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Sample records for a-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

  1. The basics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Raghu; Weinberg, Robert A

    2009-06-01

    The origins of the mesenchymal cells participating in tissue repair and pathological processes, notably tissue fibrosis, tumor invasiveness, and metastasis, are poorly understood. However, emerging evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) represent one important source of these cells. As we discuss here, processes similar to the EMTs associated with embryo implantation, embryogenesis, and organ development are appropriated and subverted by chronically inflamed tissues and neoplasias. The identification of the signaling pathways that lead to activation of EMT programs during these disease processes is providing new insights into the plasticity of cellular phenotypes and possible therapeutic interventions.

  2. Transcriptional Networks in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Venkov, Christo; Plieth, David; Ni, Terri; Karmaker, Amitava; Bian, Aihua; George, Alfred L.; Neilson, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    Backround Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) changes polarized epithelial cells into migratory phenotypes associated with loss of cell-cell adhesion molecules and cytoskeletal rearrangements. This form of plasticity is seen in mesodermal development, fibroblast formation, and cancer metastasis. Methods and Findings Here we identify prominent transcriptional networks active during three time points of this transitional process, as epithelial cells become fibroblasts. DNA microarray in cultured epithelia undergoing EMT, validated in vivo, were used to detect various patterns of gene expression. In particular, the promoter sequences of differentially expressed genes and their transcription factors were analyzed to identify potential binding sites and partners. The four most frequent cis-regulatory elements (CREs) in up-regulated genes were SRY, FTS-1, Evi-1, and GC-Box, and RNA inhibition of the four transcription factors, Atf2, Klf10, Sox11, and SP1, most frequently binding these CREs, establish their importance in the initiation and propagation of EMT. Oligonucleotides that block the most frequent CREs restrain EMT at early and intermediate stages through apoptosis of the cells. Conclusions Our results identify new transcriptional interactions with high frequency CREs that modulate the stability of cellular plasticity, and may serve as targets for modulating these transitional states in fibroblasts. PMID:21980432

  3. Modeling continuum of epithelial mesenchymal transition plasticity.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mousumi; Ghosh, Biswajoy; Anura, Anji; Mitra, Pabitra; Pathak, Tanmaya; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2016-02-01

    Living systems respond to ambient pathophysiological changes by altering their phenotype, a phenomenon called 'phenotypic plasticity'. This program contains information about adaptive biological dynamism. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one such process found to be crucial in development, wound healing, and cancer wherein the epithelial cells with restricted migratory potential develop motile functions by acquiring mesenchymal characteristics. In the present study, phase contrast microscopy images of EMT induced HaCaT cells were acquired at 24 h intervals for 96 h. The expression study of relevant pivotal molecules viz. F-actin, vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin was carried out to confirm the EMT process. Cells were intuitively categorized into five distinct morphological phenotypes. A population of 500 cells for each temporal point was selected to quantify their frequency of occurrence. The plastic interplay of cell phenotypes from the observations was described as a Markovian process. A model was formulated empirically using simple linear algebra, to depict the possible mechanisms of cellular transformation among the five phenotypes. This work employed qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative tools towards illustration and establishment of the EMT continuum. Thus, it provides a newer perspective to understand the embedded plasticity across the EMT spectrum.

  4. Phase transitions in tumor growth VI: Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, A.; Rodriguez, D. J.; Montero, S.; Betancourt-Mar, J. A.; Martin, R. R.; Silva, E.; Bizzarri, M.; Cocho, G.; Mansilla, R.; Nieto-Villar, J. M.

    2018-06-01

    Herewith we discuss a network model of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) based on our previous proposed framework. The EMT appears as a "first order" phase transition process, analogous to the transitions observed in the chemical-physical field. Chiefly, EMT should be considered a transition characterized by a supercritical Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, with the emergence of limit cycle and, consequently, a cascade of saddle-foci Shilnikov's bifurcations. We eventually show that the entropy production rate is an EMT-dependent function and, as such, its formalism reminds the van der Waals equation.

  5. New Insights of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yadi; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key step during embryonic morphogenesis, heart development, chronic degenerative fibrosis, and cancer metastasis. Several distinct traits have been conveyed by EMT, including cell motility, invasiveness, resistance to apoptosis, and some properties of stem cells. Many signal pathways have contributed to the induction of EMT, such as transforming growth factor-β, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, and nuclear factor κB. Over the last few years, increasing evidence has shown that EMT plays an essential role in tumor progression and metastasis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of EMT has a great effect in unraveling the metastatic cascade and may lead to novel interventions for metastatic disease. PMID:18604456

  6. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: An emerging target in tissue fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meirong; Luan, Fuxin; Zhao, Yali; Hao, Haojie; Zhou, Yong; Han, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in a variety of tissue fibroses. Fibroblasts/myofibroblasts derived from epithelial cells contribute to the excessive accumulation of fibrous connective tissue in damaged tissue, which can lead to permanent scarring or organ malfunction. Therefore, EMT-related fibrosis cannot be neglected. This review highlights the findings that demonstrate the EMT to be a direct contributor to the fibroblast/myofibroblast population in the development of tissue fibrosis and helps to elucidate EMT-related anti-fibrotic strategies, which may enable the development of therapeutic interventions to suppress EMT and potentially reverse organ fibrosis. PMID:26361988

  7. MET: roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stemness

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hye-Min

    2017-01-01

    In a number of cancers, deregulated MET pathway leads to aberrantly activated proliferative and invasive signaling programs that promote malignant transformation, cell motility and migration, angiogenesis, survival in hypoxia, and invasion. A better understanding of oncogenic MET signaling will help us to discover effective therapeutic approaches and to identify which tumors are likely to respond to MET-targeted cancer therapy. In this review, we will summarize the roles of MET signaling in cancer, with particular focus on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stemness. Then, we will provide update on MET targeting agents and discuss the challenges that should be overcome for the development of an effective therapy. PMID:28164090

  8. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tissue repair and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Stone, Rivka C; Pastar, Irena; Ojeh, Nkemcho; Chen, Vivien; Liu, Sophia; Garzon, Karen I; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-09-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the global process by which stationary epithelial cells undergo phenotypic changes, including the loss of cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity, and acquire mesenchymal characteristics that confer migratory capacity. EMT and its converse, MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition), are integral stages of many physiologic processes and, as such, are tightly coordinated by a host of molecular regulators. Converging lines of evidence have identified EMT as a component of cutaneous wound healing, during which otherwise stationary keratinocytes (the resident skin epithelial cells) migrate across the wound bed to restore the epidermal barrier. Moreover, EMT plays a role in the development of scarring and fibrosis, as the matrix-producing myofibroblasts arise from cells of the epithelial lineage in response to injury but are pathologically sustained instead of undergoing MET or apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the role of EMT in physiologic repair and pathologic fibrosis of tissues and organs. We conclude that further investigation into the contribution of EMT to the faulty repair of fibrotic wounds might identify components of EMT signaling as common therapeutic targets for impaired healing in many tissues. Graphical Abstract Model for injury-triggered EMT activation in physiologic wound repair (left) and fibrotic wound healing (right).

  9. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Tissue Repair and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rivka C.; Pastar, Irena; Ojeh, Nkemcho; Chen, Vivien; Liu, Sophia; Garzon, Karen I.; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) describes the global process by which stationary epithelial cells undergo phenotypic changes, including loss of cell-cell adhesion and apical-basal polarity, and acquire mesenchymal characteristics which confer migratory capacity. EMT and its converse, MET (mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition), are integral stages of many physiologic processes, and as such are tightly coordinated by a host of molecular regulators. Converging lines of evidence have identified EMT as a component of cutaneous wound healing, during which otherwise stationary keratinocytes - the resident skin epithelial cells - migrate across the wound bed to restore the epidermal barrier. Moreover, EMT also plays a role in the development of scarring and fibrosis, as the matrix-producing myofibroblast arises from cells of epithelial lineage in response to injury but is pathologically sustained instead of undergoing MET or apoptosis. In this review, we summarize the role of EMT in physiologic repair and pathologic fibrosis of tissues and organs. We conclude that further investigation into the contribution of EMT to the impaired repair of fibrotic wounds may identify components of EMT signaling as common therapeutic targets for impaired healing in many tissues. PMID:27461257

  10. Potential Therapeutic Targets of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Ross L.; de Oca, Mary Katherine Montes; Pal, Harish Chandra; Afaq, Farrukh

    2017-01-01

    Melanoma is a cutaneous neoplastic growth of melanocytes with great potential to invade and metastasize, especially when not treated early and effectively. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process by which melanocytes lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire mesenchymal phenotypes. Mesenchymal protein expression increases the motility, invasiveness, and metastatic potential of melanoma. Many pathways play a role in promotion of mesenchymal protein expression including RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, Wnt/β-catenin, and several others. Downstream effectors of these pathways induce expression of EMT transcription factors including Snail, Slug, Twist, and Zeb that promote repression of epithelial and induction of mesenchymal character. Emerging research has demonstrated that a variety of small molecule inhibitors as well as phytochemicals can influence the progression of EMT and may even reverse the process, inducing re-expression of epithelial markers. Phytochemicals are of particular interest as supplementary treatment options because of their relatively low toxicities and anti-EMT properties. Modulation of EMT signaling pathways using synthetic small molecules and phytochemicals is a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing the aggressive progression of metastatic melanoma. In this review, we discuss the emerging pathways and transcription factor targets that regulate EMT and evaluate potential synthetic small molecules and naturally occurring compounds that may reduce metastatic melanoma progression. PMID:28131904

  11. Tempol effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Mohammad; Dadras, Farahnaz; Ghadimipour, Hamid Reza; Seif Rabiei, Mohamad Ali; Khoshjou, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Background One of common mechanisms in pathophysiology of chronic kidney diseases is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the other hand oxidative stress has been known to participate in kidney damage of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Objectives We studied if tempol, a well-known antioxidant agent, can ameliorate EMT in DN induced in male rats. Materials and Methods Twenty-seven male rats were equally divided in to 4 groups. Group I (control or C), group II (diabetic or D), group III (T) rats which was given tempol (100 mg/kg/day) by gavages for 28 days and group IV (D&T) was diabetic rats that also received same dose of tempol. After treatment, their kidneys were studied by immunohistochemicalstaining. Results Pathological changes in the kidney were detected concurrently with increasing kidney weight and urinary albumin excretion. In addition, EMT indices, i.e. decline of E-cadherin and increase of α SMA staining were significantly emerged in the renal tubular cells of diabetic group and were partially modified in diabetic group which were simultaneously treated by tempol. Conclusions Tempol can modify, but not significantly, EMT induced by DN. PMID:28042546

  12. Cigarette smoke induced urocystic epithelial mesenchymal transition via MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dexin; Geng, Hao; Liu, Zhiqi; Zhao, Li; Liang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xie, Dongdong; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Tao; Min, Jie; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-01-31

    Cigarette smoke has been shown to be a major risk factor for bladder cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial process in cancer development. The role of MAPK pathways in regulating cigarette smoke-triggered urocystic EMT remains to be elucidated. Human normal urothelial cells and BALB/c mice were used as in vitro and in vivo cigarette smoke exposure models. Exposure of human normal urothelial cells to cigarette smoke induced morphological change, enhanced migratory and invasive capacities, reduced epithelial marker expression and increased mesenchymal marker expression, along with the activation of MAPK pathways. Moreover, we revealed that ERK1/2 and p38 inhibitors, but rather JNK inhibitor, effectively attenuated cigarette smoke-induced urocystic EMT. Importantly, the regulatory function of ERK1/2 and p38 pathways in cigarette smoke-triggered urocystic EMT was further confirmed in mice exposed to CS for 12 weeks. These findings could provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of cigarette smoke-associated bladder cancer development as well as its potential intervention.

  13. Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer Progression: Prev entive Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Illam, Soorya P; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Mathew, Shaji E; Valsalakumari, Remya; Jacob, Rosemol M; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is the conversion of epithelial cells into mesenchymal phenotype generally observed during embryogenesis and wound healing as well as in malignant transformation. Several signaling pathways and transcription factors associated with EMT have been explored. Dietary phytochemicals that are multi-targeted agents which interfere with these pathways, assume preventive potential against pathologic EMT. The present review aims to provide a detailed description of the nature and characteristics of EMT in physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the scope of phytochemicals in its prevention. Details regarding the initiation, progression as well as prevention of pathologic EMT and metastasis and recent patents on preventive phytochemicals were obtained from PubMed literatures and patent databases. The phenotypic changes during EMT are regulated by transcription factors like Snail, Slug, Twist and Zeb, which are activated through diverse signaling pathways of TGF-β, NF-kB, Wnt and Notch. s phytocompounds that are potent enough to interfere with these signaling pathways, which in turn prevent pathological implications of EMT. Present review also discusses 28 recent patents on those phytocompounds. EMT is a significant pharmacological target for developing preventive agents to combat pathological conditions like malignancy. Many of the phytochemicals cited in this review are being enrolled for different phases of clinical trials for their efficacy. In spite of the major limitations regarding bioavailability, sensitivity and tolerance of these compounds, their synthetic analogs, formulations and efficient drug delivery systems are also being attempted which will hopefully generate productive and promising results in near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Hook1 inhibits malignancy and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xu; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Hu, Qida; Lou, Yu; Fu, Qi-Han; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Chen, Yi-Wen; Ye, Long-Yun; Wang, Yi; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Hu, Li-Qiang; Liang, Ting-Bo; Bai, Xue-Li

    2017-07-01

    Hook1 is a member of the hook family of coiled-coil proteins, which is recently found to be associated with malignant tumors. However, its biological function in hepatocellular carcinoma is yet unknown. Here, we evaluated the Hook1 levels in human hepatocellular carcinoma samples and matched peritumoral tissues by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Small interfering RNA knockdown and a transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition model were employed to investigate the biological effects of Hook1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results indicated that Hook1 levels were significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than in the peritumoral tissues. In addition, Hook1 expression was significantly associated with hepatocellular carcinoma malignancy. Hook1 was downregulated after transforming growth factor-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, Hook1 knockdown promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition and attenuated the sensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to doxorubicin. In summary, our results indicate that downregulation of Hook1 plays a pivotal role in hepatocellular carcinoma progression via epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Hook1 may be used as a novel marker and therapeutic molecular target in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Hypoxia, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and TET-Mediated Epigenetic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Shih-Han; Wu, Kou-Juey; Lee, Wen-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a pathophysiologic outcome of disrupted microcirculation with inadequate supply of oxygen, leading to enhanced proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis, and chemo-resistance. Epigenetic changes induced by hypoxia are well documented, and they lead to tumor progression. Recent advances show that DNA demethylation mediated by the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins induces major epigenetic changes and controls key steps of cancer development. TET enzymes serve as 5mC (5-methylcytosine)-specific dioxygenases and cause DNA demethylation. Hypoxia activates the expression of TET1, which also serves as a co-activator of HIF-1α transcriptional regulation to modulate HIF-1α downstream target genes and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition. As HIF is a negative prognostic factor for tumor progression, hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAPs) may provide a favorable therapeutic approach to lessen hypoxia-induced malignancy. PMID:26861406

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition---A Hallmark of Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Zhou, Binhua P

    2013-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved cellular program that converts polarized, immotile epithelial cells to migratory mesenchymal cells. In addition, EMT was initially recognized as a key step for morphogenesis during embryonic development. Emerging evidences indicate that this important developmental program promotes metastasis, drug resistance, and tumor recurrence, features that are associated with a poor clinical outcome for patients with breast cancer. Therefore, better understanding of regulation and signaling pathways in EMT is essential to develop novel targeted therapeutics. In this review, we present updated developments underlying EMT in tumor progression and metastasis, and discuss the challenges remaining in breast cancer research.

  17. Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis by epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Benítez, Nuria E; Parotto, Matteo; Post, Martin; Han, Bing; Spieth, Peter M; Cheng, Wei-Erh; Valladares, Francisco; Villar, Jesús; Liu, Mingayo; Sato, Masaaki; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S

    2012-02-01

    Many mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome develop pulmonary fibrosis. Stresses induced by mechanical ventilation may explain the development of fibrosis by a number of mechanisms (e.g., damage the alveolar epithelium, biotrauma). The objective of this study was t test the hypothesis that mechanical ventilation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. C57BL/6 mice were randomized into four groups: healthy controls; hydrochloric acid aspiration alone; vehicle control solution followed 24 hrs later by mechanical ventilation (peak inspiratory pressure 22 cm H(2)O and positive end-expiratory pressure 2 cm H(2)O for 2 hrs); and acid aspiration followed 24 hrs later by mechanical ventilation. The animals were monitored for up to 15 days after acid aspiration. To explore the direct effects of mechanical stress on lung fibrotic formation, human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to mechanical stretch for up to 48 hrs. Impaired lung mechanics after mechanical ventilation was associated with increased lung hydroxyproline content, and increased expression of transforming growth factor-β, β-catenin, and mesenchymal markers (α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin) at both the gene and protein levels. Expression of epithelial markers including cytokeratin-8, E-cadherin, and prosurfactant protein B decreased. Lung histology demonstrated fibrosis formation and potential epithelia-mesenchymal transition. In vitro direct mechanical stretch of BEAS-2B cells resulted in similar fibrotic and epithelia-mesenchymal transition formation. Mechanical stress induces lung fibrosis, and epithelia-mesenchymal transition may play an important role in mediating the ventilator-induced lung fibrosis.

  18. Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Hamid, Abid; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Lall, Rahul K; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Globally, the cancer associated deaths are generally attributed to the spread of cancerous cells or their features to the nearby or distant secondary organs by a process known as metastasis. Among other factors, the metastatic dissemination of cancer cells is attributed to the reactivation of an evolutionary conserved developmental program known as epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). During EMT, fully differentiated epithelial cells undergo a series of dramatic changes in their morphology, along with loss of cell to cell contact and matrix remodeling into less differentiated and invasive mesenchymal cells. Many studies provide evidence for the existence of EMT like states in prostate cancer (PCa) and suggest its possible involvement in PCa progression and metastasis. At the same time, the lack of conclusive evidence regarding the presence of full EMT in human PCa samples has somewhat dampened the interest in the field. However, ongoing EMT research provides new perspectives and unveils the enormous potential of this field in tailoring new therapeutic regimens for PCa management. This review summarizes the role of many transcription factors and other molecules that drive EMT during prostate tumorigenesis. PMID:25506896

  19. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohammad A.; Barger, Jennifer F.; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A.; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells. PMID:27363026

  20. Lung cancer exosomes as drivers of epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad A; Barger, Jennifer F; Lovat, Francesca; Gao, Min; Otterson, Gregory A; Nana-Sinkam, Patrick

    2016-08-23

    Exosomes, a subgroup of extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to serve as a conduit for the exchange of genetic information between cells. Exosomes are released from all types of cells but in abundance from cancer cells. The contents of exosomes consist of proteins and genetic material (mRNA, DNA and miRNA) from the cell of origin. In this study, we examined the effects of exosomes derived from human lung cancer serum and both highly metastatic and non-metastatic cells on recipient human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). We found that exosomes derived from highly metastatic lung cancer cells and human late stage lung cancer serum induced vimentin expression, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HBECs. Exosomes derived from highly metastatic cancer cells as well as late stage lung cancer serum induce migration, invasion and proliferation in non-cancerous recipient cells. Our results suggest that cancer derived exosomes could be a potential mediator of EMT in the recipient cells.

  1. Subepithelial corneal fibrosis partially due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ocular surface epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kawashima, Motoko; Higa, Kazunari; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Omoto, Masahiro; Tsubota, Kazuo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shimazaki, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition is involved in the development of corneal subepithelial fibrosis (pannus). Methods Frozen samples of pannus tissue removed from human corneas with a diagnosis of total limbal stem cell deficiency were characterized by immunostaining for both epithelial and mesenchymal markers. We selected transformation-related protein 63 (p63) and pancytokeratin as epithelial markers and vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) as mesenchymal markers. Immunostaining for β-catenin and E-cadherin was performed to determine wingless-Int (Wnt)-pathway activation. RT–PCR analysis was also performed on epithelial tissue obtained from pannus samples after dispase digestion. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed strong nuclear expression of p63 and weak intercellular expression of E-cadherin in epithelial basal cells of pannus tissue. Furthermore, translocation of β-catenin from intercellular junctions to the nucleus and cytoplasm was also observed. Double-positive cells for both p63 and α-SMA were observed in the subepithelial stroma of pannus tissue, which was supported by RT–PCR and cytospin analysis. Conclusions Epithelial-mesenchymal transition may be partially involved in the development of subepithelial corneal fibrosis due to total limbal stem cell deficiency. PMID:21179238

  2. EphA3 maintains radioresistance in head and neck cancers through epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song Hee; Lee, Won Hyeok; Kim, Seong Who; Je, Hyoung Uk; Lee, Jong Cheol; Chang, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Min; Kim, Kyungbin; Kim, Sang Yoon; Han, Myung Woul

    2018-07-01

    Radiotherapy is a well-established therapeutic modality used in the treatment of many cancers. However, radioresistance remains a serious obstacle to successful treatment. Radioresistance can cause local recurrence and distant metastases in some patients after radiation treatment. Thus, many studies have attempted to identify effective radiosensitizers. Eph receptor functions contribute to tumor development, modulating cell-cell adhesion, invasion, neo-angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of EphA3 in radioresistance remains unclear. In the current study, we established a stable radioresistant head and neck cancer cell line (AMC HN3R cell line) and found that EphA3 was expressed predominantly in the radioresistant head and neck cancer cell line through DNA microarray, real time PCR and Western blotting. Additionally, we found that EphA3 was overexpressed in recurrent laryngeal cancer specimens after radiation therapy. EphA3 mediated the tumor invasiveness and migration in radioresistant head and neck cancer cell lines and epithelial mesenchymal transition- related protein expression. Inhibition of EphA3 enhanced radiosensitivity in the AMC HN 3R cell line in vitro and in vivo study. In conclusion, our results suggest that EphA3 is overexpressed in radioresistant head and neck cancer and plays a crucial role in the development of radioresistance in head and neck cancers by regulating the epithelial mesenchymal transition pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. New views on the neural crest epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neuroepithelial interkinetic nuclear migration

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Carol A

    2009-01-01

    By developing a technique for imaging the avian neural crest epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we have discovered cellular behaviors that challenge current thinking on this important developmental event, including the probability that complete disassembly of the adherens junctions may not control whether or not a neural epithelial cell undergoes an EMT. Further, neural crest cells can adopt multiple modes of cell motility in order to emigrate from the neuroepithelium. We also gained insights into interkinetic nuclear migration (INM). For example, the movement of the nucleus from the basal to apical domain may not require microtubule motors nor an intact nuclear envelope, and the nucleus does not always need to reach the apical surface in order for cytokinesis to occur. These studies illustrate the value of live-cell imaging to elucidate cellular processes. PMID:20195454

  4. Mechanisms of disease: epithelial-mesenchymal transition and back again: does cellular plasticity fuel neoplastic progression?

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, Mina J; Turley, Eva A.; Veiseh, Mandana

    2008-02-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a conversion that facilitates organ morphogenesis and tissue remodeling in physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing. A similar phenotypic conversion is also detected in fibrotic diseases and neoplasia, which is associated with disease progression. EMT in cancer epithelial cells often seems to be an incomplete and bi-directional process. In this Review, we discuss the phenomenon of EMT as it pertains to tumor development, focusing on exceptions to the commonly held rule that EMT promotes invasion and metastasis. We also highlight the role of the RAS-controlled signaling mediators, ERK1, ERK2 and PI3-kinase, as microenvironmentalmore » responsive regulators of EMT.« less

  5. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer: a potential critical topic for translational proteomic research.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, Patrizia; Isgrò, Maria Antonietta; Scatena, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a morphogenetic process that results in a loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. First described in embryogenesis, the EMT has been recently implicated in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. In addition, recent evidence has shown that stem-like cancer cells present the hallmarks of the EMT. Some of the molecular mechanisms related to the interrelationships between cancer pathophysiology and the EMT are well-defined. Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanism by which epithelial cancer cells acquire the mesenchymal phenotype remains largely unknown. This review focuses on various proteomic strategies with the goal of better understanding the physiological and pathological mechanisms of the EMT process.

  6. Triptolide suppresses paraquat induced idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by inhibiting TGFB1-dependent epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Qun; Jiang, Chun-Ming; Shi, Guang-Yue; Sui, Bo-Wen; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Li-Zhen; Li, Zhu-Ying; Liu, Li; Su, Yu-Ming; Zhao, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Li, Zhen-Zi; Fu, Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and tumor are highly similar to abnormal cell proliferation that damages the body. This malignant cell evolution in a stressful environment closely resembles that of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). As a popular EMT-inducing factor, TGFβ plays an important role in the progression of multiple diseases. However, the drugs that target TGFB1 are limited. In this study, we found that triptolide (TPL), a Chinese medicine extract, exerts an anti-lung fibrosis effect by inhibiting the EMT of lung epithelial cells. In addition, triptolide directly binds to TGFβ and subsequently increase E-cadherin expression and decrease vimentin expression. In in vivo studies, TPL improves the survival state and inhibits lung fibrosis in mice. In summary, this study revealed the potential therapeutic effect of paraquat induced TPL in lung fibrosis by regulating TGFβ-dependent EMT progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metastatic colonization requires the repression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducer Prrx1.

    PubMed

    Ocaña, Oscar H; Córcoles, Rebeca; Fabra, Angels; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Acloque, Hervé; Vega, Sonia; Barrallo-Gimeno, Alejandro; Cano, Amparo; Nieto, M Angela

    2012-12-11

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required in the embryo for the formation of tissues for which cells originate far from their final destination. Carcinoma cells hijack this program for tumor dissemination. The relevance of the EMT in cancer is still debated because it is unclear how these migratory cells colonize distant tissues to form macrometastases. We show that the homeobox factor Prrx1 is an EMT inducer conferring migratory and invasive properties. The loss of Prrx1 is required for cancer cells to metastasize in vivo, which revert to the epithelial phenotype concomitant with the acquisition of stem cell properties. Thus, unlike the classical EMT transcription factors, Prrx1 uncouples EMT and stemness, and is a biomarker associated with patient survival and lack of metastasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition generates cells with properties of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sendurai A; Guo, Wenjun; Liao, Mai-Jing; Eaton, Elinor Ng; Ayyanan, Ayyakkannu; Zhou, Alicia Y; Brooks, Mary; Reinhard, Ferenc; Zhang, Cheng Cheng; Shipitsin, Michail; Campbell, Lauren L; Polyak, Kornelia; Brisken, Cathrin; Yang, Jing; Weinberg, Robert A

    2008-05-16

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key developmental program that is often activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. We here report that the induction of an EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLEs) results in the acquisition of mesenchymal traits and in the expression of stem-cell markers. Furthermore, we show that those cells have an increased ability to form mammospheres, a property associated with mammary epithelial stem cells. Independent of this, stem cell-like cells isolated from HMLE cultures form mammospheres and express markers similar to those of HMLEs that have undergone an EMT. Moreover, stem-like cells isolated either from mouse or human mammary glands or mammary carcinomas express EMT markers. Finally, transformed human mammary epithelial cells that have undergone an EMT form mammospheres, soft agar colonies, and tumors more efficiently. These findings illustrate a direct link between the EMT and the gain of epithelial stem cell properties.

  9. Elevated free fatty acid uptake via CD36 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Aritro; Li, Irene; Roberts, Lewis R.; Chan, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the factors influencing HCC progression are poorly understood. Here we reveal that HCC progression via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely associated with the expression of CD36/fatty acid translocase and elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Although obesity is manifested as elevated FFA levels, the degree of EMT was not associated with the body mass index of the patients, highlighting the specific roles of CD36 and FFA uptake. Treatment of human liver cancer cell lines with FFAs exacerbated the EMT phenotype, whereas chemical inhibition of CD36 mitigated these effects. Furthermore, the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways were activated upon FFA treatment, potentially acting as upstream activators of the EMT program. These results provide the first direct evidence associating CD36 and elevated FFAs with HCC progression. PMID:26424075

  10. Expression of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Markers in Circulating Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Stefan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Pantel, Klaus; Todenhöfer, Tilman

    2017-01-01

    The characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTC) has the potential not only to provide important insights into molecular alterations of advanced tumor disease but also to facilitate risk prediction. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been discovered as important process for the development of metastases and the dissemination of tumor cells into the blood stream. In different tumor types, CTC with a mesenchymal phenotype have been reported that have presumably underwent EMT. Moreover, CTC with stem-cell like characteristics have been postulated as important drivers of tumor progression. Different platforms have been introduced to allow CTC enrichment independent of expression of epithelial antigens, as these may be downregulated in EMT- or stem-cell-like CTC. Both for CTCs with EMT- or stem-cell features different markers have been proposed. However, there is still a lack of evidence on the association of these markers with functional features and characteristics for stem cells and cells undergoing EMT.

  11. Elevated free fatty acid uptake via CD36 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nath, Aritro; Li, Irene; Roberts, Lewis R; Chan, Christina

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and the factors influencing HCC progression are poorly understood. Here we reveal that HCC progression via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely associated with the expression of CD36/fatty acid translocase and elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels. Although obesity is manifested as elevated FFA levels, the degree of EMT was not associated with the body mass index of the patients, highlighting the specific roles of CD36 and FFA uptake. Treatment of human liver cancer cell lines with FFAs exacerbated the EMT phenotype, whereas chemical inhibition of CD36 mitigated these effects. Furthermore, the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways were activated upon FFA treatment, potentially acting as upstream activators of the EMT program. These results provide the first direct evidence associating CD36 and elevated FFAs with HCC progression.

  12. Targeting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) to Overcome Drug Resistance in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Du, Bowen; Shim, Joong Sup

    2016-07-22

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to play an important role in cancer progression, metastasis and drug resistance. Although there are controversies surrounding the causal relationship between EMT and cancer metastasis, the role of EMT in cancer drug resistance has been increasingly recognized. Numerous EMT-related signaling pathways are involved in drug resistance in cancer cells. Cells undergoing EMT show a feature similar to cancer stem cells (CSCs), such as an increase in drug efflux pumps and anti-apoptotic effects. Therefore, targeting EMT has been considered a novel opportunity to overcome cancer drug resistance. This review describes the mechanism by which EMT contributes to drug resistance in cancer cells and summarizes new advances in research in EMT-associated drug resistance.

  13. Curcumin reverses irinotecan resistance in colon cancer cell by regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunhong; Xu, Yangjie; Wang, Haowen; Li, Gang; Yan, Han; Fei, Zhenghua; Xu, Yunsheng; Li, Wenfeng

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect and the mechanism by which curcumin reverses irinotecan-induced chemotherapy resistance in colon cancer. Construction of irinotecan-resistant colon cancer model LoVo/CPT-11R cells was performed by increasing drug concentration. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to detect inhibition of proliferation; cell morphology was observed by an optical microscope. Quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect molecular marker expressions during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); drug-resistant cells were treated with curcumin at different concentrations and Cell Counting Kit-8 was reperformed to detect cell proliferation after treatments. Drug-resistant cells were then divided into four groups: control group, irinotecan group, curcumin group, and irinotecan+curcumin group; quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting were performed to detect molecular marker expressions during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis after grouping, and apoptosis-related protein was detected by western blotting. LoVo/CPT-11R cells could survive in culture medium containing irinotecan at 60 μg/ml and the drug-resistance index was 5.69; the drug-resistant cells had a larger volume than normal cells and were poorly connected to each other. E-cadherin expression was downregulated, whereas vimentin and N-cadherin expressions were upregulated. After curcumin treatment, drug-resistant cell proliferation was significantly inhibited; in the curcumin+irinotecan treatment group, E-cadherin expression was upregulated, whereas vimentin and N-cadherin expressions were downregulated. Curcumin could significantly increase cell apoptosis. EMT is involved in the development of irinotecan resistance and curcumin can reverse this drug resistance through reversion of the EMT process.

  14. The effect of Pokemon on bladder cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Changcheng; Zhu, Kai; Sun, Wei; Yang, Bin; Gu, Wenyu; Luo, Jun; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2014-01-24

    This study aimed at detecting Pokemon expression in bladder cancer cell and investigating the relationship between Pokemon and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, we investigated the functions of Pokemon in the carcinogenesis and development of bladder cancer. This study was also designed to observe the inhibitory effects of siRNA expression vector on Pokemon in bladder cancer cell. The siRNA expression vectors which were constructed to express a short hairpin RNA against Pokemon were transfected to the bladder cancer cells T24 with a liposome. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin and β-catenin mRNA and protein were examined by real-time quantitative-fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of Pokemon silencing on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay. Pokemon was strongly inhibited by siRNA treatment, especially siRNA3 treatment group, as it was reflected by Western blot and real-time PCR. The gene and protein of E-cadherin expression level showed increased markedly after Pokemon was inhibited by RNA interference. While there were no differences in the levels of gene and protein of β-catenin among five groups. The bladder cancer cell after Pokemon siRNA interference showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12 and 24h. Our findings suggest Pokemon may inhibit the expression of E-cadherin. The low expression of E-cadherin lead to increasing the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Alveolar epithelial cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition in acute interstitial pneumonia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute interstitial pneumonia is a rare interstitial lung disease that rapidly progresses to respiratory failure or death. Several studies showed that myofibroblast plays an important role in the evolution of diffuse alveolar damage, which is the typical feature of acute interstitial pneumonia. However, no evidence exists whether alveolar epithelial cells are an additional source of myofibroblasts via epithelial-mesenchymal transition in acute interstitial pneumonia. Case presentation In this report, we present a case of acute interstitial pneumonia in a previously healthy 28-year-old non-smoking woman. Chest high-resolution computed tomography scan showed bilateral and diffusely ground-glass opacification. The biopsy was performed on the fifth day of her hospitalization, and results showed manifestation of acute exudative phase of diffuse alveolar damage characterized by hyaline membrane formation. On the basis of the preliminary diagnosis of acute interstitial pneumonia, high-dose glucocorticoid was used. However, this drug showed poor clinical response and could improve the patient’s symptoms only during the early phase. The patient eventually died of respiratory dysfunction. Histological findings in autopsy were consistent with the late form of acute interstitial pneumonia. Conclusions The results in this study revealed that alveolar epithelial cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and may be an important origin of myofibroblasts in the progression of acute interstitial pneumonia. Conducting research on the transformation of alveolar epithelial cells into myofibroblasts in the lung tissue of patients with acute interstitial pneumonia may be beneficial for the treatment of this disease. However, to our knowledge, no research has been conducted on this topic. PMID:24755111

  16. Evidence for pleural epithelial-mesenchymal transition in murine compensatory lung growth

    PubMed Central

    Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Wagner, Willi L.; Valenzuela, Cristian D.; Kienzle, Arne; Servais, Andrew B.; Bennett, Robert D.; Tsuda, Akira; Ackermann, Maximilian; Mentzer, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    In many mammals, including rodents and humans, removal of one lung results in the compensatory growth of the remaining lung; however, the mechanism of compensatory lung growth is unknown. Here, we investigated the changes in morphology and phenotype of pleural cells after pneumonectomy. Between days 1 and 3 after pneumonectomy, cells expressing α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), a cytoplasmic marker of myofibroblasts, were significantly increased in the pleura compared to surgical controls (p < .01). Scanning electron microscopy of the pleural surface 3 days post-pneumonectomy demonstrated regions of the pleura with morphologic features consistent with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT); namely, cells with disrupted intercellular junctions and an acquired mesenchymal (rounded and fusiform) morphotype. To detect the migration of the transitional pleural cells into the lung, a biotin tracer was used to label the pleural mesothelial cells at the time of surgery. By post-operative day 3, image cytometry of post-pneumonectomy subpleural alveoli demonstrated a 40-fold increase in biotin+ cells relative to pneumonectomy-plus-plombage controls (p < .01). Suggesting a similar origin in space and time, the distribution of cells expressing biotin, SMA, or vimentin demonstrated a strong spatial autocorrelation in the subpleural lung (p < .001). We conclude that post-pneumonectomy compensatory lung growth involves EMT with the migration of transitional mesothelial cells into subpleural alveoli. PMID:28542402

  17. Pancreatic stellate cells promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Recent studies have shown that pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. {yields} Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. {yields} PSCs decreased the expression of epithelial markers but increased that of mesenchymal markers, along with increased migration. {yields} This study suggests epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a novel mechanism by which PSCs contribute to the aggressive behavior of pancreatic cancer cells. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There ismore » accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Because epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in the progression of pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that PSCs promote EMT in pancreatic cancer cells. Panc-1 and SUIT-2 pancreatic cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with human PSCs isolated from patients undergoing operation for pancreatic cancer. The expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was examined by real-time PCR and immunofluorescent staining. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was examined by scratch and two-chamber assays. Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed loose cell contacts and a scattered, fibroblast-like appearance. The expression of E-cadherin, cytokeratin 19, and membrane-associated {beta}-catenin was decreased, whereas vimentin and Snail (Snai-1) expression was increased more in cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs than in mono-cultured cells. The migration of pancreatic cancer cells was increased by co-culture with PSCs. The PSC-induced decrease of E-cadherin expression was not

  18. Proteinase-activated receptor 4 stimulation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Seijitsu; Otani, Hitomi; Yagi, Yasuhiro; Kawai, Kenzo; Araki, Hiromasa; Fukuhara, Shirou; Inagaki, Chiyoko

    2007-01-01

    Background Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs; PAR1–4) that can be activated by serine proteinases such as thrombin and neutrophil catepsin G are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various pulmonary diseases including fibrosis. Among these PARs, especially PAR4, a newly identified subtype, is highly expressed in the lung. Here, we examined whether PAR4 stimulation plays a role in the formation of fibrotic response in the lung, through alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which contributes to the increase in myofibroblast population. Methods EMT was assessed by measuring the changes in each specific cell markers, E-cadherin for epithelial cell, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) for myofibroblast, using primary cultured mouse alveolar epithelial cells and human lung carcinoma-derived alveolar epithelial cell line (A549 cells). Results Stimulation of PAR with thrombin (1 U/ml) or a synthetic PAR4 agonist peptide (AYPGKF-NH2, 100 μM) for 72 h induced morphological changes from cobblestone-like structure to elongated shape in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells and A549 cells. In immunocytochemical analyses of these cells, such PAR4 stimulation decreased E-cadherin-like immunoreactivity and increased α-SMA-like immunoreactivity, as observed with a typical EMT-inducer, tumor growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blot analyses of PAR4-stimulated A549 cells also showed similar changes in expression of these EMT-related marker proteins. Such PAR4-mediated changes were attenuated by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase and Src. PAR4-mediated morphological changes in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells were reduced in the presence of these inhibitors. PAR4 stimulation increased tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR or tyrosine phosphorylated Src level in A549 cells, and the former response being inhibited by Src inhibitor. Conclusion PAR4 stimulation of alveolar epithelial cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT

  19. Smad4 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition proteins in colorectal carcinoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, M; Kouvaras, E; Papamichali, R; Samara, M; Chiotoglou, I; Koukoulis, G

    2018-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer metastasis. During EMT, tumor cells acquire the capacity to migrate and invade the stroma. Activation of the transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) signaling pathway is of major importance for the initiation of EMT. Smad4, an essential protein of this pathway, is known to complex with multiple transcription factors (e.g. Snail-1, Slug, Twist-1), in various types of cancer, promoting the repression or activation of target genes. The role of Smad4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) is not straightforward so far. In the present study forty eight resected CRC tumor specimens were immunohistochemically examined in order to assess the expression of Smad4 and its association with E-cadherin, Snail-1, Slug, Twist-1 protein expression and with various pathological parameters. Smad4 was found to be positively correlated with Snail-1, Slug and Twist-1 expression (p < 0.001). On the other hand it was negatively correlated with the expression of E-cadherin (p < 0.001). Furthermore, lymphatic invasion could be clearly associated with Smad4 expression, a finding complying with the metastatic ability of EMT cells. In conclusion, Smad4 could be considered as a central component of EMT transition in human colorectal cancer that combines with transcriptional factors to reduce E-cadherin and alter the expression of the epithelial phenotype.

  20. SUPPRESSION OF THE EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION BY GRAINYHEAD-LIKE-2

    PubMed Central

    Cieply, Benjamin; Riley, Philip; Pifer, Phillip M.; Widmeyer, Joseph; Addison, Joseph B.; Ivanov, Alexey V.; Denvir, James; Frisch, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Grainyhead genes are involved in wound healing and developmental neural tube closure. In light of the high degree of similarity between the epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) occurring in wound healing processes and the cancer stem cell-like compartment of tumors, including TGF-β-dependence, we investigated the role of the Grainyhead gene, Grainyhead-Like-2 (GRHL2) in oncogenic EMT. GRHL2 was down-regulated specifically in the claudin-low subclass breast tumors and in basal-B subclass breast cancer cell lines. GRHL2 suppressed TGF-β-induced, Twist-induced or spontaneous EMT, enhanced anoikis-sensitivity, and suppressed mammosphere generation in mammary epithelial cells. These effects were mediated in part by suppression of ZEB1 expression via direct repression of the ZEB1 promoter. GRHL2 also inhibited Smad-mediated transcription and it upregulated mir200b/c as well as the TGF-β receptor antagonist, BMP2. Lastly, ectopic expression of GRHL2 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells triggered a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and restored sensitivity to anoikis. Taken together, our findings define a major role for GRHL2 in the suppression of oncogenic EMT in breast cancer cells. PMID:22379025

  1. Extracellular vesicles: their role in cancer biology and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Shashi K; Greening, David W; Rai, Alin; Chen, Maoshan; Xu, Rong; Shafiq, Adnan; Mathias, Rommel A; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Cell-cell communication is critical across an assortment of physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent an integral facet of intercellular communication largely through the transfer of functional cargo such as proteins, messenger RNAs (mRNAs), microRNA (miRNAs), DNAs and lipids. EVs, especially exosomes and shed microvesicles, represent an important delivery medium in the tumour micro-environment through the reciprocal dissemination of signals between cancer and resident stromal cells to facilitate tumorigenesis and metastasis. An important step of the metastatic cascade is the reprogramming of cancer cells from an epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT), which is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness and metastatic potential. There is now increasing evidence demonstrating that EVs released by cells undergoing EMT are reprogrammed (protein and RNA content) during this process. This review summarises current knowledge of EV-mediated functional transfer of proteins and RNA species (mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA) between cells in cancer biology and the EMT process. An in-depth understanding of EVs associated with EMT, with emphasis on molecular composition (proteins and RNA species), will provide fundamental insights into cancer biology. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition can suppress major attributes of human epithelial tumor-initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Celià-Terrassa, Toni; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Mateo, Francesca; Martínez de Paz, Alexia; Rubio, Nuria; Arnal-Estapé, Anna; Ell, Brian J.; Bermudo, Raquel; Díaz, Alba; Guerra-Rebollo, Marta; Lozano, Juan José; Estarás, Conchi; Ulloa, Catalina; ρlvarez-Simón, Daniel; Milà, Jordi; Vilella, Ramón; Paciucci, Rosanna; Martínez-Balbás, Marian; García de Herreros, Antonio; Gomis, Roger R.; Kang, Yibin; Blanco, Jerónimo; Fernández, Pedro L.; Thomson, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant progression in cancer requires populations of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) endowed with unlimited self renewal, survival under stress, and establishment of distant metastases. Additionally, the acquisition of invasive properties driven by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for the evolution of neoplastic cells into fully metastatic populations. Here, we characterize 2 human cellular models derived from prostate and bladder cancer cell lines to better understand the relationship between TIC and EMT programs in local invasiveness and distant metastasis. The model tumor subpopulations that expressed a strong epithelial gene program were enriched in highly metastatic TICs, while a second subpopulation with stable mesenchymal traits was impoverished in TICs. Constitutive overexpression of the transcription factor Snai1 in the epithelial/TIC-enriched populations engaged a mesenchymal gene program and suppressed their self renewal and metastatic phenotypes. Conversely, knockdown of EMT factors in the mesenchymal-like prostate cancer cell subpopulation caused a gain in epithelial features and properties of TICs. Both tumor cell subpopulations cooperated so that the nonmetastatic mesenchymal-like prostate cancer subpopulation enhanced the in vitro invasiveness of the metastatic epithelial subpopulation and, in vivo, promoted the escape of the latter from primary implantation sites and accelerated their metastatic colonization. Our models provide new insights into how dynamic interactions among epithelial, self-renewal, and mesenchymal gene programs determine the plasticity of epithelial TICs. PMID:22505459

  3. The Network of Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: potential new targets for tumor resistance

    PubMed Central

    Nantajit, Danupon; Lin, Dong; Li, Jian Jian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In multiple cell metazoans, the ability of polarized epithelial cells to convert to motile mesenchymal cells in order to relocate to another location is governed by a unique process termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). While being an essential process of cellular plasticity for normal tissue and organ developments, EMT is found to be involved in an array of malignant phenotypes of tumor cells including proliferation and invasion, angiogenesis, stemness of cancer cells and resistance to chemo-radiotherapy. Although EMT is being extensively studied and demonstrated to play a key role in tumor metastasis and in sustaining tumor hallmarks, there is a lack of clear picture of the overall EMT signaling network, wavering the potential clinical trials targeting EMT. Methods In this review, we highlight the potential key therapeutic targets of EMT linked with tumor aggressiveness, hypoxia, angiogenesis and cancer stem cells, emphasizing on an emerging EMT-associated NF-κB/HER2/STAT3 pathway in radioresistance of breast cancer stem cells. Results Further definition of cancer stem cell repopulation due to EMT-controlled tumor microenvironment will help to understand how tumors exploit the EMT mechanisms for their survival and expansion advantages. Conclusions The knowledge of EMT will offer more effective targets in clinical trials to treat therapy-resistant metastatic lesions. PMID:25270087

  4. Role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition involved molecules in the progression of cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Murtas, Daniela; Maxia, Cristina; Diana, Andrea; Pilloni, Luca; Corda, Claudia; Minerba, Luigi; Tomei, Sara; Piras, Franca; Ferreli, Caterina; Perra, Maria Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to have a driving role in the acquisition of a metastatic potential by melanoma cells. Important hallmarks of EMT include both E-cadherin downregulation and increased expression of N-cadherin. This switch in distinct classes of adhesion molecules leads melanoma cells to lose contact with adjacent keratinocytes and interact instead with stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells, thus promoting dermal and vascular melanoma invasion. Consequently, tumor cells migrate to distant host tissues and establish metastases. A key regulator in the induction of EMT in melanoma is the Notch1 signaling pathway that, when activated, is prompt to upregulate N-cadherin expression. By means of this strategy, melanoma cells gain enhanced survival, proliferation and invasion properties, driving the tumor toward a more aggressive phenotype. On the basis of these statements, the present study aimed to investigate the possible association between N-cadherin and Notch1 presence in primary cutaneous melanomas and lymph node metastases. Our results from immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a positive correlation between N-cadherin and Notch1 presence in the same tumor samples. Moreover, this study highlighted that a concomitant high expression of N-cadherin and Notch1, both in primary lesions and in lymph node metastases, predicts an adverse clinical outcome in melanoma patients. Therefore, N-cadherin and Notch1 co-presence can be monitored as a predictive factor in early- and advanced-stage melanomas and open additional therapeutic targets for the restraint of melanoma metastasis.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition increases tumor sensitivity to COX-2 inhibition by apricoxib.

    PubMed

    Kirane, Amanda; Toombs, Jason E; Larsen, Jill E; Ostapoff, Katherine T; Meshaw, Kathryn R; Zaknoen, Sara; Brekken, Rolf A; Burrows, Francis J

    2012-09-01

    Although cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, such as the late stage development drug apricoxib, exhibit antitumor activity, their mechanisms of action have not been fully defined. In this study, we characterized the mechanisms of action of apricoxib in HT29 colorectal carcinoma. Apricoxib was weakly cytotoxic toward naive HT29 cells in vitro but inhibited tumor growth markedly in vivo. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed that in vivo drug levels peaked at 2-4 µM and remained sufficient to completely inhibit prostaglandin E(2) production, but failed to reach concentrations cytotoxic for HT29 cells in monolayer culture. Despite this, apricoxib significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation and induced apoptosis without affecting blood vessel density, although it did promote vascular normalization. Strikingly, apricoxib treatment induced a dose-dependent reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as shown by robust upregulation of E-cadherin and the virtual disappearance of vimentin and ZEB1 protein expression. In vitro, either anchorage-independent growth conditions or forced EMT sensitized HT29 and non-small cell lung cancer cells to apricoxib by 50-fold, suggesting that the occurrence of EMT may actually increase the dependence of colon and lung carcinoma cells on COX-2. Taken together, these data suggest that acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics sensitizes carcinoma cells to apricoxib resulting in significant single-agent antitumor activity.

  6. IGF-1 induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Stat5 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chuanzong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ben; Sun, Qi; He, Zhaobin; Hong, Jianguo; Kuehn, Florian; Liu, Enyu; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-12-19

    It has been reported that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the relationship between the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and EMT of HCC was not fully elucidated. In the present work, we found that the expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2, and Twist1 was positively associated with IGF-1R expression, while E-cadherin expression was negatively associated with IGF-1 expression in human HCC samples. Furthermore, we observed that IGF-1 up-regulated the expression of N-cadherin, Vimentin, Snail1, Snail2 and Twist1, and down-regulated the expression of E-cadherin. In addition, Stat5 was induced in IGF-1-treated HepG2 and Hep3B cells, and Stat5 inhibition or siRNA significantly affected IGF-1-induced EMT in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. In conclusion, IGF-1 induces EMT of HCC via Stat5 signaling pathway. Thus, IGF-1/Stat5 can be recommended as a potential and novel therapeutic strategy for HCC patients.

  7. TESTIN was commonly hypermethylated and involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ruofan; Pu, Hong; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Jinjin; Lian, Kuixian; Mao, Caiping

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported frequent loss of TESTIN in human endometrial carcinoma, which significantly suppressed tumor proliferation and invasion. Herein, we further explored the mechanisms underlying TESTIN loss and its roles in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a key step for tumor spreading). Methylation-specific PCR was performed to investigate the promoter status of TESTIN in a panel of endometrial cancer and normal endometrium tissues. The expression of TESTIN mRNA was determined by real-time PCR. Up- and down-regulation of TESTIN were achieved by transient transfection with pcDNA3.1-TESTIN and shRNA-TESTIN plasmids, respectively. The EMT alterations were observed under the optical microscope and EMT-related markers were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Compared to the control (3.6%), TESTIN was hypermethylated in 43.7% endometrial cancer tissues (p < 0.001). Moreover, TESTIN hypermethylation was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage, deep myometrial invasion and lymphatic node metastasis. In vitro, the demethylating agent dramatically restored the expression of TESTIN. In addition, up-regulation of TESTIN significantly suppressed the EMT procedure; whereas down-regulation of TESTIN enhanced EMT. In conclusion, we demonstrated that loss of TESTIN was mainly caused by hypermethylation, which might be a potent prognostic marker. Furthermore, we proved that TESTIN significantly suppressed the EMT procedure, proposing restoration of TESTIN to be a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial carcinoma. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. CD73 Regulates Stemness and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Ovarian Cancer-Initiating Cells.

    PubMed

    Lupia, Michela; Angiolini, Francesca; Bertalot, Giovanni; Freddi, Stefano; Sachsenmeier, Kris F; Chisci, Elisa; Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Confalonieri, Stefano; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Giovannoni, Roberto; Colombo, Nicoletta; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Cavallaro, Ugo

    2018-04-10

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) have been implicated in tumor development and aggressiveness. In ovarian carcinoma (OC), CICs drive tumor formation, dissemination, and recurrence, as well as drug resistance, thus accounting for the high death-to-incidence ratio of this neoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie such a pathogenic role of ovarian CICs (OCICs) remain elusive. Here, we have capitalized on primary cells either from OC or from its tissues of origin to obtain the transcriptomic profile associated with OCICs. Among the genes differentially expressed in OCICs, we focused on CD73, which encodes the membrane-associated 5'-ectonucleotidase. The genetic inactivation of CD73 in OC cells revealed that this molecule is causally involved in sphere formation and tumor initiation, thus emerging as a driver of OCIC function. Furthermore, functional inhibition of CD73 via either a chemical compound or a neutralizing antibody reduced sphere formation and tumorigenesis, highlighting the druggability of CD73 in the context of OCIC-directed therapies. The biological function of CD73 in OCICs required its enzymatic activity and involved adenosine signaling. Mechanistically, CD73 promotes the expression of stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes, implying a regulation of OCIC function at the transcriptional level. CD73, therefore, is involved in OCIC biology and may represent a therapeutic target for innovative treatments aimed at OC eradication. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. CUX1/Wnt signaling regulates Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in EBV infected epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Malizia, Andrea P.; Lacey, Noreen; Walls, Dermot

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by alveolar epithelial cells apoptosis, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. A strategy based on microarray-differential gene expression analysis to identify molecular drivers of EBV-associated lung fibrosis was utilized. Alveolar epithelial cells were infected with EBV to identify genes whose expression was altered following TGF{beta}1-mediated lytic phase. EBV lytic reactivation by TGF{beta}1 drives a selective alteration in CUX1 variant (a) (NCBI accession number NM{sub 1}81552) expression, inducing activation of non-canonicalmore » Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. The role of EBV in EMT can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signaling by using All-Trans Retinoic Acids (ATRA). Activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of EMT via CUX1 signaling. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.« less

  10. Inhibition of integrin-linked kinase blocks podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ameliorates proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young Sun; Li, Yingjian; Dai, Chunsun; Kiss, Lawrence P; Wu, Chuanyue; Liu, Youhua

    2010-08-01

    Proteinuria is a primary clinical symptom of a large number of glomerular diseases that progress to end-stage renal failure. Podocyte dysfunctions play a fundamental role in defective glomerular filtration in many common forms of proteinuric kidney disorders. Since binding of these cells to the basement membrane is mediated by integrins, we determined the role of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in podocyte dysfunction and proteinuria. ILK expression was induced in mouse podocytes by various injurious stimuli known to cause proteinuria including TGF-beta1, adriamycin, puromycin, and high ambient glucose. Podocyte ILK was also found to be upregulated in human proteinuric glomerular diseases. Ectopic expression of ILK in podocytes decreased levels of the epithelial markers nephrin and ZO-1, induced mesenchymal markers such as desmin, fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), promoted cell migration, and increased the paracellular albumin flux across podocyte monolayers. ILK also induced Snail, a key transcription factor mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Blockade of ILK activity with a highly selective small molecule inhibitor reduced Snail induction and preserved podocyte phenotypes following TGF-beta1 or adriamycin stimulation. In vivo, this ILK inhibitor ameliorated albuminuria, repressed glomerular induction of MMP-9 and alpha-SMA, and preserved nephrin expression in murine adriamycin nephropathy. Our results show that upregulation of ILK is a convergent pathway leading to podocyte EMT, migration, and dysfunction. ILK may be an attractive target for therapeutic intervention of proteinuric kidney diseases.

  11. PTK6 activation at the membrane regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Zebin; Bie, Wenjun; Brauer, Patrick M; Perez White, Bethany E; Li, Jing; Nogueira, Veronique; Raychaudhuri, Pradip; Hay, Nissim; Tonetti, Debra A; Macias, Virgilia; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Tyner, Angela L

    2013-09-01

    The intracellular tyrosine kinase protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) lacks a membrane-targeting SH4 domain and localizes to the nuclei of normal prostate epithelial cells. However, PTK6 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in human prostate tumor cells. Here, we show that while PTK6 is located primarily within the cytoplasm, the pool of active PTK6 in prostate cancer cells localizes to membranes. Ectopic expression of membrane-targeted active PTK6 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition in part by enhancing activation of AKT, thereby stimulating cancer cell migration and metastases in xenograft models of prostate cancer. Conversely, siRNA-mediated silencing of endogenous PTK6 promoted an epithelial phenotype and impaired tumor xenograft growth. In mice, PTEN deficiency caused endogenous active PTK6 to localize at membranes in association with decreased E-cadherin expression. Active PTK6 was detected at membranes in some high-grade human prostate tumors, and PTK6 and E-cadherin expression levels were inversely correlated in human prostate cancers. In addition, high levels of PTK6 expression predicted poor prognosis in patients with prostate cancer. Our findings reveal novel functions for PTK6 in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer, and they define this kinase as a candidate therapeutic target. Cancer Res; 73(17); 5426-37. ©2013 AACR.

  12. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Zhengkui; Liu, Xiaoran; Gao, Hongqiao; Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Pei; Kornmann, Marko; Tian, Xiaodong; Yang, Yinmo

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucially involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to assess the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness properties and chemoresistance of human pancreatic Panc-1 cancer stem cells (CSCs). Panc-1 cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors to silence SMO and serum-free floating-culture system was used to isolate Panc-1 tumorspheres. The expression of CSC and EMT markers was detected by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Malignant behaviors of Panc-1 CSC were evaluated by tumorigenicity assays and nude mouse lung metastasis model. We found that tumorspheres derived from pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 possessed self-renewal, differentiation and stemness properties. Hh pathway and EMT were active in Panc-1 tumorspheres. Inhibition of Hh signaling by SMO knockdown inhibited self-renewal, EMT, invasion, chemoresistance, pulmonary metastasis, tumorigenesis of pancreatic CSCs. In conclusion, Hh signaling contributes to the maintenance of stem-like properties and chemoresistance of pancreatic CSC and promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Hh pathway is a potential molecular target for the development of therapeutic strategies for pancreatic CSCs.

  13. Hedgehog Signaling Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Zhengkui; Liu, Xiaoran; Gao, Hongqiao; Zhuang, Yan; Yang, Pei; Kornmann, Marko; Tian, Xiaodong; Yang, Yinmo

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is crucially involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to assess the role of Hh signaling in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), stemness properties and chemoresistance of human pancreatic Panc-1 cancer stem cells (CSCs). Panc-1 cells were transfected with recombinant lentiviral vectors to silence SMO and serum-free floating-culture system was used to isolate Panc-1 tumorspheres. The expression of CSC and EMT markers was detected by flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Malignant behaviors of Panc-1 CSC were evaluated by tumorigenicity assays and nude mouse lung metastasis model. We found that tumorspheres derived from pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1 possessed self-renewal, differentiation and stemness properties. Hh pathway and EMT were active in Panc-1 tumorspheres. Inhibition of Hh signaling by SMO knockdown inhibited self-renewal, EMT, invasion, chemoresistance, pulmonary metastasis, tumorigenesis of pancreatic CSCs. In conclusion, Hh signaling contributes to the maintenance of stem-like properties and chemoresistance of pancreatic CSC and promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer. Hh pathway is a potential molecular target for the development of therapeutic strategies for pancreatic CSCs. PMID:26918054

  14. Periostin activates pathways involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Zheng, Shi-hao; Liu, Yi; Shi, Jin; Qi, Song-tao

    2016-01-15

    Periostin (POSTN) is an extracellular matrix protein (ECM) critical for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) in several kinds of tumor cells. Previous studies have indicated that EMT exists in craniopharyngioma (CP), and expression of POSTN is a significant factor in the prognosis of CP. However, it has never been explored whether POSTN exists in CP, or how it activates CP's EMT. The expression of POSTN was examined in adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) primary cells and tissues by immunohistochemistry, PCR and Western blot, respectively. The effects and mechanisms of POSTN on ACP cells' EMT were also analyzed. It was found that POSTN expression increased in ACP-associated fibroblasts. Overexpressed POSTN significantly elevated the EMT of ACP cells by regulating the expression of associated genes. More importantly, our further study revealed that the upregulated POSTN activated Akt signaling pathway to regulate the EMT. This study showed that POSTN is responsible for the EMT of ACP cells, and POSTN might be a potential molecular therapeutic target for ACP treatment in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Downregulation of 26S proteasome catalytic activity promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    van Baarsel, Eric D.; Metz, Patrick J.; Fisch, Kathleen; Widjaja, Christella E.; Kim, Stephanie H.; Lopez, Justine; Chang, Aaron N.; Geurink, Paul P.; Florea, Bogdan I.; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; Ovaa, Huib; Bui, Jack D.; Yang, Jing; Chang, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) endows carcinoma cells with phenotypic plasticity that can facilitate the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and contribute to the metastatic cascade. While there is substantial support for the role of EMT in driving cancer cell dissemination, less is known about the intracellular molecular mechanisms that govern formation of CSCs via EMT. Here we show that β2 and β5 proteasome subunit activity is downregulated during EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells. Moreover, selective proteasome inhibition enabled mammary epithelial cells to acquire certain morphologic and functional characteristics reminiscent of cancer stem cells, including CD44 expression, self-renewal, and tumor formation. Transcriptomic analyses suggested that proteasome-inhibited cells share gene expression signatures with cells that have undergone EMT, in part, through modulation of the TGF-β signaling pathway. These findings suggest that selective downregulation of proteasome activity in mammary epithelial cells can initiate the EMT program and acquisition of a cancer stem cell-like phenotype. As proteasome inhibitors become increasingly used in cancer treatment, our findings highlight a potential risk of these therapeutic strategies and suggest a possible mechanism by which carcinoma cells may escape from proteasome inhibitor-based therapy. PMID:26930717

  16. miR-100 Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition but Suppresses Tumorigenesis, Migration and Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dahu; Sun, Yutong; Yuan, Yuan; Han, Zhenbo; Zhang, Peijing; Zhang, Jinsong; You, M. James; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Wang, Min; Gupta, Sumeet; Hung, Mien-Chie; Liang, Han; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    Whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is always linked to increased tumorigenicity is controversial. Through microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of mammary epithelial cells overexpressing Twist, Snail or ZEB1, we identified miR-100 as a novel EMT inducer. Surprisingly, miR-100 inhibits the tumorigenicity, motility and invasiveness of mammary tumor cells, and is commonly downregulated in human breast cancer due to hypermethylation of its host gene MIR100HG. The EMT-inducing and tumor-suppressing effects of miR-100 are mediated by distinct targets. While miR-100 downregulates E-cadherin by targeting SMARCA5, a regulator of CDH1 promoter methylation, this miRNA suppresses tumorigenesis, cell movement and invasion in vitro and in vivo through direct targeting of HOXA1, a gene that is both oncogenic and pro-invasive, leading to repression of multiple HOXA1 downstream targets involved in oncogenesis and invasiveness. These findings provide a proof-of-principle that EMT and tumorigenicity are not always associated and that certain EMT inducers can inhibit tumorigenesis, migration and invasion. PMID:24586203

  17. Therapeutic targeting of epithelial plasticity programs – Focus on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Reem; Wang, Hailun; Taparra, Kekoa; Tran, Phuoc T.

    2017-01-01

    Mounting data points to epithelial plasticity programs such as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as clinically relevant therapeutic targets for the treatment of malignant tumors. In addition to the widely realized role of EMT in increasing cancer cell invasiveness during cancer metastasis, the EMT has also been implicated in allowing cancer cells to avoid tumor suppressor pathways during early tumorigenesis. In addition, data linking EMT to innate and acquired treatment resistance further points towards the desire to develop pharmacological therapies to target epithelial plasticity in cancer. In this review we organized our discussion on pathways and agents that can be used to target the EMT in cancer into three groups: (1) extracellular inducers of EMT; (2) the transcription factors that orchestrate the EMT transcriptome; and, (3) the downstream effectors of EMT. We highlight only briefly specific canonical pathways known to be involved in EMT such as the signal transduction pathways TGFβ, EFGR and Axl-Gas6. We emphasize in more detail pathways that are we believe are emerging novel pathways and therapeutic targets such as epigenetic therapies, glycosylation pathways and immunotherapy. The heterogeneity of tumors and the dynamic nature of epithelial plasticity in cancer cells make it likely that targeting only one EMT related process will be unsuccessful or only transiently successful. We suggest with greater understanding of epithelial plasticity regulation such as with the EMT, a more systematic targeting of multiple EMT regulatory networks will be the best path forward to improve cancer outcomes. PMID:28214899

  18. Prognostic relevance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and proliferation in surgically treated primary parotid gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Busch, Alina; Bauer, Larissa; Wardelmann, Eva; Rudack, Claudia; Grünewald, Inga; Stenner, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Cancer of the major salivary glands comprises a morphologically diverse group of rare tumours of largely unknown cause. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to play a significant prognostic role in various human cancers. The aim was to assess the expression of EMT markers in different histological subtypes of parotid gland cancer (PGC) and analyse their prognostic value. We examined 94 PGC samples (13 histological subtypes) for the expression of MIB-1, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), β-catenin, vimentin and cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18) by means of immunohistochemistry. The experimental findings were correlated with clinicopathological and survival parameters. We detected all analysed EMT and proliferation markers in specifically different constellations within the examined histological subtypes of PGC. We found high epithelial marker expressions (CK8/18, E-cadherin, membranous β-catenin) only in a distinct variety of carcinomas. A high proliferation rate (high MIB-1 expression) as well as a combination of high CK8/18 and low vimentin expression was associated with a significantly worse survival. Our findings indicate that activation of the EMT pathway is a relevant explanation for tumour progression in individual histological subtypes of malignant parotid gland lesions, but by far not in all. Evidence of EMT activation in PGC cannot be seen as an isolated prognostic factor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. BAG3 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Heng; Cheng, Shaobing; Tong, Rongliang; Lv, Zheng; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2014-03-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a co-chaperone of heat-shock protein (Hsp) 70 and may regulate major physiological and pathophysiological processes. However, few reports have examined the role of BAG3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we show that BAG3 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis in HCC. BAG3 was overexpressed in HCC tissues and cell lines. BAG3 knockdown resulted in reduction in migration and invasion of HCC cells, which was linked to reversion of EMT by increasing E-cadherin expression and decreasing N-cadherin, vimentin and slug expression, as well as suppressing matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) expression. In a xenograft tumorigenicity model, BAG3 knockdown effectively inhibited tumor growth and metastasis through reduction in CD34 and VEGF expression and reversal of the EMT pathway. In conclusion, BAG3 is associated with the invasiveness and angiogenesis in HCC, and the BAG3 gene may be a novel therapeutic approach against HCC.

  20. Functional MUC4 suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liuwei; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Daowei; Zhang, Tiemei; Liu, Yang; Wang, Changli

    2014-02-01

    The mucin MUC4 is a high molecular weight membrane-bound transmembrane glycoprotein that is frequently detected in invasive and metastatic cancer. The overexpression of MUC4 is associated with increased risks for several types of cancer. However, the functional role of MUC4 is poorly understood in lung adenocarcinoma. Using antisense-MUC4-RNA transfected adenocarcinoma cells, we discovered that the loss of MUC4 expression results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found morphological alterations and the repression of the epithelial marker E-cadherin in transfected cells. Additionally, the loss of MUC4 caused the upregulation of the mesenchymal marker vimentin compared to control cells. Using a MUC4-knockdown versus control LTEP xenograft mice model (129/sv mice), we also found that EMT happened in lung tissues of MUC4-knockdown-LTEP xenograft mice. Moreover, antisense-MUC4-RNA transfected cells had a significantly increased cellular migration ability in vitro. The loss of MUC4 also occurred in lung adenocarcinoma patients with lymph node metastases. We further investigated MUC4 and found that it plays a critical role in regulating EMT by modulating β-catenin. Taken together, our study reveals a novel role for MUC4 in suppressing EMT and suggests that the assessment of MUC4 may function as a prognostic biomarker and could be a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  1. Chemo-elastic modeling of invasive carcinoma development accompanied by oncogenic epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratsun, D. A.; Krasnyakov, I. V.; Pismen, L.

    2017-09-01

    We present a further development of a multiscale chemo-mechanical model of carcinoma growth in the epithelium tissue proposed earlier. The epithelium is represented by an elastic 2D array of polygonal cells, each with its own gene regulation dynamics. The model allows the simulation of evolution of multiple cells interacting via the chemical signaling or mechanically induced strain. The algorithm takes into account the division and intercalation of cells. The latter is most important since, first of all, carcinoma cells lose cell-cell adhesion and polarity via the oncogenic variant of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) at which cells gain migratory and invasive properties. This process is mediated by E-cadherin repression and requires the differentiation of tumor cells with respect to the edge of the tumor that means that front cells should be most mobile. Taking into account this suggestion, we present the results of simulations demonstrating different patterns of carcinoma invasion. The comparison of our results with recent experimental observations is given and discussed.

  2. H19 promotes endometrial cancer progression by modulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Le; Li, Zhen; Chen, Wei; Zhai, Wen; Pan, Jingjing; Pang, Huan; Li, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is one of the most common types of gynecological malignancy worldwide. Novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets are imperative for improving patients' survival. Previous studies have suggested the long non-coding RNA H19 as a potential cancer biomarker. To investigate the role of H19 in endometrial cancer, the present study examined the expression pattern of H19 in endometrial cancer tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and characterized its function in the endometrial cancer cell line via knocking down its expression with small interfering RNAs. It was found that H19 level was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in paratumoral tissues. Knockdown of H19 did not affect the growth rate of HEC-1-B endometrial cancer cells, but significantly suppressed in vitro migration and invasion of HEC-1-B cells. Furthermore, H19 downregulation decreased Snail level and increased E-cadherin expression without affecting vimentin level, indicating partial reversion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The present findings suggested that H19 contributed to the aggressiveness of endometrial cancer by modulating EMT process. PMID:28123568

  3. A sea urchin in vivo model to evaluate Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Romancino, Daniele P; Anello, Letizia; Lavanco, Antonella; Buffa, Valentina; Di Bernardo, Maria; Bongiovanni, Antonella

    2017-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular program, which is a prerequisite for the metastatic cascade in carcinoma progression. Here, we evaluate the EMT process using the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo. In sea urchin embryos, the earliest EMT event is related to the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype by the spiculogenetic primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) and their migration into the blastocoel. We investigated the effect of inhibiting the epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling pathway on this process, and we observed that mesenchyme cell differentiation was blocked. In order to extend and validate our studies, we investigated the migratory capability and the level of potential epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) targets in a breast cancer cell line after EGF modulation. Altogether, our data highlight the sensitivity of the sea urchin embryo to anti-EMT drugs and pinpoint the sea urchin embryo as a valuable in vivo model system for studying EMT and the screening of anti-EMT candidates. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  4. AQP5 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis via NF-κB-regulated epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    He, Zhikuan; Dong, Wenxing; Hu, Junhong; Ren, Xuequn

    2017-08-19

    Aquaporin 5 (AQP5), a transmembrane protein, is known for its involvement in the progress of many diseases such as chronic kidney disease and systemic disease. Recently, AQP5 has been reported to play an important role in cancer progression. However, little is known about its precise functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to investigate the specific role of AQP5 in HCC. The results showed that AQP5 was highly expressed in HCC cell lines and its down-regulation inhibited HCC cell invasion and tumor metastasis in vitro and in vivo. In addition, down-regulation of AQP5 suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in HCC cells by modulating EMT-related molecules such as E-cadherin, α-catenin, N-cadherin and Vimentin. Further studies on corresponding mechanisms indicated that AQP5 down-regulation inhibited HCC metastasis and EMT partly via inactivation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that AQP5 may be a potential therapeutic target for HCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not sufficient for spontaneous murine breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yuanmei; Preobrazhenska, Olena; auf dem Keller, Ulrich; Sutcliffe, Margaret; Barclay, Lorena; McDonald, Paul C; Roskelley, Calvin; Overall, Christopher M; Dedhar, Shoukat

    2008-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been linked to metastatic propensity. The 4T1 tumor is a clinically relevant model of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. Here we characterize 4T1-derived cell lines for EMT, in vitro invasiveness and in vivo metastatic ability. Contrary to expectations, 67NR cells, which form primary tumors but fail to metastasize, express vimentin and N-cadherin, but not E-cadherin. 4T1 cells express E-cadherin and ZO-1, but are migratory, invasive, and metastasize to multiple sites. 66cl4 cells form lung metastases and display a mixed phenotype, but are not as migratory or invasive as 67NR cells. These findings demonstrate that the metastatic ability of breast cancer cells does not strictly correlate with genotypic and phenotypic properties of EMT per se, and suggest that other processes may govern metastatic capability. Gene expression analysis of primary tumors did not identify differences in EMT markers, but did reveal candidate genes that may influence metastatic ability. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Thioredoxin 1 mediates TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Feng, Xin; Zheng, Lei; Li, Sheng-Lin; Ge, Xi-Yuan; Zhang, Jian-Guo

    2015-09-22

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) which is characterized by wide local infiltration, perineural spread, a propensity to local recurrence and late distant metastasis. Our recent studies have disclosed that TGF-β is a crucial factor for EMT in metastatic SACC. In this study, we further uncovered small redox protein thioredoxin 1 (TXN) as a critical mediator of TGF-β induced EMT. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed significantly higher expressions of TXN, thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and N-cadherin, and lower expression of E-cadherin in human metastatic SACC compared to non-metastatic SACC tissues. Consistently, cultured SACC cells with stable TXN overexpression had decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin as well as Snail and Slug expressions. The enhanced migration and invasion potential of these cells was abrogated by Akt or TXNRD1 inhibitors. Expression of N-cadherin and Akt p-Akt decreased, whereas E-cadherin expression increased in a BBSKE (TXNRD1 inhibitor)-dose-dependent manner. In a xenograft mouse model, TXN overexpression facilitated the metastatic potential of SACC-83 cells to the lung. Our results indicate that TXN plays a key role in SACC invasion and metastasis through the modulation of TGF-β-Akt/GSK-3β on EMT. TXN could be a potential therapeutic target for SACC.

