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Sample records for a-induced hepatic injury

  1. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Li; Guo, Yun; Zheng, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic compound present in green tea and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. EGCG (5 mg/kg) was administered orally by gavage to mice twice daily for 10 days before an intravenous injection of ConA. We found that EGCG effectively rescued lethality, improved hepatic pathological damage, and decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in ConA-challenged mice. Furthermore, EGCG also significantly prevented the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 in serum, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and restored glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissues from ConA-challenged mice. Finally, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 protein in liver tissues were significantly inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG possesses hepatoprotective properties against ConA-induced liver injury through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppressive role of hepatic dendritic cells in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, C; Watanabe, H; Izutsu, Y; Watanabe, M; Abo, T

    2011-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is a mouse model of acute autoimmune hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic dendritic cells (DC) in the immune modulation of tissue damage. Almost all hepatic DC were plasmacytoid DC (CD11c+ I-Alow B220+); however, conventional DC were CD11c+ I-Ahigh B220–. At an early stage (3–6 h) after Con A administration, the number of DC in both the liver and spleen decreased, increasing thereafter (12–24 h) in parallel with hepatic failure. The hepatic CD11c+ DC population contained many CD11b- cells, while the majority of splenic CD11c+ DC were CD11b+. After Con A administration, the proportion of I-A+ and CD11b+ cells within the CD11c+ DC population tended to increase in the liver, but not in the spleen. Similarly, expression of the activation markers CD80, CD86 and CD40 by CD11c+ DC increased in the liver, but not in the spleen. Next, adoptive transfer of DC isolated from the liver and spleen was performed 3 h after Con A administration to examine the immunomodulatory function of DC. Only hepatic DC had the ability to suppress hepatic failure. Analysis of cytokine production and subsequent identification of the effector cells showed that hepatic DC achieved this by suppressing the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-2, rather than modulating effector cell function. PMID:21985372

  3. Hypervitaminosis A-induced hepatic fibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Juliana M; Daniel, Alexandre G T; Aloia, Thiago P A; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, André R; Simões, Denise M N; Reche-Júior, Archivaldo; Cogliati, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The excessive intake of vitamin A in the form of vitamin concentrate, supplement or vitamin-rich liver can result in hypervitaminosis A in man and animals. Although osteopathologies resulting from chronic vitamin A intoxication in cats are well characterized, no information is available concerning feline hypervitaminosis A-induced liver disease. We report the first case of hepatic stellate cell lipidosis and hepatic fibrosis in a domestic cat that had been fed a diet based on raw beef liver. Radiographic examination revealed exostoses and ankylosis between vertebrae C1 and T7, compatible with deforming cervical spondylosis. Necropsy showed a slightly enlarged and light yellow to bronze liver. Microscopic and ultrastructural analyses of liver tissues revealed diffuse and severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. These cells showed immunopositive staining for α-smooth muscle actin and desmin markers. The necropsy findings of chronic liver disease coupled with osteopathology supported the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A. As in human hepatology, if there is dietary evidence to support increased intake of vitamin A, then hypervitaminosis A should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic liver disease in cats.

  4. Hepatic metabolic response to injury and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Dahn, M S; Mitchell, R A; Lange, M P; Smith, S; Jacobs, L A

    1995-05-01

    Experimental reports have indicated that hepatic oxidative and synthetic metabolism may become depressed in sepsis. Because the mechanism of infection-related liver dysfunction has not been established, further study of these functional alterations could contribute to the therapeutic management of septic organ failure syndromes. However, recently controversy has arisen over the existence of these derangements that must be reconciled before further progress in this field can be made. Splanchnic balance studies for the measurement of glucose output and oxygen consumption were used to assess hepatic function in fasted normal volunteers (n = 18), injured patients (n = 10), and patients with sepsis (n = 18). The liver's contribution to splanchnic metabolism was estimated from a comparison of splanchnic oxygen utilization in response to increases in the liver-specific process of glucogenesis. In addition, in vivo liver albumin production was determined by using the [14C] carbonate technique. Glucose output after injury and sepsis was increased by 12.8% and 76.6%, respectively, compared with controls. On the basis of substrate balance studies, gluconeogenesis was estimated to account for 46%, 87%, and 93%, respectively, of splanchnic glucose output in each of the three groups. In patients with sepsis glucose output was also noted to be linearly related to regional oxygen consumption, indicating that these processes were coupled and increases in the respiratory activity of the splanchnic cellular mass could be accounted for by increases in new glucose output and gluconeogenic substrate clearance. The mean albumin synthetic rate increased during injury and sepsis by 22% and 29%, respectively, compared with normal volunteers. These studies cast doubt on the commonly held notion that tissue respiratory dysfunction may occur during sepsis. On the contrary, hepatic function is accelerated during hyperdynamic sepsis, and evidence indicating oxidative or synthetic functional

  5. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting BNIP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sainan; Xia, Yujing; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most effective compound in green tea, and possesses a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG in concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and explored the possible mechanisms involved in these effects. Methods Balb/C mice were injected with ConA (25 mg/kg) to induce acute autoimmune hepatitis, and EGCG (10 or 30 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily for 10 days before ConA injection. Serum liver enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined 2, 8, and 24 hours after the ConA administration. Results BNIP3 mediated cell apoptosis and autophagy in ConA-induced hepatitis. EGCG decreased the immunoreaction and pathological damage by reducing inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-1β. EGCG also exhibited an antiapoptotic and antiautophagic effect by inhibiting BNIP3 via the IL-6/JAKs/STAT3 pathway. Conclusion EGCG attenuated liver injury in ConA-induced hepatitis by downregulating IL-6/JAKs/STAT3/BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:26929598

  6. Superoxide produced by Kupffer cells is an essential effector in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Habu, Yoshiko; Shono, Satoshi; Uchida, Takefumi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Seki, Shuhji

    2008-12-01

    Although concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced experimental hepatitis is thought to be induced by activated T cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and cytokines, precise mechanisms are still unknown. In the current study, we investigated the roles of Kupffer cells, NKT cells, FasL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and superoxide in Con-A hepatitis in C57BL/6 mice. Removal of Kupffer cells using gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) from the liver completely inhibited Con-A hepatitis, whereas increased serum TNF and IFN-gamma levels were not inhibited at all. Unexpectedly, anti-FasL antibody pretreatment did not inhibit Con-A hepatitis, whereas it inhibited hepatic injury induced by a synthetic ligand of NKT cells, alpha-galactosylceramide. Furthermore, GdCl(3) pretreatment changed neither the activation-induced down-regulation of NK1.1 antigens as well as T cell receptors of NKT cells nor the increased expression of the CD69 activation antigen of hepatic T cells. CD68(+) Kupffer cells greatly increased in proportion in the early phase after Con-A injection; this increase was abrogated by GdCl(3) pretreatment. Anti-TNF antibody (Ab) pretreatment did not inhibit the increase of Kupffer cells, but it effectively suppressed superoxide/reactive oxygen production from Kupffer cells and the resulting hepatic injury. Conversely, depletion of NKT cells in mice by NK1.1 Ab pretreatment did suppress both the increase of CD68(+) Kupffer cells and Con-A hepatitis. Consistently, the diminution of oxygen radicals produced by Kupffer cells by use of free radical scavengers greatly inhibited Con-A hepatitis without suppressing cytokine production. However, adoptive transfer experiments also indicate that a close interaction/cooperation of Kupffer cells with NKT cells is essential for Con-A hepatitis. Superoxide produced by Kupffer cells may be the essential effector in Con-A hepatitis, and TNF and NKT cells support their activation and superoxide production.

  7. Hepatic enzymes have a role in the diagnosis of hepatic injury after blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ker-Kan; Bang, Shieh-Ling; Vijayan, Appasamy; Chiu, Ming-Terk

    2009-09-01

    Delayed diagnosis of patients with severe liver injuries is associated with an adverse outcome. As computed tomographic (CT) scan is not always available in the management of blunt abdominal trauma worldwide, the present study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of selected haematological markers in predicting the presence of hepatic injury and its severity after blunt abdominal trauma. A retrospective review of all patients with blunt abdominal trauma presented to our institution over a 3-year period was performed. Patients were excluded if they suffered penetrating injuries, died in the emergency department or if the required blood tests were not performed within 24h of the accident. The grading of the hepatic injury was verified using CT scans or surgical findings. Ninety-nine patients with blunt abdominal trauma had the required blood tests performed and were included in the study. The median injury severity score was 24 (range 4-75). Fifty-five patients had hepatic injuries, of which 47.3% were minor (Grades I and II) while 52.7% had major hepatic injuries (Grades III-V). There were no patients with Grade VI injuries. A raised ALT was strongly associated with presence of hepatic injuries (OR, 109.8; 95% CI, 25.81-466.9). This relation was also seen in patients with raised AST>2 times (OR, 21.33; 95% CI, 7.27-62.65). This difference was not seen in both bilirubin and ALP. ALT>2 times normal was associated with major hepatic injuries (OR, 7.15; 95% CI, 1.38-37.14; p=0.012) while patients with simultaneous raised AST>2 times and ALT>2 times had a stronger association for major hepatic injuries (OR, 8.44; 95% CI, 1.64-43.47). Abnormal transaminases levels are associated with hepatic injuries after blunt abdominal trauma. Patients with ALT and AST>2 times normal should be assumed to possess major hepatic trauma and managed accordingly. Patients with normal ALT, AST and LDH are unlikely to have major liver injuries.

  8. Hepatic artery bridging lessens temporary ischemic injury to bile canaliculi

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Zhong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Jin-Long; Lu, Le; Zhang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Hong-Wei; Li, Yi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study whether transfer of blood between the right gastroepiploic artery and gastroduodenal artery could lessens the damage to bile canaliculi. METHODS: Forty male Bama miniature pigs were divided into four groups as follows: a control group, two hepatic artery ischemia groups (1 h and 2 h), and a hepatic artery bridging group. The hemodynamics of the hepatic artery in the hepatic artery bridging group was measured using color Doppler ultrasound. Morphological changes in the bile canaliculus were observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cofilin, heat shock protein 27 and F-actin expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling method was used to evaluate liver injury. RESULTS: The hemodynamics was not changed in the hepatic artery bridging group. The microvilli in the bile canaliculus were impaired in the two hepatic artery ischemia groups. The down-regulation of cofilin and F-actin and up-regulation of heat shock protein 27 were observed in the two hepatic artery ischemia groups, while there were no significant differences between the control group and hepatic artery bridging group. CONCLUSION: Hepatic artery ischemia aggravates damage to bile canaliculi, and this damage can be diminished by a hepatic artery bridging duct. PMID:26401076

  9. Calcium and ER stress mediate hepatic apoptosis after burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Gauglitz, Gerd G.; Song, Juquan; Kulp, Gabriela A.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Cox, Robert A.; Barral, José M.; Herndon, David N.; Boehning, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A hallmark of the disease state following severe burn injury is decreased liver function, which results in gross metabolic derangements that compromise patient survival. The underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction after burn are essentially unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the underlying mechanisms leading to hepatocyte dysfunction and apoptosis after burn. Rats were randomized to either control (no burn) or burn (60% total body surface area burn) and sacrificed at various time‐points. Liver was either perfused to isolate primary rat hepatocytes, which were used for in vitro calcium imaging, or liver was harvested and processed for immunohistology, transmission electron microscopy, mitochondrial isolation, mass spectroscopy or Western blotting to determine the hepatic response to burn injury in vivo. We found that thermal injury leads to severely depleted endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium stores and consequent elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Burn‐induced ER calcium depletion caused depressed hepatocyte responsiveness to signalling molecules that regulate hepatic homeostasis, such as vasopressin and the purinergic agonist ATP. In vivo, thermal injury resulted in activation of the ER stress response and major alterations in mitochondrial structure and function – effects which may be mediated by increased calcium release by inositol 1,4,5‐trisphosphate receptors. Our results reveal that thermal injury leads to dramatic hepatic disturbances in calcium homeostasis and resultant ER stress leading to mitochondrial abnormalities contributing to hepatic dysfunction and apoptosis after burn injury. PMID:20141609

  10. Characterization of Microparticles after Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Christopher M.; Quillin, Ralph C.; Wilson, Gregory C.; Nojima, Hiroyuki; Johnson, Bobby L.; Sutton, Jeffrey M.; Schuster, Rebecca M.; Blanchard, John; Edwards, Michael J.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a well-studied model of liver injury and has demonstrated a biphasic injury followed by recovery and regeneration. Microparticles (MPs) are a developing field of study and these small membrane bound vesicles have been shown to have effector function in other physiologic and pathologic states. This study was designed to quantify the levels of MPs from various cell origins–platelets, neutrophils, and endolethial cells–following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods A murine model was used with mice undergoing 90 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia followed by various times of reperfusion. Following reperfusion, plasma samples were taken and MPs of various cell origins were labeled and levels were measured using flow cytometry. Additionally, cell specific MPs were further assessed by Annexin V, which stains for the presence of phosphatidylserine, a cell surface marker linked to apoptosis. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance with subsequent Student-Newman-Keuls test with data presented as the mean and standard error of the mean. Results MPs from varying sources show an increase in circulating levels following hepatic I/R injury. However, the timing of the appearance of different MP subtypes differs for each cell type. Platelet and neutrophil-derived MP levels demonstrated an acute elevation following injury whereas endothelial-derived MP levels demonstrated a delayed elevation. Conclusion This is the first study to characterize circulating levels of cell-specific MPs after hepatic I/R injury and suggests that MPs derived from platelets and neutrophils serve as markers of inflammatory injury and may be active participants in this process. In contrast, MPs derived from endothelial cells increase after the injury response during the reparative phase and may be important in angiogenesis that occurs in the regenerating liver. PMID:24879335

  11. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function following injury.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A; Shah, D M

    1986-03-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function is depressed following thermal injury. The present study was carried out to determine if complement receptor function depression is associated with other states of depressed host defense. Hepatic complement receptor clearance function was determined from the hepatic uptake of rat erythrocytes coated with antierythrocyte IgM (EIgM) in rats. Receptor function was determined following cannulation of a carotid artery, laparotomy plus enterotomy, hemorrhagic shock, trauma, thermal injury, acute bacteremia, acute endotoxemia, and injection of erythrocyte stroma, gelatinized lipid emulsion, or colloidal carbon. Hepatic uptake of EIgM was depressed following each of these experimental interventions except arterial cannulation. This effect was shown not to be due to a decrease in hepatic blood flow or depletion of complement and was therefore due to a depression in hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. Thus, impairment of hepatic macrophage complement receptor function is associated with several states of depressed host defense.

  13. Differential involvement of IL-6 in the early and late phase of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) release in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sternak, Magdalena; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Szafarz, Malgorzata; Walczak, Maria; Sitek, Barbara; Wojcik, Tomasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Exogenous 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the profile of release of endogenous MNA during the initiation and progression of murine hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA). In particular we aimed to clarify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the energy state of hepatocytes in MNA release in early and late phases of ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Hepatitis was induced by ConA in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice, and various parameters of liver inflammation and injury, as well as the energy state of hepatocytes, were analysed in relation to MNA release. The decrease in ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD ratios, cytokine release (IL-6, IFN-ɤ), acute phase response (e.g. haptoglobin) and liver injury (alanine aminotransaminase, ALT) were all blunted in ConA-induced hepatitis in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice. The release of MNA in response to Con A was also significantly blunted in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice in the early stage of ConA-induced hepatitis. In turn, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activities were blunted in the liver and MNA plasma concentration was elevated to similar degree in the late stage after Concanavalin A in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that in ConA-induced hepatitis, early, but not late MNA release was IL-6-dependent. Our results suggest that in the initiation and early hepatitis, MNA release is linked to the energy deficit/impaired redox status in hepatocytes, while in a later phase, MNA release is rather linked to the systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Kargl, S; Breitwieser, J; Gitter, R; Pumberger, W

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma with liver damage. We report the case of a child who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery after a bicycle accident with central liver rupture. After an episode of hemodynamically relevant hemobilia due to delayed bleeding, the asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed coincidentally by ultrasound. Because of the progression in size angiographic coiling was performed and led to thrombotic occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. After a symptom-free period of 1 month the child required surgery because of acute cholecystitis.

