid; Kalden, Joachim R; Herrmann, Martin

    2002-08-01

    Binding of extracellular growth factors to cell surface receptors often results in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). MAPK is regulated by MAPK kinase, also called MEK. Deprivation of growth factors during cell culture or intracellular MEK inhibition leads to inhibition of proliferation and apoptotic cell death. Besides other techniques, apoptotic cells can be identified by phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and exclusion of membrane-impermeant propidium iodide (PI). We investigated the limitations of detection of apoptotic cell death and cytofluorometry in cells cultured in the presence of the MEK inhibitor U0126. Apoptotic cell death was induced in the plasmacytoma cell line INA-6, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and in cultured T lymphoblasts by deprivation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) or by incubation with the MEK inhibitor U0126. Apoptotic cell death was quantified by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide (AxV/PI) double staining. U0126-treated cells dramatically changed their fluorescence pattern during cell culture. If AxV/PI staining is employed to detect apoptotic cell death, the background fluorescence mimicks PS exposure on viable cells. The compound itself has no intrinsic fluorescence in vitro but develops an intensive fluorescence during cell culture which can be observed in all fluorescence channels with a predominance in the FL1 channel (525 nm). We further demonstrate that at least some of the U0126-induced background fluorescence is dependent on cellular uptake and intracellular modifications or cellular responses. These results demonstrate that appropriate controls for every single time point are necessary if fluorescence analyses are performed in the presence of chemical enzyme inhibitors. In the case of MEK inhibitors, either the use of PD098059 or PD184352 as an alternative for U0126 or nonfluorometric methods for detection of apoptosis should be considered. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The pathway of cell dismantling during programmed cell death in lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Jaime; Lord, Christina En; Dauphinee, Adrian N; Gunawardena, Arunika Hlan

    2012-07-25

    Developmentally regulated programmed cell death (PCD) is the controlled death of cells that occurs throughout the life cycle of both plants and animals. The lace plant (Aponogeton madagascariensis) forms perforations between longitudinal and transverse veins in spaces known as areoles, via developmental PCD; cell death begins in the center of these areoles and develops towards the margin, creating a gradient of PCD. This gradient was examined using both long- and short-term live cell imaging, in addition to histochemical staining, in order to establish the order of cellular events that occur during PCD. The first visible change observed was the reduction in anthocyanin pigmentation, followed by initial chloroplast changes and the bundling of actin microfilaments. At this stage, an increased number of transvacuolar strands (TVS) was evident. Perhaps concurrently with this, increased numbers of vesicles, small mitochondrial aggregates, and perinuclear accumulation of both chloroplasts and mitochondria were observed. The invagination of the tonoplast membrane and the presence of vesicles, both containing organelle materials, suggested evidence for both micro- and macro-autophagy, respectively. Mitochondrial aggregates, as well as individual chloroplasts were subsequently seen undergoing Brownian motion in the vacuole. Following these changes, fragmentation of nuclear DNA, breakdown of actin microfilaments and early cell wall changes were detected. The vacuole then swelled, causing nuclear displacement towards the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast rupture followed closely, indicating mega-autophagy. Subsequent to tonoplast rupture, cessation of Brownian motion occurred, as well as the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), nuclear shrinkage and PM collapse. Timing from tonoplast rupture to PM collapse was approximately 20 minutes. The entire process from initial chlorophyll reduction to PM collapse took approximately 48 hours. Approximately six hours

  3. Cell death in the thymus--it' s all a matter of contacts.

    PubMed

    Minter, Lisa M; Osborne, Barbara A

    2003-06-01

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, plays a critical role in shaping the T cell repertoire, deleting unproductive as well as potentially autoreactive T cells. Our understanding of how thymocyte apoptosis is regulated is continually evolving, as new essential modulators of this process are discovered. A conundrum that remains, however, is how signaling through essentially the same receptors and cascades evokes distinct biological responses: death by neglect, positive or negative selection. We hypothesize that the immunological synapse (IS) may be critical to transducing survival signals during thymocyte development, and suggest that factors affecting IS assembly may also influence T cell selection.