  7. Syndecan-1 suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Zhao, Xiaoming; Qi, Tianyang; Zhang, Tianfu; Kong, Chenfei

    2018-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major processes that contribute to the occurrence of cancer metastasis. EMT has been associated with the development of oral cancer. Syndecan‑1 (SDC1) is a key cell‑surface adhesion molecule and its expression level inversely correlates with tumor differentiation and prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of SDC1 in oral cancer progression and investigate the molecular mechanisms through which SDC1 regulates the EMT and invasiveness of oral cancer cells. We demonstrated that basal SDC1 expression levels were lower in four oral cancer cell lines (KB, Tca8113, ACC2 and CAL‑27), than in normal human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of SDC1 resulted in morphological transformation, decreased expression of EMT‑associated markers, as well as decreased migration, invasiveness and proliferation of oral cancer cells. In contrast, downregulation of the expression of SDC1 caused the opposite results. Furthermore, the knockdown of endogenous SDC1 activated the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) cascade, upregulated the expression of Snail and inhibited the expression of E‑cadherin. In conclusion, our findings revealed that SDC1 suppressed EMT via the modulation of the ERK signaling pathway that, in turn, negatively affected the invasiveness of human oral cancer cells. Our results provided useful evidence about the potential use of SDC1 as a molecular target for therapeutic interventions in human oral cancer.

  8. Systems Biology Approach and Mathematical Modeling for Analyzing Phase-Space Switch During Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Chiara; Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Mascia, Corrado; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2018-01-01

    In this report, we aim at presenting a viable strategy for the study of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its opposite Mesenchymal-Epithelial Transition (MET) by means of a Systems Biology approach combined with a suitable Mathematical Modeling analysis. Precisely, it is shown how the presence of a metastable state, that is identified at a mesoscopic level of description, is crucial for making possible the appearance of a phase transition mechanism in the framework of fast-slow dynamics for Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs).

  9. Ac-SDKP suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells via HSP27 signaling.

    PubMed

    Deng, Haijing; Yang, Fang; Xu, Hong; Sun, Yue; Xue, Xinxin; Du, Shipu; Wang, Xiaojun; Li, Shifeng; Liu, Yan; Wang, Ruimin

    2014-08-01

    The synthetic tetrapeptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (Ac-SDKP) has been shown to be a modulator of molecular aspects of the fibrosis pathway. This study reveals that Ac-SDKP exerts an anti-fibrotic effect on human type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549), which are a source of myofibroblasts once exposed to TGF-β1, by decreasing the expression of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We used A549 cells in vitro to detect morphological evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by phase-contrast microscopy. Immunocytochemical and western blot analysis determined the distributions of cytokeratin 8 (CK8), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and SNAI1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a colocalization of HSP27 and SNAI1 on TGF-β1-induced A549 cells. These results also demonstrated that A549 cells became spindle-like when exposed to TGF-β1. Coincident with these morphological changes, expression levels of CK8 and E-cad decreased, while those of vimentin and α-SMA increased. This process was accompanied by increases in levels of HSP27, SNAI1, and type I and type III collagen. In vitro transfection experiments demonstrated that the inhibition of HSP27 in cultured A549 cells could decrease the expression of SNAI1 and α-SMA while increasing the expression of E-cad. A noticeable reduction in collagen types I and III was also evident. Our results found that Ac-SDKP inhibited the transition of cultured A549 cells to myofibroblasts and attenuated collagen synthesis through modulating the expression of HSP27. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p < 0.01 or 0.001). The values of intraclass correlation coefficient, both in Single Type or Average, were higher in IPPs than in Controls both for 3 observers and 1 observer. Processed with Adobe Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  11. The role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Zidar, Nina; Boštjančič, Emanuela; Malgaj, Marija; Gale, Nina; Dovšak, Tadej; Didanovič, Vojko

    2018-02-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a possible mechanism of cancer metastasizing, but strong evidence for EMT involvement in human cancer is lacking. Our aim was to compare oral spindle cell carcinoma (SpCC) as an example of EMT with oral conventional squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with and without nodal metastases to test the hypothesis that EMT contributes to metastasizing in oral SCC. Thirty cases of oral SCC with and without nodal metastasis and 15 cases of SpCC were included. Epithelial (cytokeratin, E-cadherin), mesenchymal (vimentin, N-cadherin), and stem cell markers (ALDH-1, CD44, Nanog, Sox-2) and transcription repressors (Snail, Slug, Twist) were analyzed immunohistochemically. We also analyzed the expression of microRNAs miR-141, miR-200 family, miR-205, and miR-429. SpCC exhibited loss of epithelial markers and expression of mesenchymal markers or coexpression of both up-regulation of transcription repressors and down-regulation of the investigated microRNAs. SCC showed only occasional focal expression of mesenchymal markers at the invasive front. No other differences were observed between SCC with and without nodal metastases except for a higher expression of ALDH-1 in SCC with metastases. Our results suggest that SpCC is an example of true EMT but do not support the hypothesis that EMT is involved in metastasizing of conventional SCC. Regarding oral SCC progression and metastasizing, we have been facing a shift from the initial enthusiasm for the EMT concept towards a more critical approach with "EMT-like" and "partial EMT" concepts. The real question, though, is, is there no EMT at all?

  12. Cigarette smoke-induced alveolar epithelial-mesenchymal transition is mediated by Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-juan; Sun, Yan-hong; Zhang, Shui-juan; Jiang, Jun-xia; Dong, Xin-wei; Jia, Yong-liang; Shen, Jian; Guan, Yan; Zhang, Lin-hui; Li, Fen-fen; Lin, Xi-xi; Wu, Xi-mei; Xie, Qiang-min; Yan, Xiao-feng

    2014-06-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the major pathophysiological process in lung fibrosis observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for developing EMT, yet the mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Rac1 in cigarette smoke (CS) induced EMT. EMT was induced in mice and pulmonary epithelial cells by exposure of CS and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) respectively. Treatment of pulmonary epithelial cells with CSE elevated Rac1 expression associated with increased TGF-β1 release. Blocking TGF-β pathway restrained CSE-induced changes in EMT-related markers. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of Rac1 decreased the CSE exposure induced TGF-β1 release and ameliorated CSE-induced EMT. In CS-exposed mice, pharmacological inhibition of Rac1 reduced TGF-β1 release and prevented aberrations in expression of EMT markers, suggesting that Rac1 is a critical signaling molecule for induction of CS-stimulated EMT. Furthermore, Rac1 inhibition or knockdown abrogated CSE-induced Smad2 and Akt (PKB, protein kinase B) activation in pulmonary epithelial cells. Inhibition of Smad2, PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase) or Akt suppressed CSE-induced changes in epithelial and mesenchymal marker expression. Altogether, these data suggest that CS initiates EMT through Rac1/Smad2 and Rac1/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our data provide new insights into the fundamental basis of EMT and suggest a possible new course of therapy for COPD and lung cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular Pathogenesis of Chlamydia Disease Complications: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Nagy, Tamas; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; He, Qing; Partin, James; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; George, Zenas; Goldstein, Jason; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Pohl, Jan; Black, Carolyn M

    2018-01-01

    The reproductive system complications of genital chlamydial infection include fallopian tube fibrosis and tubal factor infertility. However, the molecular pathogenesis of these complications remains poorly understood. The induction of pathogenic epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation was recently proposed as the pathogenic basis of chlamydial complications. Focusing on fibrogenesis, we investigated the hypothesis that chlamydia-induced fibrosis is caused by EMT-driven generation of myofibroblasts, the effector cells of fibrosis that produce excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The results revealed that the targets of a major category of altered miRNAs during chlamydial infection are key components of the pathophysiological process of fibrogenesis; these target molecules include collagen types I, III, and IV, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), TGF-β receptor 1 (TGF-βR1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), E-cadherin, SRY-box 7 (SOX7), and NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) kinase dual-specificity tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1a (Dyrk1a). Chlamydial induction of EMT resulted in the generation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts that produced ECM proteins, including collagen types I and III and fibronectin. Furthermore, the inhibition of EMT prevented the generation of myofibroblasts and production of ECM proteins during chlamydial infection. These findings may provide useful avenues for targeting EMT or specific components of the EMT pathways as a therapeutic intervention strategy to prevent chlamydia-related complications. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Cardiac Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Is Blocked by Monomethylarsonous Acid (III)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tianfang; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic exposure during embryonic development can cause ischemic heart pathologies later in adulthood which may originate from impairment in proper blood vessel formation. The arsenic-associated detrimental effects are mediated by arsenite (iAsIII) and its most toxic metabolite, monomethylarsonous acid [MMA (III)]. The impact of MMA (III) on coronary artery development has not yet been studied. The key cellular process that regulates coronary vessel development is the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). During cardiac EMT, activated epicardial progenitor cells transform to mesenchymal cells to form the cellular components of coronary vessels. Smad2/3 mediated TGFβ2 signaling, the key regulator of cardiac EMT, is disrupted by arsenite exposure. In this study, we compared the cardiac toxicity of MMA (III) with arsenite. Epicardial progenitor cells are 15 times more sensitive to MMA (III) cytotoxicity when compared with arsenite. MMA (III) caused a significant blockage in epicardial cellular transformation and invasion at doses 10 times lower than arsenite. Key EMT genes including TGFβ ligands, TβRIII, Has2, CD44, Snail1, TBX18, and MMP2 were down regulated by MMA (III) exposure. MMA (III) disrupted Smad2/3 activation at a dose 20 times lower than arsenite. Both arsenite and MMA (III) significantly inhibited Erk1/2 and Erk5 phosphorylation. Nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and Erk5 was also blocked by arsenical exposure. However, p38 activation, as well as smooth muscle differentiation, was refractory to the inhibition by the arsenicals. Collectively, these findings revealed that MMA (III) is a selective disruptor of cardiac EMT and as such may predispose to arsenic-associated cardiovascular disorders. PMID:25145660

  15. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsoukalas, Nikolaos; Aravantinou-Fatorou, Eleni; Tolia, Maria; Giaginis, Constantinos; Galanopoulos, Michail; Kiakou, Maria; Kostakis, Ioannis D; Dana, Eugene; Vamvakaris, Ioannis; Korogiannos, Athanasios; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Salemis, Nikolaos; Kyrgias, George; Karameris, Andreas; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the first cause of cancer related deaths in both males and females. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible process by which epithelial cells transform to mesenchymal stem cells by losing their cell polarity and cell-to-cell adhesion, gaining migratory and invasive properties. High levels of E-cadherin are expressed in epithelial cells, whereas mesenchymal cells express high levels of N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between E-cadherin and vimentin expression and their clinical significance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and Ki-67 was performed on tissue microarrays from NSCLC specimens obtained from 112 newly- diagnosed cases and were studied using classical pathological evaluation. Associations between E-cadherin, vimentin and Ki-67 expression, clinicopathological variables and survival were analyzed. In all cases, a value of p≤0.05 was considered significant. Low E-cadherin expression was significantly correlated with tumor necrosis (p=0.019). Moreover, there was a trend for correlation between high E-cadherin expression and better overall survival (hazard ratio=1.02, and 95% confidence interval=0.45-1.87, p=0.091). There was also a significant negative correlation between vimentin expression and overall survival (hazard ratio=1.13, and 95% confidence interval=0.78-1.65, p=0.026). Additionally, there was a significant negative correlation between vimentin expression and grade I tumors (p=0.031). Finally, a positive correlation trend between vimentin expression and Ki-67 was found (p=0.073). High E-cadherin and low vimentin expression correlate with better prognosis and overall survival. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Benzotriazole Enhances Cell Invasive Potency in Endometrial Carcinoma Through CTBP1-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiquan; Dai, Chencheng; Zhou, Cheng; Li, Wenqu; Qian, Yujia; Wen, Juan; Wang, Yang; Han, Bing; Ma, Jingjing; Xu, Juan; Fu, Ziyi; Ruan, Hongjie; Tong, Hua; Jia, Xuemei

    2017-01-01

    Benzotriazole (BTR) and its derivatives, such as intermediates and UV stabilizers, are important man-made organic chemicals found in everyday life that have been recently identified as environmental toxins and a threat to female reproductive health. Previous studies have shown that BTR could act as a carcinogen by mimicking estrogen. Environmental estrogen mimics could promote the initiation and development of female cancers, such as endometrial carcinoma, a type of estrogenic-sensitive malignancy. However, there is little information on the relationship between BTR and endometrial carcinoma. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the biological function of BTR in endometrial carcinoma and explored the underlying mechanism. The CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cell viability; transwell-filter assay was used to assess cell invasion; gene microarray analysis was employed to determine gene expression patterns in response to BTR treatment; western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were carried out to detect the expression levels of BTR-related genes. Our data showed that BTR could induce the invasion and migration of endometrial carcinoma cells (Ishikawa and HEC-1-B). In addition, BTR increased the expression level of CTBP1, which could enhance the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer cells. Moreover, CTBP1 silencing reversed the effect of BTR on EMT progression in endometrial carcinoma cells. This study indicates that BTR could act as a carcinogen to promote the development of endometrial carcinoma mainly through CTBP1-mediated EMT, which deserves more attention. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Anterior segment dysgenesis correlation with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in Smad4 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Qin, Yu; Zhao, Fang-Kun; Wu, Di; He, Xue-Fei; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Jiang-Yue; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2016-01-01

    To explore the molecular mechanisms in lens development and the pathogenesis of Peters anomaly in Smad4 defective mice. Le-Cre transgenic mouse line was employed to inactivate Smad4 in the surface ectoderm selectively. Pathological techniques were used to reveal the morphological changes of the anterior segment in Smad4 defective eye. Immunohistochemical staining was employed to observe the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and α-SMA in anterior segment of Smad4 defective mice and control mice at embryonic (E) day 16.5. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to detect the expression of Snail, Zeb1, Zeb2 and Twist2 in lens of Smad4 defective mice and control mice at E16.5. Statistical evaluations were performed using the unpaired Student's t-test (two-tailed) by SPSS 11.0 software. Conditional deletion of Smad4 on eye surface ectoderm resulted in corneal dysplasia, iridocorneal angle closure, corneolenticular adhesions and cataract resembling Peters anomaly. Loss of Smad4 function inhibited E-cadherin expression in the lens epithelium cells and corneal epithelium cells in Smad4 defective eye. Expression of N-cadherin was up-regulated in corneal epithelium and corneal stroma. Both E-cadherin and N-cadherin were down-regulated at the future trabecular meshwork region in mutant eye. The qPCR results showed that the expression of Twist2 was increased significantly in the mutant lens (P<0.01). Smad4 is essential to eye development and likely a candidate pathogenic gene to Peters anomaly by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Twist2 can be regulated by Smad4 and plays an essential role in lens development.

  18. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes and cellular processes driving epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Takahiro; Newberg, Justin Y.; Kodama, Michiko; Rangel, Roberto; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Tien, Jean C.; Parsons, Pamela H.; Wu, Hao; Finegold, Milton J.; Copeland, Neal G.; Jenkins, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is thought to contribute to metastasis and chemoresistance in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), leading to their poor prognosis. The genes driving EMT in HCC are not yet fully understood, however. Here, we show that mobilization of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons in immortalized mouse hepatoblasts induces mesenchymal liver tumors on transplantation to nude mice. These tumors show significant down-regulation of epithelial markers, along with up-regulation of mesenchymal markers and EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs). Sequencing of transposon insertion sites from tumors identified 233 candidate cancer genes (CCGs) that were enriched for genes and cellular processes driving EMT. Subsequent trunk driver analysis identified 23 CCGs that are predicted to function early in tumorigenesis and whose mutation or alteration in patients with HCC is correlated with poor patient survival. Validation of the top trunk drivers identified in the screen, including MET (MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase), GRB2-associated binding protein 1 (GAB1), HECT, UBA, and WWE domain containing 1 (HUWE1), lysine-specific demethylase 6A (KDM6A), and protein-tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 12 (PTPN12), showed that deregulation of these genes activates an EMT program in human HCC cells that enhances tumor cell migration. Finally, deregulation of these genes in human HCC was found to confer sorafenib resistance through apoptotic tolerance and reduced proliferation, consistent with recent studies showing that EMT contributes to the chemoresistance of tumor cells. Our unique cell-based transposon mutagenesis screen appears to be an excellent resource for discovering genes involved in EMT in human HCC and potentially for identifying new drug targets. PMID:27247392

  19. [CCL21 promotes the metastasis of human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells via epithelial- mesenchymal transition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Chen, Fangfang; Duan, Tanghai; Zhu, Haitao; Xie, Xiaodong; Wu, Yingying; Zhang, Zhijian; Wang, Dongqing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying that chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) promotes the metastasis ability of human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. Transwell(TM) was used to access the chemotaxis effect of CCL21 on Panc-1 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) mRNA in the upper and lower chambers. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were employed to examine the expressions of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins and CD133 of Panc-1 cells in the lower chamber, which were compared with those of the upper chamber as the control. The numbers of the Panc-1 cells induced by 0, 50, 100, 200 ng/mL CCL21 were 13.00 ± 3.00, 78.00 ± 9.00, 161.00 ± 11.00, 281.00 ± 17.00, respectively; with the increase of the concentration of CCL21, there were more cells migrating from the upper to the lower chamber; and the cells in the lower chamber expressed higher level of CCR7 mRNA than the ones staying in the upper chamber. The relative protein expressions of MMP-9, vimentin, E-cadherin and CD133 in the lower chamber were 0.42 ± 0.04, 0.36 ± 0.03, 0.12 ± 0.02, 0.46 ± 0.03, respectively, which were statistically significantly different from those in the upper chamber (0.15 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.02, respectively). CCL21/CCR7 axis maybe play an important role in the metastasis of pancreatic cancer stem cells by EMT and up-regulation of MMP-9.

  20. Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Induces Aberrant Glycosylation through Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway Activation.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Miguel C; Carvalho-Cruz, Patricia; Donadio, Joana L; Oliveira, Isadora A; de Queiroz, Rafaela M; Marinho-Carvalho, Monica M; Sola-Penna, Mauro; de Paula, Iron F; Gondim, Katia C; McComb, Mark E; Costello, Catherine E; Whelan, Stephen A; Todeschini, Adriane R; Dias, Wagner B

    2016-06-17

    Deregulated cellular metabolism is a hallmark of tumors. Cancer cells increase glucose and glutamine flux to provide energy needs and macromolecular synthesis demands. Several studies have been focused on the importance of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway. However, a neglected but very important branch of glucose metabolism is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP is a branch of the glucose metabolic pathway that consumes ∼2-5% of the total glucose, generating UDP-GlcNAc as the end product. UDP-GlcNAc is the donor substrate used in multiple glycosylation reactions. Thus, HBP links the altered metabolism with aberrant glycosylation providing a mechanism for cancer cells to sense and respond to microenvironment changes. Here, we investigate the changes of glucose metabolism during epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the role of O-GlcNAcylation in this process. We show that A549 cells increase glucose uptake during EMT, but instead of increasing the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, the glucose is shunted through the HBP. The activation of HBP induces an aberrant cell surface glycosylation and O-GlcNAcylation. The cell surface glycans display an increase of sialylation α2-6, poly-LacNAc, and fucosylation, all known epitopes found in different tumor models. In addition, modulation of O-GlcNAc levels was demonstrated to be important during the EMT process. Taken together, our results indicate that EMT is an applicable model to study metabolic and glycophenotype changes during carcinogenesis, suggesting that cell glycosylation senses metabolic changes and modulates cell plasticity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Architecture of epigenetic reprogramming following Twist1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is known to impart metastasis and stemness characteristics in breast cancer. To characterize the epigenetic reprogramming following Twist1-induced EMT, we characterized the epigenetic and transcriptome landscapes using whole-genome transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq, DNA methylation by digital restriction enzyme analysis of methylation (DREAM) and histone modifications by CHIP-seq of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells relative to cells induced to undergo EMT by Twist1. Results EMT is accompanied by focal hypermethylation and widespread global DNA hypomethylation, predominantly within transcriptionally repressed gene bodies. At the chromatin level, the number of gene promoters marked by H3K4me3 increases by more than one fifth; H3K27me3 undergoes dynamic genomic redistribution characterized by loss at half of gene promoters and overall reduction of peak size by almost half. This is paralleled by increased phosphorylation of EZH2 at serine 21. Among genes with highly altered mRNA expression, 23.1% switch between H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks, and those point to the master EMT targets and regulators CDH1, PDGFRα and ESRP1. Strikingly, Twist1 increases the number of bivalent genes by more than two fold. Inhibition of the H3K27 methyltransferases EZH2 and EZH1, which form part of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), blocks EMT and stemness properties. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the EMT program requires epigenetic remodeling by the Polycomb and Trithorax complexes leading to increased cellular plasticity. This suggests that inhibiting epigenetic remodeling and thus decrease plasticity will prevent EMT, and the associated breast cancer metastasis. PMID:24367927

  2. Dynamic Transcription Factor Networks in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Models

    PubMed Central

    Siletz, Anaar; Schnabel, Michael; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Schumacher, Andrew J.; Shin, Seungjin; Jeruss, Jacqueline S.; Shea, Lonnie D.

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs) are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23593114

  3. Dynamic transcription factor networks in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer models.

    PubMed

    Siletz, Anaar; Schnabel, Michael; Kniazeva, Ekaterina; Schumacher, Andrew J; Shin, Seungjin; Jeruss, Jacqueline S; Shea, Lonnie D

    2013-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex change in cell differentiation that allows breast carcinoma cells to acquire invasive properties. EMT involves a cascade of regulatory changes that destabilize the epithelial phenotype and allow mesenchymal features to manifest. As transcription factors (TFs) are upstream effectors of the genome-wide expression changes that result in phenotypic change, understanding the sequential changes in TF activity during EMT provides rich information on the mechanism of this process. Because molecular interactions will vary as cells progress from an epithelial to a mesenchymal differentiation program, dynamic networks are needed to capture the changing context of molecular processes. In this study we applied an emerging high-throughput, dynamic TF activity array to define TF activity network changes in three cell-based models of EMT in breast cancer based on HMLE Twist ER and MCF-7 mammary epithelial cells. The TF array distinguished conserved from model-specific TF activity changes in the three models. Time-dependent data was used to identify pairs of TF activities with significant positive or negative correlation, indicative of interdependent TF activity throughout the six-day study period. Dynamic TF activity patterns were clustered into groups of TFs that change along a time course of gene expression changes and acquisition of invasive capacity. Time-dependent TF activity data was combined with prior knowledge of TF interactions to construct dynamic models of TF activity networks as epithelial cells acquire invasive characteristics. These analyses show EMT from a unique and targetable vantage and may ultimately contribute to diagnosis and therapy.

  4. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopic signatures for lung cells' epithelial mesenchymal transition: A preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Atasi; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Mukherjee, Anirban; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2017-02-01

    Infra red (IR) spectral characterization can provide label-free cellular metabolic signatures of normal and diseased circumstances in a rapid and non-invasive manner. Present study endeavoured to enlist Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopic signatures for lung normal and cancer cells during chemically induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) for which global metabolic dimension is not well reported yet. Occurrence of EMT was validated with morphological and immunocytochemical confirmation. Pre-processed spectral data was analyzed using ANOVA and principal component analysis-linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA). Significant differences observed in peak area corresponding to biochemical fingerprint (900-1800 cm- 1) and high wave-number (2800-3800 cm- 1) regions contributed to adequate PCA-LDA segregation of cells undergoing EMT. The findings were validated by re-analysis of data using another in-house built binary classifier namely vector valued regularized kernel approximation (VVRKFA), in order to understand EMT progression. To improve the classification accuracy, forward feature selection (FFS) tool was employed in extracting potent spectral signatures by eliminating undesirable noise. Gradual increase in classification accuracy with EMT progression of both cell types indicated prominence of the biochemical alterations. Rapid changes in cellular metabolome noted in cancer cells within first 24 h of EMT induction along with higher classification accuracy for cancer cell groups in comparison to normal cells might be attributed to inherent differences between them. Spectral features were suggestive of EMT triggered changes in nucleic acid, protein, lipid and bound water contents which can emerge as the useful markers to capture EMT related cellular characteristics.

  5. Ang-2 promotes lung cancer metastasis by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenjie; Wang, Li; Fang, Miao; Wu, Mengna; Yao, Min; Yao, Dengfu

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant tumor with increasing angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and a high rate of metastasis. However, the mechanism of Ang-2 enhancing tumor proliferation and facilitating metastasis remains to be clarified. In this study, Ang-2 expression and its gene transcription on effects of biological behaviors and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated in lung cancers. Total incidence of Ang-2 expression in the cancerous tissues was up to 91.8 % (112 of 122) with significantly higher (χ2=103.753, P2=7.883, P=0.005), differentiation degree (χ2=4.554, P=0.033), tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging (χ2=5.039, P=0.025), and 5-year survival rate (χ2 =11.220, P2=18.881, P2=0.81, P=0.776) or III & IV (χ2=1.845, P=0.174). Over-expression of Ang-2 or Ang-2 mRNA in lung A549 and NCI-H1975 cells were identified among different cell lines. When silencing Ang-2 in A549 cells with specific shRNA-1 transfection, the cell proliferation was significantly inhibited in a time-dependent manner, with up-regulating E-cadherin, down-regulating Vimentin, Twist, and Snail expression, and decreasing invasion and metastasis of cancer cell abilities, suggesting that Ang-2 promote tumor metastasis through increasing EMT, and it could be a potential target for lung cancer therapy. PMID:29560103

  6. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) Gene Variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) Risk.

    PubMed

    Amankwah, Ernest K; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel W; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana M; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F A G; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Vierkant, Robert A; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wu, Anna H; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Ramus, Susan J; Goode, Ellen L; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Gayther, Simon A; Narod, Steven A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Sellers, Thomas A; Phelan, Catherine M

    2015-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) gene variants and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) risk

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Lawrenson, Kate; Dennis, Joe; Chornokur, Ganna; Aben, Katja KH.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Bruinsma, Fiona; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bean, Yukie T.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bisogna, Maria; Bjorge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Bunker, Clareann H.; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian G.; Carty, Karen; Chen, Zhihua; Chen, Y. Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; du Bois, Andreas; Despierre, Evelyn; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana M.; Edwards, Robert P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G.; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goodman, Marc T.; Gronwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hasmad, Hanis N.; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A.T.; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Claus K.; Hogdall, Estrid; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S.; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Jim, Heather; Kellar, Melissa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Alice W.; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Liang, Dong; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R.; McNeish, Ian; Menon, Usha; Milne, Roger L.; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Eilber, Ursula; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H.; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Paul, James; Pearce, Celeste L.; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M.; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Pike, Malcolm C.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Risch, Harvey A.; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H.; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B.; Rzepecka, Iwona K.; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schernhammer, Eva; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C.; Spiewankiewicz, Beata; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Thomsen, Lotte; Tangen, Ingvild L.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vergote, Ignace; Walsh, Christine S.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wicklund, Kristine G.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Woo, Yin-Ling; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Kelemen, Linda E.; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Narod, Steven A.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Phelan, Catherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to EOC risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. Methods We screened 1254 SNPs in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (p<0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A p-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 was considered statistically significant. Results In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.07–1.25, p=0.0003, FDR=0.19), while F8 rs7053448 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR=1.69, 95%CI=1.27–2.24, p=0.0003, FDR=0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR=0.79, 95%CI=0.69–0.90, p=0.0005, FDR=0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. Conclusion These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC. PMID:26399219

  8. MAGEC2, an epithelial-mesenchymal transition inducer, is associated with breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Zhou, Xingchun; Miao, Xia; Zhang, Tao; Hang, Xiaojun; Tie, Ru; Liu, Nan; Tian, Fei; Wang, Fuli; Yuan, Jianlin

    2014-05-01

    MAGEC2 is a member of melanoma antigen (MAGE) family of cancer-testis antigens and associated with tumor relapse and metastasis. Here, we investigated the expression of MAGEC2 in patients with breast cancer and its clinical effects with underlying mechanisms. The expression levels of MAGEC2 were compared between 420 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and 120 ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Correlations between MAGEC2 expression and clinico-pathologic factors or survival of patients with IDC were analyzed. In addition, MAGEC2 expression levels in tumor tissues dissected from the primary focus and matched tumor-invaded axillary lymph nodes were analyzed in 8 breast cancer patients. The functional effects of MAGEC2 overexpression were assessed in vitro using scratch assay and transwell chamber assay. MAGEC2 expression was increased in metastatic breast cancer in comparison to the non-metastatic. MAGEC2 expression was significantly associated with ER negative expression (P = 0.037), high tumor grade (P = 0.014) and stage (P = 0.002), high incidence of axillary lymph node metastasis (P = 0.013), and distant metastasis (P = 0.004). Patients with tumor with MAGEC2 positive expression have a worse prognosis and a shorter metastasis free interval. Multivariate analyses showed that MAGEC2 expression was an independent risk factor for patient overall survival and metastasis-free survival. Breast cancer cells that overexpressed MAGEC2 had stronger migratory and invasive potential than control-treated cells. Epithelial markers (E-cadherin and cytokeratin) were down-regulated in MAGEC2-overexpressing cells compared to controls, whereas mesenchymal markers (vimentin and fibronectin) were upregulated. Our results indicate that MAGEC2 has a role in breast cancer metastasis through inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In addition, MAGEC2 is a novel independent poor prognostic factor in patients with IDC. Thus, targeting MAGEC2 may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for

  9. Reciprocal regulation of the cholinic phenotype and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Katharina; Hartmann, Rudolf; Schröter, Friederike; Suwala, Abigail Kora; Maciaczyk, Donata; Krüger, Andrea Caroline; Willbold, Dieter; Kahlert, Ulf Dietrich; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor with very limited therapeutic options. Standard multimodal treatments, including surgical resection and combined radio-chemotherapy do not target the most aggressive subtype of glioma cells, brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). BTSCs are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, progression, and relapse. Furthermore, they have been associated with the expression of mesenchymal features as a result of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) thereby inducing tumor dissemination and chemo resistance. Using high resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR) on GBM cell cultures we provide evidence that the expression of well-known EMT activators of the ZEB, TWIST and SNAI families and EMT target genes N-cadherin and VIMENTIN is associated with aberrant choline metabolism. The cholinic phenotype is characterized by high intracellular levels of phosphocholine and total choline derivatives and was associated with malignancy in various cancers. Both genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the cardinal choline metabolism regulator choline kinase alpha (CHKα) significantly reduces the cell viability, invasiveness, clonogenicity, and expression of EMT associated genes in GBM cells. Moreover, in some cell lines synergetic cytotoxic effects were observed when combining the standard of care chemotherapeutic temozolomide with the CHKα inhibitor V-11-0711. Taken together, specific inhibition of the enzymatic activity of CHKα is a powerful strategy to suppress EMT which opens the possibility to target chemo-resistant BTSCs through impairing their mesenchymal transdifferentiation. Moreover, the newly identified EMT-oncometabolic network may be helpful to monitor the invasive properties of glioblastomas and the success of anti-EMT therapy. PMID:27705917

  10. Fatty Acid Synthase Mediates the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junqin; Dong, Lihua; Wei, Dapeng; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Shuo; Li, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. MCF-7 cells and MCF-7 cells overexpressing mitogen-activated protein kinase 5 (MCF-7-MEK5) were used in this study. MCF-7-MEK5 cells showed stable EMT characterized by increased vimentin and decreased E-cadherin expression. An In vivo animal model was established using the orthotopic injection of MCF-7 or MCF-7-MEK5 cells. Real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of FASN and its downstream proteins liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and VEGF/VEGFR-2 in both in vitro and in vivo models (nude mouse tumor tissues). In MCF-7-MEK5 cells, significantly increased expression of FASN was associated with increased levels of L-FABP and VEGF/VEGFR-2. Cerulenin inhibited MCF-7-MEK5 cell migration and EMT, and reduced FASN expression and down-stream proteins L-FABP, VEGF, and VEGFR-2. MCF-7-MEK5 cells showed higher sensitivity to Cerulenin than MCF-7 cells. Immunofluorescence revealed an increase of co-localization of FASN with VEGF on the cell membrane and with L-FABP within MCF-7-MEK5 cells. Immunohistochemistry further showed that increased percentage of FASN-positive cells in the tumor tissue was associated with increased percentages of L-FABP- and VEGF-positive cells and the Cerulenin treatment could reverse the effect. Altogether, our results suggest that FASN is essential to EMT possibly through regulating L-FABP, VEGF and VEGFR-2. This study provides a theoretical basis and potential strategy for effective suppression of malignant cells with EMT. PMID:24520215

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition abolishes the susceptibility of polarized epithelial cell lines to measles virus.

    PubMed

    Shirogane, Yuta; Takeda, Makoto; Tahara, Maino; Ikegame, Satoshi; Nakamura, Takanori; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2010-07-02

    Measles virus (MV), an enveloped negative-strand RNA virus, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. MV predominantly infects immune cells by using signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM; also called CD150) as a receptor, but it also infects polarized epithelial cells, forming tight junctions in a SLAM-independent manner. Although the ability of MV to infect polarized epithelial cells is thought to be important for its transmission, the epithelial cell receptor for MV has not been identified. A transcriptional repressor, Snail, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which epithelial cells lose epithelial cell phenotypes, such as adherens and tight junctions. In this study, EMT was induced by expressing Snail in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line, II-18, which is highly susceptible to wild-type MV. Snail-expressing II-18 cells lost adherens and tight junctions. Microarray analysis confirmed the induction of EMT in II-18 cells and suggested a novel function of Snail in protein degradation and distribution. Importantly, wild-type MV no longer entered EMT-induced II-18 cells, suggesting that the epithelial cell receptor is down-regulated by the induction of EMT. Other polarized cell lines, NCI-H358 and HT-29, also lost susceptibility to wild-type MV when EMT was induced. However, the complete formation of tight junctions rather reduced MV entry into HT-29 cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the unidentified epithelial cell receptor for MV is involved in the formation of epithelial intercellular junctions.

  12. Disruption of β-catenin/CBP signaling inhibits human airway epithelial-mesenchymal transition and repair.

    PubMed

    Moheimani, Fatemeh; Roth, Hollis M; Cross, Jennifer; Reid, Andrew T; Shaheen, Furquan; Warner, Stephanie M; Hirota, Jeremy A; Kicic, Anthony; Hallstrand, Teal S; Kahn, Michael; Stick, Stephen M; Hansbro, Philip M; Hackett, Tillie-Louise; Knight, Darryl A

    2015-11-01

    The epithelium of asthmatics is characterized by reduced expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of the basal cell markers ck-5 and p63 that is indicative of a relatively undifferentiated repairing epithelium. This phenotype correlates with increased proliferation, compromised wound healing and an enhanced capacity to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The transcription factor β-catenin plays a vital role in epithelial cell differentiation and regeneration, depending on the co-factor recruited. Transcriptional programs driven by the β-catenin/CBP axis are critical for maintaining an undifferentiated and proliferative state, whereas the β-catenin/p300 axis is associated with cell differentiation. We hypothesized that disrupting the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis would promote epithelial differentiation and inhibit EMT. We treated monolayer cultures of human airway epithelial cells with TGFβ1 in the presence or absence of the selective small molecule ICG-001 to inhibit β-catenin/CBP signaling. We used western blots to assess expression of an EMT signature, CBP, p300, β-catenin, fibronectin and ITGβ1 and scratch wound assays to assess epithelial cell migration. Snai-1 and -2 expressions were determined using q-PCR. Exposure to TGFβ1 induced EMT, characterized by reduced E-cadherin expression with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin and EDA-fibronectin. Either co-treatment or therapeutic administration of ICG-001 completely inhibited TGFβ1-induced EMT. ICG-001 also reduced the expression of ck-5 and -19 independent of TGFβ1. Exposure to ICG-001 significantly inhibited epithelial cell proliferation and migration, coincident with a down regulation of ITGβ1 and fibronectin expression. These data support our hypothesis that modulating the β-catenin/CBP signaling axis plays a key role in epithelial plasticity and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Foxn1 Transcription Factor Regulates Wound Healing of Skin through Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Grabowska, Anna; Kur-Piotrowska, Anna; Kopcewicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors are key molecules that finely tune gene expression in response to injury. We focused on the role of a transcription factor, Foxn1, whose expression is limited to the skin and thymus epithelium. Our previous studies showed that Foxn1 inactivity in nude mice creates a pro-regenerative environment during skin wound healing. To explore the mechanistic role of Foxn1 in the skin wound healing process, we analyzed post-injured skin tissues from Foxn1::Egfp transgenic and C57BL/6 mice with Western Blotting, qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence and flow cytometric assays. Foxn1 expression in non-injured skin localized to the epidermis and hair follicles. Post-injured skin tissues showed an intense Foxn1-eGFP signal at the wound margin and in leading epithelial tongue, where it co-localized with keratin 16, a marker of activated keratinocytes. This data support the concept that suprabasal keratinocytes, expressing Foxn1, are key cells in the process of re-epithelialization. The occurrence of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was confirmed by high levels of Snail1 and Mmp-9 expression as well as through co-localization of vimentin/E-cadherin-positive cells in dermis tissue at four days post-wounding. Involvement of Foxn1 in the EMT process was verified by co-localization of Foxn1-eGFP cells with Snail1 in histological sections. Flow cytometric analysis showed the increase of double positive E-cadherin/N-cadherin cells within Foxn1-eGFP population of post-wounded skin cells isolates, which corroborated histological and gene expression analyses. Together, our findings indicate that Foxn1 acts as regulator of the skin wound healing process through engagement in re-epithelization and possible involvement in scar formation due to Foxn1 activity during the EMT process. PMID:26938103

  14. [Epithelial mesenchymal transition in airway remodeling of asthma and its molecular regulation].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Li, Qiugen

    2018-05-28

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway. Repeated inflammatory injury and tissue repair can lead to airway remodeling. The airway epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) plays an important role in airway remodeling of asthma. Various cytokines and signaling pathways, such as transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), are involved in the molecular regulation of EMT.

  15. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast epithelial cells treated with cadmium and the role of Snail.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengxi; Shan, Zhongguo; Shaikh, Zahir A

    2018-04-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated cadmium (Cd) with breast cancer. In breast epithelial MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells, Cd has been shown to promote cell growth. The present study examined whether Cd also promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of cancer progression. Human breast epithelial cells consisting of non-cancerous MCF10A, non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38, and metastatic MDA-MB-231 were treated with 1 or 3 μM Cd for 4 weeks. The MCF10A epithelial cells switched to a more mesenchymal-like morphology, which was accompanied by a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin. In both non-metastatic HCC 1937 and HCC 38 cells, treatment with Cd decreased the epithelial marker claudin-1. In addition, E-cadherin also decreased in the HCC 1937 cells. Even the mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 cells exhibited an increase in the mesenchymal marker vimentin. These changes indicated that prolonged treatment with Cd resulted in EMT in both normal and cancer-derived breast epithelial cells. Furthermore, both the MCF10A and MDA-MB-231 cells labeled with Zcad, a dual sensor for tracking EMT, demonstrated a decrease in the epithelial marker E-cadherin and an increase in the mesenchymal marker ZEB-1. Treatment of cells with Cd significantly increased the level of Snail, a transcription factor involved in the regulation of EMT. However, the Cd-induced Snail expression was completely abolished by actinomycin D. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that the expression of Snail was regulated by Cd at the promotor level. Snail was essential for Cd-induced promotion of EMT in the MDA-MB-231 cells, as knockdown of Snail expression blocked Cd-induced cell migration. Together, these results indicate that Cd promotes EMT in breast epithelial cells and does so by modulating the transcription of Snail. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 14-3-3ε Overexpression Contributes to Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shu-Man; Chen, Shyh-Chang; Wang, John; Hsu, Chiun; Wu, Yao-Ming; Liou, Jun-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Background 14-3-3ε is implicated in regulating tumor progression, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Our earlier study indicated that elevated 14-3-3ε expression is significantly associated with higher risk of metastasis and lower survival rates of HCC patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of how 14-3-3ε regulates HCC tumor metastasis are still unclear. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we show that increased 14-3-3ε expression induces HCC cell migration and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is determined by the reduction of E-cadherin expression and induction of N-cadherin and vimentin expression. Knockdown with specific siRNA abolished 14-3-3ε-induced cell migration and EMT. Furthermore, 14-3-3ε selectively induced Zeb-1 and Snail expression, and 14-3-3ε-induced cell migration was abrogated by Zeb-1 or Snail siRNA. In addition, the effect of 14-3-3ε-reduced E-cadherin was specifically restored by Zeb-1 siRNA. Positive 14-3-3ε expression was significantly correlated with negative E-cadherin expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry analysis in HCC tumors. Analysis of 14-3-3ε/E-cadherin expression associated with clinicopathological characteristics revealed that the combination of positive 14-3-3ε and negative E-cadherin expression is significantly correlated with higher incidence of HCC metastasis and poor 5-year overall survival. In contrast, patients with positive 14-3-3ε and positive E-cadherin expression had better prognostic outcomes than did those with negative E-cadherin expression. Significance Our findings show for the first time that E-cadherin is one of the downstream targets of 14-3-3ε in modulating HCC tumor progression. Thus, 14-3-3ε may act as an important regulator in modulating tumor metastasis by promoting EMT as well as cell migration, and it may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker or therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:23483955

  17. [Wood smoke condensate induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human airway epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxi; Zou, Weifeng; Li, Bing; Ran, Pixin

    2014-01-01

    To observe the detrimental effects of wood smoke condensate (WSC) exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and to explore the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in HBEC exposed to WSC. HBEC were exposed respectively to 5, 10, 20, 40 and 50 mg/L of WSC /CSC for 7 days, with control groups only in cell culture medium at the same time, then the total cytoactivity was detected by cell counting kit-8. After observing the cellular morphology of WSC-stimulated HBEC. Western blot and immunofluorescence method were used to evaluate the expression levels of type I collagen, vimentin, E-cad and MMP-9 in HBEC exposed to WSC (10 mg/L) and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) (10 mg/L) for 7 days. Statistical evaluation of the continuous data was performed by ANOVA. Independent-Samples t-test for between-group comparisons. After 7 days of exposure to WSC, HBEC manifested a morphological characteristic of loss of cell-cell contact and elongated shape. The level of E-cad was decreased in WSC exposure groups (Western blot: 0.30 ± 0.05, F = 22.07, P < 0.05) compared with the groups without WSC exposure (Western blot: 0.59 ± 0.08, F = 22.07, P < 0.05). In contrast, an upregulation in expression of type I collagen (Western blot: 0.58 ± 0.04 vs 0.26 ± 0.02, F = 119.72, P < 0.05) and MMP-9 (0.56 ± 0.08 vs 0.19 ± 0.03, F = 21.79, P < 0.05) was observed in the presence of WSC, compared with the control groups. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that after a 7-day exposure to WSC in these cells, the E-cad protein was lost whereas type I collagen, vimentin and MMP-9 were acquired. Both Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed no difference in expression levels of E-cad, type I collagen, vimentin and MMP-9 between WSC and CSC exposure groups. WSC exposure could induce EMT-like process in human airway epithelial cells.

  18. The effect of statin on epithelial-mesenchymal transition in peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tae Ik; Kang, Hye-Young; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Sun Ha; Nam, Bo Young; Paeng, Jisun; Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jung Tak; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2014-01-01

    Statins have recently been highlighted for their pleiotropic actions distinct from cholesterol-lowering effects. Despite this interest, it is currently unknown whether statin therapy inhibits peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vitro, human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose (NG) or 100 mM glucose (HG) with or without simvastatin (1 µM). In vivo, PD catheters were inserted into 32 Sprague-Dawley rats, and saline (C, n = 16) or 4.25% peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) (PD, n = 16) was infused for 4 weeks. Eight rats from each group were treated with 5 mg/kg/day of simvastatin intraperitoneally. Changes in the protein expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin in HPMCs and the peritoneum were evaluated by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence or immunohistochemical staining. We also explored whether activation of the mevalonate pathway and its downstream small GTPases were involved in dialysis-related peritoneal EMT and could be inhibited by statin treatment. Compared to NG cells, E-cadherin expression was significantly decreased, while α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin expression were significantly increased in HPMCs exposed to HG, and these changes were abrogated by simvastatin (p<0.05). In addition, the cobblestone-like appearance of normal HPMCs was converted into a fibroblast-like morphology after HG treatment, which was reversed by simvastatin. These EMT-like changes were also observed in HPMCs treated with geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (5 µM). HG significantly increased the protein expression of RhoA and Rac1 in the membrane fractions, and these increases were ameliorated by simvastatin (p<0.05). In PD rats, E-cadherin in the peritoneum was significantly decreased, whereas α-SMA, Snail, and fibronectin expression were significantly increased (p<0.05) compared to C rats. The thickness of the mesothelial layer in the peritoneum were also

  19. The increase of microRNA-21 during lung fibrosis and its contribution to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pulmonary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Kubo, Hiroshi; Ota, Chiharu; Takahashi, Toru; Tando, Yukiko; Suzuki, Takaya; Fujino, Naoya; Makiguchi, Tomonori; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2013-09-24

    The excess and persistent accumulation of fibroblasts due to aberrant tissue repair results in fibrotic diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Recent reports have revealed significant changes in microRNAs during idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and evidence in support of a role for microRNAs in myofibroblast differentiation and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the context of fibrosis. It has been reported that microRNA-21 is up-regulated in myofibroblasts during fibrosis and promotes transforming growth factor-beta signaling by inhibiting Smad7. However, expression changes in microRNA-21 and the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during lung fibrosis have not yet been defined. Lungs from saline- or bleomycin-treated C57BL/6 J mice and lung specimens from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were analyzed. Enzymatic digestions were performed to isolate single lung cells. Lung epithelial cells were isolated by flow cytometric cell sorting. The expression of microRNA-21 was analyzed using both quantitative PCR and in situ hybridization. To induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in culture, isolated mouse lung alveolar type II cells were cultured on fibronectin-coated chamber slides in the presence of transforming growth factor-β, thus generating conditions that enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition. To investigate the role of microRNA-21 in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, we transfected cells with a microRNA-21 inhibitor. Total RNA was isolated from the freshly isolated and cultured cells. MicroRNA-21, as well as mRNAs of genes that are markers of alveolar epithelial or mesenchymal cell differentiation, were quantified using quantitative PCR. The lung epithelial cells isolated from the bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model system had decreased expression of epithelial marker genes, whereas the expression of mesenchymal marker genes was increased. MicroRNA-21 was significantly upregulated in isolated lung epithelial

  20. Expression of microRNA-133 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer cells by directly targeting FOXQ1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Liu, Huazhen; Gu, Zeyun; Ji, Cheng

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNA (miR) was implicated in the tumorigenesis of many types of cancer, but no study was conducted on the exact role of miR-133 in lung cancer. We have identified miR-133 as a putative regulator of FOXQ1 expression, and investigated the potential involvement of miR-133 in the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanism. MiR-133 directly targeted and down-regulated FOXQ1 expression, which in turn reduced TGF-β level. MiR-133 was down-regulated in lung cancer cell lines A549 and HCC827, and its re-expression significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of the lung cancer cells. Further investigation revealed that this inhibition was caused by reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, evidenced by miR-133 induced elevation of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and reduction of mesenchymal marker Vimentin. Our study is the first to identify miR-133 as a biomarker for lung cancer. It functions to down-regulate FOXQ1, and inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition, which antagonizes lung cancer tumorigenesis. Therefore our data support the role of miR-133 as a potential molecular therapeutic tool in treating lung cancer. Copyright © 2015 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. USP17 is upregulated in osteosarcoma and promotes cell proliferation, metastasis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through stabilizing SMAD4.

    PubMed

    Song, Chenyang; Liu, Wenge; Li, Jiandong

    2017-07-01

    USP17 is upregulated in several cancers, indicating that USP17 might play essential functions in tumor development. However, the function of USP17 in osteosarcoma is still unknown. Our work aimed to investigate the function of USP17 in osteosarcoma. We found that the expression of USP17 was upregulated in osteosarcoma tissues and cell lines, including MG-63 and U2OS. Several functional experiments, such as colony formation analysis, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, wound healing analysis, and transwell assay, showed that USP17 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, we found that USP17 facilitated migration and invasion through promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition. SMAD4 has been found to regulate epithelial-mesenchymal transition, co-immunopurification, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down analysis demonstrated that USP17 interacted with SMAD4. Furthermore, USP17 stabilized SMAD4 through its deubiquitinase activity. In conclusion, this study shows that USP17 enhances osteosarcoma cell proliferation and invasion through stabilizing SMAD4.

  2. Exposure to febrile-range hyperthermia potentiates Wnt signalling and epithelial-mesenchymal transition gene expression in lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    Potla, Ratnakar; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Luzina, Irina G; Atamas, Sergei P; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2018-02-01

    As environmental and body temperatures vary, lung epithelial cells experience temperatures significantly different from normal core temperature. Our previous studies in human lung epithelium showed that: (i) heat shock accelerates wound healing and activates profibrotic gene expression through heat shock factor-1 (HSF1); (ii) HSF1 is activated at febrile temperatures (38-41 °C) and (iii) hypothermia (32 °C) activates and hyperthermia (39.5 °C) reduces expression of a subset of miRNAs that target protein kinase-Cα (PKCα) and enhance proliferation. We analysed the effect of hypo- and hyperthermia exposure on Wnt signalling by exposing human small airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and HEK293T cells to 32, 37 or 39.5 °C for 24 h, then analysing Wnt-3a-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) gene expression by qRT-PCR and TOPFlash reporter plasmid activity. Effects of miRNA mimics and inhibitors and the HSF1 inhibitor, KNK437, were evaluated. Exposure to 39.5 °C for 24 h increased subsequent Wnt-3a-induced EMT gene expression in SAECs and Wnt-3a-induced TOPFlash activity in HEK293T cells. Increased Wnt responsiveness was associated with HSF1 activation and blocked by KNK437. Overexpressing temperature-responsive miRNA mimics reduced Wnt responsiveness in 39.5 °C-exposed HEK293T cells, but inhibitors of the same miRNAs failed to restore Wnt responsiveness in 32 °C-exposed HEK293T cells. Wnt responsiveness, including expression of genes associated with EMT, increases after exposure to febrile-range temperature through an HSF1-dependent mechanism that is independent of previously identified temperature-dependent miRNAs. This process may be relevant to febrile fibrosing lung diseases, including the fibroproliferative phase of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).

  3. Overexpression of microRNA-194 suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in targeting stem cell transcription factor Sox3 in endometrial carcinoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Baolan; Yue, Yan; Wang, Renxiao; Zhang, Yi; Jin, Quanfang; Zhou, Xi

    2017-06-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the key process driving cancer metastasis. MicroRNA-194 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers and its downregulation indicates a poor prognosis in human endometrial carcinoma. Self-renewal factor Sox3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition at gastrulation and is also involved epithelial-mesenchymal transition in several cancers. We intended to determine the roles of Sox3 in inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer stem cells and the possible role of microRNA-194 in controlling Sox3 expression. Firstly, we found that Sox3 and microRNA-194 expressions were associated with the status of endometrial cancer stem cells in a panel of endometrial carcinoma tissue, the CD133+ cell was higher in tumorsphere than in differentiated cells, and overexpression of microRNA-194 would decrease CD133+ cell expression. Silencing of Sox3 in endometrial cancer stem cell upregulated the epithelial marker E-cadherin, downregulated the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and significantly reduced cell invasion in vitro; overexpression of Sox3 reversed these phenotypes. Furthermore, we discovered that the expression of Sox3 was suppressed by microRNA-194 through direct binding to the Sox3 3'-untranslated region. Ectopic expression of microRNA-194 in endometrial cancer stem cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition by restoring E-cadherin expression, decreasing vimentin expression, and inhibiting cell invasion in vitro. Moreover, overexpression of microRNA-194 inhibited endometrial cancer stem cell invasion or metastasis in vivo by injection of adenovirus microRNA-194. These findings demonstrate the novel mechanism by which Sox3 contributes to endometrial cancer stem cell invasion and suggest that repression of Sox3 by microRNA-194 may have therapeutic potential to suppress endometrial carcinoma metastasis. The cancer stem cell marker, CD133, might be the surface marker of endometrial cancer stem

  4. BRD4 mediates NF-κB-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition and pulmonary fibrosis via transcriptional elongation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yingxin; Sun, Hong; Zhang, Yueqing; Yang, Jun; Brasier, Allan R.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic epithelial injury triggers a TGF-β-mediated cellular transition from normal epithelium into a mesenchymal-like state that produces subepithelial fibrosis and airway remodeling. Here we examined how TGF-β induces the mesenchymal cell state and determined its mechanism. We observed that TGF-β stimulation activates an inflammatory gene program controlled by the NF-κB/RelA signaling pathway. In the mesenchymal state, NF-κB-dependent immediate-early genes accumulate euchromatin marks and processive RNA polymerase. This program of immediate-early genes is activated by enhanced expression, nuclear translocation, and activating phosphorylation of the NF-κB/RelA transcription factor on Ser276, mediated by a paracrine signal. Phospho-Ser276 RelA binds to the BRD4/CDK9 transcriptional elongation complex, activating the paused RNA Pol II by phosphorylation on Ser2 in its carboxy-terminal domain. RelA-initiated transcriptional elongation is required for expression of the core epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcriptional regulators SNAI1, TWIST1, and ZEB1 and mesenchymal genes. Finally, we observed that pharmacological inhibition of BRD4 can attenuate experimental lung fibrosis induced by repetitive TGF-β challenge in a mouse model. These data provide a detailed mechanism for how activated NF-κB and BRD4 control epithelial-mesenchymal transition initiation and transcriptional elongation in model airway epithelial cells in vitro and in a murine pulmonary fibrosis model in vivo. Our data validate BRD4 as an in vivo target for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis associated with inflammation-coupled remodeling in chronic lung diseases. PMID:27793799

  5. Niclosamide inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor growth in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junjun; Chen, Xiaosong; Ward, Toby; Mao, Yan; Bockhorn, Jessica; Liu, Xiaofei; Wang, Gen; Pegram, Mark; Shen, Kunwei

    2016-02-01

    Acquired resistance to lapatinib, a human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 kinase inhibitor, remains a clinical problem for women with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive advanced breast cancer, as metastasis is commonly observed in these patients. Niclosamide, an anti-helminthic agent, has recently been shown to exhibit cytotoxicity to tumor cells with stem-like characteristics. This study was designed to identify the mechanisms underlying lapatinib resistance and to determine whether niclosamide inhibits lapatinib resistance by reversing epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Here, two human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer cell lines, SKBR3 and BT474, were exposed to increasing concentrations of lapatinib to establish lapatinib-resistant cultures. Lapatinib-resistant SKBR3 and BT474 cells exhibited up-regulation of the phenotypic epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers Snail, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin, accompanied by activation of nuclear factor-кB and Src and a concomitant increase in stem cell marker expression (CD44(high)/CD24(low)), compared to naive lapatinib-sensitive SKBR3 and BT474 cells, respectively. Interestingly, niclosamide reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, induced apoptosis and inhibited cell growth by perturbing aberrant signaling pathway activation in lapatinib-resistant human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cells. The ability of niclosamide to alleviate stem-like phenotype development and invasion was confirmed. Collectively, our results demonstrate that lapatinib resistance correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and that niclosamide inhibits lapatinib-resistant cell viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. These findings suggest a role of niclosamide or derivatives optimized for more favorable bioavailability not only in reversing lapatinib resistance but also in reducing metastatic potential during the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor

  6. SOX5 predicts poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma and promotes tumor metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Fu, Yufei; Xu, Hongfei; Teng, Peng; Xie, Qiong; Zhang, Yiran; Yan, Caochong; Xu, Yiqiao; Li, Chunqi; Zhou, Jianying; Ni, Yiming; Li, Weidong

    2018-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis, especially in lung adenocarcinoma. Sex determining region Y-box protein 5 (SOX5) is known to stimulate the progression of various cancers. Here, we used immunohistochemical analysis to reveal that SOX5 levels were increased in 90 lung adenocarcinoma patients. The high SOX5 expression in lung adenocarcinoma and non-tumor counterparts correlated with the patients’ poor prognosis. Inhibiting SOX5 expression attenuated metastasis and progression in lung cancer cells, while over-expressing SOX5 accelerated lung adenocarcinoma progression and metastasis via EMT. An in vivo zebrafish xenograft cancer model also showed SOX5 knockdown was followed by reduced lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. Our results indicate SOX5 promotes lung adenocarcinoma tumorigenicity and can be a novel diagnosis and prognosis marker of the disease. PMID:29541384

  7. Loss of Abhd5 Promotes Colorectal Tumor Development and Progression by Inducing Aerobic Glycolysis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Juanjuan; Miao, Hongming; Ma, Yinyan; Guo, Feng; Deng, Jia; Wei, Xing; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Ganfeng; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong; Liang, Houjie; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY How cancer cells shift metabolism to aerobic glycolysis is largely unknown. Here we show that deficiency of α/β-hydrolase domain-containing-5 (Abhd5), an intracellular lipolytic activator that is also known as comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), promotes this metabolic shift and enhances malignancies of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). Silencing of Abhd5 in normal fibroblasts induces malignant transformation. Intestine-specific knockout of Abhd5 in ApcMin/+ mice robustly increases tumorigenesis and malignant transformation of adenomatous polyps. In colon cancer cells, Abhd5 deficiency induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing the AMPKα-p53 pathway, which is attributable to increased aerobic glycolysis. In human CRCs, Abhd5 expression falls substantially and correlates negatively with malignant features. Our study is the first to link Abhd5 to CRC pathogenesis. It suggests that cancer cells may develop aerobic glycolysis by suppressing Abhd5-mediated intracellular lipolysis. PMID:25482557

  8. A link between lipid metabolism and epithelial-mesenchymal transition provides a target for colon cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, Mónica; Vargas, Teodoro; Molina, Susana; García, Belén; Herranz, Jesús; Moreno-Rubio, Juan; Reglero, Guillermo; Pérez-Moreno, Mirna; Feliu, Jaime; Malumbres, Marcos; de Molina, Ana Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    The alterations in carbohydrate metabolism that fuel tumor growth have been extensively studied. However, other metabolic pathways involved in malignant progression, demand further understanding. Here we describe a metabolic acyl-CoA synthetase/stearoyl-CoA desaturase ACSL/SCD network causing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that promotes migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. The mesenchymal phenotype produced upon overexpression of these enzymes is reverted through reactivation of AMPK signaling. Furthermore, this network expression correlates with poorer clinical outcome of stage-II colon cancer patients. Finally, combined treatment with chemical inhibitors of ACSL/SCD selectively decreases cancer cell viability without reducing normal cells viability. Thus, ACSL/SCD network stimulates colon cancer progression through conferring increased energetic capacity and invasive and migratory properties to cancer cells, and might represent a new therapeutic opportunity for colon cancer treatment. PMID:26451612

  9. Persistence of RSV promotes proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells through Nodal signaling.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhao; Liang, Zhang; Yanfeng, Huang; Leitao, Kang

    2017-10-01

    Nodal may play an important role in the development of cancers. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Nodal induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence and development of lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms. After verification of RSV infection by observation of cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blot and methylation assays were used to verify the influence of RSV on Nodal expression. Then, a Nodal overexpressed vector was constructed and the effects of Nodal on the proliferation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assayed by flow cytometry and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, Lefty and pSmad2/3 were assayed by Western blot and Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-myc and Bcl-2 induced by Nodal overepression or RSV infection were also assayed by real-time PCR. The results showed that Nodal over expression and demethylation of the promoter were observed in BECs after RSV infection. Activation of Nodal promoted proliferation, colony formation and EMT and inhibited apoptosis of BECs. Nodal also promoted malignant change by promoting expression of cyclin D1 and related-dependent kinase and inhibiting apoptosis. Besides, RSV infection inhibited Lefty expression and promoted the activation of pSmad2/3. RSV also promoted Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-myc and Bcl-2 expression through the activation of pSmad2/3. Our data showed that persistence of RSV promoted the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and expression of oncogenes through Nodal signaling, which may be associated with the occurrence and development of lung cancers.

  10. CXCR6 predicts poor prognosis in gastric cancer and promotes tumor metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jie-Jie; Dai, Fa-Xiang; Long, Zi-Wen; Cai, Hong; Liu, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Ye; Hong, Qi; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Wang, Ya-Nong; Huang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    Chemokines and their receptors have been confirmed to be involved in several types of cancer. However, little is known concerning the role of CXCL16 and its receptor CXCR6 in gastric cancer (GC) progression and metastasis. In the present study, expression of CXCL16 and CXCR6 in GC tumor and peritumoral tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a cohort of 352 GC patients who underwent gastrectomy, and the correlation between CXCL16/CXCR6 expression and clinicopathological characteristics was further analyzed. To evaluate the function of CXCR6, we overexpressed and knocked down CXCR6 in GC cell lines. Results showed that expression of CXCR6, but not CXCL16, was significantly upregulated in GC tumor tissues, and was significantly correlated with lymph node and distant metastases, and advanced clinical stage in the GC patients. Survival analysis showed that large tumor size (>5 cm), elevated preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, advanced TNM stage and high CXCR6 expression indicated worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in GC, and CXCR6 was an independent predictor for both OS and DFS in GC. In vitro experiments showed that CXCR6 overexpression induced cell migration and invasion ability, and promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition of GC cells by upregulation of mesenchymal markers and inhibition of epithelial markers. In contrast, knockdown of CXCR6 in GC cells resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenomenon. Our results demonstrated that CXCR6 is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival in GC patients, and may promote GC metastasis through EMT.

  11. Tetraspanin TM4SF5 mediates loss of contact inhibition through epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Lee, Sung-Yul; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Oh, Min-A; Kang, Eun-Sil; Kim, Yong-Bae; Seo, Woo Duck; Choi, Suyong; Nam, Ju-Ock; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Kitajima, Shigetaka; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Kim, Semi; Hwang, Yoon-Jin; Kim, In-San; Park, Ki Hun; Lee, Jung Weon

    2008-01-01

    The growth of normal cells is arrested when they come in contact with each other, a process known as contact inhibition. Contact inhibition is lost during tumorigenesis, resulting in uncontrolled cell growth. Here, we investigated the role of the tetraspanin transmembrane 4 superfamily member 5 (TM4SF5) in contact inhibition and tumorigenesis. We found that TM4SF5 was overexpressed in human hepatocarcinoma tissue. TM4SF5 expression in clinical samples and in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines correlated with enhanced p27Kip1 expression and cytosolic stabilization as well as morphological elongation mediated by RhoA inactivation. These TM4SF5-mediated effects resulted in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via loss of E-cadherin expression. The consequence of this was aberrant cell growth, as assessed by S-phase transition in confluent conditions, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation in nude mice. The TM4SF5-mediated effects were abolished by suppressing the expression of either TM4SF5 or cytosolic p27Kip1, as well as by reconstituting the expression of E-cadherin. Our observations have revealed a role for TM4SF5 in causing uncontrolled growth of human hepatocarcinoma cells through EMT. PMID:18357344

  12. Evidence for circulating cancer stem-like cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in the pleurospheres derived from lung adenocarcinoma using liquid biopsy.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Sheefa; Jain, Nayan; Rawal, Rakesh

    2017-03-01

    Lung cancer stem cells are supposed to be the main drivers of tumor initiation, maintenance, drug resistance, and relapse of the disease. Hence, identification of the cellular and molecular aspects of these cells is a prerequisite for targeted therapy of lung cancer. Currently, analysis of circulating tumor cells has the potential to become the main diagnostic technique to monitor disease progression or therapeutic response as it is non-invasive. However, accurate detection of circulating tumor cells has remained a challenge, as epithelial cell markers used so far are not always trustworthy for detecting circulating tumor cells, especially during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. As cancer stem cells are the only culprit to initiate metastatic tumors, our aim was to isolate and characterize circulating tumor stem cells rather than circulating tumor cells from the peripheral blood of NSCLC adenocarcinoma as limited data are available addressing the gene expression profiling of lung cancer stem cells. Here, we reveal that CD44(+)/CD24(-) population in circulation not only exhibit stem cell-related genes but also possess epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics. In conclusion, the use of one or more cancer stem cell markers along with epithelial, mesenchymal and epithelial mesenchymal transition markers will prospectively provide the most precise assessment of the threat for recurrence and metastatic disease and has a great potential for forthcoming applications in harvesting circulating tumor stem cells and their downstream applications. Our results will aid in developing diagnostic and prognostic modalities and personalized treatment regimens like dendritic cell-based immunotherapy that can be utilized for targeting and eliminating circulating tumor stem cells, to significantly reduce the possibility of relapse and improve clinical outcomes.

  13. MicroRNA-137 inhibits BMP7 to enhance the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xuexiang; Sun, Yunpo; He, Pingqing

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) is known to antagonize transforming growth factor β 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated fibrosis through suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We recently reported that BMP7 also antagonizes the effects of TGFβ1 in breast cancer (BC) tumorigenesis-related EMT. Nevertheless, the control of BMP7 expression in BC remains ill-defined. Here, we detected significantly lower levels of BMP7 and significantly higher levels of microRNA-137 (miR-137) in the BC specimens, relative to paired adjacent non-tumor breast tissue. BMP7 and miR-137 levels were correlated inversely. Additionally, the high miR-137 levels in BC specimens were correlated with reduced patient survival. In vitro, overexpression of miR-137 significantly increased cell EMT and invasion, while depletion of miR-137 significantly decreased cell EMT and invasion in BC cells. The increases in BC cell invasiveness by miR-137 appeared to result from its suppression of BMP7, through direct binding of miR-137 to the 3'-UTR of BMP7 mRNA, thereby blocking its protein translation in BC cells. This study sheds light on miR-137 as a crucial factor that enhances BC cell EMT and invasiveness, and points to miR-137 as a promising innovative therapeutic target for BC treatment. PMID:28407692

  14. Long Non-Coding RNAs: Key Regulators of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Tumour Drug Resistance and Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heery, Richard; Finn, Stephen P.; Cuffe, Sinead; Gray, Steven G.

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), the adoption by epithelial cells of a mesenchymal-like phenotype, is a process co-opted by carcinoma cells in order to initiate invasion and metastasis. In addition, it is becoming clear that is instrumental to both the development of drug resistance by tumour cells and in the generation and maintenance of cancer stem cells. EMT is thus a pivotal process during tumour progression and poses a major barrier to the successful treatment of cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) often utilize epigenetic programs to regulate both gene expression and chromatin structure. One type of ncRNA, called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), has become increasingly recognized as being both highly dysregulated in cancer and to play a variety of different roles in tumourigenesis. Indeed, over the last few years, lncRNAs have rapidly emerged as key regulators of EMT in cancer. In this review, we discuss the lncRNAs that have been associated with the EMT process in cancer and the variety of molecular mechanisms and signalling pathways through which they regulate EMT, and finally discuss how these EMT-regulating lncRNAs impact on both anti-cancer drug resistance and the cancer stem cell phenotype. PMID:28430163

  15. Mesenchymal stem cells promote pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells invasion by transforming growth factor-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai-Sen; Su, Xiao-Fang; Fu, Xing-Li; Wu, Guo-Zhong; Luo, Kun-Lun; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Feng; Liu, Hong; Hu, Hong-Juan; Chen, Liu-Sheng; Cai, Bing; Tian, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-07-05

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be ideal delivery vehicles for antitumor biological agents in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA). While the role of MSCs in tumor growth is elusive. Inflammation is an important feature of PA. In this study, we reported that MSCs pre-stimulated with the combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ promote PA cells invasion. The invasion of PA cell lines were evaluate by wound healing assay and transwell assay in vitro and liver metastasis in nude mice. We observed MSCs pre-stimulated with the combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ promoted PA cells invasion in vitro and in vivo. Consistent with MSCs promoting PA cells invasion, PA cells were found undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We demonstrated that MSCs pre-stimulated with both of TNF-α and IFN-γ provoked expression transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). MSCs promoting EMT-mediated PA cells invasion could be reversed by short interfering RNA of TGF-β1. Our results suggest that MSCs could promote PA cells invasion in inflammation microenvironment and should be cautious as delivery vehicles in molecular target therapy.

  16. Tangeretin enhances radiosensitivity and inhibits the radiation-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xukui; Zheng, Luming; Sun, Yinggang; Wang, Tianxiao; Wang, Baocheng

    2015-07-01

    Irradiation has been reported to increase radioresistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer (GC) cells. The Notch pathway is critically implicated in cancer EMT and radioresistance. In the present study, we investigated the use of a Notch-1 inhibiting compound as a novel therapeutic candidate to regulate radiation-induced EMT in GC cells. According to previous screening, tangeretin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus fruits was selected as a Notch-1 inhibitor. Tangeretin enhanced the radiosensitivity of GC cells as demonstrated by MTT and colony formation assays. Tangeretin also attenuated radiation-induced EMT, invasion and migration in GC cells, accompanied by a decrease in Notch-1, Jagged1/2, Hey-1 and Hes-1 expressions. Tangeretin triggered the upregulation of miR-410, a tumor-suppressive microRNA. Furthermore, re-expression of miR-410 prevented radiation-induced EMT and cell invasion. An in vivo tumor xenograft model confirmed the antimetastasis effect of tangeretin as we observed in vitro. In nude mice, tumor size was considerably diminished by radiation plus tangeretin co-treatment. Tangeretin almost completely inhibited lung metastasis induced by irradiation. Tangeretin may be a novel antimetastatic agent for radiotherapy.