  15. Edaravone prevents lung injury induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Munehito; Tojo, Kentaro; Yazawa, Takuya; Ota, Shuhei; Goto, Takahisa; Kurahashi, Kiyoyasu

    2015-04-01

    Lung injury is a major clinical concern after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), due to the production of reactive oxygen species in the reperfused liver. We investigated the efficacy of edaravone, a potent free-radical scavenger, for attenuating lung injury after hepatic I/R. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to sham + normal saline (NS), I/R + NS, or I/R + edaravone group. Rats in the I/R groups were subjected to 90 min of partial hepatic I/R. Five minutes before reperfusion, 3 mg/kg edaravone was administered to the I/R + edaravone group. After 6 h of reperfusion, we evaluated lung histopathology and wet-to-dry ratio. We also measured malondialdehyde (MDA), an indicator of oxidative stress, in the liver and the lung, as well as cytokine messenger RNA expressions in the reperfused liver and plasma cytokine concentrations. Histopathology revealed lung damages after 6 h reperfusion of partial ischemic liver. Moreover, a significant increase in lung wet-to-dry ratio was observed. MDA concentration increased in the reperfused liver, but not in the lungs. Edaravone administration attenuated the lung injury and the increase of MDA in the reperfused liver. Edaravone also suppressed the reperfusion-induced increase of interleukin-6 messenger RNA expressions in the liver and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations. Edaravone administration before reperfusion of the ischemic liver attenuates oxidative stress in the reperfused liver and the subsequent lung injury. Edaravone may be beneficial for preventing lung injury induced by hepatic I/R. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hepatic radiation injury mimicking metastasis in distal esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Demey, Karel; Van Veer, Hans; Nafteux, Philippe; Deroose, Christophe M; Haustermans, Karin; Coolen, Johan; Vandecaveye, Vincent; Coosemans, Willy; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2017-08-01

    A new hypermetabolic lesion on 18 FDG-PET/CT after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal esophageal cancer can be a hepatic metastasis and should be examined carefully before esophagectomy. We present a case of acute and nodular radiation-induced injury of the left liver after neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for distal esophageal cancer, which resembles a hepatic metastasis on 18 FDG-PET/CT. Acute and nodular radiation hepatitis (RH) can be a potential cause of false-positive findings of malignancy and therefore exclude patients who could benefit from esophagectomy. 18 FDG-PET/CT images should therefore carefully be interpreted and compared with the radiation beams, dose distribution and eventually clarified by DW-MR imaging.

  17. Potential mechanisms of hepatitis B virus induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Suhail, Mohd; Abdel-Hafiz, Hany; Ali, Ashraf; Fatima, Kaneez; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Azhar, Esam; Chaudhary, Adeel GA; Qadri, Ishtiaq

    2014-01-01

    Chronic active hepatitis (CAH) is acknowledged as an imperative risk factor for the development of liver injury and hepatocellular carcinoma. The histological end points of CAH are chronic inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis which are coupled with increased DNA synthesis in cirrhotic vs healthy normal livers. The potential mechanism involved in CAH includes a combination of processes leading to liver cell necrosis, inflammation and cytokine production and liver scaring (fibrosis). The severity of liver damage is regulated by Hepatitis B virus genotypes and viral components. The viral and cellular factors that contribute to liver injury are discussed in this article. Liver injury caused by the viral infection affects many cellular processes such as cell signaling, apoptosis, transcription, DNA repair which in turn induce radical effects on cell survival, growth, transformation and maintenance. The consequence of such perturbations is resulted in the alteration of bile secretion, gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, detoxification and metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fat and balance of nutrients. The identification and elucidation of the molecular pathways perturbed by the viral proteins are important in order to design effective strategy to minimize and/or restore the hepatocytes injury. PMID:25253946

  18. Adenoviral Gene Transfer of Hepatic Stimulator Substance Confers Resistance Against Hepatic Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury by Improving Mitochondrial Function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Jun; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic stimulator substance (HSS) has been suggested to protect liver cells from various toxins. However, the precise role of HSS in hepatic ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. This study aims to elucidate whether overexpression of HSS could attenuate hepatic ischemia–reperfusion injury and its possible mechanisms. Both in vivo hepatic I/R injury in mice and in vitro hypoxia–reoxygenation (H/R) in a cell model were used to evaluate the effect of HSS protection after adenoviral gene transfer. Moreover, a possible mitochondrial mechanism of HSS protection was investigated. Efficient transfer of the HSS gene into liver inhibited hepatic I/R injury in mice, as evidenced by improvement in liver function tests, the preservation of hepatic morphology, and a reduction in hepatocyte apoptosis. HSS overexpression also inhibited H/R-induced cell death, as detected by cell viability and cell apoptosis assays. The underlying mechanism of this hepatic protection might involve the attenuation of mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-dependent cell apoptosis, as shown by the good preservation of mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial membrane potential, and the inhibition of cytochrome c leakage and caspase activity. Moreover, the suppression of H/R-induced mitochondrial ROS production and the maintenance of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities may participate in this mechanism. This new function of HSS expands the possibility of its application for the prevention of I/R injury, such as hepatic resection and liver transplantation in clinical practice. PMID:23461564

  19. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  20. Integrative Metabolic Signatures for Hepatic Radiation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Su, Gang; Meng, Fan; Liu, Laibin; Mohney, Robert; Kulkarni, Shilpa; Guha, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) is a dose-limiting factor in curative radiation therapy (RT) for liver cancers, making early detection of radiation-associated liver injury absolutely essential for medical intervention. A metabolomic approach was used to determine metabolic signatures that could serve as biomarkers for early detection of RILD in mice. Methods Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received 0, 10 or 50 Gy Whole Liver Irradiation (WLI) and were contrasted to mice, which received 10 Gy whole body irradiation (WBI). Liver and plasma samples were collected at 24 hours after irradiation. The samples were processed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Results Twenty four hours after WLI, 407 metabolites were detected in liver samples while 347 metabolites were detected in plasma. Plasma metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included several amino acids, purine and pyrimidine metabolites, microbial metabolites, and most prominently bradykinin and 3-indoxyl-sulfate. Liver metabolites associated with 50 Gy WLI included pentose phosphate, purine, and pyrimidine metabolites in liver. Plasma biomarkers in common between WLI and WBI were enriched in microbial metabolites such as 3 indoxyl sulfate, indole-3-lactic acid, phenyllactic acid, pipecolic acid, hippuric acid, and markers of DNA damage such as 2-deoxyuridine. Metabolites associated with tryptophan and indoles may reflect radiation-induced gut microbiome effects. Predominant liver biomarkers in common between WBI and WLI were amino acids, sugars, TCA metabolites (fumarate), fatty acids (lineolate, n-hexadecanoic acid) and DNA damage markers (uridine). Conclusions We identified a set of metabolomic markers that may prove useful as plasma biomarkers of RILD and WBI. Pathway analysis also suggested that the unique metabolic changes observed after liver irradiation was an integrative response of the intestine, liver and kidney. PMID:26046990

  1. Concomitant hollow viscus injuries in patients with blunt hepatic and splenic injuries: an analysis of a National Trauma Registry database.

    PubMed

    Swaid, Forat; Peleg, Kobi; Alfici, Ricardo; Matter, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded; Ashkenazi, Itamar; Givon, Adi; Kessel, Boris

    2014-09-01

    Non-operative management has become the standard approach for treating stable patients sustaining blunt hepatic or splenic injuries in the absence of other indications for laparotomy. The liberal use of computed tomography (CT) has reduced the rate of unnecessary immediate laparotomies; however, due to its limited sensitivity in the diagnosis of hollow viscus injuries (HVI), this may be at the expense of a rise in the incidence of missed HVI. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of concomitant HVI in blunt trauma patients diagnosed with hepatic and/or splenic injuries, and to evaluate whether a correlation exists between this incidence and the severity of hepatic or splenic injuries. A retrospective cohort study involving blunt trauma patients with splenic and/or liver injuries, between the years 1998 and 2012 registered in the Israel National Trauma Registry. The association between the presence and severity of splenic and/or liver injuries and the incidence of HVI was examined. Of the 57,130 trauma victims identified as suffering from blunt torso injuries, 2335 (4%) sustained hepatic injuries without splenic injuries (H group), 3127 (5.4%) had splenic injuries without hepatic injuries (S group), and 564 (1%) suffered from both hepatic and splenic injuries (H+S group). Overall, 957 patients sustained 1063 HVI. The incidence of HVI among blunt torso trauma victims who sustained neither splenic nor hepatic injuries was 1.5% which is significantly lower than in the S (3.1%), H (3.1%), and H+S (6.7%) groups. In the S group, there was a clear correlation between the severity of the splenic injury and the incidence of HVI. This correlation was not found in the H group. The presence of blunt splenic and/or hepatic injuries predicts a higher incidence of HVI, especially if combined. While in blunt splenic injury patients there is a clear correlation between the incidence of HVI and the severity of splenic injury, such a correlation does not exist in patients

  2. Bilirubin nanoparticle preconditioning protects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Kang, Sukmo; Miao, Wenjun; Kim, Hyungjun; Lee, Yonghyun; Jon, Sangyong

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a major concern in liver transplantation and resection, despite continuing efforts to prevent it. Accumulating evidence suggests that bilirubin possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. However, despite obvious potential health benefits of bilirubin, its clinical applications are limited by its poor solubility. We recently developed bilirubin nanoparticles (BRNPs) consisting of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated bilirubin. Here, we sought to investigate whether BRNPs protect against IRI in the liver by preventing oxidative stress. BRNPs exerted potent antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activity in primary hepatocytes exposed to hydrogen peroxide, a precursor of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In a model of hepatic IRI in mice, BRNP preconditioning exerted profound protective effects against hepatocellular injury by reducing oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and recruitment of neutrophils. They also preferentially accumulated in IRI-induced inflammatory lesions. Collectively, our findings indicate that BRNP preconditioning provides a simple and safe approach that can be easily monitored in the blood like endogenous bilirubin, and could be a promising strategy to protect against IRI in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. In vitro differentiated hepatic oval-like cells enhance hepatic regeneration in CCl4 -induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Awan, Sana Javaid; Baig, Maria Tayyab; Yaqub, Faiza; Tayyeb, Asima; Ali, Gibran

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic oval cells are likely to be activated during advanced stage of liver fibrosis to reconstruct damaged hepatic tissue. However, their scarcity, difficulties in isolation, and in vitro expansion hampered their transplantation in fibrotic liver. This study was aimed to investigate the repair potential of in vitro differentiated hepatic oval-like cells in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis. BMSCs and oval cells were isolated and characterized from C57BL/6 GFP + mice. BMSCs were differentiated into oval cells by preconditioning with HGF, EGF, SCF, and LIF and analyzed for the oval cells-specific genes. Efficiency of oval cells to reduce hepatocyte injury was studied by determining cell viability, release of LDH, and biochemical tests in a co-culture system. Further, in vivo repair potential of differentiated oval cells was determined in CCl 4 -induced fibrotic model by gene expression analysis, biochemical tests, mason trichrome, and Sirius red staining. Differentiated oval cells expressed hepatic oval cells-specific markers AFP, ALB, CK8, CK18, CK19. These differentiated cells when co-cultured with injured hepatocytes showed significant hepato-protection as measured by reduction in apoptosis, LDH release, and improvement in liver functions. Transplantation of differentiated oval cells like cells in fibrotic livers exhibited enhanced homing, reduced liver fibrosis, and improved liver functions by augmenting hepatic microenvironment by improved liver functions. This preconditioning strategy to differentiate BMSCs into oval cell leads to improved survival and homing of transplanted cells. In addition, reduction in fibrosis and functional improvement in mice with CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis was achieved. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Wedelolactone against Concanavalin A-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qingqiong; Ding, Jieying; Zhu, Liping; Chen, Fuxiang; Xu, Lili

    2018-05-08

    Eclipta prostrata L. is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. However, its biological mechanisms remain elusive. The current study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of wedelolactone, a major coumarin ingredient of Eclipta prostrata L., on immune-mediated liver injury. Using the well-established animal model of Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis (CIH), we found that pretreatment of mice with wedelolactone markedly reduced both the serum levels of transaminases and the severity of liver damage. We further investigated the mechanisms of the protective effect of wedelolactone. In mice treated with wedelolactone prior to the induction of CIH, increases of serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[Formula: see text], interferon (IFN)-[Formula: see text], and interleukin (IL)-6 were dramatically attenuated. Additionally, expressions of the interferon-inducible chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 gene CXCL10 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene ICAM1 were lower in livers of the treated mice. Moreover, wedelolactone-treated CIH mice exhibited reduced leukocyte infiltration and T-cell activation in liver. Furthermore, wedelolactone suppressed the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-[Formula: see text]B), a critical transcriptional factor of the above-mentioned inflammatory cytokines by limiting the phosphorylation of I kappa B alpha (I[Formula: see text]B[Formula: see text] and p65. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the inhibitory potential of wedelolactone in immune-mediated liver injury in vivo, and show that this protection is associated with modulation of the NF-[Formula: see text]B signaling pathway.

  5. [Management of hepatic injuries with multiple trauma in the emergency unit. Report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Qamouss, Y; Belyamani, L; Azendour, H; Balkhi, H; Haimeur, C; Atmani, M

    2006-01-01

    The problems put by the blunt hepatic injuries at the multiple traumas are discussed after the exposition of three observations. 60% of the blunt hepatic injuries are due to the accidents of the public way. The strategy diagnosis and therapeutic facing a hepatic lesion remains guided by the patient's state haemodynamic. The exam essential to the arrival in the sieve of the emergencies is the abdominal scan that searches for one extrusion intra and possibly retroperitoneal and analyze the hepatic parenchyrma. However, it depends extensively on the experience of the echographist. The city scan stood to the first plan of the medical imagery: it permits a precise diagnosis of the parenchymateuses hepatic lesions, specify the abundance of the hemoperitoine, facilitate the therapeutic conduct in presence of associated lesions and the surveillance of the blunt hepatic injuries.

  6. Complications of nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Kozar, Rosemary A; Moore, John B; Niles, Sarah E; Holcomb, John B; Moore, Ernest E; Cothren, C Clay; Hartwell, Elizabeth; Moore, Frederick A

    2005-11-01

    Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries is highly successful. Complications associated with high-grade injuries, however, have not been well characterized. The purpose of the present study was therefore to define hepatic-related complications and associated treatment modalities in patients undergoing nonoperative management of high-grade blunt hepatic injuries. Three hundred thirty-seven patients from two regional Level I trauma centers with grade 3 to 5 blunt hepatic injuries during a 40-month period were reviewed. Complications and treatment of hepatic-related complications in patients not requiring laparotomy in the first 24 hours were identified. Of 337 patients with a grade 3 to 5 injury, 230 (68%) were managed nonoperatively. There were 37 hepatic-related complications in 25 patients (11%); 63% (5 of 8) of patients with grade 5 injuries developed complications, 21% (19 of 92) of patients with grade 4 injuries, but only 1% (1 of 130) of patients with grade 3 injuries. Complications included bleeding in 13 patients managed by angioembolization (n = 12) and laparotomy (n = 1), liver abscesses in 2 patients managed with computed tomography-guided drainage (n = 2) and subsequent laparotomy (n = 1). In one patient with bleeding, hepatic necrosis followed surgical ligation of the right hepatic artery and required delayed hepatic lobectomy. Sixteen biliary complications were managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and stenting (n = 7), drainage (n = 5), and laparoscopy (n = 4). Three patients had suspected abdominal sepsis and underwent a negative laparotomy, whereas an additional three patients underwent laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome. Nonoperative management of high-grade liver injuries can be safely accomplished. Mortality is low; however, complications in grade 4 and 5 injuries should be anticipated and may require a combination of operative and nonoperative management strategies.