  4. Tales of cannibalism, suicide, and murder: Programmed cell death in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Kinchen, Jason M; Hengartner, Michael O

    2005-01-01

    "Life is pleasant. Death is peaceful. It's the transition that's troublesome," said Isaac Asimov. Indeed, much scientific work over the last hundred years centered around attempts either to stave off or to induce the onset of death, at both the organismal and the cellular levels. In this quest, the nematode C. elegans has proven an invaluable tool, first, in the articulation of the genetic pathway by which programmed cell death proceeds, and also as a continuing source of inspiration. It is our purpose in this Chapter to familiarize the reader with the topic of programmed cell death in C. elegans and its relevance to current research in the fields of apoptosis and cell corpse clearance.

  5. Induction of morphological changes in death-induced cancer cells monitored by holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    El-Schich, Zahra; Mölder, Anna; Tassidis, Helena; Härkönen, Pirkko; Falck Miniotis, Maria; Gjörloff Wingren, Anette

    2015-03-01

    We are using the label-free technique of holographic microscopy to analyze cellular parameters including cell number, confluence, cellular volume and area directly in the cell culture environment. We show that death-induced cells can be distinguished from untreated counterparts by the use of holographic microscopy, and we demonstrate its capability for cell death assessment. Morphological analysis of two representative cell lines (L929 and DU145) was performed in the culture flasks without any prior cell detachment. The two cell lines were treated with the anti-tumour agent etoposide for 1-3days. Measurements by holographic microscopy showed significant differences in average cell number, confluence, volume and area when comparing etoposide-treated with untreated cells. The cell volume of the treated cell lines was initially increased at early time-points. By time, cells decreased in volume, especially when treated with high doses of etoposide. In conclusion, we have shown that holographic microscopy allows label-free and completely non-invasive morphological measurements of cell growth, viability and death. Future applications could include real-time monitoring of these holographic microscopy parameters in cells in response to clinically relevant compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Live to die another way: modes of programmed cell death and the signals emanating from dying cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Preface All life ends in death, but perhaps one of life’s grander ironies is that it also depends on death. Cell-intrinsic suicide pathways, termed programmed cell death (PCD), are crucial for animal development, tissue homeostasis and pathogenesis. Originally, PCD was virtually synonymous with apoptosis, but recently, alternative PCD mechanisms have been reported. Here, we provide an overview of several distinct PCD mechanisms, namely apoptosis, autophagy and necroptosis. In addition, we discuss the complex signals emanating from dying cells, which can either fuel regeneration or instruct additional killing. Further advances in understanding the physiological role of multiple cell death mechanisms and associated signals will be important to selectively manipulate PCD for therapeutic purposes. PMID:25991373

  7. Novel Mechanisms of Target Cell Death and Survival and of Therapeutic Action of IVIg in Pemphigus

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo, Juan; Chernyavsky, Alexander I.; Karaouni, Ali; Grando, Sergei A.

    2005-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially lethal mucocutaneous blistering disease characterized by cell-cell detachment within the stratified epithelium (acantholysis) caused by IgG autoantibodies. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy effectively treats PV, but the mechanism is not fully understood. To further understand acantholysis and the efficacy of IVIg, we measured effects of IgG fractions from PV patients on keratinocyte death processes. Using IgGs from representative PV patients who improved with IVIg, we identified apoptotic and oncotic signaling pathways in in vitro and in vivo PV models. We identified two groups of PV patients, each producing autoantibodies activating predominantly either apoptotic or oncotic cell death pathway. Experimental treatments with caspase 3 or calpain inhibitors demonstrated that PV IgGs induced acantholysis through both pathways. Upstream, the apoptotic signaling involved activation of caspases 8 and 3 and up-regulation of Fas ligand mRNA, whereas calpain-mediated cell death depended on elevated intracellular free Ca2+. IVIg reduced PV IgG-mediated acantholysis and cell death and up-regulated the caspase inhibitor FLIP and the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. These results indicate that in different PV patients, IgG-induced acantholysis proceeds predominantly via distinct, yet complementary, pathways of programmed cell death differentially mediated by apoptosis and oncosis effectors, with IVIg protecting target cells by up-regulating endogenous caspase and calpain inhibitors. PMID:16314468

  8. Pelle Modulates dFoxO-Mediated Cell Death in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenxi; Chen, Yujun; Wang, Feng; Chen, Changyan; Zhang, Shiping; Li, Chaojie; Li, Wenzhe; Wu, Shian; Xue, Lei

    2015-10-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) are crucial mediators of the IL-1R/TLR signaling pathways that regulate the immune and inflammation response in mammals. Recent studies also suggest a critical role of IRAKs in tumor development, though the underlying mechanis