  17. Regulation of matrix stiffness on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells under hypoxia environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yonggang; Chen, Can; Zhao, Boyuan; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2017-06-01

    Substrate stiffness and hypoxia are associated with tumor development and progression, respectively. However, the synergy of them on the biological behavior of human breast cancer cell is still largely unknown. This study explored how substrate stiffness regulates the cell phenotype, viability, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of human breast cancer cells MCF-7 under hypoxia (1% O2). TRITC-phalloidin staining showed that MCF-7 cells transformed from round to irregular polygon with stiffness increase either in normoxia or hypoxia. While being accompanied with the upward tendency from a 0.5- to a 20-kPa substrate, the percentage of cell apoptosis was significantly higher in hypoxia than that in normoxia, especially on the 20-kPa substrate. Additionally, it was hypoxia, but not normoxia, that promoted the EMT of MCF-7 by upregulating hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vimentin, Snail 1, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP 2) and 9 (MMP 9), and downregulating E-cadherin simultaneously regardless of the change of substrate stiffness. In summary, this study discovered that hypoxia and stiffer substrate (20 kPa) could synergistically induce phenotype change, apoptosis, and EMT of MCF-7 cells. Results of this study have an important significance on further exploring the synergistic effect of stiffness and hypoxia on the EMT of breast cancer cells and its molecular mechanism.

  18. RGC32 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the Smad/Sip1 signaling pathway in CRC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Sheng-Nan; Zhu, Hui-Fang; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Zhong, Yan; Gu, Chuan-Sha; Chen, Shi-You; Liu, Teng-Fei; Li, Zu-Guo

    2017-05-04

    Response gene to complement 32 (RGC32) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple genes involved in cell growth, viability and tissue-specific differentiation. However, the role of RGC32 in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. Here, we showed that the expression of RGC32 was significantly up-regulated in human CRC tissues versus adjacent normal tissues. RGC32 expression was significantly correlated with invasive and aggressive characteristics of tumor cells, as well as poor survival of CRC patients. We also demonstrated that RGC32 overexpression promoted proliferation, migration and tumorigenic growth of human CRC cells in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, RGC32 facilitated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC via the Smad/Sip1 signaling pathway, as shown by decreasing E-cadherin expression and increasing vimentin expression. In conclusion, our findings suggested that overexpression of RGC32 facilitates EMT of CRC cells by activating Smad/Sip1 signaling.

  19. PRMT1 Is a Novel Regulator of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Avasarala, Sreedevi; Van Scoyk, Michelle; Karuppusamy Rathinam, Manoj Kumar; Zerayesus, Sereke; Zhao, Xiangmin; Zhang, Wei; Pergande, Melissa R.; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; DeGregori, James; Port, J. David; Winn, Robert A.; Bikkavilli, Rama Kamesh

    2015-01-01

    Protein arginine methyl transferase 1 (PRMT1) was shown to be up-regulated in cancers and important for cancer cell proliferation. However, the role of PRMT1 in lung cancer progression and metastasis remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we show that PRMT1 is an important regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer cell migration, and invasion, which are essential processes during cancer progression, and metastasis. Additionally, we have identified Twist1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and a well-known E-cadherin repressor, as a novel PRMT1 substrate. Taken together, we show that PRMT1 is a novel regulator of EMT and arginine 34 (Arg-34) methylation of Twist1 as a unique “methyl arginine mark” for active E-cadherin repression. Therefore, targeting PRMT1-mediated Twist1 methylation might represent a novel strategy for developing new anti-invasive/anti-metastatic drugs. Moreover, methylated Twist1 (Arg-34), as such, could also emerge as a potential important biomarker for lung cancer. PMID:25847239

  20. Diverse Targets of β-Catenin during the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Define Cancer Stem Cells and Predict Disease Relapse.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi-Wen; Su, Ying-Jhen; Hsiao, Michael; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Wei-Hsin; Liang, Chi-Lung; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Lee, Jia-Lin

    2015-08-15

    Wnt signaling contributes to the reprogramming and maintenance of cancer stem cell (CSC) states that are activated by epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the mechanistic relationship between EMT and the Wnt pathway in CSC is not entirely clear. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) indicated that EMT induces a switch from the β-catenin/E-cadherin/Sox15 complex to the β-catenin/Twist1/TCF4 complex, the latter of which then binds to CSC-related gene promoters. Tandem coimmunoprecipitation and re-ChIP experiments with epithelial-type cells further revealed that Sox15 associates with the β-catenin/E-cadherin complex, which then binds to the proximal promoter region of CASP3. Through this mechanism, Twist1 cleavage is triggered to regulate a β-catenin-elicited promotion of the CSC phenotype. During EMT, we documented that Twist1 binding to β-catenin enhanced the transcriptional activity of the β-catenin/TCF4 complex, including by binding to the proximal promoter region of ABCG2, a CSC marker. In terms of clinical application, our definition of a five-gene CSC signature (nuclear β-catenin(High)/nuclear Twist1(High)/E-cadherin(Low)/Sox15(Low)/CD133(High)) may provide a useful prognostic marker for human lung cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Ezrin/NF-kB activation regulates epithelial- mesenchymal transition induced by EGF and promotes metastasis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingru; Lin, Zhaoyu; Chen, Bin; Chen, Shuang; Jiang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Taicheng; Hou, Zehui; Wang, Youyuan

    2017-08-01

    There is growing evidence that epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) plays significant roles in terms of tumor metastasis. There are a lot of cytokines inducing EMT of tumor cells, EGF is one of the important cytokines.Ezrin is a connexin between the cytoskeleton and the cell membrane, which is closely related to the morphological movement and metastasis of tumor cells.EGF can activate Ezrin and affects cell motility. In recent years, many studies have shown that NF-kB acts as an important transcription factor, involving in the process of EMT. However, does Ezrin participate in the regulation of EGF-induced EMT through the NF-kB pathway? This question needs us to discuss.In the present study, we found that EGF could induce colorectal cancer cells to develop EMT,enhance their ability to invade and migrate and promotes phosphorylation of Ezrin Tyr353.On the other hand, inhibition of Ezrin could reverse EGF-induced EMT and inhibit NF-kB P65 translocating into the nucleus. Finally, knockout of Ezrin inhibited EGF-induced lung metastasis of colorectal cancer xenografts and abnormal activation of Ezrin and NF-kB were related with colorectal cancer metastasis and poor prognosis. Our present results suggest that Ezrin/NF-kB pathway may provide experimental evidence for new targeted drugs for colorectal cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Endothelin-1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human chondrosarcoma cells by repressing miR-300.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min-Huan; Huang, Pei-Han; Hsieh, Mingli; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Chen, Hsien-Te; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-10-25

    Chondrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin predominantly composed of cartilage-producing cells. This type of bone cancer is extremely resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Surgical resection is the primary treatment, but is often difficult and not always practical for metastatic disease, so more effective treatments are needed. In particular, it would be helpful to identify molecular markers as targets for therapeutic intervention. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, has been shown to enhance chondrosarcoma angiogenesis and metastasis. We report that ET-1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human chondrosarcoma cells. EMT is a key pathological event in cancer progression, during which epithelial cells lose their junctions and apical-basal polarity and adopt an invasive phenotype. Our study verifies that ET-1 induces the EMT phenotype in chondrosarcoma cells via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. In addition, we show that ET-1 increases EMT by repressing miR-300, which plays an important role in EMT-enhanced tumor metastasis. We also show that miR-300 directly targets Twist, which in turn results in a negative regulation of EMT. We found a highly positive correlation between ET-1 and Twist expression levels as well as tumor stage in chondrosarcoma patient specimens. Therefore, ET-1 may represent a potential novel molecular therapeutic target in chondrosarcoma metastasis.

  3. Identification of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-related Target Genes Induced by the Mutation of Smad3 Linker Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sujin; Yang, Kyung-Min; Park, Yuna; Hong, Eunji; Hong, Chang Pyo; Park, Jinah; Pang, Kyoungwha; Lee, Jihee; Park, Bora; Lee, Siyoung; An, Haein; Kwak, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Junil; Kang, Jin Muk; Kim, Pyunggang; Xiao, Yang; Nie, Guangjun; Ooshima, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Background Smad3 linker phosphorylation plays essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. We have previously reported that the mutation of Smad3 linker phosphorylation sites (Smad3-Erk/Pro-directed kinase site mutant constructs [EPSM]) markedly reduced the tumor progression while increasing the lung metastasis in breast cancer. Methods We performed high-throughput RNA-Sequencing of the human prostate cancer cell lines infected with adenoviral Smad3-EPSM to identify the genes regulated by Smad3-EPSM. Results In this study, we identified genes which are differentially regulated in the presence of Smad3-EPSM. We first confirmed that Smad3-EPSM strongly enhanced a capability of cell motility and invasiveness as well as the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker genes, CDH2, SNAI1, and ZEB1 in response to TGF-β1 in human pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines. We identified GADD45B, CTGF, and JUNB genes in the expression profiles associated with cell motility and invasiveness induced by the Smad3-EPSM. Conclusions These results suggested that inhibition of Smad3 linker phosphorylation may enhance cell motility and invasiveness by inducing expression of GADD45B, CTGF, and JUNB genes in various cancers. PMID:29629343

  4. Identification of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-related Target Genes Induced by the Mutation of Smad3 Linker Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Park, Sujin; Yang, Kyung-Min; Park, Yuna; Hong, Eunji; Hong, Chang Pyo; Park, Jinah; Pang, Kyoungwha; Lee, Jihee; Park, Bora; Lee, Siyoung; An, Haein; Kwak, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Junil; Kang, Jin Muk; Kim, Pyunggang; Xiao, Yang; Nie, Guangjun; Ooshima, Akira; Kim, Seong-Jin

    2018-03-01

    Smad3 linker phosphorylation plays essential roles in tumor progression and metastasis. We have previously reported that the mutation of Smad3 linker phosphorylation sites (Smad3-Erk/Pro-directed kinase site mutant constructs [EPSM]) markedly reduced the tumor progression while increasing the lung metastasis in breast cancer. We performed high-throughput RNA-Sequencing of the human prostate cancer cell lines infected with adenoviral Smad3-EPSM to identify the genes regulated by Smad3-EPSM. In this study, we identified genes which are differentially regulated in the presence of Smad3-EPSM. We first confirmed that Smad3-EPSM strongly enhanced a capability of cell motility and invasiveness as well as the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker genes, CDH2 , SNAI1 , and ZEB1 in response to TGF-β1 in human pancreatic and prostate cancer cell lines. We identified GADD45B , CTGF , and JUNB genes in the expression profiles associated with cell motility and invasiveness induced by the Smad3-EPSM. These results suggested that inhibition of Smad3 linker phosphorylation may enhance cell motility and invasiveness by inducing expression of GADD45B , CTGF , and JUNB genes in various cancers.

  5. The prognostic role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers E-cadherin and Slug in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, Rocco; Marioni, Gino; Crescenzi, Marika; Giacomelli, Luciano; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Mussato, Alessio; Staffieri, Alberto; Martini, Alessandro; Blandamura, Stella; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2015-10-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) prognosis is definitely related to lymph node metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows neoplastic cells to gain the plasticity and motility required for tumour progression and metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of EMT in the prognosis of LSCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, ZEB1, and ZEB2 was performed in 37 consecutive LSCC cases. Low E-cadherin levels and high Slug levels correlated with both disease recurrence (P = 0.02 and P =0.01, respectively) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively). Relative expression levels of CDH1, SNAI2, miR-1 and the miR-200 family were also evaluated. CDH1, miR-200a and miR-200c down-regulation and SNAI2 overexpression were significantly associated with disease recurrence (P = 0.03, P = 0.02, P = 0.04, and P = 0.04, respectively). EMT increases tumour recurrence risk and shortens DFS in LSCC. E-cadherin and Slug immunohistochemical analysis could be useful for identifying patients requiring more aggressive treatment after surgery. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Genome-wide identification of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated microRNAs reveals novel targets for glioblastoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Ailiang; Liu, Shuheng; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiefeng; Yan, Wei; Li, Hailin; You, Yongping

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate a number of cellular processes. Recent studies have indicated that these molecules function in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the crucial systematic role of EMT and miRNAs together in glioblastoma (GBM) remains poorly understood. The present study demonstrated that EMT was closely associated with malignant progression and clinical outcome using three independent glioma databases (GSE16011, Rembrandt and The Cancer Genome Atlas). Furthermore, integrated analysis of miRNAs and mRNA profiling in 491 GBM samples revealed an EMT biological process associated with an miRNA profile (19 positively and 18 negatively correlated miRNAs). Among these miRNAs, miR-95 and miR-223 indicated a high level of functional validation, reflecting their positive correlation with EMT. Additionally, the upregulation of miR-95, which was negatively correlated with EMT, inhibited cellular invasion in glioma U251 and LN229 cells and decreased the expression of the mesenchymal marker N-catenin, whereas an miRNA positively correlated with EMT, miR-223, exhibited the opposite effect. Therefore, the results of the present study could further enhance the current understanding of the functions of miRNAs in GBM, indicating that the EMT-specific miRNA signature may represent a novel target for GBM therapy. PMID:29740486

  7. Commitment of chondrogenic precursors of the avian scapula takes place after epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the dermomyotome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cells of the epithelially organised dermomyotome are traditionally believed to give rise to skeletal muscle and dermis. We have previously shown that the dermomyotome can undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and give rise to chondrogenic cells, which go on to form the scapula blade in birds. At present we have little understanding regarding the issue of when the chondrogenic fate of dermomyotomal cells is determined. Using quail-chick grafting experiments, we investigated whether scapula precursor cells are committed to a chondrogenic fate while in an epithelial state or whether commitment is established after EMT. Results We show that the hypaxial dermomyotome, which normally forms the scapula, does not generate cartilaginous tissue after it is grafted to the epaxial domain. In contrast engraftment of the epaxial dermomyotome to the hypaxial domain gives rise to scapula-like cartilage. However, the hypaxial sub-ectodermal mesenchyme (SEM), which originates from the hypaxial dermomyotome after EMT, generates cartilaginous elements in the epaxial domain, whereas in reciprocal grafting experiments, the epaxial SEM cannot form cartilage in the hypaxial domain. Conclusions We suggest that the epithelial cells of the dermomyotome are not committed to the chondrogenic lineage. Commitment to this lineage occurs after it has undergone EMT to form the sub-ectodermal mesenchyme. PMID:20807426

  8. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition: a hallmark in metastasis formation linking circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Książkiewicz, Magdalena; Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Zaczek, Anna J

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of either regional or distant metastases is an indicator of poor prognosis for cancer patients. The mechanism of their formation has not yet been fully uncovered, which limits the possibility of developing new therapeutic strategies. Nevertheless, the discovery of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), which are responsible for tumor dissemination, and cancer stem cells (CSCs), required for tumor growth maintenance, shed light on the metastatic cascade. It seems that CTCs and CSCs are not necessarily separate populations of cancer cells, as CTCs generated in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can bear features characteristic of CSCs. This article describes the mechanisms of CTC and CSC formation and characterizes their molecular hallmarks. Moreover, we present different types of EMT occurring in physiological and pathological conditions, and we demonstrate its crucial role in providing CTCs with a CSC phenotype. The article delineates molecular changes acquired by cancer cells undergoing EMT that facilitate metastasis formation. Deeper understanding of those processes is of fundamental importance for the development of new strategies of early cancer detection and effective cancer treatment approaches that will be translated into clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ruijuan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Xiaomei; Song, Nana; Zhu, Jimin; Wang, Jijiang; Wang, Jin; Xia, Chunmei; Chen, Yonghua; Zhu, Danian; Shen, Linlin

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of TGF-β1 is frequently encountered and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated whether emodin mediates its effect via suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibroblast activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Here, we found that emodin induced apoptosis and inhibited cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in TGF-β1-stimulated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2, Smad3 and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 inactivation mediated the emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that emodin apparently alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved pulmonary function by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently repressing EMT, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Taken together, our data suggest that emodin mediates its effects mainly via inhibition of EMT and fibroblast activation and thus has a potential for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27774992

  10. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu; Wang, Yuan; Song, Kang; Zhang, Ya; Yang, Junchao

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN in a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Emodin ameliorates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast activation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ruijuan; Wang, Xia; Zhao, Xiaomei; Song, Nana; Zhu, Jimin; Wang, Jijiang; Wang, Jin; Xia, Chunmei; Chen, Yonghua; Zhu, Danian; Shen, Linlin

    2016-10-24

    Aberrant activation of TGF-β1 is frequently encountered and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis. The present study investigated whether emodin mediates its effect via suppressing TGF-β1-induced EMT and fibroblast activation in bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Here, we found that emodin induced apoptosis and inhibited cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation in TGF-β1-stimulated human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). Emodin suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT in a dose- and time-dependent manner in alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Emodin also inhibited TGF-β1-induced Smad2, Smad3 and Erk1/2 activation, suggesting that Smad2/3 and Erk1/2 inactivation mediated the emodin-induced effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT. Additionally, we provided in vivo evidence suggesting that emodin apparently alleviated BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and improved pulmonary function by inhibiting TGF-β1 signaling and subsequently repressing EMT, fibroblast activation and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Taken together, our data suggest that emodin mediates its effects mainly via inhibition of EMT and fibroblast activation and thus has a potential for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Tumor budding cells, cancer stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Karamitopoulou, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4) and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with Wingless-INT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs), small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion, and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5) of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric, and ampullary) carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs, and EMT-type cells in PDAC.

  13. The histone variant H2A.X is a regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Weyemi, Urbain; Redon, Christophe E; Choudhuri, Rohini; Aziz, Towqir; Maeda, Daisuke; Boufraqech, Myriem; Parekh, Palak R; Sethi, Taresh K; Kasoji, Manjula; Abrams, Natalie; Merchant, Anand; Rajapakse, Vinodh N; Bonner, William M

    2016-02-15

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), considered essential for metastatic cancer, has been a focus of much research, but important questions remain. Here, we show that silencing or removing H2A.X, a histone H2A variant involved in cellular DNA repair and robust growth, induces mesenchymal-like characteristics including activation of EMT transcription factors, Slug and ZEB1, in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Ectopic H2A.X re-expression partially reverses these changes, as does silencing Slug and ZEB1. In an experimental metastasis model, the HCT116 parental and H2A.X-null cells exhibit a similar metastatic behaviour, but the cells with re-expressed H2A.X are substantially more metastatic. We surmise that H2A.X re-expression leads to partial EMT reversal and increases robustness in the HCT116 cells, permitting them to both form tumours and to metastasize. In a human adenocarcinoma panel, H2A.X levels correlate inversely with Slug and ZEB1 levels. Together, these results point to H2A.X as a regulator of EMT.

  14. S100A7 promotes the migration, invasion and metastasis of human cervical cancer cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Hua, Zhen; Ma, Jianlin; Wu, Xiaowei; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2017-04-11

    S100A7 is an EF-hand calcium-binding protein that has been suggested to be implicated in cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tumor metastasis. However, its role in cervical cancer has not yet been fully clarified. The present study used immunohistochemistry analysis of S100A7 in clinical specimens of cervical cancer to show that S100A7 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared with normal cervical tissues and S100A7 expression in high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) was significantly higher than cervical cancer. Statistical analysis showed that S100A7 expression was associated with tumor grade (P <0.01) and lymph node metastasis (P <0.05). Functional studies showed that overexpression of S100A7 in cervical cancer cells promoted migration, invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer cells without influencing cell proliferation. Furthermore, S100A7 was found to be secreted into the conditioned media and extracellular S100A7 enhanced cell migration and invasion. Mechanistically, S100A7 bound to RAGE and activated ERK signaling pathway. And S100A7 enhanced cell mesenchymal properties and induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. In summary, these data reveal a crucial role for S100A7 in regulating cell migration, invasion, metastasis and EMT of cervical cancer and suggest that targeting S100A7 may offer a new targeted strategy for cervical cancer.

  15. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luyuan; Min, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Study of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is important for basic understanding and therapeutic management of cancer progression. We here used metabolic labeling and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a strategy of bioorthogonal chemical imaging, to directly visualize changes in anabolic metabolism during cancer EMT at a single-cell level. MCF-7 breast cancer cell is employed as a model system. Four types of metabolites (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and choline) are labeled with either deuterium or alkyne (C≡C) tag. Their intracellular incorporations into MCF-7 cells before or after EMT are visualized by SRS imaging targeted at the signature vibration frequency of C-D or C≡C bonds. Overall, after EMT, anabolism of amino acids, glucose, and choline is less active, reflecting slower protein and membrane synthesis in mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, we also observed less incorporation of glucose and palmitate acids into membrane lipids, but more of them into lipid droplets in mesenchymal cells. This result indicates that, although mesenchymal cells synthesize fewer membrane lipids, they are actively storing energy into lipid droplets, either through de novo lipogenesis from glucose or direct scavenging of exogenous free fatty acids. Hence, metabolic labeling coupled with SRS can be a straightforward method in imaging cancer metabolism.

  16. AURKA promotes cancer metastasis by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chenlin; Song, Guangyuan; Xiang, Jue

    AURKA (aurora kinase A) has been confirmed as an oncogene in cancer development; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In this study, We found that AURKA was up-regulated in HCC tissues and correlated with pathological stage and distant metastasis. Further found that AURKA was involved in the cancer metastases after radiation in HCC. While overexpression of AURKA induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) behaviors though PI3K/AKT pathway, silencing AURKA suppressed radiation-enhanced cell invasiveness of HCC. Taken together, our results suggested that AURKA contributed in metastasis of irradiated residulmore » HCC though facilitating EMT and CSC properties, suggesting the potential clinical application of AURKA inhibitors in radiotherapy for patients with HCC. - Highlights: • First reported overexpression of AURKA in HCC and correlation with poor OS. • AURKA was involved in the cancer metastases after radiation in HCC. • Further found AURKA promoted EMT and CSC behaviors though PI3K/AKT pathway. • Silencing AURKA suppressed radiation-enhanced cell invasiveness of HCC. • AURKA may be potential therapeutic target of HCC.« less

  17. Transformation of Mouse Liver Cells by Methylcholanthrene Leads to Phenotypic Changes Associated with Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jiyun; Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kwon, Do-Young; Kim, A-Young; Oh, Dal-Seok; Je, Nam Kyung; Lee, Jaewon; Jung, Young-Suk

    2014-12-01

    Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been implicated in cancer development and progression. However, the effects of PAHs on carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized a mouse cancer cell line BNL 1ME A. 7R.1 (1MEA) derived by transformation of non-tumorigenic liver cell line BNL CL.2 (BNL) using 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a carcinogenic PAH. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis were used to determine the expression level of mRNA and proteins, respectively. To determine functionality, cell motility was assessed in vitro using a transwell migration assay. Both mRNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were significantly decreased in 1MEA cells in comparison with BNL cells. While the expression levels of mesenchymal markers and related transcription factors were enhanced in 1MEA cells, which could lead to increase in cell motility. Indeed, we found that 7-day exposure of BNL cells to 3-MC reduced the level of the adhesion molecule and epithelial marker Ecadherin and increased reciprocally the level of the mesenchymal marker vimentin in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be activated during premalignant transformation induced by 3-MC. A mechanism study to elucidate the relation between 3-MC exposure and EMT is underway in our laboratory.

  18. Knockdown of BAG3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in thyroid cancer cells through ZEB1 activation.

    PubMed

    Meng, X; Kong, D-H; Li, N; Zong, Z-H; Liu, B-Q; Du, Z-X; Guan, Y; Cao, L; Wang, H-Q

    2014-02-27

    The process by which epithelial features are lost in favor of a mesenchymal phenotype is referred to as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Most carcinomas use this mechanism to evade into neighboring tissues. Reduction or a loss of E-cadherin expression is a well-established hallmark of EMT. As a potent suppressor of E-cadherin, transcription factor ZEB1 is one of the key inducers of EMT, whose expression promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis of carcinomas. Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) affects multifaceted cellular functions, including proliferation, apoptosis, cell adhesion and invasion, viral infection, and autophagy. Recently, we have reported a novel role of BAG3 implicated in EMT, while the mechanisms are poorly elucidated. The current study demonstrated that knockdown of BAG3 induced EMT, and increased cell migratory and invasiveness in thyroid cancer cells via transcriptional activation of ZEB1. We also found that BAG3 knockdown led to nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, which was responsible for the transcriptional activation of ZEB1. These results indicate BAG3 as a regulator of ZEB1 expression in EMT and as a regulator of metastasis in thyroid cancer cells, providing potential targets to prevent and/or treat thyroid cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

  19. Effects of Curcumin on Tobacco Smoke-induced Hepatic MAPK Pathway Activation and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhaofeng; Wu, Rui; Xie, Wei; Xie, Chunfeng; Wu, Jieshu; Geng, Shanshan; Li, Xiaoting; Zhu, Mingming; Zhu, Weiwei; Zhu, Jianyun; Huang, Cong; Ma, Xiao; Xu, Wenrong; Zhong, Caiyun; Han, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for hepatic cancer. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by tobacco smoke is crucially involved in the initiation and development of cancer. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways play important roles in tobacco smoke-associated carcinogenesis including EMT process. The chemopreventive effect of curcumin supplementation against cancers has been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of tobacco smoke on MAPK pathway activation and EMT alterations, and then the preventive effect of curcumin was examined in the liver of BALB/c mice. Our results indicated that exposure of mice to tobacco smoke for 12 weeks led to activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and ERK5 pathways as well as activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in liver tissue. Exposure of mice to tobacco smoke reduced the hepatic mRNA and protein expression of the epithelial markers, while the hepatic mRNA and protein levels of the mesenchymal markers were increased. Treatment of curcumin effectively attenuated tobacco smoke-induced activation of ERK1/2 and JNK MAPK pathways, AP-1 proteins and EMT alterations in the mice liver. Our data suggested the protective effect of curcumin in tobacco smoke-triggered MAPK pathway activation and EMT in the liver of BALB/c mice, thus providing new insights into the chemoprevention of tobacco smoke-associated hepatic cancer. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The tumor microenvironment: An irreplaceable element of tumor budding and epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Xu, Fangying; Li, Si; Zhong, Anjing; Meng, Xianwen; Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor budding occurs at the invasive front of cancer; the tumor cells involved have metastatic and stemness features, indicating a poor prognosis. Tumor budding is partly responsible for cancer metastasis, and its initiation is based on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. The EMT process involves the conversion of epithelial cells into migratory and invasive cells, and is a profound event in tumorigenesis. The EMT, associated with the formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and resistance to therapy, results from a combination of gene mutation, epigenetic regulation, and microenvironmental control. Tumor budding can be taken to represent the EMT in vivo. The EMT process is under the influence of the tumor microenvironment as well as tumor cells themselves. Here, we demonstrate that the tumor microenvironment dominates EMT development and impacts cancer metastasis, as well as promotes CSC formation and mediates drug resistance. In this review, we mainly discuss components of the microenvironment, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammatory cytokines, metabolic products, and hypoxia, that are involved in and impact on the acquisition of tumor-cell motility and dissemination, the EMT, metastatic tumor-cell formation, tumor budding and CSCs, and cancer metastasis, including subsequent chemo-resistance. From our point of view, the tumor microenvironment now constitutes a promising target for cancer therapy. PMID:26743180

  1. Metabolic reprogramming and dependencies associated with epithelial cancer stem cells independent of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition program

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Esther; de Mas, Igor Marin; Zodda, Erika; Marin, Silvia; Morrish, Fionnuala; Selivanov, Vitaly; Meca-Cortés, Óscar; Delowar, Hossain; Pons, Mònica; Izquierdo, Inés; Celià-Terrassa, Toni; de Atauri, Pedro; Centelles, Josep J; Hockenbery, David; Thomson, Timothy M; Cascante, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSCs) can arise independently of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In spite of recent efforts, the metabolic reprogramming associated with CSC phenotypes uncoupled from EMT is poorly understood. Here, by using metabolomic and fluxomic approaches, we identify major metabolic profiles that differentiate metastatic prostate epithelial CSCs (e-CSCs) from non-CSCs expressing a stable EMT. We have found that the e-CSC program in our cellular model is characterized by a high plasticity in energy substrate metabolism, including an enhanced Warburg effect, a greater carbon and energy source flexibility driven by fatty acids and amino acid metabolism and an essential reliance on the proton buffering capacity conferred by glutamine metabolism. An analysis of transcriptomic data yielded a metabolic gene signature for our e-CSCs consistent with the metabolomics and fluxomics analysis that correlated with tumor progression and metastasis in prostate cancer and in 11 additional cancer types. Interestingly, an integrated metabolomics, fluxomics and transcriptomics analysis allowed us to identify key metabolic players regulated at the post-transcriptional level, suggesting potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to effectively forestall metastasis. PMID:27146024

  2. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luyuan; Min, Wei

    2017-10-01

    Study of metabolic changes during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is important for basic understanding and therapeutic management of cancer progression. We here used metabolic labeling and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a strategy of bioorthogonal chemical imaging, to directly visualize changes in anabolic metabolism during cancer EMT at a single-cell level. MCF-7 breast cancer cell is employed as a model system. Four types of metabolites (amino acids, glucose, fatty acids, and choline) are labeled with either deuterium or alkyne (C≡C) tag. Their intracellular incorporations into MCF-7 cells before or after EMT are visualized by SRS imaging targeted at the signature vibration frequency of C-D or C≡C bonds. Overall, after EMT, anabolism of amino acids, glucose, and choline is less active, reflecting slower protein and membrane synthesis in mesenchymal cells. Interestingly, we also observed less incorporation of glucose and palmitate acids into membrane lipids, but more of them into lipid droplets in mesenchymal cells. This result indicates that, although mesenchymal cells synthesize fewer membrane lipids, they are actively storing energy into lipid droplets, either through de novo lipogenesis from glucose or direct scavenging of exogenous free fatty acids. Hence, metabolic labeling coupled with SRS can be a straightforward method in imaging cancer metabolism. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. Motility and stem cell properties induced by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition require destabilization of lipid rafts

    PubMed Central

    Prijic, Sara; Chen, Xiaoling; Levental, Ilya; Chang, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a developmental program that provides cancer cells with the characteristics necessary for metastasis, including increased motility and stem cell properties. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are not yet fully understood, hampering efforts to develop therapeutics. In recent years, it has become apparent that EMT is accompanied by wholesale changes in diverse signaling pathways that are initiated by proteins at the plasma membrane (PM). The PM contains thousands of lipid and protein species that are dynamically and spatially organized into lateral membrane domains, an example of which are lipid rafts. Since one of the major functions of rafts is modulation of signaling originating at the PM, we hypothesized that the signaling changes occurring during an EMT are associated with alterations in PM organization. To test this hypothesis, we used Giant Plasma Membrane Vesicles (GPMVs) to study the organization of intact plasma membranes isolated from live cells. We observed that induction of EMT significantly destabilized lipid raft domains. Further, this reduction in stability was crucial for the maintenance of the stem cell phenotype and EMT-induced remodeling of PM-orchestrated pathways. Exogenously increasing raft stability by feeding cells with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) repressed these phenotypes without altering EMT markers, and inhibited the metastatic capacity of breast cancer cells. Hence, modulating raft properties regulates cell phenotype, suggesting a novel approach for targeting the impact of EMT in cancer. PMID:27303921

  4. Intermittent calorie restriction enhances epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the alteration of energy metabolism in a mouse tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Kusuoka, Osamu; Fujiwara-Tani, Rina; Nakashima, Chie; Fujii, Kiyomu; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Mori, Takuya; Kishi, Shingo; Miyagawa, Yoshihiro; Goto, Kei; Kawahara, Isao; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    The effect of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) on cancer is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of ICR and food content in syngeneic BALB/c mice injected with CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. Mice were subjected to 24-h fasting once a week for 4 weeks, and then provided with a control, high-calorie, or trans fatty acid-rich diet. While ICR resulted in increases in tumor weights, metastasis and in the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumors or blood of mice fed the control and high-fat diets, it had no effect on body weight after 4 weeks. In particular, we detected increases in the numbers of CSCs in the tumor or blood on the day after starvation, when food overconsumption was detected. Conversely, continuous calorie restriction had no effect on tumor weight, metastasis, or the number of CSCs in tumors or blood. In the post-starvation period, energy metabolism in the tumor was altered from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis/lactate fermentation, with the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Hyperglycemia at the post-starvation period induced the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-induced factor-1α and Nanog, as well as the phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, these findings suggest that ICR induces an increase in the number of CSCs and enhances EMT by promoting the Warburg/Crabtree effect following post-fasting food overconsumption. PMID:29345287

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition spectrum quantification and its efficacy in deciphering survival and drug responses of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tuan Zea; Miow, Qing Hao; Miki, Yoshio; Noda, Tetsuo; Mori, Seiichi; Huang, Ruby Yun-Ju; Thiery, Jean Paul

    2014-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible and dynamic process hypothesized to be co-opted by carcinoma during invasion and metastasis. Yet, there is still no quantitative measure to assess the interplay between EMT and cancer progression. Here, we derived a method for universal EMT scoring from cancer-specific transcriptomic EMT signatures of ovarian, breast, bladder, lung, colorectal and gastric cancers. We show that EMT scoring exhibits good correlation with previously published, cancer-specific EMT signatures. This universal and quantitative EMT scoring was used to establish an EMT spectrum across various cancers, with good correlation noted between cell lines and tumours. We show correlations between EMT and poorer disease-free survival in ovarian and colorectal, but not breast, carcinomas, despite previous notions. Importantly, we found distinct responses between epithelial- and mesenchymal-like ovarian cancers to therapeutic regimes administered with or without paclitaxel in vivo and demonstrated that mesenchymal-like tumours do not always show resistance to chemotherapy. EMT scoring is thus a promising, versatile tool for the objective and systematic investigation of EMT roles and dynamics in cancer progression, treatment response and survival. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. MDA-9/Syntenin-Slug transcriptional complex promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasion/metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu-Kai; Pan, Szu-Hua; Chang, Yih-Leong; Hung, Pei-Fang; Kao, Shih-Han; Wang, Wen-Lung; Lin, Ching-Wen; Yang, Shuenn-Chen; Liang, Chen-Hsien; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma differentiation-associated gene-9 (MDA-9)/Syntenin is a novel therapeutic target because it plays critical roles in cancer progression and exosome biogenesis. Here we show that Slug, a key epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) regulator, is a MDA-9/Syntenin downstream target. Mitogen EGF stimulation increases Slug expression and MDA-9/Syntenin nuclear translocation. MDA-9/Syntenin uses its PDZ1 domain to bind with Slug, and this interaction further leads to HDAC1 recruitment, up-regulation of Slug transcriptional repressor activity, enhanced Slug-mediated EMT, and promotion of cancer invasion and metastasis. The PDZ domains and nuclear localization of MDA-9/Syntenin are both required for promoting Slug-mediated cancer invasion. Clinically, patients with high MDA-9/Syntenin and high Slug expressions were associated with poor overall survival compared to those with low expression in lung adenocarcinomas. Our findings provide evidence that MDA-9/Syntenin acts as a pivotal adaptor of Slug and it transcriptionally enhances Slug-mediated EMT to promote cancer invasion and metastasis. PMID:26561205

  7. MiR-590-3p suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by inhibiting SIP1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Chao; Liu, Shizhang; Cao, Wei; Liu, Zongzhi; Qiang, Hui; Li, Yong; Cheng, Chong; Ji, Le; Li, Jianhui; Li, Jingyuan

    2017-01-01

    The functional roles and clinical significances of miR-590-3p in ICC remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the expression of miR-590-3p in tissues and sera of ICC by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found miR-590-3p was significantly down-regulated in the sera and tissues of ICC patients, especially in those patients with lymph node metastasis or distant metastasis. AUC curves and Cox proportional hazards mode revealed serum miR-590-3p could be novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for ICC patients. MiR-590-3p dramatically suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration, and invasion of ICC cells. SIP1 was identified as direct and functional target of miR-590-3p in ICC cells by luciferase assays. Finally, we found SIP1 expression was inversely correlated with miR-590-3p and closely related to diminished survival in ICC patients. These findings reveal functional and mechanistic roles of miR-590-3p and EMT activator SIP1 in the pathogenesis of ICC. PMID:28423728

  8. VEGF elicits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like cells via an autocrine loop

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Moreno, Oscar; Lecanda, Jon; Green, Jeffrey E.

    2010-02-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is overexpressed during the transition from prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) to invasive carcinoma. We have mimicked such a process in vitro using the PIN-like C3(1)/Tag-derived Pr-111 cell line, which expresses low levels of VEGF and exhibits very low tumorigenicity in vivo. Elevated expression of VEGF164 in Pr-111 cells led to a significant increase in tumorigenicity, invasiveness, proliferation rates and angiogenesis. Moreover, VEGF164 induced strong changes in cell morphology and cell transcriptome through an autocrine mechanism, with changes in TGF-beta1- and cytoskeleton-related pathways, among others. Further analysis of VEGF-overexpressing Pr-111 cells or following exogenous addition ofmore » recombinant VEGF shows acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features, with an increased expression of mesenchymal markers, such as N-cadherin, Snail1, Snail2 (Slug) and vimentin, and a decrease in E-cadherin. Administration of VEGF led to changes in TGF-beta1 signaling, including reduction of Smad7 (TGF-beta inhibitory Smad), increase in TGF-betaR-II, and translocation of phospho-Smad3 to the nucleus. Our results suggest that increased expression of VEGF in malignant cells during the transition from PIN to invasive carcinoma leads to EMT through an autocrine loop, which would promote tumor cell invasion and motility. Therapeutic blockade of VEGF/TGF-beta1 in PIN lesions might impair not only tumor angiogenesis, but also the early dissemination of malignant cells outside the epithelial layer.« less

  9. Myocardial Tbx20 regulates early atrioventricular canal formation and endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Bmp2

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Cai, Weibin; Yan, Jianyun; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2011-01-01

    During early embryogenesis, the formation of the cardiac atrioventricular canal (AVC) facilitates the transition of the heart from a linear tube into a chambered organ. However, the genetic pathways underlying this developmental process are poorly understood. The T-box transcription factor Tbx20 is expressed predominantly in the AVC of early heart tube. It was shown that Tbx20 activates Nmyc1 and suppresses Tbx2 expression to promote proliferation and specification of the atrial and ventricular chambers, yet it is not known if Tbx20 is involved in early AVC development. Here, we report that mice lacking Tbx20 in the AVC myocardium fail to form the AVC constriction, and the endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is severely perturbed. Tbx20 maintains expression of a variety of genes, including Bmp2, Tbx3 and Hand1 in the AVC myocardium. Intriguingly, we found Bmp2 downstream genes involved in the EMT initiation are also downregulated. In addition, re-expression of Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium substantially rescues the EMT defects resulting from the lack of Tbx20, suggesting Bmp2 is one of the key downstream targets of Tbx20 in AVC development. Our data support a complex signaling network with Tbx20 suppressing Tbx2 in the AVC myocardium but also indirectly promoting Tbx2 expression through Bmp2. The spatiotemporal expression of Tbx2 in the AVC appears to be balanced between these two opposing signals. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence that Tbx20 has essential roles in regulating AVC development that coordinate early cardiac chamber formation. PMID:21983003

  10. Myocardial Tbx20 regulates early atrioventricular canal formation and endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Bmp2.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiaoqiang; Nomura-Kitabayashi, Aya; Cai, Weibin; Yan, Jianyun; Christoffels, Vincent M; Cai, Chen-Leng

    2011-12-15

    During early embryogenesis, the formation of the cardiac atrioventricular canal (AVC) facilitates the transition of the heart from a linear tube into a chambered organ. However, the genetic pathways underlying this developmental process are poorly understood. The T-box transcription factor Tbx20 is expressed predominantly in the AVC of early heart tube. It was shown that Tbx20 activates Nmyc1 and suppresses Tbx2 expression to promote proliferation and specification of the atrial and ventricular chambers, yet it is not known if Tbx20 is involved in early AVC development. Here, we report that mice lacking Tbx20 in the AVC myocardium fail to form the AVC constriction, and the endocardial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is severely perturbed. Tbx20 maintains expression of a variety of genes, including Bmp2, Tbx3 and Hand1 in the AVC myocardium. Intriguingly, we found Bmp2 downstream genes involved in the EMT initiation are also downregulated. In addition, re-expression of Bmp2 in the AVC myocardium substantially rescues the EMT defects resulting from the lack of Tbx20, suggesting Bmp2 is one of the key downstream targets of Tbx20 in AVC development. Our data support a complex signaling network with Tbx20 suppressing Tbx2 in the AVC myocardium but also indirectly promoting Tbx2 expression through Bmp2. The spatiotemporal expression of Tbx2 in the AVC appears to be balanced between these two opposing signals. Overall, our study provides genetic evidence that Tbx20 has essential roles in regulating AVC development that coordinate early cardiac chamber formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of doxycycline on epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the p38/Smad pathway in respiratory epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Min; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Seoung-Ae; Park, Il-Ho; Lee, Heung-Man

    2017-03-01

    Doxycycline has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, and it also suppresses collagen biosynthesis. This study aimed to confirm the effects and mechanism of doxycycline on transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration in A549 and primary nasal epithelial cells. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay and phalloidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining were used to evaluate cytotoxicity and cellular morphologic changes. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining were used to determine the expression levels of E-cadherin, vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, phosphorylated Smad2/3, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Scratch and transwell migration assays were used to assess cellular migration ability. Doxycycline (0-10 μg/mL) had no significant cytotoxic effects in A549 and primary nasal epithelial cells. Increased expression of mesenchymal markers, including vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and fibronectin in TGF beta 1 induced A549 cells were downregulated by doxycycline treatment. In contrast, E-cadherin expression was upregulated in TGF beta 1 induced A549 cells. An in vitro cell migration assay showed that doxycycline also inhibited the ability of TGF beta 1 induced migration. Doxycycline treatment suppressed the activation of Smad2/3 and p38, whereas its inhibitory effects were similar to each element-specific inhibitor in A549 and primary nasal epithelial cells. Doxycycline inhibited TGF beta 1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and migration by targeting Smad2/3 and p38 signal pathways in respiratory epithelial cells.

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colonies of rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells: a model for processes involved in gastrulation.

    PubMed

    Behr, Rüdiger; Heneweer, Carola; Viebahn, Christoph; Denker, Hans-Werner; Thie, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Rhesus monkey embryonic stem (rhES) cells were grown on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeder layers for up to 10 days to form multilayered colonies. Within this period, stem cell colonies differentiated transiently into complex structures with a disc-like morphology. These complex colonies were characterized by morphology, immunohistochemistry, and marker mRNA expression to identify processes of epithelialization as well as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and pattern formation. Typically, differentiated colonies were comprised of an upper and a lower ES cell layer, the former growing on top of the layer of MEF cells whereas the lower ES cell layer spread out underneath the MEF cells. Interestingly, in the central part of the colonies, a roundish pit developed. Here the feeder layer disappeared, and upper layer cells seemed to ingress and migrate through the pit downward to form the lower layer while undergoing a transition from the epithelial to the mesenchymal phenotype, which was indicated by the loss of the marker proteins E-cadherin and ZO-1 in the lower layer. In support of this, we found a concomitant 10-fold upregulation of the gene Snail2, which is a key regulator of the EMT process. Conversion of epiblast to mesoderm was also indicated by the regulated expression of the mesoderm marker Brachyury. An EMT is a characteristic process of vertebrate gastrulation. Thus, these rhES cell colonies may be an interesting model for studies on some basic processes involved in early primate embryogenesis and may open new ways to study the regulation of EMT in vitro.

  13. Claudin-1 promotes TNF-α-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Ajaz A.; Ahmad, Rizwan; Uppada, SrijayaPrakash B.

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism in cancer progression and malignancy including colorectal cancer (CRC). Importantly, inflammatory mediators are critical constituents of the local tumor environment and an intimate link between CRC progression and inflammation is now validated. We and others have reported key role of the deregulated claudin-1 expression in colon carcinogenesis including colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC). However, the causal association between claudin-1 expression and inflammation-induced colon cancer progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate, TNF-α, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, regulates claudin-1 to modulate epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in colon adenocarcinoma cells. Importantly, colon cancer cells culturedmore » in the presence of TNF-α (10 ng/ml), demonstrated a sharp decrease in E-cadherin expression and an increase in vimentin expression (versus control cells). Interestingly, TNF-α treatment also upregulated (and delocalized) claudin-1 expression in a time-dependent manner accompanied by increase in proliferation and wound healing. Furthermore, similar to our previous observation that claudin-1 overexpression in CRC cells induces ERK1/2 and Src- activation, signaling associated with colon cancer cell survival and transformation, TNF-α-treatment induced upregulation of phospho-ERK1/2 and -Src expression. The shRNA-mediated inhibition of claudin-1 expression largely abrogated the TNF-α-induced changes in EMT, proliferation, migration, p-Erk and p-Src expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate TNF-α mediated regulation of claudin-1 and tumorigenic abilities of colon cancer cells and highlights a key role of deregulated claudin-1 expression in inflammation-induced colorectal cancer growth and progression, through the regulation of the ERK and Src-signaling.« less

  14. Fractionated Ionizing Radiation Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Esophageal Cancer Cells through PTEN Deficiency-Mediated Akt Activation.

    PubMed

    He, Enhui; Pan, Fei; Li, Guangchao; Li, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    In some esophageal cancer patients, radiotherapy may not prevent distant metastasis thus resulting in poor survival. The underlying mechanism of metastasis in these patients is not well established. In this study, we have demonstrated that ionizing radiation may induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied with increased cell migration and invasion, through downregulation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and activation of Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. We developed a radioresistant (RR) esophageal squamous cancer cell line, KYSE-150/RR, by fractionated ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, and confirmed its radioresistance using a clonogenic survival assay. We found that the KYSE-150/RR cell line displayed typical morphological and molecular characteristics of EMT. In comparison to the parental cells, KYSE-150/RR cells showed an increase in post-IR colony survival, migration, and invasiveness. Furthermore, a decrease in PTEN in KYSE-150/RR cells was observed. We postulated that over-expression of PTEN may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition in KYSE-150/RR cells and restore IR-induced increase of cell migration. Mechanistically, fractionated IR inhibits expression of PTEN, which leads to activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling and is associated with the elevated levels of Snail protein, a transcription factor involved in EMT. Correspondingly, treatment with LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor, mimicked PTEN overexpression effect in KYSE-150/RR cells, further suggesting a role for the Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling in effects mediated through PTEN. Together, these results strongly suggest that fractionated IR-mediated EMT in KYSE-150/RR cells is through PTEN-dependent pathways, highlighting a direct proinvasive effect of radiation treatment on tumor cells.

  15. Tim-3 facilitates osteosarcoma proliferation and metastasis through the NF-κB pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z M; Guo, S M

    2016-09-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain molecule-3 (Tim-3) in osteosarcoma tissues, and analyze its effect on cell proliferation and metastasis in an osteosarcoma cell line. Tim-3 mRNA and protein expression in osteosarcoma tissue was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Additionally, the cell viability, apoptosis rate, and invasive ability of the osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 were tested using the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, Annexin V-propidium iodide flow cytometry, and a Transwell assay, respectively, following Tim-3 interference using small interfering RNA (siRNA). We also analyzed the expression of Snail, E-cadherin, vimentin, and nuclear factor (NF)-kB in the cells by western blot. We observed that Tim-3 mRNA and protein was significantly overexpressed in osteosarcoma tissues, compared to the adjacent normal tissue (P < 0.01). Moreover, MG-63 cells transfected with the Tim-3 siRNA presented lower cell viability, a greater number of apoptotic cells, and decreased invasive ability (P < 0.01), compared to control cells. Additionally, we observed a decrease in Snail and vimentin expression, an increase in the E-cadherin level, and an increase in NF-kB p65 phosphorylation (P < 0.01) in Tim-3 siRNA-transfected MG-63 cells. Based on these results, we concluded that Tim-3 is highly expressed in osteosarcoma tissue. Moreover, we speculated that interfering in Tim-3 expression could significantly suppress osteosarcoma cell (MG-63) proliferation and metastasis via the NF-kB/Snail signaling pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

  16. Tracking and Functional Characterization of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Mesenchymal Tumor Cells During Prostate Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ruscetti, Marcus; Quach, Bill; Dadashian, Eman L.; Mulholland, David J.; Wu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been postulated as a mechanism by which cancer cells acquire the invasive and stem-like traits necessary for distant metastasis. However, direct in vivo evidence for the role of EMT in the formation of cancer stem-like cells (CSC) and the metastatic cascade remains lacking. Here we report the first isolation and characterization of mesenchymal and EMT tumor cells, which harbor both epithelial and mesenchymal characteristics, in an autochthonous murine model of prostate cancer. By crossing the established Pb-Cre+/−;PtenL/L;KrasG12D/+ prostate cancer model with a vimentin-GFP reporter strain, generating CPKV mice, we were able to isolate epithelial, EMT and mesenchymal cancer cells based on expression of vimentin and EpCAM. CPKV mice (but not mice with Pten deletion alone) exhibited expansion of cells with EMT (EpCAM+/Vim-GFP+) and mesenchymal (EpCAM−/Vim-GFP+) characteristics at the primary tumor site and in circulation. These EMT and mesenchymal tumor cells displayed enhanced stemness and invasive character compared to epithelial tumor cells. Moreover, they displayed an enriched tumor-initiating capacity and could regenerate epithelial glandular structures in vivo, indicative of epithelia-mesenchyme plasticity. Interestingly, while mesenchymal tumor cells could persist in circulation and survive in the lung following intravenous injection, only epithelial and EMT tumor cells could form macrometastases. Our work extends the evidence that mesenchymal and epithelial states in cancer cells contribute differentially to their capacities for tumor initiation and metastatic seeding, respectively, and that EMT tumor cells exist with plasticity that can contribute to multiple stages of the metastatic cascade. PMID:25948589

  17. Altered expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition and pluripotent associated markers by sex steroid hormones in human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, So-Ye; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-07-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from a developmental stage of pre‑implanted embryos. The present study investigated the effect of female sex steroid hormones on the characteristics of human ES cells by using a feeder‑free culture protocol. In a feeder‑free condition without sex hormones, human ES cells assumed the form of tightly packed cells that grow in a monolayer. The cells had clean and defined edges with no evidence of differentiation and expressed several markers specific for undifferentiated ES cells including POU class 5 homeobox 1 (POU5F1), sex determining region Y‑box 2 (SOX2) and NANOG homeobox (NANOG). It was then investigated if female sex steroid hormones including 17β‑estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) altered the protein expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated markers in addition to pluripotency markers including POU5F1, SOX2 and NANOG in human ES cells. The protein expression levels of N‑cadherin, Snail and Slug were increased while E‑cadherin expression was decreased by treatment of E2 or P4, and the expression levels of POU5F1, SOX2 and NANOG were decreased by the treatment of E2 or P4. When E2 and P4 were treated in combination with an estrogen receptor inhibitor (ICI 182,780) and progesterone receptor inhibitor (RU486) respectively, their effects on EMT and pluripotency of ES cells were restored to control levels. The results suggested that E2 and P4 may regulate EMT and pluripotency of human ES cells by mediating their receptors. The present study may aid in the understanding of the role of sex steroid hormones in the cellular biology of human ES cells.

  18. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in keloid tissues and TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Cao, Rui; Wang, Lianzhao; Liu, Yuanbo; Pan, Bo; Yin, Yanhua; Lv, Xiaoyan; Zhuang, Qiang; Sun, Xuejian; Xiao, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Keloid is a skin fibrotic disease with the characteristics of recurrence and invasion, its pathogenesis still remains unrevealed. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical for wound healing, fibrosis, recurrence, and invasion of cancer. We sought to investigate the EMT in keloid and the mechanism through which the EMT regulates keloid formation. In keloid tissues, the expressions of EMT-associated markers and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad3 signaling were examined by immunohistochemistry. In the keloid epidermis and dermal tissue, the expressions of genes related to the regulation of skin homeostasis, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and p63, were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that accompanying the loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin and the gain of the mesenchymal markers fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) and vimentin in epithelial cells from epidermis and skin appendages, and in endothelial cells from dermal microvessels, enhanced TGF-β1 expression and Smad3 phosphorylation were noted in keloid tissues. Moreover, alternative splicing of the FGFR2 gene switched the predominantly expressed isoform from FGFR2-IIIb to -IIIc, concomitant with the decreased expression of ΔNp63 and TAp63, which changes might partially account for abnormal epidermis and appendages in keloids. In addition, we found that TGF-β1-induced hair follicle outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs) and normal skin epithelial cells underwent EMT in vitro with ORSKs exhibiting more obvious EMT changes and more similar expression profiles for EMT-associated and skin homeostasis-related genes as in keloid tissues, suggesting that ORSKs might play crucial roles in the EMT in keloids. Our study provided insights into the molecular mechanisms mediating the EMT pathogenesis of keloids. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  19. Aldolase B Overexpression is Associated with Poor Prognosis and Promotes Tumor Progression by Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingguo; Li, Yaqi; Xu, Junyan; Wang, Sheng; Xu, Ye; Li, Xinxiang; Cai, Sanjun

    2017-01-01

    Glycolysis is considered to be the root of cancer development and progression, which involved a multi-step enzymatic reaction. Our study aimed at figuring out which glycolysis enzyme participates in the development of colorectal cancer and its possible mechanisms. We firstly screened out Aldolase B (ALDOB) by performing qRT-PCR arrays of glycolysis-related genes in five paired liver metastasis and primary colorectal tissues, and further detected ALDOB protein with immunohistochemistry in tissue microarray (TMA) consisting of 229 samples from stage I-III colorectal cancer patients. CRISPR-Cas9 method was adopted to create knock out colon cancer cell lines (LoVo and SW480) of ALDOB. The effect of ALDOB on cell proliferation and metastasis was examined in vitro using colony formation assay as well as transwell migration and invasion assay, respectively. In TMA, there was 64.6% of samples demonstrated strong intensity of ALDOB. High ALDOB expression were associated with poor overall survival and disease-free survival in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses (P<0.05). In vitro functional studies of CCK-8 demonstrated that silencing ALDOB expression significantly (P<0.05) inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. Mechanically, silencing ALDOB activated epithelial markers and repressed mesenchymal markers, indicating inactivation of ALDOB may lead to inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Upregulation of ALDOB promotes colorectal cancer metastasis by facilitating EMT and acts as a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. IGF-1 contributes to the expansion of melanoma-initiating cells through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process.

    PubMed

    Le Coz, Vincent; Zhu, Chaobin; Devocelle, Aurore; Vazquez, Aimé; Boucheix, Claude; Azzi, Sandy; Gallerne, Cindy; Eid, Pierre; Lecourt, Séverine; Giron-Michel, Julien

    2016-12-13

    Melanoma is a particularly virulent human cancer, due to its resistance to conventional treatments and high frequency of metastasis. Melanomas contain a fraction of cells, the melanoma-initiating cells (MICs), responsible for tumor propagation and relapse. Identification of the molecular pathways supporting MICs is, therefore, vital for the development of targeted treatments. One factor produced by melanoma cells and their microenvironment, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF- 1), is linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness features in several cancers.We evaluated the effect of IGF-1 on the phenotype and chemoresistance of B16-F10 cells. IGF-1 inhibition in these cells prevented malignant cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and lung colony formation in immunodeficient mice. IGF-1 downregulation also markedly inhibited EMT, with low levels of ZEB1 and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, CD44, CD29, CD105) associated with high levels of E-cadherin and MITF, the major regulator of melanocyte differentiation. IGF-1 inhibition greatly reduced stemness features, including the expression of key stem markers (SOX2, Oct-3/4, CD24 and CD133), and the functional characteristics of MICs (melanosphere formation, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, side population). These features were associated with a high degree of sensitivity to mitoxantrone treatment.In this study, we deciphered new connections between IGF-1 and stemness features and identified IGF-1 as instrumental for maintaining the MIC phenotype. The IGF1/IGF1-R nexus could be targeted for the development of more efficient anti-melanoma treatments. Blocking the IGF-1 pathway would improve the immune response, decrease the metastatic potential of tumor cells and sensitize melanoma cells to conventional treatments.

  1. Nickel-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Reactive Oxygen Species Generation and E-cadherin Promoter Hypermethylation*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chih-Hsien; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Wang, Po-Hui; Lee, Huei; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered a critical event in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis and tumor metastasis. During EMT, the expression of differentiation markers switches from cell-cell junction proteins such as E-cadherin to mesenchymal markers such as fibronectin. Although nickel-containing compounds have been shown to be associated with lung carcinogenesis, the role of nickel in the EMT process in bronchial epithelial cells is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine whether nickel contributes to EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells. We also attempted to clarify the mechanisms involved in NiCl2-induced EMT. Our results showed that NiCl2 induced EMT phenotype marker alterations such as up-regulation of fibronectin and down-regulation of E-cadherin. In addition, the potent antioxidant N-acetylcysteine blocked EMT and expression of HIF-1α induced by NiCl2, whereas the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored the down-regulation of E-cadherin induced by NiCl2. Promoter hypermethylation of E-cadherin, determined by quantitative real time methyl-specific PCR and bisulfate sequencing, was also induced by NiCl2. These results shed new light on the contribution of NiCl2 to carcinogenesis. Specifically, NiCl2 induces down-regulation of E-cadherin by reactive oxygen species generation and promoter hypermethylation. This study demonstrates for the first time that nickel induces EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:22648416

  2. α-Solanine inhibits invasion of human prostate cancer cell by suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and MMPs expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kun-Hung; Liao, Alex Chien-Hwa; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Hu, Kai-Chieh; Lin, Pin-Tsen; Liao, Ruei-Fang; Chen, Pin-Shern

    2014-08-11

    α-Solanine, a naturally occurring steroidal glycoalkaloid found in nightshade (Solanum nigrum Linn.), was found to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of tumor cells. However, the mechanism involved in suppression of cancer cell metastasis by α-solanine remains unclear. This study investigates the suppression mechanism of α-solanine on motility of the human prostate cancer cell PC-3. Results show that α-solanine reduces the viability of PC-3 cells. When treated with non-toxic doses of α-solanine, cell invasion is markedly suppressed by α-solanine. α-Solanine also significantly elevates epithelial marker E-cadherin expression, while it concomitantly decreases mesenchymal marker vimentin expression, suggesting it suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). α-Solanine reduces the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9 and extracellular inducer of matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN), but increases the expression of reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with kazal motifs (RECK), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and TIMP-2. Immunoblotting assays indicate α-solanine is effective in suppressing the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt and ERK. Moreover, α-solanine downregulates oncogenic microRNA-21 (miR-21) and upregulates tumor suppressor miR-138 expression. Taken together, the results suggest that inhibition of PC-3 cell invasion by α-solanine may be, at least in part, through blocking EMT and MMPs expression. α-Solanine also reduces ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways and regulates expression of miR-21 and miR-138. These findings suggest an attractive therapeutic potential of α-solanine for suppressing invasion of prostate cancer cell.

  3. Valproic acid (VPA) inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in prostate carcinoma via the dual suppression of SMAD4.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xiaopeng; Lu, Guoliang; Yuan, Chuanwei; Mao, Shaowei; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Yougen; Jin, Xunbo; Xia, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cancer metastasis. Previous studies have reported that valproic acid (VPA) suppresses prostate carcinoma (PCa) cell metastasis and down-regulates SMAD4 protein levels, which is the key molecule in TGF-β-induced EMT. However, the correlation between VPA and the EMT in PCa remains uncertain. Markers of the EMT in PCa cells and xenografts were molecularly assessed after VPA treatment. The expression and mono-ubiquitination of SMAD4 were also analyzed. After transfection with plasmids that express SMAD4 or short hairpin RNA for SMAD4 down-regulation, markers of EMT were examined to confirm whether VPA inhibits the EMT of PCa cells through the suppression of SMAD4. VPA induced the increase in E-cadherin (p < 0.05), and the decrease in N-cadherin (p < 0.05) and Vimentin (p < 0.05), in PCa cells and xenografts. SMAD4 mRNA and protein levels were repressed by VPA (p < 0.05), whereas the level of mono-ubiquitinated SMAD4 was increased (p < 0.05). SMAD4 knockdown significantly increased E-cadherin expression in PC3 cells, but SMAD4 over-expression abolished the VPA-mediated EMT-inhibitory effect. VPA inhibits the EMT in PCa cells via the inhibition of SMAD4 expression and the mono-ubiquitination of SMAD4. VPA could serve as a promising agent in PCa treatment, with new strategies based on its diverse effects on posttranscriptional regulation.

  4. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of induced mesenchymal stem cells generated through epithelial-mesenchyme transition of cultured human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jin-Kyu; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun; Bhalla, Anu; Oo, Jenessa; Chen, Wei; Lee, Min; Kim, Reuben H; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K

    2014-11-01

    Revascularization of necrotic pulp has been successful in the resolution of periradicular inflammation; yet, several case studies suggest the need for cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative for de novo pulp regeneration. Because the availability of MSCs may be limited, especially in an aged population, the current study reports an alternative approach in generating MSCs from epidermal keratinocytes through a process called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We induced EMT in primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) by transient transfection of small interfering RNA targeting the p63 gene. The resulting cells were assayed for their mesenchymal marker expression, proliferation capacities as a monolayer and in a 3-dimensional collagen scaffold, and differentiation capacities. Transient transfection of p63 small-interfering RNA successfully abolished the expression of endogenous p63 in NHEKs and induced the expression of mesenchymal markers (eg, vimentin and fibronectin), whereas epithelial markers (eg, E-cadherin and involucrin) were lost. The NHEKs exhibiting the EMT phenotype acquired extended replicative potential and an increased telomere length compared with the control cells. Similar to the established MSCs, the NHEKs with p63 knockdown showed attachment onto the 3-dimensional collagen scaffold and underwent progressive proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, these EMT cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, and osteonectin and readily formed mineralized nodules detected by alizarin S red staining, showing osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. The induction of EMT in primary NHEKs by means of transient p63 knockdown allows the generation of induced MSCs from autologous sources. These cells may be used for tissues engineering purposes, including that of dental pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Suppression of the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Gang; Wei, Jun-Min; Qin, Chang-Fu; Hao, Kun; Tian, Xiao-Dong; Xie, Kun; Xie, Xue-Hai; Yang, Yin-Mo

    2012-05-01

    Aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in pancreatic cancer; however, the mechanisms of EGFR in inducing pancreatic cancer development have not been adequately elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the role of EGFR in mediating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1 was transfected with small interfering RNA of EGFR by use of a lentiviral expression vector to establish an EGFR-knockdown cell line (si-PANC-1). PANC-1 cells transfected with lentiviral vector expressing negative control sequence were used as negative control (NC-PANC-1). Scratch assay and transwell study were used to analyze cell migration and invasion. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the expression of EMT markers E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin and transcription factors snail, slug, twist1, and sip1 in PANC-1, NC-PANC-1, and si-PANC-1 cells. Immunofluorescent staining with these antibodies and confocal microscopy were used to observe their cellular location and morphologic changes. After RNA interference of EGFR, the migration and invasion ability of si-PANC-1 cells decreased significantly. The expression of epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin increased and the expression of mesenchymal phenotype markers N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin decreased, indicating reversion of EMT. We also observed intracellular translocation of E-cadherin. Expression of transcription factors snail and slug in si-PANC-1 cells decreased significantly. Suppression of EGFR expression can significantly inhibit EMT of pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cells. The mechanism may be related with the down-regulation of the expression of transcription factors snail and slug.

  6. Interleukin-6 induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in human adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma cells and promotes tumor cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Chao; Pan, Jun; Chen, Ligang; Qi, Song-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Total resection of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) is complex and often leads to postoperative recurrence. This is due to the tendency of the tumor to invade the surrounding brain tissue and the generation of a local inflammatory state between the tumor cells and parenchyma. While there is evidence to suggest that interleukin-6 (IL-6) induces craniopharyngioma (CP)-associated inflammation, particularly in ACP, the role of IL-6 in the progression of ACP remains unclear. The results of the present study demonstrated that CP inflammation was associated with pathological classification, extent of surgery, degree of calcification and postoperative hypothalamic status scale. Cytokine antibody arrays were conducted to measure the expression of IL-6 and other inflammatory factors in tumor tissues in response to various levels of inflammatory exposure. IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry. In addition, an ELISA was performed to quantify the levels of soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) in the cystic fluid and supernatants of ACP cells and tumor-associated fibroblasts. These measurements demonstrated that ACP cells produce IL-6 and its associated proteins. In addition, the results revealed that while the viability of ACP cells was not affected, the migration of ACP cells was promoted by IL-6 treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Conversely, treatment with an IL-6-blocking monoclonal antibody significantly decreased the migration of ACP cells. In addition, IL-6 treatment increased the expression of vimentin and decreased the expression of E-cadherin in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of the present study demonstrate that IL-6 may promote migration in vitro via the classic- and trans-signaling pathways by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ACP cell cultures. PMID:28487953

  7. The multifaceted role of the embryonic gene Cripto-1 in cancer, stem cells and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Klauzinska, Malgorzata; Castro, Nadia P; Rangel, Maria Cristina; Spike, Benjamin T; Gray, Peter C; Bertolette, Daniel; Cuttitta, Frank; Salomon, David

    2014-12-01

    Cripto-1 (CR-1)/Teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor1 (TDGF-1) is a cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein that can function either in cis (autocrine) or in trans (paracrine). The cell membrane cis form is found in lipid rafts and endosomes while the trans acting form lacking the GPI anchor is soluble. As a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)/Cripto-1-FRL-1-Cryptic (CFC) family, CR-1 functions as an obligatory co-receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members, Nodal and growth and differentiation factors 1 and 3 (GDF1/3) by activating Alk4/Alk7 signaling pathways that involve Smads 2, 3 and 4. In addition, CR-1 can activate non-Smad-dependent signaling elements such as PI3K, Akt and MAPK. Both of these pathways depend upon the 78kDa glucose regulated protein (GRP78). Finally, CR-1 can facilitate signaling through the canonical Wnt/β-catenin and Notch/Cbf-1 pathways by functioning as a chaperone protein for LRP5/6 and Notch, respectively. CR-1 is essential for early embryonic development and maintains embryonic stem cell pluripotentiality. CR-1 performs an essential role in the etiology and progression of several types of human tumors where it is expressed in a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and facilitates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this context, CR-1 can significantly enhance tumor cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Collectively, these facts suggest that CR-1 may be an attractive target in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of several types of human cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. ZEB1 promotes the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma via the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yihui; Zheng, Xiangyu; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Ying; Chen, Kuisheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) clearly contributes to cancer metastasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the EMT-related transcription repressor ZEB1 and the expression of EMT-associated markers (E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin) in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, the role of ZEB1 and these EMT-associated markers in the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma was explored. Methods: The expression of ZEB1, E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin was evaluated in 81 specimens of cervical squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry; the clinicopathological significance of these markers was then analyzed. Results: 1) Of the 81 samples, 37 cases (45.7%) were positive for ZEB1, and nuclear expression of ZEB1 in tumor cells was positively associated with the differentiation status of the tumor tissue (P < 0.05), vascular invasion (P < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). 2) The loss of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression in tumor cells and the acquisition of N-cadherin expression were positively associated with the differentiation status of the tumor tissue (P < 0.05) and with the occurrence of vascular invasion (P < 0.05). 3) A significant negative correlation was observed between ZEB1 and E-cadherin expression (Spearman = -0.636, P < 0.05) and between ZEB1 and β-catenin expression (Spearman = -0.417, P < 0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between ZEB1 and N-cadherin expression (Spearman = 0.557, P < 0.05). Conclusions: These results emphasize the role of EMT in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. The upregulation of ZEB1 is associated with the abnormal expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin and N-cadherin, which might promote the progression and metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:26617850

  9. Celastrol Ameliorates Ulcerative Colitis-Related Colorectal Cancer in Mice via Suppressing Inflammatory Responses and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lianjie; Sun, Yan; Wang, Dongxu; Zheng, Shihang; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Celastrol, also named as tripterine, is a pharmacologically active ingredient extracted from the root of traditional Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of celastrol on ulcerative colitis-related colorectal cancer (UC-CRC) as well as CRC in vivo and in vitro and explored its underlying mechanisms. UC-CRC model was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colonic tumor xenograft models were developed in BALB/c-nu mice by subcutaneous injection with HCT116 and HT-29 cells. Intragastric administration of celastrol (2 mg/kg/d) for 14 weeks significantly increased the survival ratio and reduced the multiplicity of colonic neoplasms compared with AOM/DSS model mice. Mechanically, celastrol treatment significantly prevented AOM/DSS-induced up-regulation of expression levels of oncologic markers including mutated p53 and phospho-p53, β-catenin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In addition, treatment with celastrol inhibited inflammatory responses, as indicated by the decrease of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and inactivation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Moreover, celastrol obviously suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulating E-cadherin and down-regulating N-cadherin, Vimentin and Snail. Additionally, we also demonstrated that celastrol inhibited human CRC cell proliferation and attenuated colonic xenograft tumor growth via reversing EMT. Taken together, celastrol could effectively ameliorate UC-CRC by suppressing inflammatory responses and EMT, suggesting a potential drug candidate for UC-CRC therapy. PMID:26793111

  10. Hepatocyte growth factor upregulation promotes carcinogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma via Akt and COX-2 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of cancer mortality. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to be an important biological process in cancer progression and metastasis. We have focused on elucidating factors that induce EMT to promote carcinogenesis and subsequent metastasis in HCC using the BNL CL.2 (BNL) and BNL 1ME A. 7R.1 (1MEA) cell lines. BNL cells are normal hepatocytes whereas the 1MEA cells are HCC cells derived from chemical transformation of the BNL cells. Their morphological characteristics were examined. Expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), markers of EMT and mediators of HGF signaling were determined and functional characteristics were compared. BNL cells were treated with HGF and effects on EMT-marker and mediators of HGF signaling were analyzed. BNL cells display characteristic epithelial morphology whereas 1MEA cells display mesenchymal characteristics. 1MEA cells express and secrete more HGF than BNL cells. There was significantly decreased expression of E-cadherin, albumin, AAT and increased expression of fibronectin, collagen-1, vimentin, snail and slug in 1MEA cells. There was also increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Akt and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in 1MEA cells. Moreover, 1MEA cells had increased migratory capacity inhibited by inhibition of COX-2 and Akt but not extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Molecular mesenchymal characteristics of 1MEA cells were reversed by inhibition of COX-2, Akt and ERK. Treatment of BNL cells with HGF led to decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of fibronectin, vimentin, snail, slug, COX-2, Akt, pAkt and increased migration, invasiveness and clonogenicity. We conclude that development of HCC is associated with upregulation of HGF which promotes EMT and carcinogenesis via upregulation of COX-2 and Akt. Consequently, HGF signaling may be targeted for therapy in advanced and metastatic HCC. PMID:21744257

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor upregulation promotes carcinogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma via Akt and COX-2 pathways.