  7. Ciliary neurotrophic factor analogue aggravates CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Ming-Xia; Jiang, Jun-Feng; Min, Guang-Ning; Han, Wei; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2017-05-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and CNTF analogs were reported to have hepatoprotective effect and ameliorate hepatic steatosis in db/db or high-fat-diet-fed mice. Because hepatic steatosis and injury are also commonly induced by hepatotoxin, the aim of the present study is to clarify whether CNTF could alleviate hepatic steatosis and injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ). Unexpectedly, when combined with CCl 4 , CNTF aggravated hepatic steatosis and liver injury. The mechanism is associated with effects of CNTF that inhibited lipoprotein secretion and drastically impaired the ability of lipoproteins to act as transport vehicles for lipids from the liver to the circulation. While injected after CCl 4 cessation, CNTF could improve liver function. These data suggest that CNTF could be a potential hepatoprotective agent against CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury after the cessation of CCl 4 exposure. However, it is forbidden to combine recombinant mutant of human CNTF treatment with CCl 4 .

  8. Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp mimetics and soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor as therapeutic modalities for concanavalin A induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, R; Shirin, H; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Kenet, G; Aeed, H; Matas, Z; Zaidel, L; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown that synthetic non-peptidic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp, a major cell adhesive ligand of extracellular matrix, prevented an increase in serum aminotransferase activity, as a manifestation of concanavalin A induced liver damage in mice. This study examined the effects of an Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic on liver histology and cytokine release in response to concanavalin A administration, and the efficacy of soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in preventing hepatitis in this model of liver injury. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with either the Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic SF-6,5 or recombinant soluble receptor of TNF alpha before their inoculation with 10 mg/kg concanavalin A. Liver enzymes, histology, and the serum values of TNF alpha and interleukin (IL)6 were examined. RESULTS: The histopathological damage in the liver, and the concanavalin A induced release of TNF alpha and IL6 were significantly inhibited by the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic (p < 0.001). Liver injury, manifested by the increase in serum aminotransferase and cytokines, as well as by histological manifestations of hepatic damage, was effectively prevented by pretreatment of the mice with the soluble TNF receptor (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy of a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic and soluble TNF receptor in the prevention of immune mediated liver damage in mice. Images PMID:9155591

  9. Traumatic common hepatic artery injury causing isolated right hepatic ischemia due to a left accessory artery. A case report.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Eduardo; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Gerena, Marielia; Omi, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic arterial liver flow is renowned for its redundancy. Previous studies have demonstrated that the common hepatic artery is not essential for liver survival. We present a case of a 31year-old involved in a high-speed motor vehicle accident whose liver survived thanks to the presence of an accessory hepatic artery. We present the case of a 31year-old male who sustained a traumatic injury of the proper hepatic artery following a motor vehicle accident. The patient suffered temporary right liver lobe ischemia due to the presence of an accessory left hepatic artery. This resulted in the selective formation of 'biliary lakes' distinctively within the territory of the right hepatic artery supply. Simultaneously the patient developed a pseudo-aneurysm of the proper hepatic artery which required radiology intervention. At the time of pseudo-aneurysm embolisation, a rich network of arterial collaterals had formed between the accessory left hepatic and the inferior phrenic artery. On follow up the biliary lakes to the right lobe had resolved, but a small area at the periphery of the right lobe had encountered atrophy. This case report is an 'in vivo' demonstration of liver resilience to arterial flow re-distribution and demonstrates the ability of the biliary epithelium to recover from and ischemic injury. Parenchymal liver survival is mostly independent from flow within the common hepatic artery. Acute and chronic liver parenchyma changes following interruption of hepatic artery flow can still occur. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Depression of in vivo clearance function of hepatic macrophage complement receptors following thermal injury.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, B G; Loegering, D J; Blumenstock, F A

    1984-09-01

    Previous studies have implicated a role for impaired hepatic macrophage blood clearance function in the increased susceptibility to infection caused by experimental thermal injury. The present study evaluated in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function as a possible factor contributing to impaired hepatic clearance after thermal injury. Rat erythrocytes treated with anti-erythrocyte serum (EA) were used as the test particle in rats. EA were rapidly removed from the circulation primarily by the liver and hepatic uptake of EA was greatly depressed in animals rendered C3 deficient by treatment with cobra venom factor. Thermal injury caused a large depression in the hepatic uptake of EA. It was shown that the depression in the binding of EA to hepatic macrophages was not due to decreased hepatic blood flow, decreased serum complement levels, or increased fluid phase C3b. Also, the depression of the hepatic uptake of EA incubated with serum prior to injection (EAC) was not different from that of EA after thermal injury. On this basis it was concluded that the impairment in binding of EA to the macrophages was at the cellular level and represented a depression in complement receptor clearance function. Additional studies showed that the injection of erythrocyte stroma, as a model of intravascular hemolysis, also depressed in vivo hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function. This latter finding suggests that the intravascular hemolysis caused by thermal injury may contribute to the depression of macrophage receptor function. The depression of hepatic macrophage complement receptor clearance function may contribute to the impaired bacterial clearance and increased susceptibility to infection following experimental thermal injury.

  11. Regional traumatic limb hypothermia attenuates distant hepatic and renal injury following blast limb trauma in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongzhi; Ning, Jiaolin; Duan, Jiaxiang; Gu, Jianteng; Yi, Bin; Lu, Kaizhi; Mo, Liwen; Lai, Xinan; Hennah, Lindsay; Ma, Daqing

    2014-09-01

    Blast limb injury was reported to result in distant organ injury including the lungs, which can be attenuated with transient regional hypothermia (RH) to the injured limb. We aimed to further study hepatic and renal injuries following blast limb trauma and also to evaluate the protective effects of regional traumatic limb hypothermia on such injuries in rats. Blast limb trauma (BLT) was created using chartaceous electricity detonators in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. The BLT rats were randomly allocated to undergo regional traumatic limb hypothermic treatment (RH) for 30 minutes, 60 minutes, or 6 hours immediately after the onset of blast or without RH (n = 8 per group). The severity of hepatic and renal injury was assessed through histologic examination and water content (wet/dry weight) in all animals 6 hours later. The level of plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) together with hepatic and renal MPO, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were measured 6 hours after the blast injury. Following BLT, hepatic injury was evidenced by histopathologic changes, increased water content, as well as plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. Renal histopathologic but not functional changes were also found. RH treatment for all durations attenuated this distant renal injury, but only RH treatment for 60 minutes and 6 hours attenuated distant hepatic injury following BLT. RH treatment for all durations decreased plasma TNF-α and interleukin 6, reduced liver and kidney MPO activity and kidney MDA, and elevated superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in both liver and kidneys. RH treatment for 60 minutes is the most effective duration to reduce hepatic MPO activity, plasma TNF-α, and kidney MDA. This study indicates that BLT-induced distant renal and hepatic injury could be attenuated by RH treatment through reduction of

  12. Protective effects of L-carnosine on CCl4 -induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Alsheblak, Mehyar Mohammad; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; El-Karef, Amro; El-Shishtawy, Mamdouh M

    2016-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effect of L-carnosine (CAR), an endogenous dipeptide of alanine and histidine, on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury. Liver injury was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of CCl4, twice weekly for six weeks. CAR was administered to rats daily, at dose of 250 mg/kg, i.p. At the end of six weeks, blood and liver tissue specimens were collected. Results show that CAR treatment attenuated the hepatic morphological changes, necroinflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4, as indicated by hepatic histopathology scoring. In addition, CAR treatment significantly reduced the CCl4-induced elevation of liver-injury parameters in serum. CAR treatment also combatted oxidative stress; possibly by restoring hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) levels. Moreover, CAR treatment prevented the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as indicated by reduced α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression in the liver, and decreased hepatic inflammation as demonstrated by a reduction in hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and restoration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. In conclusion, CCl4-induced hepatic injury was alleviated by CAR treatment. The results suggest that these beneficial, protective effects are due, at least in part, to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.

  13. Complexation of cytochrome P-450 isozymes in hepatic microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Murray, M

    1988-05-01

    Potassium ferricyanide-elicited reactivation of steroid hydroxylase activities, in hepatic microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced male rats, was used as an indicator of complex formation between individual cytochrome P-450 isozymes and the SKF 525-A metabolite. Induction of male rats with SKF 525-A (50 mg/kg for three days) led to apparent increases in androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 beta- and 6 beta-hydroxylation to 6.7- and 3-fold of control activities. Steroid 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was decreased to 0.8-fold of control and 16 alpha-hydroxylation was unchanged. Ferricyanide-elicited dissociation of the SKF 525-A metabolite-P-450 complex revealed an even greater induction of 16 beta- and 6 beta-hydroxylase activities (to 1.8- and 1.6-fold of activities in the absence of ferricyanide). Androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity increased 2-fold after ferricyanide but 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was unaltered. An antibody directed against the male-specific cytochrome P-450 UT-A decreased androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity to 13% of control in hepatic microsomes from untreated rats. In contrast, 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity in microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced rats, before and after dissociation with ferricyanide, was reduced by anti UT-A IgG to 32 and 19% of the respective uninhibited controls. Considered together, these observations strongly suggest that the phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes PB-B and PCN-E are present in an inactive complexed state in microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced rat liver. Further, the increased susceptibility of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity to inhibition by an antibody to cytochrome P-450 UT-A, following ferricyanide treatment of microsomes, suggests that this male sexually differentiated enzyme is also complexed after in vivo SKF 525-A dosage. In contrast, the constitutive isozyme cytochrome P-450 UT-F, which is active in steroid 7 alpha-hydroxylation, does not appear

  14. Non-operative management versus operative management in high-grade blunt hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Cirocchi, Roberto; Trastulli, Stefano; Pressi, Eleonora; Farinella, Eriberto; Avenia, Stefano; Morales Uribe, Carlos Hernando; Botero, Ana Maria; Barrera, Luis M

    2015-08-24

    Surgery used to be the treatment of choice in cases of blunt hepatic injury, but this approach gradually changed over the last two decades as increasing non-operative management (NOM) of splenic injury led to its use for hepatic injury. The improvement in critical care monitoring and computed tomographic scanning, as well as the more frequent use of interventional radiology techniques, has helped to bring about this change to non-operative management. Liver trauma ranges from a small capsular tear, without parenchymal laceration, to massive parenchymal injury with major hepatic vein/retrohepatic vena cava lesions. In 1994, the Organ Injury Scaling Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) revised the Hepatic Injury Scale to have a range from grade I to VI. Minor injuries (grade I or II) are the most frequent liver injuries (80% to 90% of all cases); severe injuries are grade III-V lesions; grade VI lesions are frequently incompatible with survival. In the medical literature, the majority of patients who have undergone NOM have low-grade liver injuries. The safety of NOM in high-grade liver lesions, AAST grade IV and V, remains a subject of debate as a high incidence of liver and collateral extra-abdominal complications are still described. To assess the effects of non-operative management compared to operative management in high-grade (grade III-V) blunt hepatic injury. The search for studies was run on 14 April 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic+Embase (Ovid), PubMed, ISI WOS (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S & CPSI-SSH), clinical trials registries, conference proceedings, and we screened reference lists. All randomised trials that compare non-operative management versus operative management in high-grade blunt hepatic injury. Two authors independently

  15. Reduced hepatic injury in Toll-like receptor 4-deficient mice following D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Ben Ari, Ziv; Avlas, Orna; Pappo, Orit; Zilbermints, Veacheslav; Cheporko, Yelena; Bachmetov, Larissa; Zemel, Romy; Shainberg, Asher; Sharon, Eran; Grief, Franklin; Hochhauser, Edith

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only therapy of proven benefit in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced FHF is a well established model of liver injury in mice. Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) has been identified as a receptor for LPS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TLR4 in FHF induced by D-GalN/LPS administration in mice. Wild type (WT) and TLR4 deficient (TLR4ko) mice were studied in vivo in a fulminant model induced by GalN/LPS. Hepatic TLR4 expression, serum liver enzymes, hepatic and serum TNF-α and interleukin-1β levels were determined. Apoptotic cells were identified by immunohistochemistry for caspase-3. Nuclear factor-kappaβ (NF-κ β) and phosphorylated c-Jun hepatic expression were studied using Western blot analysis. All WT mice died within 24 hours after administration of GalN/LPS while all TLR4ko mice survived. Serum liver enzymes, interleukin-1β, TNF-α level, TLR4 mRNA expression, hepatic injury and hepatocyte apoptosis all significantly decreased in TLR4ko mice compared with WT mice. A significant decrease in hepatic c-Jun and IκB signaling pathway was noted in TLR4ko mice compared with WT mice. In conclusion, following induction of FHF, the inflammatory response and the liver injury in TLR4ko mice was significantly attenuated through decreased hepatic c-Jun and NF-κB expression and thus decreased TNF-α level. Down-regulation of TLR4 expression plays a pivotal role in GalN/LPS induced FHF. These findings might have important implications for the use of the anti TLR4 protein signaling as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in FHF. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Isolated segmental, sectoral and right hepatic bile duct injuries

    PubMed Central

    Colovic, Radoje B

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of isolated segmental, sectoral and right hepatic bile duct injuries is controversial. Nineteen patients were treated over a 26-year period. Group one was comprised of 4 patients in whom the injury was primarily repaired during the original surgery; 3 over a T-tube, 1 with a Roux-en-Y. These patients had an uneventful recovery. The second group consisted of 5 patients in whom the duct was ligated; 4 developed infection, 3 of which required drainage and biliary repair. Two patients had good long-term outcomes; the third developed a late anastomotic stricture requiring further surgery. The fourth patient developed a small bile leak and pain which resolved spontaneously. The fifth patient developed complications from which he died. The third group was comprised of 4 patients referred with biliary peritonitis; all underwent drainage and lavage, and developed biliary fistulae, 3 of which resolved spontaneously, 1 required Roux-en-Y repair, with favorable outcomes. The fourth group consisted of 6 patients with biliary fistulae. Two patients, both with an 8-wk history of a fistula, underwent Roux-en-Y repair. Two others also underwent a Roux-en-Y repair, as their fistulae showed no signs of closure. The remaining 2 patients had spontaneous closure of their biliary fistulae. A primary repair is a reasonable alternative to ligature of injured duct. Patients with ligated ducts may develop complications. Infected ducts require further surgery. Patients with biliary peritonitis must be treated with drainage and lavage. There is a 50% chance that a biliary fistula will close spontaneously. In cases where the biliary fistula does not close within 6 to 8 wk, a Roux-en-Y anastomosis should be considered. PMID:19322912

  17. Comparison of isolated and concomitant liver injuries: is hepatic trauma entirely responsible for the outcome?

    PubMed

    Yazici, P; Aydin, U; Sozbilen, M

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine both isolated and concomitant liver injuries to clarify the role of liver trauma on outcome. This retrospective study was a review of all abdominal trauma patients who presented with liver injuries, with or without concomitant injury at Ege University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Presentation, injury grade, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with isolated hepatic injury (Group A) were compared with patients who had concomitant hepatic injury (liver and spleen/small bowel) (Group B). Significance was set at 95% confidence intervals. Of 368 patients, 80 (21%) presented with liver injury. Of these, the aetiology was as follows: 53 (66.2%) blunt injury, 19 (23%) penetrating injury, and 8 (10%) gun shot trauma. There were 38 patients in Group A and 42 in Group B. Of these 42 patients, 19 were diagnosed with serious types of injury ; eight thoracic, three open long bone fracture, one intra-cardiac, one intracranial. Six additional patients were observed with injuries to large abdominal vessels. Eleven patients (28.9%) with isolated hepatic injury were managed non-operatively. Mortality, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and transfusion requirements were significantly higher in Group B. Only the number of transfused blood units and the grade of liver injury were found to be effective on outcome whereas stepwise regression analysis revealed that injury type (penetrating) and blood transfusion were predictive for mortality. This study highlighted that although isolated liver injury results in good outcome with non-operative management, concomitant injuries to the liver lead to a higher failure and mortality rate. However, liver injury itself is rarely responsible for death.