    PubMed

    Ogunwobi, Olorunseun O; Liu, Chen

    2011-12-01

    Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of cancer mortality. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been shown to be an important biological process in cancer progression and metastasis. We have focused on elucidating factors that induce EMT to promote carcinogenesis and subsequent metastasis in HCC using the BNL CL.2 (BNL) and BNL 1ME A. 7R.1 (1MEA) cell lines. BNL cells are normal hepatocytes whereas the 1MEA cells are HCC cells derived from chemical transformation of the BNL cells. Their morphological characteristics were examined. Expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), markers of EMT and mediators of HGF signaling were determined and functional characteristics were compared. BNL cells were treated with HGF and effects on EMT-marker and mediators of HGF signaling were analyzed. BNL cells display characteristic epithelial morphology whereas 1MEA cells display mesenchymal characteristics. 1MEA cells express and secrete more HGF than BNL cells. There was significantly decreased expression of E-cadherin, albumin, AAT and increased expression of fibronectin, collagen-1, vimentin, snail and slug in 1MEA cells. There was also increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), Akt and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in 1MEA cells. Moreover, 1MEA cells had increased migratory capacity inhibited by inhibition of COX-2 and Akt but not extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK). Molecular mesenchymal characteristics of 1MEA cells were reversed by inhibition of COX-2, Akt and ERK. Treatment of BNL cells with HGF led to decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of fibronectin, vimentin, snail, slug, COX-2, Akt, pAkt and increased migration, invasiveness and clonogenicity. We conclude that development of HCC is associated with upregulation of HGF which promotes EMT and carcinogenesis via upregulation of COX-2 and Akt. Consequently, HGF signaling may be targeted for therapy in advanced and metastatic HCC.

  12. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition leads to crizotinib resistance in H2228 lung cancer cells with EML4-ALK translocation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Kim, Woo Sung; Choi, Yun Jung; Choi, Chang Min; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2013-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is associated with reduced sensitivity to many chemotherapeutic drugs, including EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here, we investigated if this reduced sensitivity also contributes to resistance to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor of lung cancer that exhibits the EML4-ALK translocation. We established a crizotinib-resistant subline (H2228/CR), which was derived from the parental H2228 cell line by long-term exposure to increasing concentrations of crizotinib. Characteristics associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT marker proteins, and cellular mobility, were analyzed. Compared with H2228 cells, the growth of H2228/CR cells was independent of EML4-ALK, and H2228/CR cells showed cross-resistance to TAE-684 (a second-generation ALK inhibitor). Phenotypic changes to the spindle-cell shape were noted in H2228/CR cells, which were accompanied by a decrease in E-cadherin and increase in vimentin and AXL. In addition, H2228/CR cells showed increased secretion and expression of TGF-β1. Invasion and migration capabilities were dramatically increased in H2228/CR cells. Applying TGF-β1 treatment to parental H2228 cells for 72 h induced reversible EMT, leading to crizotinib resistance, but this was reversed by the removal of TGF-β1. Suppression of vimentin in H2228/CR cells by siRNA treatment restored sensitivity to crizotinib. Furthermore, these resistant cells remained highly sensitive to the Hsp90 inhibitors, similar to the parental H2228 cells. In conclusion, we suggest EMT is possibly involved in acquired resistance to crizotinib, and that HSP90 inhibitors could be a promising option for the treatment of EMT. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. S100A4 amplifies TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a pleural mesothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Ning, Qian; Li, Feiyan; Wang, Lei; Li, Hong; Yao, Yan; Hu, Tinghua; Sun, Zhongmin

    2018-02-01

    Pleural fibrosis can dramatically lower the quality of life. Numerous studies have reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanism is inadequately understood. Fibroblast-specific protein-1 (S100A4) is a target of TGF-β signaling. In our previous study, we have reported that S100A4 is highly expressed in pleural fibrosis. Thus, we suggest that S100A4 took part in the TGF-β-induced EMT in pleural fibrosis. In this study, we determined the expression of S100A4 and EMT-related markers in Met-5A cells (pleural mesothelial cells) treated with TGF-β or TGF-β inhibitor by real-time PCR and western blot. In order to explore the role of S100A4, we used siRNA to knock down the expression of S100A4 in cell model. We found that the expression of epithelial cell marker was decreased and the mesenchymal cell marker increased with S100A4 upregulation after treatment with TGF-β. Moreover, the changes of EMT-related event were restricted when the expression of S100A4 was knocked down. Conversely, S100A4 can partially rescue the EMT-related expression changes induced by TGF-β inhibitor. These findings suggest that S100A4 expression is induced by the TGF-β pathway, and silencing S100A4 expression can inhibit the process of TGF-β-induced EMT. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The miR-506-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition is Involved in Poor Prognosis for Patients with Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sakimura, Shotaro; Sugimachi, Keishi; Kurashige, Junji; Ueda, Masami; Hirata, Hidenari; Nambara, Sho; Komatsu, Hisateru; Saito, Tomoko; Takano, Yuki; Uchi, Ryutaro; Sakimura, Etsuko; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Iguchi, Tomohiro; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Oba, Yugo; Hoka, Sumio; Mimori, Koshi

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs have roles in the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Findings have shown that miR-506 inhibits the expression of SNAI2 and that low expression of miR-506 is associated with poor prognoses in ovarian and breast cancers. This study investigated the role of miR-506 in survival and the EMT in patients with gastric cancer. In this study, miR-506 and SNAI2 mRNA levels were measured in 141 cases of gastric cancer by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the protein expressions of SNAI2 and E-cadherin in 39 cases were validated by immunohistochemical analysis. Next, the associations between their expression levels and clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. In addition, cell proliferation, migration, and luciferase activity of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of SNAI2 were analyzed using pre-miR-506 precursor in two human gastric cancer cell lines. Low expression of miR-506 was significantly correlated with poor overall survival in both the univariate analysis (P = 0.016) and the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Low miR-506 expression was significantly correlated with high SNAI2 expression (P = 0.009) and poorly differentiated type (P = 0.015). In vitro, miR-506 suppressed SNAI2 expression by binding to its 3'UTR, resulting in increased expression of E-cadherin (P < 0.05), verified by immunohistochemical analysis. Pre-miR-506 transfected cells showed significantly suppressed cell proliferation and migration (P < 0.05) compared with the control cells. The EMT was directly suppressed by miR-506, and its low expression was an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients. The data indicated that miR-506 may act as a tumor suppressor and could be a novel therapeutic agent.

  15. Immunological targeting of tumor cells undergoing an epithelial-mesenchymal transition via a recombinant brachyury-yeast vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jales, Alessandra; Huang, Bruce; Fernando, Romaine I.; Hodge, James W.; Ardiani, Andressa; Apelian, David

    2013-01-01

    The embryonic T-box transcription factor brachyury is aberrantly expressed in a range of human tumors. Previous studies have demonstrated that brachyury is a driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with cancer progression. Brachyury expression in human tumor cells enhances tumor invasiveness in vitro and metastasis in vivo, and induces resistance to various conventional therapeutics including chemotherapy and radiation. These characteristics, and the selective expression of brachyury for a range of human tumor types vs. normal adult tissues, make brachyury an attractive tumor target. Due to its intracellular localization and the “undruggable” character of transcription factors, available options to target brachyury are currently limited. Here we report on the development and characterization of an immunological platform for the efficient targeting of brachyury-positive tumors consisting of a heat-killed, recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast)–brachyury vector-based vaccine (designated as GI-6301) that expresses the full-length human brachyury protein. We demonstrate that human dendritic cells treated with recombinant yeast-brachyury can activate and expand brachyury-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vitro that, in turn, can effectively lyse human tumor cells expressing the brachyury protein. Vaccination of mice with recombinant yeast-brachyury is also shown here to elicit brachyury-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, and to induce anti-tumor immunity in the absence of toxicity. Based on these results, a Phase I clinical trial of GI-6301 is currently ongoing in patients with advanced tumors; to our knowledge, this is the first vaccine platform aimed at targeting a driver of tumor EMT that has successfully reached the clinical stage. PMID:24125763

  16. ZEB1-mediated vasculogenic mimicry formation associates with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotypes in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Huang, Bin; Li, Bai Mou; Cao, Kai Yuan; Mo, Chen Qiang; Jiang, Shuang Jian; Pan, Jin Cheng; Wang, Zong Ren; Lin, Huan Yi; Wang, Dao Hu; Qiu, Shao Peng

    2018-05-12

    The zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and altered ZEB1 expression could lead to aggressive and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes in various cancers. Tissue specimens from 96 prostate cancer patients were collected for immunohistochemistry and CD34/periodic acid-Schiff double staining. Prostate cancer cells were subjected to ZEB1 knockdown or overexpression and assessment of the effects on vasculogenic mimicry formation in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular events of ZEB1-induced vasculogenic mimicry formation in prostate cancer were then explored. The data showed that the presence of VM and high ZEB1 expression was associated with higher Gleason score, TNM stage, and lymph node and distant metastases as well as with the expression of vimentin and CD133 in prostate cancer tissues. Furthermore, ZEB1 was required for VM formation and altered expression of EMT-related and CSC-associated proteins in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. ZEB1 also facilitated tumour cell migration, invasion and clonogenicity. In addition, the effects of ZEB1 in prostate cancer cells were mediated by Src signalling; that is PP2, a specific inhibitor of the Src signalling, dose dependently reduced the p-Src 527 level but not p-Src 416 level, while ZEB1 knockdown also down-regulated the level of p-Src 527 in PC3 and DU-145 cells. PP2 treatment also significantly reduced the expression of VE-cadherin, vimentin and CD133 in these prostate cancer cells. Src signalling mediated the effects of ZEB1 on VM formation and gene expression. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols prevent palmitate-induced renal epithelial mesenchymal transition by alleviating dipeptidyl peptidase-4-mediated insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Ning; Wang, Chau-Jong; Yang, Yi-Sun; Lin, Chih-Li; Peng, Chiung-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy has a significant socioeconomic impact, but its mechanism is unclear and needs to be examined. Hibiscus sabdariffa polyphenols (HPE) inhibited high glucose-induced angiotensin II receptor-1 (AT-1), thus attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, we reported HPE inhibited dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4, the enzyme degrades type 1 glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1)), which mediated insulin resistance signals leading to EMT. Since free fatty acids can realistically bring about insulin resistance, using the palmitate-stimulated cell model in contrast with type 2 diabetic rats, in this study we examined if insulin resistance causes renal EMT, and the preventive effect of HPE. Our findings reveal that palmitate hindered 30% of glucose uptake. Treatment with 1 mg mL(-1) of HPE and the DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin completely recovered insulin sensitivity and palmitate-induced signal cascades. HPE inhibited DPP-4 activity without altering the levels of DPP-4 and the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R). HPE decreased palmitate-induced phosphorylation of Ser307 of insulin receptor substrate-1 (pIRS-1 (S307)), AT-1 and vimentin, while increasing phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pPI3K). IRS-1 knockdown revealed its essential role in mediating downstream AT-1 and EMT. In type 2 diabetic rats, it suggests that HPE concomitantly decreased the protein levels of DPP-4, AT-1, vimentin, and fibronectin, but reversed the in vivo compensation of GLP-1R. In conclusion, HPE improves insulin sensitivity by attenuating DPP-4 and the downstream signals, thus decreasing AT-1-mediated tubular-interstitial EMT. HPE could be an adjuvant to prevent diabetic nephropathy.

  18. Transmembrane 4 L Six Family Member 5 (TM4SF5)-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Weon

    2015-01-01

    The membrane protein TM4SF5, a member of the transmembrane 4L six family, forms a tetraspanin-enriched microdomain (TEM) on the cell surface, where many different membrane proteins and receptors form a massive protein-protein complex to regulate cellular functions including transdifferentiation, migration, and invasion. We recently reported that TM4SF5 causes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), eventually contributing to aberrant multilayer cellular growth, drug resistance, enhanced migration, invasion, its circulation in the blood, tumor initiation for successful metastasis, and muscle development in zebrafish. In this review, I summarize the information on the role of TM4SF5 in EMT-related functions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomain (T5EM) on cell surface, where proteins such as TM4SF5, CD151, CD44, integrins, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) can form numerous protein complexes. TM4SF5-mediated EMT contributes to diverse cellular functions, leading to fibrotic phenotypes and initiating and maintaining tumors in primary and/or metastatic regions, in addition to its role in muscle development in zebrafish. Anti-TM4SF5 strategies for addressing the protein networks can lead to regulation of the fibrotic, tumorigenic, and tumor-maintaining functions of TM4SF5-positive hepatic cells. This review is for us to (re)consider the antifibrotic or antitumorigenic (i.e., anti-EMT-related diseases) strategies of dealing with protein networks that would be involved in cross-talks to regulate various cellular functions during TM4SF5-dependent progression from fibrotic to cancerous hepatic cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Rundi; Chen, Ruilin; Cao, Yu

    Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by the destruction of lung tissue architecture and the formation of fibrous foci, currently has no satisfactory treatment. Emodin is a component of Chinese herb that has been reported to be medicament on pancreatic fibrosis and liver fibrosis. However, its role in pulmonary fibrosis has not been established yet. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that Emodin plays an inhibitory role in TGF-β1 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of alveolar epithelial cell, and Emodin exerts its effect through the Notch signaling pathway. Emodin inhibits the proliferation of Rat alveolar type II epithelial cells RLE-6TN inmore » a concentration-dependent manner; reduces the expression of Collagen I, α-SMA and Vimentin, promotes the expression of E-cadherin. Moreover, Emodin could regulate the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors and reduce the Notch-1 nucleus translocation. Knockdown of Notch-1 enhances the inhibitory effect of Emodin on TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells. In conclusion, the data of the present study suggests that Emodin suppresses TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells through Notch signaling pathway and shows the potential to be effective in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. - Highlights: • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in alveolar epithelial cells. • Emodin regulates the expression patterns of the Notch signaling pathway-related factors. • Emodin inhibits TGF-β1-induced Notch-1 nucleus translocation and activation.« less

  20. Notch-1 induces Epithelial-mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Ali, Shadan; Kong, Dejuan; Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Azmi, Asfar S.; Miele, Lucio; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of Notch-1 is known to be associated with the development and progression of human malignancies including pancreatic cancer. Emerging evidence suggest that the acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and induction of cancer stem cell (CSC) or cancer stem-like cell phenotype are interrelated and contributes to tumor recurrence and drug resistance. The molecular mechanism(s) by which Notch-1 contributes to the acquisition of EMT phenotype and CSC self-renewal capacity has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that forced over-expression of Notch-1 leads to increased cell growth, clonogenicity, migration and invasion of AsPC-1 cells. Moreover, over-expression of Notch-1 led to the induction of EMT phenotype by activation of mesenchymal cell markers such as ZEB1, CD44, EpCAM, and Hes 1. Here we also report, for the first time, that over-expression of Notch-1 leads to increased expression of miR-21, and decreased expression of miR-200b, miR-200c, let-7a, let-7b, and let-7c. Re-expression of miR-200b led to decreased expression of ZEB1, and vimentin, and increased expression of E-cadherin. Over-expression of Notch-1 also increased the formation of pancreatospheres consistent with expression of CSC surface markers CD44 and EpCAM. Finally, we found that genistein, a known natural anti-tumor agent inhibited cell growth, clonogenicity, migration, invasion, EMT phenotype, formation of pancreatospheres and expression of CD44 and EpCAM. These results suggest that the activation of Notch-1 signaling contributes to the acquisition of EMT phenotype, which is in part mediated through the regulation of miR-200b and CSC self-renewal capacity, and these processes could be attenuated by genistein treatment. PMID:21463919

  1. Intracranial extension of adenoid cystic carcinoma: potential involvement of EphA2 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fukai, Junya; Fujita, Koji; Yamoto, Toshikazu; Sasaki, Takahiro; Uematsu, Yuji; Nakao, Naoyuki

    2014-03-07

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a malignant epithelial tumor derived from salivary glands and tends to invade the surrounding structures including nervous system. We present a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with intracranial extension and propose a novel molecular mechanism of adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. A 29-year-old Japanese male presented with left trigeminal nerve disturbance. Neuroimaging revealed a tumor located at the right middle cranial and infratemporal fossa. The tumor was removed via a subtemporal extradural and infratemporal fossa approach and histologically diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinoma. Radiological and operative findings confirmed a perineural spread of the tumor along the mandibular nerve. Immunohistochemical analyses of molecular consequences in this case were performed for better understanding of the biological processes associated with adenoid cystic carcinoma metastasis. First, the neoplastic cells were not immunoreactive for E-cadherin, an epithelial marker, but for vimentin, a mesenchymal marker, suggesting changes in cell phenotype from epithelial to mesenchymal states. Correspondingly, immunoreactivity of transcriptional factors, such as Slug, Twist, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9, which are involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, were observed. Second, elevated expression of EphA2 receptor, not ephrin-A1, was notable in the neoplastic cells, suggesting morphological changes reminiscent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ligand-independent promotion of tumor cell migration and invasion. We report a case of adenoid cystic carcinoma with perineural spread and provide the first published evidence that EphA2 expression without ephrin-A1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition might play important roles in adenoid cystic carcinoma progression.

  2. The Role of BRCA1 in Suppressing Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition in Mammary Gland and Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    2015;6:7505. doi: 10.1038/ncomms8505. PubMed PMID: 26106036; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4491827. 19. Kalluri R, Weinberg RA. The basics of epithelial...Gupta PB, Evans KW, Hollier BG, Ram PT, Lander ES, Rosen JM, Weinberg RA, Mani SA. Core epithelial-to- mesenchymal transition interactome gene...Molecular analysis reveals heterogeneity of mouse mammary tumors conditionally mutant for Brca1. Mol Cancer 2008;7:29. 14. Kalluri R, Weinberg RA. The basics

  3. Upregulation of TrkB Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Anoikis Resistance in Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wei; Qiu, Haifeng; Yang, Tingting; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Huijuan; Wan, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms governing the metastasis of endometrial carcinoma (EC) are poorly defined. Recent data support a role for the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase TrkB in the progression of several human tumors. Here we present evidence for a direct role of TrkB in human EC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TrkB and its secreted ligand, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are more highly expressed in EC than in normal endometrium. High TrkB levels correlated with lymph node metastasis (p<0.05) and lymphovascular space involvement (p<0.05) in EC. Depletion of TrkB by stable shRNA-mediated knockdown decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of cancer cell lines in vitro and resulted in anoikis in suspended cells. Conversely, exogenous expression of TrkB increased cell migration and invasion and promoted anoikis resistance in suspension culture. Furthermore, over-expression of TrkB or stimulation by BDNF resulted in altered the expression of molecular mediators of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated depletion of the downstream regulator, Twist, blocked TrkB-induced EMT-like transformation. The use of in vivo models revealed decreased peritoneal dissemination in TrkB-depleted EC cells. Additionally, TrkB-depleted EC cells underwent mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and anoikis in vivo. Our data support a novel function for TrkB in promoting EMT and resistance to anoikis. Thus, TrkB may constitute a potential therapeutic target in human EC. PMID:23936232

  4. Role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast function in cerium oxide nanoparticles-induced lung fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Jane

    The emission of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO{sub 2}) from diesel engines, using cerium compounds as a catalyst to lower the diesel exhaust particles, is a health concern. We have previously shown that CeO{sub 2} induced pulmonary inflammation and lung fibrosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the modification of fibroblast function and the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CeO{sub 2}-induced fibrosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO{sub 2} (0.15 to 7 mg/kg) by a single intratracheal instillation and sacrificed at various times post-exposure. The results show that at 28 days after CeO{sub 2} (3.5 mg/kg)more » exposure, lung fibrosis was evidenced by increased soluble collagen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, elevated hydroxyproline content in lung tissues, and enhanced sirius red staining for collagen in the lung tissue. Lung fibroblasts and alveolar type II (ATII) cells isolated from CeO{sub 2}-exposed rats at 28 days post-exposure demonstrated decreasing proliferation rate when compare to the controls. CeO{sub 2} exposure was cytotoxic and altered cell function as demonstrated by fibroblast apoptosis and aggregation, and ATII cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia with increased surfactant. The presence of stress fibers, expressed as α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), in CeO{sub 2}-exposed fibroblasts and ATII cells was significantly increased compared to the control. Immunohistofluorescence analysis demonstrated co-localization of TGF-β or α-SMA with prosurfactant protein C (SPC)-stained ATII cells. These results demonstrate that CeO{sub 2} exposure affects fibroblast function and induces EMT in ATII cells that play a role in lung fibrosis. These findings suggest potential adverse health effects in response to CeO{sub 2} nanoparticle exposure. - Highlights: • CeO{sub 2} exposure induced lung fibrosis. • CeO{sub 2} were detected in lung tissue, alveolar type II (ATII) cells and fibroblasts. • CeO{sub 2} caused

  5. Evaluation of transforming growth factor-β1 suppress Pokemon/epithelial-mesenchymal transition expression in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Hu, Yangyang; Guo, Changcheng; Liu, Min; Yao, Xudong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Peng, Bo; Zheng, Junhua

    2015-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a dual role in apoptosis and in proapoptotic responses in the support of survival in a variety of cells. The aim of this study was to determine the function of TGF-β1 in bladder cancer cells and the relationship with POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor (Pokemon). TGF-β1 and its receptors mediate several tumorigenic cascades that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and survival of bladder cancer cells. Bladder cancer cells T24 were treated with different levels of TGF-β1. Levels of Pokemon, E-cadherin, Snail, MMP2, MMP9, Twist, VEGF, and β-catenin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were examined by real-time quantitative fluorescent PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of TGF-β1 on epithelial-mesenchymal transition of T24 cells were evaluated with wound-healing assay, proliferation of T24 was evaluated with reference to growth curves with MTT assay, and cell invasive ability was investigated by Transwell assay. Data show that Pokemon was inhibited by TGF-β1 treatment; the gene and protein of E-cadherin and β-catenin expression level showed decreased markedly after TGF-β1 treatment (P < 0.05). While the bladder cancer cell after TGF-β1 treatment showed a significantly reduced wound-closing efficiency at 6, 12, and 24 h, mechanistic analyses demonstrated that different levels of TGF-β1 promotes tumor cell growth, migration, and invasion in bladder cancer cells (P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In summary, our findings suggest that TGF-β1 may inhibit the expression of Pokemon, β-catenin, and E-cadherin. The high expression of TGF-β1 leads to an increase in the phenotype and apical-base polarity of epithelial cells. These changes of cells may result in the recurrence and progression of bladder cancer at last. Related mechanism is worthy of further investigation.

  6. Donor-derived stem-cells and epithelial mesenchymal transition in squamous cell carcinoma in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Verneuil, Laurence; Leboeuf, Christophe; Bousquet, Guilhem; Brugiere, Charlotte; Elbouchtaoui, Morad; Plassa, Louis-François; Peraldi, Marie-Noelle; Lebbé, Celeste; Ratajczak, Philippe; Janin, Anne

    2015-12-08

    Skin squamous-cell-carcinoma (SCC), is the main complication in long-term kidney-transplant recipients, and it can include donor-derived cells. Preclinical models demonstrated the involvement of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the progression of skin SCC, and the role of Snail, an EMT transcription factor, in cancer stem-cell survival and expansion.Here, we studied stem-cells and EMT expression in SCCs and concomitant actinic keratoses (AK) in kidney-transplant recipients. In SCC and AK in 3 female recipients of male kidney-transplants, donor-derived Y chromosome in epidermal stem cells was assessed using combined XY-FISH/CD133 immunostaining, and digital-droplet-PCR on laser-microdissected CD133 expressing epidermal cells.For EMT study, double immunostainings of CD133 with vimentin or snail and slug, electron microscopy and immunostainings of keratinocytes junctions were performed. Digital droplet PCR was used to check CDH1 (E-cadherin) expression level in laser-microdissected cells co-expressing CD133 and vimentin or snail and slug.The numbers of Y-chromosome were assessed using digital droplet PCR in laser-microdissected cells co-expressing CD133 and vimentin, or snail and slug, and in CD133 positive cells not expressing any EMT maker. We identified donor-derived stem-cells in basal layers and invasive areas in all skin SCCs and in concomitant AKs, but not in surrounding normal skin.The donor-derived stem-cells expressed the EMT markers, vimentin, snail and slug in SCCs but not in AKs. The expression of the EMT transcription factor, SNAI1, was higher in stem-cells when they expressed vimentin. They were located in invasive areas of SCCs. In these areas, the expressions of claudin-1 and desmoglein 1 were reduced or absent, and within the basal layer there were features of basal membrane disappearance.Donor-derived stem cells were in larger numbers in stem cells co-expressing vimentin or snail and slug than in stem cells not expressing any EMT marker

  7. Molecular mechanism of Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin on the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Liu, Dengxiang; Guo, Jun; Sun, Yawei; Guo, Ting; Zhu, Xiaoyan

    2018-06-01

    Natural product Poria cocos possesses antitumor effect. This study will explore the molecular mechanism of Poria cocos combined with chemotherapy in the inhibition of gastric cancer cell EMT process. The experiment was divided into blank control group, Poria cocos group, oxaliplatin group and Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin group. Scratch and Transwell assay were used to detect cell migration and invasion respectively. RT-qPCR and Western Blot analyses were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related factors including Snail, Twist, Vimentin, E-cadherin and N-cadherin respectively. Morphologic assessment was performed with HPIAS-1000 automated image analysis system. The migration and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells in the Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin group were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). The mRNA and protein expression of Snail, Twist, Vimentin and N-cadherin were significantly decreased while the mRNA and protein expression of E-cadherin were significantly increased (P < 0.01) compared with blank control group. Nude mice model of gastric cancer was successfully established. Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin could significantly inhibit gastric tumor progression. The expression of EMT related factors were consistent with in vitro study. Morphologic assessment showed that the nucleus area, perimeter, mean diameter, volume, long diameter and shape factor in the Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin group were significantly different compared with the blank control group (P < 0.01) but not significantly different compared with the normal control. Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin could significantly inhibit the migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. Through both in vitro and in vivo studies, it is confirmed that Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin could significantly inhibit the EMT process of gastric cancer. Poria cocos combined with oxaliplatin could

  8. aPKC-ι/P-Sp1/Snail signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and immunosuppression in cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yawei; Yao, Wei; Yang, Tao; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Weipeng; Wang, Jianming

    2017-10-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly malignant bile duct cancer that tends to invade and metastasize early. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been implicated in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, as well as in cancer cell evasion of host immunity. In this study, we investigated the interaction between atypical protein kinase C-iota (aPKC-ι) and Snail in the regulation of EMT and its relationship to CCA immunosuppression. Our results demonstrated that aPKC-ι, Snail, and infiltrated immunosuppressive cells were significantly up-regulated in CCA tumor tissues and linked to poor prognosis. aPKC-ι induced EMT and immunosuppression by regulating Snail in vitro and in vivo, although aPKC-ι did not directly interact with Snail in coimmunoprecipitation experiments. To further clarify the molecular interaction between aPKC-ι and Snail in relation to EMT, quantitative iTRAQ-based phosphoproteomic analysis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry were conducted to identify the substrates of aPKC-ι-dependent phosphorylation. Combined with coimmunoprecipitation, we showed that specificity protein 1 (Sp1) was directly phosphorylated by aPKC-ι on Ser59 (P-Sp1). Both Sp1 and P-Sp1 were up-regulated in CCA tumor tissues and associated with clinicopathological features and poor prognosis in CCA patients. Moreover, using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that P-Sp1 regulated Snail expression by increasing Sp1 binding to the Snail promoter. P-Sp1 also regulated aPKC-ι/Snail-induced EMT-like changes and immunosuppression in CCA cells. Our findings further indicated that CCA cells with EMT-like features appear to generate immunosuppressive natural T regulatory-like cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4 + )CD25 - cells rather than to increase CD4 + CD25 + natural T regulatory cells, in part by mediating T regulatory-inducible cytokines such as transforming growth factor β1 and interleukin 2. These results demonstrate that a

  9. Curcumin Suppresses Intestinal Fibrosis by Inhibition of PPARγ-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Bin; Wang, Hui; Shen, Cunsi; Chen, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal fibrotic stricture is a major complication of Crohn's disease (CD) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as an important contributor to the formation of intestinal fibrosis by increasing extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Curcumin, a compound derived from rhizomes of Curcuma, has been demonstrated with a potent antifibrotic effect. However, its effect on intestinal fibrosis and the potential mechanism is not completely understood. Here we found that curcumin pretreatment significantly represses TGF-β1-induced Smad pathway and decreases its downstream α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) gene expression in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6); in contrast, curcumin increases expression of E-cadherin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in IEC-6. Moreover, curcumin promotes nuclear translocation of PPARγ and the inhibitory effect of curcumin on EMT could be reversed by PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Consistently, in the rat model of intestinal fibrosis induced by 2,4,5-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS), oral curcumin attenuates intestinal fibrosis by increasing the expression of PPARγ and E-cadherin and decreasing the expression of α-SMA, FN, and CTGF in colon tissue. Collectively, these results indicated that curcumin is able to prevent EMT progress in intestinal fibrosis by PPARγ-mediated repression of TGF-β1/Smad pathway. PMID:28203261

  10. CDKL2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linna; Liu, Chunping; Amato, Robert J.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Du, Guangwei; Li, Wenliang

    2014-01-01

    The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers mesenchymal properties on epithelial cells and has been closely associated with the acquisition of aggressive traits by epithelial cancer cells. To identify novel regulators of EMT, we carried out cDNA screens that covered 500 human kinases. Subsequent characterization of candidate kinases led us to uncover cyclin-dependent kinase-like 2 (CDKL2) as a novel potent promoter for EMT and breast cancer progression. CDKL2-expressing human mammary gland epithelial cells displayed enhanced mesenchymal traits and stem cell-like phenotypes, which was acquired through activating a ZEB1/E-cadherin/β-catenin positive feedback loop and regulating CD44 mRNA alternative splicing to promote conversion of CD24high cells to CD44high cells. Furthermore, CDKL2 enhanced primary tumor formation and metastasis in a breast cancer xenograft model. Notably, CDKL2 is expressed significantly higher in mesenchymal human breast cancer cell lines than in epithelial lines, and its over-expression/amplification in human breast cancers is associated with shorter disease-free survival. Taken together, our study uncovered a major role for CDKL2 in promoting EMT and breast cancer progression. PMID:25333262

  11. NANOG regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shan; Li, Yanfang; Cao, Xuexia; Du, Jiexian; Huang, Xianghua

    2017-02-28

    A key transcription factor associated with poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer is NANOG. However, the mechanism by which NANOG functions remains undefined. It has been suggested that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) also contributes to development of drug resistance in different cancers. We thus determined whether NANOG expression was associated with EMT and chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. NANOG expression was increased in epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines compared with its expression in normal epithelial ovarian cell lines. NANOG expression in SKOV-3 or OV2008 cells directly correlated with high expression of mesenchymal cell markers and inversely with low expression of epithelial cell marker. RNAi-mediated silencing of NANOG in SKOV-3 reversed the expression of mesenchymal cell markers and restored expression of E-cadherin. Reversibly, stable overexpression of NANOG in Moody cells increased expression of N-cadherin whereas down-regulating expression of E-cadherin, cumulatively indicating that NANOG plays an important role in maintaining the mesenchymal cell markers. Modulating NANOG expression did not have any effect on proliferation or colony formation. Susceptibility to cisplatin increased in SKOV-3 cells on down-regulating NANOG and reversible results were obtained in Moody cells post-overexpression of NANOG. NANOG silencing in SKOV-3 and OV2008 robustly attenuated in vitro migration and invasion. NANOG expression exhibited a biphasic pattern in patients with ovarian cancer and expression was directly correlated to chemoresistance retrospectively. Cumulatively, our data demonstrate that NANOG expression modulates chemosensitivity and EMT resistance in ovarian cancer. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Peroxiredoxin 5 promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Hye-Mi; Yoo, Jin-Woo; College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu

    Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is common cause of cancer-related deaths. The high mortality rate of patients with colon cancer is due to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Initiation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is essential for the tumorigenesis. Peroxiredoinxs (PRX1-6) have been reported to be overexpressed in various tumor tissues, and involved to be responsible for tumor progression. However, the exact role of PRX5 in colon cancer remains to be investigated enhancing proliferation and promoting EMT properties. In this study, we constructed stably overexpressing PRX5 and suppressed PRX5 expression in CRC cells. Our results revealed that PRX5 overexpression significantly enhancedmore » CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. On the other hand, PRX5 suppression markedly inhibited these EMT properties. PRX5 was also demonstrated to regulate the expression of two hallmark EMT proteins, E-cadherin and Vimentin, and the EMT-inducing transcription factors, Snail and Slug. Moreover, in the xenograft mouse model, showed that PRX5 overexpression enhances tumor growth of CRC cells. Thus, our findings first provide evidence in CRC that PRX5 promotes EMT properties by inducing the expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. Therefore, PRX5 can be used as a predictive biomarker and serves as a putative therapeutic target for the development of clinical treatments for human CRC. - Highlights: • PRX5 promoted colorectal cancer cell proliferation. • PRX5 enhanced EMT properties in colorectal cancer. • PRX5 mediated the EMT by inducing the expression of Snail and Slug. • PRX5 promoted tumor growth of colorectal cancer cells.« less

  13. Na, K-ATPase subunits as markers for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Sigrid A.; Huynh, Thu P.; Wolle, Daniel G.; Espineda, Cromwell E.; Inge, Landon J.; Skay, Anna; Lassman, Charles; Nicholas, Susanne B.; Harper, Jeffrey F.; Reeves, Anna E.; Ahmed, Mansoor M.; Leatherman, James M; Mullin, James M.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important developmental process, participates in tissue repair and occurs during pathological processes of tumor invasiveness, metastasis and tissue fibrosis. The molecular mechanisms leading to EMT are poorly understood. While it is well documented that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a central role in the induction of EMT, the targets of TGF-β signaling are poorly defined. We have shown earlier that Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit levels are highly reduced in poorly differentiated kidney carcinoma cells in culture and in patients’ tumor samples. In this study, we provide evidence that Na,K-ATPase is a new target of TGF-β1-mediated EMT in renal epithelial cells, a model system used in studies of both cancer progression and fibrosis. We show that following treatment with TGF-β1 the surface expression of the β1-subunit of Na,K-ATPase is reduced, prior to well-characterized EMT markers and is associated with the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. RNAi mediated knockdown confirmed the specific involvement of the Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit in the loss of the epithelial phenotype and exogenous over-expression of the Na,K-ATPase β1-subunit attenuated TGF-β1-mediated EMT. We further show that both Na,K-ATPase α- and β-subunit levels are highly reduced in renal fibrotic tissues. These findings for the first time reveal that Na,K-ATPase is a target of TGF-β1-mediated EMT and is associated with the progression of EMT in both cancer and fibrosis. PMID:20501797

  14. Sulforaphane inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinsheng; Han, Jingli; Hou, Benxin; Deng, Chengwei; Wu, Huanliang; Shen, Liangfang

    2016-05-01

    Sulforaphane is recognized as a safe antitumor agent derived from various cruciferous vegetables, including broccoli. It has been demonstrated that sulforaphase is a potent antitumor agent in diverse cancers. However, its effect on hepatocellular carcinoma remains largely unknown. Here, we show that sulforaphane inhibits TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell via the reactive oxygen species-dependent pathway. We found sulforaphane inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Sulforaphane induced G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and promoted cell apoptosis. A set of experiments showed that sulforaphase inhibited hepatocellular carcinoma cell migration and invasion, inhibited the formation of fibroblast like mesenchymal cells and the expression of Vimentin, but increased the expression of E-cadherin, suggesting sulforaphane suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Cotreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited sulforaphane-inhibited invasion and upregulation of E-cadherin and almost completely abolished the sulforaphane-induced expression of Vimentin. The effect of sulforaphane on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells was confirmed by a xenograft tumor growth model. All our finding indicated that sulforaphane is a promising and safe strategy for treating hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Phenformin inhibits growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through targeting the IGF1R pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiying; Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W; Zhao, Qingxia; Parris, Amanda B; Ma, Zhikun; Yang, Xiaohe

    2017-09-01

    Reports suggest that metformin, a popular anti-diabetes drug, prevents breast cancer through various systemic effects, including insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) regulation. Although the anti-cancer properties of metformin have been well-studied, reports on a more bioavailable/potent biguanide, phenformin, remain sparse. Phenformin exerts similar functional activity to metformin and has been reported to impede mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Since the effects of phenformin on specific breast cancer subtypes have not been fully explored, we used ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell and animal models to test the anti-cancer potential of phenformin. We report that phenformin (25-75 μM) decreased cell proliferation and impaired cell cycle progression in SKBR3 and 78617 breast cancer cells. Reduced tumor size after phenformin treatment (30 mg/kg/day) was demonstrated in an MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mouse syngeneic tumor model. Phenformin also blocked epithelial-mesenchymal transition, decreased the invasive phenotype, and suppressed receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, including insulin receptor substrate 1 and IGF1R, in ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and mouse mammary tumor-derived tissues. Moreover, phenformin suppressed IGF1-stimulated proliferation, receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in vitro . Together, our study implicates phenformin-mediated IGF1/IGF1R regulation as a potential anti-cancer mechanism and supports the development of phenformin and other biguanides as breast cancer therapeutics.

  16. Phenformin inhibits growth and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through targeting the IGF1R pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiying; Zhao, Ming; Howard, Erin W.; Zhao, Qingxia; Parris, Amanda B.; Ma, Zhikun; Yang, Xiaohe

    2017-01-01

    Reports suggest that metformin, a popular anti-diabetes drug, prevents breast cancer through various systemic effects, including insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR) regulation. Although the anti-cancer properties of metformin have been well-studied, reports on a more bioavailable/potent biguanide, phenformin, remain sparse. Phenformin exerts similar functional activity to metformin and has been reported to impede mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Since the effects of phenformin on specific breast cancer subtypes have not been fully explored, we used ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell and animal models to test the anti-cancer potential of phenformin. We report that phenformin (25–75 μM) decreased cell proliferation and impaired cell cycle progression in SKBR3 and 78617 breast cancer cells. Reduced tumor size after phenformin treatment (30 mg/kg/day) was demonstrated in an MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mouse syngeneic tumor model. Phenformin also blocked epithelial-mesenchymal transition, decreased the invasive phenotype, and suppressed receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, including insulin receptor substrate 1 and IGF1R, in ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cells and mouse mammary tumor-derived tissues. Moreover, phenformin suppressed IGF1-stimulated proliferation, receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers in vitro. Together, our study implicates phenformin-mediated IGF1/IGF1R regulation as a potential anti-cancer mechanism and supports the development of phenformin and other biguanides as breast cancer therapeutics. PMID:28947975

  17. [Promoting effect of cyclin D1 overexpression on proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Liu, S; Cheng, B; Wu, X Z; Ding, S S; Xu, L; Liu, Y; Duan, L; Sun, S Z

    2017-03-08

    Objective: To study effects of cyclin D1 overexpression on the proliferation and differentiation of cervical squamous cell carcinoma SiHa cells and to investigate related signaling molecules. Methods: Primers were designed to amplify the full length of cyclin D1 gene and cyclin D1 gene was amplified by PCR for constructing pcDNA3.1 plasmid vector. The construct was then transfected into SiHa cells, and the cells with stable overexpression of cyclin D1 were established, cyclin D1 gene and protein expression were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Cell growth curve was documented by MTT assay. CK7, E-cadherin, vimentin, Snail gene and protein expression in transfected cells were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of proliferation and differentiation-related genes like CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, Rb, E2F, E6/E7 and Ki-67. After synchronization of cells, RT-PCR was used to detect of cyclin D1 and p21 mRNA expression at different time points of the cell cycle. Results: The G-3 cells with cyclin D1 overexpression were successfully established. The growth curve and Ki-67 mRNA expression accelerated in G-3 cells.Vimentin and Snail expression significantly increased at both gene and protein levels, while E-cadherin, CK7 gene and protein expression significantly decreased, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transitionoccurred in G-3 cells.Meanwhile, mRNA expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27, cyclin E, E2F and Rb increased, while E6/E7 and p16 showed no significant change. The expression trends of p21 and cyclin D1 were almost identical with fluctuation at different time points in the cell cycle. Conclusions: Overexpression of cyclin D1 induced by gene transfection promotes proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in SiHa cells.The process is accompanied by up-regulation of CDK4, CDK2, p21, p27 and cyclin E genes.p21 expression increases synchronously with cyclin D1, suggesting a regulatory

  18. Stromal Clues in Endometrial Carcinoma: Loss of Expression of β-Catenin, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulators, and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Senol, Serkan; Sayar, Ilyas; Ceyran, Ayse B; Ibiloglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim; Firat, Ugur; Kosemetin, Duygu; Engin Zerk, Pinar; Aydin, Abdullah

    2016-05-01

    Epithelial-stroma interactions in the endometrium are known to be responsible for physiological functions and emergence of several pathologic lesions. Periglandular stromal cells act on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner through sex hormones. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL/SLUG, TWIST, ZEB1), adhesion molecules (β-catenin and E-cadhenin), estrogen (ER)-progesterone (PR) receptor and their correlation with each other in 30 benign, 148 hyperplastic (EH), and 101 endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EC) endometria. In the epithelial component, loss of expression in E-cadherin, ER and PR, and overexpression of TWIST and ZEB1 were significantly higher in EC than in EH (P<0.01). In the periglandular stromal component, β-catenin and SNAIL/SLUG expression were significantly higher in normal endometrium and simple without atypical EH compared with complex atypical EH and EC (P<0.01). In addition, periglandular stromal TWIST expression was significantly higher in EH group compared with EC (P<0.05). There was significantly negative correlation between β-catenin and ER, TWIST and ER, and TWIST and PR in hyperplastic and carcinomatous glandular epithelium, whereas there was a significantly positive correlation between β-catenin and SNAIL-SLUG, β-catenin and TWIST, β-catenin and ER, β-catenin and PR, SNAIL-SLUG and ER, SNAIL-SLUG and PR, TWIST and ER, TWIST and PR, in periglandular/cancer-associated stromal cells (P<0.01). In conclusion, the pattern of positive and negative correlations in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL-SLUG and TWIST), sex hormone receptors (ER and PR), and β-catenin between ECs and hyperplasia, as well as between epithelium and stroma herein, is suggestive of a significant role for these proteins and their underlying molecular processes in the development of endometrial carcinomas.

  19. Stromal Clues in Endometrial Carcinoma: Loss of Expression of β-Catenin, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulators, and Estrogen-Progesterone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sayar, Ilyas; Ceyran, Ayse B.; Ibiloglu, Ibrahim; Akalin, Ibrahim; Firat, Ugur; Kosemetin, Duygu; Engin Zerk, Pinar; Aydin, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-stroma interactions in the endometrium are known to be responsible for physiological functions and emergence of several pathologic lesions. Periglandular stromal cells act on endometrial cells in a paracrine manner through sex hormones. In this study, we immunohistochemically evaluated the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL/SLUG, TWIST, ZEB1), adhesion molecules (β-catenin and E-cadhenin), estrogen (ER)-progesterone (PR) receptor and their correlation with each other in 30 benign, 148 hyperplastic (EH), and 101 endometrioid-type endometrial carcinoma (EC) endometria. In the epithelial component, loss of expression in E-cadherin, ER and PR, and overexpression of TWIST and ZEB1 were significantly higher in EC than in EH (P<0.01). In the periglandular stromal component, β-catenin and SNAIL/SLUG expression were significantly higher in normal endometrium and simple without atypical EH compared with complex atypical EH and EC (P<0.01). In addition, periglandular stromal TWIST expression was significantly higher in EH group compared with EC (P<0.05). There was significantly negative correlation between β-catenin and ER, TWIST and ER, and TWIST and PR in hyperplastic and carcinomatous glandular epithelium, whereas there was a significantly positive correlation between β-catenin and SNAIL-SLUG, β-catenin and TWIST, β-catenin and ER, β-catenin and PR, SNAIL-SLUG and ER, SNAIL-SLUG and PR, TWIST and ER, TWIST and PR, in periglandular/cancer-associated stromal cells (P<0.01). In conclusion, the pattern of positive and negative correlations in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators (SNAIL-SLUG and TWIST), sex hormone receptors (ER and PR), and β-catenin between ECs and hyperplasia, as well as between epithelium and stroma herein, is suggestive of a significant role for these proteins and their underlying molecular processes in the development of endometrial carcinomas. PMID:26367784

  20. The role of autophagy in the cross-talk between epithelial-mesenchymal transitioned tumor cells and cancer stem-like cells.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, Fabrizio; Ghezzi, Pietro; Rumio, Cristiano

    2017-01-30

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem-like cells (CSC) are becoming highly relevant targets in anticancer drug discovery. A large body of evidence suggests that epithelial-mesenchymal transitioned tumor cells (EMT tumor cells) and CSCs have similar functions. There is also an overlap regarding the stimuli that can induce the generation of EMT tumor cells and CSCs. Moreover, direct evidence has been brought that EMT can give rise to CSCs. It is unclear however, whether EMT tumor cells should be considered CSCs or if they have to undergo further changes. In this article we summarize available evidence suggesting that, indeed, additional programs must be engaged and we propose that macroautophagy (hereafter, autophagy) represents a key trait distinguishing CSCs from EMT tumor cells. Thus, CSCs have often been reported to be in an autophagic state and blockade of autophagy inhibits CSCs. On the other hand, there is ample evidence showing that EMT and autophagy are distinct events. CSCs, however, represent, by themselves, a heterogeneous population. Thus, CSCs have been distinguished in predominantly non-cycling and cycling CSCs, the latter representing CSCs that self-renew and replenish the pool of differentiated tumor cells. We now suggest that the non-cycling CSC subpopulation is in an autophagic state. We propose also two models to explain the relationship between EMT tumor cells and these two major CSC subpopulations: a branching model in which EMT tumor cells can give rise to cycling or non-cycling CSCs, respectively, and a hierarchical model in which EMT tumor cells are first induced to become autophagic CSCs and, subsequently, cycling CSCs. Finally, we address the therapeutic consequences of these insights.

  1. Huntingtin-Interacting Protein-1 Is an Early-Stage Prognostic Biomarker of Lung Adenocarcinoma and Suppresses Metastasis via Akt-mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Che-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Han; Jan, Yi-Hua; Su, Chia-Yi; Yao, Yun-Chin; Cheng, Hui-Chuan; Hsu, Tai-I; Wang, Po-Shun; Su, Wen-Pin; Yang, Chih-Jen; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Calkins, Marcus J; Hsiao, Michael; Lu, Pei-Jung

    2016-04-15

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) carries a poor survival rate mainly because of metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern NSCLC metastasis have not been described. Because huntingtin-interacting protein-1 (HIP1) is known to play a role in tumorigenesis, we tested the involvement of HIP1 in NSCLC progression and metastasis. HIP1 expression was measured in human NSCLC tumors, and correlation with survival outcome was evaluated. Furthermore, we investigated the ability of HIP1 to suppress metastasis. The molecular mechanism by which HIP1 contributes to suppress metastasis was investigated. We used tissue arrays containing samples from 121 patients with NSCLC to analyze HIP1 expression by immunohistochemistry. To investigate the role of HIP1 expression on metastasis, we evaluated cellular mobility, migration, and invasion using lung adenocarcinoma (AdCA) cells with modified HIP1 expression levels. The human disease mouse models with the same cells were applied to evaluate the HIP1 suppressing metastasis and its mechanism in vivo. HIP1 expression in AdCA progression was found to be an early-stage prognostic biomarker, with low expression correlated to poor prognosis. We also found HIP1 to be a metastatic suppressor in AdCA. HIP1 significantly repressed the mobility of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and regulated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition by repressing AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling. HIP1 serves as an early-stage prognostic biomarker and a metastatic suppressor. Reduced expression during AdCA progression can relieve HIP1 suppression of Akt-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition and thereby lead to development of late metastases and poor prognosis.

  2. Loss of prostasin (PRSS8) in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma cell lines is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Mei; Verity, Nicole J; Chai, Karl X

    2009-10-22

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored epithelial extracellular membrane serine protease prostasin (PRSS8) is expressed abundantly in normal epithelia and essential for terminal epithelial differentiation, but down-regulated in human prostate, breast, and gastric cancers and invasive cancer cell lines. Prostasin is involved in the extracellular proteolytic modulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and is an invasion suppressor. The aim of this study was to evaluate prostasin expression states in the transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the human bladder and in human TCC cell lines. Normal human bladder tissues and TCC on a bladder cancer tissue microarray (TMA) were evaluated for prostasin expression by means of immunohistochemistry. A panel of 16 urothelial and TCC cell lines were evaluated for prostasin and E-cadherin expression by western blot and quantitative PCR, and for prostasin gene promoter region CpG methylation by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). Prostasin is expressed in the normal human urothelium and in a normal human urothelial cell line, but is significantly down-regulated in high-grade TCC and lost in 9 (of 15) TCC cell lines. Loss of prostasin expression in the TCC cell lines correlated with loss of or reduced E-cadherin expression, loss of epithelial morphology, and promoter DNA hypermethylation. Prostasin expression could be reactivated by demethylation or inhibition of histone deacetylase. Re-expression of prostasin or a serine protease-inactive variant resulted in transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin. Loss of prostasin expression in bladder transitional cell carcinomas is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and may have functional implications in tumor invasion and resistance to chemotherapy.

  3. Combination Treatment with Apricoxib and IL-27 Enhances Inhibition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Lung Cancer Cells through a STAT1 Dominant Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Heon; Kachroo, Puja; Pagano, Paul C; Yanagawa, Jane; Wang, Gerald; Walser, Tonya C; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Sharma, Sherven; John, Maie St.; Dubinett, Steven M; Lee, Jay M

    2015-01-01

    Background The cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) pathway has been implicated in the molecular pathogenesis of many malignancies, including lung cancer. Apricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, has been described to inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human malignancies. The mechanism by which apricoxib may alter the tumor microenvironment by affecting EMT through other important signaling pathways is poorly defined. IL-27 has been shown to have anti-tumor activity and our recent study showed that IL-27 inhibited EMT through a STAT1 dominant pathway. Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of apricoxib combined with IL-27 in inhibiting lung carcinogenesis by modulation of EMT through STAT signaling. Methods and Results Western blot analysis revealed that IL-27 stimulation of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines results in STAT1 and STAT3 activation, decreased Snail protein and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and a concomitant increase in expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, β-and γ-catenins), and inhibition of cell migration. The combination of apricoxib and IL-27 resulted in augmentation of STAT1 activation. However, IL-27 mediated STAT3 activation was decreased by the addition of apricoxib. STAT1 siRNA was used to determine the involvement of STAT1 pathway in the enhanced inhibition of EMT and cell migration by the combined IL-27 and apricoxib treatment. Pretreatment of cells with STAT1 siRNA inhibited the effect of combined IL-27 and apricoxib in the activation of STAT1 and STAT3. In addition, the augmented expression of epithelial markers, decreased expression mesenchymal markers, and inhibited cell migration by the combination treatment were also inhibited by STAT1 siRNA, suggesting that the STAT1 pathway is important in the enhanced effect from the combination treatment. Conclusion Combined apricoxib and IL-27 has an enhanced effect in inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell

  4. Y Box-Binding Protein 1 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Invasion, and Metastasis of Cervical Cancer via Enhancing the Expressions of Snail.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tianyun; Li, Min; Zhang, Ye; Yong, Weiwei; Kang, Haixian; Yao, Yunhong; Hu, Xinrong

    2017-10-01

    Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) is a potent oncogenic protein. How it regulates Snail in most tumors including cervical cancer is unknown. This article is to study if YB-1 plays a role in cervical cancer via regulating the expression of Snail. Immunohistochemical staining of YB-1, Snail, and E-cadherin (E-cad) was performed on tissue specimens including 35 cases of chronic cervicitis (as a control), 35 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) I, 35 cases of CIN II/III, 28 cases of unmetastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma, and 19 cases of metastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma. RNA interference technique was used to knock down YB-1, E6, and Snail genes. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and transwell experiment were used to detect RNA, protein, and cell invasion of cervical cancer cell lines Hela and C33A, respectively. First, YB-1 knockdown significantly reduced messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of Snail, followed by the increased mRNA and protein levels of E-cad and the decreased invasive ability in both Hela (human papillomavirus [HPV] 18+) and C33A (HPV-) cell lines. Second, YB-1 and Snail protein were correlatively expressed in the group order of metastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma > unmetastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma > CINs > cervicitis, with the inverse expression mode of E-cad in the group order, P value less than 0.01, between any 2 groups. Finally, HPV18 E6 knockdown reduced the mRNA and protein levels of YB-1 and Snail in Hela cells. The results firstly reported that YB-1 whose mRNA expression is regulated by HPV18 E6 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and progression of cervical cancer via enhancing the expressions of Snail, which indicated that YB-1/Snail/epithelial-mesenchymal transition axis could have a potential use in the diagnosis and therapy of cervical cancer metastasis as a cancer marker and molecular target.

  5. MDA-9/Syntenin (SDCBP) modulates small GTPases RhoA and Cdc42 via transforming growth factor β1 to enhance epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Mitchell E; Shen, Xue-Ning; Das, Swadesh K; Emdad, Luni; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B

    2016-12-06

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the decisive steps regulating cancer invasion and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this transition require further clarification. MDA-9/syntenin (SDCBP) expression is elevated in breast cancer patient samples as well as cultured breast cancer cells. Silencing expression of MDA-9 in mesenchymal metastatic breast cancer cells triggered a change in cell morphology in both 2D- and 3D-cultures to a more epithelial-like phenotype, along with changes in EMT markers, cytoskeletal rearrangement and decreased invasion. Conversely, over expressing MDA-9 in epithelial non-metastatic breast cancer cells instigated a change in morphology to a more mesenchymal phenotype with corresponding changes in EMT markers, cytoskeletal rearrangement and an increase in invasion. We also found that MDA-9 upregulated active levels of known modulators of EMT, the small GTPases RhoA and Cdc42, via TGFβ1. Reintroducing TGFβ1 in MDA-9 silenced cells restored active RhoA and cdc42 levels, modulated cytoskeletal rearrangement and increased invasion. We further determined that MDA-9 interacts with TGFβ1 via its PDZ1 domain. Finally, in vivo studies demonstrated that silencing the expression of MDA-9 resulted in decreased lung metastasis and TGFβ1 re-expression partially restored lung metastases. Our findings provide evidence for the relevance of MDA-9 in mediating EMT in breast cancer and support the potential of MDA-9 as a therapeutic target against metastatic disease.

  6. Curcumin inhibits tumor epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the Wnt signaling pathway and upregulating NKD2 expression in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZEWEI; CHEN, HAITAO; XU, CHAO; SONG, LU; HUANG, LULU; LAI, YUEBIAO; WANG, YUQI; CHEN, HANLU; GU, DANLIN; REN, LILI; YAO, QINGHUA

    2016-01-01

    Tumor invasion and metastasis are closely associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT refers to epithelial cells under physiological and pathological conditions that are specific to mesenchymal transition. Curcumin inhibits EMT progression via Wnt signaling. The Wnt signaling pathway is a conservative EMT-related signaling pathway that is involved in the development of various tumors. In the present study, MTS assays were employed to analyze the proliferation of curcumin-treated cells. Naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2), chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and antibodies associated with EMT were examined in SW620 colorectal cancer cell lines using western blot analysis and real-time qPCR. NKD2 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) and CXCR4 expression plasmid was synthesized and transfected into the colorectal cancer cell lines, and NKD2 and CXCR4 expression levels were detected. The results showed that curcumin significantly inhibited the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and upregulated the expression of NKD2 in SW620 colorectal cancer cells and in the xenograft, resulting in the downregulation of key markers in the Wnt signaling. In addition, the progression of ETM was inhibited due to the overexpression of E-cadherin as well as the downregulation of vimentin. Curcumin also inhibited tumor metastasis by downregulating the expression of CXCR4 significantly. The results suggested involvement of the NKD2-Wnt-CXCR4 signaling pathway in colorectal cancer cells. In addition, curcumin is inhibit this signaling and the development of colorectal cancer. PMID:26985708

  7. Silencing of Prrx2 Inhibits the Invasion and Metastasis of Breast Cancer both In Vitro and In Vivo by Reversing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhi-Dong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Jin, Li-Ying; Shen, Ruo-Wu; Wang, Xin-Gang; Kong, Bin; Qu, Hui-Li; Li, Fu-Nian; Yang, Qi-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized as a crucial mechanism in breast cancer progression and metastasis. Paired-related homeobox 2 (Prrx2) has been identified as a new EMT inducer in cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The expression of Prrx2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tissues to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of Prrx2, as well as the correlation between Prrx2 and EMT. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of Prrx2 was used to examine cellular effects of Prrx2, detecte the expression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and EMT-associated proteins, and observe cell proliferation, invasion and migration abilities in vitro and in vivo. Clinical association studies showed that Prrx2 expression was related to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, tumor node metastasis stages, EMT and poor survival. Results also showed that knockdown of Prrx2 could alter cell morphology, suppressed the abilities of cell proliferation, invasion and migration in breast cancer. Moreover, silencing of Prrx2 induced the mesenchymal-epithelial transition and prevented nuclear translocation of β-catenin, inhibited wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Our study indicated that Prrx2 may be an important activator of EMT in human breast cancer and it can serve as a molecular target of therapeutic interventions for breast cancer. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Oncogenic HRAS activates epithelial-mesenchyme transition and confers stemness to p53-deficient urothelial cells to drive muscle invasion of basal subtype carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    He, Feng; Melamed, Jonathan; Tang, Moon-shong; Huang, Chuanshu; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-01-01

    Muscle-invasive urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (MIUCB) exhibit frequent receptor tyrosine kinase alterations but the precise nature of their contributions to tumor pathophysiology is unclear. Using mutant HRAS (HRAS*) as an oncogenic prototype, we obtained evidence in transgenic mice that RTK/RAS pathway activation in urothelial cells causes hyperplasia that neither progresses to frank carcinoma nor regresses to normal urothelium through a period of one year. This persistent hyperplastic state appeared to result from an equilibrium between pro-mitogenic factors and compensatory tumor barriers in the p19-MDM2-p53-p21 axis and a prolonged G2 arrest. Conditional inactivation of p53 in urothelial cells of transgenic mice expressing HRAS* resulted in carcinoma-in-situ and basal-subtype MIUCB with focal squamous differentiation resembling the human counterpart. The transcriptome of microdissected MIUCB was enriched in genes that drive epithelial-mesenchyme transition, the upregulation of which is associated with urothelial cells expressing multiple progenitor/stem cell markers. Taken together, our results provide evidence for RTK/RAS pathway activation and p53 deficiency as a combinatorial theranostic biomarker which may inform the progression and treatment of urothelial carcinoma. PMID:25795707

  9. Dehydroeffusol inhibits viability and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the Hedgehog and Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    He, Kang; Duan, Guoqing; Li, Yanyang

    2018-06-15

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most predominant extracranial solid tumor of infancy in the world. However, current chemotherapy has limited efficacy for more advanced stages of NB due to acquired chemoresistance or acute toxicity in NB patients. Therefore, effective novel anti-NB drugs are desperately needed. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of dehydroeffusol (DHE), a phenanthrene isolated from J. effuses, on NB cells and its underlying mechanism. The results showed that DHE treatment effectively inhibited NB cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DHE treatment suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in NB cells by promoting the expression of E-cadherin (E-cad) and restraining the expressions of N-cadherin (N-cad) and vimentin. Also, the invasive capacity and expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in NB cells were inhibited by DHE. Furthermore, DHE suppressed the hedgehog (Hh) and the protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways in NB cells. In conclusion, DHE effectively inhibited the viability and EMT through inactivating the Hh and the Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in NB cells, providing a novel evidence that DHE may be a potential anti-NB drug candidate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) maintains basal epithelial expression of the miR-200 family: implications for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kolesnikoff, Natasha; Attema, Joanne L; Roslan, Suraya; Bert, Andrew G; Schwarz, Quenten P; Gregory, Philip A; Goodall, Gregory J

    2014-04-18

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is required for the specification of tissues during embryonic development and is recapitulated during the metastatic progression of tumors. The miR-200 family plays a critical role in enforcing the epithelial state with their expression lost in cells undergoing EMT. EMT can be mediated by activation of the ZEB1 and ZEB2 (ZEB) transcription factors, which repress miR-200 expression via a self-reinforcing double negative feedback loop to promote the mesenchymal state. However, it remains unclear what factors drive and maintain epithelial-specific expression of miR-200 in the absence of EMT-inducing factors. Here, we show that the transcription factor Specificity Protein 1 (Sp1) binds to the miR-200b∼200a∼429 proximal promoter and activates miR-200 expression in epithelial cells. In mesenchymal cells, Sp1 expression is maintained, but its ability to activate the miR-200 promoter is perturbed by ZEB-mediated repression. Reduction of Sp1 expression caused changes in EMT-associated markers in epithelial cells. Furthermore, we observed co-expression of Sp1 and miR-200 during mouse embryonic development wherein miR-200 expression was only lost in regions with high ZEB expression. Together, these findings indicate that miR-200 family members require Sp1 to drive basal expression and to maintain an epithelial state.

  11. TGFβ1-induced down-regulation of microRNA-138 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in primary lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Tiepeng; Han, Lu; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhao; Xu, Benling; Gao, Quanli; Song, Yongping

    2018-02-19

    The existence of cancer stem cells within the tumor could lead to cancer therapy resistance. TGFβ1 is considered as one of the most powerful players in the generation of CSCs through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in different types of cancer including lung cancer, however, the detailed mechanisms by which TGFβ1 contribute to EMT induction and CSC maintenance remains unclear. Here, we showed primary lung cancer cells treated by TGFβ1 exhibit mesenchymal features, including morphology and expression of mesenchymal marker in a time-dependent manner. We also observed long-term TGFβ1 exposure leads to an enrichment of a sub-population of CD44 + CD90 + cells which represent CSCs in lung cancer cells. Moreover, the differential expression microRNAs between CSCs and non-CSCs were identified using next-generation sequencing to screen key miRNAs which might contribute to TGFβ1-induced EMT and CSCs generation. Among those differentially expressed miRNAs, the expression of microRNA-138 was time-dependently down-regulated by TGFβ1 treatment. We further demonstrated primary lung cancer cells, in which we knockdown the expression of miR-138, exhibit mesenchymal phenotypes and stem cell properties. Taken together, these findings indicate TGFβ1-induced down-regulation of microRNA-138 contributes to EMT in primary lung cancer cells, and suggest that miR-138 might serve as a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mesenchymal stem cells promote cell invasion and migration and autophagy-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dan; Hu, Shiyuan; Tang, Chunlan; Liu, Guoxiang

    2018-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited into the tumour microenvironment and promote tumour growth and metastasis. Tumour microenvironment-induced autophagy is considered to suppress primary tumour formation by impairing migration and invasion. Whether these recruited MSCs regulate tumour autophagy and whether autophagy affects tumour growth are controversial. Our data showed that MSCs promote autophagy activation, reactive oxygen species production, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as well as increased migration and invasion in A549 cells. Decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin and Snail were observed in A549 cells cocultured with MSCs. Conversely, MSC coculture-mediated autophagy positively promoted tumour EMT. Autophagy inhibition suppressed MSC coculture-mediated EMT and reduced A549 cell migration and invasion slightly. Furthermore, the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 cells were additional increased when autophagy was further enhanced by rapamycin treatment. Taken together, this work suggests that microenvironments containing MSCs can promote autophagy activation for enhancing EMT; MSCs also increase the migratory and invasive abilities of A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. Mesenchymal stem cell-containing microenvironments and MSC-induced autophagy signalling may be potential targets for blocking lung cancer cell migration and invasion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Quantitative analysis of injury-induced anterior subcapsular cataract in the mouse: a model of lens epithelial cells proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Li, Weihua; Ye, Shaobi; Wang, Wencong; Luo, Lixia; Liu, Yizhi

    2015-02-10

    The mouse lens capsular injury model has been widely used in investigating the mechanisms of anterior subcapsular cataract (ASC) and posterior capsule opacification (PCO), and evaluating the efficacy of antifibrotic compounds. Nevertheless, there is no available protocol to quantitatively assess the treatment outcomes. Our aim is to describe a new method that can successfully quantify the wound and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers expression in vivo. In this model, lens anterior capsule was punctured with a hypodermic needle, which triggered lens epithelial cells (LECs) proliferation and EMT rapidly. Immunofluorescent staining of injured lens anterior capsule whole-mounts revealed the formation of ASC and high expression of EMT markers in the subcapsular plaques. A series of sectional images of lens capsule were acquired from laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) three-dimensional (3D) scanning. Using LSCM Image Browser software, we can not only obtain high resolution stereo images to present the spatial structures of ASC, but also quantify the subcapsular plaques and EMT markers distribution successfully. Moreover, we also demonstrated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitor TSA significantly prevented injury-induced ASC using this method. Therefore, the present research provides a useful tool to study ASC and PCO biology as well as the efficacy of new therapies.

  14. miR-143 suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inhibits tumor growth of breast cancer through down-regulation of ERK5.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Limin; Ma, Chuanxiang; Li, Wentong; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Zhijun

    2016-12-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer invasion and metastasis. Many studies have significantly enhanced the knowledge on EMT through the characterization of microRNAs (miRNAs) influencing the signaling pathways and downstream events that define EMT on a molecular level. In this study, we found that miR-143 suppressed EMT. Up-regulating miR-143 enhanced E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion ability, reduced mesenchymal markers, and decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. In vivo, the xenograft mouse model also unveiled the suppressive effects of miR-143 on tumor growth. Additionally, we demonstrated that up-regulating extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Moreover, we observed an inverse correlation between miR-143 and ERK5 in breast cancer tissues. miR-143 directly targeted seed sequences in the 3'-untranslated regions of ERK5. Furthermore, we revealed that the downstream molecules of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β)/Snail signaling were involved in EMT and modulated by ERK5. In summary, our findings demonstrated that miR-143 down-regulated its target ERK5, leading to the suppression of EMT induced by GSK-3β/Snail signaling of breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. DcR3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activation of the TGF-β3/SMAD signaling pathway in CRC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhu, Hui-Fang; Liu, Ding-Li; Hu, Zhi-Yan; Li, Sheng-Nan; Kan, He-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zu-Guo

    2016-11-22

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, was recently reported to be associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the role of DcR3 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that DcR3 expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer tissues than in paired normal tissues, and that DcR3 expression was strongly correlated with tumor invasion, lymph node metastases and poor prognoses. Moreover, DcR3 overexpression significantly enhanced CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Conversely, DcR3 knockdown significantly repressed CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and DcR3 deficiency also attenuated CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Functionally, DcR3 was essential for TGF-β3/SMAD-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. Importantly, cooperation between DcR3 and TGF-β3/SMAD-EMT signaling-related protein expression was correlated with survival and survival time in CRC patients. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that DcR3 may be a prognostic biomarker for CRC and that this receptor facilitates CRC development and metastasis by participating in TGF-β3/SMAD-mediated EMT of CRC cells.

  16. DcR3 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activation of the TGF-β3/SMAD signaling pathway in CRC

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-Yan; Li, Sheng-Nan; Kan, He-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Zu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a novel member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, was recently reported to be associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis. However, the role of DcR3 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that DcR3 expression was significantly higher in human colorectal cancer tissues than in paired normal tissues, and that DcR3 expression was strongly correlated with tumor invasion, lymph node metastases and poor prognoses. Moreover, DcR3 overexpression significantly enhanced CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Conversely, DcR3 knockdown significantly repressed CRC cell proliferation and migration in vitro, and DcR3 deficiency also attenuated CRC tumorigenesis and metastasis in vivo. Functionally, DcR3 was essential for TGF-β3/SMAD-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells. Importantly, cooperation between DcR3 and TGF-β3/SMAD-EMT signaling-related protein expression was correlated with survival and survival time in CRC patients. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that DcR3 may be a prognostic biomarker for CRC and that this receptor facilitates CRC development and metastasis by participating in TGF-β3/SMAD-mediated EMT of CRC cells. PMID:27764793

  17. Estrogen-related receptor α participates transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of osteosarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yantao; Zhang, Kunshui; Li, Yang; He, Qing

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Osteosarcoma patients often exhibit pulmonary metastasis, which results in high patient mortality. Understanding the mechanisms of advanced metastasis in osteosarcoma cell is important for the targeted treatment and drug development. Our present study revealed that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) treatment can significantly promote the in vitro migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma MG-63 and HOS cells. The loss of epithelial characteristics E-cadherin (E-Cad) and up regulation of mesenchymal markers Vimentin (Vim) suggested TGF-β induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells. TGF-β treatment obviously increased the expression of Snail, a key EMT-related transcription factor, in both MG-63 and HOS cells. Silencing of Snail markedly attenuated TGF-β induced down regulation of E-cad and up regulation of Vim. TGF-β treatment also significantly increased the expression and nuclear translocation of estrogen-related receptors α (ERRα), while had no obvious effect on the expression of ERα, ERβ, or ERRγ. Knock down of ERRα or its inhibitor XCT-790 significantly attenuated TFG-β induced EMT and transcription of Snail in osteosarcoma cells. Collectively, our present study revealed that TGF-β treatment can trigger the EMT of osteosarcoma cells via ERRα/Snail pathways. Our data suggested that ERRα/Snail pathways might be potential therapeutic targets of metastasis of osteosarcoma cells. PMID:27532429

  18. Suppression of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, KRS, causes incomplete epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ineffective cell‑extracellular matrix adhesion for migration.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seo Hee; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Hye-Jin; Kim, Doyeun; Kim, Dae Gyu; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, Jung Weon

    2016-04-01

    The cell-adhesion properties of cancer cells can be targeted to block cancer metastasis. Although cytosolic lysyl-tRNA synthetase (KRS) functions in protein synthesis, KRS on the plasma membrane is involved in cancer metastasis. We hypothesized that KRS is involved in cell adhesion-related signal transduction for cellular migration. To test this hypothesis, colon cancer cells with modulated KRS protein levels were analyzed for cell-cell contact and cell-substrate adhesion properties and cellular behavior. Although KRS suppression decreased expression of cell-cell adhesion molecules, cells still formed colonies without being scattered, supporting an incomplete epithelial mesenchymal transition. Noteworthy, KRS-suppressed cells still exhibited focal adhesions on laminin, with Tyr397-phopshorylated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), but they lacked laminin-adhesion-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and paxillin activation. KRS, p67LR and integrin α6β1 were found to interact, presumably to activate ERK for paxillin expression and Tyr118 phosphorylation even without involvement of FAK, so that specific inhibition of ERK or KRS in parental HCT116 cells blocked cell-cell adhesion and cell-substrate properties for focal adhesion formation and signaling activity. Together, these results indicate that KRS can promote cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion for migration.

  19. Inhibition of Bevacizumab-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by BATF2 Overexpression Involves the Suppression of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenqiu; Zhang, Chenguang; Cui, Mengtian; Niu, Jing; Ding, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Bevacizumab (BV) has been used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. However, it also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in glioblastoma cells, which compromises its efficacy. BATF2 (basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 2), a multi-target transcriptional repressor, has been found to suppress cancer development partly through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin singling. The roles of BATF2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in BV-induced EMT in glioblastoma cells were investigated in this study. BV was used to treat U87MG cells, and TOP/FOP FLASH luciferase reporters were employed to determine the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. EMT markers were detected with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting. Immunofluorescence (IF) was used to determine the compartmentation of β-catenin. Wound-healing, TransWell and ECIS assays were used to analyze cell adhesion, invasion and migration. BV induced EMT phenotype in U87MG cells, and BATF2 overexpression significantly inhibited BV-induced EMT with suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Our findings expanded the understanding of the role of BATF2 in tumors, and also suggested a potential of using BATF2 as a therapeutic target to hinder bevacizumab induced EMT in glioblastoma. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical Chaperone of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by TGF-β1 in Airway Epithelium via the c-Src Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heung-Man; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ae

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process that allows epithelial cells to assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype. EMT is considered as a therapeutic target for several persistent inflammatory airway diseases related to tissue remodeling. Herein, we investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Src in TGF-β1-induced EMT. A549 cells, primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs), and inferior nasal turbinate organ cultures were exposed to 4-phenylbutylic acid (4PBA) or PP2 and then stimulated with TGF-β1. We found that E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, and α-SMA expression was increased in nasal polyps compared to inferior turbinates. TGF-β1 increased the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin, and α-SMA and ER stress markers (XBP-1s and GRP78), an effect that was blocked by PBA or PP2 treatment. 4-PBA and PP2 also blocked the effect of TGF-β1 on migration of A549 cells and suppressed TGF-β1-induced expression of EMT markers in PNECs and organ cultures of inferior turbinate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 4PBA inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT via the c-Src pathway in A549 cells, PNECs, and inferior turbinate organ cultures. These results suggest an important role for ER stress and a diverse role for TGF-β1 in upper airway chronic inflammatory disease such as CRS. PMID:28804222

  1. Chemical Chaperone of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Induced by TGF-β1 in Airway Epithelium via the c-Src Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Man; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Shin, Jae-Min; Lee, Seoung-Ae; Park, Il-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a biological process that allows epithelial cells to assume a mesenchymal cell phenotype. EMT is considered as a therapeutic target for several persistent inflammatory airway diseases related to tissue remodeling. Herein, we investigated the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and c-Src in TGF- β 1-induced EMT. A549 cells, primary nasal epithelial cells (PNECs), and inferior nasal turbinate organ cultures were exposed to 4-phenylbutylic acid (4PBA) or PP2 and then stimulated with TGF- β 1. We found that E-cadherin, vimentin, fibronectin, and α -SMA expression was increased in nasal polyps compared to inferior turbinates. TGF- β 1 increased the expression of EMT markers such as E-cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin, and α -SMA and ER stress markers (XBP-1s and GRP78), an effect that was blocked by PBA or PP2 treatment. 4-PBA and PP2 also blocked the effect of TGF- β 1 on migration of A549 cells and suppressed TGF- β 1-induced expression of EMT markers in PNECs and organ cultures of inferior turbinate. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 4PBA inhibits TGF- β 1-induced EMT via the c-Src pathway in A549 cells, PNECs, and inferior turbinate organ cultures. These results suggest an important role for ER stress and a diverse role for TGF- β 1 in upper airway chronic inflammatory disease such as CRS.

  2. Evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer stem-like cells derived from carcinoma cell lines of the cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiaying; Liu, Xishi; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm is one possible way to understand the genesis of cancer, and cervical cancer in particular. We quantified and enriched ALDH1(+) cells within cervical cancer cell lines and subsequently characterized their phenotypical and functional properties like invasion capacity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). ALDH1 expression in spheroid-derived cells (SDC) and the parental monolayer-derived cell (MDC) line was compared by flow-cytometry. Invasion capability was evaluated by Matrigel assay and expression of EMT-related genes Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2, Vimentin and E-cadherin by real-time PCR. ALDH1 expression was significantly higher in SDC. ALDH1(+) cells showed increased colony-formation. SDC expressed lower levels of E-cadherin and elevated levels of Twist 1, Twist 2, Snail 1, Snail 2 and Vimentin compared to MDC. Cervical cancer cell lines harbor potential CSC, characterized by ALDH1 expression as well as properties like invasiveness, colony-forming ability, and EMT. CSC can be enriched by anchorage-independent culture techniques, which may be important for the investigation of their contribution to therapy resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis.

  3. The emerging co-regulatory role of long noncoding RNAs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the Warburg effect in aggressive tumors.

    PubMed

    Hua, Qian; Mi, Baoming; Huang, Gang

    2018-06-01

    Malignant tumor cells have several unique characteristics, and their ability to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a molecular gateway to invasive behavior. Rapid proliferation and increased invasiveness during EMT enhance aberrant glucose metabolism in tumor cells. Meanwhile, aerobic glycolysis provides energy, biosynthesis precursors, and an appropriate microenvironment to facilitate EMT. Reciprocal crosstalk between the processes synergistically contributes to malignant cancer behaviors, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying this interaction remain unclear. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a recently recognized class of RNAs involved in multiple physiological and pathological tumor activities. Increasing evidence indicates that lncRNAs play overlapping roles in both EMT and cancer metabolism. In this review, we describe the lncRNAs reportedly involved in the two biological processes and explore the detailed mechanisms that could help elucidate this co-regulatory network and provide a theoretical basis for clinical management of EMT-related malignant phenotypes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. AP-1-mediated chromatin looping regulates ZEB2 transcription: new insights into TNFα-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yichun; Shiue, Chiou-Nan; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Ting; Jonsson, Philip; Wright, Anthony P H; Zhao, Chunyan; Dahlman-Wright, Karin

    2015-04-10

    The molecular determinants of malignant cell behaviour in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are potential therapeutic targets for TNBC. In this study, we demonstrate that the inflammatory cytokine TNFα induces EMT in TNBC cells via activation of AP-1 signaling and subsequently induces expression of the EMT regulator ZEB2. We also show that TNFα activates both the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK pathways, which act upstream of AP-1. We further investigated in detail AP-1 regulation of ZEB2 expression. We show that two ZEB2 transcripts derived from distinct promoters are both expressed in breast cancer cell lines and breast tumor samples. Using the chromosome conformation capture assay, we demonstrate that AP-1, when activated by TNFα, binds to a site in promoter 1b of the ZEB2 gene where it regulates the expression of both promoter 1b and 1a, the latter via mediating long range chromatin interactions. Overall, this work provides a plausible mechanism for inflammation-induced metastatic potential in TNBC, involving a novel regulatory mechanism governing ZEB2 isoform expression.

  5. Downregulation of feline sarcoma-related protein inhibits cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the ERK/AP-1 pathway in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xudong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liang, Zhaofeng; Xie, Dongdong; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Dexin; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-02-01

    Feline sarcoma-related protein (Fer) is a nuclear and cytoplasmic non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase and Fer overexpression is associated with various biological processes. However, the clinicopathological characteristics and molecular mechanisms of Fer expression in bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) have yet to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that Fer was significantly upregulated in bladder UCC tissues and cell lines. A clinicopathological analysis suggested that Fer expression was significantly associated with tumor stage, histological grade and lymph node status, and Fer expression was a prognostic factor for overall survival in a multivariate analysis. Furthermore, small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence the expression of the Fer gene in human bladder UCC T24 cells, and was shown to significantly reduce the migration and invasion of the cells. It was also observed that Fer-siRNA caused the T24 cells to acquire an epithelial cobblestone phenotype, and was able to reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the cells. Subsequently, Fer-knockdown was shown to deactivate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/activator protein-1 signaling pathway in T24 cells. These results indicated, for the first time, that Fer has a critical role in bladder UCC progression and may be a potential therapeutic target for bladder UCC metastasis.

  6. Silibinin inhibits β-catenin/ZEB1 signaling and suppresses bladder cancer metastasis via dual-blocking epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaijie; Ning, Zhongyun; Zeng, Jin; Fan, Jinhai; Zhou, Jiancheng; Zhang, Tingting; Zhang, Linlin; Chen, Yule; Gao, Yang; Wang, Bin; Guo, Peng; Li, Lei; Wang, Xinyang; He, Dalin

    2013-12-01

    Muscle-invasive bladder cancer is associated with a high frequency of metastasis, and fewer therapies substantially prolong survival. Silibinin, a nontoxic natural flavonoid, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types, including bladder cancer. Our and other previous studies have demonstrated that silibinin induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation of bladder cancer cells, whether silibinin could suppress bladder cancer metastasis has not been elucidated. In the present study, we utilized a novel highly metastatic T24-L cell model, and found that silibinin treatment not only resulted in the suppression of cell migration and invasion in vitro, but also decreased bladder cancer lung metastasis and prolonged animal survival in vivo. Mechanistically, silibinin could inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylation, β-catenin nuclear translocation and transactivation, and ZEB1 gene transcription that subsequently regulated the expression of cytokeratins, vimentin and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) to reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). On the other hand, silibinin inhibited ZEB1 expression and then suppressed the properties of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which were evidenced as decreased spheroid colony formation, side population, and the expression of stem cell factor CD44. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism for silibinin targeting bladder cancer metastasis, in which inactivation of β-catenin/ZEB1 signaling by silibinin leads to dual-block of EMT and stemness. © 2013.

  7. Low molecular weight fucoidan and its fractions inhibit renal epithelial mesenchymal transition induced by TGF-β1 or FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinpeng; Li, Xiaohong; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhao, Tingting

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the renal protective effects of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) and its two fractions (F0.5 and F1.0), which were extracted from Laminaria japonica, on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in HK-2 human renal proximal tubular cells. Cell morphology and EMT markers (fibronectin and alpha-smooth muscle actin) demonstrated that cells treated with TGF-β1 or FGF-2 developed EMT to a significant extent. Treatment with LMWF or its fractions markedly attenuated the EMT and decreased expression of the EMT markers. The F1.0 fraction, the sulfated fucan fraction, was found to be the main active component of LMWF, and heparanase (HPSE) was a key factor in renal tubular epithelial trans-differentiation. The F1.0 fraction inhibited elevated HPSE and matrix metallopeptidase 9 expression, thereby attenuating the progress of EMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of DNA methyltransferase 1 by RNA interference reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in highly metastatic 95D lung cancer cells by inhibiting the Wnt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bu, Xiancong; Zhang, Xiangyan; Xu, Jinhong; Yang, Heping; Zhou, Xiangdong; Wang, Haijing; Gong, Liang

    2018-06-01

    Epigenetic modifications serve important roles in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis; however, the role of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in lung cancer progression remains unclear. In the present study, the expression of DNMT1 in the human NSCLC cell lines 95D (high invasive ability) and 95C (low invasive ability) was analyzed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that the expression of DNMT1 in 95D cells was significantly higher, compared with in 95C cells and small airway epithelial cells. To further define the role of DNMT1 in tumor migration and invasion in NSCLC cells, RNA interference was used to silence DNMT1 expression. Depletion of DNMT1 significantly inhibited 95D cell invasion and migration. In addition, treatment with DNMT1 small interfering RNA resulted in compact cell morphology and significantly increased epithelial marker E-cadherin expression whilst also decreasing the expression of certain mesenchymal markers, including vimentin and fibronectin. Suppression of DNMT1 increased cytoplasmic β-catenin levels while downregulating nuclear β-catenin and Snail, an important regulator of EMT. The results from the present study suggest that the inhibition of DNMT1 reverses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition partly via the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and therefore inhibits cell migration and invasion. These results indicate that targeting DNMT1 may inhibit tumor metastasis and that DNMT1 is a promising target for the novel treatment of lung cancer.

  9. PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of BAG3 at Ser187 site induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and enhances invasiveness in thyroid cancer FRO cells.

    PubMed

    Li, N; Du, Z-X; Zong, Z-H; Liu, B-Q; Li, C; Zhang, Q; Wang, H-Q

    2013-09-19

    Protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) is a serine (Ser)/threonine kinase, which regulates numerous cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. In the current study, Chinese hamster ovary cells were transfected with either a constitutively activated PKCδ or a dominant negative PKCδ, phosphoprotein enrichment, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry was combined to globally identified candidates of PKCδ cascade. We found that Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) was one of the targets of PKCδ cascade, and BAG3 interacted with PKCδ in vivo. In addition, we clarified that BAG3 was phosphorylate at Ser187 site in a PKCδ-dependent manner in vivo. BAG3 has been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, invasion, macroautophagy and so on. We generated wild-type (WT)-, Ser187Ala (S187A)- or Ser187Asp (S187D)-BAG3 stably expressing FRO cells, and noticed that phosphorylation state of BAG3 influenced FRO morphology. Finally, for the first time, we showed that BAG3 was implicated in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) procedure, and phosphorylation state at Ser187 site had a critical role in EMT regulation by BAG3. Collectively, the current study indicates that BAG3 is a novel substrate of PKCδ, and PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of BAG3 is implicated in EMT and invasiveness of thyroid cancer cells.

  10. Osteopontin Promotes Invasion, Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Carcinoma Cell HEC-1A Through AKT and ERK1/2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Xie, Yunpeng; Cui, Dan; Ma, Yanni; Sui, Linlin; Zhu, Chenyang; Kong, Hui; Kong, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an Extracellular Matrix (ECM) molecule and is involved in many physiologic and pathologic processes, including cell adhesion, angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. OPN is a well-known multifunctional factor involved in various aspects of cancer progression, including endometrial cancer. In this study, we examined the significance of OPN in endometrial cancer. The proliferation, migration and invasion ability of HEC-1A cells were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), Wound scratch assay and transwell. Western blots were employed to detect the expression of Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors in HEC-1A cells treated with rhOPN. rhOPN promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN influenced EMT-related factors and MMP-2 expression in HEC-1A cells. rhOPN promoted HEC-1A cells migration, invasion and EMT through protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and Extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. These results may open up a novel therapeutic strategy for endometrial cancer: namely, rhOPN have important roles in controlling growth of endometrial of cancer cells and suggest a novel target pathway for treatment of this cancer. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Feed-Forward Reciprocal Activation of PAFR and STAT3 Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Lan, Tian; Zhang, Weimin; Dong, Lijia; Kang, Nan; Zhang, Shumin; Fu, Ming; Liu, Bing; Liu, Kangtai; Zhan, Qimin

    2015-10-01

    Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR), a G-protein-coupled receptor, has been implicated in tumorigenesis, but its contributions to metastatic progression have not been investigated. Here, we show that PAFR is overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as well as in breast, colorectal, and gastric carcinomas. Expression of PAFR correlates closely with clinical stages, survival time, and distant metastasis. In human NSCLC cells, activation of the PAF/PAFR signaling axis accentuated malignant character, including by stimulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In contrast, silencing PAFR in aggressive NSCLC cells inhibited these effects. Mechanistic investigations showed that PAFR stimulated EMT by activating STAT3 via upregulation of G-protein-dependent SRC or JAK2 kinase activity. Notably, STAT3 transcriptionally elevated PAFR expression. Thus, activation of PAFR in NSCLC cells initiated a forward feedback loop responsible for mediating the aggressive malignant character of NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. Reinforcing this reciprocal activation loop, PAF/PAFR signaling also upregulated IL6 expression and thereby STAT3 activation. Overall, our results elucidated an important role for PAFR dysregulation in the pathogenicity of NSCLC and unraveled a forward feedback loop between PAFR and STAT3 that acts to drive the malignant progression of NSCLC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Glutamine inhibits CCl4 induced liver fibrosis in mice and TGF-β1 mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Nirajan; Chand, Lokendra; Han, Myung Kwan; Lee, Seung Ok; Kim, Chan Young; Jeong, Yeon Jun

    2016-07-01

    Glutamine, traditionally a non-essential amino acid, now has been considered as essential in serious illness and injury. It is a major precursor for glutathione synthesis. However, the anti-fibrotic effect of glutamine and its molecular mechanism in experimental liver fibrosis have not been explored. In the present study we aimed to examine the potential role of glutamine in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver fibrosis and TGF-β1 mediated epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and apoptosis in mouse hepatocytes. Liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 three times a week for 10 weeks. Glutamine treatment effectively attenuated liver injury and oxidative stress. Collagen content was significantly decreased in liver sections of glutamine treated mice compared to CCl4 model mice. Furthermore, glutamine decreased expression level of α-SMA and TGF-β in liver tissue. Our in vitro study showed that TGF-β1 treatment in hepatocytes resulted in loss of E-cadherin and increased expression of mesenchymal markers and EMT related transcription factor. In addition, TGF-β1 increased the expression of apoptotic markers. However, glutamine interestingly suppressed TGF-β1 mediated EMT and apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that glutamine ameliorates CCl4 induced liver fibrosis and suppresses TGF-β1 induced EMT progression and apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevation of adenylate energy charge by angiopoietin-like 4 enhances epithelial-mesenchymal transition by inducing 14-3-3γ expression.

    PubMed

    Teo, Z; Sng, M K; Chan, J S K; Lim, M M K; Li, Y; Li, L; Phua, T; Lee, J Y H; Tan, Z W; Zhu, P; Tan, N S

    2017-11-16

    Metastatic cancer cells acquire energy-intensive processes including increased invasiveness and chemoresistance. However, how the energy demand is met and the molecular drivers that coordinate an increase in cellular metabolic activity to drive epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first step of metastasis, remain unclear. Using different in vitro and in vivo EMT models with clinical patient's samples, we showed that EMT is an energy-demanding process fueled by glucose metabolism-derived adenosine triphosphate (ATP). We identified angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4) as a key player that coordinates an increase in cellular energy flux crucial for EMT via an ANGPTL4/14-3-3γ signaling axis. This augmented cellular metabolic activity enhanced metastasis. ANGPTL4 knockdown suppresses an adenylate energy charge elevation, delaying EMT. Using an in vivo dual-inducible EMT model, we found that ANGPTL4 deficiency reduces cancer metastasis to the lung and liver. Unbiased kinase inhibitor screens and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that ANGPTL4 regulates the expression of 14-3-3γ adaptor protein via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways that culminate to activation of transcription factors, CREB, cFOS and STAT3. Using a different mode of action, as compared with protein kinases, the ANGPTL4/14-3-3γ signaling axis consolidated cellular bioenergetics and stabilized critical EMT proteins to coordinate energy demand and enhanced EMT competency and metastasis, through interaction with specific phosphorylation signals on target proteins.

  14. The Six1 homeoprotein induces human mammary carcinoma cells to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in mice through increasing TGF-β signaling

    PubMed Central

    Micalizzi, Douglas S.; Christensen, Kimberly L.; Jedlicka, Paul; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Barón, Anna E.; Harrell, J. Chuck; Horwitz, Kathryn B.; Billheimer, Dean; Heichman, Karen A.; Welm, Alana L.; Schiemann, William P.; Ford, Heide L.

    2009-01-01

    Inappropriate activation of developmental pathways is a well-recognized tumor-promoting mechanism. Here we show that overexpression of the homeoprotein Six1, normally a developmentally restricted transcriptional regulator, increases TGF-β signaling in human breast cancer cells and induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that is in part dependent on its ability to increase TGF-β signaling. TGF-β signaling and EMT have been implicated in metastatic dissemination of carcinoma. Accordingly, we used spontaneous and experimental metastasis mouse models to demonstrate that Six1 overexpression promotes breast cancer metastasis. In addition, we show that, like its induction of EMT, Six1-induced experimental metastasis is dependent on its ability to activate TGF-β signaling. Importantly, in human breast cancers Six1 correlated with nuclear Smad3 and thus increased TGF-β signaling. Further, breast cancer patients whose tumors overexpressed Six1 had a shortened time to relapse and metastasis and an overall decrease in survival. Finally, we show that the effects of Six1 on tumor progression likely extend beyond breast cancer, since its overexpression correlated with adverse outcomes in numerous other cancers including brain, cervical, prostate, colon, kidney, and liver. Our findings indicate that Six1, acting through TGF-β signaling and EMT, is a powerful and global promoter of cancer metastasis. PMID:19726885

  15. Six1 expands the mouse mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cell pool and induces mammary tumors that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Erica L.; Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Jedlicka, Paul; Abbey, Nee-Shamo; Chodosh, Lewis A.; Heichman, Karen A.; Welm, Alana L.; Ford, Heide L.

    2009-01-01

    Six1 is a developmentally regulated homeoprotein with limited expression in most normal adult tissues and frequent misexpression in a variety of malignancies. Here we demonstrate, using a bitransgenic mouse model, that misexpression of human Six1 in adult mouse mammary gland epithelium induces tumors of multiple histological subtypes in a dose-dependent manner. The neoplastic lesions induced by Six1 had an in situ origin, showed diverse differentiation, and exhibited progression to aggressive malignant neoplasms, as is often observed in human carcinoma of the breast. Strikingly, the vast majority of Six1-induced tumors underwent an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and expressed multiple targets of activated Wnt signaling, including cyclin D1. Interestingly, Six1 and cyclin D1 coexpression was found to frequently occur in human breast cancers and was strongly predictive of poor prognosis. We further show that Six1 promoted a stem/progenitor cell phenotype in the mouse mammary gland and in Six1-driven mammary tumors. Our data thus provide genetic evidence for a potent oncogenic role for Six1 in mammary epithelial neoplasia, including promotion of EMT and stem cell–like features. PMID:19726883

  16. HAb18G/CD147 is involved in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and hepatocellular carcinoma invasion.

    PubMed

    Ru, Ning-Yu; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. HAb18G/CD147, a member of the immunoglobulin family, plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. HAb18G/CD147 promotes EMT of hepatocytes through TGF-β signaling and is transcriptionally regulated by Slug. We investigated the role of HAb18G/CD147 in TGF-β-induced EMT in HCC invasion. Two human HCC cell lines, SMMC-7721 and HepG2, were used to determine the role of HAb18G/CD147 in EMT. Upregulation of HAb18G/CD147 induced by the high doses of TGF-β1 in SMMC-7721 (5 ng/mL) and HepG2 cells (10 ng/mL) (P < 0.05). CD147 upregulation was coupled with upregulation of Snail1 and Slug. CD147 knockout significantly decreased the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin, and colony formation ability of SMMC-7721 cells. TGF-β1 enhanced the migration capacity of SMMC-7721 cells, which was markedly attenuated by CD147 knockdown. Thus, HAb18G/CD147 is involved in TGF-β-induced EMT and HCC invasion. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  17. Breast cancer cells obtain an osteomimetic feature via epithelial-mesenchymal transition that have undergone BMP2/RUNX2 signaling pathway induction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cong-Cong; Li, Gui-Xi; Tan, Li-Duan; Du, Xin; Li, Xiao-Qing; He, Rui; Wang, Qing-Shan; Feng, Yu-Mei

    2016-11-29

    Bone is one of the most common organs of breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cells that mimic osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins and factors have a higher likelihood of metastasizing to bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteomimicry formation of cancer cells remain undefined. Herein, we identified a set of bone-related genes (BRGs) that are ectopically co-expressed in primary breast cancer tissues and determined that osteomimetic feature is obtained due to the osteoblast-like transformation of epithelial breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that breast cancer cells that transformed into osteoblast-like cells with high expression of BRGs showed enhanced chemotaxis, adhesion, proliferation and multidrug resistance in an osteoblast-mimic bone microenvironment in vitro. During these processes, runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) functioned as a master mediator by suppressing or activating the transcription of BRGs that underlie the dynamic antagonism between the TGF-β/SMAD and BMP/SMAD signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism of osteomimicry formation that arises in primary breast tumors, which may explain the propensity of breast cancer to metastasize to the skeleton and contribute to potential strategies for predicting and targeting breast cancer bone metastasis and multidrug resistance.

  18. RhoA/Rho-kinase triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mesothelial cells and contributes to the pathogenesis of dialysis-related peritoneal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qinglian; Yang, Xiaowei; Xu, Ying; Shen, Zhenwei; Cheng, Hongxia; Cheng, Fajuan; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Rong

    2018-01-01

    Peritoneal fibrosis (PF) with associated peritoneal dysfunction is almost invariably observed in long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are pro-oxidant compounds produced in excess during the metabolism of glucose and are present in high levels in standard PD solutions. The GTPase RhoA has been implicated in PF, but its specific role remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the effects of RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling in AGEs-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs), and evaluated morphological and molecular changes in a rat model of PD-related PF. Activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase and activating protein-1 (AP-1) was assessed in HPMCs using pull-down and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, respectively, while expression of transforming growth factor-β, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, N-cadherin, and E-cadherin expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry and western blot. AGEs exposure activated Rho/Rho-kinase in HPMCs and upregulated EMT-related genes via AP-1. These changes were prevented by the Rho-kinase inhibitors fasudil and Y-27632, and by the AP-1 inhibitor curcumin. Importantly, fasudil normalized histopathological and molecular alterations and preserved peritoneal function in rats. These data support the therapeutic potential of Rho-kinase inhibitors in PD-related PF. PMID:29581852

  19. Protective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) via Nrf2 pathway against oxalate-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Khamchun, Supaporn; Kapincharanon, Chompunoot; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-07-25

    This study evaluated effect of oxalate on epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and potential anti-fibrotic property of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). MDCK renal tubular cells were incubated with 0.5 mM sodium oxalate for 24-h with/without 1-h pretreatment with 25 μM EGCG. Microscopic examination, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence staining revealed that oxalate-treated cells gained mesenchymal phenotypes by fibroblast-like morphological change and increasing expression of vimentin and fibronectin, while levels of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, occludin, cytokeratin and ZO-1) were decreased. EGCG pretreatment could prevent all these changes and molecular mechanisms underlying the prevention by EGCG were most likely due to reduced production of intracellular ROS through activation of Nrf2 signaling and increased catalase anti-oxidant enzyme. Knockdown of Nrf2 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) abrogated all the effects of EGCG, confirming that the EGCG protection against oxalate-induced EMT was mediated via Nrf2. Taken together, our data indicate that oxalate turned on EMT of renal tubular cells that could be prevented by EGCG via Nrf2 pathway. These findings also shed light onto development of novel therapeutics or preventive strategies of renal fibrosis in the future.

  20. Anterior gradient protein 2 expression in high grade head and neck squamous cell carcinoma correlated with cancer stem cell and epithelial mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Si-Rui; Wang, Wei-Ming; Huang, Cong-Fa; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anterior gradient protein 2 (AGR2) is a novel biomarker with potential oncogenic role. We sought to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic role of AGR2 on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with an emphasis on its correlation of cancer stemloid cells (CSC) and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). We found that AGR2 protein levels were higher in HNSCC than in normal oral mucosa. High levels of AGR2 were associated with the T category, pathological grade and lymph node metastasis of HNSCC. Expression of AGR2 increased in recurring HNSCC after radiotherapy and in post cisplatin-based chemotherapeutic tissues. In HNSCC cell lines, knock-down of AGR2 induced apoptosis, reduced sphere formation, and down-regulated Survivin, Cyclin D1, Bcl2, Bcl2l1, Slug, Snail, Nanog and Oct4. In addition, over-expressed AGR2 in transgenic mice with spontaneous HNSCC was associated with lost function of Tgfbr1 and/or lost function of Pten. In vitro knockdown TGFBR1 in HNSCC cell lines increased AGR2 expression. These results suggest that AGR2 is involved in EMT and self-renewal of CSC and may present a potential therapeutic target (oncotarget) for HNSCC. PMID:25871396

  1. Down-regulation of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes cell proliferation and epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiao-cai; Xiao, Cui-cui; Li, Hua

    Background: Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split protein 4 (TLE4) has been reported to be involved in some subsets of acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of TLE4 in tumorigenesis and cancer progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The expression pattern of TLE4 in HCC was determined by Western-blot and qRT-PCR, gain-of-function and loss-of-function was used to explore the biological role of TLE4 in HCC cells. A xenograft model was established to confirm its effects on proliferation. Results: The protein expression levels of TLE4 were significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues compared tomore » matched adjacent normal liver tissues. In vitro, down-regulation of TLE4 in Huh7 or SMMC-7721 promoted cell proliferation and ectopical expression of TLE4 in Hep3B or Bel-7404 suppressed cell proliferation. In addition, the cell colony formation ability was enhanced after down-regulation of TLE4 expression in Huh-7 but suppressed after over-expression in Hep3B. Furthermore, down-regulation of TLE4 increased the cell invasion ability, as well as increased the expression level of Vimentin and decreased that of E-cadherin, indicating a phenotype of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCC cells. On the contrary, ectopical expression of TLE4 in HCC cells decreased the cell invasion ability and inhibited EMT. In vivo, compared to control group, xenograft tumor volumes were significantly decreased in TLE4 overexpression group. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that TLE4 might play important regulatory roles in cellular proliferation and EMT process in HCC. - Highlights: • TLE4 is significantly down-regulated in HCC samples. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes cell proliferation. • Down regulated of TLE4 in HCC cells promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.« less

  2. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (Lgr4) is necessary for prostate cancer metastasis via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Weijia; Tan, Peng; Rodriguez, Melissa; He, Lian; Tan, Kunrong; Zeng, Li; Siwko, Stefan; Liu, Mingyao

    2017-09-15

    Prostate cancer is a highly penetrant disease among men in industrialized societies, but the factors regulating the transition from indolent to aggressive and metastatic cancer remain poorly understood. We found that men with prostate cancers expressing high levels of the G protein-coupled receptor LGR4 had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival compared with patients with cancers having low LGR4 expression. LGR4 expression was elevated in human prostate cancer cell lines with metastatic potential. We therefore generated a novel transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mouse model to investigate the role of Lgr4 in prostate cancer development and metastasis in vivo TRAMP Lgr4 -/- mice exhibited an initial delay in prostate intraepithelial neoplasia formation, but the frequency of tumor formation was equivalent between TRAMP and TRAMP Lgr4 -/- mice by 12 weeks. The loss of Lgr4 significantly improved TRAMP mouse survival and dramatically reduced the occurrence of lung metastases. LGR4 knockdown impaired the migration, invasion, and colony formation of DU145 cells and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as demonstrated by up-regulation of E-cadherin and decreased expression of the EMT transcription factors ZEB, Twist, and Snail. Overexpression of LGR4 in LNCaP cells had the opposite effects. Orthotopic injection of DU145 cells stably expressing shRNA targeting LGR4 resulted in decreased xenograft tumor size, reduced tumor EMT marker expression, and impaired metastasis, in accord with our findings in TRAMP Lgr4 -/- mice. In conclusion, we propose that Lgr4 is a key protein necessary for prostate cancer EMT and metastasis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor suppression are controlled by a reciprocal feedback loop between ZEB1 and Grainyhead-like-2

    PubMed Central

    Cieply, Benjamin; Farris, Joshua; Denvir, James; Ford, Heide; Frisch, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in carcinoma cells enhances malignant progression by promoting invasion and survival. EMT is induced by microenvironmental factors including TGF-β and Wnt agonists, and by the E-box-binding transcription factors Twist, Snail and ZEB. Grainyhead-like-2 (GRHL2), a member of the mammalian Grainyhead family of wound healing regulatory transcription factors, suppresses EMT and restores sensitivity to anoikis by repressing ZEB1 expression and inhibiting TGF-β signaling. In this study, we elucidate the functional relationship between GRHL2 and ZEB1 in EMT/MET and tumor biology. At least three homeodomain proteins, Six1, LBX1, and HoxA5, transactivated the ZEB1 promoter, in the case of Six1, through direct protein-promoter interaction. GRHL2 altered the Six1-DNA complex, inhibiting this transactivation. Correspondingly, GRHL2 expression prevented tumor initiation in xenograft assays, sensitized breast cancer cells to paclitaxel and suppressed the emergence of CD44highCD24low cells (defining the cancer stem cell phenotype in the cell type studied). GRHL2 was down-regulated in recurrent mouse tumors that had evolved to an oncogene-independent, EMT-like state, supporting a role for GRHL2 down-regulation in this phenotypic transition, modeling disease recurrence. The combination of TGF-β and Wnt activation repressed GRHL2 expression by direct interaction of ZEB1 with the GRHL2 promoter, inducing EMT. Together, our observations indicate that a reciprocal feedback loop between GRHL2 and ZEB1 controls epithelial vs. mesenchymal phenotypes and EMT-driven tumor progression. PMID:23943797

  4. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) isoform balance as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mouse mammary epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Yuka; Hagiwara, Natsumi; Radisky, Derek C.

    2014-09-10

    Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program promotes cell invasion and metastasis, and is reversed through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) after formation of distant metastases. Here, we show that an imbalance of gene products encoded by the transcriptional factor C/EBPβ, LAP (liver-enriched activating protein) and LIP (liver-enriched inhibitory protein), can regulate both EMT- and MET-like phenotypic changes in mouse mammary epithelial cells. By using tetracycline repressive LIP expression constructs, we found that SCp2 cells, a clonal epithelial line of COMMA1-D cells, expressed EMT markers, lost the ability to undergo alveolar-like morphogenesis in 3D Matrigel, and acquired properties of benign adenoma cells.more » Conversely, we found that inducible expression of LAP in SCg6 cells, a clonal fibroblastic line of COMMA1-D cells, began to express epithelial keratins with suppression of proliferation. The overexpression of the C/EBPβ gene products in these COMMA1-D derivatives was suppressed by long-term cultivation on tissue culture plastic, but gene expression was maintained in cells grown on Matrigel or exposed to proteasome inhibitors. Thus, imbalances of C/EBPβ gene products in mouse mammary epithelial cells, which are affected by contact with basement membrane, are defined as a potential regulator of metastatic potential. - Highlights: • We created a temporal imbalance of C/EBPβ gene products in the mammary model cells. • The temporal up-regulation of LIP protein induced EMT-like cell behaviors. • The temporal up-regulation of LAP protein induced MET-like cell behaviors. • Excess amount of C/EBPβ gene products were eliminated by proteasomal-degradation. • Basement membrane components attenuated proteasome-triggered protein elimination.« less

  5. Acquisition of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition phenotype of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells is linked with activation of Notch signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Azmi, Asfar Sohail; Ali, Shadan; Abbruzzese, James L.; Gallick, Gary E.; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapid advances in many fronts, pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat, in part due to de novo and acquired chemo- and radio-resistance. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with other conventional therapeutics is the standard of care for the treatment of advanced PC without any significant improvement in the overall survival of patients diagnosed with this deadly disease. Previous studies have shown that PC cells that are gemcitabine-resistant (GR) acquired epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype which is reminiscent of “cancer stem-like cells (CSC)”; however the molecular mechanism that led to EMT phenotype has not been fully investigated. The present study demonstrates that Notch-2 and its ligand Jagged-1 are highly up-regulated in GR cells, which is consistent with the role of Notch signaling pathway in the acquisition of EMT and CSC phenotype. We also found that the down-regulation of Notch signaling was associated with decreased invasive behavior of GR cells. Moreover, down-regulation of Notch signaling by siRNA approach led to partial reversal of the EMT phenotype, resulting in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), which was associated with decreased expression of vimentin, ZEB1, Slug, Snail and NF-κB. These results provide molecular evidence showing that the activation of Notch signaling is mechanistically linked with chemo-resistance phenotype (EMT phenotype) of PC cells, suggesting that the inactivation of Notch signaling by novel strategies could be a potential targeted therapeutic approach for overcoming chemo-resistance toward the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of metastatic PC. PMID:19276344

  6. Molecular profiling of tumour budding implicates TGFβ-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition as a therapeutic target in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D H; Dabelsteen, E; Specht, L; Fiehn, A M K; Therkildsen, M H; Jønson, L; Vikesaa, J; Nielsen, F C; von Buchwald, C

    2015-08-01

    Although tumour budding is an adverse prognostic factor for many cancer types, the molecular mechanisms governing this phenomenon are incompletely understood. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of tumour budding may provide new therapeutic and diagnostic options. We employ digital image analysis to demonstrate that the number of tumour buds in cytokeratin-stained sections correlates with patients having lymph node metastases at diagnosis. The tumour bud count was also a predictor of overall survival, independent of TNM stage. Tumour buds and paired central tumour areas were subsequently collected from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens, using laser capture microdissection, and examined with RNA sequencing and miRNA-qPCR arrays. Compared with cells from the central parts of the tumours, budding cells exhibited a particular gene expression signature, comprising factors involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and activated TGFβ signalling. Transcription factors ZEB1 and PRRX1 were up-regulated concomitantly with the decreased expression of mesenchymal-epithelial (MET) transcription factors (eg OVOL1) in addition to Krüppel-like factors and Grainyhead-like factors. Moreover, miR-200 family members were down-regulated in budding tumour cells. We used immunohistochemistry to validate five markers of the EMT/MET process in 199 OSCC tumours, as well as in situ hybridization in 20 OSCC samples. Given the strong relationship between tumour budding and the development of lymph node metastases and an adverse prognosis, therapeutics based on inhibiting the activation of TGFβ signalling may prove useful in the treatment of OSCC. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sodium Phenylbutyrate Inhibits Tumor Growth and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Sun, Laiyu; Zhou, Guoqing; Ge, Haixia; Meng, Yue; Li, Jingfen; Li, Xiao; Fang, Xinqiang

    2018-05-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate (SPB) as a salt of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) has been reported to be an ammonia scavenger, histone deacetylase inhibitor, and an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor in various diseases, including neurological diseases, inflammatory disorders, and carcinogenesis. Although phenylbutyrate showed effective antitumor properties in many cancers, its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains further characterized. Thus, the OSCC cell lines CAL27, HSC3, and SCC4 were treated with a series of doses of SPB for different times. The IC 50 of three cell lines for SPB was determined to be 4.0, 3.7, and 3.0 mM. The CCK-8 assay indicated that the treatment of SPB induced continuous inhibition of cell vitality of three cell lines. Apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst assay that showed that SPB could significantly promote cell apoptosis. Moreover, the apoptosis-related pathway was analyzed, and the results showed that the expression of antiapoptosis factor BCL-2 was downregulated by SPB but the cleavage of caspase-3 was increased. Meanwhile, it was found that SPB also impaired the migration and invasion of OSCC cells in vitro. Mechanistically, the transforming growth factor-β (TGFB) related epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was inhibited by SPB with decreased mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and increased epithelial marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of SPB in vivo was also demonstrated. The administration of SPB induced remarkably tumor regression with decreased tumor volume, and the TGFB level and EMT phenotype in vivo were also inhibited. These data demonstrated that the treatment of SPB could function as antitumor therapeutics for OSCC.

  8. TNF-α-inducing protein of Helicobacter pylori induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer cells through activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Guodong; Tang, Na; Wang, Chao

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-inducing protein (Tipα) is a newly identified carcinogenic factor secreted by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Although it has been proved that Tipα is a strong inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial process of migration, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Current evidence indicates that the oncogenic transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is inappropriately activated in multiple malignancies, including gastric cancer. In this study, we showed that Tipα significantly down-regulated the expression of EMT-related markers E-cadherin as well as up-regulated N-cadherin and vimentin in SGC7901 cells, with typical morphological changes of EMT. Tipα alsomore » promoted proliferation and migration of SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, Tipα activated interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling pathway in SGC7901 cells. The effects of Tipα treatment observed was abolished when we block IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Altogether, our data demonstrated that Tipα may accelerate tumor aggressiveness in gastric cancer by promoting EMT through activation of IL-6/STAT3 pathway. - Highlights: • Tipα induces EMT and activates IL-6/STAT3 pathway in gastric cancer cells. • IL-6/STAT3 pathway inhibition reverses Tipα-induced proliferation and migration in gastric cancer cells. • Tipα induces EMT in gastric cancer cells via IL-6/STAT3 pathway activation.« less

  9. MicroRNA-302c represses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by targeting transcription factor AP-4 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqi; Liu, Bailing; Li, Jie; Jiang, Jue; Zhou, Ru; Huang, Lili; Li, Xiaopeng; He, Xin; Zhou, Qi

    2018-06-12

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to tumorigenesis and progression via acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in human cancer. Aberrant expression of miR-302c has been reported in various types of cancer except colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, our study was aimed to verify the expression of miR-302c and its functional role in CRC. We found a significant reduced expression of miR-302c in CRC tissues compared to tumor-adjacent tissues. Low miR-302c level was remarkably correlated with deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage. Importantly, low miR-302c expression was identified as an independent indicator for poor prognosis of CRC patients. Overexpression of miR-302c repressed migration and invasion capacities of SW620 and SW480 cells in vitro. Mechanistically, miR-302c inversely regulated transcription factor AP4 (TFAP4) abundance in both SW620 and SW480 cells, and it negatively correlated with TFAP4 mRNA expression in CRC samples. Herein, TFAP4, a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was recognized as a direct target gene of miR-302c in CRC. Otherwise, miR-302c overexpression increased E-cadherin expression and reduced the levels of Vimentin and SNAI1, suggesting an inhibitory effect of miR-302c on EMT of CRC cells. Notably, our findings established that the EMT and metastasis of Caco-2 cells were enhanced by miR-302c knockdown, and subsequently reversed by TFAP4 silencing. Collectively, these data indicate that miR-302c represses EMT and CRC metastasis possibly by targeting TFAP4, and it may serve as a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells, mediated by a long non-coding RNA, HOTAIR, are involved in cell malignant transformation induced by cigarette smoke extract

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yi; Luo, Fei; Xu, Yuan

    The incidence of lung diseases, including cancer, caused by cigarette smoke is increasing, but the molecular mechanisms of gene regulation induced by cigarette smoke remain unclear. This report describes a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that is induced by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and experiments utilizing lncRNAs to integrate inflammation with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. The present study shows that, induced by CSE, IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, leads to activation of STAT3, a transcription activator. A ChIP assay determined that the interaction of STAT3 with the promoter regions of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) increasedmore » levels of HOTAIR. Blocking of IL-6 with anti-IL-6 antibody, decreasing STAT3, and inhibiting STAT3 activation reduced HOTAIR expression. Moreover, for HBE cells cultured in the presence of HOTAIR siRNA for 24 h, the CSE-induced EMT, formation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), and malignant transformation were reversed. Thus, IL-6, acting on STAT3 signaling, which up-regulates HOTAIR in an autocrine manner, contributes to the EMT and to CSCs induced by CSE. These data define a link between inflammation and EMT, processes involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE. This link, mediated through lncRNAs, establishes a mechanism for CSE-induced lung carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • STAT3 directly regulates the levels of LncRNA HOTAIR. • LncRNA HOTAIR mediates the link between inflammation and EMT. • LncRNA HOTAIR is involved in the malignant transformation of cells caused by CSE.« less

  11. Withaferin A inhibits experimental epithelial-mesenchymal transition in MCF-10A cells and suppresses vimentin protein level in vivo in breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joomin; Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Marcus, Adam I; Singh, Shivendra V

    2015-06-01

    We have shown previously that withaferin A (WA), a bioactive component of the medicinal plant Withania somnifera, inhibits growth of cultured and xenografted human breast cancer cells and prevents breast cancer development and pulmonary metastasis incidence in a transgenic mouse model. The present study was undertaken to determine if the anticancer effect of WA involved inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Experimental EMT induced by exposure of MCF-10A cells to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) was partially reversed by treatment with WA but not by its structural analogs withanone or withanolide A. Combined TNF-α and TGF-β treatments conferred partial protection against MCF-10A cell migration inhibition by WA. Inhibition of TNF-α and TGF-β-induced MCF-10A cell migration by WA exposure was modestly attenuated by knockdown of E-cadherin protein. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to WA exhibited sustained (MCF-7) or transient (MDA-MB-231) induction of E-cadherin protein. On the other hand, the level of vimentin protein was increased markedly after 24 h treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with WA. WA-induced apoptosis was not affected by vimentin protein knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells. Protein level of vimentin was significantly lower in the MDA-MB-231 xenografts as well as in MMTV-neu tumors from WA-treated mice compared with controls. The major conclusions of the present study are that (a) WA treatment inhibits experimental EMT in MCF-10A cells, and (b) mammary cancer growth inhibition by WA administration is associated with suppression of vimentin protein expression in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Long non-coding RNA GHET1 promotes human breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration via affecting epithelial mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Zhang, Jia; Huang, Junhua; Hai, Tao

    2018-05-11

    Breast cancer is a common malignancy in women and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play key roles in the development and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we examined the biological role of lncRNA gastric carcinoma highly expressed transcript 1 (GHET1) in breast cancer. The expression of GHET1 was determined by qRT-PCR assay; CCK-8, colony formation, Transwell invasion and migration assays detected breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration; cell apoptosis and cell cycle were determined by flow cytometry; protein levels were determined by western blot assay. GHET1 was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and the up-regulation of GHET1 was positively correlated with larger tumor size, advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and shorter overall survival. Knockdown of GHET1 suppressed cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and induced apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF-cells. Knockdown of GHET1 also suppressed the protein levels of N-cadherin, vimentin, and decreased the protein level of E-cadherin in MCF-7 cells. On the other hand, overexpression of GHET1 promoted cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and inhibited cell apoptosis and increased cell population at S phase in BT-20 cells. Overexpression of GHET1 also promoted epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in BT-20 cells. Furthermore, knockdown of GHET1 also suppressed in vivo tumor growth of MCF-7 cells, and also decreased the protein levels of N-cadherin and vimentin, and increased the protein levels of E-cadherin in the tumor tissues from the nude mice. Our results demonstrated that GHET1 was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines, and promoted breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration by affecting EMT. Our study for the first time revealed the biological functions of GHET1 in breast cancer.

  13. MicroRNA-145 Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion and Regulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) by Targeting Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Zhang, Hua-Yong; Zhong, Bei-Long; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Hua

    2016-10-23

    BACKGROUND This study investigated the mechanism of miR-145 in targeting connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which affects the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ESCC cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 50 ESCC tissues and their corresponding normal adjacent esophageal tissue samples were collected. Then, miR-145 expression in both ESCC clinical specimens and cell lines was detected using quantitative real-time PCR. CTGF protein was detected using immunohistochemistry. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay was employed to assess the effect of miR-145 on the 3'UTR luciferase activity of CTGF. Eca109 cells were transfected with miR-145 mimics and CTGF siRNA, respectively, and changes in cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion were detected via MTT assay, wound-healing assay, and Transwell assay, respectively. Western blotting assay was used to detect the expression of marker genes related to EMT. RESULTS MiR-145 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines compared with normal tissues and cell lines (P<0.05). We found significantly more positively expressed CTGF protein in ESCC tissues was than in normal adjacent esophageal tissues (P<0.01). Dual luciferase reporter gene assay showed that miR-145 can specifically bind with the 3'UTR of CTGF and significantly inhibit the luciferase activity by 55% (P<0.01). Up-regulation of miR-145 or down-regulation of CTGF can suppress the proliferation, migration, invasion, and EMT process of ESCC cells. CONCLUSIONS MiR-145 was significantly down-regulated in ESCC tissues and cell lines, while the protein expression of CTGF exhibited the opposite trend. MiR-145 inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasiveness, and the EMT process of ESCC cells through targeted regulation of CTGF expression.

  14. Overexpression of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Oncoproteins Enhances Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via STAT3 Signaling Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenzhang; Wu, Xin; Hu, Liang; Ma, Yuefan; Xiu, Zihan; Huang, Bingyu; Feng, Yun; Tang, Xudong

    2017-05-24

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of HPV-16 oncoproteins in the development and progression of NSCLC is not completely clear. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial step for invasion and metastasis, plays a key role in the development and progression of NSCLC. Here we explored the effect of HPV-16 oncoproteins on EMT and the underlying mechanisms. NSCLC cell lines, A549 and NCI-H460, were transiently transfected with the EGFP-N1-HPV-16 E6 or E7 plasmid. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to analyze the expression of EMT markers. A protein microarray was used to screen the involved signaling pathway. Our results showed that overexpression of HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in NSCLC cells significantly promoted EMT-like morphologic changes, downregulated the mRNA and protein levels of EMT epithelial markers (E-cadherin and ZO-1), and upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of EMT mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin) and transcription factors (ZEB-1 and Snail-1). Furthermore, the HPV-16 E6 oncoprotein promoted STAT3 activation. Moreover, WP1066, a specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibitor, reversed the effect of HPV-16 E6 on the expression of ZO-1, vimentin, and ZEB-1 in transfected NSCLC cells. Taken together, our results suggest that overexpression of HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins enhances EMT, and the STAT3 signaling pathway may be involved in HPV-16 E6-induced EMT in NSCLC cells.

  15. Clinically relevant morphological structures in breast cancer represent transcriptionally distinct tumor cell populations with varied degrees of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44+CD24- stemness

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Evgeny V.; Skryabin, Nikolay A.; Gerashchenko, Tatiana S.; Tashireva, Lubov A.; Wilhelm, Jochen; Buldakov, Mikhail A.; Sleptcov, Aleksei A.; Lebedev, Igor N.; Vtorushin, Sergey V.; Zavyalova, Marina V.; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V.; Perelmuter, Vladimir M.

    2017-01-01

    Intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer is represented by different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) and contributes to poor prognosis; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we performed 3D imaging, laser microdissection-assisted array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray analysis of different morphological structures and examined their association with the standard immunohistochemistry scorings and CD44+CD24- cancer stem cells. We found that the intratumor morphological heterogeneity is not associated with chromosomal aberrations. By contrast, morphological structures were characterized by specific gene expression profiles and signaling pathways and significantly differed in progesterone receptor and Ki-67 expression. Most importantly, we observed significant differences between structures in the number of expressed genes of the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes and the association with cancer invasion pathways. Tubular (tube-shaped) and alveolar (spheroid-shaped) structures were transcriptionally similar and demonstrated co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Solid (large shapeless) structures retained epithelial features but demonstrated an increase in mesenchymal traits and collective cell migration hallmarks. Mesenchymal genes and cancer invasion pathways, as well as Ki-67 expression, were enriched in trabecular (one/two rows of tumor cells) and discrete groups (single cells and/or arrangements of 2-5 cells). Surprisingly, the number of CD44+CD24- cells was found to be the lowest in discrete groups and the highest in alveolar and solid structures. Overall, our findings indicate the association of intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44+CD24- stemness and the appeal of this heterogeneity as a model for the study of cancer invasion. PMID:28977854

  16. MiR-424-5p reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition of anchorage-independent HCC cells by directly targeting ICAT and suppressed HCC progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Tao; Guo, Pengbo; Kang, Jia; Wei, Qing; Jia, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Wei; Huai, Wanwan; Qiu, Yumin; Sun, Lei; Han, Lihui

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to anoikis and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are two processes critically involved in cancer metastasis. In this study, we demonstrated that after anchorage deprival, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells not only resisted anoikis, but also exhibited EMT process. Microarray expression profiling revealed that expression of miR-424-5p was significantly decreased in anoikis-resistant HCC cells. Ectopic overexpression of miR-424-5p was sufficient to reverse resistance to anoikis, block EMT process and inhibit malignant behaviors of HCC cells. Target analysis showed that a potent β-catenin inhibitor, ICAT/CTNNBIP1 was a direct target of miR-424-5p. Further study demonstrated that miR-424-5p reversed resistance to anoikis and EMT of HCCs by directly targeting ICAT and further maintaining the E-cadherin/β-catanin complex on the cellular membrance. In vivo study further demonstrated that miR-424-5p significantly inhibited the tumorigenicity of HCC cells in nude mice. Clinical investigation demonstrated that miR-424-5p was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared with that of the non-cancerous liver tissues, and this decreased expression of miR-424-5p was significantly correlated with higher pathological grades and more advanced TNM stages. Therefore, aberrant expression of miR-424-5p is critically involved in resistance to anoikis and EMT during the metastatic process of HCC, and its downregulation significantly contributes to liver cancer progression. PMID:25175916

  17. SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1) induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by promoting the autophagy-linked lysosomal degradation of CDH1/E-cadherin in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ma, Yan; He, Hong-Wei; Zhao, Wu-Li; Shao, Rong-Guang

    2017-05-04

    SPHK1 (sphingosine kinase 1), a regulator of sphingolipid metabolites, plays a causal role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through augmenting HCC invasion and metastasis. However, the mechanism by which SPHK1 signaling promotes invasion and metastasis in HCC remains to be clarified. Here, we reported that SPHK1 induced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by accelerating CDH1/E-cadherin lysosomal degradation and facilitating the invasion and metastasis of HepG2 cells. Initially, we found that SPHK1 promoted cell migration and invasion and induced the EMT process through decreasing the expression of CDH1, which is an epithelial marker. Furthermore, SPHK1 accelerated the lysosomal degradation of CDH1 to induce EMT, which depended on TRAF2 (TNF receptor associated factor 2)-mediated macroautophagy/autophagy activation. In addition, the inhibition of autophagy recovered CDH1 expression and reduced cell migration and invasion through delaying the degradation of CDH1 in SPHK1-overexpressing cells. Moreover, the overexpression of SPHK1 produced intracellular sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). In response to S1P stimulation, TRAF2 bound to BECN1/Beclin 1 and catalyzed the lysine 63-linked ubiquitination of BECN1 for triggering autophagy. The deletion of the RING domain of TRAF2 inhibited autophagy and the interaction of BECN1 and TRAF2. Our findings define a novel mechanism responsible for the regulation of the EMT via SPHK1-TRAF2-BECN1-CDH1 signal cascades in HCC cells. Our work indicates that the blockage of SPHK1 activity to attenuate autophagy may be a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of HCC.

  18. Studies Using an in Vitro Model Show Evidence of Involvement of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Human Embryo Implantation*

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Nishikawa-Uchida, Sayaka; Oda, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Kaoru; Yamasaki, Akiko; Yoshimura, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    Human embryo implantation is a critical multistep process consisting of embryo apposition/adhesion, followed by penetration and invasion. Through embryo penetration, the endometrial epithelial cell barrier is disrupted and remodeled by an unknown mechanism. We have previously developed an in vitro model for human embryo implantation employing the human choriocarcinoma cell line JAR and the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa. Using this model we have shown that stimulation with ovarian steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and progesterone, E2P4) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, enhances the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids to Ishikawa. In the present study we showed that the attachment and adhesion of JAR spheroids and treatment with E2P4 or SAHA individually induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Ishikawa cells. This was evident by up-regulation of N-cadherin and vimentin, a mesenchymal cell marker, and concomitant down-regulation of E-cadherin in Ishikawa cells. Stimulation with E2P4 or SAHA accelerated Ishikawa cell motility, increased JAR spheroid outgrowth, and enhanced the unique redistribution of N-cadherin, which was most prominent in proximity to the adhered spheroids. Moreover, an N-cadherin functional blocking antibody attenuated all events but not JAR spheroid adhesion. These results collectively provide evidence suggesting that E2P4- and implanting embryo-induced EMT of endometrial epithelial cells may play a pivotal role in the subsequent processes of human embryo implantation with functional control of N-cadherin. PMID:22174415

  19. Smad3 linker phosphorylation attenuates Smad3 transcriptional activity and TGF-β1/Smad3-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Bae, Eunjin; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hong, Suntaek; Liu, Fang; Ooshima, Akira

    2012-10-26

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has a distinct role in renal fibrosis associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the renal tubules and synthesis of extracellular matrix. Smad3 plays an essential role in fibrosis initiated by EMT. Phosphorylation of Smad3 in the C-terminal SSXS motif by type I TGF-β receptor kinase is essential for mediating TGF-β response. Smad3 activity is also regulated by phosphorylation in the linker region. However, the functional role of Smad3 linker phosphorylation is not well characterized. We now show that Smad3 EPSM mutant, which mutated the four phosphorylation sites in the linker region, markedly enhanced TGF-β1-induced EMT of Smad3-deficient primary renal tubular epithelial cells, whereas Smad3 3S-A mutant, which mutated the C-terminal phosphorylation sites, was unable to induce EMT in response to TGF-β1. Furthermore, immunoblotting and RT-PCR analysis showed a marked induction of fibrogenic gene expression with a significant reduction in E-cadherin in HK2 human renal epithelial cells expressing Smad3 EPSM. TGF-β1 could not induce the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin and PAI-1 or reduce the expression of E-cadherin in HK2 cells expressing Smad3 3S-A in response to TGF-β1. Our results suggest that Smad3 linker phosphorylation has a negative regulatory role on Smad3 transcriptional activity and TGF-β1/Smad3-induced renal EMT. Elucidation of mechanism regulating the Smad3 linker phosphorylation can provide a new strategy to control renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is associated with a distinct tumor microenvironment including elevation of inflammatory signals and multiple immune checkpoints in lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yanyan; Diao, Lixia; Cuentas, Edwin Roger Parra; Denning, Warren L.; Chen, Limo; Fan, Youhong; Byers, Lauren A.; Wang, Jing; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Behrens, Carmen; Rodriguez, Jaime Canales; Hwu, Patrick; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Heymach, John V.; Gibbons, Don L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Promising results in the treatment of NSCLC have been seen with agents targeting immune checkpoints, such as PD-1 or PD-L1. However, only a select group of patients respond to these interventions. The identification of biomarkers that predict clinical benefit to immune checkpoint blockade is critical to successful clinical translation of these agents. Methods We conducted an integrated analysis of three independent large datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of lung adenocarcinoma and two datasets from MD Anderson Cancer Center, Profiling of Resistance patterns and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax (named PROSPECT) and Biomarker-integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination (named BATTLE-1). Comprehensive analysis of mRNA gene expression, reverse phase protein array (RPPA), immunohistochemistry and correlation with clinical data were performed. Results Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with an inflammatory tumor microenvironment in lung adenocarcinoma, independent of tumor mutational burden. We found immune activation co-existent with elevation of multiple targetable immune checkpoint molecules, including PD-L1, PD-L2, PD-1, TIM-3, B7-H3, BTLA and CTLA-4, along with increases in tumor infiltration by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in lung adenocarcinomas that displayed an EMT phenotype. Furthermore, we identify B7-H3 as a prognostic marker for NSCLC. Conclusions The strong association between EMT status and an inflammatory tumor microenvironment with elevation of multiple targetable immune checkpoint molecules warrants further investigation of using EMT as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint blockade agents and other immunotherapies in NSCLC and possibly a broad range of other cancers. PMID:26851185

  1. Isochlorogenic Acid C Reverses Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via Down-regulation of EGFR Pathway in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Kuen; Yue, Chia-Herng; Pan, Ying-Ru; Chiu, Yung-Wei; Liu, Jer-Yuh; Lin, Kun-I; Lee, Chia-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been suggested to play an important role in survival, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and tumorigenesis of many cell types. Breast cancer patients with high EGFR expression have a poor prognosis. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the inhibitory effect of isochlorogenic acid c (ICAC) extracted from Lonicera japonica on elevated EGFR levels of the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line, MDA-MB-231. The cell viability and cell-cycle analysis were evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The migration ability and invasiveness of ICAC-treated MDA-MB-231 were examined by migration and Matrigel invasion assay. The epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-related protein expression was examined by western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ICAC led to significant morphological changes and suppressed migration and invasion capacities of highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Western blot analysis for EGFR/EMT-associated proteins suggested that ICAC attenuated the mesenchymal traits as observed by up-regulation of epithelial markers and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers as well as decreased activities of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). These results suggested that the inhibitory effects of ICAC against EGFR-induced EMT and MDA-MB-231 cell invasion were dependent on the EGFR/ phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)/extracellular regulated protein kinase ½ (ERK½)/slug signaling pathway. Therefore, the obtained results could provide us clues for the next therapeutic strategy in the treatment of TNBC. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  2. SUMO-Specific Cysteine Protease 1 Promotes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer Cells via Regulating SMAD4 deSUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Fengjun; Seth, Prem; Xu, Weidong; Jia, Qinghua; Wu, Chutse; Yang, Yuefeng; Wang, Lisheng

    2017-04-12

    In advanced prostate cancer, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific cysteine protease 1 (SENP1) is up-regulated. However, the role of SENP1 in regulating deSUMOylation of TGF-β/SMADs signaling is unknown. In this study, we developed a lentiviral vector, PLKO.1-shSENP1, to silence SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with high metastatic characteristics (PC3M). Likewise, we also created an adenovirus vector, Ad5/F11p-SENP1 to over-express SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with low metastatic potential (LNCaP). We showed that silencing of SENP1 promoted cellular apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation and migration of PC3M cells. Moreover, SENP1 silencing increased the SMAD4 expression at protein level, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated Vimentin expression, indicating the inhibition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, SMAD4 interference abolished SENP1-mediated up-regulation of E-cadherin, suggesting that SENP1 regulated E-cadherin expression via SMAD4. SENP1 over-expression in LNCaP cells reduced SMAD4 protein, and promoted EMT via decreasing E-cadherin and increasing Vimentin. Moreover, down-regulation of SMAD4 and E-cadherin were blocked, after transfection with two SUMOylation sites mutated SMAD4, suggesting that SENP1 might reduce SMAD4 levels to regulate E-cadherin expression via deSUMOylation of SMAD4. In conclusion, SENP1 deSUMOylated SMAD4 to promote EMT via up-regulating E-cadherin in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, SENP1 is a potential target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

  3. GSK-3β and vitamin D receptor are involved in β-catenin and snail signaling in high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mouse podocytes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Xia, Nannan; Yang, Lili; Zhou, Sijie; Zhang, Qian; Qiao, Yingjin; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recognized to play an important role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). To analyze the roles of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), β-catenin and Snail signaling in high glucose (HG)-induced mouse podocytes EMT. Differentiated podocytes were divided into: the normal glucose group (NG: glucose 5.6mM), the HG groups (12.5HG: 12.5mM; 25HG: 25mM; and 50HG: 50mM of glucose), and the osmotic control group (NG+M: glucose 5.6mM and mannitol 44.4mM). GSK-3β, β-catenin and Snail were assessed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. β-catenin and Snail pathways were assessed after down-regulating GSK-3β expression using an inhibitor (LiCl) or a small-interfering RNA (siRNA). HG increased GSK-3β, β-catenin and Snail expressions, and promoted EMT, as shown by decreased nephrin expression (epithelial marker), and increased α-SMA expression (mesenchymal marker). GSK-3β inhibitor and GSK-3β siRNA decreased β-catenin and Snail expressions, and reversed HG-induced EMT. Immunofluorescence showed that GSK-3β and β-catenin did not completely overlap; β-catenin was transferred to the nucleus in the 25HG group. VDR seems to be involved in HG-induced β-catenin nuclear translocation. Down-regulating GSK-3β expression decreased β-catenin and Snail expression and reversed HG-induced podocytes EMT. Thus, modulating GSK-3β might be a target to slow or prevent DN. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5) is expressed in human gastric cancers and promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Sabrina; Marchianò, Silvia; Marino, Elisabetta; Zampella, Angela; Rende, Mario; Mosci, Paolo; Distrutti, Eleonora; Donini, Annibale; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    GPBAR1 (also known as TGR5) is a bile acid activated receptor expressed in several adenocarcinomas and its activation by secondary bile acids increases intestinal cell proliferation. Here, we have examined the expression of GPBAR1 in human gastric adenocarcinomas and investigated whether its activation promotes the acquisition of a pro-metastatic phenotype. By immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis we found that expression of GPBAR1 associates with advanced gastric cancers (Stage III-IV). GPBAR1 expression in tumors correlates with the expression of N-cadherin, a markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) (r=0.52; P<0.01). Expression of GPBAR1, mRNA and protein, was detected in cancer cell lines, with MKN 45 having the higher expression. Exposure of MKN45 cells to GPBAR1 ligands, TLCA, oleanolic acid or 6-ECDCA (a dual FXR and GPBAR1 ligand) increased the expression of genes associated with EMT including KDKN2A, HRAS, IGB3, MMP10 and MMP13 and downregulated the expression of CD44 and FAT1 (P<0.01 versus control cells). GPBAR1 activation in MKN45 cells associated with EGF-R and ERK1 phosphorylation. These effects were inhibited by DFN406, a GPBAR1 antagonist, and cetuximab. GPBAR1 ligands increase MKN45 migration, adhesion to peritoneum and wound healing. Pretreating MKN45 cells with TLCA increased propensity toward peritoneal dissemination in vivo. These effects were abrogated by cetuximab. In summary, we report that GPBAR1 is expressed in advanced gastric cancers and its expression correlates with markers of EMT. GPBAR1 activation in MKN45 cells promotes EMT. These data suggest that GPBAR1 antagonist might have utility in the treatment of gastric cancers. PMID:27409173

  5. Stromal Fibroblasts from the Interface Zone of Triple Negative Breast Carcinomas Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and its Inhibition by Emodin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Hung, Chao-Ming; Lin, Ying-Chao; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2017-01-01

    “Triple negative breast cancer” (TNBC) is associated with a higher rate and earlier time of recurrence and worse prognosis after recurrence. In this study, we aimed to examine the crosstalk between fibroblasts and TNBC cells. The fibroblasts were isolated from TNBC patients’ tissue in tumor burden zones, distal normal zones and interface zones. The fibroblasts were indicated as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), normal zone fibroblasts (NFs) and interface zone fibroblasts (INFs). Our study found that INFs grew significantly faster than NFs and CAFs in vitro. The epithelial BT20 cells cultured with the conditioned medium of INFs (INFs-CM) and CAFs (CAFs-CM) showed more spindle-like shape and cell scattering than cultured with the conditioned medium of NFs (NFs-CM). These results indicated that factors secreted by INFs-CM or CAFs-CM could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in BT20 cells. Using an in vitro co-culture model, INFs or CAFs induced EMT and promoted cancer cell migration in BT20 cells. Interestingly, we found that emodin inhibited INFs-CM or CAFs-CM-induced EMT programming and phenotype in BT20 cells. Previous studies reported that CAFs and INFs-secreted TGF-β promoted human breast cancer cell proliferation, here; our results indicated that TGF-β initiated EMT in BT20 cells. Pretreatment with emodin significantly suppressed the TGF-β-induced EMT and cell migration in BT20 cells. These results suggest that emodin may be used as a novel agent for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:28060811

  6. PSC-derived Galectin-1 inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells by activating the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Dong; Zhang, Jingqiu; Yuan, Zhongxu; Zhang, Hongpeng; Chong, Yang; Huang, Yuqin; Wang, Jie; Xiong, Qingquan; Wang, Sen; Wu, Qi; Tian, Ying; Lu, Yongdie; Ge, Xiao; Shen, Wenjing; Wang, Daorong

    2017-01-01

    Galectin-1 has previously been shown to be strongly expressed in activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and promote the development and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the molecular mechanisms by which Galectin-1 promotes the malignant behavior of pancreatic cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of Galectin-1 knockdown or overexpression in PSCs co-cultured with pancreatic cancer (PANC-1) cells. Immunohistochemical analysis showed expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and MMP9 were positively associated with the expression of Galectin-1 in 66 human PDAC tissues. In addition, our in vitro studies showed PSC-derived Galectin-1 promoted the proliferation, invasion, and survival (anti-apoptotic effects) of PANC-1 cells. We also showed PSC-derived Galectin-1 induced EMT of PANC-1 cells and activated the NF-кB pathway in vitro. Our mixed (PSCs and PANC-1 cells) mouse orthotopic xenograft model indicated that overexpression of Galectin-1 in PSCs significantly promoted the proliferation, growth, invasion, and liver metastasis of the transplanted tumor. Moreover, Galectin-1 overexpression in PSCs was strongly associated with increased expression of EMT markers in both the orthotopic xenograft tumor in the pancreas and in metastatic lesions of naked mice. We conclude that PSC-derived Galectin-1 promotes the malignant behavior of PDAC by inducing EMT via activation of the NF-κB pathway. Our results suggest that targeting Galectin-1 in PSCs could represent a promising therapeutic strategy for PDAC progression and metastasis. PMID:29156810

  7. Suppression of the Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domain 7 and Inhibition of Migration and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Human Pancreatic Cancer PANC-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Liang; Dong, Feng-Lin; Yang, Jian; Li, Zhi; Zhi, Qiao-Ming; Zhao, Xin; Yang, Yong; Li, De-Chun; Shen, Xiao-Chun; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor-like domain multiple 7 (EGFL7), a secreted protein specifically expressed by endothelial cells during embryogenesis, recently was identified as a critical gene in tumor metastasis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was found to be closely related with tumor progression. Accordingly, it is important to investigate the migration and EMT change after knock-down of EGFL7 gene expression in human pancreatic cancer cells. EGFL7 expression was firstly testified in 4 pancreatic cancer cell lines by real-time polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and western blot, and the highest expression of EGFL7 was found in PANC-1 cell line. Then, PANC-1 cells transfected with small interference RNA (siRNA) of EGFL7 using plasmid vector were named si-PANC-1, while transfected with negative control plasmid vector were called NC-PANC-1. Transwell assay was used to analyze the migration of PANC-1 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting were used to detect the expression change of EGFL7 gene, EMT markers like E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin, Vimentin, Fibronectin and transcription factors like snail, slug in PANC-1, NC- PANC-1, and si-PANC-1 cells, respectively. After successful plasmid transfection, EGFL7 gene were dramatically knock-down by RNA interference in si-PANC-1 group. Meanwhile, migration ability decreased significantly, compared with PANC-1 and NC-PANC-1 group. Meanwhile, the expression of epithelial phenotype marker E-Cadherin increased and that of mesenchymal phenotype markers N-Cadherin, Vimentin, Fibronectin dramatically decreased in si-PANC-1 group, indicating a reversion of EMT. Also, transcription factors snail and slug decreased significantly after RNA interference. Current study suggested that highly-expressed EGFL7 promotes migration of PANC-1 cells and acts through transcription factors snail and slug to induce EMT, and further study is needed to confirm this issue.

  8. SUMO-Specific Cysteine Protease 1 Promotes Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition of Prostate Cancer Cells via Regulating SMAD4 deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Fengjun; Seth, Prem; Xu, Weidong; Jia, Qinghua; Wu, Chutse; Yang, Yuefeng; Wang, Lisheng

    2017-01-01

    In advanced prostate cancer, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific cysteine protease 1 (SENP1) is up-regulated. However, the role of SENP1 in regulating deSUMOylation of TGF-β/SMADs signaling is unknown. In this study, we developed a lentiviral vector, PLKO.1-shSENP1, to silence SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with high metastatic characteristics (PC3M). Likewise, we also created an adenovirus vector, Ad5/F11p-SENP1 to over-express SENP1 in prostate cancer cells with low metastatic potential (LNCaP). We showed that silencing of SENP1 promoted cellular apoptosis, and inhibited proliferation and migration of PC3M cells. Moreover, SENP1 silencing increased the SMAD4 expression at protein level, up-regulated E-cadherin and down-regulated Vimentin expression, indicating the inhibition of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Furthermore, SMAD4 interference abolished SENP1-mediated up-regulation of E-cadherin, suggesting that SENP1 regulated E-cadherin expression via SMAD4. SENP1 over-expression in LNCaP cells reduced SMAD4 protein, and promoted EMT via decreasing E-cadherin and increasing Vimentin. Moreover, down-regulation of SMAD4 and E-cadherin were blocked, after transfection with two SUMOylation sites mutated SMAD4, suggesting that SENP1 might reduce SMAD4 levels to regulate E-cadherin expression via deSUMOylation of SMAD4. In conclusion, SENP1 deSUMOylated SMAD4 to promote EMT via up-regulating E-cadherin in prostate cancer cells. Therefore, SENP1 is a potential target for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:28417919

  9. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell-Derived Interleukin-6 Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Acquisition of Epithelial Stem-Like Cell Properties in Ameloblastoma Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Zhang, Qunzhou; Shanti, Rabie M; Shi, Shihong; Chang, Ting-Han; Carrasco, Lee; Alawi, Faizan; Le, Anh D

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a biological process associated with cancer stem-like or cancer-initiating cell formation, contributes to the invasiveness, metastasis, drug resistance, and recurrence of the malignant tumors; it remains to be determined whether similar processes contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of ameloblastoma (AM), a benign but locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm. Here, we demonstrated that EMT- and stem cell-related genes were expressed in the epithelial islands of the most common histologic variant subtype, the follicular AM. Our results revealed elevated interleukin (IL)-6 signals that were differentially expressed in the stromal compartment of the follicular AM. To explore the stromal effect on tumor pathogenesis, we isolated and characterized both mesenchymal stromal cells (AM-MSCs) and epithelial cells (AM-EpiCs) from follicular AM and demonstrated that, in in vitro culture, AM-MSCs secreted a significantly higher level of IL-6 as compared to the counterpart AM-EpiCs. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that exogenous and AM-MSC-derived IL-6 induced the expression of EMT- and stem cell-related genes in AM-EpiCs, whereas such effects were significantly abrogated either by a specific inhibitor of STAT3 or ERK1/2, or by knockdown of Slug gene expression. These findings suggest that AM-MSC-derived IL-6 promotes tumor-stem like cell formation by inducing EMT process in AM-EpiCs through STAT3 and ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathways, implying a role in the etiology and progression of the benign but locally invasive neoplasm. Stem Cells 2017;35:2083-2094. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  10. Loss of miR-100 enhances migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness properties in prostate cancer cells through targeting Argonaute 2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ren, Dong; Guo, Wei; Wang, Zeyu; Huang, Shuai; Du, Hong; Song, Libing; Peng, Xinsheng

    2014-07-01

    Evidence in literature has demonstrated that some microRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in most solid tumor metastasis. Previous studies have showed that miR-100 is downregulated in human prostate cancer tissue compared to normal prostate and also significantly decreased in bone metastatic prostate cancer samples compared with primary prostate cancer. Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is the core effector protein of the miRNA-induced silencing complex and overexpression of AGO2 might enhance tumor metastasis. However, it is unknown whether and how miR-100 and AGO2 regulates metastasis of prostate cancer. Here, we report that miR-100 negatively regulated migration, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), colony formation, spheroid formation and expression of the stemness factors c-Myc, Oct4 and Klf4 in PC-3 and DU145 cells. Furthermore, miR-100 expression was negatively correlated with bone metastasis of prostate cancer patients. Notably, luciferase assay showed that AGO2 was a direct target of miR-100. Downregulation of AGO2 repressed migration, invasion, EMT and stemness of prostate cancer cells, and reversed the effects seen with miR-100 downregulation. Downregulation of AGO2 enhanced expression of miR-34a and miR-125b which can suppress migration, invasion, EMT and stemness of cancer cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that loss of miR-100 promotes the metastatic ability of prostate cancer cells at least partially by upregulating AGO2 expression through modulating migration, invasion, EMT and stemness of cancer cells, and suggest that miR-100/AGO2 may play an important role in regulating the metastasis of prostate cancer and is a potential target of prevention and therapy.