  18. Nonselective inhibition of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase by naproxen ameliorates hepatic injury in animals with acute or chronic liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahde, Ralf; Kapoor, Sorabh; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    The rising prevalence of hepatic injury due to toxins, metabolites, viruses, etc., necessitates development of further mechanisms for protecting the liver and for treating acute or chronic liver diseases. To examine whether inhibition of inflammation directed by cyclo-oxygenase pathways, we performed animal studies with naproxen, which inhibits prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases 1 and 2 and is in extensive clinical use. We administered carbon tetrachloride to induce acute liver injury and ligated the common bile duct to induce chronic liver injury in adult rats. These experimental manipulations produced abnormalities in liver tests, tissue necrosis, compensatory hepatocyte or biliary proliferation, and onset of fibrosis, particularly after bile duct ligation. After carbon tetrachloride-induced acute injury, naproxen decreased liver test abnormalities, tissue necrosis and compensatory hepatocellular proliferation. After bile duct ligation-induced chronic injury, naproxen decreased liver test abnormalities, tissue injury and compensatory biliary hyperplasia. Moreover, after bile duct ligation, naproxen-treated rats showed more periductular oval liver cells, which have been classified as hepatic progenitor cells. In naproxen-treated rats, we found greater expression in hepatic stellate cells and mononuclear cells of cytoprotective factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor. The ability of naproxen to induce expression of vascular endothelial growth factor was verified in cell culture studies with CFSC-8B clone of rat hepatic stellate cells. Whereas assays for carbon tetrachloride toxicity using cultured primary hepatocytes established that naproxen was not directly cytoprotective, we found conditioned medium containing vascular endothelial growth factor from naproxen-treated CFSC-8B cells protected hepatocytes from carbon tetrachloride toxicity. Therefore, naproxen was capable of ameliorating toxic liver injury, which involved naproxen-induced release of

  19. Thermal injury decreases hepatic blood flow and the intrinsic clearance of indocyanine green in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pollack, G M; Brouwer, K L

    1991-01-01

    The influence of severe thermal injury (full-thickness burns involving 50% of the body surface area) on hepatic blood flow in the rat was assessed using the tricarbocyanine dye indocyanine green (ICG). In a randomized crossover fashion, rats received sequential infusions of ICG through both the femoral vein and the portal vein, allowing the estimation of total hepatic plasma clearance and transhepatic extraction of the dye. These two parameters, along with the hematocrit, were used to calculate intrinsic hepatic clearance of ICG and hepatic blood flow. Animals were examined at 0 (control), 0.5, 12, or 24 hr following infliction of scald burns. Hepatic blood flow was decreased significantly by 0.5 hr postburn and remained approximately 20% below normal throughout the remainder of the study. The intrinsic efficiency of the liver in removing ICG from the systemic circulation was also decreased by thermal injury. The potential mechanisms involved in these two physiologic perturbations are discussed.

  20. Salecan protected against concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury by modulating T cell immune responses and NMR-based metabolic profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Xi, E-mail: xuxi@njust.edu.cn; Yang,

    Salecan, a water-soluble extracellular β-glucan produced by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of biological effects. The aims of the present study were to investigate the protective effect of salecan against Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis, a well-established animal model of immune-mediated liver injury, and to search for possible mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with salecan followed by ConA injection. Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced acute liver injury, and suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines including interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in ConA-induced liver injury model. The high expression levels of chemokines andmore » adhesion molecules such as MIP-1α, MIP-1β, ICAM-1, MCP-1 and RANTES in the liver induced by ConA were also down-regulated after salecan treatment. Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of inflammatory cells, especially T cells, in the liver induced by ConA. Moreover, salecan reversed the metabolic profiles of ConA-treated mice towards the control group by partly recovering the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA. Our results suggest the preventive and therapeutic potential of salecan in immune-mediated hepatitis. - Highlights: • Salecan treatment significantly reduced ConA-induced liver injury. • Salecan suppressed the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. • Salecan decreased the expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules in liver. • Salecan inhibited the infiltration and activation of T cells induced by ConA. • Salecan partly recovered the metabolic perturbations induced by ConA.« less

  1. Lung Matrix Metalloproteinase Activation following Partial Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferrigno, Andrea; Rizzo, Vittoria; Tarantola, Eleonora

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Warm hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury can lead to multiorgan dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether acute liver I/R does affect the function and/or structure of remote organs such as lung, kidney, and heart via modulation of extracellular matrix remodelling. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min partial hepatic ischemia by clamping the hepatic artery and the portal vein. After a 60 min reperfusion, liver, lung, kidney, and heart biopsies and blood samples were collected. Serum hepatic enzymes, creatinine, urea, Troponin I and TNF-alpha, and tissue matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and morphology were monitored. Results. Serum levels of hepatic enzymes and TNF-alpha were concomitantly increased during hepatic I/R. An increase in hepatic MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities was substantiated by tissue morphology alterations. Notably, acute hepatic I/R affect the lung inasmuch as MMP-9 activity and MPO levels were increased. No difference in MMPs and MPO was observed in kidney and heart. Conclusions. Although the underlying mechanism needs further investigation, this is the first study in which the MMP activation in a distant organ is reported; this event is probably TNF-alpha-mediated and the lung appears as the first remote organ to be involved in hepatic I/R injury. PMID:24592193

  2. [Effect of methylene chloride upon hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-hua; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yu; Zhou, Jie

    2009-12-15

    To investigate the effects and mechanisms of methylene chloride (MC) in hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury. Eighty SD-rats were divided equally into 4 groups: control group (n = 20), donors without any treatment; CoPP group (n = 20), donors injected with CoPP (5 mg/kg, ip) at 24 h; ZnPP group (n = 20), donors injected with ZnPP (20 mg/kg, ip) at 24 h; MC group (n = 20), donors fed with MC (500 mg/kg) per day for 7 days before graft procurement. Syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in rats with modified Kamada's two-cuff technique. And SD rats were used as donors (n = 10)and recipients respectively. 5 recipients in each group were sacrificed and the grafts were procured at day 3 after transplantation, the post-operative survival time was observed in the remnant. The tests were determined as following: the level of serum ALT, AST in recipients; heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression of graft was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot; the index of graft apoptosis examined by TUNEL method; the pathology of graft assessed by Suzuki's criteria. The level of serum ALT [(65 +/- 28) U/L], AST [(187 +/- 43) U/L] in CoPP and ALT [(75 +/- 16) U/L], AST [(185 +/- 42) U/L] in MC group was significantly lower than that ALT [(346 +/- 45) U/L], AST [(474 +/- 90) U/L] in control group and ALT [(578 +/- 75) U/L], AST [(1084 +/- 128) U/L] in ZnPP group (P < 0.01). The median expression of HO-1 in MC group was no significantly different with that in control group (P > 0.05). While the median expression of HO-1 in CoPP group was higher than that in control group (P < 0.05). The index of graft apoptosis in MC group and CoPP group, 4.1% +/- 0.6% and 3.2% +/- 0.8% respectively, was significantly lower than that (12.5% +/- 2.4%) in control group and (25.8% +/- 3.1%) in ZnPP group (P < 0.05). Compared with the other two groups, MC and CoPP groups had lesser neutrophil infiltration and a lower grade of hepatocytic injury in grafts. Suzuki's scores in grafts of MC

  3. Concomitant injuries are an important determinant of outcome of high-grade blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Schnüriger, B; Inderbitzin, D; Schafer, M; Kickuth, R; Exadaktylos, A; Candinas, D

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the clinical importance of concomitant injuries in polytraumatized patients with high-grade blunt liver injury. A retrospective single-centre study was performed to investigate the safety of non-operative management of liver injury and the impact of concomitant intra- and extra-abdominal injuries on clinical outcome. Some 183 patients with blunt liver injury were admitted to Berne University Hospital, Switzerland, between January 2000 and December 2006. Grade 3-5 injuries were considered to be high grade. Immediate laparotomy was required by 35 patients (19.1 per cent), owing to extrahepatic intra-abdominal injury (splenic and vascular injuries, perforations) in 21 cases. The mortality rate was 16.9 per cent; 22 of the 31 deaths were due to concomitant lesions. Of 81 patients with high-grade liver injury, 63 (78 per cent) were managed without surgery; liver-related and extra-abdominal complication rates in these patients were 11 and 17 per cent respectively. Grades 4 and 5 liver injury were associated with hepatic-related and extra-abdominal complications. Concomitant injuries are a major determinant of outcome in patients with blunt hepatic injury and should be given high priority by trauma surgeons. An algorithm for the management of blunt liver injury is proposed. Copyright (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Indocyanine green. Its use as an early indicator of hepatic dysfunction following injury in man.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, M E; Stratton, H H; Newell, J C; Shah, D M

    1984-03-01

    To evaluate hepatic function, the kinetics of indocyanine green clearance were studied in seven injured patients with hepatic venous catheters. Indocyanine green clearance after a bolus injection of 20 mg was relatively monoexponential on the first day after injury. Following this, a second slower compartment of indocyanine green clearance was uniformly evident, becoming most prominent around the fourth day after injury. Indocyanine green clearance again became more uniform as recovery continued. Fractional indocyanine green extraction ten minutes after injection decreased from 0.9 on the first day after injury to 0.2 three days later, and then returned to 0.7 on the seventh day after injury. These decreases in indocyanine green clearance preceded an increase in total serum bilirubin concentration to a mean value of 1.9 mg/dL. Indocyanine green clearance was thus found to be an early and sensitive indicator of impaired hepatic function.

  6. Induction of acute hepatic injury by endotoxin in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guo-Qi; Jiang, Jian-Xin; Chen, Yong-Hua; Liu, Da-Wei; Zhu, Pei-Fang; Wang, Zheng-Guo

    2002-11-01

    To investigate the changes of scavenger receptor (SR) and CD14 in Kupffer cells in endotoxemia in order to uncover the mechanism of the liver to turn a defense organ into effector one in sepsis. Mouse models of endotoxemia of different severity were reproduced by injection of different doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via the tail vein. The expression of SR and CD14 in the liver was assayed by immunohistochemistry and was subsequently analyzed with an image analysis system. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in liver tissue were determined with ELISA. The expression of SR in the liver in the high-dose group was markedly decreased one hour after injection of LPS, and also in the low-dose group at 3 hours. The expression of SR in the liver in the two groups was shown to be progressively decreased with the time prolonged. There was significant difference in average optical density (OD) values of SR between the two groups. The expression of CD14 in the two groups was shown to be significantly increased one hour after injection of LPS, and more significantly with the time prolonged. But there was no significant difference in OD values of CD14 between the two groups. The contents of intrahepatic proinflammatory mediators TNF-alpha, IL-6, ALT and TBIL were significantly increased after injection of LPS. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes of TNF-alpha, IL-6, ALT, and TBIL were negatively correlated with the expression of SR, and positively with the expression of CD14. The up-regulation of CD14 expression and down-regulation of SR expression on Kupffer cells might be one of the important mechanisms for the conversion of Kupffer cells from immune defensive to inflammatory response cells in acute hepatic injury.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE LIVER IN DYNAMICS OF CONCANAVALIN A - INDUCED HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Pavlovych, S I; Makogon, N V; Grushka, N G; Bryzgina, T M; Janchiy, R I

    The injure of the liver tissue and its infiltration by cells of the innate and adaptive immunity in dynamics of Con A-induced hepatitis in mice was studied. The semiquantitative method of damage rate of microcirculation channel and liver parenchyma was used, leukocyte liver infiltration and cellular composition of infiltrates were investigated also. Primary liver reaction to the Con-A was the inflammatory changes in the vascular bed, followed by disturbances in the parenchyma.The sufficient increasing of leukocyte migration to the liver was revealed. Besides, the neutrophile infiltration was increased first with a maximum at 6 hours of the experiment (63,9 ±4,6%, p<0,001 to the control level) ,and then the lymphocyte infiltration was increased with creation of manycellular lymphocytemacrophage infiltrates (62% at 48 hours comparing to 6 hours of experiment) and sufficient quantity of plasma cells population (4,9%, p<0,05 comparing to 6 hours of experiment). The obtained data gives the base to suggest that the elevated infiltration of liver tissue by leukocytes, particularly by lymphocytes and monocytes, together with necrotic death increasing creats the conditions for effective intracellular interaction and immune response to autoantigenes. This can be the essential pathogenic mechanism of development of autoimmune liver deseases.

  8. The effects of tramadol on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Mona F.; Gamal, Samar; Shaheen, Mohamed A.; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic. It has a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that tramadol may exert a similar protective effect on hepatic I/R injury. Hence, the current investigation was designed to study the possible protective effects of tramadol on experimentally-induced hepatic I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Tramadol was administered 30 min before ischemia following which the rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Results: Tramadol attenuated hepatic injury induced by I/R as evidenced by the reduction of transaminases, structural changes, and apoptotic cell death. It decreased the level of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TNF-α/interleukin-10 (IL-10) ratio, and nuclear factor-κB gene expression. It also increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 levels in hepatic tissues. Furthermore, it reduced oxidative stress parameters except manganese superoxide dismutase activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that tramadol has hepatoprotective effects against hepatic I/R injury via anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects. PMID:27298497

  9. The effects of tramadol on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mona F; Gamal, Samar; Shaheen, Mohamed A; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol is a centrally acting synthetic analgesic. It has a cardioprotective effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in isolated rat heart. We hypothesized that tramadol may exert a similar protective effect on hepatic I/R injury. Hence, the current investigation was designed to study the possible protective effects of tramadol on experimentally-induced hepatic I/R injury in rats. Tramadol was administered 30 min before ischemia following which the rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Tramadol attenuated hepatic injury induced by I/R as evidenced by the reduction of transaminases, structural changes, and apoptotic cell death. It decreased the level of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), TNF-α/interleukin-10 (IL-10) ratio, and nuclear factor-κB gene expression. It also increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 levels in hepatic tissues. Furthermore, it reduced oxidative stress parameters except manganese superoxide dismutase activity. The results suggest that tramadol has hepatoprotective effects against hepatic I/R injury via anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and antioxidant effects.

  10. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is an ...

  11. Treatment of penetrating hepatic injuries: a retrospective analysis of 50 patients.

    PubMed

    Gonullu, D; Koksoy, F N; Ilgun, S; Demiray, O; Yucel, O; Yucel, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of non-operative treatment via retrospective analysis of our patients. Fifty patients with penetrating hepatic injuries were examined retrospectively with respect to trauma scores, associated injuries, complications, and mortality parameters. Thirteen injuries were caused by firearms, whereas 37 injuries were caused by stab wounds. Forty-three patients (86%) underwent laparotomy and 7 patients (14%) were monitored by CT and clinical findings (nonoperative group, NO group). The laparotomies were evaluated as non-therapeutic in 11 patients (22%) (NTL group) and therapeutic in 32 patients (64%) (TL group). The morbidity and mortality rates were 40 and 10%, respectively. RTS and ISS scores of the nonsurviving and the surviving patients were significantly different. The rates of major venous, grade IV-V hepatic injuries, and gunshot wounds were significantly higher in the nonsurviving patients when compared to the surviving patients. Major venous and grade IV-V hepatic injuries were the primary factors determining mortality and these injuries generally occurred as a result of firearm injuries. NTL occurring at a rate of 22% would decrease to 2% if 'RTS <7' criteria was added to the hemodynamic instability and/or peritoneal irritation findings determining surgical candidacy. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The Protective Effect of Intrasplenic Transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 Gene-Modified Fetal Hepatocytes on ConA-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Background Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. Aim To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Methods Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Conclusions Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease. PMID:23516562

  13. The protective effect of intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 gene-modified fetal hepatocytes on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xueting; Qian, Yun; Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B.