  11. Downregulation of tight junction-associated MARVEL protein marvelD3 during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Takashi; Takasawa, Akira; Kyuno, Daisuke; Ito, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Koichi; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Sawada, Norimasa

    2011-10-01

    The novel tight junction protein marvelD3 contains a conserved MARVEL (MAL and related proteins for vesicle trafficking and membrane link) domain like occludin and tricellulin. However, little is yet known about the detailed role and regulation of marvelD3 in normal epithelial cells and cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we investigated marvelD3 expression in well and poorly differentiated human pancreatic cancer cell lines and normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells in which the hTERT gene was introduced into human pancreatic duct epithelial cells in primary culture, and the changes of marvelD3 during Snail-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) under hypoxia, TGF-β treatment and knockdown of FOXA2 in well differentiated pancreatic cancer HPAC cells. MarvelD3 was transcriptionally downregulated in poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cells and during Snail-induced EMT of pancreatic cancer cells in which Snail was highly expressed and the fence function downregulated, whereas it was maintained in well differentiated human pancreatic cancer cells and normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Depletion of marvelD3 by siRNAs in HPAC cells resulted in downregulation of barrier functions indicated as a decrease in transepithelial electric resistance and an increase of permeability to fluorescent dextran tracers, whereas it did not affect fence function of tight junctions. In conclusion, marvelD3 is transcriptionally downregulated in Snail-induced EMT during the progression for the pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. miR-25-3p reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition via targeting Sema4C in cisplatin-resistance cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jing; Li, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has recently been proposed as an important contributor of drug resistance in cervical cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. MicroRNAs play a crucial role in regulating EMT. The aim of this study was to explore the potential role of miR-25-3p in regulating EMT in cisplatin-resistant (CR) cervical cancer cells. To this end, we established stable CR cervical cancer cells, HeLa-CR and CaSki-CR, and investigated the function of miR-25-3p in regulating EMT. It is found that CR cervical cancer cells possessed more EMT characteristics and demonstrated higher migratory abilities and invasiveness. miR-25-3p downregulation was also seen in HeLa-CR and CaSki-CR cells. Of note, ectopic expression of miR-25-3p reversed the EMT phenotype and sensitized CR cells to cisplatin via targeting Sema4C. Furthermore, stable overexpression of miR-25-3p in HeLa-CR cells suppressed tumor growth in mice, downregulated Sema4C and Snail, and upregulated E-cadherin compared with the control group. These results suggest that miR-25-3p is an important regulator of cervical cancer EMT and chemoresistance. Thus, upregulation of miR-25-3p could be a novel approach to treat cervical cancers that are resistant to chemotherapy. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Substrate stiffness affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer cells through miR-106b and its target protein DAB2.

    PubMed

    Piao, Jinlan; You, Ke; Guo, Yanli; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian; Geng, Li

    2017-06-01

    The effects of different substrate stiffness were investigated on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cervical cancer cell lines and the role of miR-106b and its target protein DAB2 therein. Cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa were cultured on artificial substrates with different stiffness prepared using different ratios of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide. Changes of microRNA profiles were detected using microRNA chip analysis, and the expression levels of EMT-related markers E-cadherin and vimentin were detected using western blotting and real-time PCR. In addition, the effects of miR-106b overexpression as well as miR-106b and DAB2 knockdown on expression of E-cadherin and vimentin were also examined using western blotting and real-time PCR. The results showed that i) cervical cancer cell lines SiHa and HeLa cultured on substrate with stiffness of 20 kPa had the strongest EMT ability, showed the highest levels of vimentin and lowest levels of E-cadherin, compared with cells cultured on substrate with stiffness of 1 kPa; ii) miR-106b knockdown reversed the effects of substrate stiffness on EMT of cervical cancer cells, while miR-106 overexpression and DAB2 knockdown induced EMT of cervical cancer cells cultured on substrate with stiffness of 20 kPa. Overall, the results indicated that substrate stiffness could regulate EMT of cervical cancer cell lines HeLa and SiHa at least partially through miR-106b and its downstream target DAB2.

  14. Methylation-associated silencing of microRNA-129-3p promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis of hepatocelluar cancer by targeting Aurora-A.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shiyun; Zhang, Kai; Li, Chen; Chen, Jing; Pan, Yan; Feng, Bing; Lu, Lei; Zhu, Ziman; Wang, Rui; Chen, Longbang

    2016-11-22

    Metastasis and recurrence has become one major obstacle for further improving the survival of hepatocelluar cancer (HCC) patients. Therefore, it is critical to elucidate the mechanisms involved in HCC metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the roles of microRNA (miR)-129-3p in HCC metastasis and its possible molecular mechanisms. By using microarray analysis to compare levels of different miRNAs in HCC tissues with or without lymph node metastasis (LNM), we showed that HCC tissues with LNM had reduced levels of miR-129-3p, which was related to its promoter hypermethylation and correlated with tumor metastasis, recurrence and poor prognosis. Gain - and loss - of - function assays indicated that re-expression of miR-129-3p could reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and reduce in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HCC cells. Aurora-A, a serine/threonine protein kinase, was identified as a direct target of miR-129-3p. Knockdown of Aurora-A phenocopied the effect of miR-129-3p overexpression on HCC metastasis. In addition, Aurora-A upregulation could partially rescue the effect of miR-129-3p. We further demonstrated that activation of PI3K/Akt and p38-MAPK signalings were involved in miR-129-3p-mediated HCC metastasis. These findings suggest that methylation-mediated miR-129-3p downregulation promotes EMT, in vitro invasion and in vivo metastasis of HCC cells via activation of PI3K/Akt and p38-MAPK signalings partially by targeting Aurora-A. Therefore, miR-129-3p may be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  15. The p21-activated kinase 4-Slug transcription factor axis promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and worsens prognosis in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Jin; Park, Mee-Hee; Oh, Eun Hye; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Lee, Soo Jae; Jung, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Ok-Jun; Yun, Seok Joong; Kim, Wun-Jae; Shin, Eun-Young; Kim, Eung-Gook

    2018-05-30

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) facilitates cancer invasion and metastasis and thus accelerates cancer progression. p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) is a critical regulator of prostate cancer (PC) progression. Here, we report that PAK4 activation promotes PC progression through the EMT regulator Slug. We find that phosphorylated PAK4 S474 (pPAK4) levels, an index of PAK4 activation, were tightly associated with Gleason score (p < 0.001), a clinical indicator of PC progression, but not with prostate serum antigen levels or tumor stage. Stable silencing of PAK4 in PC cells reduced their potential for EMT, cellular invasion, and metastasis in vivo. PAK4 bound and directly phosphorylated Slug at two previously unknown sites, S158 and S254, which resulted in its stabilization. The non-phosphorylatable form Slug S158A/S254A upregulated transcription of CDH1, which encodes E-cadherin, and thus suppressed EMT and invasion, to a greater extent than did wild-type Slug. The strong EMT inducer TGF-β elevated pPAK4 and pSlug S158 levels; PAK4 knockdown or introduction of a dominant-negative form of PAK4 inhibited both TGF-β-stimulated EMT and an increase in pSlug S158 levels. Finally, immunohistochemistry revealed a positive correlation between pPAK4 and pSlug S158 but an inverse correlation between pSlug S158 and E-cadherin. The results suggest that the PAK4-Slug axis represents a novel pathway that promotes PC progression.

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by TNF-α requires AKT/GSK-3β-mediated stabilization of snail in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhou, Bin-Hua; Li, Cui-Lin; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Ge; Bu, Xian-Zhang; Cai, Shao-Hui; Du, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Chronic inflammation-promoted metastasis has been considered as a major challenge in cancer therapy. Pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα can induce cancer invasion and metastasis associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying mechanisms are not entirely clear. In this study, we showed that TNFα induces EMT in human HCT116 cells and thereby promotes colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion and metastasis. TNFα-induced EMT was characterized by acquiring mesenchymal spindle-like morphology and increasing the expression of N-cadherin and fibronectin with a concomitant decrease of E-cadherin and Zona occludin-1(ZO-1). TNFα treatment also increased the expression of transcription factor Snail, but not Slug, ZEB1 and Twist. Overexpression of Snail induced a switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin expression in HCT116 cells, which is a characteristic of EMT. Conversely, knockdown of Snail significantly attenuated TNFα-induced EMT in HCT116 cells, suggesting that Snail plays a crucial role in TNFα-induced EMT. Interestingly, exposure to TNFα rapidly increased Snail protein expression and Snail nuclear localization but not mRNA level upregulation. Finally, we demonstrated that TNFα elevated Snail stability by activating AKT pathway and subsequently repressing GSK-3β activity and decreasing the association of Snail with GSK-3β. Knockdown of GSK-3β further verified our finding. Taken together, these results revealed that AKT/GSK-3β-mediated stabilization of Snail is required for TNFα-induced EMT in CRC cells. Our study provides a better understanding of inflammation-induced CRC metastasis.

  17. Long Non-Coding RNA (LncRNA) HOXA11-AS Promotes Breast Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by Regulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenlei; Jia, Guotao; Qu, Yanwen; Du, Qian; Liu, Baoguo; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background To detect the expression of lncRNA HOXA11-AS and its biological effect in breast cancer. Material/Methods In this study, fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), MTT assay and clone formation assay, flow cytometry, Transwell assay and wound healing assay, immunofluorescence, and Western blot analysis were conducted to detect the expression of lncRNA HOXA11-AS, cell proliferation activity, cell apoptosis rate and cell cycle distribution, the changes of cell invasion and metastasis capacity, and the expressions of molecular markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), respectively. Additionally, a nude mouse metastatic tumor model was established to study the influence of lncRNA HOXA11-AS on invasion and metastasis capacity of breast cancer cells. Results The qRT-PCR experiment results showed that HOXA11-AS expression in breast cancer tissue of 50 patients was relatively higher than that in tissue adjacent to cancer. MTT assay suggested that tumor cell proliferation capacity was suppressed followed by the knockdown of lncRNA HOXA11-AS expression in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells; flow cytometry results demonstrated that interfering in lncRNA HOXA11-AS could induce tumor cell apoptosis and promote cell cycle progression to be arrested in G1/G0 stage; experiments in vivo/vitro manifested that interfering in lncRNA HOXA11-AS could inhibit tumor cell invasion and migration capacity by affecting the expressions of EMT-related molecular markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Vimentin). Conclusions High expression of lncRNA HOXA11-AS promotes breast cancer invasion and metastasis by affecting EMT, and interfering in lncRAN HOXA11-AS expression provides a theoretical basis and important molecular target for inhibiting the distant metastasis of breast cancer in clinical practice. PMID:28701685

  18. The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Two Cases with Gastric Metastasis Originating from Breast Carcinoma, One with a Metachronous Primary Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurzu, Simona; Banias, Laura; Bara, Tivadar; Feher, I; Bara, Tivadar; Jung, Ioan

    2018-01-01

    Metastases to the stomach are extremely rare and the metastatic pathway is not well understood. To present two unusual gastric metastases and a review of the literature regarding the pathway of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in the metastatic cells. The clinicopathological aspects of the two cases were presented in the light of the most recent patents. Data about patents were obtained from the online databases PubMed, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and Google patents. In the first case, in a 73-year-old female, total gastrectomy was performed for a Gastric Cancer (GC) that was proved to be, based on the immunohistochemical features (positivity for mammaglobin and estrogen receptor and negativity for E-cadherin, β-catenin, CD44 and maspin), a metastasis from an invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, that was later confirmed. In the second case, a 67-year-old female with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, which benefited from chemotherapy and mastectomy, presented a metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma with collision-type metastatic breast ductal carcinoma. The aggressiveness of the GC cells was induced through the E-cadherin/maspin pathway, while the CD44-related stem-like properties of the tumor cells induced the aggressiveness of ductal carcinoma. In females with breast cancer, a possible metastasis in the stomach should be taken into account. Maspin and VSIG1 are not involved in breast cancer histogenesis. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not involved in the lobular carcinoma progression. The CD44/HER2 positivity in ductal carcinoma cells might indicate high risk of distant metastasis and low response to chemotherapy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Tumor-associated macrophages induce the expression of FOXQ1 to promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Yan, Yan; Yan, Yu; Guo, Qinyue; Zhang, Mingxin; Zhang, Jia; Goltzman, David

    2017-10-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies, and is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Macrophages infiltrated in the tumor microenvironment (TME) called tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key orchestrators in TME. In GC, it has been reported that infiltration of TAMs is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins in human GC tissues, but the exactly mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of TAMs on GC cells. THP-1 cells were used to investigate the effects of TAMs on GC cells. The effects of invasion and migration induced by coculture with TAMs were investigated by Transwell invasion and wound healing assays. The expression of EMT-related genes and forkhead box Q1 (FOXQ1) were examined in MKN45 and MKN74 cells after being co-cultured with TAMs. The density of TAMs and the expression of FOXQ1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in GC tissues. Our results revealed that, co-culture with TAMs promoted the invasion and migration of GC cells. Co-culture with TAMs induced EMT in GC cells. FOXQ1 is essential for TAM-induced EMT and metastasis in GC cells. Furthermore, silencing of FOXQ1 blocked the effect of TAM-enhanced EMT and metastasis of GC cells. High expression of CD68 was correlated with positive FOXQ1 expression (r=0.613; P<0.001) in clinical GC samples. Our data provided evidence that TAMs promote EMT, invasion and migration of GC cells via FOXQ1. Therefore, the TAM/FOXQ1 axis may represent a novel target for GC cells.

  20. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes within chitosan-hyaluronan membrane-derived 3D tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Jang; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    2014-12-01

    Cancer drug development has to go through rigorous testing and evaluation processes during pre-clinical in vitro studies. However, the conventional two-dimensional (2D) in vitro culture is often discounted by the insufficiency to present a more typical tumor microenvironment. The multicellular tumor spheroids have been a valuable model to provide more comprehensive assessment of tumor in response to therapeutic strategies. Here, we applied chitosan-hyaluronan (HA) membranes as a platform to promote three-dimensional (3D) tumor spheroid formation. The biological features of tumor spheroids of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells on chitosan-HA membranes were compared to those of 2D cultured cells in vitro. The cells in tumor spheroids cultured on chitosan-HA membranes showed higher levels of stem-like properties and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers, such as NANOG, SOX2, CD44, CD133, N-cadherin, and vimentin, than 2D cultured cells. Moreover, they exhibited enhanced invasive activities and multidrug resistance by the upregulation of MMP2, MMP9, BCRC5, BCL2, MDR1, and ABCG2 as compared with 2D cultured cells. The grafting densities of HA affected the tumor sphere size and mRNA levels of genes on the substrates. These evidences suggest that chitosan-HA membranes may offer a simple and valuable biomaterial platform for rapid generation of tumor spheroids in vitro as well as for further applications in cancer stem cell research and cancer drug screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. miR156a Mimic Represses the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Nasopharyngeal Cancer Cells by Targeting Junctional Adhesion Molecule A.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yunhong; Cai, Longmei; Tian, Yunming; Tu, Yinuo; Qiu, Huizhi; Xie, Guofeng; Huang, Donglan; Zheng, Ronghui; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been documented as having an important role in the development of cancer. Broccoli is very popular in large groups of the population and has anticancer properties. Junctional adhesion molecule A (JAMA) is preferentially concentrated at tight junctions and influences cell morphology and migration. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program associated with cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of miRNAs from broccoli in human nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). We demonstrated that a total of 84 conserved miRNAs and 184 putative novel miRNAs were found in broccoli by sequencing technology. Among these, miR156a was expressed the most. In addition, synthetic miR156a mimic inhibited the EMT of NPC cells in vitro. Furthermore, it was confirmed that JAMA was the target of miR156a mimic as validated by 3' UTR luciferase reporter assays and western blotting. Knockdown of JAMA was consistent with the effects of miR156a mimic on the EMT of NPC, and the up-regulation of JAMA could partially restore EMT repressed by miR156a mimic. In conclusion, these results indicate that the miR156a mimic inhibits the EMT of NPC cells by targeting the 3' UTR of JAMA. These miRNA profiles of broccoli provide a fundamental basis for further research. Moreover, the discovery of miR156a may have clinical implications for the treatment of patients with NPC.

  2. miR-1271 inhibits migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting ZEB1 and TWIST1 in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Huaize; Wang, Han; Liu, Xiaoxiao

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most lethal types of cancer in adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of miR-1271 in regulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells. miR-1271 was identified to be significantly down-regulated in PC tissues by miRNA array. Also, an increase of EMT-regulators ZEB1 and TWIST1 expression level is accompanied by a decrease of miR-1271. We showed that expression of miR-1271 was significantly down-regulated in PC tissues as compared with that in normal tissues. In addition, our results showed that miR-1271 expression levels were decreased whilemore » ZEB1 and TWIST1 expression levels were increased in detected PC cell lines. Moreover, ectopic expression of miR-1271 suppressed and antagomiR-1271 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion in SW1990 and PANC-1 cells. Bioinformatics coupled with luciferase and Western blot assays also revealed that miR-1271 inhibited expression of ZEB1 and TWIST1, which are master regulators of tumor metastasis. Our study first indicates that miR-1271 functions as a suppressor in regulating of pancreatic cancer EMT by targeting ZEB1 and TWIST1, and it promise as a therapeutic target and prognostic marker for metastatic pancreatic cancer. - Highlights: • miR-1271 is downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-1271 regulates cell metastasis ability and EMT marker expression. . • miR-1271 directly targets ZEB1 and TWIST1. • ZEB1 and TWIST1 are functionally related to the effects of miR-1271.« less

  3. A supercritical-CO2 extract of Ganoderma lucidum spores inhibits cholangiocarcinoma cell migration by reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Lian; Guo, Hui-Jun; Zhu, Ling-Yan; Zheng, Limin; Liu, Xin

    2016-05-15

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is an oriental medical mushroom that has been widely used in Asian countries for centuries to prevent and treat different diseases, including cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of A supercritical-CO2 extract of G. lucidum spores on the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cholangiocarcinoma cells. This was an in vitro study with human cholangiocarcinoma TFK-1 cells treated with varying concentrations of G. lucidum. A supercritical-CO2 extract of G. lucidum spores (GLE) was obtained from completely sporoderm-broken germinating G. lucidum spores by supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCF-CO2) extraction. GLE pre-incubated with human cholangiocarcinoma TFK-1 cells prior to TGF-β1 treatment (2ng/ml) for 48h. Changes in EMT markers were analyzed by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The formation of F-actin stress fibers was assessed via immunostaining with phalloidin and examined using confocal microscopy. Additionally, the effect of the GLE on TGF-β1-induced migration was investigated by a Boyden chamber assay. TGF-β1-induced reduction in E-cadherin expression was associated with a loss of epithelial morphology and cell-cell contact. Concomitant increases in N-cadherin and Fibronectin were evident in predominantly elongated fibroblast-like cells. The GLE suppressed the TGF-β1-induced morphological changes and the changes in cadherin expression, and also inhibited the formation of F-actin stress fibers, which are a hallmark of EMT. The GLE also inhibited TGF-β1-induced migration of TFK-1 cells. Our findings provide new evidence that GLE suppress cholangiocarcinoma migration in vitro through inhibition of TGF-β1-induced EMT. The GLE may be clinically applied in the prevention and/or treatment of cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Inhibition of NF-kappa B pathway leads to deregulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and neural invasion in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Alice; Majumder, Kaustav; Giri, Bhuwan; Dauer, Patricia; Dudeja, Vikas; Roy, Sabita; Banerjee, Sulagna; Saluja, Ashok K

    2016-12-01

    NF-κB has an essential role in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer and specifically mediates the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasiveness. In this study, we demonstrate the importance of activated NF-κB signaling in EMT induction, lymphovascular metastasis, and neural invasion. Modulation of NF-κB activity was accomplished through the specific NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 11-7085), triptolide, and Minnelide treatment, as well as overexpression of IKBα repressor and IKK activator plasmids. In the classical lymphovascular metastatic cascade, inhibition of NF-κB decreased the expression of several EMT transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, and ZEB1) and mesenchymal markers (VIM and CDH2) and decreased in vitro invasion, which was rescued by IKK activation. This was further demonstrated in vivo via BAY 11-7085 treatment in a orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer. In vivo NF-κB inhibition decreased tumor volume; decreased tumor EMT gene expression, while restoring cell-cell junctions; and decreasing overall metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of active NF-κB signaling in neural invasion. Triptolide treatment inhibits Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) mediated, neural-tumor co-culture in vitro invasion, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neural outgrowth through a disruption in tumor-neural cross talk. In vivo, Minnelide treatment decreased neurotrophin expression, nerve density, and sciatic nerve invasion. Taken together, this study demonstrates the importance of NF-κB signaling in the progression of pancreatic cancer through the modulation of EMT induction, lymphovascular invasion, and neural invasion.

  5. SIRT1 overexpression protects non-small cell lung cancer cells against osteopontin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejiao; Jiang, Zhongxiu; Li, Xiangmin; Zhang, Xiaoye

    2018-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a promoter for tumor progression. It has been reported to promote non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression via the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling. As the increased acetylation of NF-κB p65 is linked to NF-κB activation, the regulation of NF-κB p65 acetylation could be a potential treatment target for OPN-induced NSCLC progression. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase, and the role of SIRT1 in tumor progression is still controversial. The effect and mechanism of SIRT1 on OPN-induced tumor progression remains unknown. The results presented in this research demonstrated that OPN inhibited SIRT1 expression and promoted NF-κB p65 acetylation in NSCLC cell lines (A549 and NCI-H358). In this article, overexpression of SIRT1 was induced by infection of SIRT1-overexpressing lentiviral vectors. The overexpression of SIRT1 protected NSCLC cells against OPN-induced NF-κB p65 acetylation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as indicated by the reduction of OPN-induced changes in the expression levels of EMT-related markers and cellular morphology. Furthermore, SIRT1 overexpression significantly attenuated OPN-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, overexpression of SIRT1 inhibited OPN-induced NF-κB activation. As OPN induced NSCLC cell EMT through activation of NF-κB signaling, OPN-induced SIRT1 downregulation may play an important role in NSCLC cell EMT via NF-κB signaling. The results suggest that SIRT1 could be a tumor suppressor to attenuate OPN-induced NSCLC progression through the regulation of NF-κB signaling.

  6. miR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by blocking USP9X-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Xilin; Chen, Qiuqiang; Bao, Ying; Dong, Chaohui; Wang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    miR-132, a microRNA, has been reported to be down-regulated in several human cancers and is related with tumor progression; however, its function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the putative role of miR-132 in the metastasis of NSCLC. We determined the function of miR-132 in the migration and invasion of a NSCLC cell line in vitro using a miR-132 inhibitor and mimic. Our results showed overexpression of miR-132 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro. We then identified USP9X as a potential target of miR-132, and demonstrated miR-132 could regulate the expression of USP9X at both the mRNA and protein level. miR-132 could directly bind to the 3’ untranslated region (3’-UTR) of USP9X. Inhibition of USP9X by its inhibitor WP1130 reduced the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, USP9X inhibition also reversed the increased migration and invasion mediated by miR-132 inhibition. We found USP9X inhibition up-regulated expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker E-cadherin, but down-regulated vimentin expression. A similar effect was seen with miR-132 overexpression, while the opposite effect occurred with miR-132 knockdown. USP9X inhibition reversed the miR-132 inhibitor-induced vimentin up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation. Taken together, these results indicate miR-132 prohibits the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via targeting USP9X-induced EMT. Our data provides further evidence for the critical role of miR-132 and USP9X in regulating cell invasion and migration of NSCLC. PMID:29423007

  7. miR-132 suppresses the migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by blocking USP9X-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Xilin; Chen, Qiuqiang; Bao, Ying; Dong, Chaohui; Wang, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    miR-132, a microRNA, has been reported to be down-regulated in several human cancers and is related with tumor progression; however, its function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progression remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the putative role of miR-132 in the metastasis of NSCLC. We determined the function of miR-132 in the migration and invasion of a NSCLC cell line in vitro using a miR-132 inhibitor and mimic. Our results showed overexpression of miR-132 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro . We then identified USP9X as a potential target of miR-132, and demonstrated miR-132 could regulate the expression of USP9X at both the mRNA and protein level. miR-132 could directly bind to the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of USP9X. Inhibition of USP9X by its inhibitor WP1130 reduced the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, USP9X inhibition also reversed the increased migration and invasion mediated by miR-132 inhibition. We found USP9X inhibition up-regulated expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker E-cadherin, but down-regulated vimentin expression. A similar effect was seen with miR-132 overexpression, while the opposite effect occurred with miR-132 knockdown. USP9X inhibition reversed the miR-132 inhibitor-induced vimentin up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation. Taken together, these results indicate miR-132 prohibits the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via targeting USP9X-induced EMT. Our data provides further evidence for the critical role of miR-132 and USP9X in regulating cell invasion and migration of NSCLC.

  8. EGF induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like cell properties in human oral cancer cells via promoting Warburg effect.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qilin; Zhang, Qunzhou; Ishida, Yasutaka; Hajjar, Souren; Tang, Xudong; Shi, Haoran; Dang, Chi V; Le, Anh D

    2017-02-07

    "Warburg effect", the enhanced glycolysis or aerobic glycolysis, confers cancer cells the ability to survive and proliferate even under stressed conditions. In this study, we explored the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in orchestrating Warburg effect, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, and the acquisition of cancer stem-like cell properties in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. Our results showed that EGF induces EMT process in OSCC cells, which correlates with the acquisition of cancer stem-like properties, including the enrichment of CD44+/CD24- population of cancer cells and an increased expression of CSC-related genes, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and Bmi-1. We also showed that EGF concomitantly enhanced L-lactate production, while blocking glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) robustly reversed EGF-induced EMT process and CSC-like properties in OSCC cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that EGF promoted EMT process and CSC generation through EGFR/PI3K/HIF-1α axis-orchestrated glycolysis. Using an orthotopic tumor model of human OSCC (UM-SCC1) injected in the tongue of BALB/c nude mice, we showed that treatment with 2-DG in vivo significantly inhibited the metastasis of tumor cells to the regional cervical lymph nodes and reduced the expression of ALDH1 and vimentin in both in situ tumors and tumor cell-invaded regional lymph nodes. Taken together, these findings have unveiled a new mechanism that EGF drives OSCC metastasis through induction of EMT process and CSC generation, which is driven by an enhanced glycolytic metabolic program in OSCC cells.

  9. A p21-ZEB1 Complex Inhibits Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through the MicroRNA 183-96-182 Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao Ling; Hara, Toshifumi; Choi, Youngeun; Subramanian, Murugan; Francis, Princy; Bilke, Sven; Walker, Robert L.; Pineda, Marbin; Zhu, Yuelin; Yang, Yuan; Luo, Ji; Wakefield, Lalage M.; Brabletz, Thomas; Park, Ben Ho; Sharma, Sudha; Chowdhury, Dipanjan; Meltzer, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p21 acts as a cell cycle inhibitor and has also been shown to regulate gene expression by functioning as a transcription corepressor. Here, we identified p21-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) by sequencing small RNAs from isogenic p21+/+ and p21−/− cells. Three abundant miRNA clusters, miR-200b-200a-429, miR-200c-141, and miR-183-96-182, were downregulated in p21-deficient cells. Consistent with the known function of the miR-200 family and p21 in inhibition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we observed EMT upon loss of p21 in multiple model systems. To explore a role of the miR-183-96-182 cluster in EMT, we identified its genome-wide targets and found that miR-183 and miR-96 repressed common targets, including SLUG, ZEB1, ITGB1, and KLF4. Reintroduction of miR-200, miR-183, or miR-96 in p21−/− cells inhibited EMT, cell migration, and invasion. Conversely, antagonizing miR-200 and miR-183-96-182 cluster miRNAs in p21+/+ cells increased invasion and elevated the levels of VIM, ZEB1, and SLUG mRNAs. Furthermore, we found that p21 forms a complex with ZEB1 at the miR-183-96-182 cluster promoter to inhibit transcriptional repression of this cluster by ZEB1, suggesting a reciprocal feedback loop. PMID:24277930

  10. Resveratrol Inhibits Proliferation, Invasion, and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Increasing miR-200c Expression in HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Karimi Dermani, Fatemeh; Saidijam, Massoud; Amini, Razieh; Mahdavinezhad, Ali; Heydari, Korosh; Najafi, Rezvan

    2017-06-01

    colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies, associated with high rates of relapse. A notable challenge in treatment is low response rate to current therapies for advanced CRC. The miR-200c plays an essential role in tumor suppression by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resveratrol, a natural compound found in red wine, reveals anti-cancer properties in several types of cancers such as CRC. The aim of current study was to evaluate the effects of resveratrol on proliferation, apoptosis, and invasion of HCT-116 cells and also expression of EMT-related genes in presences or absence of miR-200c. the effect of resveratrol on viability was examined by MTT assay. LNA-anti-miR-200c transfection of HCT-116 cells was carried out in a time dependent manner. Then, the expression of miR-200c and EMT-related genes were quantified by qRT-PCR. Further, expression of EMT-related proteins, apoptosis, and invasion were analyzed by Western blot, Annexin V/PI staining and scratch test, respectively. resveratrol could significantly inhibit viability of HCT-116 cells. LNA-anti-miR-200c suppressed the endogenous miR-200c in transfected cells compared with the control. qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis of LNA-anti-miR-200c transfected cells revealed a considerable increase in vimentin and ZEB-1 expression, with a concomitant reduction in E-cadherin expression level. Migration of HCT-116 cells increased, and apoptosis significantly reduced in transfected cells. While, resveratrol could entirely reverse these changes by modulation of miR-200c expression. our findings revealed a major role of resveratrol in apoptosis, invasion, and switching of EMT to MET phenotype through upregulation of miR-200c in CRC. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1547-1555, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. MicroRNAs Associated with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Can Be Targeted to Inhibit Peritoneal Dissemination of Human Scirrhous Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Takei, Yoshifumi; Shen, Guodong; Morita-Kondo, Ayami; Hara, Toshifumi; Mihara, Keichiro; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi

    2018-05-30

    Scirrhous gastric cancers grow rapidly, and frequently invade the peritoneum. Such peritoneal dissemination properties markedly reduce patient survival. Thus, an effective means for inhibiting peritoneal dissemination is urgently required. We previously established a cell line, HSC-58, from a scirrhous gastric cancer patient, and further successfully isolated a metastatic line, 58As9, in nude mice upon orthotopic inoculation. Using the lines, we examined the mechanism underlying peritoneal dissemination from the viewpoint of microRNA (miRNA) expression. miRNA array and qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expressions of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated miRNAs such as miR-200c and miR-141 were significantly low in 58As9. Using 58As9 with stably overexpressing miR-200c, miR-141, or both, together with a luciferase reporter assay, we found that miR-200c targeted zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and miR-141 targeted ZEB2. The overexpressed lines reversed the EMT status from mesenchymal to epithelial in 58As9, and significantly reduced the invasion activity and peritoneal dissemination for a significant prolongation of survival in the orthotopic tumor models in nude mice. EMT-associated miRNAs such as miR-200c and miR-141 and their target genes ZEB1/ZEB2 have good potential for antiperitoneal dissemination therapy in patients with scirrhous gastric cancers. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Suppression of forkhead box Q1 by microRNA-506 represses the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingting; Xu, Qingli; Yan, Shufen; Li, Zhigang; Yan, Wei; Jia, Xiaojing

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a pivotal role in cancer progression and development, representing novel therapeutic tools for cancer therapy. Forkhead box Q1 (FOXQ1) functions as an oncogene in various cancer types. However, the functional significance of FOXQ1 in cervical cancer remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the biological function of FOXQ1 in cervical cancer and tested whether or not FOXQ1 can be targeted and regulated by specific miRNAs. We found that FOXQ1 was highly expressed in cervical cancer cell lines. Knockdown of FOXQ1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly suppressed the proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cervical cancer cells. FOXQ1 was predicted as a target gene of microRNA-506 (miR-506), and this prediction was validated by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analyses demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression was negatively regulated by miR-506. The expression of miR-506 was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues, and miR-506 expression was inversely correlated with FOXQ1 expression in cervical cancer. The overexpression of miR-506 dramatically suppressed the proliferation and EMT of cervical cancer cells that mimicked the suppression of FOXO1 siRNA. Furthermore, the restoration of FOXQ1 expression significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-506. Overall, our study demonstrated that miR-506 inhibited the proliferation and EMT of cervical cancer cells by targeting FOXQ1 and provided evidence that the miR-506/FOXQ1 axis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, representing potential molecular targets for the development of anticancer agents for cervical cancer treatment.

  13. Advanced Oxidation Protein Products Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Intestinal Epithelial Cells via a PKC δ-Mediated, Redox-Dependent Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoping; Sun, Shibo; Xie, Fang; Ma, Juanjuan; Tang, Jing; He, Shuying; Bai, Lan

    2017-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been considered a fundamental mechanism in complications of Crohn's disease (CD), especially intestinal fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying EMT regulation in intestinal fibrosis remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in the occurrence of intestinal EMT. AOPPs accumulated in CD tissues and were associated with EMT marker expression in fibrotic lesions from CD patients. Challenge with AOPPs induced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) phenotype transdifferentiation, fibroblast-like phenotype acquisition, and production of extracellular matrix, both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of AOPPs was mainly mediated by a protein kinase C (PKC) δ-mediated redox-dependent pathway, including phosphorylation of PKC δ, recruitment of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, production of reactive oxygen species, and NF-κB p65 activation. Inhibition of AOPP-redox signaling activation effectively blocked AOPP-induced EMT in vitro. Studies performed in normal rats showed that chronic administration of AOPPs triggered the occurrence of EMT in rat intestinal epithelia, accompanied by disruption of intestinal integrity, and by promotion of collagen deposition. These effects could be reversed by inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Innovation and Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate that AOPPs triggered the occurrence of EMT in IECs in vitro and in vivo through PKC δ-mediated redox-dependent signaling. Our study identifies the role of AOPPs and, in turn, EMT in intestinal fibrosis and provides novel potential targets for the treatment of intestinal fibrotic diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 37-56.

  14. Investigating the Link between Molecular Subtypes of Glioblastoma, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and CD133 Cell Surface Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zarkoob, Hadi; Taube, Joseph H.; Singh, Sheila K.; Mani, Sendurai A.; Kohandel, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript, we use genetic data to provide a three-faceted analysis on the links between molecular subclasses of glioblastoma, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CD133 cell surface protein. The contribution of this paper is three-fold: First, we use a newly identified signature for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells, and demonstrate that genes in this signature have significant overlap with genes differentially expressed in all known GBM subtypes. However, the overlap between genes up regulated in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and in the EMT signature was more significant than other GBM subtypes. Second, we provide evidence that there is a negative correlation between the genetic signature of EMT and that of CD133 cell surface protein, a putative marker for neural stem cells. Third, we study the correlation between GBM molecular subtypes and the genetic signature of CD133 cell surface protein. We demonstrate that the mesenchymal and neural subtypes of GBM have the strongest correlations with the CD133 genetic signature. While the mesenchymal subtype of GBM displays similarity with the signatures of both EMT and CD133, it also exhibits some differences with each of these signatures that are partly due to the fact that the signatures of EMT and CD133 are inversely related to each other. Taken together these data shed light on the role of the mesenchymal transition and neural stem cells, and their mutual interaction, in molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:23734191

  15. Overexpression of angiopoietin 2 promotes the formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma by increasing epithelial-mesenchymal transition-induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Li, Q; Cai, Y; He, Y; Lan, X; Wang, W; Liu, J; Wang, S; Zhu, G; Fan, J; Zhou, Y; Sun, R

    2016-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common cancer of the head and neck and is associated with a high rate of lymph node metastasis. The initial step in the metastasis and transition of tumors is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-induced angiogenesis, which can be mediated by angiopoietin 2 (ANG2), a key regulatory factor in angiogenesis. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR) were used to measure the expression of ANG2 in OSCC tissues. Plasmids encoding ANG2 mRNA were used for increased ANG2 expression in the OSCC cell line TCA8113. The short interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting ANG2 mRNA sequences were used to inhibit ANG2 expression in TCA8113 cells. Subsequently, transwell assays were performed to examine the effects of ANG2 on TCA8113 cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, in vivo assays were performed to assess the effect of ANG2 on tumor growth. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays and immunohistochemistry were used to examine cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in tumor tissues, respectively. Finally, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tumor formation-related proteins in OSCC tissues. We found that protein expression of ANG2 was remarkably upregulated in OSCC tissues. Overexpression of ANG2 increased the migration and invasion of TCA8113 cells by regulating EMT. Further investigations showed that overexpression of ANG2 increased tumor growth in nude mice, and angiogenesis of OSCC tissues increased in the presence of ANG2 overexpression. Overexpression of ANG2 also reduced cell apoptosis in tumor tissue cells. Finally, we found that overexpression of ANG2 resulted in changes in the expression of tumor formation-related proteins including vimentin, E-cadherin, Bim, PUMA, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyclin D1, PCNA and CD31. Our findings show that ANG2 has an important role in the migration and invasion of OSCC. More importantly, further

  16. Reversible Human TGF-β Signal Shifting between Tumor Suppression and Fibro-Carcinogenesis: Implications of Smad Phospho-Isoforms for Hepatic Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Katsunori; Murata, Miki; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2016-01-12

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are observed during both physiological liver wound healing and the pathological fibrotic/carcinogenic (fibro-carcinogenetic) process. TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokine are considered to be the major factors accelerating liver fibrosis and promoting liver carcinogenesis. Smads, consisting of intermediate linker regions connecting Mad homology domains, act as the intracellular mediators of the TGF-β signal transduction pathway. As the TGF-β receptors, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase, differentially phosphorylate Smad2/3, we have generated numerous antibodies against linker (L) and C-terminal (C) phosphorylation sites in Smad2/3 and identified four types of phosphorylated forms: cytostatic COOH-terminally-phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C), mitogenic pSmad3L (Ser-213) signaling, fibrogenic pSmad2L (Ser-245/250/255)/C signaling and migratory pSmad2/3L (Thr-220/179)/C signaling. After acute liver injury, TGF-β upregulates pSmad3C signaling and terminates pSmad3L (Ser-213)-mediated hepatocyte proliferation. TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines cooperatively enhance collagen synthesis by upregulating pSmad2L (Thr-220)/C and pSmad3L (Thr-179)/C pathways in activated hepatic stellate cells. During chronic liver injuries, hepatocytes persistently affected by TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines eventually become pre-neoplastic hepatocytes. Both myofibroblasts and pre-neoplastic hepatocyte exhibit the same carcinogenic (mitogenic) pSmad3L (Ser-213) and fibrogenic pSmad2L (Ser-245/250/255)/C signaling, with acquisition of fibro-carcinogenic properties and increasing risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Firstly, we review phospho-Smad-isoform signalings in epithelial and mesenchymal cells in physiological and pathological conditions and then consider Smad linker phosphorylation as a potential target for pathological EMT during human fibro-carcinogenesis, because human

  17. Shenqi detoxification granule combined with P311 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal fibrosis via TGF-β1-Smad-ILK pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Pingping; Liu, Xiang; Xu, Yuan; Qi, Fanghua; Si, Guomin

    2017-01-01

    Shenqi detoxification granule (SDG), a traditional Chinese herbal formula, has been shown to have nephroprotective and anti-fibrotic activities in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, its mechanisms in renal fibrosis and the progression of CKD remain largely unknown. P311, a highly conserved 8-kDa intracellular protein, plays a key role in renal fibrosis by regulating epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Previously, we found P311 might be involved in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis by inhibiting EMT via the TGF-β1-Smad-ILK pathway. We also found SDG combined with P311 could ameliorate renal fibrosis by regulating the expression of EMT markers. Here we further examined the effect and mechanism of SDG combined with P311 on TGF-β1-mediated EMT in a rat model of unilateral ureteral occlusion (UUO) renal fibrosis. After establishment of the UUO model successfully, the rats were gavaged with SDG daily and/or injected with recombinant adenovirus p311 (also called Ad-P311) through the tail vein each week for 4 weeks. Serum creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and albumin (ALB) levels were tested to observe renal function, and hematoxylin eosin (HE) and Masson staining were performed to observe kidney histopathology. Furthermore, the expression of EMT markers (E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)) and EMT-related molecules TGF-β1, pSmad2/3, Smad7 and ILK were observed using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Treatment with SDG and P311 improved renal function and histopathological abnormalities, as well as reversing the changes of EMT markers and EMT-related molecules, which indicated SDG combined with P311 could attenuate renal fibrosis in UUO rats, and the underlying mechanism might involve TGF-β1-mediated EMT and the TGF-β1-Smad-ILK signaling pathway. Therefore, SDG might be a novel alternative therapy for treating renal fibrosis and delaying the progression of CKD. Furthermore, SDG combined with P311 might

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor overexpression inhibits gastric tumor cell invasion via the transforming growth factor-β/epithelial-mesenchymal transition signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chun-Ling; Liang, Rong; Liu, Zhi-Hui; Li, Yong-Qiang; Luo, Xiao-Ling; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Lin, Yan

    2018-06-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common human malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. Gastric carcinoma is characterized by early-stage metastasis and is typically diagnosed in the advanced stage. Previous results have indicated that bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) overexpression has been demonstrated to inhibit growth and metastasis of gastric cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of the BAMBI-mediated signaling pathway in the progression of gastric cancer are poorly understood. In the present study, to assess whether BAMBI overexpression inhibited the growth and aggressiveness of gastric carcinoma cells through regulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling pathway, the growth and metastasis of gastric carcinoma cells were analyzed following BAMBI overexpression and knockdown in vitro and in vivo . Molecular changes in the TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway were studied in gastric carcinoma cells following BAMBI overexpression and knockdown. DNA methylation of the gene regions encoding the TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway was investigated in gastric carcinoma cells. Tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice was analyzed after mice were subjected to endogenous overexpression of BAMBI. Results indicated that BAMBI overexpression significantly inhibited gastric carcinoma cell growth and aggressiveness, whereas knockdown of BAMBI significantly promoted its growth and metastasis compared with the control (P<0.01). The TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway was downregulated in BAMBI-overexpressed gastric carcinoma cells; however, signaling was promoted following BAMBI knockdown. In addition, it was observed that BAMBI overexpression significantly downregulated the DNA methylation of the gene regions encoding the TGF-β/EMT signaling pathway (P<0.01). Furthermore, RNA interference-mediated BAMBI overexpression also promoted apoptosis in

  19. Mechanism of c-Met and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance through epithelial mesenchymal transition in non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, Ichwaku; Rajanna, Supriya; Webb, Andrew

    According to currently available estimates from Cancer Research UK, 14.1 million new lung cancer cases were diagnosed and a staggering 8.2 million people worldwide died from lung cancer in 2012. EGFR and c-Met are two tyrosine kinase receptors most commonly overexpressed or mutated in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) resulting in increased proliferation and survival of lung cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib, approved by the FDA as first/second line therapy for NSCLC patients have limited clinical efficacy due to acquired resistance. In this manuscript, we investigate and discuss the role of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) inmore » the development of resistance against EGFR and c-Met TKIs in NSCLC. Our findings show that Zeb-1, a transcriptional repressor of E-Cadherin, is upregulated in TKI-resistant cells causing EMT. We observed that TKI-resistant cells have increased gene and protein expression of EMT related proteins such as Vimentin, N-Cadherin, β-Catenin and Zeb-1, while expression of E-Cadherin, an important cell adhesion molecule, was suppressed. We also confirmed that TKI-resistant cells display mesenchymal cell type morphology, and have upregulation of β-Catenin which may regulate expression of Zeb-1, a transcriptional repressor of E-Cadherin in TKI-resistant NSCLC cells. Finally, we show that down-regulating Zeb-1 by inducing miR-200a or β-Catenin siRNA can increase drug sensitivity of TKI-resistant cells. - Highlights: • Resistance to TKIs in NSCLC cells is mediated via modulation in EMT related proteins. • EMT may induce c-Met mediated TKI resistance, similar to EGFR TKI resistance. • Role of β-catenin and cadherins in TKI resistance was validated by FACS and qPCR. • Knockdown of β-catenin or Zeb-1 can increase TKI sensitivity in TKI-resistant cells. • Targeting key EMT related proteins may overcome TKI resistance in NSCLC.« less

  20. BMP4 Signaling Is Able to Induce an Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-Like Phenotype in Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma through Induction of SNAIL2

    PubMed Central

    Kestens, Christine; Siersema, Peter D.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; van Baal, Jantine W. P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling is involved in the development of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), a precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). In various cancers, BMP4 has been found to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but its function in the development of EAC is currently unclear. Aim To investigate the expression of BMP4 and several members of the BMP4 pathway in EAC. Additionally, to determine the effect of BMP4 signaling in a human Barrett’s esophagus (BAR-T) and adenocarcinoma (OE33) cell line. Methods Expression of BMP4, its downstream target ID2 and members of the BMP4 pathway were determined by Q-RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis using biopsy samples from EAC patients. BAR-T and OE33 cells were incubated with BMP4 or the BMP4 antagonist, Noggin, and cell viability and migration assays were performed. In addition, expression of factors associated with EMT (SNAIL2, CDH1, CDH2 and Vimentin) was evaluated by Q-RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results Compared to squamous epithelium (SQ), BMP4 expression was significantly upregulated in EAC and BE. In addition, the expression of ID2 was significantly upregulated in EAC and BE compared to SQ. Western blot analysis confirmed our results, showing an upregulated expression of BMP4 and ID2 in both BE and EAC. In addition, more phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 was observed. BMP4 incubation inhibited cell viability, but induced cell migration in both BAR-T and OE33 cells. Upon BMP4 incubation, SNAIL2 expression was significantly upregulated in BAR-T and OE33 cells while CDH1 expression was significantly downregulated. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Conclusion Our results indicate active BMP4 signaling in BE and EAC and suggest that this results in an invasive phenotype by inducing an EMT-like response through upregulation of SNAIL2 and subsequent downregulation of CDH1. PMID:27191723

  1. MicroRNA-876-5p inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting BCL6 corepressor like 1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiuran; Zhu, Qiaojuan; Zhou, Zhenyu; Wang, Yufeng; Liu, Xin; Yin, Guozhi; Tong, Xiangmin; Tu, Kangsheng

    2018-07-01

    Our previous study has reported that BCL6 corepressor like 1 (BCORL1) plays an oncogenic role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) via promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. However, the regulation of BCORL1 mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs) remains poorly known. The analysis of our clinical samples indicated that BCORL1 expression was markedly higher in HCC tissues than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissues. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets revealed that high BCORL1 expression associated with high tumor grade, advanced tumor stage and poor survival of HCC patients. miR-875-5p expression was down-regulated and negatively correlated with BCORL1 mRNA expression in HCC tissues. Furthermore, miR-876-5p inversely regulated BCORL1 abundance in HCC cells by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of BCORL1. Ectopic expression of miR-876-5p suppressed cell migration and invasion in both HCCLM3 and MHCC97H cells. In accordance, miR-876-5p knockdown promoted the metastatic behaviors of Hep3B cells. Mechanistically, miR-876-5p suppressed the EMT progression of HCC cells. HCC tissues with high miR-876-5p level showed a higher E-cadherin staining compared to cases with low miR-876-5p level. Moreover, the repression of cell metastasis mediated by miR-876-5p was rescued by BCORL1 restoration in HCCLM3 cells. Notably, low miR-876-5p expression associated with venous infiltration, high tumor grade and advanced tumor stage. HCC patients with low miR-876-5p expression had a significant poorer overall survival and disease-free survival. To conclude, miR-876-5p inhibits EMT progression, migration and invasion of HCC cells by targeting BCORL1. Therefore, miR-876-5p/BCORL1 axis may represent as a novel therapeutic target for HCC treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. MiR-598 Suppresses Invasion and Migration by Negative Regulation of Derlin-1 and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fengming; Wei, Ke; Qin, Zhiqiang; Liu, Weitao; Shao, Chuchu; Wang, Chaoshan; Ma, Ling; Xie, Mengyan; Shu, Yongqian; Shen, Hua

    2018-05-11

    MicroRNAs regulate a wide range of biological processes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Although miR-598 has been reported to act as a suppressor in osteosarcoma and colorectal cancer, the physiological function of miR-598 in NSCLC remains unknown. In this study, the role of miR-598 in NSCLC was investigated. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was conducted to estimate the expression of miR-598 and Derlin-1 (DERL1) in both NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyzed the association between the miR-598 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) hallmark genes (E-cadherin, Vimentin) by staining the tumors representative of the high- and low-expression groups. The effect of miR-598 and DERL1 on invasion and migration was determined in vitro using transwell and wound-healing assays. The molecular mechanism underlying the relevance between miR-598 and DERL1 was elucidated by luciferase assay and Western blot. Western blot assessed the expression levels of EMT hallmark genes in cell lines. Xenograft tumor formation assay was conducted as an in vivo experiment. In this study, a relatively low level of miR-598 and high DERL1 expressions were found in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. IHC results established a positive correlation between the miR-598 expression and E-cadherin and a negative with Vimentin. DERL1 was verified as a direct target of miR-598 by luciferase assay. In vitro, the over-expression of miR-598 negatively regulated DERL1 and EMT for the suppression of invasion and migration. In vivo, the over-expression of miR-598 could inhibit tumor cell metastasis in NSCLC. These findings for the first time revealed that miR-598, as a tumor suppressor, negatively regulate DERL1 and EMT to suppress the invasion and migration in NSCLC, thereby putatively serving as a novel therapeutic target for NSCLC clinical treatment. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Helicobacter pylori potentiates epithelial:mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer: links to soluble HB-EGF, gastrin and matrix metalloproteinase-7

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yinfei; Grabowska, Anna M; Clarke, Philip A; Whelband, Elisabeth; Robinson, Karen; Argent, Richard H; Tobias, Amanda; Kumari, Rajendra; Atherton, John C

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection is a major risk factor in the development of distal gastric adenocarcinoma. Development of the invasive phenotype is associated with the phenomenon of epithelial:mesenchymal transition (EMT). Soluble heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) has been implicated in this process. A study was undertaken to investigate the possibility that matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7 is upregulated in H pylori infection as a result of hypergastrinaemia, which may enhance shedding of HB-EGF and contribute towards EMT in gastric adenocarcinoma cell lines. Methods Three gastric epithelial cell lines (AGS, MGLVA1 and ST16) were co-cultured with the pathogenic H pylori strain 60190 and non-pathogenic strain Tx30a in an in vitro infection model. Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, HB-EGF shedding by ELISA and protein expression by immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry. The INS-GAS mouse, a transgenic mouse model of gastric carcinogenesis which overexpresses amidated gastrin, was used to investigate the in vivo relationship between HB-EGF, MMP-7, gastrin and EMT. Results The pathogenic strain of H pylori significantly upregulated EMT-associated genes Snail, Slug and vimentin in all three gastric cell lines to a greater degree than the non-pathogenic strain. Pathogenic H pylori also upregulated HB-EGF shedding, a factor implicated in EMT, which was partially dependent on both gastrin and MMP-7 expression. Gastrin and MMP-7 siRNAs and MMP-7 neutralising antibody significantly reduced upregulation of HB-EGF shedding in H pylori infected gastric cell lines and reduced EMT gene expression. The effect of H pylori on EMT was also reversed by gastrin siRNA. Neutralisation of gastrin in the INS-GAS mouse model reduced expression of MMP-7, HB-EGF and key EMT proteins. Conclusion The upregulation of MMP-7 by pathogenic H pylori is partially dependent on gastrin and may have a role in the development of gastric

  4. microRNA-145 modulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion by targeting SIP1 in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayanan, Anusha; Chandrasekaran, Karthik Subramanian; Karunagaran, Devarajan

    2017-04-01

    Previously, it has been reported that microRNA-145 (miR-145) is lowly expressed in human cervical cancers and that its putative tumour suppressive role may be attributed to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulation. Here, we aimed to assess whether miR-145 may affect EMT-associated markers/genes and suppress cervical cancer growth and motility, and to provide a mechanistic basis for these phenomena. The identification of the SMAD-interacting protein 1 (SIP1) mRNA as putative miR-145 target was investigated using a 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) luciferase assay and Western blotting, respectively. The functional effects of exogenous miR-145 expression, miR-145 suppression or siRNA-mediated SIP1 expression down-regulation in cervical cancer-derived C33A and SiHa cells were analysed using Western blotting, BrdU incorporation (proliferation), transwell migration and invasion assays. In addition, the expression levels of miR-145 and SIP1 were determined in primary human cervical cancer and non-cancer tissue samples using qRT-PCR. We found that miR-145 binds to the wild-type 3'UTR of SIP1, but not to its mutant counterpart, and that, through this binding, miR-145 can effectively down-regulate SIP1 expression. In addition, we found that exogenous miR-145 expression or siRNA-mediated down-regulation of SIP1 expression attenuates the proliferation, migration and invasion of C33A and SiHa cells and alters the expression of the EMT-associated markers CDH1, VIM and SNAI1, whereas inhibition of endogenous miR-145 expression elicited the opposite effects. The expression of miR-145 in cervical cancer tissue samples was found to be low, while that of SIP1 was found to be high compared to non-cancerous cervical tissues. An inverse expression correlation between the two was substantiated through the anlaysis of data deposited in the TCGA database. Our data indicate that low miR-145 expression levels in conjunction with elevated SIP1 expression levels may contribute to

  5. The role of hERG1 ion channels in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the capacity of riluzole to reduce cisplatin resistance in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Angelo

    2017-08-01

    The transition of cells from the epithelial to the mesenchymal state (EMT) plays an important role in tumor progression. EMT allows cells to acquire mobility, stem-like behavior and resistance to apoptosis and drug treatment. These features turn EMT into a central process in tumor biology. Ion channels are attractive targets for the treatment of cancer since they play critical roles in controlling a wide range of physiological processes that are frequently deregulated in cancer. Here, we investigated the role of ether-a-go-go-related 1 (hERG1) ion channels in the EMT of colorectal cancer cells. We studied the epithelial-mesenchymal profile of different colorectal cancer-derived cell lines and the expression of hERG1 potassium channels in these cell lines using real-time PCR. Next, we knocked down hERG1 expression in HCT116 cells using lentivirus mediated RNA interference and characterized the hERG1 silenced cells in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we investigated the capacity of riluzole, an ion channel-modulating drug used in humans to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, to reduce the resistance of the respective colorectal cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. We found that of the colorectal cancer-derived cell lines tested, HCT116 showed the highest mesenchymal profile and a high hERG1 expression. Subsequent hERG1 expression knockdown induced a change in cell morphology, which was accompanied by a reduction in the proliferative and tumorigenic capacities of the cells. Notably, we found that hERG1expression knockdown elicited a reversion of the EMT profile in HCT116 cells with a reacquisition of the epithelial-like profile. We also found that riluzole increased the sensitivity of HCT116 cisplatin-resistant cells to cisplatin. Our data indicate that hERG1 plays a role in the EMT of colorectal cancer cells and that its knockdown reduces the proliferative and tumorigenic capacities of these cells. In addition, we conclude that riluzole may be used in

  6. Human Primary Epithelial Cells Acquire an Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition Phenotype during Long-Term Infection by the Oral Opportunistic Pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jungnam; Roberts, JoAnn S.; Atanasova, Kalina R.; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Han, Kyudong; Yilmaz, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a host-adapted oral pathogen associated with chronic periodontitis that successfully survives and persists in the oral epithelium. Recent studies have positively correlated periodontitis with increased risk and severity of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Intriguingly, the presence of P. gingivalis enhances tumorigenic properties independently of periodontitis and has therefore been proposed as a potential etiological agent for OSCC. However, the initial host molecular changes induced by P. gingivalis infection which promote predisposition to cancerous transformation through EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal-transition), has never been studied in human primary cells which more closely mimic the physiological state of cells in vivo. In this study, we examine for the first time in primary oral epithelial cells (OECs) the expression and activation of key EMT mediators during long-term P. gingivalis infection in vitro. We examined the inactive phosphorylated state of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK3β) over 120 h P. gingivalis infection and found p-GSK3β, an important EMT regulator, significantly increases over the course of infection (p < 0.01). Furthermore, we examined the expression of EMT-associated transcription factors, Slug, Snail, and Zeb1 and found significant increases (p < 0.01) over long-term P. gingivalis infection in protein and mRNA expression. Additionally, the protein expression of mesenchymal intermediate filament, Vimentin, was substantially increased over 120 h of P. gingivalis infection. Analysis of adhesion molecule E-cadherin showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in expression and a loss of membrane localization along with β-catenin in OECs. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 7, and 9 are all markedly increased with long-term P. gingivalis infection. Finally, migration of P. gingivalis infected cells was evaluated using scratch assay in which primary OEC monolayers were wounded and treated with proliferation

  7. Persistent Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus Infection Enhances Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 Adhesion by Promoting Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lu; Dai, Lei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2017-11-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is a coronavirus characterized by diarrhea and high morbidity rates, and the mortality rate is 100% in piglets less than 2 weeks old. Pigs infected with TGEV often suffer secondary infection by other pathogens, which aggravates the severity of diarrhea, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we hypothesized that persistent TGEV infection stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) can more easily adhere to generating cells. Intestinal epithelial cells are the primary targets of TGEV and ETEC infections. We found that TGEV can persistently infect porcine intestinal columnar epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and cause EMT, consistent with multiple changes in key cell characteristics. Infected cells display fibroblast-like shapes; exhibit increases in levels of mesenchymal markers with a corresponding loss of epithelial markers; have enhanced expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs; and demonstrate increases in migratory and invasive behaviors. Additional experiments showed that the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways via TGF-β is critical for the TGEV-mediated EMT process. Cellular uptake is also modified in cells that have undergone EMT. TGEV-infected cells have higher levels of integrin α5 and fibronectin and exhibit enhanced ETEC K88 adhesion. Reversal of EMT reduces ETEC K88 adhesion and inhibits the expression of integrin α5 and fibronectin. Overall, these results suggest that TGEV infection induces EMT in IPEC-J2 cells, increasing the adhesion of ETEC K88 in the intestine and facilitating dual infection. IMPORTANCE Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) causes pig diarrhea and is often followed by secondary infection by other pathogens. In this study, we showed

  8. 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cholangiocarcinoma via GSK-3β/Snail signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yan; He, Jun-Chuang; Wang, Jian-Ming; Schemmer, Peter; Ma, Chao-Qun; Qian, Ya-Wei; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Wei-Peng; Fu, Yang; Feng, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2016-08-23

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) invasion and metastasis are the primary causes of poor survival rates in patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is still unclear of the molecular mechanism. In this study, the expression of 14-3-3ζ and atypical protein kinase C-ι (aPKC-ι) was further detected in CCA tissues and cell lines. Meanwhile, we established the EMT model of CCA cells and investigated 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι co-regulatory effect on the EMT in vitro and in vivo. Further, we identified the downstream molecular glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β)/Snail signalling pathway that contribute to regulating the EMT. Our data showed that the expression of 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι was synergistically increased in CCA tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues and was intimately associated with differentiation and the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι expression separately predicted a poor prognosis and were independent prognostic indicators in patients with CCA. The CO-IP experiment confirmed that the mutual binding relationship between 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι. Small interfering RNAs and siRNA rescue experiment demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι regulated each other. In addition, 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι pretreatment by si-RNA inhibit the phosphorylated GSK-3β and Snail expression during EMT. Meanwhile, silence of 14-3-3ζ or aPKC-ι suppressed CCA cells migration, metastasis and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates that 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate EMT of CCA via GSK-3β/Snail signalling pathway, and may be potential therapeutic target for CCA.

  9. Oncogenic PKC-ι activates Vimentin during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in melanoma; a study based on PKC-ι and PKC-ζ specific inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ratnayake, Wishrawana S; Apostolatos, Christopher A; Apostolatos, André H; Schutte, Ryan J; Huynh, Monica A; Ostrov, David A; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred

    2018-05-21

    Melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers in the United States and is accompanied with a poor prognosis owing to tumors being resistant to most therapies. Atypical protein kinase Cs (aPKC) are involved in malignancy in many cancers. We previously reported that aPKCs play a key role in melanoma's cell motility by regulating cell signaling pathways which induce epithelial-mesenchymal Transition (EMT). We tested three novel inhibitors; [4-(5-amino-4-carbamoylimidazol-1-yl)-2,3-dihydroxycyclopentyl] methyl dihydrogen phosphate (ICA-1T) along with its nucleoside analog 5-amino-1-((1R,2S,3S,4R)-2,3-dihydroxy-4-methylcyclopentyl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (ICA-1S) which are specific to protein kinase C-iota (PKC-ι) and 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid (ζ-Stat) which is specific to PKC-zeta (PKC-ζ) on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of two malignant melanoma cell lines compared to normal melanocytes. Molecular modeling was used to identify potential binding sites for the inhibitors and to predict selectivity. Kinase assay showed >50% inhibition for specified targets beyond 5 μM for all inhibitors. Both ICA-1 and ζ-Stat significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis, while ICA-1 also significantly reduced migration and melanoma cell invasion. PKC-ι stimulated EMT via TGFβ/Par6/RhoA pathway and activated Vimentin by phosphorylation at S39. Both ICA-1 and ζ-Stat downregulate TNF-α induced NF-κB translocation to the nucleus there by inducing apoptosis. Results suggest that PKC-ι is involved in melanoma malignancy than PKC-ζ. Inhibitors proved to be effective under in-vitro conditions and need to be tested in-vivo for the validity as effective therapeutics. Overall, results show that aPKCs are essential for melanoma progression and metastasis and that they could be used as effective therapeutic targets for malignant melanoma.

  10. 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cholangiocarcinoma via GSK-3β/snail signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun-chuang; Wang, Jian-ming; Schemmer, Peter; Ma, Chao-qun; Qian, Ya-wei; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Qi, Wei-peng; Fu, Yang; Feng, Wei; Yang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) invasion and metastasis are the primary causes of poor survival rates in patients. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in cancer invasion and metastasis. However, it is still unclear of the molecular mechanism. In this study, the expression of 14-3-3ζ and atypical protein kinase C-ι (aPKC-ι) was further detected in CCA tissues and cell lines. Meanwhile, we established the EMT model of CCA cells and investigated 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι co-regulatory effect on the EMT in vitro and in vivo. Further, we identified the downstream molecular glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β)/Snail signalling pathway that contribute to regulating the EMT. Our data showed that the expression of 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι was synergistically increased in CCA tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues and was intimately associated with differentiation and the tumour-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that high 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι expression separately predicted a poor prognosis and were independent prognostic indicators in patients with CCA. The CO-IP experiment confirmed that the mutual binding relationship between 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι. Small interfering RNAs and siRNA rescue experiment demonstrated that 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι regulated each other. In addition, 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι pretreatment by si-RNA inhibit the phosphorylated GSK-3β and Snail expression during EMT. Meanwhile, silence of 14-3-3ζ or aPKC-ι suppressed CCA cells migration, metastasis and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Our study demonstrates that 14-3-3ζ and aPKC-ι synergistically facilitate EMT of CCA via GSK-3β/Snail signalling pathway, and may be potential therapeutic target for CCA. PMID:27409422

  11. [Research advance on mechanism and application of HATs and HDACs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Chang, Rui; You, Jiacong; Zhou, Qinghua

    2013-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common diseases that endanger health and life of people domestically. A number of recurrence and death of lung cancer originated from metastasis. As a key step in metastasis of lung cancer, epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved down-regulation of E-cadherin, as well as regulated by EMT transcription factors. HATs and HDACs is a protein family that catalyzes acetylation and deacetylation of histones. Not only they have vital functions in tumor pathogenesis, but also participate in the EMT of lung cancer. HATs and HDACs interact with certain EMT transcription factors. Moreover, the function of these EMT transcription factors may be regulated by acetylation, which has influence on EMT program in lung cancer. Therefore, this review introduces the event of HATs and HDACs function in EMT of lung cancer, and investigate the molecular mechanism of their interaction. Then, the potential of HDAC inhibitor utilization in the inhibition of EMT and lung cancer therapy were discussed, as to pave the way for the related basic research and clinical practice.

  12. 3,6-dihydroxyflavone suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junli; Chang, Hui; Peng, Xiaoli; Gu, Yeyun; Yi, Long; Zhang, Qianyong; Zhu, Jundong; Mi, Mantian

    2016-06-27

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical developmental program in cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance and in cancer metastasis. Here, our study found that 3,6-DHF could effectively inhibit EMT in BC cells in vitro and in vivo. 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits the formation and proliferation of BCSCs, and consequently reduces the tumor-initiating capacity of tumor cells in NOD/SCID mice. Optical in vivo imaging of cancer metastasis showed that 3,6-DHF administration suppresses the lung metastasis of BC cells in vivo. Further studies indicated that 3,6-DHF down-regulates Notch1, NICD, Hes-1 and c-Myc, consequently decreasing the formation of the functional transcriptional unit of NICD-CSL-MAML, causing Notch signaling inactivation in BC cells. Over-expression of Notch1 or inhibition of miR-34a significantly reduced the inhibitory effects of 3,6-DHF on EMT, CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells. These data indicated that 3,6-DHF effectively inhibits EMT and CSCs, as well as cells migration and invasion in BC cells, in which miR-34a-mediated Notch1 down-regulation plays a crucial role.