    PubMed

    Shin, So Youn; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Jino; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-05-01

    Acute hepatitis A (AHA) and acute hepatitis B (AHB) are caused by an acute infection of the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus, respectively. In both AHA and AHB, liver injury is known to be mediated by immune cells and cytokines. In this study, we measured serum levels of various cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins in patients with AHA or AHB to identify liver injury-associated cytokines. Forty-six patients with AHA, 16 patients with AHB, and 14 healthy adults were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of 17 cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cytometric bead arrays and analyzed for correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly elevated in both AHA and AHB. IL-6, IL-22, granzyme B, and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in AHA but not in AHB. In both AHA and AHB, the serum level of CXCL10 significantly correlated with the peak ALT level. Additionally, the serum level of granzyme B in AHA and the serum level of sFasL in AHB correlated with the peak ALT level. We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B

    PubMed Central

    Shin, So Youn; Jeong, Sook-Hyang; Sung, Pil Soo; Lee, Jino; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Hyun Woong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Acute hepatitis A (AHA) and acute hepatitis B (AHB) are caused by an acute infection of the hepatitis A virus and the hepatitis B virus, respectively. In both AHA and AHB, liver injury is known to be mediated by immune cells and cytokines. In this study, we measured serum levels of various cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins in patients with AHA or AHB to identify liver injury-associated cytokines. Materials and Methods Forty-six patients with AHA, 16 patients with AHB, and 14 healthy adults were enrolled in the study. Serum levels of 17 cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cytometric bead arrays and analyzed for correlation with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Results Interleukin (IL)-18, IL-8, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were significantly elevated in both AHA and AHB. IL-6, IL-22, granzyme B, and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) were elevated in AHA but not in AHB. In both AHA and AHB, the serum level of CXCL10 significantly correlated with the peak ALT level. Additionally, the serum level of granzyme B in AHA and the serum level of sFasL in AHB correlated with the peak ALT level. Conclusion We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis. PMID:26996565

  16. Effects of model traumatic injury on hepatic drug metabolism in the rat. IV. Glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Griffeth, L K; Rosen, G M; Rauckman, E J

    1985-01-01

    A previously validated small mammal trauma model, hind-limb ischemia secondary to infrarenal aortic ligation in the rat, was utilized to investigate the effects of traumatic injury on hepatic glucuronidation activity. As was previously observed with hepatic oxidative drug metabolism, model trauma resulted in a significant decrease in the in vivo glucuronidation of chloramphenicol, with a 23% drop in clearance of this drug. The effect on in vivo pharmacokinetics appeared to result from a complex interaction between trauma's differential influences on conjugating enzyme(s), deconjugating enzyme(s), and hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid levels, as well as the relative physiological importance of these variables. Hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities towards both p-nitrophenol and chloramphenicol were elevated (44-54%) after model injury when measured in native hepatic microsomes. However, microsomes which had been "activated" by treatment with Triton X-100 showed no significant difference between control and traumatized animals. Serum beta-glucuronidase activities were elevated by 58%, while hepatic beta-glucuronidase rose by about 16%. Nevertheless, in vivo deconjugation showed no significant change. Model trauma also resulted in a 46% decrease in hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid content. Thus, the observed post-traumatic depression of in vivo chloramphenicol glucuronidation could be due either to a diminished availability of a necessary cofactor (UDP-glucuronic acid) or to an alteration in enzyme kinetics or function in vivo.

  17. Curcumin protects against acetaminophen-induced apoptosis in hepatic injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jun-Bao; Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhi; Nie, Hao; Qin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Gong, Quan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effects of curcumin (CMN) on hepatic injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP) in vivo. METHODS: Male mice were randomly divided into three groups: group I (control) mice received the equivalent volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) intraperitoneally (ip); Group II [APAP + carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] mice received 1% CMC (vehicle) 2 h before APAP injection; Group III (APAP + CMN) mice received curcumin (10 or 20 mg/kg, ip) 2 h before before or after APAP challenge. In Groups II and III, APAP was dissolved in pyrogen-free PBS and injected at a single dose of 300 mg/kg. CMN was dissolved in 1% CMC. Mice were sacrificed 16 h after the APAP injection to determine alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels in serum and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and hepatocyte apoptosis in liver tissues. RESULTS: Both pre- and post-treatment with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in serum ALT compared with APAP treatment group (10 mg/kg: 801.46 ± 661.34 U/L; 20 mg/kg: 99.68 ± 86.48 U/L vs 5406.80 ± 1785.75 U/L, P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of liver necrosis was significantly lowered in CMN treated animals. MDA contents were significantly reduced in 20 mg/kg CMN pretreatment group, but increased in APAP treated group (10.96 ± 0.87 nmol/mg protein vs 16.03 ± 2.58 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.05). The decrease of SOD activity in APAP treatment group and the increase of SOD in 20 mg/kg CMN pretreatment group were also detected (24.54 ± 4.95 U/mg protein vs 50.21 ± 1.93 U/mg protein, P < 0.05). Furthermore, CMN treatment efficiently protected against APAP-induced apoptosis via increasing Bcl-2/Bax ratio. CONCLUSION: CMN has significant therapeutic potential in both APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and other types of liver diseases. PMID:24259976

  18. CRISPR/Cas9 Technology Targeting Fas Gene Protects Mice From Concanavalin-A Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Cheng; Liang, Pu-Ping; Wong, Cheuk-Wa; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Huang, Jun-Jiu; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Fu, Wei-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is a life-threatening disease which occurs in patients without preexisting liver disease. Nowadays, there is no ideal therapeutic tool in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. Recent studies suggested that a novel technology termed CRISPR/Cas9 may be a promising approach for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. In this project, we have designed single chimeric guide RNAs specifically targeting the genomic regions of mouse Fas gene. The in vitro and in vivo effects of sgRNAs on the production of Fas protein were examined in cultured mouse cells and in a hydrodynamic injection-based mouse model, respectively. The in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 could maintain liver homeostasis and protect hepatocytes from Fas-mediated cell apoptosis in the fulminant hepatic failure model. Our study indicates the clinical potential of developing the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue Concanavalin-A-induced fulminant hepatic failure in the mouse model. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 530-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mesh wrapping for severe hepatic injury: a beneficial option in the trauma surgeon's armamentarium.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ryan; Brevard, Sidney B; Bosarge, Patrick; Simmons, Jon D; Frotan, Mohammed A; Baker, Jeremy A; Tuart, Lynda; Pritchett, Cindy; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of absorbable mesh wrapping (MW) versus perihepatic packing (HP) for severe hepatic injury. From January 2001 to December 2012, data were collected for MW patients with hepatic injury. Patients who underwent HP were matched with MW patients by injury mechanism, liver injury grade, Injury Severity Score, and age. Twenty-six MW and twenty-six HP patients were matched. Eighteen blunt and 8 penetrating injuries were present in each group. There were 9 (35%) mortalities in the MW group and 16 (62%) in the HP groups (P = .03). Average transfusions were 12.0 and 24.5 (P = .03) packed red blood cells in the MW and HP groups, respectively. Average laparotomies per survivors were 1.3 for the MW and 3.1 for the HP groups (P = .01). Average length of stay for survivors was 19 and 47 (P = .04) days in the MW and HP groups, respectively. MW for hepatic injuries can significantly decrease mortality, transfusions, laparotomies, and length of stay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rifampicin-Induced Concomitant Renal Injury and Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Chogtu, Bharti; Surendra, Vyshak Uddur; Acharya, Preetam Rajgopal; Yerrapragada, Devesh Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are not unusual during Anti-Tubercular Therapy (ATT). One of the common complications of anti-tubercular treatment is drug induced hepatitis and renal insufficiency has also been reported. Renal failure and/or hepatitis encountered during treatment of tuberculosis can have varied aetiologies: drug induced, concomitant viral infection, pre-existing co-morbidities or a combination of these. Since, hepatitis and/or renal insufficiency can be life threatening a prompt diagnosis is warranted, where drugs should be kept as one of the important cause. Identifying the drug helps in treating hepatitis and/or renal insufficiency along with helping the physician to change the combination of ATT regimen. Rifampicin is one of the most important first line drugs in the treatment of tuberculosis. Hepatitis, epigastric distress, anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and interstitial nephritis are reported adverse drug reactions to rifampicin. As per literature rifampicin induced renal toxicity is usually seen on rifampicin re-exposure, or rifampicin administration on alternate days, both being present in this case. Here we are reporting a case of ATT induced renal failure with concomitant hepatitis where rifampicin was suspected to be the cause. PMID:27790502

  1. Salidroside mediates apoptosis and autophagy inhibition in concanavalin A-induced liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiao; Niu, Peiqin; Chen, Kan; Wu, Liwei; Liu, Tong; Xu, Shizan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Ning; Xu, Ling; Wang, Fan; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2018-01-01

    Salidroside (Sal) is a glycoside extract from Rhodiola rosea L. with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective properties. The present study explored the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of Sal on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury in mice. Balb/C mice were divided into five groups: Normal control (injected with normal saline), ConA (25 mg/kg), Sal (10 mg/kg) +ConA, Sal (20 mg/kg) + ConA (Sal injected 2 h prior to ConA injection) and Sal (20 mg/kg) only. The serum levels of liver enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis- and autophagy-associated marker proteins were determined at 2, 8 and 24 h after ConA injection. LY294002 was further used to verify whether the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway was activated. Primary hepatocytes were isolated to verify the effect of Sal in vitro. The results indicated that Sal was a safe agent to reduce pathological damage and serum liver enzymes in ConA-induced liver injury. Sal suppressed inflammatory reactions in serum and liver tissues, and activated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to inhibit apoptosis and autophagy in vivo and in vitro, which could be reversed by LY294002. In conclusion, Sal attenuated ConA-induced liver injury by modulating PI3K/Akt pathway-mediated apoptosis and autophagy in mice.

  2. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol ... not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  3. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Hepatitis What's in this article? ... have liver damage because of it. What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  4. Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury is associated with acute kidney injury following donation after brain death liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Leithead, Joanna A; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Christopher; Andrew, Mark; Kothari, Chirag; Gunson, Bridget K; Muiesan, Paolo; Ferguson, James W

    2013-11-01

    Donation after cardiac death liver transplant recipients have an increased frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI). This suggests that hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AKI after liver transplantation. The aim of this single-center study was to determine if hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, estimated by peak peri-operative serum amino-transferase (AST), is associated with AKI following donation after brain death (DBD) liver transplantation. A total of 296 patients received 298 DBD liver transplants from January 2007 to June 2011. The incidence of AKI was 35.9%. AKI was a risk factor for chronic kidney disease (P = 0.037) and mortality (P = 0.002). On univariate analysis, peak AST correlated with peak creatinine (P < 0.001) and peak change in creatinine from baseline (P < 0.001). Peak AST was higher in AKI patients (P < 0.001). The incidence of AKI in patients with a peak AST of <1500, 1500-2999 and ≥ 3000 U/l was 26.1%, 39.8% and 71.2%, respectively (P < 0.001). On multiple logistic regression analysis, peak AST was independently associated with the development of AKI (P < 0.001). In conclusion, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury demonstrates a strong relationship with peri-operative AKI in DBD liver transplant recipients. © 2013 Steunstichting ESOT. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Computed tomography arterial portography for assessment of portal vein injury after blunt hepatic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chen-Ju; Wong, Yon-Cheong; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Wang, Li-Jen; Chen, Huan-Wu; Ku, Yi-Kang; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Huan-Wen; Kang, Shih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. METHODS Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT. The number and size of perfusion defects observed using the three methods were compared. RESULTS A total of 13 patients (seven males/six females) with a mean age of 34.5±14.1 years were included in the study. A total of 36 hepatic segments had perfusion defects on rCTAP and CT, while there were 47 hepatic segments with perfusion defects on CTAP. The size of perfusion defects on CT (239 cm3; interquartile range [IQR]: 129.5, 309.5) and rCTAP (238 cm3; IQR: 129.5, 310.5) were significantly smaller compared with CTAP (291 cm3; IQR: 136, 371) (both, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION Perfusion defects measured by CTAP were significantly greater than those determined by either rCTAP or CT in cases of blunt hepatic trauma. This finding suggests that CTAP is superior to rCTAP and CT in evaluating portal vein injuries after blunt liver trauma. PMID:26268303

  6. Computed tomography arterial portography for assessment of portal vein injury after blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chen Ju; Wong, Yon Cheong; Tsang, Yuk Ming; Wang, Li Jen; Chen, Huan Wu; Ku, Yi Kang; Wu, Cheng Hsien; Chen, Huan Wen; Kang, Shih Ching

    2015-01-01

    Intrahepatic portal vein injuries secondary to blunt abdominal trauma are difficult to diagnose and can result in insidious bleeding. We aimed to compare computed tomography arterial portography (CTAP), reperfusion CTAP (rCTAP), and conventional computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing portal vein injuries after blunt hepatic trauma. Patients with blunt hepatic trauma, who were eligible for nonoperative management, underwent CTAP, rCTAP, and CT. The number and size of perfusion defects observed using the three methods were compared. A total of 13 patients (seven males/six females) with a mean age of 34.5±14.1 years were included in the study. A total of 36 hepatic segments had perfusion defects on rCTAP and CT, while there were 47 hepatic segments with perfusion defects on CTAP. The size of perfusion defects on CT (239 cm3; interquartile range [IQR]: 129.5, 309.5) and rCTAP (238 cm3; IQR: 129.5, 310.5) were significantly smaller compared with CTAP (291 cm3; IQR: 136, 371) (both, P = 0.002). Perfusion defects measured by CTAP were significantly greater than those determined by either rCTAP or CT in cases of blunt hepatic trauma. This finding suggests that CTAP is superior to rCTAP and CT in evaluating portal vein injuries after blunt liver trauma.

  7. Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum Involved in the Regulation of Bile Acids Metabolism in Hepatic Injury.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shun; Zhang, Song; Liu, Linna; Yang, Peng; Dang, Xueliang; Wei, Huamei; Hu, Na; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yan

    2018-06-01

    Pinelliae Rhizoma Praeparatum (PRP) as traditional Chinese medicine had been used for hepatic diseases in combinative forms. However, the effect of PRP was not clear when used alone. So to explore the hepatoprotective/hepatotoxin of PRP is necessary. The activities of PRP were investigated in acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury mice. Liver function markers, hepatic oxidative stress markers were evaluated. Bile acids metabolic transports and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were detected. As a drug for the treatment of liver diseases, PRP slightly restored the parameters towards normal in model mice only in low dosage, and also had no antioxidant activity and regulate Nrf2. Cholestasis was significantly elevated in model mice when pretreatment with routine or high dosage of PRP, but had no effect on normal mice. Bile salt export pump (Bsep) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) in model mice were markedly increased when pretreatment with low dose PRP, but significantly decreased when pretreatment in routine or high dosage. Mrp3 was significantly induced in model mice after pretreatment of PRP. But the adjustment effect to bile acids transporters by PRP was not significant in normal mice. These results reveal that PRP has the different effects on bile acids transporter in hepatic injury mice, and therefore, the dosage of PRP need to be paid attention to when it is used in clinical hepatic injury.