  13. LOX-1 activation by oxLDL triggers an epithelial mesenchymal transition and promotes tumorigenic potential in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    González-Chavarría, I; Fernandez, E; Gutierrez, N; González-Horta, E E; Sandoval, F; Cifuentes, P; Castillo, C; Cerro, R; Sanchez, O; Toledo, Jorge R

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of developing prostate cancer with high malignancy stages or metastasis. Recent results demonstrated that LOX-1, a receptor associated with obesity and atherosclerosis, is overexpressed in advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Furthermore, high levels of oxLDL, the main ligand for LOX-1, have been found in patients with advanced prostate cancer. However, the role of LOX-1 in prostate cancer has not been unraveled completely yet. Here, we show that LOX-1 is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and its activation by oxLDL promotes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, through of lowered expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and plakoglobin) and an increased expression of mesenchymal markers (vimentin, N-cadherin, snail, slug, MMP-2 and MMP-9). Consequently, LOX-1 activation by oxLDL promotes actin cytoskeleton restructuration and MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity inducing prostate cancer cell invasion and migration. Additionally, LOX-1 increased the tumorigenic potential of prostate cancer cells and its expression was necessary for tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that oxLDL/LOX-1 could be ones of mechanisms that explain why obese patients with prostate cancer have an accelerated tumor progression and a greater probability of developing metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Emodin ameliorates high glucose induced-podocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition in-vitro and in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingfang; Zheng, Li Yang; Xiao, Wenzhen; Gui, Dingkun; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Niansong

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a potential pathway leading to podocyte depletion and proteinuria in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Here, we investigated the protective effects of Emodin (EMO) on high glucose (HG) induced-podocyte EMT in-vitro and in-vivo. Conditionally immortalized mouse podocytes were exposed to HG with 30 μg /ml of EMO and 1 μmol/ml of integrin-linked kinase (ILK) inhibitor QLT0267 for 24 h. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were treated with EMO at 20 mg· kg(-1)· d(-1) and QLT0267 at 10 mg· kg(-1)· w(-1) p.o., for 12 weeks. Albuminuria and blood glucose level were measured. Immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time PCR were used to detect expression of ILK, the epithelial marker of nephrin and the mesenchymal marker of desmin in-vitro and in-vivo. HG increased podocyte ILK and desmin expression while decreased nephrin expression. However, EMO significantly inhibited ILK and desmin expression and partially restored nephrin expression in HG-stimulated podocytes. These in-vitro observations were further confirmed in-vivo. Treatment with EMO for 12 weeks attenuated albuminuria, renal histopathology and podocyte foot process effacement in diabetic rats. EMO also repressed renal ILK and desmin expression, preserved nephrin expression, as well as ameliorated albuminuria in STZ-induced diabetic rats. EMO ameliorated glucose-induced EMT and subsequent podocyte dysfunction partly through ILK and desmin inhibition as well as nephrin upregulatiotion, which might provide a potential novel therapeutic option for DKD. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Schizandrin inhibits fibrosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in transforming growth factor-β1-stimulated AML12 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-hyun; Yoon, Jaewoo

    2015-04-01

    The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 plays a crucial role in the induction of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocytes, which contributes to the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. The inhibition of the TGF-β1 cascade suppresses EMT and the resultant fibrosis. Schizandrin (Sch) has various therapeutic effects on a range of medical conditions such as anti-asthmatic, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effect of Sch on TGF-β1-stimulated hepatic fibrosis and EMT is still unknown. In the present investigation, we evaluated the anti-fibrotic and anti-EMT properties of Sch and its underlying mechanisms in murine hepatocyte AML12 cells. Overall, we found that Sch inhibited the pro-fibrotic activity of TGF-β1 in AML12 cells; thus, it suppressed the accumulation of ECM proteins. Also, Sch inhibited the EMT as assessed by reduced expression of vimentin and fibronectin, and increased E-cadherin and ZO-1 in TGF-β1 induced AML12 cells. Sch reduced TGF-β1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and Smad3/4 DNA binding activity. On the other hand, Sch reduced TGF-β1-induced ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt phosphorylation in the non-Smad pathway. In conclusion, Sch can antagonize TGF-β1-mediated fibrosis and EMT in AML12 cells. Sch may possess potential as an anti-fibrotic molecule in the treatment of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic review of the old and new concepts in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gurzu, Simona; Silveanu, Camelia; Fetyko, Annamaria; Butiurca, Vlad; Kovacs, Zsolt; Jung, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as the transformation of an epithelial cell into a spindle cell with the loss of membrane E-cadherin expression and the gain of mesenchymal markers positivity. In the field of colorectal cancer (CRC), first data about EMT was published in 1995 and more than 400 papers had been written up to March 2016. Most of them are focused on the molecular pathways and experimentally-proved chemoresistance. In the present article, an update in the field of EMT in CRC based on the review of the literature and personal experience of the authors is presented. The information about the molecular and immunohistochemical (IHC) particularities of these processes and their possible role in the prognosis of CRC were also up-dated. This article focuses on the IHC quantification of the EMT, the immunoprofile of tumor buds and on the relation between EMT, angiogenesis, and stem cells activation. The EMT-induced chemoresistance vs chemotherapy- or radiotherapy-induced EMT and cellular senescence was also synthesized for both conventional and targeted therapy. As a future perspective, the EMT-angiogenesis-stemness link could be used as a possible valuable parameter for clinical follow-up and targeted therapeutic oncologic management of patients with CRC. Association of dexamethasone and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors combined with conventional chemotherapies could have clinical benefits in patients with CRC. The main conclusion is that, although many studies have been published, the EMT features are still incompletely elucidated and newly discovered EMT markers provide confusing data in understanding this complicated process, which might have significant clinical impact. PMID:27570416

  17. ShaoYao decoction ameliorates colitis-associated colorectal cancer by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines and promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Shaoyao decoction (SYD) is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription formulated by Liu Wan-Su, a master of traditional Chinese medicine in Jin-Yuan Dynasty. SYD is effective in treating ulcerative colitis. Paeonol, a component of SYD, inhibits colorectal cancer (CRC) cell proliferation and induces CRC cell apoptosis. In this study, azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)–induced colitis-associated CRC (caCRC) model and CRC cell lines were used to examine the effects of SYD on CRC in vivo and in vitro. Methods A translational medicine strategy based on phytomics quality control was adopted. Liquid chromatography was employed for the chemical characterization and chemical fingerprinting of SYD. Protein expression and macrophage existence were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Serum cytokines were quantified by Luminex assay. Results AOM/DSS-induced caCRC phenotypically resembled human caCRC. SYD significantly increased the survival rate of the mice, ameliorated the general well-being of the mice, and reduced the incidence and multiplicity of colonic neoplasms. SYD inhibited epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), as indicated by upregulated epithelia cadherin and downregulated neuronal cadherin, fibronectin, vimentin, and transcription factor Snail. SYD reduced the expression levels of serum interleukin 1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor α, tumor-associated macrophages, and p65. These results showed that SYD can attenuate proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit EMT. Conclusions SYD ameliorates caCRC by suppressing inflammation and inhibiting EMT. SYD might be an alternative therapy for caCRC. PMID:24766737

  18. Luteolin attenuates TGF-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells by interfering in the PI3K/Akt-NF-κB-Snail pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Ru; Lin, Chih-Ju; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Wu, Li-Chen; Wu, Chun-Chi

    2013-12-05

    Luteolin is a natural flavonoid that possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer abilities. Whether luteolin regulates the transformation ability of lung cancer cells remains unclear. The current study aims to uncover the effects and underlying mechanisms of luteolin in regulation of and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of lung cancer cells. The lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were used in this experiment; the cells were pretreated with luteolin followed by administration with TGF-β1. The expression levels of various cadherin and related upstream regulatory modules were examined. Pretreatment of luteolin prevented the morphological change and downregulation of E-cadherin of A549 cells induced by TGF-β1. In addition, the activation of PI3K-Akt-IκBa-NF-κB-Snail pathway which leads to the decline of E-cadherin induced by TGF-β1 was also attenuated under the pretreatment of luteolin. We provide the mechanisms about how luteolin attenuated the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of A549 lung cancer cells induced by TGF-β1. This finding will strengthen the anti-cancer effects of flavonoid compounds via the regulation of migration/invasion and EMT ability of various cancer cells. © 2013.

  19. Hsp27 participates in the maintenance of breast cancer stem cells through regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and nuclear factor-κB

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are normally induced under environmental stress to serve as chaperones for maintenance of correct protein folding but they are often overexpressed in many cancers, including breast cancer. The expression of Hsp27, an ATP-independent small HSP, is associated with cell migration and drug resistance of breast cancer cells. Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) have been identified as a subpopulation of breast cancer cells with markers of CD24-CD44+ or high intracellular aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH+) and proved to be associated with radiation resistance and metastasis. However, the involvement of Hsp27 in the maintenance of BCSC is largely unknown. Methods Mitogen-activated protein kinase antibody array and Western blot were used to discover the expression of Hsp27 and its phosphorylation in ALDH + BCSCs. To study the involvement of Hsp27 in BCSC biology, siRNA mediated gene silencing and quercetin treatment were used to inhibit Hsp27 expression and the characters of BCSCs, which include ALDH+ population, mammosphere formation and cell migration, were analyzed simultaneously. The tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells after knockdown of Hsp27 was analyzed by xenograftment assay in NOD/SCID mice. The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells was analyzed by wound-healing assay and Western blot of snail, vimentin and E-cadherin expression. The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was analyzed by luciferase-based reporter assay and nuclear translocation. Results Hsp27 and its phosphorylation were increased in ALDH+ BCSCs in comparison with ALDH- non-BCSCs. Knockdown of Hsp27 in breast cancer cells decreased characters of BCSCs, such as ALDH+ population, mammosphere formation and cell migration. In addition, the in vivo CSC frequency could be diminished in Hsp27 knockdown breast cancer cells. The inhibitory effects could also be observed in cells treated with quercetin, a plant flavonoid inhibitor of

  20. Transforming growth factor β1 signaling coincides with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation in the development of adenomyosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Minhong; Liu, Xishi; Zhang, Hongqi; Guo, Sun-Wei

    2016-02-01

    Do platelets have any role in the development of adenomyosis? Activated platelets coincide with the release of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and induction of the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway as well as evidence of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT) in a mouse model of adenomyosis, resulting ultimately in fibrosis, as in adenomyosis. Both EMT and FMT are known to play vital roles in fibrogenesis in general and in endometriosis in particular. EMT has been implicated in the development of adenomyosis, but this was based primarily on cross-sectional observation. It is unclear as to whether adenomyotic lesions and their microenvironment have the machinery to promote EMT and FMT, resulting ultimately in fibrosis. There has not been any published study on the role of platelets in the development of adenomyosis, even though adenomyotic lesions undergo repeated cycles of tissue injury and repair, which implicates the involvement of platelets and constitutes an environment conducive for fibrogenesis. Adenomyosis was induced in 28 female ICR mice by neonatal dosing of tamoxifen. Another 32 were neonatally dosed without tamoxifen. These mice were sacrificed serially and their tissue samples were subsequently evaluated. Female ICR mice with and without induced adenomyosis were sacrificed in batch at 5, 10, 15, 42 and 60 days of age. The depth of myometrial infiltration of endometrial tissues was assessed and immunohistochemistry analysis of biomarkers of EMT and FMT, as well as TGF-β1, phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3) and markers of proliferation, angiogenesis and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposits was performed in ectopic (for adenomyotic mice) and eutopic (controls) endometrial tissue samples. Masson trichrome and Van Gieson stainings were performed to quantify the extent of fibrosis in lesions. Progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) staining also was performed. While TGF-β1 immunoreactivity was

  1. [S100A7 promotes the metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition on HeLa and CaSki cells].

    PubMed

    Tian, T; Hua, Z; Wang, L Z; Wang, X Y; Chen, H Y; Liu, Z H; Cui, Z M

    2018-02-25

    Objective: To elucidate the impact of over-expression of S100A7 on migration, invasion, proliferation, cell cycle, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human cervical cancer HeLa and CaSki cells. Methods: (1) Immunohistochemistry of SP was used to examine the expression of S100A7 in 40 cases of squamous cervical cancer tissues and 20 cases of normal cervical tissues. (2) The vectors of pLVX-IRES-Neo-S100A7 and pLVX-IRES-Neo were used to transfect human cervical cancer HeLa and CaSki cells, and the positive clones were screened and identified. Next, transwell migration assay, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and fluorescence activating cell sorter (FACS) were used to detect the effect of S100A7-overexpression on the migration, invasion, proliferation and cell cycle of cervical cancer cells. Furthermore, western blot was performed to observe the expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin, and fibronectin) of EMT. Results: (1) S100A7 expression was significantly higher in cervical squamous cancer tissues (median 91.6) than that in normal cervical tissues (median 52.1; Z=- 2.948, P= 0.003) . (2) Stable S100A7-overexpressed cells were established using lentiviral-mediated gene delivery in HeLa and CaSki cells. S100A7 was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR, S100A7 mRNA of S100A7-overexpressed cells were 119±3 and 177±16, increased significantly compared with control groups of median ( P< 0.01) . Compared with the control cells, the number of S100A7-overexpressed HeLa and CaSki cells that passed the transwell membrane assay were increased significanatly (572±51 vs 337±25, P< 0.01; 100±8 vs 41±4, P< 0.01) .Matrigel invasion assay showed that the number of S100A7-overexpressed HeLa and CaSki cells that passed the transwell membrane were respectively 441±15 and 110±14, elevated significantly compared with control cells (156±21 and 59±7; P< 0.05) . However, S100A7 overexpression

  2. Leptin-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer Cells Requires β-Catenin Activation via Akt/GSK3- and MTA1/Wnt1 Protein-dependent Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dan; Avtanski, Dimiter; Saxena, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Dipali

    2012-01-01

    Perturbations in the adipocytokine profile, especially higher levels of leptin, are a major cause of breast tumor progression and metastasis; the underlying mechanisms, however, are not well understood. In particular, it remains elusive whether leptin is involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we provide molecular evidence that leptin induces breast cancer cells to undergo a transition from epithelial to spindle-like mesenchymal morphology. Investigating the downstream mediator(s) that may direct leptin-induced EMT, we found functional interactions between leptin, metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), and Wnt1 signaling components. Leptin increases accumulation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin leading to increased promoter recruitment. Silencing of β-catenin or treatment with the small molecule inhibitor, ICG-001, inhibits leptin-induced EMT, invasion, and tumorsphere formation. Mechanistically, leptin stimulates phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) via Akt activation resulting in a substantial decrease in the formation of the GSK3β-LKB1-Axin complex that leads to increased accumulation of β-catenin. Leptin treatment also increases Wnt1 expression that contributes to GSK3β phosphorylation. Inhibition of Wnt1 abrogates leptin-stimulated GSK3β phosphorylation. We also discovered that leptin increases the expression of an important modifier of Wnt1 signaling, MTA1, which is integral to leptin-mediated regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as silencing of MTA1 inhibits leptin-induced Wnt1 expression, GSK3β phosphorylation, and β-catenin activation. Furthermore, analysis of leptin-treated breast tumors shows increased expression of Wnt1, pGSK3β, and vimentin along with higher nuclear accumulation of β-catenin and reduced E-cadherin expression providing in vivo evidence for a previously unrecognized cross-talk between leptin and MTA1/Wnt signaling in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast cancer cells. PMID

  3. Effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Zhou, Xin; Jia, Hong-Jun; Du, Mei; Zhang, Jin-Ling; Li, Liang

    2016-08-01

    To study the effect of hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue on cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in tumor tissue of gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice. BABL/c nude mice were selected as experimental animals and gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice model were established by subcutaneous injection of gastric cancer cells, randomly divided into different intervention groups. hGC-MSCs group were given different amounts of gastric cancer cells for subcutaneous injection, PBS group was given equal volume of PBS for subcutaneous injection. Then tumor tissue volume were determined, tumor-bearing mice were killed and tumor tissues were collected, mRNA expression of proliferation, invasion, EMT-related molecules were determined. 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 d after intervention, tumor tissue volume of hGC-MSCs group were significantly higher than those of PBS group and the more the number of hGC-MSCs, the higher the tumor tissue volume; mRNA contents of Ki-67, PCNA, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9, MMP-14, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail and Twist in tumor tissue of hGC-MSCs group were higher than those of PBS group, and mRNA contents of Bax, TIMP1, TIMP2 and E-cadherin were lower than those of PBS group. hGC-MSCs from human gastric cancer tissue can promote the tumor growth in gastric cancer tumor-bearing mice, and the molecular mechanism includes promoting cell proliferation, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit fibrillin microfibrils.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Andrew K; Cain, Stuart A; Lennon, Rachel; Godwin, Alan; Merry, Catherine L R; Kielty, Cay M

    2014-01-01

    Here, we show that epithelial-mesenchymal status influences how cells deposit extracellular matrix. Retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells that expressed high levels of E-cadherin and had cell-cell junctions rich in zona occludens (ZO)-1, β-catenin and heparan sulfate, required syndecan-4 but not fibronectin or protein kinase C α (PKCα) to assemble extracellular matrix (fibrillin microfibrils and perlecan). In contrast, RPE cells that strongly expressed mesenchymal smooth muscle α-actin but little ZO-1 or E-cadherin, required fibronectin (like fibroblasts) and PKCα, but not syndecan-4. Integrins α5β1 and/or α8β1 and actomyosin tension were common requirements for microfibril deposition, as was heparan sulfate biosynthesis. TGFβ, which stimulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition, altered gene expression and overcame the dependency on syndecan-4 for microfibril deposition in epithelial RPE cells, whereas blocking cadherin interactions disrupted microfibril deposition. Renal podocytes had a transitional phenotype with pericellular β-catenin but little ZO-1; they required syndecan-4 and fibronectin for efficient microfibril deposition. Thus, epithelial-mesenchymal status modulates microfibril deposition.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and nuclear β-catenin induced by conditional intestinal disruption of Cdh1 with Apc is E-cadherin EC1 domain dependent

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Emma J.; Barnes, David; Hoppe, Hans-Jürgen; Hughes, Jennifer; Cobbold, Stephen; Harper, James; Morreau, Hans; Surakhy, Mirvat; Hassan, A. Bassim

    2016-01-01

    Two important protein-protein interactions establish E-cadherin (Cdh1) in the adhesion complex; homophilic binding via the extra-cellular (EC1) domain and cytoplasmic tail binding to β-catenin. Here, we evaluate whether E-cadherin binding can inhibit β-catenin when there is loss of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) from the β-catenin destruction complex. Combined conditional loss of Cdh1 and Apc were generated in the intestine, intestinal adenoma and adenoma organoids. Combined intestinal disruption (Cdh1fl/flApcfl/flVil-CreERT2) resulted in lethality, breakdown of the intestinal barrier, increased Wnt target gene expression and increased nuclear β-catenin localization, suggesting that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin. Combination with an intestinal stem cell Cre (Lgr5CreERT2) resulted in ApcΔ/Δ recombination and adenoma, but intact Cdh1fl/fl alleles. Cultured ApcΔ/ΔCdh1fl/fl adenoma cells infected with adenovirus-Cre induced Cdh1fl/fl recombination (Cdh1Δ/Δ), disruption of organoid morphology, nuclear β-catenin localization, and cells with an epithelial-mesenchymal phenotype. Complementation with adenovirus expressing wild-type Cdh1 (Cdh1-WT) rescued adhesion and β-catenin membrane localization, yet an EC1 specific double mutant defective in homophilic adhesion (Cdh1-MutW2A, S78W) did not. These data suggest that E-cadherin inhibits β-catenin in the context of disruption of the APC-destruction complex, and that this function is also EC1 domain dependent. Both binding functions of E-cadherin may be required for its tumour suppressor activity. PMID:27566565

  6. Malignant Pleural Effusion and ascites Induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem-like Cell Properties via the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Akt/Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Tao; Wang, Guoping; He, Sisi; Shen, Guobo; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Xiawei; Ye, Tinghong; Li, Ling; Yang, Shengyong; Li, Dan; Guo, Fuchun; Mo, Zeming; Wan, Yang; Ai, Ping; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Liu, Yantong; Wang, Yongsheng; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    Malignant pleural effusion (PE) and ascites, common clinical manifestations in advanced cancer patients, are associated with a poor prognosis. However, the biological characteristics of malignant PE and ascites are not clarified. Here we report that malignant PE and ascites can induce a frequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition program and endow tumor cells with stem cell properties with high efficiency, which promotes tumor growth, chemoresistance, and immune evasion. We determine that this epithelial-mesenchymal transition process is mainly dependent on VEGF, one initiator of the PI3K/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. From the clinical observation, we define a therapeutic option with VEGF antibody for malignant PE and ascites. Taken together, our findings clarify a novel biological characteristic of malignant PE and ascites in cancer progression and provide a promising and available strategy for cancer patients with recurrent/refractory malignant PE and ascites. PMID:27756837

  7. Vasohibin 2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer via activation of transforming growth factor β 1 and hypoxia dependent repression of GATA-binding factor 3.

    PubMed

    Tu, Min; Li, Zhanjun; Liu, Xian; Lv, Nan; Xi, Chunhua; Lu, Zipeng; Wei, Jishu; Song, Guoxin; Chen, Jianmin; Guo, Feng; Jiang, Kuirong; Wang, Shui; Gao, Wentao; Miao, Yi

    2017-03-01

    Vasohibin 2 (VASH2) is identified as an angiogenic factor, and has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To investigate the EMT role of VASH2 in breast cancer, we overexpressed or knocked down expression of VASH2 in human breast cancer cell lines. We observed that VASH2 induced EMT in vitro and in vivo. The transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) pathway was activated by VASH2, and expression of a dominant negative TGFβ type II receptor could block VASH2-mediated EMT. In clinical breast cancer tissues VASH2 positively correlated with TGFβ1 expression, but negatively correlated with E-cadherin (a marker of EMT) expression. Under hypoxic conditions in vitro or in vivo, we found that down-regulation of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) in VASH2 overexpressing ESR1 positive cells suppressed E-cadherin. Correlation coefficient analysis indicated that VASH2 and ESR1 expression were negatively correlated in clinical human breast cancer tissues. Further study revealed that a transcription factor of ESR1, GATA-binding factor 3 (GATA3), was down-regulated by VASH2 under hypoxia or in vivo. These findings suggest that VASH2 drives breast cancer cells to undergo EMT by activation of the TGFβ1 pathway and hypoxia dependent repression GATA3-ESR1 pathway, leading to cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tg737 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties via a negative feedback circuit between Snail and HNF4α during liver stem cell malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qike; Pu, Meng; Zhao, Ge; Dai, Bin; Bian, Zhenyuan; Tang, Haili; Chen, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qu, Xuan; Shen, Liangliang; Tao, Kaishan

    2017-08-28

    Determining the origin of liver cancer stem cells is important for treating hepatocellular carcinoma. Tg737 deficiency plays an important role in the malignant transformation of liver stem cells, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we established a chemical-induced mouse hepatoma model and found that Tg737 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) expression decreased and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related marker expression increased during liver cancer development. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we knocked down Tg737 in WB-F344 (WB) rat hepatic oval cells. Loss of Tg737 resulted in nuclear β-catenin accumulation and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which further promoted EMT and the malignant phenotype. XAV939, a β-catenin inhibitor, attenuated WB cell malignant transformation due to Tg737 knockdown. To clarify the relationships of Tg737, the β-catenin pathway, and HNF4α, we inhibited Snail and overexpressed HNF4α after Tg737 knockdown in WB cells and found that Snail and HNF4α comprise a negative feedback circuit. Taken together, the results showed that Tg737 regulates a Wnt/β-catenin/Snail-HNF4α negative feedback circuit, thereby blocking EMT and the malignant transformation of liver stem cells to liver cancer stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Zipper-interacting protein kinase promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion and metastasis through AKT and NF-κB signaling and is associated with metastasis and poor prognosis in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Longjuan; Su, Qiao; Lai, Yingrong; Li, Bin; Luo, Zexing; Chen, Xu; Chen, Yu; Huang, Xiaohui; Ma, Jieyi; Wang, Wenjian; Bi, Jiong; Guan, Xinyuan

    2015-01-01

    Zipper-interacting Protein Kinase (ZIPK) belongs to the death-associated protein kinase family. ZIPK has been characterized as a tumor suppressor in various tumors, including gastric cancer. On the other hand, ZIPK also promotes cell survival. In this study, both in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that ZIPK promoted cell growth, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumor formation and metastasis in nude mice. ZIPK induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with increasing expression of β-catenin, mesenchymal markers, Snail and Slug, and with decreasing expression of E-cadherin. Furthermore, ZIPK activated the AKT/IκB/NF-κB pathway, which can promote EMT and metastasis. Additionally, ZIPK expression was detected in human primary gastric cancer and their matched metastatic lymph node samples by immunohistochemistry. Increased expression of ZIPK in lymph node metastases was significantly associated with stage VI and abdominal organ invasion. Survival analysis revealed that patients with increased ZIPK expression in metastatic lymph nodes had poor disease-specific survival. Taken together, our study reveals that ZIPK is a pro-oncogenic factor, which promotes cancer metastasis. PMID:25831050

  11. Expression of Clonorchis sinensis GIIIsPLA2 protein in baculovirus-infected insect cells and its overexpression facilitating epithelial-mesenchymal transition in Huh7 cells via AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mei; Xie, Zhizhi; Tang, Zeli; He, Lei; Wang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Caiqin; Wu, Yinjuan; Li, Ye; Zhao, Lu; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing; Li, Xuerong

    2017-04-01

    Although prior studies confirmed that group III secretory phospholipase A 2 of Clonorchis sinensis (CsGIIIsPLA 2 ) had stimulating effect on liver fibrosis by binding to LX-2 cells, large-scale expression of recombinant protein and its function in the progression of hepatoma are worth exploring. Because of high productivity and low lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in the Sf9-baculovirus expression system, we firstly used this system to express the coding region of CsGIIIsPLA 2 . The molecular weight of recombinant CsGIIIsPLA 2 protein was about 34 kDa. Further investigation showed that most of the recombinant protein presented intracellular expression in Sf9 insect cell nucleus and could be detected only into cell debris, which made the protein purification and further functional study difficult. Therefore, to study the role of CsGIIIsPLA 2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression, CsGIIIsPLA 2 overexpression Huh7 cell model was applied. Cell proliferation, migration, and the expression level of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, α-catenin, Vimentin, p300, Snail, and Slug) along with possible mechanism were measured. The results indicated that CsGIIIsPLA 2 overexpression not only inhibited cell proliferation and promoted migration and EMT but also enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT in HCC cells. In conclusion, this study supported that CsGIIIsPLA 2 overexpression suppressed cell proliferation and induced EMT through the AKT pathway.

  12. Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition and EGFR-TKI resistance of non-small cell lung cancers via HGF/IGF-1/ANXA2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yanmei; Zeng, Shanshan; Wang, Zhaotong; Wu, Minhua; Ma, Yuanhuan; Ye, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Hao

    2018-03-01

    The involvement of the tumor stromal cells in acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has previously been reported, but the precise mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role and mechanism underlying Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in TKI resistance of NSCLCs. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that HCC827 and PC9 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cells with EGFR-activating mutations, became resistant to the EGFR-TKI gefitinib when cultured with CAFs isolated from NSCLC tissues. Moreover, we showed that CAFs could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype of HCC827 and PC9 cells, with an associated change in the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition markers. Using proteomics-based method, we identified that CAFs significantly increased the expression of the Annexin A2 (ANXA2). More importantly, knockdown of ANXA2 completely reversed EMT phenotype and gefitinib resistance induced by CAFs. Furthermore, we found that CAFs increased the expression and phosphorylation of ANXA2 by secretion of growth factors HGF and IGF-1 and by activation of the corresponding receptors c-met and IGF-1R. Dual inhibition of HGF/c-met and IGF-1/IGF-1R pathways could significantly suppress ANXA2, and markedly reduced CAFs-induced EMT and gefitinib resistance. Taken together, these findings indicate that CAFs promote EGFR-TKIs resistance through HGF/IGF-1/ANXA2/EMT signaling and may be an ideal therapeutic target in NSCLCs with EGFR-activating mutations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-β1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells via the NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanfei; Zhu, Guoqiang; Zhai, Huihong; Jia, Junmei; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lixin

    2018-05-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is critical in the progression of numerous types of carcinoma, and endows invasive and metastatic properties upon cancer cells. The tumor microenvironment facilitates tumor metastasis to distant organs. Various signaling pathways contribute to this process. In the present study, SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cells were treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1; 10 ng/ml) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 20 ng/ml), alone or in combination, for 72 h, and EMT was assessed using immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and migration assays. The functions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways in EMT were examined. It was demonstrated that the cooperation of TGF-β1 and TNF-α signaling promoted the morphological conversion of the SW480 cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. Furthermore, simultaneous exposure to TNF-α and TGF-β1 downregulated the expression of E-cadherin (an epithelial marker) and increased the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin (mesenchymal markers). Additionally, the migratory capacity of the SW480 cells increased. The inhibition of p38 and ERK signaling exhibited no effect on EMT, whereas the inhibition of inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit β blocked the EMT induced by TGF-β1 and TNF-α. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that TNF-α and TGF-β1 synergistically promoted EMT in SW480 cells via the NF-κB pathway, independent of p38 activation and ERK1/2 signaling. These results suggest a novel function of TGF-β1 and TNF-α during EMT in colon carcinoma and, thus, provide insights into potential therapeutic interventions.

  14. Cancer-associated fibroblasts in a human HEp-2 established laryngeal xenografted tumor are not derived from cancer cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition, phenotypically activated but karyotypically normal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Wu, Chun-Ping; Pan, Jun-Yan; Zheng, Wen-Wei; Cao, Xiao-Juan; Fan, Guo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in cancer progression and even initiation. However, the origins of CAFs in various cancer types remain controversial, and one of the important hypothesized origins is through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) from cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells are able to generate CAFs via EMT during tumor formation, which is now still unknown. The laryngeal xenografted tumor model was established by inoculating the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cell line in nude mice. Primary cultured CAFs from the tumor nodules and matched normal fibroblasts (NFs) from the adjacent connective tissues were subcultured, purified, and verified by immunofluorescence. Migration, invasion, and proliferation potentials were compared between the CAFs and NFs. A co-culture of CAFs with HEp-2 cells and a co-injection of CAFs with HEp-2 cells in nude mice were performed to examine the cancer-promoting potential of CAFs to further verify their identity. Karyotypic analyses of the CAFs, NFs, and HEp-2 cells were conducted. A co-culture of NFs with HEp-2 cells was also performed to examine the expression of activated markers of CAFs. A pathological examination confirmed that the laryngeal xenografted tumor model was successfully established, containing abundant CAFs. Immunocytochemical staining verified the purities and identities of the CAFs and NFs. Although the CAFs manifested higher migration, invasion, proliferation, and cancer-promoting capacities compared with the NFs, an analysis of chromosomes revealed that both the CAFs and NFs showed typical normal mouse karyotypes. In addition, the NFs co-cultured with HEp-2 cells did not show induced expressions of activated markers of CAFs. Our findings reveal that the CAFs in the HEp-2 established laryngeal xenografted tumor are not of laryngeal cancer origin but of mouse origin, indicating that the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells cannot generate their

  15. Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts in a Human HEp-2 Established Laryngeal Xenografted Tumor Are Not Derived from Cancer Cells through Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Phenotypically Activated but Karyotypically Normal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Wu, Chun-Ping; Pan, Jun-Yan; Zheng, Wen-Wei; Cao, Xiao-Juan; Fan, Guo-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in cancer progression and even initiation. However, the origins of CAFs in various cancer types remain controversial, and one of the important hypothesized origins is through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) from cancer cells. In this study, we investigated whether the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells are able to generate CAFs via EMT during tumor formation, which is now still unknown. The laryngeal xenografted tumor model was established by inoculating the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cell line in nude mice. Primary cultured CAFs from the tumor nodules and matched normal fibroblasts (NFs) from the adjacent connective tissues were subcultured, purified, and verified by immunofluorescence. Migration, invasion, and proliferation potentials were compared between the CAFs and NFs. A co-culture of CAFs with HEp-2 cells and a co-injection of CAFs with HEp-2 cells in nude mice were performed to examine the cancer-promoting potential of CAFs to further verify their identity. Karyotypic analyses of the CAFs, NFs, and HEp-2 cells were conducted. A co-culture of NFs with HEp-2 cells was also performed to examine the expression of activated markers of CAFs. A pathological examination confirmed that the laryngeal xenografted tumor model was successfully established, containing abundant CAFs. Immunocytochemical staining verified the purities and identities of the CAFs and NFs. Although the CAFs manifested higher migration, invasion, proliferation, and cancer-promoting capacities compared with the NFs, an analysis of chromosomes revealed that both the CAFs and NFs showed typical normal mouse karyotypes. In addition, the NFs co-cultured with HEp-2 cells did not show induced expressions of activated markers of CAFs. Our findings reveal that the CAFs in the HEp-2 established laryngeal xenografted tumor are not of laryngeal cancer origin but of mouse origin, indicating that the HEp-2 laryngeal cancer cells cannot generate their

  16. Enterolactone modulates the ERK/NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway in triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 to revert the TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Mali, Aniket V; Joshi, Asavari A; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Kadam, Shivajirao S

    2018-05-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly metastatic, and there is an urgent unmet need to develop novel therapeutic strategies leading to the new drug discoveries against metastasis. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is known to promote the invasive and migratory potential of breast cancer cells through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via the ERK/NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway, leading to breast cancer metastasis. Targeting this pathway to revert the EMT would be an attractive, novel therapeutic strategy to halt breast cancer metastasis. Effects of enterolactone (EL) on the cell cycle and apoptosis were investigated using flow cytometry and a cleaved caspase-3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Effects of TGF-β induction and EL treatment on the functional malignancy of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were investigated using migration and chemo-invasion assays. The effects of EL on EMT markers and the ERK/NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway after TGF-β induction were studied using confocal microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), Western blot, and flow cytometry. Herein, we report that EL exhibits a significant antimetastatic effect on MDA-MB-231 cells by almost reverting the TGF-β-induced EMT in vitro . EL downregulates the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and vimentin, and upregulates the epithelial markers E-cadherin and occludin. It represses actin stress fiber formation via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase p-38 (MAPK-p38) and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44). EL also suppresses ERK-1/2, NF-κB, and Snail at the mRNA and protein levels. Briefly, EL was found to inhibit TGF-β-induced EMT by blocking the ERK/NF-κB/Snail signaling pathway, which is a promising target for breast cancer metastasis therapy.

  17. The mechanisms for lung cancer risk of PM2.5 : Induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Liang, Fan; Cheng, Wei; Zhou, Ren; Wu, Xiaomeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a major component of air pollutions that are closely associated with increased risk of lung cancer. However, the role of PM 2.5 in the etiology of lung cancer is largely unknown. In this study, we performed acute (24 hours) and chronic (five passages) exposure models to investigate the carcinogenetic mechanisms of PM 2.5 by targeting the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSC) properties in human non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549. We found that both acute and chronic PM 2.5 exposure enhanced cell migration and invasion, decreased mRNA expression of epithelial markers and increased mRNA expression of mesenchymal markers. Chronic PM 2.5 exposure further induced notable EMT morphology and CSC properties, indicating the developing process of cell malignant behaviors from acute to chronic PM 2.5 exposure. CSC properties induced by chronic PM 2.5 exposure characterized with increased cell-surface markers (CD44, ABCG2), self-renewal genes (SOX2 and OCT4), side population cells and neoplastic capacity. Furthermore, the levels of three stemness-associated microRNAs, Let-7a, miR-16 and miR-34a, were found to be significantly downregulated by chronic PM 2.5 exposure, with microarray data analysis from TCGA database showing their lower expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissues than that in the adjacent normal lung tissues. These data revealed that the induction of EMT and CSC properties were involved in the lung cancer risk of PM 2.5 , and implicated CSC properties and related microRNAs as possible biomarkers for carcinogenicity prediction of PM 2.5 . © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane Suppressed Cyprodinil-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Metastatic-Related Behaviors of Human Endometrial Ishikawa Cells via an Estrogen Receptor-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Gyoung; Kim, Jin-Wook; Kim, Soo-Min; Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2018-01-01

    Cyprodinil (CYP) is a pyrimidine amine fungicide that has been extensively used in agricultural areas. 3,3′-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a derivative of the dietary phytoestrogen, indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is derived from cruciferous vegetables and considered to be a cancer-preventive phytonutrient agent. In this study, the effects of CYP and DIM were examined on the cell viability, invasion, and metastasis of human endometrial cancer cells, Ishikawa, via epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). CYP increased the level of cell viability of Ishikawa cells compared to DMSO as a control, as did E2. Ishikawa cells lost cell-to-cell contact and obtained a spindle-shaped or fibroblast-like morphology in response to the application of E2 or CYP by the cell morphology assay. In the cell migration and invasion assay, CYP enhanced the ability of migration and invasion of Ishikawa cells, as did E2. E2 and CYP increased the expressions of N-cadherin and Snail proteins, while decreasing the expression of E-cadherin protein as EMT-related markers. In addition, E2 and CYP increased the protein expressions of cathepsin D and MMP-9, metastasis-related markers. Conversely, CYP-induced EMT, cell migration, and invasion were reversed by fulvestrant (ICI 182,780) as an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, indicating that CYP exerts estrogenic activity by mediating these processes via an ER-dependent pathway. Similar to ICI 182,780, DIM significantly suppressed E2 and CYP-induced proliferation, EMT, migration, and invasion of Ishikawa cancer cells. Overall, the present study revealed that DIM has an antiestrogenic chemopreventive effect to withdraw the cancer-enhancing effect of E2 and CYP, while CYP has the capacity to enhance the metastatic potential of estrogen-responsive endometrial cancer. PMID:29316692

  19. Targeting the Nuclear Cathepsin L CCAAT Displacement Protein/Cut Homeobox Transcription Factor-Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells with the Z-FY-CHO Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Liza J.; Dougan, Jodi; Jones, Jasmine; Smith, Bethany N.; Randle, Diandra; Henderson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes tumor migration and invasion by downregulating epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and upregulating mesenchymal markers such as vimentin. Cathepsin L (Cat L) is a cysteine protease that can proteolytically activate CCAAT displacement protein/cut homeobox transcription factor (CUX1). We hypothesized that nuclear Cat L may promote EMT via CUX1 and that this could be antagonized with the Cat L-specific inhibitor Z-FY-CHO. Mesenchymal prostate (ARCaP-M and ARCaP-E overexpressing Snail) and breast (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 overexpressing Snail) cancer cells expressed lower E-cadherin activity, higher Snail, vimentin, and Cat L activity, and a p110/p90 active CUX1 form, compared to epithelial prostate (ARCaP-E and ARCaP-Neo) and breast (MCF-7 and MCF-7 Neo) cancer cells. There was increased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter in mesenchymal cells compared to epithelial prostate and breast cells. Treatment of mesenchymal cells with the Cat L inhibitor Z-FY-CHO led to nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of Cat L, decreased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter, reversed EMT, and decreased cell migration/invasion. Overall, our novel data suggest that a positive feedback loop between Snail-nuclear Cat L-CUX1 drives EMT, which can be antagonized by Z-FY-CHO. Therefore, Z-FY-CHO may be an important therapeutic tool to antagonize EMT and cancer progression. PMID:27956696

  20. Targeting the Nuclear Cathepsin L CCAAT Displacement Protein/Cut Homeobox Transcription Factor-Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Pathway in Prostate and Breast Cancer Cells with the Z-FY-CHO Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Burton, Liza J; Dougan, Jodi; Jones, Jasmine; Smith, Bethany N; Randle, Diandra; Henderson, Veronica; Odero-Marah, Valerie A

    2017-03-01

    The epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes tumor migration and invasion by downregulating epithelial markers such as E-cadherin and upregulating mesenchymal markers such as vimentin. Cathepsin L (Cat L) is a cysteine protease that can proteolytically activate CCAAT displacement protein/cut homeobox transcription factor (CUX1). We hypothesized that nuclear Cat L may promote EMT via CUX1 and that this could be antagonized with the Cat L-specific inhibitor Z-FY-CHO. Mesenchymal prostate (ARCaP-M and ARCaP-E overexpressing Snail) and breast (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7 overexpressing Snail) cancer cells expressed lower E-cadherin activity, higher Snail, vimentin, and Cat L activity, and a p110/p90 active CUX1 form, compared to epithelial prostate (ARCaP-E and ARCaP-Neo) and breast (MCF-7 and MCF-7 Neo) cancer cells. There was increased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter in mesenchymal cells compared to epithelial prostate and breast cells. Treatment of mesenchymal cells with the Cat L inhibitor Z-FY-CHO led to nuclear-to-cytoplasmic relocalization of Cat L, decreased binding of CUX1 to Snail and the E-cadherin promoter, reversed EMT, and decreased cell migration/invasion. Overall, our novel data suggest that a positive feedback loop between Snail-nuclear Cat L-CUX1 drives EMT, which can be antagonized by Z-FY-CHO. Therefore, Z-FY-CHO may be an important therapeutic tool to antagonize EMT and cancer progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Eya2 Is Required to Mediate the Pro-Metastatic Functions of Six1 Via the Induction of TGF-β Signaling, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and Cancer Stem Cell Properties

    PubMed Central

    Farabaugh, Susan M.; Micalizzi, Douglas S.; Jedlicka, Paul; Zhao, Rui; Ford, Heide L.

    2011-01-01

    Six1 is a critical regulator of embryonic development that requires interaction with the Eya family of proteins (Eya1-4) to activate the transcription of genes involved in neurogenesis, myogenesis, and nephrogenesis. While expression of Six1 and Eya family members is predominantly observed in development, their overexpression is observed in numerous cancers. Importantly, both Six1 and Eya have independently been shown to mediate breast cancer metastasis, but whether they functionally interact during tumor progression has not been explored. Herein we demonstrate that knockdown of Eya2 in MCF7 mammary carcinoma cells reverses the ability of Six1 to induce TGF-β signaling, as well as to induce characteristics associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs), suggesting that Six1 is dependent on Eya2 to mediate numerous pro-metastatic characteristics. The importance of the Six1/Eya interaction in human breast cancer is underscored by the finding that high levels of Six1 correlate with shortened time to relapse and metastasis as well as decreased survival only when co-expressed with high levels of Eya2. Overall, these data implicate Eya2 as a necessary cofactor for many of the metastasis promoting functions of Six1, suggesting that targeting the Six1/Eya interaction may inhibit breast cancer progression. Since Six1 and Eya2 are not highly expressed in most adult tissues, the Six1-Eya interaction may be a valuable future therapeutic target whose inhibition would be expected to impair breast cancer progression while conferring limited side effects. PMID:21706047

  2. The over expression of long non-coding RNA ANRIL promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer: An in vivo and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi; Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Chen, Jiang-Zhi; Chen, Hui-Xing; Qiu, Fu-Nan; Yan, Mao-Lin; Chen, Yan-Ling; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Tian, Yi-Feng; Wang, Yao-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the roles of lncRNA ANRIL in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by regulating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer (PC). PC rat models were established and ANRIL overexpression and interference plasmids were transfected. The expression of ANRIL, EMT markers (E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Vimentin) and ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway-related proteins (ATM, E2F1, INK4A, INK4B and ARF) were detected. Small molecule drugs were applied to activate and inhibit the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Transwell assay and the scratch test were adopted to detect cell invasion and migration abilities. ANRIL expression in the PC cells was higher than in normal pancreatic duct epithelial cells. In the PC rat models and PC cells, ANRIL interference promoted the expressions of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, while reduced N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Over-expressed ANRIL decreased the expression of INK4B, INK4A, ARF and E-cadherin, but raised N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions. By inhibiting the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway in PC cells, E-cadherin expression increased but N-cadherin and Vimentin expressions decreased. After ANRIL was silenced or the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway inhibited, PC cell migration and invasion abilities were decreased. In conclusion, over-expression of lncRNA ANRIL can promote EMT of PC cells by activating the ATM-E2F1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of FOXP3+T-cells in the tumor microenvironment is associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-type tumor budding phenotype and is an independent prognostic factor in surgically resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, Martin; Zlobec, Inti; Perren, Aurel; Koelzer, Viktor Hendrik; Gloor, Beat; Lugli, Alessandro; Eva, Karamitopoulou

    2015-01-01

    Here we explore the role of the interplay between host immune response and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-Type tumor-budding on the outcome of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). CD4+, CD8+, and FOXP3+T-cells as well as iNOS+ (M1) and CD163+-macrophages (M2) were assessed on multipunch tissue-microarrays containing 120 well-characterized PDACs, precursor lesions (PanINs) and corresponding normal tissue. Counts were normalized for the percentage of tumor/spot and associated with the clinico-pathological features, including peritumoral (PTB) and intratumoral (ITB) EMT-Type tumor-budding and outcome. Increased FOXP3+T-cell-counts and CD163-macrophages and decreased CD8+T-cell-counts were observed in PDACs compared with normal tissues and PanINs (p < 0.0001). Increased peritumoral FOXP3+T-cell-counts correlated significantly with venous invasion, distant metastasis, R1-status, high-grade ITB, PTB and independently with reduced survival. Increased intratumoral FOXP3+T-cells correlated with lymphatic invasion, N1-stage, PTB and marginally with adverse outcome. High peritumoral CD163-counts correlated with venous invasion, PTB and ITB. High intratumoral CD163-counts correlated with higher T-stage and PTB. PDAC-microenvironment displays a tumor-favoring immune-cell composition especially in the immediate environment of the tumor-buds that promotes further growth and indicates a close interaction of the immune response with the EMT-process. Increased peritumoral FOXP3+T-cell density is identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor in PDAC. Patients with phenotypically aggressive PDACs may profit from targeted immunotherapy against FOXP3. PMID:25669968

  4. Berberine suppressed epithelial mesenchymal transition through cross-talk regulation of PI3K/AKT and RARα/RARβ in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yu; Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Tan, Yuhui; Li, Bin; Wang, Kun; Du, Biaoyan

    2016-10-14

    Berberine is a natural compound extracted from Coptidis rhizoma, and accumulating proof has shown its potent anti-tumor properties with diverse action on melanoma cells, including inhibiting cancer viability, blocking cell cycle and migration. However, the mechanisms of berberine have not been fully clarified. In this study, we identified that berberine reduced the migration and invasion capacities of B16 cells, and notably altered pluripotency of epithelial to mesenchymal transition associated factors. We found that berberine also downregulation the expression level of p-PI3K, p-AKT and retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) and upregulation the expression level of retinoic acid receptor β and γ (RARβ and RARγ). These effects of PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 treatment mimicked Berberine treatment except the expression level of RARγ. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that the decreased PI3K and AKT phosphorylation, increased the epithelial maker E-cadherin, and upregulation level of RARβ while decreased the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin and downregulation level of RARα by incubation with LY294002 in mouse melanoma B16 cells. In conclusion, Our study reveal that berberine can reverse the epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mouse melanoma B16 cells and may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of melanoma through the PI3K/Akt pathway and inactivation PI3K/AKT could regulate RARα/RARβ expression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. IL-27 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenic factor production in a STAT1-dominant pathway in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interleukin-27 signaling is mediated by the JAK-STAT pathway via activation of STAT1 and STAT3, which have tumor suppressive and oncogenic activities, respectively. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis are key processes in carcinogenesis. Although IL-27 has been shown to have potent anti-tumor activity in various cancer models, the role of IL-27 in EMT and angiogenesis is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-27 in regulating EMT and angiogenesis through modulation of the STAT pathways in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells. Methods STAT activation following IL-27 exposure was measured in human NSCLC cell lines. Expression of epithelial (E-cadherin, γ-catenin) and mesenchymal (N-cadherin, vimentin) markers were assessed by Western blot analysis. Production of pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF, IL-8/CXCL8, CXCL5) were examined by ELISA. Cell motility was examined by an in vitro scratch and transwell migration assays. Selective inhibitors of STAT1 (STAT1 siRNAs) and STAT3 (Stattic) were used to determine whether both STAT1 and STAT3 are required for IL-27 mediated inhibition of EMT and secretion of angiogenic factors. Results Our results demonstrate that IL-27 stimulation in NSCLC resulted in 1) STAT1 and STAT3 activation in a JAK-dependent manner, 2) development of epithelial phenotypes, including a decrease in the expression of a transcriptional repressor for E-cadherin (SNAIL), and mesenchymal marker (vimentin) with a reciprocal increase in the expression of epithelial markers, 3) inhibition of cell migration, and 4) reduced production of pro-angiogenic factors. STAT1 inhibition in IL-27–treated cells reversed the IL-27 effect with resultant increased expression of Snail, vimentin and the pro-angiogenic factors. The inhibition of STAT3 activation had no effect on the development of the epithelial phenotype. Conclusion IL-27 induces mesenchymal to epithelial transition and inhibits the

  6. NPV-LDE-225 (Erismodegib) inhibits epithelial mesenchymal transition and self-renewal of glioblastoma initiating cells by regulating miR-21, miR-128, and miR-200

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Junsheng; Rodova, Mariana; Nanta, Rajesh; Meeker, Daniel; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J.; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Shankar, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by upregulating E-cadherin and inhibiting N-cadherin, Snail, Slug, and Zeb1 through modulating the miR-200 family. Our data highlight the importance of the SHH pathway for self-renewal and early metastasis of GICs. PMID:23482671

  7. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes directly induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human bronchial epithelial cells via the TGF-β-mediated Akt/GSK-3β/SNAIL-1 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, Manuela; Gulino, Giulia Rossana; Gazzano, Elena; Kopecka, Joanna; Marucco, Arianna; Fenoglio, Ivana; Cesano, Federico; Campagnolo, Luisa; Magrini, Andrea; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Ghigo, Dario; Aldieri, Elisabetta

    2016-06-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are currently under intense toxicological investigation due to concern on their potential health effects. Current in vitro and in vivo data indicate that MWCNT exposure is strongly associated with lung toxicity (inflammation, fibrosis, granuloma, cancer and airway injury) and their effects might be comparable to asbestos-induced carcinogenesis. Although fibrosis is a multi-origin disease, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is recently recognized as an important pathway in cell transformation. It is known that MWCNT exposure induces EMT through the activation of the TGF-β/Smad signalling pathway thus promoting pulmonary fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In the present work we propose a new mechanism involving a TGF-β-mediated signalling pathway. Human bronchial epithelial cells were incubated with two different MWCNT samples at various concentrations for up to 96 h and several markers of EMT were investigated. Quantitative real time PCR, western blot, immunofluorescent staining and gelatin zymographies were performed to detect the marker protein alterations. ELISA was performed to evaluate TGF-β production. Experiments with neutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody, specific inhibitors of GSK-3β and Akt and siRNA were carried out in order to confirm their involvement in MWCNT-induced EMT. In vivo experiments of pharyngeal aspiration in C57BL/6 mice were also performed. Data were analyzed by a one-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test. Fully characterized MWCNT (mean length < 5 μm) are able to induce EMT in an in vitro human model (BEAS-2B cells) after long-term incubation at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. MWCNT stimulate TGF-β secretion, Akt activation and GSK-3β inhibition, which induces nuclear accumulation of SNAIL-1 and its transcriptional activity, thus contributing to switch on the EMT program. Moreover, a significant increment of nuclear β-catenin - due to E

  8. MicroRNA-300 promotes apoptosis and inhibits proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting CUL4B in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Qiang; Chen, Shi; Gu, Jiang-Ning; Zhu, Yi; Zhan, Qian; Cheng, Dong-Feng; Chen, Hao; Deng, Xia-Xing; Shen, Bai-Yong; Peng, Cheng-Hong

    2018-01-01

    The study aims to verify the hypothesis that up-regulation of microRNA-300 (miR-300) targeting CUL4B promotes apoptosis and suppresses proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Pancreatic cancer tissues and adjacent tissues were collected from 110 pancreatic cancer patients. Expression of miR-300, CUL4B, Wnt, β-catenin, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, GSK-3β, and CyclinD1 were detected using qRT-PCR and Western blot. CFPAC-1, Capan-1, and PANC-1 were classified into blank, negative control (NC), miR-300 mimics, miR-300 inhibitors, siRNA-CUL4B, and miR-300 inhibitors + siRNA-CUL4B groups. The proliferation, migration, invasion abilities, the cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis rates were measured in CCK-8 and Transwell assays. Pancreatic cancer tissues showed increased CUL4B expression but decreased miR-300 expression. When miR-300 was lowly expressed, CUL4B was upregulated which in-turn activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to protect the β-catenin expression and thus induce EMT. When miR-300 was highly expressed, CUL4B was downregulated which in-turn inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to prevent EMT. Weakened cell migration and invasion abilities and enhanced apoptosis were observed in the CUL4B group. The miR-300 inhibitors group exhibited an evident increase in growth rate accompanied the largest tumor volume. Smaller tumor volume and slower growth rate were observed in the miR-300 mimics and siRNA-CUL4B group. Our study concludes that lowly expressed miR-300 may contribute to highly expressed CUL4B activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and further stimulating EMT, thus promoting proliferation and migration but suppressing apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. NPV-LDE-225 (Erismodegib) inhibits epithelial mesenchymal transition and self-renewal of glioblastoma initiating cells by regulating miR-21, miR-128, and miR-200.

    PubMed

    Fu, Junsheng; Rodova, Mariana; Nanta, Rajesh; Meeker, Daniel; Van Veldhuizen, Peter J; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Shankar, Sharmila

    2013-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common form of primary brain tumor, often characterized by poor survival. Glioblastoma initiating cells (GICs) regulate self-renewal, differentiation, and tumor initiation properties and are involved in tumor growth, recurrence, and resistance to conventional treatments. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling pathway is essential for normal development and embryonic morphogenesis. The objectives of this study were to examine the molecular mechanisms by which GIC characteristics are regulated by NPV-LDE-225 (Smoothened inhibitor; (2,2'-[[dihydro-2-(4-pyridinyl)-1,3(2H,4H)-pyrimidinediyl]bis(methylene)]bis[N,N-dimethylbenzenamine). Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by XTT and annexin V-propidium iodide assay, respectively. Gli translocation and transcriptional activities were measured by immunofluorescence and luciferase assay, respectively. Gene and protein expressions were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analyses, respectively. NPV-LDE-225 inhibited cell viability, neurosphere formation, and Gli transcriptional activity and induced apoptosis by activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. NPV-LDE-225 increased the expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5, and Fas and decreased the expression of platelet derived growth factor receptor-α and Bcl2, and these effects were abrogated by Gli1 plus Gli2 short hairpin RNAs. NPV-LDE-225 enhanced the therapeutic potential of FasL and TRAIL by upregulating Fas and DR4/5, respectively. Interestingly, NPV-LDE-225 induced expression of programmed cell death 4 and apoptosis and inhibited cell viability by suppressing micro RNA (miR)-21. Furthermore, NPV-LDE-225 inhibited pluripotency-maintaining factors Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, and cMyc. The inhibition of Bmi1 by NPV-LDE-225 was regulated by induction of miR-128. Finally, NPV-LDE-225 suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by

  10. DA-Raf-Mediated Suppression of the Ras--ERK Pathway Is Essential for TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Alveolar Epithelial Type 2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Takano, Kazunori; Hatano, Masahiko; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Endo, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblasts play critical roles in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by depositing components of extracellular matrix. One source of lung myofibroblasts is thought to be alveolar epithelial type 2 cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Rat RLE-6TN alveolar epithelial type 2 cells treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are converted into myofibroblasts through EMT. TGF-β induces both canonical Smad signaling and non-canonical signaling, including the Ras-induced ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK). However, the signaling mechanisms regulating TGF-β1-induced EMT are not fully understood. Here, we show that the Ras-ERK pathway negatively regulates TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells and that DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf), a splicing isoform of A-Raf and a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, plays an essential role in EMT. Stimulation of the cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which activated the ERK pathway, prominently suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT. An inhibitor of MEK, but not an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, rescued the TGF-β1-treated cells from the suppression of EMT by FGF2. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of a component of the Ras-ERK pathway, i.e., H-Ras, B-Raf, or MEK1, interfered with EMT. Knockdown of DA-Raf expression with siRNAs facilitated the activity of MEK and ERK, which were only weakly and transiently activated by TGF-β1. Although DA-Raf knockdown abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT, the abrogation of EMT was reversed by the addition of the MEK inhibitor. Furthermore, DA-Raf knockdown impaired the TGF-β1-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2, which mediates the transcription required for EMT. These results imply that intrinsic DA-Raf exerts essential functions for EMT by antagonizing the TGF-β1-induced Ras-ERK pathway in RLE-6TN cells.

  11. Overexpression of long noncoding RNA H19 indicates a poor prognosis for cholangiocarcinoma and promotes cell migration and invasion by affecting epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Wang, Zhidong; Jiang, Xingming; Cui, Yunfu

    2017-08-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a deadly disease that poorly responds to chemotherapy and radiotherapy and whose incidence has increased worldwide. Furthermore, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in multiple biological processes, including tumorigenesis. Specifically, H19, the first discovered lncRNA, has been reported to be overexpressed in diverse human carcinomas, but the overall biological role and clinical significance of H19 in CCA remains unknown. In the present study, expression levels of H19 were investigated in CCA tissues and cell lines and were correlated with clinicopathological features. Moreover, we explored the functional roles of H19 depletion in QBC939 and RBE cells, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results indicated that H19 was upregulated in CCA tissue samples and cell lines, and this upregulation was associated with tumor size, TNM stage, postoperative recurrence and overall survival in 56 patients with CCA. Moreover, knockdown of H19 followed by RNA silencing restrained cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis. In addition, H19 suppression impaired migration and invasion potential by reversing EMT. Overall, our findings may help to develop diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutics that target H19 for the treatment of CCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Resveratrol prevents high glucose-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in renal tubular epithelial cells by inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Guan, Xu; Wang, Song; Xiao, Tangli; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xinli; Wang, Junping; Zhao, Jinghong

    2015-02-15

    Resveratrol (RSV) is reported to have renoprotective activity against diabetic nephropathy, while the mechanisms underlying its function have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigate the effect and related mechanism of RSV against high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). A typical EMT is induced by high glucose in HK-2 cells, accompanied by increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). RSV exhibits a strong ability to inhibit high glucose-induced EMT by decreasing intracellular ROS levels via down-regulation of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1 and NOX4. The activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) is found to be involved in high glucose-induced EMT in HK-2 cells. RSV, like NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, can block ERK1/2 activation induced by high glucose. Our results demonstrate that RSV is a potent agent against high glucose-induced EMT in renal tubular cells via inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK1/2 pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Desquamation takes center stage at the origin of proliferative inflammatory atrophy, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and stromal growth in benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Danilo; Biancardi, Manoel F; Nishan, Umar; Rosa-Ribeiro, Rafaela; Carvalho, Hernandes F

    2017-11-01

    In this commentary, we propose a relationship between desquamation, initially described as the collective detachment and deletion of epithelial cell in the prostate gland after castration, and proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and stromal growth in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). First, in response to diverse stimuli, including inflammatory mediators, epithelial cells desquamate and leave a large surface of the luminal side of the basement membrane (BM) exposed. Basal cells are activated into intermediate-type cells, which change morphology to cover and remodel the exposed BM (simple atrophy) to a new physiological demand (such as in the hypoandrogen environment, simulated by surgical and/or chemical castration) and/or to support re-epithelialization (under normal androgen levels). In the presence of inflammation (that might be the cause of desquamation), the intermediate-type cells proliferate and characterize PIA. Second, in other circumstances, desquamation is an early step of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which contributes to stromal growth, as suggested by some experimental models of BPH. The proposed associations correlate unexplored cell behaviors and reveal the remarkable plasticity of the prostate epithelium that might be at the origin of prostate diseases. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  14. Connective tissue growth factor is a positive regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes the adhesion with gastric cancer cells in human peritoneal mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng-Gang; Lv, Ling; Liu, Fu-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Ning; Na, Di; Li, Feng; Li, Jia-Bin; Sun, Zhe; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is involved in human cancer development and progression. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in many biological processes. In this study, we wished to investigate the role of CTGF in EMT of peritoneal mesothelial cells and the effects of CTGF on adhesion of gastric cancer cells to mesothelial cells. Human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) were cultured with TGF-β1 or various concentrations of CTGF for different time. The EMT process was monitored by morphology. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of vimentin, α-SMA , E-cadherin and β-catenin. RNA interference was used to achieve selective and specific knockdown of CTGF. We demonstrated that CTGF induced EMT of mesothelial cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HPMCs were exposed to TGF-β1 also underwent EMT which was associated with the induction of CTGF expression. Transfection with CTGF siRNA was able to reverse the EMT partially after treatment of TGF-β1. Moreover, the induced EMT of HPMCs was associated with an increased adhesion of gastric cancer cells to mesothelial cells. These findings suggest that CTGF is not only an important mediator but a potent activator of EMT in peritoneal mesothelial cells, which in turn promotes gastric cancer cell adhesion to peritoneum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. ROCK inhibitor primes human induced pluripotent stem cells to selectively differentiate towards mesendodermal lineage via epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like modulation.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Maricela; Luu, Rebeccah J; Ramos, Michael E P; Nam, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Robust control of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC) differentiation is essential to realize its patient-tailored therapeutic potential. Here, we demonstrate a novel application of Y-27632, a small molecule Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, to significantly influence the differentiation of hIPSCs in a lineage-specific manner. The application of Y-27632 to hIPSCs resulted in a decrease in actin bundling and disruption of colony formation in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Such changes in cell and colony morphology were associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, a cell-cell junctional protein, proportional to the increased exposure to Y-27632. Interestingly, gene and protein expression of pluripotency markers such as NANOG and OCT4 were not downregulated by an exposure to Y-27632 up to 36h. Simultaneously, epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transition markers were upregulated with an exposure to Y-27632. These EMT-like changes in the cells with longer exposure to Y-27632 resulted in a significant increase in the subsequent differentiation efficiency towards mesendodermal lineage. In contrast, an inhibitory effect was observed when cells were subjected to ectodermal differentiation after prolonged exposure to Y-27632. Collectively, these results present a novel method for priming hIPSCs to modulate their differentiation potential with a simple application of Y-27632. Copyright © 2016 Helmholtz Zentrum München. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Deyi; Barry, Samantha; Kmetz, Daniel; Egger, Michael; Pan, Jianmin; Rai, Shesh N; Qu, Jifu; McMasters, Kelly M.; Hao, Hongying

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is abundant with exosomes that are secreted by the cancer cells themselves. Exosomes are nanosized, organelle-like membranous structures that are increasingly being recognized as major contributors in the progression of malignant neoplasms. A critical element in melanoma progression is its propensity to metastasize, but little is known about how melanoma cell-derived exosomes modulate the microenvironment to optimize conditions for tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we provide evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote phenotype switching in primary melanocytes through paracrine/autocrine signaling. We found that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was activated during the exosome-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-resembling process, which promotes metastasis. Let-7i, an miRNA modulator of EMT, was also involved in this process. We further defined two other miRNA modulators of EMT (miR-191 and let-7a) in serum exosomes for differentiating stage I melanoma patients from non-melanoma subjects. These results provide the first strong molecular evidence that melanoma cell-derived exosomes promote the EMT-resembling process in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, novel strategies targeting EMT and modulating the tumor microenvironment may emerge as important approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27063098

  17. Tropomyosin 2 heterozygous knockout in mice using CRISPR-Cas9 system displays the inhibition of injury-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and lens opacity

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Teppei; Shibata, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Ikawa, Masahito; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Kubo, Eri

    2018-01-01

    The process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) after cataract surgery contributes to tissue fibrosis, wound healing and lens regeneration via a mechanism not yet fully understood. Here, we show that tropomyosin 2 (Tpm2) plays a critical role in wound healing and lens aging. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) after lens extraction surgery was accompanied by elevated expression of Tpm2. Tpm2 heterozygous knockout mice, generated via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/ Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system showed promoted progression of cataract with age. Further, injury-induced EMT of the mouse lens epithelium, as evaluated histologically and by the expression patterns of Tpm1 and Tpm2, was attenuated in the absence of Tpm2. In conclusion, Tpm2 may be important in maintaining lens physiology and morphology. However, Tpm2 is involved in the progression of EMT during the wound healing process of mouse LECs, suggesting that inhibition of Tpm2 may suppress PCO. PMID:29510160

  18. ERp29 controls invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma by inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Aktsignaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianxin; Huang, Jinsheng; Xu, Jie; Huang, Qiang; Wang, Jinzhou; Zhong, Wenjing; Lin, Xinjian; Li, Yun; Lin, Xu

    2017-09-06

    Gastric cancer (GC) accounts for the fourth most occurring malignancy and the third major cause of cancer death. Identifying novel molecular signaling pathways participating in gastric tumorigenesis and progression is pivotal for rational design of targeted therapies to improve advanced GC outcome. Recently, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein 29 (ERp29) has been shown to inversely associate with primary tumor development and function as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. However, the role of ERp29 in GC patients' prognosis and its function in GC progression is unknown. Clinical importance of ERp29 in the prognosis of GC patients was assessed by examining its expression in 148 GC tumor samples and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and survival of the patients. The function and underlying mechanisms of ERp29 in GC growth, invasion and metastasis were explored both in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of ERp29 was commonly found in GC tissues and highly correlated with more aggressive phenotypes and poorer prognosis. Functional assays demonstrated that knockdown of ERp29 increased GC cell migration and invasion and promoted metastasis. Conversely, ectopic overexpression of ERp29 produced opposite effects. Mechanistic studies revealed that loss of ERp29 induced an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the GC cells through activation of PI3K/Akt pathway signaling. These findings suggest that downregulation of ERp29 is probably one of the key molecular mechanisms responsible for the development and progression of GC.

  19. Pericytes/vessel-associated mural cells (VAMCs) are the major source of key epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factors SLUG and TWIST in human glioma.

    PubMed

    Mäder, Lisa; Blank, Anna E; Capper, David; Jansong, Janina; Baumgarten, Peter; Wirsik, Naita M; Zachskorn, Cornelia; Ehlers, Jakob; Seifert, Michael; Klink, Barbara; Liebner, Stefan; Niclou, Simone; Naumann, Ulrike; Harter, Patrick N; Mittelbronn, Michel

    2018-05-08

    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is supposed to be responsible for increased invasion and metastases in epithelial cancer cells. The activation of EMT genes has further been proposed to be important in the process of malignant transformation of primary CNS tumors. Since the cellular source and clinical impact of EMT factors in primary CNS tumors still remain unclear, we aimed at deciphering their distribution in vivo and clinico-pathological relevance in human gliomas. We investigated 350 glioma patients for the expression of the key EMT factors SLUG and TWIST by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence related to morpho-genetic alterations such as EGFR -amplification, IDH-1 (R132H) mutation and 1p/19q LOH. Furthermore, transcriptional cluster and survival analyses were performed. Our data illustrate that SLUG and TWIST are overexpressed in gliomas showing vascular proliferation such as pilocytic astrocytomas and glioblastomas. EMT factors are exclusively expressed by non-neoplastic pericytes/vessel-associated mural cells (VAMCs). They are not associated with patient survival but correlate with pericytic/VAMC genes in glioblastoma cluster analysis. In summary, the upregulation of EMT genes in pilocytic astrocytomas and glioblastomas reflects the level of activation of pericytes/VAMCs in newly formed blood vessels. Our results underscore that the negative prognostic potential of the EMT signature in the group of diffuse gliomas of WHO grade II-IV does most likely not derive from glioma cells but rather reflects the degree of proliferating mural cells thereby constituting a potential target for future alternative treatment approaches.

  20. Interplay between Trx-1 and S100P promotes colorectal cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition by up-regulating S100A4 through AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Zhigui; Zhang, Peili; Lin, Feiyan; Shang, Wenjing; Bi, Ruichun; Lu, Fengying; Wu, Jianbo; Jiang, Lei

    2018-04-01

    We previously reported a novel positive feedback loop between thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) and S100P, which promotes the invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the roles of Trx-1 and S100P in CRC epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and their underlying mechanisms. We observed that knockdown of Trx-1 or S100P in SW620 cells inhibited EMT, whereas overexpression of Trx-1 or S100P in SW480 cells promoted EMT. Importantly, S100A4 and the phosphorylation of AKT were identified as potential downstream targets of Trx-1 and S100P in CRC cells. Silencing S100A4 or inhibition of AKT phosphorylation eliminated S100P- or Trx-1-mediated CRC cell EMT, migration and invasion. Moreover, inhibition of AKT activity reversed S100P- or Trx-1-induced S100A4 expression. The expression of S100A4 was higher in human CRC tissues compared with their normal counterpart tissues and was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and poor survival. The overexpression of S100A4 protein was also positively correlated with S100P or Trx-1 protein overexpression in our cohort of CRC tissues. In addition, overexpression of S100P reversed the Trx-1 knockdown-induced inhibition of S100A4 expression, EMT and migration and invasion in SW620 cells. The data suggest that interplay between Trx-1 and S100P promoted CRC EMT as well as migration and invasion by up-regulating S100A4 through AKT activation, thus providing further potential therapeutic targets for suppressing the EMT in metastatic CRC. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  1. Long non-coding RNA CASC15 regulates gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition by targeting CDKN1A and ZEB1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xiang, Shihao; Ma, Jiali; Hui, Pingping; Wang, Ting; Meng, Wenying; Shi, Min; Wang, Yugang

    2018-06-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is responsible for a diverse range of cellular functions, such as transcriptional and translational regulation and variance in gene expression. The lncRNA CASC15 (cancer susceptibility candidate 15) is a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) locus in chromosome 6p22.3. Previous research shows that lncRNA CASC15 is implicated in the biological behaviors of several cancers such as neuroblastoma and melanoma. Here, we aimed to explore in detail how CASC15 contributes to the growth of gastric cancer (GC). As predicted, the expression of CASC15 was enriched in GC tissues and cell lines as compared with healthy tissues and cells using qRT-PCR. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to demonstrate that high expression of CASC15 is linked to a poor prognosis for patients suffering from GC. Additionally, functional experiments proved that the down- or up-regulation of CASC15 inhibited or facilitated cell proliferation via the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and also suppressed or accelerated cell migration and invasion by affecting the progression of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In vivo experiments showed that the knockdown of CASC15 lessened the tumor volume and weight and influenced the EMT process. This was confirmed by western blot assays and immunohistochemistry, indicating impaired metastatic ability in nude mice. CASC15 involvement in the tumorigenesis of GC occurs when CASC15 interacts with EZH2 and WDR5 to modulate CDKN1A in nucleus. Additionally, the knockdown of CASC15 triggered the silencing of ZEB1 in cytoplasm, which was shown to be associated with the competitive binding of CASC15 to miR-33a-5p. © 2018 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. BDE-99 (2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether) triggers epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer cells via PI3K/Akt/Snail signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Ruan, Xin-Jian; Zhang, Hong-Yan

    2015-01-01

    The gut is in direct contact with BDE-99 (2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether), one of the most abundant PBDE congeners in the environment and in human tissues. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of BDE-99 on colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The effects of BDE-99 on cell proliferation were measured by CCK-8 assay in the CRC cell line HCT-116. Wound healing and transwell migration/invasion assays were used to test the migration and invasion of CRC cells. Factors related to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were measured by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis for mRNA and protein levels, respectively. BDE-99 was found to increase migration and invasion and trigger EMT in HCT-116 cells; EMT was characterized by cells acquiring mesenchymal spindle-like morphology and by increased expression of N-cadherin with a concomitant decrease in E-cadherin. BDE-99 treatment also increased the protein and mRNA levels of the transcription factor Snail, but not Slug, Twist, and ZEB1. Knockdown of Snail by siRNA significantly attenuated BDE-99-induced EMT in HCT-116 cells, suggesting that Snail plays a crucial role in BDE-99-induced EMT. The PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 completely blocked BDE-99-induced Snail and invasion of HCT-116 cells. Our results revealed that BDE-99 can trigger the EMT of colon cancer cells via the PI3K/AKT/Snail signaling pathway. This study provides new insight into the tumorigenesis and metastasis of CRC stimulated by BDE-99 and possibly other PBDE congeners.

  3. Differential roles of kallikrein-related peptidase 6 in malignant transformation and ΔNp63β-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naoki; Kawano, Shintaro; Yasuda, Kaori; Hashiguchi, Yuma; Sakamoto, Taiki; Matsubara, Ryota; Goto, Yuichi; Jinno, Teppei; Maruse, Yasuyuki; Morioka, Masahiko; Hattori, Taichi; Tanaka, Shoichi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Kiyoshima, Tamotsu; Nakamura, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    We previously reported that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was mediated by ΔNp63β in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, DNA microarray analyses were performed using ΔNp63β-overexpressing OSCC cells to identify genes associated with ΔNp63β-mediated EMT. Thereby, we focused on kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK) 6, most up-regulated following ΔNp63β-overexpression, that activates protease-activated receptors (PARs). In RT-PCR analyses, ΔNp63 was positively associated with KLK6 and PAR2 and negatively with PAR1 in OSCC cells. By ΔNp63 knockdown, KLK6 and PAR2 expression was decreased and PAR1 was increased. Furthermore, KLK6 knockdown led to enhancing migration and invasion, and inhibiting proliferation, suggesting EMT-phenotypes. Although, in the KLK6 or PAR2 knockdown cells, phosphorylation of ERK was reduced, it was restored in the KLK6 knockdown OSCC cells treated with recombinant KLK6 proteins. Immunohistochemistry showed ΔNp63, KLK6, and PAR2 were more strongly expressed in the epithelial dysplasia and central region of OSCC than normal oral epithelium, whereas PAR1 expression was undetectable. Interestingly, at the invasive front of OSCC, ΔNp63, KLK6, and PAR2 were reduced, but PAR1 was elevated. In addition, the OSCC patients with decreasing KLK6 expression at the invasive front had more unfavourable prognosis. These results suggested differential roles of KLK6 in malignant transformation and EMT; high ΔNp63β expression up-regulates KLK6-PAR2 and down-regulates PAR1, inducing malignant transformation in oral epithelium with stimulating proliferation through ERK signal activation. Moreover, KLK6-PAR2 expression is down-regulated and PAR1 is up-regulated when ΔNp63β expression is decreased, leading to EMT with enhancing migration and invasion through ERK signal reduction at the invasive front. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. S1P1 receptor inhibits kidney epithelial mesenchymal transition triggered by ischemia/reperfusion injury via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weina; Wang, Aimei; Luo, Guochang; Ma, Fengqiao; Wei, Xiaoming; Bi, Yongyi

    2018-06-13

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), along with delayed graft function, which can trigger chronic kidney injury by stimulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the kidney canaliculus. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is indispensable for vessel homeostasis. This study aimed to investigate the influence of S1P1 on the mechanisms underlying I/R-induced EMT in the kidney using in vivo and in vitro models. Wild-type (WT) and S1P1-overexpressing kidney canaliculus cells were subject to hypoxic conditions followed by reoxygenation in the presence or absence of FTY720-P, a potent S1P1 agonist. In vivo, bilateral arteria renalis in wild-type mice and mice with silenced S1P1 were clamped for 30 min to obtain I/R models. We found that hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) significantly enhanced the expressions of EMT biomarkers and down-regulated S1P1 expression in wild-type canaliculus cells. In contrast, FTY720-P treatment or overexpression of S1P1 significantly suppressed EMT in wild-type canaliculus cells. Furthermore, after 48-72 h, a significant upregulation of EMT biomarker expression was triggered by I/R in mice with silenced S1P1, while the expressions of these markers did not change in wild-type mice. A kt activity was increased with H/R-induced EMT, suggesting that the protective influence of FTY720-P was due to its inhibition of PI3K/Akt. Therefore, the results of this study provide evidence that down-regulation of S1P1 expression is essential for the generation and progression of EMT triggered by I/R. S1P1 exhibits a prominent inhibitory effect on kidney I/R-induced EMT in the kidney by affecting the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  5. Over-expression of FoxM1 leads to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Ali, Shadan; Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Li, Yiwei; Azmi, Asfar S.; Miele, Lucio; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    FoxM1 is known to play important role in the development and progression of many malignancies including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the acquisition of Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and induction of cancer stem cell (CSC) or cancer stem-like cell phenotypes are highly inter-related, and contributes to drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. The molecular mechanism(s) by which FoxM1 contributes to the acquisition of EMT phenotype and induction of CSC self-renewal capacity is poorly understood. Therefore, we established FoxM1 over-expressing pancreatic cancer (AsPC-1) cells, which showed increased cell growth, clonogenicity and cell migration. Moreover, over-expression of FoxM1 led to the acquisition of EMT phenotype by activation of mesenchymal cell markers, ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail2, E-cadherin, and vimentin, which is consistent with increased sphere-forming (pancreatospheres) capacity and expression of CSC surface markers (CD44 and EpCAM). We also found that over-expression of FoxM1 led to decreased expression of miRNAs (let-7a, let-7b, let-7c, miR-200b and miR-200c); however, re-expression of miR-200b inhibited the expression of ZEB1, ZEB2, vimentin as well as FoxM1, and induced the expression of E-cadherin, leading to the reversal of EMT phenotype. Finally, we found that genistein, a natural chemo-preventive agent, inhibited cell growth, clonogenicity, cell migration and invasion, EMT phenotype, and formation of pancreatospheres consistent with reduced expression of CD44 and EpCAM. These results suggest, for the first time, that FoxM1 over-expression is responsible for the acquisition of EMT and CSC phenotype, which is in part mediated through the regulation of miR-200b and these processes, could be easily attenuated by genistein. PMID:21503965

  6. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in the tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell: a new role for G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in mediating tamoxifen resistance through cancer-associated fibroblast-derived fibronectin and β1-integrin signaling pathway in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jie; Liu, Manran; Yang, Li; Tu, Gang; Zhu, Qing; Chen, Maoshan; Cheng, Hong; Luo, Haojun; Fu, Weijie; Li, Zhenhua; Yang, Guanglun

    2015-05-21

    Acquired tamoxifen resistance remains the major obstacle to breast cancer endocrine therapy. β1-integrin was identified as one of the target genes of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a novel estrogen receptor recognized as an initiator of tamoxifen resistance. Here, we investigated the role of β1-integrin in GPER-mediated tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer. The expression of β1-integrin and biomarkers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition were evaluated immunohistochemically in 53 specimens of metastases and paired primary tumors. The function of β1-integrin was investigated in tamoxifen-resistant (MCF-7R) subclones, derived from parental MCF-7 cells, and MCF-7R β1-integrin-silenced subclones in MTT and Transwell assays. Involved signaling pathways were identified using specific inhibitors and Western blotting analysis. GPER, β1-integrin and mesenchymal biomarkers (vimentin and fibronectin) expression in metastases increased compared to the corresponding primary tumors; a close expression pattern of β1-integrin and GPER were in metastases. Increased β1-integrin expression was also confirmed in MCF-7R cells compared with MCF-7 cells. This upregulation of β1-integrin was induced by agonists of GPER and blocked by both antagonist and knockdown of it in MCF-7R cells. Moreover, the epidermal growth factor receptor/extracellular regulated protein kinase (EGFR/ERK) signaling pathway was involved in this transcriptional regulation since specific inhibitors of these kinases also reduced the GPER-induced upregulation of β1-integrin. Interestingly, silencing of β1-integrin partially rescued the sensitivity of MCF-7R cells to tamoxifen and the α5β1-integrin subunit is probably responsible for this phenomenon. Importantly, the cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by cancer-associated fibroblasts, or the product of cancer-associated fibroblasts, fibronectin, were reduced by knockdown of β1-integrin in MCF-7R cells. In addition

  7. Network motifs that stabilize the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Jia, Dongya; Tripathi, Satyendra; Hanash, Samir; Mani, Sendurai; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Levine, Herbert

    Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse - MET - are hallmarks of cancer metastasis. While transitioning between E and M phenotypes, cells can also attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) phenotype that enables collective cell migration as a cluster of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). These clusters can form 50-times more tumors than individually migrating CTCs, underlining their importance in metastasis. However, this hybrid E/M phenotype has been hypothesized to be only a transient one that is attained en route EMT. Here, via mathematically modeling, we identify certain `phenotypic stability factors' that couple with the core three-way decision-making circuit (miR-200/ZEB) and can maintain or stabilize the hybrid E/M phenotype. Further, we show experimentally that this phenotype can be maintained stably at a single-cell level, and knockdown of these factors impairs collective cell migration. We also show that these factors enable the association of hybrid E/M with high stemness or tumor-initiating potential. Finally, based on these factors, we deduce specific network motifs that can maintain the E/M phenotype. Our framework can be used to elucidate the effect of other players in regulating cellular plasticity during metastasis. This work was supported by NSF PHY-1427654 (Center for Theoretical Biological Physics) and the CPRIT Scholar in Cancer Research of the State of Texas at Rice University.

  8. Implications of the Hybrid Epithelial/Mesenchymal Phenotype in Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Boareto, Marcelo; Huang, Bin; Jia, Dongya; Lu, Mingyang; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, José N.; Levine, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes – the epithelial to ­mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) – are hallmarks of cancer metastasis. While transitioning between the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, cells can also attain a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M) (i.e., partial or intermediate EMT) phenotype. Cells in this phenotype have mixed epithelial (e.g., adhesion) and mesenchymal (e.g., migration) properties, thereby allowing them to move collectively as clusters. If these clusters reach the bloodstream intact, they can give rise to clusters of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), as have often been seen experimentally. Here, we review the operating principles of the core regulatory network for EMT/MET that acts as a “three-way” switch giving rise to three distinct phenotypes – E, M and hybrid E/M – and present a theoretical framework that can elucidate the role of many other players in regulating epithelial plasticity. Furthermore, we highlight recent studies on partial EMT and its association with drug resistance and tumor-initiating potential; and discuss how cell–cell communication between cells in a partial EMT phenotype can enable the formation of clusters of CTCs. These clusters can be more apoptosis-resistant and have more tumor-initiating potential than singly moving CTCs with a wholly mesenchymal (complete EMT) phenotype. Also, more such clusters can be formed under inflammatory conditions that are often generated by various therapies. Finally, we discuss the multiple advantages that the partial EMT or hybrid E/M phenotype have as compared to a complete EMT phenotype and argue that these collectively migrating cells are the primary “bad actors” of metastasis. PMID:26258068

  9. Targeting epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in cancer: clinical and preclinical advances in therapy and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sugandha; Monkman, James; Toh, Alan Kie Leong; Nagaraj, Shivashankar H; Thompson, Erik W

    2017-09-20

    The concept of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity (EMP), which describes the dynamic flux within the spectrum of phenotypic states that invasive carcinoma cells may reside, is being increasingly recognised for its role in cancer progression and therapy resistance. The myriad of events that are able to induce EMP, as well as the more recently characterised control loops, results in dynamic transitions of cancerous epithelial cells to more mesenchymal-like phenotypes through an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), as well as the reverse transition from mesenchymal phenotypes to an epithelial one. The significance of EMP, in its ability to drive local invasion, generate cancer stem cells and facilitate metastasis by the dissemination of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), highlights its importance as a targetable programme to combat cancer morbidity and mortality. The focus of this review is to consolidate the existing knowledge on the strategies currently in development to combat cancer progression via inhibition of specific facets of EMP. The prevalence of relapse due to therapy resistance and metastatic propensity that EMP endows should be considered when designing therapy regimes, and such therapies should synergise with existing chemotherapeutics to benefit efficacy. To further improve upon EMP-targeted therapies, it is imperative to devise monitoring strategies to assess the impact of such treatments on EMP-related phenomenon such as CTC burden, chemosensitivity/-resistance and micrometastasis in patients. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Evaluation of permeability alteration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition induced by transforming growth factor-β1 in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells: Development of an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Togami, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Kotaro; Chono, Sumio; Tada, Hitoshi

    2017-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal lung disease, which is accompanied by changes in lung structure. With regard to treatment, aerosolized drugs administered intrapulmonarily are rapidly distributed into the plasma and do not remain in the lungs due to damage to the alveolar epithelium that occurs from pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we sought to develop an in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells in IPF for the evaluation of the intrapulmonary distribution of aerosolized drugs. We investigated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β 1 -induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and permeability alteration in A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cell monolayers. After TGF-β 1 treatment of A549, NCI-H441, and Calu-3 cells, EMT markers including E-cadherin and vimentin and tight junction proteins including claudins-1, -3, and -5 were stained using immunofluorescence methods and detected using immunoblotting methods. Transport experiments were performed using TGF-β 1 -treated cell monolayers and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FD; 4.4, 10, and 70kDa). In addition, TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry using Annexin V and ethidium homodimer III, respectively. In NCI-H441 cells, incomplete EMT, destruction of claudins-1 and -3, and enhancement of FD permeability were caused by TGF-β 1 treatment. In A549 cells, complete EMT occurred but was not adequate for transport experiments because of low transepithelial electrical resistance. Whereas in Calu-3 cells, no changes were observed. TGF-β 1 -induced apoptosis and necrosis were not observed in any of the cell lines. Incomplete EMT and permeability enhancement were observed in the alveolar epithelium of IPF. Therefore, our results indicate that TGF-β 1 -treated NCI-H441 cell monolayers may serve as a useful in vitro model of respiratory epithelial cells for IPF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a novel target of sulforaphane via COX-2/MMP2, 9/Snail, ZEB1 and miR-200c/ZEB1 pathways in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yujuan; Zhang, Lanwei; Bao, Yongping; Li, Baolong; He, Canxia; Gao, Mingming; Feng, Xue; Xu, Weili; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Shuran

    2013-06-01

    Metastasis and recurrence of bladder cancer are the main reasons for its poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Because of its biological activity and high metabolic accumulation in urine, sulforaphane, a phytochemical exclusively occurring in cruciferous vegetables, has a powerful and specific potential for preventing bladder cancer. In this paper, sulforaphane is shown to significantly suppress a variety of biochemical pathways including the attachment, invasion, migration and chemotaxis motion in malignant transitional bladder cancer T24 cells. Transfection with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) overexpression plasmid largely abolished inhibition of MMP2/9 expression as well as cell invasive capability by sulforaphane. Moreover, sulforaphane inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process which underlies tumor cell invasion and migration mediated by E-cadherin induction through reducing transcriptional repressors, such as ZEB1 and Snail. Under conditions of over-expression of COX-2 and/or MMP2/9, sulforaphane was still able to induce E-cadherin or reduce Snail/ZEB1 expression, suggesting that additional pathways might be involved. Further studies indicated that miR-200c played a role in the regulation of E-cadherin via the ZEB1 repressor but not by the Snail repressor. In conclusion, the EMT and two recognized signaling pathways (COX-2/MMP2,9/ ZEB1, Snail and miR-200c/ZEB1) are all targets for sulforaphane. This study indicated that sulforaphane may possess therapeutic potential in preventing recurrence of human bladder cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Up-regulation of miR-200 and let-7 by natural agents leads to the reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwei; VandenBoom, Timothy G.; Kong, Dejuan; Wang, Zhiwei; Ali, Shadan; Philip, Philip A.; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in the United States and the aggressiveness of PC is in part due to its intrinsic and extrinsic drug resistance characteristics, which is also associated with the acquisition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Emerging evidence also suggest that the processes of EMT is regulated by the expression status of many microRNAs (miRNAs), which are believed to function as key regulators of various biological and pathological processes during tumor development and progression. In the present study, we compared the expression of miRNAs between gemcitabine-sensitive and gemcitabine-resistant PC cells, and investigated whether the treatment of cells with “natural agents” [3,3′-diinodolylmethane (DIM) or isoflavone] could affect the expression of miRNAs. We found that the expression of miR-200b, miR-200c, let-7b, let-7c, let-7d, and let-7e was significantly down-regulated in gemcitabine-resistant cells that showed EMT characteristics such as elongated fibroblastoid morphology, lower expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin, and higher expression of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and ZEB1. Moreover, we found that re-expression of miR-200 by transfection studies or treatment of gemcitabine-resistant cells with either DIM or isoflavone resulted in the down-regulation of ZEB1, slug, and vimentin, which was consistent with morphological reversal of EMT phenotype leading to epithelial morphology. These results provide experimental evidence, for the first time, that DIM and isoflavone could function as miRNA regulators leading to the reversal of EMT phenotype, which is likely to be important for designing novel therapies for PC. PMID:19654291

  13. Functional Genomics for Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    9780521887212) CONFERENCES PRESENTATIONS (Podium) International International Bone & Mineral Society – Cancer and Bone Society meeting, Chicago , IL...bladder. Clin Exp Metastasis. 22: 115– 125. 62. Yates CC, Shepard CR, Stolz DB, Wells A (2007) Co- culturing human prostate carcinoma cells with hepato

  14. Regulation of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    removed by a cotton swab, and the cells on the lower surface of the membrane were stained by crystal violet. BD BioCoat Matrigel Invasion Chambers...PTK6 downstream players, including AKT, p130CAS, FAK, and ERK5. AKT signaling pro- motes the EMT in different cancer cell lines (23, 45, 46). PTK6...Yang R, Crawford SE, Vasioukhin V, Fuchs E, et al. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 negatively regulates growth and pro- motes enterocyte differentiation in

  15. The disruption of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit in COPD.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Ali R; McDonough, John E; Seyednejad, Nazgol; Hogg, James C; Walker, David C

    2009-12-01

    Progression of COPD is associated with a measurable increase in small airway wall thickness resulting from a repair and remodeling process that involves fibroblasts of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU). The present study was designed to examine the organization of fibroblasts within the lamina propria of small airways with respect to their contacts with the epithelium and with each other in persons with COPD. Transmission electron microcopy (TEM) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of serial TEM sections were used to estimate the frequency and determine the nature of the contacts between the epithelium and fibroblasts within the EMTU in small airways from 5 controls (smokers with normal lung function), from 6 persons with mild (GOLD-1) and 5 with moderate (GOLD-2) COPD. In airways from control lungs fibroblasts make frequent contact with cytoplasmic extensions of epithelial cells through apertures in the epithelial basal lamina, but the frequency of these fibroblast-epithelial contacts is reduced in both mild and moderate COPD compared to controls (p < 0.01). The 3D reconstructions showed that the cytoplasmic extensions of lamina propria fibroblasts form a reticulum with fibroblast-fibroblast contacts in an airway from a control subject but this reticulum may be reorganized in airways of COPD patients. Development of COPD is associated with significant disruption of the EMTU due to a reduction of contacts between fibroblasts and the epithelium.

  16. Ascites-induced shift along epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum in ovarian cancer cells: enhancement of their invasive behavior partly dependant on αv integrins.

    PubMed

    Carduner, L; Leroy-Dudal, J; Picot, C R; Gallet, O; Carreiras, F; Kellouche, S

    2014-08-01

    At least one-third of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (OC) present ascites at diagnosis and almost all have ascites at recurrence. The presence of ascites, which acts as a dynamic reservoir of active molecules and cellular components, correlates with the OC peritoneal metastasis and is associated with poor prognosis. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in different phases of OC progression, we have investigated the effect of the unique ascitic tumor microenvironment on the EMT status and the behavior of OC cells. The exposure of three OC cell lines to ascites leads to changes in cellular morphologies. Within ascites, OC cells harboring an initial intermediate epithelial phenotype are characterized by marked dislocation of epithelial markers (E-cadherin, ZO-1 staining) while OC cells initially harboring an intermediate mesenchymal phenotype strengthen their mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vimentin). Ascites differentially triggers a dissemination phenotype related to the initial cell features by either allowing the proliferation and the formation of spheroids and the extension of colonies for cells that present an initial epithelial intermediate phenotype, or favoring the migration of cells with a mesenchymal intermediate phenotype. In an ascitic microenvironment, a redeployment of αv integrins into cells was observed and the ascites-induced accentuation of the two different invasive phenotypes (i.e. spheroids formation or migration) was shown to involve αv integrins. Thus, ascites induces a shift toward an unstable intermediate state of the epithelial-mesenchymal spectrum and confers a more aggressive cell behavior that takes on a different pathway based on the initial epithelial-mesenchymal cell features.

  17. Complex Determinants of Epithelial: Mesenchymal Phenotypic Plasticity in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klymenko, Yuliya; Kim, Oleg; Stack, M. Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Unlike most epithelial malignancies which metastasize hematogenously, metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) occurs primarily via transcoelomic dissemination, characterized by exfoliation of cells from the primary tumor, avoidance of detachment-induced cell death (anoikis), movement throughout the peritoneal cavity as individual cells and multi-cellular aggregates (MCAs), adhesion to and disruption of the mesothelial lining of the peritoneum, and submesothelial matrix anchoring and proliferation to generate widely disseminated metastases. This exceptional microenvironment is highly permissive for phenotypic plasticity, enabling mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transitions. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on EOC heterogeneity in an EMT context, outline major regulators of EMT in ovarian cancer, address controversies in EMT and EOC chemoresistance, and highlight computational modeling approaches toward understanding EMT/MET in EOC. PMID:28792442

  18. Functional characterization of a novel 3D model of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit.

    PubMed

    Bucchieri, Fabio; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Fucarino, Alberto; Gammazza, Antonella Marino; Bavisotto, Celeste Caruso; Marcianò, Vito; Cajozzo, Massimo; Lo Iacono, Giorgio; Marchese, Roberto; Zummo, Giovanni; Holgate, Stephen T; Davies, Donna E

    2017-03-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal communication plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and abnormal signaling contributes to chronic airways disease such as COPD. Most in vitro models are limited in complexity and poorly represent this epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. We postulated that cellular outgrowth from bronchial tissue would enable development of a mucosal structure that recapitulates better in vivo tissue architecture. Bronchial tissue was embedded in Matrigel and outgrowth cultures monitored using time-lapse microscopy, electrical resistance, light and electron microscopy. Cultures were challenged repetitively with cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The outgrowths formed as a multicellular sheet with motile cilia becoming evident as the Matrigel was remodeled to provide an air interface; cultures were viable for more than one year. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy (EM) identified an upper layer of mucociliary epithelium and a lower layer of highly organized extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with fibroblastic cells separated by a basement membrane. EM analysis of the mucosal construct after repetitive exposure to CSE revealed epithelial damage, loss of cilia, and ECM remodeling, as occurs in vivo. We have developed a robust bronchial mucosal model. The structural changes observed following CSE exposure suggest the model should have utility for drug discovery and preclinical testing, especially those targeting airway remodeling.

  19. Squamous metaplasia amplifies pathologic epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Jun; Cambier, Stephanie; Markovics, Jennifer A.; Wolters, Paul; Jablons, David; Hill, Arthur; Finkbeiner, Walter; Jones, Kirk; Broaddus, V. Courtney; Sheppard, Dean; Barzcak, Andrea; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Erle, David J.; Nishimura, Stephen L.

    2007-01-01

    Squamous metaplasia (SM) is common in smokers and is associated with airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A major mechanism of airway obstruction in COPD is thickening of the small airway walls. We asked whether SM actively contributes to airway wall thickening through alteration of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in COPD. Using immunohistochemical staining, airway morphometry, and fibroblast culture of lung samples from COPD patients; genome-wide analysis of an in vitro model of SM; and in vitro modeling of human airway epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, we provide evidence that SM, through the increased secretion of IL-1β, induces a fibrotic response in adjacent airway fibroblasts. We identify a pivotal role for integrin-mediated TGF-β activation in amplifying SM and driving IL-1β–dependent profibrotic mesenchymal responses. Finally, we show that SM correlates with increased severity of COPD and that fibroblast expression of the integrin αvβ8, which is the major mediator of airway fibroblast TGF-β activation, correlated with disease severity and small airway wall thickening in COPD. Our findings have identified TGF-β as a potential therapeutic target for COPD. PMID:17965775

  20. The epithelial-mesenchymal interactions: insights into physiological and pathological aspects of oral tissues.

    PubMed

    Santosh, Arvind Babu Rajendra; Jones, Thaon Jon

    2014-03-17

    In the human biological system, the individual cells divide and form tissues and organs. These tissues are hetero-cellular. Basically any tissue consists of an epithelium and the connective tissue. The latter contains mainly mesenchymally-derived tissues with a diversified cell population. The cell continues to grow and differentiate in a pre-programmed manner using a messenger system. The epithelium and the mesenchymal portion of each tissue have two different origins and perform specific functions, but there is a well-defined interaction mechanism, which mediates between them. Epithelial mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are part of this mechanism, which can be regarded as a biological conversation between epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations involved in the cellular differentiation of one or both cell populations. EMIs represent a process that is essential for cell growth, cell differentiation and cell multiplication. EMIs are associated with normal physiological processes in the oral cavity, such as odontogenesis, dentino-enamel junction formation, salivary gland development, palatogenesis, and also pathological processes, such as oral cancer. This paper focuses the role EMIs in odontogenesis, salivary gland development, palatogenesis and oral cancer.

  1. Rapid Genetic Analysis of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Signaling During Hair Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Hanson H.; Oro, Anthony E.

    2013-01-01

    Hair follicle morphogenesis, a complex process requiring interaction between epithelia-derived keratinocytes and the underlying mesenchyme, is an attractive model system to study organ development and tissue-specific signaling. Although hair follicle development is genetically tractable, fast and reproducible analysis of factors essential for this process remains a challenge. Here we describe a procedure to generate targeted overexpression or shRNA-mediated knockdown of factors using lentivirus in a tissue-specific manner. Using a modified version of a hair regeneration model 5, 6, 11, we can achieve robust gain- or loss-of-function analysis in primary mouse keratinocytes or dermal cells to facilitate study of epithelial-mesenchymal signaling pathways that lead to hair follicle morphogenesis. We describe how to isolate fresh primary mouse keratinocytes and dermal cells, which contain dermal papilla cells and their precursors, deliver lentivirus containing either shRNA or cDNA to one of the cell populations, and combine the cells to generate fully formed hair follicles on the backs of nude mice. This approach allows analysis of tissue-specific factors required to generate hair follicles within three weeks and provides a fast and convenient companion to existing genetic models. PMID:23486463

  2. Intestinal epithelial wound healing assay in an epithelial-mesenchymal co-culture system.

    PubMed

    Seltana, Amira; Basora, Nuria; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Rapid and efficient healing of epithelial damage is critical to the functional integrity of the small intestine. Epithelial repair is a complex process that has largely been studied in cultured epithelium but to a much lesser extent in mucosa. We describe a novel method for the study of wound healing using a co-culture system that combined an intestinal epithelial Caco-2/15 cell monolayer cultured on top of human intestinal myofibroblasts, which together formed a basement membrane-like structure that contained many of the major components found at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface in the human intestine. To investigate the mechanism of restitution, small lesions were generated in epithelial cell monolayers on plastic or in co-cultures without disturbing the underlying mesenchymal layer. Monitoring of wound healing showed that repair was more efficient in Caco-2/15-myofibroblast co-cultures than in Caco-2/15 monolayers and involved the deposition of basement membrane components. Functional experiments showed that the addition of type I collagen or human fibronectin to the culture medium significantly accelerated wound closure on epithelial cell co-cultures. This system may provide a new tool to investigate the mechanisms that regulate wound healing in the intestinal epithelium.

  3. Macrophage phenotypic subtypes diametrically regulate epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Ma, Bo; Shao, Hanshuang; Clark, Amanda M; Wells, Alan

    2016-07-07

    Metastatic progression of breast cancer involves phenotypic plasticity of the carcinoma cells moving between epithelial and mesenchymal behaviors. During metastatic seeding and dormancy, even highly aggressive carcinoma cells take on an E-cadherin-positive epithelial phenotype that is absent from the emergent, lethal metastatic outgrowths. These phenotypes are linked to the metastatic microenvironment, though the specific cells and induction signals are still to be deciphered. Recent evidence suggests that macrophages impact tumor progression, and may alter the balance between cancer cell EMT and MErT in the metastatic microenvironment. Here we explore the role of M1/M2 macrophages in epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity of breast cancer cells by coculturing epithelial and mesenchymal cells lines with macrophages. We found that after polarizing the THP-1 human monocyte cell line, the M1 and M2-types were stable and maintained when co-cultured with breast cancer cells. Surprisingly, M2 macrophages may conferred a growth advantage to the epithelial MCF-7 cells, with these cells being driven to a partial mesenchymal phenotypic as indicated by spindle morphology. Notably, E-cadherin protein expression is significantly decreased in MCF-7 cells co-cultured with M2 macrophages. M0 and M1 macrophages had no effect on the MCF-7 epithelial phenotype. However, the M1 macrophages impacted the highly aggressive mesenchymal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to take on a quiescent, epithelial phenotype with re-expression of E-cadherin. The M2 macrophages if anything exacerbated the mesenchymal phenotype of the MDA-MB-231 cells. Our findings demonstrate M2 macrophages might impart outgrowth and M1 macrophages may contribute to dormancy behaviors in metastatic breast cancer cells. Thus EMT and MErT are regulated by selected macrophage phenotype in the liver metastatic microenvironment. These results indicate macrophage could be a potential therapeutic target for limiting death due

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Abnave, Prasad; Aboukhatwa, Ellen; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Thompson, James; Hill, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that snail-1, snail-2 and zeb-1 EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant notum. Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo. PMID:28893948

  5. FGFR4 Role in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Its Therapeutic Value in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sofía; Hernández-Varas, Pablo; Teixidó, Joaquín; Bonilla, Félix; de Herreros, Antonio Garcia; Casal, J. Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is vital in early development and tissue repair. FGFR4 expression levels are very restricted in adult tissues, except in several solid tumors including colorectal cancer, which showed overexpression of FGFR4. Here, FGFR4 mutation analysis discarded the presence of activating mutations, other than Arg388, in different colorectal cancer cell lines and tumoral samples. Stable shRNA FGFR4-silencing in SW480 and SW48 cell lines resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation, adhesion, cell migration and invasion. This decrease in the tumorigenic and invasive capabilities of colorectal cancer cells was accompanied by a decrease of Snail, Twist and TGFβ gene expression levels and an increase of E-cadherin, causing a reversion to a more epithelial phenotype, in three different cell lines. In addition, FGFR4-signaling activated the oncogenic SRC, ERK1/2 and AKT pathways in colon cancer cells and promoted an increase in cell survival. The relevance of FGFR4 in tumor growth was supported by two different strategies. Kinase inhibitors abrogated FGFR4-related cell growth and signaling pathways at the same extent than FGFR4-silenced cells. Specific FGFR4-targeting using antibodies provoked a similar reduction in cell growth. Moreover, FGFR4 knock-down cells displayed a reduced capacity for in vivo tumor formation and angiogenesis in nude mice. Collectively, our data support a crucial role for FGFR4 in tumorigenesis, invasion and survival in colorectal cancer. In addition, FGFR4 targeting demonstrated its applicability for colorectal cancer therapy. PMID:23696849

  6. TES was epigenetically silenced and suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yongbin, Yang; Jinghua, Li; Zhanxue, Zhao; Aimin, Zang; Youchao, Jia; Yanhong, Shang; Manjing, Jiao

    2014-11-01

    The TES gene was frequently lost in breast cancer, which could inhibit tumor invasion and the formation of distant metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown yet. In the present study, we aimed to investigate how TES was silenced and its roles in EMT--the key step for tumor metastasis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of target genes; the status of TES promoter was determined by methylation-specific PCR and subsequently, DNA sequencing. Overexpression or downregulation of TES was achieved by pcDNA3.1-TES or shRNA-TES transfection. Cellular adhesion and migration were investigated by the adhesion and Transwell assays. Morphological changes of breast cancer cells were observed under the optical microscope. The Rho A activity was measured using a commercial kit, and its roles in TES-manipulated EMT were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The 42.3% (33/78) breast cancer tissues presented hypermethylation of the TES gene, whereas only 2 (2.6%) non-malignant cases were hypermethylated (P<0.001). Moreover, TES hypermethylation was significantly correlated with larger tumor diameter (P=0.03) and lympho node metastasis (P=0.024). In primary cultured breast cancer cells, the demethylation treatment using 5-aza-dC notably restored the expression of TES. In vitro, overexpression of TES enhanced cellular adhesion inhibited migration and suppressed EMT, while downregulation of TES impaired cellular adhesion, promoted migration, and enhanced EMT. TES overexpression also activated the Rho A signal, which is a critical factor for the effects of TES on the EMT procedure. We firstly proved that frequent loss of TES in breast cancer was caused by promoter hypermethylation, which was correlated with poor prognosis. In vitro, TES enhanced cellular adhesion, suppressed tumor migration, and inhibited EMT. Moreover, the Rho A pathway was critical for the effects of TES on EMT, which can be blocked by the Rho A inhibitor. Therefore, we propose restoration of TES as a potent strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  7. Biology of lung cancer: genetic mutation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Takashi

    2016-09-01

    At present, most cases of unresectable cancer cannot be cured. Genetic mutations, EMT, and cancer stem cells are three major issues linked to poor prognosis in such cases, all connected by inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Issues on inter-/intra-tumor heterogeneity of genetic mutation could be resolved with recent and future technologies of deep sequencers, whereas, regarding such issues as the "same genome, different epigenome/phenotype", we expect to solve many of these problems in the future through further research in stem cell biology. We herein review and discuss the three major issues in the biology of cancers, especially from the standpoint of stem cell biology.

  8. Silencing of BAG3 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Wang, Geng; Ma, Zhifang; Ma, Yuebing; Wang, Yingying

    2017-11-10

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be involved in aggressive progression of many tumors. In the present study, we examined the expression of BAG3 in human cervical cancer (CC) tissues and investigated the role of BAG3 in SiHa and HeLa cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we found that most of CC tissues highly expressed the protein and mRNA of BAG3, while their expression was obviously lower in paired normal tissues (all p<0.001). BAG3 expression was associated with FIGO stage and metastasis (all p<0.05). In-vitro analysis demonstrated that BAG3 siRNAs inhibited SiHa and HeLa cell growth, invasion and migration. Mechanically, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited the expression of EMT-regulating markers, involving MMP2, Slug and N-cadherin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. In a xenograft nude model, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited tumor growth and the expression of EMT biomarkers. In conclusion, BAG3 is involved in the EMT process, including cell growth, invasion and migration in the development of CC. Thus, BAG3 target might be recommended as a novel therapeutic approach.

  9. Silencing of BAG3 inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fei; Wang, Geng; Ma, Zhifang; Ma, Yuebing; Wang, Yingying

    2017-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) has been reported to be involved in aggressive progression of many tumors. In the present study, we examined the expression of BAG3 in human cervical cancer (CC) tissues and investigated the role of BAG3 in SiHa and HeLa cell growth, migration, and invasion. Here, we found that most of CC tissues highly expressed the protein and mRNA of BAG3, while their expression was obviously lower in paired normal tissues (all p<0.001). BAG3 expression was associated with FIGO stage and metastasis (all p<0.05). In-vitro analysis demonstrated that BAG3 siRNAs inhibited SiHa and HeLa cell growth, invasion and migration. Mechanically, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited the expression of EMT-regulating markers, involving MMP2, Slug and N-cadherin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. In a xenograft nude model, BAG3 siRNAs inhibited tumor growth and the expression of EMT biomarkers. In conclusion, BAG3 is involved in the EMT process, including cell growth, invasion and migration in the development of CC. Thus, BAG3 target might be recommended as a novel therapeutic approach. PMID:29221135

  10. Arctigenin represses TGF-β-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanrui; Lou, Zhiyuan; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2017-11-18

    Arctigenin (ARC) is a lignan that is abundant in Asteraceae plants, which show anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The current study investigated whether ARC affects cancer progression and metastasis, focusing on EMT using invasive human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. No toxicity was observed in the cells treated with different doses of ARC (12-100 μM). The treatment of ARC repressed TGF-β-stimulated changes of metastatic morphology and cell invasion and migration. ARC inhibited TGF-β-induced phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of smad2/3, and expression of snail. ARC also decreased expression of N-cadherin and increased expression of E-cadherin in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. These changes were accompanied by decreased amount of phospho-smad2/3 in nucleus and nuclear translocation of smad2/3. Moreover, ARC repressed TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of ERK and transcriptional activity of β-catenin. Our data demonstrate anti-metastatic activity of ARC in lung cancer model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians.

    PubMed

    Abnave, Prasad; Aboukhatwa, Ellen; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Thompson, James; Hill, Mark A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-10-01

    Migration of stem cells underpins the physiology of metazoan animals. For tissues to be maintained, stem cells and their progeny must migrate and differentiate in the correct positions. This need is even more acute after tissue damage by wounding or pathogenic infection. Inappropriate migration also underpins metastasis. Despite this, few mechanistic studies address stem cell migration during repair or homeostasis in adult tissues. Here, we present a shielded X-ray irradiation assay that allows us to follow stem cell migration in planarians. We demonstrate the use of this system to study the molecular control of stem cell migration and show that snail-1 , snail-2 and zeb-1 EMT transcription factor homologs are necessary for cell migration to wound sites and for the establishment of migratory cell morphology. We also observed that stem cells undergo homeostatic migration to anterior regions that lack local stem cells, in the absence of injury, maintaining tissue homeostasis. This requires the polarity determinant notum Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo . © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. OTX1 promotes colorectal cancer progression through epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kun; Cai, Xin-Yi; Li, Qiang

    2014-01-31

    Highlights: • OTX1 is overexpression in colorectal cancer tissues. • Overexpression of OTX1 promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. • Depletion of OTX1 inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. • Overexpression of OTX1 is linked to the EMT-like phenotype. - Abstract: Orthodenticle homeobox 1 (OTX1), a transcription factor containing a bicoid-like homeodomain, plays a role in brain and sensory organ development. In this study, we report that OTX1 is overexpressed in human colorectal cancer (CRC) and OTX1 overexpression is associated with higher stage. Functional analyses reveal that overexpression ofmore » OTX1 results in accumulation of CRC cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, whereas ablation of OTX1 expression significantly inhibits the proliferative and invasive capability of CRC cells in vitro. Together, our results indicate that OTX1 is involved in human colon carcinogenesis and may serve as a potential therapeutic target for human colorectal cancer.« less

  13. Towards optimization of an organotypic assay system that imitates human hair follicle-like epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

    PubMed

    Havlickova, B; Bíró, T; Mescalchin, A; Arenberger, P; Paus, R

    2004-10-01

    Human hair growth can currently be studied in vitro by the use of organ-cultured scalp hair follicles (HFs). However, simplified organotypic systems are needed for dissecting the underlying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and as screening tools for candidate hair growth-modulatory agents. To optimize the design and culture conditions of previously published organotypic systems that imitate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the human HF as closely as possible. Continuous submerged organotypic 'sandwich' cultures were established. These consist of a pseudodermis (collagen I mixed with and contracted by human interfollicular dermal fibroblasts) on which one of two upper layers is placed: either a mixture of Matrigel basement membrane matrix (BD Biosciences, Bedford, MA, U.S.A.) and follicular dermal papilla fibroblasts (DPC), with outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSK) layered on the top ('layered' system), or a mixture of Matrigel, DPC and ORSK ('mixed' system). Morphological and functional characteristics of these 'folliculoid sandwiches' were then assessed by routine histology, histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry. In both 'layered' and 'mixed' systems, the ORSK formed spheroid epithelial cell aggregates, which retained their characteristic keratin expression pattern (i.e. cytokeratin 6). In the 'mixed' sandwich model the size of the epithelial cell aggregates was smaller, but the numbers of ORSK were significantly higher than in the 'layered' model at day 14 in the culture. ORSK proliferated better in the 'mixed' than in the 'layered' sandwich system, regardless of the calcium or serum content of the media, whereas apoptosis of ORSK was lowest in the 'mixed' system in serum-free, low calcium medium. The kinetics of proliferation and apoptosis of DPC, which retained their characteristic expression of versican, were similar in both systems. However, proliferation and apoptosis of DPC were higher in the presence of serum and/or under high calcium

  14. Bax/Tubulin/Epithelial-Mesenchymal Pathways Determine the Efficacy of Silybin Analog HM015k in Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Amawi, Haneen; Hussein, Noor A; Ashby, Charles R; Alnafisah, Rawan; Sanglard, Leticia M; Manivannan, Elangovan; Karthikeyan, Chandrabose; Trivedi, Piyush; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Robey, Robert W; Tiwari, Amit K

    2018-01-01

    The inhibition of apoptosis, disruption of cellular microtubule dynamics, and over-activation of the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), are involved in the progression, metastasis, and resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) to chemotherapy. Therefore, the design of a molecule that can target these pathways could be an effective strategy to reverse CRC progression and metastasis. In this study, twelve novel silybin derivatives, HM015a-HM015k (15a-15k) and compound 17, were screened for cytotoxicity in CRC cell lines. Compounds HM015j and HM015k (15k and 15j) significantly decreased cell proliferation, inhibited colony formation, and produced cell cycle arrest in CRC cells. Furthermore, 15k significantly induced the formation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis. It induced the cleavage of the intrinsic apoptotic protein (Bax p21) to its more efficacious fragment, p18. Compound 15k also inhibited tubulin expression and disrupted its structure. Compound 15k significantly decreased metastatic LOVO cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, 15k reversed mesenchymal morphology in HCT116 and LOVO cells. Additionally, 15k significantly inhibited the expression of the mesenchymal marker N-cadherin and upregulated the expression of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin. Compound 15k inhibited the expression of key proteins known to induce EMT (i.e., DVL3, β-catenin, c-Myc) and upregulated the anti-metastatic protein, cyclin B1. Overall, in vitro , 15k significantly inhibited CRC progression and metastasis by inhibiting apoptosis, tubulin activity and the EMT pathways. Overall, these data suggest that compound 15k should be tested in vivo in a CRC animal model for further development.

  15. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions in Urinary Bladder and Small Intestine and How to Apply Them in Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Jerman, Urška Dragin; Kreft, Mateja Erdani; Veranič, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme are essential for the establishment of proper tissue morphology during organogenesis and tissue regeneration as well as for the maintenance of cell differentiation. With this review, we highlight the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk in healthy tissue and further discuss its significance in engineering functional tissues in vitro. We focus on the urinary bladder and small intestine, organs that are often compromised by disease and are as such in need of research that would advance effective treatment or tissue replacement. To date, the understanding of epithelial-mesenchymal reciprocal interactions has enabled the development of in vitro biomimetic tissue equivalents that have provided many possibilities in treating defective, damaged, or even cancerous tissues. Although research of the past several years has advanced the field of bladder and small intestine tissue engineering, one must be aware of its current limitations in successfully and above all safely introducing tissue-engineered constructs into clinical practice. Special attention is in particular needed when treating cancerous tissues, as initially successful tumor excision and tissue reconstruction may later on result in cancer recurrence due to oncogenic signals originating from an altered stroma. Recent rather poor outcomes in pioneering clinical trials of bladder reconstructions should serve as a reminder that recreating a functional organ to replace a dysfunctional one is an objective far more difficult to reach than initially foreseen. When considering effective tissue engineering approaches for diseased tissues in humans, it is imperative to introduce animal models with dysfunctional or, even more importantly, cancerous organs, which would greatly contribute to predicting possible complications and, hence, reducing risks when translating to the clinic.

  16. β2 adrenergic agonist suppresses eosinophil-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kainuma, Keigo; Kobayashi, Tetsu; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Toda, Masaaki; Yasuma, Taro; Nishihama, Kota; Fujimoto, Hajime; Kuwabara, Yu; Hosoki, Koa; Nagao, Mizuho; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2017-05-02

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is currently recognized as an important mechanism for the increased number of myofibroblasts in cancer and fibrotic diseases. We have already reported that epithelial-mesenchymal transition is involved in airway remodeling induced by eosinophils. Procaterol is a selective and full β 2 adrenergic agonist that is used as a rescue of asthmatic attack inhaler form and orally as a controller. In this study, we evaluated whether procaterol can suppress epithelial-mesenchymal transition of airway epithelial cells induced by eosinophils. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and primary human eosinophils or an eosinophilic leukemia cell line. Procaterol significantly inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of bronchial epithelial cells, decreased the expression of vimentin, and increased the expression of E-cadherin compared to control. Butoxamine, a specific β 2 -adrenergic antagonist, significantly blocked changes induced by procaterol. In addition, procaterol inhibited the expression of adhesion molecules induced during the interaction between eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting the involvement of adhesion molecules in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Forskolin, a cyclic adenosine monophosphate-promoting agent, exhibits similar inhibitory activity of procaterol. Overall, these observations support the beneficial effect of procaterol on airway remodeling frequently associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  17. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis unveils a prevalent epithelial/mesenchymal hybrid state during mouse organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ji; Hu, Yuqiong; Fan, Xiaoying; Wu, Xinglong; Mao, Yunuo; Hu, Boqiang; Guo, Hongshan; Wen, Lu; Tang, Fuchou

    2018-03-14

    Organogenesis is crucial for proper organ formation during mammalian embryonic development. However, the similarities and shared features between different organs and the cellular heterogeneity during this process at single-cell resolution remain elusive. We perform single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of 1916 individual cells from eight organs and tissues of E9.5 to E11.5 mouse embryos, namely, the forebrain, hindbrain, skin, heart, somite, lung, liver, and intestine. Based on the regulatory activities rather than the expression patterns, all cells analyzed can be well classified into four major groups with epithelial, mesodermal, hematopoietic, and neuronal identities. For different organs within the same group, the similarities and differences of their features and developmental paths are revealed and reconstructed. We identify mutual interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells and detect epithelial cells with prevalent mesenchymal features during organogenesis, which are similar to the features of intermediate epithelial/mesenchymal cells during tumorigenesis. The comprehensive transcriptome at single-cell resolution profiled in our study paves the way for future mechanistic studies of the gene-regulatory networks governing mammalian organogenesis.

  18. A simple in vitro model for investigating epithelial/mesenchymal interactions: keratinocyte inhibition of fibroblast proliferation and fibronectin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Caroline A; Dalley, Andrew J; Mac Neil, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring and graft contracture are major causes of morbidity after burn injuries. It is well established that application of a split-thickness skin graft reduces scarring and contraction, and cultured epithelial autografts have a similar effect. To investigate the influence of keratinocytes on fibroblast proliferation and fibronectin synthesis, we used an in vitro separated co-culture model in which epithelial sheets were cultured above fibroblast monolayers without physical contact. We also investigated the response of fibroblasts to keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM) obtained from confluent and subconfluent keratinocyte monolayers. Both cultured epithelial sheets, composed of adherent fully confluent keratinocytes, and their conditioned medium, reduced fibroblast proliferation. However, KCM from subconfluent keratinocytes stimulated fibroblast proliferation at low concentrations while inhibiting it at higher concentrations, indicating that keratinocytes can produce both mitogenic and growth-inhibiting factors for fibroblasts. KCM, but not epithelial sheet co-culture, also inhibited fibroblast fibronectin synthesis. This indicates regulation of fibroblast phenotype by soluble factors released by the keratinocyte and also suggests that there is a dialogue between keratinocytes and fibroblasts with respect to fibronectin production. We conclude that this separated co-culture model is a simple way to study epithelial/mesenchymal communication particularly with respect to the role of the fibroblast in wound healing.

  19. Integrin-Mediated Transforming Growth Factor-β Activation Regulates Homeostasis of the Pulmonary Epithelial-Mesenchymal Trophic Unit

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Jun; Cambier, Stephanie; Morris, Alanna; Finkbeiner, Walter; Nishimura, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Trophic interactions between pulmonary epithelial and mesenchymal cell types, known as the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU), are crucial in lung development and lung disease. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a key factor in mediating these interactions, but it is expressed in a latent form that requires activation to be functional. Using intact fetal tracheal tissue and primary cultures of fetal tracheal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we demonstrate that a subset of integrins, αvβ6 and αvβ8, are responsible for almost all of the TGF-β activation in the EMTU. Both αvβ8 and αvβ6 contribute to fetal tracheal epithelial activation of TGF-β, whereas only αvβ8 contributes to fetal tracheal fibroblast activation of TGF-β. Interestingly, fetal tracheal epithelial αvβ8-mediated TGF-β activation can be enhanced by phorbol esters, likely because of the increased activity of MT1-MMP, an essential co-factor in αvβ8-mediated activation of TGF-β. Autocrine αvβ8-mediated TGF-β activation by fetal tracheal fibroblasts results in suppression of both transcription and secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, which is sufficient to affect phosphorylation of the airway epithelial hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-Met, as well as airway epithelial proliferation in a co-culture model of the EMTU. These findings elucidate the function and complex regulation of integrin-mediated activation of TGF-β within the EMTU. PMID:16877343

  20. Integrin-mediated transforming growth factor-beta activation regulates homeostasis of the pulmonary epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit.

    PubMed

    Araya, Jun; Cambier, Stephanie; Morris, Alanna; Finkbeiner, Walter; Nishimura, Stephen L

    2006-08-01

    Trophic interactions between pulmonary epithelial and mesenchymal cell types, known as the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU), are crucial in lung development and lung disease. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is a key factor in mediating these interactions, but it is expressed in a latent form that requires activation to be functional. Using intact fetal tracheal tissue and primary cultures of fetal tracheal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, we demonstrate that a subset of integrins, alpha(v)beta(6) and alpha(v)beta(8), are responsible for almost all of the TGF-beta activation in the EMTU. Both alpha(v)beta(8) and alpha(v)beta(6) contribute to fetal tracheal epithelial activation of TGF-beta, whereas only alpha(v)beta(8) contributes to fetal tracheal fibroblast activation of TGF-beta. Interestingly, fetal tracheal epithelial alpha(v)beta(8)-mediated TGF-beta activation can be enhanced by phorbol esters, likely because of the increased activity of MT1-MMP, an essential co-factor in alpha(v)beta(8)-mediated activation of TGF-beta. Autocrine alpha(v)beta(8)-mediated TGF-beta activation by fetal tracheal fibroblasts results in suppression of both transcription and secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, which is sufficient to affect phosphorylation of the airway epithelial hepatocyte growth factor receptor, c-Met, as well as airway epithelial proliferation in a co-culture model of the EMTU. These findings elucidate the function and complex regulation of integrin-mediated activation of TGF-beta within the EMTU.

  1. miR-130b-3p Modulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Crosstalk in Lung Fibrosis by Targeting IGF-1.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhong; Geng, Jing; Xu, Xuefeng; Huang, Xiaoxi; Leng, Dong; Jiang, Dingyuan; Liang, Jiurong; Wang, Chen; Jiang, Dianhua; Dai, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive and usually lethal fibrotic lung disease with largely unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Evidence suggests microRNAs (miRNA) contribute to pathogenesis of IPF. In this study, we sought to identify miRNA expression signatures and determine the role of miR-130b-3p in lung fibrosis. The miRNA expression profile of the lungs from patients with IPF and normal donors was determined by Affymetrix microarray, and transcriptome with Affymetrix array. The functions and signal pathways as well as miRNA-mRNA networks were established by bioinformatics analysis. Luciferase assays and ELISA were used to confirm the miRNA target gene. The effect of miRNA-transfected epithelium on fibroblast activities was assessed using a co-culture system. The fibroblast activities were determined by qRT-PCR, western blotting, Transwell and BrdU assays. Seven miRNAs were significantly decreased in IPF lungs, with miR-130b-3p being the highest in the miRNA-mRNA network. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was a target gene of miR-130b-3p in the epithelium. miR-130b-3p inhibition in the epithelium induced collagen I expression and enhanced the proliferation and migration ability of fibroblast in co-culture systems, which mimicked the functions of exogenous IGF-1 on fibroblasts. Neutralizing IGF-1 with an antibody significantly reduced the modulatory effects of miR-130b-3p inhibitor-transfected epithelium on the activation of fibroblasts. Our results show that miR-130b-3p was downregulated in IPF lungs. miR-130b-3p downregulation contributed to the activation of fibroblasts and the dysregulated epithelial-mesenchymal crosstalk by promoting IGF-1 secretion from lung epithelium, suggesting a key regulatory role for this miRNA in preventing lung fibrosis.

  2. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) negatively regulate triple-negative breast cancer growth and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Ahn, Sunjoo; Cheney, Misty D; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Miller, Duane D; Steiner, Mitchell S; Dalton, James T

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75-95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40-70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer. Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action. Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures. 1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer.

  3. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) Negatively Regulate Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Growth and Epithelial:Mesenchymal Stem Cell Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Ramesh; Ahn, Sunjoo; Cheney, Misty D.; Yepuru, Muralimohan; Miller, Duane D.; Steiner, Mitchell S.; Dalton, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The androgen receptor (AR) is the most highly expressed steroid receptor in breast cancer with 75–95% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 40–70% of ER-negative breast cancers expressing AR. Though historically breast cancers were treated with steroidal androgens, their use fell from favor because of their virilizing side effects and the emergence of tamoxifen. Nonsteroidal, tissue selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) may provide a novel targeted approach to exploit the therapeutic benefits of androgen therapy in breast cancer. Materials and Methods Since MDA-MB-453 triple-negative breast cancer cells express mutated AR, PTEN, and p53, MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells stably expressing wildtype AR (MDA-MB-231-AR) were used to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anti-proliferative effects of SARMs. Microarray analysis and epithelial:mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) co-culture signaling studies were performed to understand the mechanisms of action. Results Dihydrotestosterone and SARMs, but not bicalutamide, inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231-AR. The SARMs reduced the MDA-MB-231-AR tumor growth and tumor weight by greater than 90%, compared to vehicle-treated tumors. SARM treatment inhibited the intratumoral expression of genes and pathways that promote breast cancer development through its actions on the AR. SARM treatment also inhibited the metastasis-promoting paracrine factors, IL6 and MMP13, and subsequent migration and invasion of epithelial:MSC co-cultures. Conclusion 1. AR stimulation inhibits paracrine factors that are important for MSC interactions and breast cancer invasion and metastasis. 2. SARMs may provide promise as novel targeted therapies to treat AR-positive triple-negative breast cancer. PMID:25072326

  4. Berberine induces neuronal differentiation through inhibition of cancer stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Naveen, C R; Gaikwad, Sagar; Agrawal-Rajput, Reena

    2016-06-15

    Berberine, a plant alkaloid, has been used since many years for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. It also shows promising medicinal use against metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer; however its efficacy in neuroblastoma (NB) is poorly explored. EMT is important in cancer stemness and metastasis resulting in failure to differentiate; thus targeting EMT and related pathways can have clinical benefits. Potential of berberine was investigated for (i) neuronal differentiation and cancer stemness inhibition, (ii) underlying molecular mechanisms regulating cancer-stemness and (iii) EMT reversal. Using neuro2a (N2a) neuroblastoma cells (NB); we investigated effect of berberine on neuronal differentiation, cancer-stemness, EMT and underlying signalling by immunofluorescence, RT-PCR, Western blot. High glucose-induced TGF-β mediated EMT model was used to test EMT reversal potential by Western blot and RT-PCR. STRING analysis was done to determine and validate functional protein-interaction networks. We demonstrate berberine induces neuronal differentiation accompanying increased neuronal differentiation markers like MAP2, β-III tubulin and NCAM; generated neurons were viable. Berberine attenuated cancer stemness markers CD133, β-catenin, n-myc, sox2, notch2 and nestin. Berberine potentiated G0/G1 cell cycle arrest by inhibiting proliferation, cyclin dependent kinases and cyclins resulting in apoptosis through increased bax/bcl-2 ratio. Restoration of tumor suppressor proteins, p27 and p53, indicate promising anti-cancer property. The induction of NCAM and reduction in its polysialylation indicates anti-migratory potential which is supported by down regulation of MMP-2/9. It increased epithelial marker laminin and smad and increased Hsp70 levels also suggest its protective role. Molecular insights revealed that berberine regulates EMT via downregulation of PI3/Akt and Ras-Raf-ERK signalling and subsequent upregulation of p38-MAPK. TGF-β secretion from N2a cells was potentiated by high glucose and negatively regulated by berberine through modulation of TGF-β receptors II and III. Berberine reverted mesenchymal markers, vimentin and fibronectin, with restoration of epithelial marker E-cadherin, highlighting the role of berberine in reversal of EMT. Collectively, the study demonstrates prospective use of berberine against neuroblastoma as elucidated through inhibition of fundamental characteristics of cancer stem cells: tumorigenicity and failure to differentiation and instigates reversal in the EMT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of Proteins Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition as Predictors of Metastasis and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    were enrolled in the Data Bank and BioRepository at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. These results were presented at the 2011 AACR Annual Meeting and...participants with tumor tissue from the Pathology core facility at Roswell Park. We examined these samples for quality and quantity by several different...presented data at seminars and work-in-progress meetings at Roswell Park and the University at Buffalo. The trainee has also actively participated in

  6. Expression of Proteins Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition as Predictors of Metastasis and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI), works-in-progress meetings, weekly Institute-wide seminar series, and monthly Breast Disease Site Research...status to the tumor size-lymph node metastasis relationship. This analysis included 805 women diagnosed with primary, incident breast cancer enrolled...to the NJ Department of Health and Senior Services. Collection of NJ cancer incidence data is supported by SEER under contract N01-PC-95001-20. The

  7. The Role of BRCA1 in Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Mammary Gland and Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Lakhani SR, Reis-Filho JS, Fulford L, Penault-Llorca F, van der Vijver M, Parry S, et al. Prediction of BRCA1 status in patients with breast cancer using...NT, Buckley NE, Berry FB, Kennedy RD, Gorski JJ , et al. BRCA1 and GATA3 corepress FOXC1 to inhibit the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancers. Oncogene. 2011. 11. Appendices Nothing to report

  8. The Role of BRCA1 in Suppressing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Mammary Gland and Tumor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    intrinsic subtypes: basal-like (BL), claudin-low (CL), Her2+ (H2), luminal A (LA), luminal B (LB), and normal breast-like ( NBL ), each of which has...normal breast-like ( NBL ), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features (28). Of these subtypes of breast cancer, the CL subtype is

  9. The Role of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in the Formation of Normal and Neoplastic Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    separating stem cell and non- stem cell populations of normal and breast cancer cells and identified EMT transcription factors most likely involved in... stem cell biology. Preliminary results directly demonstrate that transient induction of EMT increases the number of mammary epithelial stem cells...EMT and entrance into a stem - cell state. The outcome of these experiments holds important implications for the mechanisms controlling the formation of

  10. Apamin inhibits hepatic fibrosis through suppression of transforming growth factor β1-induced hepatocyte epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Ram; Kim, Kyung-Hyun; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Lee, Sun-Jae; Han, Sang-Mi; Pak, Sok Cheon; Park, Kwan-kyu

    2014-07-18

    Apamin is an integral part of bee venom, as a peptide component. It has long been known as a highly selective block Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK) channels. However, the cellular mechanism and anti-fibrotic effect of apamin in TGF-β1-induced hepatocytes have not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the anti-fibrosis or anti-EMT mechanism by examining the effect of apamin on TGF-β1-induced hepatocytes. AML12 cells were seeded at ∼60% confluence in complete growth medium. Twenty-four hours later, the cells were changed to serum free medium containing the indicated concentrations of apamin. After 30 min, the cells were treated with 2 ng/ml of TGF-β1 and co-cultured for 48 h. Also, we investigated the effects of apamin on the CCl4-induced liver fibrosis animal model. Treatment of AML12 cells with 2 ng/ml of TGF-β1 resulted in loss of E-cadherin protein at the cell-cell junctions and concomitant increased expression of vimentin. In addition, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt, Smad2/3 and Smad4 were increased by TGF-β1 stimulation. However, cells treated concurrently with TGF-β1 and apamin retained high levels of localized expression of E-cadherin and showed no increase in vimentin. Specifically, treatment with 2 μg/ml of apamin almost completely blocked the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, Akt, Smad2/3 and Smad4 in AML12 cells. In addition, apamin exhibited prevention of pathological changes in the CCl4-injected animal models. These results demonstrate the potential of apamin for the prevention of EMT progression induced by TGF-β1 in vitro and CCl4-injected in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of Proteins Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition as Predictors of Metastasis and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Ptrend 0.78 0.62 0.75 Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for risk of node...Ptrend 0.71 0.67 Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for risk of high-grade tumors... logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between each of the seven SNPs and

  12. Melatonin Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Driven Proliferation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and Vasculogenic Mimicry in Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Hui-li; Deng, Man-jing; Wen, Xiu-jie; Mo, Yuan-yuan; Chen, Fa-ming; Zou, Chun-li; Duan, Wei-feng

    2018-01-01

    Globally, oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancers. Melatonin elicits inhibitory effects on oral cancer; however, the biological function of melatonin and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that melatonin impaired the proliferation and apoptosis resistance of oral cancer cells by inactivating ROS-dependent Akt signaling, involving in downregulation of cyclin D1, PCNA, and Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax. Melatonin inhibited the migration and invasion of oral cancer cells by repressing ROS-activated Akt signaling, implicating with the reduction of Snail and Vimentin and the enhancement of E-cadherin. Moreover, melatonin hampered vasculogenic mimicry of oral cancer cells through blockage of ROS-activated extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) and Akt pathways involving the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α. Consistently, melatonin retarded tumorigenesis of oral cancer in vivo. Overall, these findings indicated that melatonin exerts antisurvival, antimotility, and antiangiogenesis effects on oral cancer partly by suppressing ROS-reliant Akt or ERK signaling. PMID:29725496

  13. Development of a Novel Method to Detect Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Based on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    different incubation periods for the cell lines (1 hour and overnight). We found that room temperature incubation provided the optimal temperature ...properties, either directly (through modification of residues in the complementarity determining region (CDR)) or indirectly through allosteric effects ...showed that the reduction in antigen binding affinity is associated with handling the antibody (e.g. temperature , buffer, purification steps) rather

  14. Development of a Novel Method to Detect Prostate Cancer Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Based on Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Biology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), although at vari- able rates [2, 3]. The mechanisms underlying castration- resistant progression are...semination leads to pathological fractures , anemia, bone mar- row failure, fatigue, cachexia, progressive pain, and failure to thrive, hallmarks of the...chemotherapy, and survival often ə year. While NED accounts for a large minority (perhaps 25 %) of aggressive CRPC [21], other mechanisms of EP leading to

  15. Melatonin Inhibits Reactive Oxygen Species-Driven Proliferation, Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, and Vasculogenic Mimicry in Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Hui-Li; Deng, Man-Jing; Wen, Xiu-Jie; Mo, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming; Zou, Chun-Li; Duan, Wei-Feng; Li, Lei; Nie, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Globally, oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancers. Melatonin elicits inhibitory effects on oral cancer; however, the biological function of melatonin and underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we found that melatonin impaired the proliferation and apoptosis resistance of oral cancer cells by inactivating ROS-dependent Akt signaling, involving in downregulation of cyclin D1, PCNA, and Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax. Melatonin inhibited the migration and invasion of oral cancer cells by repressing ROS-activated Akt signaling, implicating with the reduction of Snail and Vimentin and the enhancement of E-cadherin. Moreover, melatonin hampered vasculogenic mimicry of oral cancer cells through blockage of ROS-activated extracellular-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) and Akt pathways involving the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α . Consistently, melatonin retarded tumorigenesis of oral cancer in vivo . Overall, these findings indicated that melatonin exerts antisurvival, antimotility, and antiangiogenesis effects on oral cancer partly by suppressing ROS-reliant Akt or ERK signaling.

  16. S100A4 is a biomarker and regulator of glioma stem cells that is critical for mesenchymal transition in glioblastoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glioma stem cells (GSCs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are strongly associated with therapy resistance and tumor recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that S100A4 is a novel biomarker of GSCs. S100A4+ cells in gliomas are enriched with canc...

  17. The regulation of tooth morphogenesis is associated with epithelial cell proliferation and the expression of Sonic hedgehog through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kentaro; Murofushi, Mayumi; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Morita, Ritsuko; Ogawa, Miho; Tsuji, Takashi

    2011-02-18

    Ectodermal organs, such as the tooth, salivary gland, hair, and mammary gland, develop through reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphologies are defined by the crown width and tooth length (macro-morphologies), and by the number and locations of the cusp and roots (micro-morphologies). In our current study, we report that the crown width of a bioengineered molar tooth, which was reconstructed using dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells via an organ germ method, can be regulated by the contact area between epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers. We further show that this is associated with cell proliferation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in the inner enamel epithelium after the germ stage has formed a secondary enamel knot. We also demonstrate that the cusp number is significantly correlated with the crown width of the bioengineered tooth. These findings suggest that the tooth micro-morphology, i.e. the cusp formation, is regulated after the tooth width, or macro-morphology, is determined. These findings also suggest that the spatiotemporal patterning of cell proliferation and the Shh expression areas in the epithelium regulate the crown width and cusp formation of the developing tooth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The regulation of tooth morphogenesis is associated with epithelial cell proliferation and the expression of Sonic hedgehog through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishida, Kentaro; Murofushi, Mayumi; Nakao, Kazuhisa

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Bioengineered teeth regulated the contact area of epithelium and mesenchyme. {yields} The crown width is regulated by the contact area of the epithelium and mesenchyme. {yields} This regulation is associated with cell proliferation and Sonic hedgehog expression. {yields} The cusp number is correlated with the crown width of the bioengineered tooth. {yields} Cell proliferation and Shh expression areas regulate the tooth morphogenesis. -- Abstract: Ectodermal organs, such as the tooth, salivary gland, hair, and mammary gland, develop through reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphologies are defined by the crown width and tooth length (macro-morphologies), and by the numbermore » and locations of the cusp and roots (micro-morphologies). In our current study, we report that the crown width of a bioengineered molar tooth, which was reconstructed using dissociated epithelial and mesenchymal cells via an organ germ method, can be regulated by the contact area between epithelial and mesenchymal cell layers. We further show that this is associated with cell proliferation and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression in the inner enamel epithelium after the germ stage has formed a secondary enamel knot. We also demonstrate that the cusp number is significantly correlated with the crown width of the bioengineered tooth. These findings suggest that the tooth micro-morphology, i.e. the cusp formation, is regulated after the tooth width, or macro-morphology, is determined. These findings also suggest that the spatiotemporal patterning of cell proliferation and the Shh expression areas in the epithelium regulate the crown width and cusp formation of the developing tooth.« less

  19. Identification of Keratinocyte Growth Factor as a Target of microRNA-155 in Lung Fibroblasts: Implication in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Benoit; Puisségur, Marie-Pierre; Lebrigand, Kevin; Robbe-Sermesant, Karine; Bertero, Thomas; Lino Cardenas, Christian L.; Courcot, Elisabeth; Rios, Géraldine; Fourre, Sandra; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc; Marcet, Brice; Cardinaud, Bruno; Barbry, Pascal; Mari, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are critical in regulating many aspects of vertebrate embryo development, and for the maintenance of homeostatic equilibrium in adult tissues. The interactions between epithelium and mesenchyme are believed to be mediated by paracrine signals such as cytokines and extracellular matrix components secreted from fibroblasts that affect adjacent epithelia. In this study, we sought to identify the repertoire of microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal lung human fibroblasts and their potential regulation by the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and TGF-β. Methodology/Principal Findings MiR-155 was significantly induced by inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β while it was down-regulated by TGF-β. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in human fibroblasts induced modulation of a large set of genes related to “cell to cell signalling”, “cell morphology” and “cellular movement”. This was consistent with an induction of caspase-3 activity and with an increase in cell migration in fibroblasts tranfected with miR-155. Using different miRNA bioinformatic target prediction tools, we found a specific enrichment for miR-155 predicted targets among the population of down-regulated transcripts. Among fibroblast-selective targets, one interesting hit was keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, FGF-7), a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, which owns two potential binding sites for miR-155 in its 3′-UTR. Luciferase assays experimentally validated that miR-155 can efficiently target KGF 3′-UTR. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that only one out of the 2 potential sites was truly functional. Functional in vitro assays experimentally validated that miR-155 can efficiently target KGF 3′-UTR. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using a mouse model of lung fibrosis showed that miR-155 expression level was correlated with the degree of lung fibrosis. Conclusions/Significance Our results strongly suggest a physiological function of miR-155 in

  20. Arginine methylation of Smad7 by PRMT1 in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epithelial stem cell generation.

    PubMed

    Katsuno, Yoko; Qin, Jian; Oses-Prieto, Juan A; Wang, Hongjun; Jackson-Weaver, Olan; Zhang, Tingwei; Lamouille, Samy; Wu, Jian; Burlingame, A L L; Xu, Jian; Derynck, Rik

    2018-06-15

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is crucial for tissue differentiation in development, and drives essential steps in cancer and fibrosis. EMT is accompanied by reprogramming of gene expression, and has been associated with the epithelial stem cell state in normal and carcinoma cells. The cytokine TGF-β drives this program in cooperation with other signaling pathways and through TGF-β-activated Smad3 as major effector. TGF-β-induced Smad3 activation is inhibited by Smad7 and to a lesser extent by Smad6, and Smad6 and Smad7 both inhibit Smad1 and Smad5 activation in response to the TGF-β-related bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). We previously reported that, in response to BMP, the protein arginine methyltransferase PRMT1 methylates Smad6 at the BMP receptor complex, thereby promoting its dissociation from the receptors and enabling BMP-induced Smad1 and Smad5 activation. We now provide evidence that PRMT1 also facilitates TGF-β signaling by methylating Smad7, which complements Smad6 methylation. We found that PRMT1 is required for TGF-β-induced Smad3 activation, through a mechanism similar to that of BMP-induced Smad6 methylation, and thus promotes the TGF-β-induced EMT and epithelial stem cell generation. This critical mechanism positions PRMT1 as an essential mediator of TGF-β signaling that controls the EMT and epithelial cell stemness through Smad7 methylation. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. NR2F2 inhibits Smad7 expression and promotes TGF-β-dependent epithelial-mesenchymal transition of CRC via transactivation of miR-21.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Nie, Lei; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qiufang; Guo, Xueyan

    2017-03-25

    Metastasis is one of the most decisive factors influencing CRC patient prognosis and current studies suggest that a molecular mechanism known as EMT broadly regulates cancer metastasis. NR2F2 is a key molecule in the development of CRC, but the roles and underlying mechanisms of NR2F2 in TGF-β induced EMT in CRC remain largely unknown. In the current study, we were interested to examine the role of NR2F2 in the TGF-β-induced EMT in CRC. Here, we found NR2F2 was upregulated in CRC cells and promotes TGF-β-induced EMT in CRC. Using comparative miRNA profiling TGF-β pre-treated CRC cells in which NR2F2 had been knocked down with that of control cells, we identified miR-21 as a commonly downregulated miRNA in HT29 cells treated with TGF-β and NR2F2 siRNA, and its downregulation inhibiting migration and invasion of CRC cells. Moreover, we found NR2F2 could transcriptional activated miR-21 expression by binding to miR-21 promoter in HT29 by ChIP and luciferase assay. In the last, our data demonstrated that Smad7 was the direct target of miR-21 in CRC cells. Thus, NR2F2 could promote TGF-β-induced EMT and inhibit Smad7 expression via transactivation of miR-21, and NR2F2 may be a new common therapeutic target for CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Aldolase A overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and promotes tumor progression by the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Chen, Yixing; Xia, Lu; Lian, Jiabian; Yang, Shuyu

    2018-03-04

    There is increasing evidence that glycolysis is involved in cancer progression. Aldolase is a glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the reversible conversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Disruption of the aldolase genes also plays a role in the progression of multiple types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism of the action of aldolases in colon cancer progression remains elusive. In this study, aldolase A expression was investigated and found to be upregulated along with human colon cancer progression and metastasis at both the mRNA and protein levels in human colon cancer tissues. In addition, silencing aldolase A suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation and invasion and inhibited the EMT phenotype. Aldolase A protein expression in colon cancer was related to tumor location, tumor clinical stage and survival. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that high aldolase A protein expression was associated with an unfavorable outcome. Moreover, aldolase A affected the development of colon cancer not only by affecting the glucose metabolism but also by interacting with the HIF-1 and other EMT-related signaling pathways; silencing aldolase A resulted in the reduced activity of these signaling pathways. These results indicate that aldolase A has additional non-glycolytic functions in transcriptional EMT regulation and may therefore have potential as a therapeutic target or a biomarker for identifying patients at risk for poorer survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhui; Xu, Xiaotian; Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-04-26

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression.

  4. Escin Ia suppresses the metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition via down-regulating LOXL2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peng; Tong, Bei; Wei, Zhifeng; Dai, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The saponin fraction of Aesculus chinensis Bunge fruits (SFAC) could inhibit the invasion and migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. Among which, escin Ia showed more potent inhibition of the invasion than other five main saponin constituents. It selectively reduced the expression of LOXL2 mRNA and promoted the expression of E-cadherin mRNA, and prevented the EMT process of MDA-MB-231 cells and TNF-α/TGF-β-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it reduced the LOXL2 level in MDA-MB-231 cells but not in MCF-7 cells. When MCF-7 cells were stimulated with TNF-α/TGF-β, transfected with LOXL2 or treated with hypoxia, escin Ia down-regulated the level of LOXL2 in MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, escin Ia suppressed the EMT process in LOXL2-transfected or hypoxia-treated MCF-7 cells. Of interest, escin Ia did not alter the level of HIF-1α in hypoxia-induced MCF-7 cells. In TNBC xenograft mice, the metastasis and EMT of MDA-MB-231 cells were suppressed by escin Ia. In conclusion, escin Ia was the main active ingredient of SFAC for the anti-TNBC metastasis activity, and its action mechanisms involved inhibition of EMT process by down-regulating LOXL2 expression. PMID:27008697

  5. EML4-ALK induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition consistent with cancer stem cell properties in H1299 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fuchun; Liu, Xiaoke; Qing, Qin; Sang, Yaxiong; Feng, Chengjun; Li, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Li; Su, Pei; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-04-10

    The echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4(EML4)--anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene has been identified as a driver mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the role of EML4-ALK in malignant transformation is not entirely clear. Here, for the first time, we showed that H1299 NSCLC cells stably expressing EML4-ALK acquire EMT phenotype, associated with enhanced invasive migration and increased expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors. H1299-EML4-ALK cells also displayed cancer stem cell-like properties with a concomitant up-regulation of CD133 and enhanced ability of mammospheres formation. Moreover, we found that inhibition of ERK1/2 reversed EMT induced by EML4-ALK in H1299 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that EML4-ALK induced ERK activation is mechanistically associated with EMT phenotype. Thus, inhibition of ERK signaling pathway could be a potential strategy in treatment of NSCLC patients with EML4-ALK translocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SALL4 as an Epith