  8. Effects of Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharide and its phosphate on anti-duck hepatitis a virus and alleviating hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ming, Ke; Chen, Yun; Shi, Jintong; Yang, Jingjing; Yao, Fangke; Du, Hongu; Zhang, Wei; Bai, Jingying; Liu, Jiaguo; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Wu, Yi

    2017-09-01

    To explore new effective anti-duck hepatitis A virus drugs, Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharide (CIPS) was phosphorylation modified using STMP-STPP method, and phosphorylated Chrysanthemum indicum polysaccharide (pCIPS) was obtained. Characteristic absorption peaks were observed in pCIPS using IR spectrum, suggested that CIPS was successfully modified. In addition, field emission scanning electron micro-scope (FE-SEM) was used to observe the polysaccharides' surface features. In vitro, we found that the survival rate of DHAV-infected hepatocytes increased after the two drugs treatment, indicated that the two drugs possess good anti-DHAV activity. The results of real-time PCR showed that pCIPS inhibited the virus gene replication more effectively than CIPS. Reed-Muench assay was used to observe the changes of the virulence, and the expression level of IFN-β was observed to verify the changes of virulence. In vivo experiment, the blood virus content reduced after CIPS and pCIPS treatment. To evaluate the ducklings' hepatic injury, the serum ALT, AST, TP and ALB levels were detected. Results showed that both CIPS and pCIPS could alleviate the hepatic injury of ducklings infected DHAV, especially for pCIPS. All the results above mentioned demonstrated that the anti-DHAV activity of CIPS was enhanced after phosphorylation modification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibition of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 facilitates liver repair after hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yoshiya; Eshima, Koji; Ohkubo, Hirotoki; Kojo, Ken; Inoue, Tomoyoshi; Raouf, Joan; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Narumiya, Shuh; Watanabe, Masahiko; Majima, Masataka

    2018-07-01

    Liver repair following hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is crucial to survival. This study aims to examine the role of endogenous prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) produced by inducible microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), a terminal enzyme of PGE 2 generation, in liver injury and repair following hepatic I/R. mPGES-1 deficient (Ptges -/- ) mice or their wild-type (WT) counterparts were subjected to partial hepatic ischemia followed by reperfusion. The role of E prostanoid receptor 4 (EP4) was then studied using a genetic knockout model and a selective antagonist. Compared with WT mice, Ptges -/- mice exhibited reductions in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), necrotic area, neutrophil infiltration, chemokines, and proinflammatory cytokine levels. Ptges -/- mice also showed promoted liver repair and increased Ly6C low macrophages (Ly6C low /CD11b high /F4/80 high -cells) with expression of anti-inflammatory and reparative genes, while WT mice exhibited delayed liver repair and increased Ly6C high macrophages (Ly6C high /CD11b high /F4/80 low -cells) with expression of proinflammatory genes. Bone marrow (BM)-derived mPGES-1-deficient macrophages facilitated liver repair with increases in Ly6C low macrophages. In vitro, mPGES-1 was expressed in macrophages polarized toward the proinflammatory profile. Mice treated with the mPGES-1 inhibitor Compound III displayed increased liver protection and repair. Hepatic I/R enhanced the hepatic expression of PGE receptor subtype, EP4, in WT mice, which was reduced in Ptges -/- mice. A selective EP4 antagonist and genetic deletion of Ptger4, which codes for EP4, accelerated liver repair. The proinflammatory gene expression was upregulated by stimulation of EP4 agonist in WT macrophages but not in EP4-deficient macrophages. These results indicate that mPGES-1 regulates macrophage polarization as well as liver protection and repair through EP4 signaling during hepatic I/R. Inhibition of mPGES-1 could have therapeutic potential by

  10. Managing injuries of hepatic duct confluence variants after major hepatobiliary surgery: An algorithmic approach

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios; Marinis, Athanasios; Polydorou, Andreas; Konstantinidis, Christos; Anastasopoulos, Georgios; Contis, John; Voros, Dionysios; Smyrniotis, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate injuries of anatomy variants of hepatic duct confluence during hepatobiliary surgery and their impact on morbidity and mortality of these procedures. An algorithmic approach for the management of these injuries is proposed. METHODS: During a 6-year period 234 patients who had undergone major hepatobiliary surgery were retrospectively reviewed in order to study postoperative bile leakage. Diagnostic workup included endoscopic and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (E/MRCP), scintigraphy and fistulography. RESULTS: Thirty (12.8%) patients who developed postoperative bile leaks were identified. Endoscopic stenting and percutaneous drainage were successful in 23 patients with bile leaks from the liver cut surface. In the rest seven patients with injuries of hepatic duct confluence, biliary variations were recognized and a stepwise therapeutic approach was considered. Conservative management was successful only in 2 patients. Volume of the liver remnant and functional liver reserve as well as local sepsis were used as criteria for either resection of the corresponding liver segment or construction of a biliary-enteric anastomosis. Two deaths occurred in this group of patients with hepatic duct confluence variants (mortality rate 28.5%). CONCLUSION: Management of major biliary fistulae that are disconnected from the mainstream of the biliary tree and related to injury of variants of the hepatic duct confluence is extremely challenging. These patients have a grave prognosis and an early surgical procedure has to be considered. PMID:18494057

  11. Caspase recruitment domain 6 protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by suppressing ASK1.

    PubMed

    Qin, Juan-Juan; Mao, Wenzhe; Wang, Xiaozhan; Sun, Peng; Cheng, Daqing; Tian, Song; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Yang, Ling; Huang, Zan; Li, Hongliang

    2018-06-26

    The comprehensive interplay in sterile inflammation and liver cell death predominantly determines hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult. Caspase recruitment domain family member 6 (CARD6) was initially shown to play important roles in NF-κB activation. In our preliminary studies, CARD6 downregulation was closely related to hepatic I/R injury in liver transplantation patients and mouse models. Thus, we hypothesized that CARD6 protects against hepatic I/R injury and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms. A partial hepatic I/R operation was performed in hepatocyte-specific Card6 knockout mice (HKO), Card6 transgenic mice with CARD6 overexpression specifically in hepatocytes (HTG), and the corresponding control mice. Hepatic histology, serum aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, cell death, and inflammatory signaling were examined to assess liver damage. The molecular mechanisms of CARD6 function were explored in vivo and in vitro. Card6-HTG mice alleviated liver injury compared with control mice as shown by decreased cell death, lower serum transaminase levels, and reduced inflammation and infiltration, whereas Card6-HKO mice had the opposite phenotype. Mechanistically, phosphorylation of ASK1 and its downstream effectors JNK and p38 were increased in the livers of Card6-HKO mice but repressed in those of Card6-HTG mice. Furthermore, ASK1 knockdown normalized the effect of CARD6 deficiency on the activation of NF-κB, JNK and p38, while ASK1 overexpression abrogated the suppressive effect of CARD6. Finally, CARD6 interacted with Ask1. Mutant CARD6 that lacked the ability to interact with ASK1 could not inhibit ASK1 and failed to protect against hepatic I/R injury. CARD6 is a novel protective factor of hepatic I/R injury that suppresses inflammation and liver cell death by inhibiting the ASK1 signaling pathway. CARD6 participate and play an important role during the process of liver blood flow restriction followed by

  12. Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Horton, Jay D.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession in the 21st century. A major metabolic consequence of obesity is insulin resistance, which is strongly associated with the deposition of triglycerides in the liver. Hepatic steatosis can either be a benign, noninflammatory condition that appears to have no adverse sequelae or can be associated with steatohepatitis: a condition that can result in end-stage liver disease, accounting for up to 14% of liver transplants in the US. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of the molecular events contributing to hepatic steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:15254578

  13. Selective inhibition of iNOS attenuates trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsu, Jun-Te; Schwacha, Martin G; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Raju, Raghavan; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2008-10-01

    Although trauma-hemorrhage produces tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction, the mechanisms responsible for these alterations are not clear. Using a potent selective inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, N-[3-(aminomethyl) benzyl]acetamidine (1400W), and a nonselective NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), we investigated whether inducible NO synthase plays any role in producing hepatic injury, inflammation, and changes of protein expression following trauma-hemorrhage. To investigate this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to midline laparotomy and hemorrhagic shock (mean blood pressure 35-40 mmHg for approximately 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. Animals were treated with either vehicle (DMSO) or 1400W (10 mg/kg body wt ip), or L-NAME (30 mg/kg iv), 30 min before resuscitation and killed 2 h after resuscitation. Trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation induced a marked hypotension and increase in markers of hepatic injury (i.e., plasma alpha-glutathione S-transferase, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and nitrotyrosine formation). Hepatic expression of iNOS, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, ICAM-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neutrophil chemoattractant (cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) protein levels were also markedly increased following trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation. Administration of the iNOS inhibitor 1400W significantly attenuated hypotension and expression of these mediators of hepatic injury induced by trauma-hemorrhage/resuscitation. However, administration of L-NAME could not attenuate hepatic dysfunction and tissue injury mediated by trauma-hemorrhage, although it improved mean blood pressure as did 1400W. These results indicate that increased expression of iNOS following trauma-hemorrhage plays an important role in the induction of hepatic damage under such conditions.

  14. Osthole attenuates hepatic injury in a rodent model of trauma-hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.

  15. Osthole Attenuates Hepatic Injury in a Rodent Model of Trauma-Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35–40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:23755293

  16. Increased E-selectin in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury mediates liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    YOSHIMOTO, KATSUHIRO; TAJIMA, HIDEHIRO; OHTA, TETSUO; OKAMOTO, KOICHI; SAKAI, SEISHO; KINOSHITA, JUN; FURUKAWA, HIROYUKI; MAKINO, ISAMU; HAYASHI, HIRONORI; NAKAMURA, KEISHI; OYAMA, KATSUNOBU; INOKUCHI, MASAFUMI; NAKAGAWARA, HISATOSHI; ITOH, HIROSHI; FUJITA, HIDETO; TAKAMURA, HIROYUKI; NINOMIYA, ITASU; KITAGAWA, HIROHISA; FUSHIDA, SACHIO; FUJIMURA, TAKASHI; WAKAYAMA, TOMOHIKO; ISEKI, SHOICHI; SHIMIZU, KOICHI

    2012-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported that selectins are produced during ischemia-reperfusion injury, and that selectin ligands play an important role in cell binding to the endothelium and in liver metastasis. Portal clamping during pancreaticoduodenectomy with vessel resection for pancreatic head cancer causes hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury, which might promote liver metastasis. We investigated the liver colonization of pancreatic cancer cells under hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and examined the involvement of E-selectin and its ligands. A human pancreatic cancer cell line (Capan-1) was injected into the spleen of mice after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R group). In addition, to investigate the effect of an anti-E-selectin antibody on liver colonization in the IR group, mice received an intraperitoneal injection of the anti-E-selectin antibody following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion and tumor inoculation (IR+Ab group). Four weeks later, mice were sacrificed and the number of tumor nodules on the liver was compared to mice without hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (control group). The incidence of liver metastasis in the I/R group was significantly higher (16 of 20, 80%) than that in the control group (6 of 20, 30%) (P<0.01). Moreover, mice in the I/R group had significantly more tumor nodules compared to those in the control group (median, 9.9 vs. 2.7 nodules) (P<0.01). In the I/R+Ab group, only 2 of 5 (40%) mice developed liver metastases. RT-PCR and southern blotting of the liver extracts showed that the expression of IL-1 and E-selectin mRNA after hepatic ischemia-reperfusion was significantly higher than the basal levels. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion increases liver metastases and E-selectin expression in pancreatic cancer. These results suggest that E-selectin produced due to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion is involved in liver metastasis. PMID:22766603

  17. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Hepatic Arterial Injury Related to Percutaneous Transhepatic Portal Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Shimohira, Masashi, E-mail: mshimohira@gmail.com; Hashizume, Takuya; Sasaki, Shigeru

    PurposeTo assess the usefulness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for the hepatic arterial injury related to percutaneous transhepatic portal intervention (PTPI).Materials and MethodsFifty-four patients, 32 males and 22 females with a median age of 68 years (range 43–82 years), underwent PTPI. The procedures consisted of 33 percutaneous transhepatic portal vein embolizations, 19 percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolizations, and 2 percutaneous transhepatic portal venous stent placements. Two patients with gastric varices underwent percutaneous transhepatic variceal embolization twice because of recurrence. Therefore, the total number of procedures was 56. Among them, hepatic arterial injury occurred in 6 PTPIs in 5 patients, and TAE was performed.more » We assessed technical success, complications related to TAE, and clinical outcome. Technical success was defined as the disappearance of findings due to hepatic arterial injury on digital subtraction angiography.ResultsAs hepatic arterial injuries, 4 extravasations and 2 arterioportal shunts developed. All TAEs were performed successfully. The technical success rate was 100 %. Complication of TAE occurred in 5 of 6 TAEs; 3 were focal liver infarction, not requiring further treatment, and 2 were biloma that required percutaneous drainage. Five TAEs in 4 patients were performed immediately after the PTPI, and these 4 patients were alive. However, one TAE was performed 10 h later, and the patient died due to multiple organ failure 2 months later although TAE was successful.ConclusionTAE is a useful treatment for hepatic arterial injury related to PTPI. However, it should be performed at an early stage.« less

  18. Prophylactic Treatment with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Attenuate Hepatic Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Sprague Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Manne, Nandini D P K; Arvapalli, Ravikumar; Graffeo, Vincent A; Bandarupalli, Venkata V K; Shokuhfar, Tolou; Patel, Sweetu; Rice, Kevin M; Ginjupalli, Gautam Kumar; Blough, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion is one the main causes for graft failure following transplantation. Although, the molecular events that lead to hepatic failure following ischemia reperfusion (IR) are diverse and complex, previous studies have shown that excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are responsible for hepatic IR injury. Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been previously shown to act as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of CeO2 nanoparticles on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: Control, CeO2 nanoparticle only, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) group and hepatic ischemia reperfusion (IR) plus CeO2 nanoparticle group (IR+ CeO2). Partial warm hepatic ischemia was induced in left lateral and median lobes for 1h, followed by 6h of reperfusion. Animals were sacrificed after 6h of reperfusion and blood and tissue samples were collected and processed for various biochemical experiments. Prophylactic treatment with CeO2 nanoparticles (0.5mg/kg i.v (IR+CeO2 group)) 1 hour prior to hepatic ischemia and subsequent reperfusion injury lead to a decrease in serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase and lactate dehydrogenase at 6 hours after reperfusion. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in hepatocyte necrosis along with reduction in several serum inflammatory markers such as macrophage derived chemokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, KC/GRO, myoglobin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. However, immunoblotting demonstrated no significant changes in the levels of apoptosis related protein markers such as bax, bcl2 and caspase 3 in IR and IR+ CeO2 groups at 6 hours suggesting necrosis as the main pathway for hepatocyte death. Taken together, these data suggest that CeO2 nanoparticles attenuate IR induced cell death and can be used as a prophylactic agent to prevent hepatic injury associated with graft

  19. Hepatic Histological Findings in Suspected Drug-Induced Liver Injury: Systematic Evaluation and Clinical Associations

    PubMed Central

    Kleiner, David E; Chalasani, Naga P; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Watkins, Paul B; Hayashi, Paul H; Davern, Timothy J; Navarro, Victor; Reddy, Rajender; Talwalkar, Jayant A; Stolz, Andrew; Gu, Jiezhun; Barnhart, Huiman; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is considered to be a diagnosis of exclusion. Liver biopsy may contribute to diagnostic accuracy, but the histological features of DILI and their relationship to biochemical parameters and outcomes are not well defined. We have classified the pathological pattern of liver injury and systematically evaluated histological changes in liver biopsies obtained from 249 patients with suspected DILI enrolled in the prospective, observational study conducted by the Drug Induced Liver Injury Network. Histological features were analyzed for their frequency within different clinical phenotypes of liver injury and to identify associations between clinical and laboratory findings and histological features. The most common histological patterns were acute (21%) and chronic hepatitis (14%), acute (9%) and chronic cholestasis (10%), and cholestatic hepatitis (29%). Liver histology from 128 patients presenting with hepatocellular injury had more severe inflammation, necrosis, and apoptosis and more frequently demonstrated lobular disarray, rosette formation, and hemorrhage than those with cholestasis. Conversely, histology of the 73 patients with cholestatic injury more often demonstrated bile plugs and duct paucity. Severe or fatal hepatic injury in 46 patients was associated with higher degrees of necrosis, fibrosis stage, microvesicular steatosis, and ductular reaction among other findings, whereas eosinophils and granulomas were found more often in those with milder injury. Conclusion: We describe an approach for evaluating liver histology in DILI and demonstrate numerous associations between pathological findings and clinical presentations that may serve as a foundation for future studies correlating DILI pathology with its causality and outcome. (Hepatology 2014;59:661–670) PMID:24037963

  20. Quercetin dose affects the fate of hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats: An experimental research.

    PubMed

    Uylaş, Mustafa Ufuk; Şahin, Adnan; Şahintürk, Varol; Alataş, İbrahim Özkan

    2018-05-01

    Quercetin found in fruits and vegetables has an antioxidative effect. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of quercetin according to different doses on hepatic and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Fifty mature male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10 for each). All the animal groups underwent laparotomy. Group 1 rats served as a sham-operated group. Groups 2-5 underwent 1 h hepatic ischemia and were followed by 2 h reperfusion. Group 3-5 animals received an additional intraperitoneal dose of 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg quercetin respectively before I/R operation. Blood samples were collected for determining serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Also, liver tissue samples were taken for measuring of liver MDA concentration and for histopathology assessment. The highest levels of biochemical parameters were observed in group 2. In quercetin-treated groups, serum AST, ALT, MDA levels, and tissue MDA concentration were decreased as inversely with increasing quercetin dose. Microscopic evaluation revealed that most conspicuous histological improvement was observed in 50 mg/kg quercetin co-treated rats. 25 and 100 mg/kg quercetin co-treatment could not protect completely against hepatic I/R injury. Quercetin can be effective in preventing of hepatic I/R injury when the correct dose was used. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Branched Chain Amino Acids Cause Liver Injury in Obese/Diabetic Mice by Promoting Adipocyte Lipolysis and Inhibiting Hepatic Autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuyang; Zhao, Shihao; Yan, Wenjun; Xia, Yunlong; Chen, Xiyao; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jinglong; Gao, Chao; Peng, Cheng; Yan, Feng; Zhao, Huishou; Lian, Kun; Lee, Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lau, Wayne Bond; Ma, Xinliang; Tao, Ling

    2016-11-01

    The Western meat-rich diet is both high in protein and fat. Although the hazardous effect of a high fat diet (HFD) upon liver structure and function is well recognized, whether the co-presence of high protein intake contributes to, or protects against, HF-induced hepatic injury remains unclear. Increased intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA, essential amino acids compromising 20% of total protein intake) reduces body weight. However, elevated circulating BCAA is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and injury. The mechanisms responsible for this quandary remain unknown; the role of BCAA in HF-induced liver injury is unclear. Utilizing HFD or HFD+BCAA models, we demonstrated BCAA supplementation attenuated HFD-induced weight gain, decreased fat mass, activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), inhibited hepatic lipogenic enzymes, and reduced hepatic triglyceride content. However, BCAA caused significant hepatic damage in HFD mice, evidenced by exacerbated hepatic oxidative stress, increased hepatic apoptosis, and elevated circulation hepatic enzymes. Compared to solely HFD-fed animals, plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD+BCAA group are significantly further increased, due largely to AMPKα2-mediated adipocyte lipolysis. Lipolysis inhibition normalized plasma FFA levels, and improved insulin sensitivity. Surprisingly, blocking lipolysis failed to abolish BCAA-induced liver injury. Mechanistically, hepatic mTOR activation by BCAA inhibited lipid-induced hepatic autophagy, increased hepatic apoptosis, blocked hepatic FFA/triglyceride conversion, and increased hepatocyte susceptibility to FFA-mediated lipotoxicity. These data demonstrated that BCAA reduces HFD-induced body weight, at the expense of abnormal lipolysis and hyperlipidemia, causing hepatic lipotoxicity. Furthermore, BCAA directly exacerbate hepatic lipotoxicity by reducing lipogenesis and inhibiting autophagy in the hepatocyte. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier

  2. Dietary choline and folate relationships with serum hepatic inflammatory injury markers in Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Pao; Chen, Chien-Hung; Kuo, Chang-Sheng; Kuo, Hsing-Tao; Huang, Kuang-Ta; Shen, Yu-Li; Chang, Chin-Hao; Huang, Rwei Fen S

    The relationships of dietary choline and folate intake with hepatic function have yet to be established in the Taiwanese population. We investigated the associations of choline and folate intake with hepatic inflammatory injury in Taiwanese adults. Blood samples and data on dietary choline components and folate intake from 548 Taiwanese adults without pathological liver disease were collected. Dietary intake was derived using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Serum liver injury markers of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and hepatitis viral infection were measured. Elevated serum hepatic injury markers (>40 U/L) were associated with low folate and free choline intake (p<0.05). Folate intake was the most significant dietary determinant of serum aspartate transaminase concentration (beta=-0.05, p=0.04), followed by free choline intake (beta=-0.249, p=0.055). Folate intake exceeding the median level (268 μg/d) was correlated with a reduced rate of hepatitis viral infection (p=0.032) and with normalized serum aspartate transaminase (odds ratio [OR]=0.998, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.996-1, p=0.042) and alanine transaminase (OR=0.998, 95% CI=0.007-1, p=0.019). Total choline intake exceeding the median level (233 mg/d) was associated with normalized serum aspartate transaminase (OR=0.518, 95% CI=0.360-0.745, p=0.018). The newly established relationships of dietary intake of total choline and folate with normalized hepatic inflammatory markers can guide the development of dietary choline and folate intake recommendations for Taiwanese adults.

  3. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Tak, Eunyoung; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jun, Dae Young; Lee, Jooyoung; Hwang, Shin; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol source in green tea, against hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in mice. Methods The partial hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury model was created by employing the hanging-weight method in C57BL/6 male mice. EGCG (50 mg/kg) was administered via an intraperitoneal injection 45 min before performing the reperfusion. A number of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and liver injury were measured after the ischaemia-reperfusion injury had been induced. Results The treatment groups were: sham-operated (Sham, n = 10), hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IR, n = 10), and EGCG with ischaemia-reperfusion injury (EGCG-treated IR, n = 10). Hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury increased the levels of biochemical and histological markers of liver injury, increased the levels of malondialdehyde, reduced the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, increased the levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation markers, decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, and increased the levels of Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Pretreatment with EGCG ameliorated all of these changes. Conclusion The antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of EGCG protected against hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

  4. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate protects against hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury by reducing oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Eunyoung; Park, Gil-Chun; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jun, Dae Young; Lee, Jooyoung; Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the protective effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a major polyphenol source in green tea, against hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury in mice. Methods The partial hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury model was created by employing the hanging-weight method in C57BL/6 male mice. EGCG (50 mg/kg) was administered via an intraperitoneal injection 45 min before performing the reperfusion. A number of markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and liver injury were measured after the ischaemia–reperfusion injury had been induced. Results The treatment groups were: sham-operated (Sham, n = 10), hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IR, n = 10), and EGCG with ischaemia–reperfusion injury (EGCG-treated IR, n = 10). Hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury increased the levels of biochemical and histological markers of liver injury, increased the levels of malondialdehyde, reduced the glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, increased the levels of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation markers, decreased B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, and increased the levels of Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved caspase-9. Pretreatment with EGCG ameliorated all of these changes. Conclusion The antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of EGCG protected against hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury in mice. PMID:27807255

  5. Extrahepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury reduces hepatic oxidative drug metabolism as determined by serial antipyrine clearance.

    PubMed

    Gurley, B J; Barone, G W; Yamashita, K; Polston, S; Estes, M; Harden, A

    1997-01-01

    All transplanted solid organs experience some degree of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. This I-R injury can contribute to graft dysfunction which stems in part from the acute phase response and a resultant host of cytokines. Recent evidence suggests that organs remote to the site of I-R injury can be affected by circulating cytokines originating from these I-R injuries. Since many of these acute phase cytokines inhibit hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes, we chose to investigate whether extrahepatic I-R injuries could influence hepatic oxidative drug metabolism. Fifteen dogs were divided into three surgical groups: (I) sham I-R; (II) bilateral normothermic renal I-R; and (III) normothermic intestinal I-R. Antipyrine (AP) was selected as a model substrate and administered intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/kg. AP serum concentrations were determined by HPLC and cytokine activity (IL-1, IL-6, and TNFalpha) was measured via bioassay. Serial AP clearance and serum cytokine concentrations were determined 3 days prior to and at 4 hr, 24 hr, 3 days and 7 days after surgery. Hematology and blood chemistries were monitored throughout the study period. AP clearance was significantly reduced in groups II and III at 4 and 24 hrs post-l-R injury, while AP binding and apparent volume of distribution were unaffected. Peak levels of TNF and IL-6 activity occurred at 1 and 4 hours, respectively. IL-I activity was not detected in any group. AP clearance correlated strongly to circulating levels of IL-6 (r = -0.789, p = 0.0002). Our findings indicate that extrahepatic I-R injury can affect hepatic oxidative drug metabolism and this effect is mediated in part by circulating cytokines.

  6. Preventive activity of banana peel polyphenols on CCl4-induced experimental hepatic injury in Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Xia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Suo, Huayi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of banana peel polyphenols (BPPs) against hepatic injury. Mice were divide into normal, control, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg banana peel polyphenol and silymarin groups. All the mice except normal mice were induced with hepatic damage using CCl 4 . The serum and tissue levels of mice were determined by a kit and the tissues were further examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis. BPPs reduced the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in a CCl 4 -induced mouse model of hepatic injury. Furthermore, BPPs reduced the levels of malondialdehyde and triglyceride, while increasing glutathione levels in the serum and liver tissues of mice. In addition, the effects of 200 mg/kg treatment were more evident, and these effects were comparable to those of the drug silymarin. Serum levels of the cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon-γ, were reduced in the mice treated with BPPs compared with injury control group mice, and these levels were comparable to those of the normal and silymarin-treated groups. Histopathological examination indicated that BPPs were able to reduce the extent of CCl 4 -induced liver tissue injury and protect the liver cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of the inflammation-associated factors cyclooxygenase-2, nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α and IL-1β were reduced in mice treated with BPPs compared with the control group mice. Mice that received 200 mg/kg BPP exhibited reduced expression levels of these factors compared with mice that received 100 mg/kg BPP. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that BPPs exert a good preventive effect against hepatic injury.

  7. Serum from CCl4-induced acute rat injury model induces differentiation of ADSCs towards hepatic cells and reduces liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Maria Tayyab; Ali, Gibran; Awan, Sana Javaid; Shehzad, Umara; Mehmood, Azra; Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2017-10-01

    Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl 4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl 4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19). These differentiated ADSCs were transplanted intra-hepatically in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis model. After one month of transplantation, fibrosis and liver functions (alkaline phosphatase, ALAT and bilirubin) showed marked improvement in acute injury group. Elevated expression of hepatic (AFP, albumin, CK 18 and HNF4a) and pro survival markers (PCNA and VEGF) and improvement in liver architecture as deduced from results of alpha smooth muscle actin, Sirius red and Masson's trichome staining was observed.

  8. Ischemic Preconditioning Increases the Tolerance of Fatty Liver to Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Serafín, Anna; Roselló-Catafau, Joan; Prats, Neus; Xaus, Carme; Gelpí, Emilio; Peralta, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor in ischemia-reperfusion. The present study evaluates whether preconditioning, demonstrated to be effective in normal livers, could also confer protection in the presence of steatosis and investigates the potential underlying protective mechanisms. Fatty rats had increased hepatic injury and decreased survival after 60 minutes of ischemia compared with lean rats. Fatty livers showed a degree of neutrophil accumulation and microcirculatory alterations similar to that of normal livers. However, in presence of steatosis, an increased lipid peroxidation that could be reduced with glutathione-ester pretreatment was observed after hepatic reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning reduced hepatic injury and increased animal survival. Both in normal and fatty livers, this endogenous protective mechanism was found to control lipid peroxidation, hepatic microcirculation failure, and neutrophil accumulation, reducing the subsequent hepatic injury. These beneficial effects could be mediated by nitric oxide, because the inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis and nitric oxide donor pretreatment abolished and simulated, respectively, the benefits of preconditioning. Thus, ischemic preconditioning could be an effective surgical strategy to reduce the hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal and fatty livers under normothermic conditions, including hepatic resections, and liver transplantation. PMID:12163383

  9. Simulating Chemical-Induced Injury Using Virtual Hepatic Tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical-induced liver injury involves a dynamic sequence of events that span multiple levels of biological organization. Current methods for testing the toxicity of a single chemical can cost millions of dollars, take up to two years and sacrifice thousands of animals. It is dif...

  10. Hepatic resection for post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Truant, Stéphanie; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Lebuffe, Gilles; Sergent, Géraldine; Pruvot, François-René

    2010-06-01

    This study seeks to identify factors for hepatectomy in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injury (BDI) and outcome via a systematic review of the literature. Relevant literature was found by searching the PubMed database and the bibliographies of extracted articles. To avoid bias selection, factors for hepatectomy were analysed in series reporting both patients undergoing hepatectomy and patients undergoing biliary repair without hepatectomy (bimodal treatment). Relevant variables were the presence or absence of additional hepatic artery and/or portal vein injury, the level of BDI, and a previous biliary repair. Among 460 potentially relevant publications, only 31 met the eligibility criteria. A total of 99 hepatectomies were reported among 1756 (5.6%) patients referred for post-cholecystectomy BDI. In eight series reporting bimodal treatment, including 232 patients, logistic regression multivariate analysis showed that hepatic arterial and Strasberg E4 and E5 injuries were independent factors associated with hepatectomy. Patients with combined arterial and Strasberg E4 or E5 injury were 43.3 times more likely to undergo hepatectomy (95% confidence interval 8.0-234.2) than patients without complex injury. Despite high postoperative morbidity, mortality rates were comparable with those of hepaticojejunostomy, except in urgent hepatectomies (within 2 weeks; four of nine patients died). Longterm outcome was satisfactory in 12 of 18 patients in the largest series. Hepatectomies were performed mainly in patients showing complex concurrent Strasberg E4 or E5 and hepatic arterial injury and provided satisfactory longterm outcomes despite high postoperative morbidity.

  11. Hepatic resection for post-cholecystectomy bile duct injuries: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    Truant, Stéphanie; Boleslawski, Emmanuel; Lebuffe, Gilles; Sergent, Géraldine; Pruvot, François-René

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study seeks to identify factors for hepatectomy in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile duct injury (BDI) and outcome via a systematic review of the literature. Methods: Relevant literature was found by searching the PubMed database and the bibliographies of extracted articles. To avoid bias selection, factors for hepatectomy were analysed in series reporting both patients undergoing hepatectomy and patients undergoing biliary repair without hepatectomy (bimodal treatment). Relevant variables were the presence or absence of additional hepatic artery and/or portal vein injury, the level of BDI, and a previous biliary repair. Results: Among 460 potentially relevant publications, only 31 met the eligibility criteria. A total of 99 hepatectomies were reported among 1756 (5.6%) patients referred for post-cholecystectomy BDI. In eight series reporting bimodal treatment, including 232 patients, logistic regression multivariate analysis showed that hepatic arterial and Strasberg E4 and E5 injuries were independent factors associated with hepatectomy. Patients with combined arterial and Strasberg E4 or E5 injury were 43.3 times more likely to undergo hepatectomy (95% confidence interval 8.0–234.2) than patients without complex injury. Despite high postoperative morbidity, mortality rates were comparable with those of hepaticojejunostomy, except in urgent hepatectomies (within 2 weeks; four of nine patients died). Longterm outcome was satisfactory in 12 of 18 patients in the largest series. Conclusions: Hepatectomies were performed mainly in patients showing complex concurrent Strasberg E4 or E5 and hepatic arterial injury and provided satisfactory longterm outcomes despite high postoperative morbidity. PMID:20590909

  12. Pretreatment of parecoxib attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Yi; Xu, Kang-Qing; Huang, Wen-Qi

    2015-11-17

    Previous studies showed that cyclooxygenase(COX) was involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. Parecoxib, a selective inhibitor for COX -2, has been shown to have protective properties in reducing I/R injury in the heart, kidney and brain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of parecoxib on hepatic I/R and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Fifty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham-operation (Sham) group, the hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, and the parecoxib pretreated I/R (I/R + Pare) group. Partial warm ischemia was produced in the left and middle hepatic lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats for 60 min, followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Rats in the I/R + Pare group received parecoxib (10 mg/kg) intraperitoneally twice a day for three consecutive days prior to ischemia. Blood and tissue samples from the groups were collected 6 h after reperfusion, and a survival study was performed. Pretreatment with parecoxib prior to I/R insult significantly reduced I/R-induced elevations of aminotransferases, and significantly improved the histological status of the liver. Parecoxib significantly suppressed inflammatory cascades, as demonstrated by attenuations in TNF-α and IL-6. Parecoxib significantly inhibited iNOS and nitrotyrosine expression after I/R and significantly attenuated I/R-induced apoptosis. The 7-day survival rate was increased by pre-administration of parecoxib. Administration of parecoxib prior to hepatic I/R attenuates hepatic injury through inhibition of inflammatory response and nitrosative stress.

  13. BIOMARKERS DISTINGUISH APOPTOTIC AND NECROTIC CELL DEATH DURING HEPATIC ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION INJURY IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Antoine, Daniel J.; Weemhoff, James L.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Farhood, Anwar; Park, B. Kevin; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IRP) injury is a significant clinical problem during tumor resection surgery (Pringle maneuver), and liver transplantation. However, the relative contribution of necrotic and apoptotic cell death to the overall liver injury is still controversial. In order to address this important issue in a standard murine model of hepatic IRP injury, plasma biomarkers of necrotic cell death such as micro-RNA-122, full-length cytokeratin-18 (FK18) and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein, and apoptosis including plasma caspase-3 activity and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 (CK18), coupled with markers of inflammation (hyper-acetylated HMGB1) were compared with histological features in H&E- and TUNEL-stained liver sections. After 45 min of hepatic ischemia and 1–24h of reperfusion, all necrosis markers increased dramatically in plasma by 40-to->10,000-fold over baseline with a time course similar to ALT. These data correlated well with histological characteristics of necrosis. Within the area of necrosis, most cells were TUNEL-positive; initially (≤ 3h of RP) the staining was restricted to nuclei but later spread to the cytosol characteristic for karyorrhexis during necrotic cell death. In contrast, the lack of morphological evidence of apoptotic cell death and relevant caspase-3 activity in the postischemic liver correlated well with the absence of caspase-3 activity and CK18 (except a minor increase at 3h RP) in plasma. The quantitative comparison of FK18 (necrosis) and CK18 (apoptosis) release indicated the dominant cell death by necrosis during IRP and only a temporary and very minor degree of apoptosis. These data suggest that the focus of future research should be on the elucidation of necrotic signaling mechanisms to identify relevant targets, which may be used to attenuate hepatic IRP injury. PMID:25046819

  14. Saccharomyces boulardii prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Daichao; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Dai, Changsong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) is the predominant cause of serovar-associated food-borne outbreaks in many countries and causes significant clinical symptoms of liver injury, enteritis, and diarrheal diseases. Saccharomyces boulardii is used in clinical application for prophylaxis and the treatment of a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infection. We used a mouse model of Salmonella Enteritidis infection, which included pretreatment with S. boulardii, to reveal the protection mechanisms of S. boulardii against Salmonella Enteritidis infection, including the translocation of Salmonella Enteritidis to the liver 10 days after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge, and the colonisation of Salmonella Enteritidis and the formation of hepatic tissue lesions in mice after Salmonella Enteritidis challenge on the 10th day. Compared with Salmonella Enteritidis infection in mice, S. boulardii decreased Salmonella Enteritidis translocation to the liver by 96%, and 99% of Salmonella Enteritidis colonised the cecum on the 10th day. Saccharomyces boulardii also abated hepatic tissue injury caused by the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes by decreasing the translocation of Salmonella to the liver. These findings demonstrated that S. boulardii is an effective agent in the prevention of the hepatic injury induced by Salmonella Enteritidis infection in a mouse model.

  15. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4+ T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2017-06-01

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4 + T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4 + T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. Forced expression of Hnf4a induces hepatic gene activation through directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yahoo, Neda; Pournasr, Behshad; Rostamzadeh, Jalal; Fathi, Fardin

    2016-08-05

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have a diverse differentiation potential. These unique features make ES cells as an attractive source for developmental biology studies. Having the mature hepatocyte in the lab with functional activities is valuable in drug discovery studies. Overexpression of hepatocyte lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) becomes a promising approach in pluripotent cell differentiation toward liver cells. Many studies generate transgenic ES cell lines to examine the effects of specific TFs overexpression in cell differentiation. In the present report, we have addressed whether a suspension or adherent model of differentiation is an appropriate way to study the role of Hnf4a overexpression. We generated ES cells that carried a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Hnf4a using lentiviral vectors. The transduced cells were subjected to induced Hnf4a overexpression through both spontaneous and directed differentiation methods. Gene expression analysis showed substantially increased expression of hepatic gene markers, particularly Ttr and endogenous Hnf4a, in transduced cells differentiated by the directed approach. These results demonstrated that forced expression of TFs during directed differentiation would be an appropriate way to study relevant gene activation and the effects of overexpression in the context of hepatic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring liver macrophages using nanobodies targeting Vsig4: concanavalin A induced acute hepatitis as paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Devoogdt, Nick; Sparkes, Amanda; Morias, Yannick; Abels, Chloé; Stijlemans, Benoit; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; De Baetselier, Patrick; Schoonooghe, Steve; Beschin, Alain; Raes, Geert

    2015-02-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are liver resident macrophages which are important for tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in immunogenic, tolerogenic and pathogenic immune reactions depending on the insult. These cells and the biomarkers they express thus represent interesting in vivo sensors for monitoring liver inflammation. In the current study, we explored whether KCs can be monitored non-invasively using single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc labeled nanobodies (Nbs) targeting selected biomarkers. Nbs targeting V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 (Vsig4) or macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) accumulated in the liver of untreated mice. The liver targeting of anti-Vsig4 Nbs, but not anti-MMR Nbs, was blunted upon depletion of macrophages, highlighting specificity of anti-Vsig4 Nbs for liver macrophage imaging. Ex vivo flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that anti-Vsig4 Nbs specifically targeted KCs but no other cell types in the liver. Upon induction of acute hepatitis using concanavalin A (ConA), down-regulation of the in vivo imaging signal obtained using anti-Vsig4 Nbs reflected reduction in KC numbers and transient modulation of Vsig4 expression on KCs. Overall, these results indicate that Nbs targeting Vsig4 as molecular imaging biomarker enable non-invasive monitoring of KCs during hepatic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydrogen Gas Ameliorates Hepatic Reperfusion Injury After Prolonged Cold Preservation in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shingo; Wakayama, Kenji; Fukai, Moto; Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Takahisa; Fukumori, Daisuke; Shibata, Maki; Yamashita, Kenichiro; Kimura, Taichi; Todo, Satoru; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogen gas reduces ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) in the liver and other organs. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We investigated whether hydrogen gas ameliorated hepatic I/R injury after cold preservation. Rat liver was subjected to 48-h cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution. The graft was reperfused with oxygenated buffer with or without hydrogen at 37° for 90 min on an isolated perfusion apparatus, comprising the H 2 (+) and H 2 (-) groups, respectively. In the control group (CT), grafts were reperfused immediately without preservation. Graft function, injury, and circulatory status were assessed throughout the perfusion. Tissue samples at the end of perfusion were collected to determine histopathology, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. In the H 2 (-) group, IRI was indicated by a higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) leakage, portal resistance, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine-positive cell rate, apoptotic index, and endothelial endothelin-1 expression, together with reduced bile production, oxygen consumption, and GSH/GSSG ratio (vs. CT). In the H 2 (+) group, these harmful changes were significantly suppressed [vs. H 2 (-)]. Hydrogen gas reduced hepatic reperfusion injury after prolonged cold preservation via the maintenance of portal flow, by protecting mitochondrial function during the early phase of reperfusion, and via the suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades thereafter. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury is diminished by atorvastatin in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cámara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco Javier; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda; Torres-González, Liliana; Fernández-Garza, Nancy Esthela

    2014-04-01

    Temporal occlusion of the hepatoduodenal ligament (HDL) is often used during liver surgeries in order to reduce blood loss, resulting in ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin (ATOR) on hepatic I/R injury and on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), endothelin-1 (ET-1), antithrombin III (ATIII) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Liver ischemia was induced in Wistar rats by clamping the HDL for 60 min, followed by either 60 or 180 min reperfusion. Rats received either vehicle or 10 mg/kg ATOR before hepatic I/R. Control group received sham surgery. Livers were examined for histological damage and serum AST, ALT, TNF-α, ET-1, ATIII and ICAM-1 concentrations were measured. After I/R, AST and ALT were significantly elevated, ATIII levels were significantly depleted, both TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels increased and ET-1 was significantly elevated (at 180 min). ATOR pretreatment attenuated these alterations and diminished histological injury scores. Our results show that ATOR protects the liver from I/R injury. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatic parenchymal atrophy induction for intractable segmental bile duct injury after liver resection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin; Park, Gil-Chun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong-Il; Choi, Young-Il; Song, Gi-Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2012-05-01

    Liver resection can result in various types of bile duct injuries but their treatment is usually difficult and often leads to intractable clinical course. We present an unusual case of hepatic segment III duct (B3) injury, which occurred after left medial sectionectomy for large hepatocellular carcinoma and was incidentally detected 1 week later due to bile leak. Since the pattern of this B3 injury was not adequate for operative biliary reconstruction, atrophy induction of the involved hepatic parenchyma was attempted. This treatment consisted of embolization of the segment III portal branch to inhibit bile production, induction of heavy adhesion at the bile leak site and clamping of the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube to accelerate segment III atrophy. This entire procedure, from liver resection to PTBD tube removal took 4 months. This patient has shown no other complication or tumor recurrence for 4 years to date. These findings suggest that percutaneous segmental portal vein embolization, followed by intentional clamping of external biliary drainage, can effectively control intractable bile leak from segmental bile duct injury.

  1. Huperzine A attenuates hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Wang, Yang

    2014-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury may occur during liver transplantation and remains a serious concern in clinical practice. Huperzine A (HupA), an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Huperzia serrata, has been demonstrated to possess anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic properties. In the present study, a rat model of HI/R was established by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 6 h under anesthesia. HupA was injected into the tail vein 5 min prior to the induction of HI/R at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg. The histopathological assessment of the liver was performed using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were assayed in the serum samples. The tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. Furthermore, the protein expression of caspase‑3, Bcl‑2 and Bax in hepatic tissues was detected via western blot analysis. Treatment of Wistar rats with HupA at doses of 167 and 500 µg/kg markedly attenuated HI/R injury as observed histologically. In addition, the significant reductions of serum ALT and AST were observed in HupA‑treated ischemic rats. Furthermore, HupA treatment enhanced the activity of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT and GSH, but decreased the MDA tissue content. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of Bcl‑2 expression but decreased Bax and caspase‑3 tissue expression at the protein level in the HupA‑treated group. The present data suggest that HupA attenuates the HI/R injury of rats through its anti‑oxidative and anti‑apoptotic signaling pathways.

  2. [The protective effect of XD in ConA-induced liver injury].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Liu, Tao; Dang, Tong-Mei; Cao, Yi-Ming

    2010-12-01

    To explore the protective effect and its mechanism of Modified Xiaochaihu decoction(MXD) in the liver injury of mice. METHORDS: Using Reitman methord to examine serum ALT and ATS; Using sandwich enzyme immunoassay ABC-ELISA to examine serum TNF-α and IFN-γ. Serum ALT and ATS of MXD large dose group and Xiaochaihu decoction (XD )group were lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). There were not significant difference (P>0.05) between serum ALT and ATS of MXD small dose group and that of animal models group; MXD large dose group, XD group and Biphenyldimethylesterate (DDB) group are similar, no difference (P>0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of MXD large dose group and XD group were significant lower than that of animal models group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). Serum TNF-α and IFN-γ of XD group ware higher than that of MXD large dose group, there was significant difference among groups (P<0.05). MXD large dose group, XD group and DDB group were similar, no difference. Xiaocaihu decoction possesses the effect of pro2 tection of hepatic impairment and the protective mechanism might be associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and immunomodulation.

  3. The Hepatic Response to Thermal Injury: Is the Liver Important for Postburn Outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Thermal injury produces a profound hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic stress response characterized by increased endogenous glucose production via gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, lipolysis, and proteolysis. The liver is the central body organ involved in these metabolic responses. It is suggested that the liver, with its metabolic, inflammatory, immune, and acute phase functions, plays a pivotal role in patient survival and recovery by modulating multiple pathways following thermal injury. Studies have evaluated the role and function of the liver during the postburn response and showed that liver integrity and function are essential for survival, and that hepatic acute phase proteins are strong predictors for postburn survival. This review discusses these studies and delineates the pivotal role of the liver in patients following severe thermal injury. PMID:19603107

  4. Effect of selective versus non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors on ischemia-reperfusion-induced hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gaber, Seham A; Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Mohammed, Rehab K; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2015-08-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury represents an important pathological process of liver injury during major hepatic surgery. The role of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced liver injury is not clear. This study investigated the effect of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, versus non-selective, indomethacin, on hepatic IR injury in rats. Hepatic IR was induced in adult male rats. The animals were divided into 4 groups: normal control (sham group), IR non-treated group; IR-indomethacin-treated group; and IR-celecoxib-treated group. Liver injury was evaluated by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and a histopathological examination of liver tissues. Hepatic tissue content of oxidative stress parameters glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the inflammatory marker, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, (TNF-α) were measured. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue was performed. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, significantly attenuated hepatic IR injury as evidenced by reduction in serum ALT as well as by improvement in the histopathological scoring. Such effect was associated with attenuation in oxidative stress and TNF-α, along with modulation of immunohistochemical expression of eNOS, iNOS and caspase-3 in the hepatic tissue. The present study concluded that selective COX-2 inhibition (but not non-selective), is hepatoprotective against liver IR injury; indicating a differential role of COX-1 versus COX-2. Modulation of iNOS, eNOS and caspase-3 might participate in the protective effect of selective COX-2-inhibitors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hepatic pseudoaneurysm after traumatic liver injury; is CT follow-up warranted?

    PubMed

    Østerballe, Lene; Helgstrand, Frederik; Axelsen, Thomas; Hillingsø, Jens; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic pseudoaneurysm (HPA) is a rare complication after liver trauma, yet it is potentially fatal, as it can lead to sudden severe haemorrhage. The risk of developing posttraumatic HPA is one of the arguments for performing follow-up CT of patients with liver injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of HPA post liver trauma. A retrospective study from 2000-2010 of conservatively treated patients with blunt liver trauma was performed to investigate the incidence and nature of HPA. After the initial CT scan patients were admitted to the department and if not clinically indicated prior a follow-up CT was performed on day 4-5. A total of 259 non-operatively managed patients with liver injury were reviewed. 188 had a follow-up CT or US and in 7 patients a HPA was diagnosed. All aneurysms were treated with angiographic embolization and there were no treatment failures. There was no correlation between the severity of the liver injury and development of HPA. 5 out of 7 patients were asymptomatic and would have been discharged without treatment if the protocol did not include a default follow-up CT. In conclusion, this study shows that HPA is not correlated to the severity of liver injury and it develops in 4% of patients after traumatic liver injury. In order to avoid potentially life-threatening haemorrhage from a post trauma hepatic pseudoaneurysm, it seems appropriate to do follow-up CT as part of the conservative management of blunt and penetrating liver injuries.

  6. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.ed; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanolmore » via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.« less

  7. Urinary proteomic profiling reveals diclofenac-induced renal injury and hepatic regeneration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Swelm, Rachel P.L. van; Laarakkers, Coby M.M.; Pertijs, Jeanne C.L.M.

    Diclofenac (DF) is a widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of rheumatic disorders, but is often associated with liver injury. We applied urinary proteomic profiling using MALDI-TOF MS to identify biomarkers for DF-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Female CH3/HeOUJIco mice were treated with 75 mg/kg bw DF by oral gavage and 24 h urine was collected. Proteins identified in urine of DF-treated mice included epidermal growth factor, transthyretin, kallikrein, clusterin, fatty acid binding protein 1 and urokinase, which are related to liver regeneration but also to kidney injury. Both organs showed enhanced levels of oxidative stress (TBARS, p injury was confirmed by histology and increased Kim1 and Il-6 mRNA expression levels (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Liver histology and plasma ALT levels in DF-treated mice were not different from control, but mRNA expression of Stat3 (p < 0.001) and protein expression of PCNA (p < 0.05) were increased, indicating liver regeneration. In conclusion, urinary proteome analysis revealed that DF treatment in mice induced kidney and liver injury. Within 24 h, however, the liver was able to recover by activating tissue regeneration processes. Hence, the proteins found in urine of DF-treated mice represent kidney damage rather than hepatic injury. - Highlights: • The urinary proteome shows biological processes involved in adverse drug reactions. • Urine proteins of DF-treated mice relate to kidney injury rather than liver injury. • Liver regeneration, not liver injury, is apparent 24h after oral DF administration. • Pretreatment with LPS does not enhance DF-induced liver injury in mice.« less

  8. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Linlawan, Sittikorn; Thanapirom, Kessarin; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Siriviriyakul, Prasong

    2014-07-08

    An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate that Aloe vera attenuate APAP

  9. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate

  10. Critical role of acidic sphingomyelinase in murine hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Llacuna, Laura; Marí, Montserrat; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernandez-Checa, José C; Morales, Albert

    2006-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) damage are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of ceramide in a murine model of warm hepatic I/R injury. This sphingolipid induces cell death and participates in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling. Hepatic ceramide levels transiently increased after the reperfusion phase of the ischemic liver in mice, because of an early activation of acidic sphingomyelinase (ASMase) followed by acid ceramidase stimulation. In vivo administration of an ASMase inhibitor, imipramine, or ASMase knockdown by siRNA decreased ceramide generation during I/R, and attenuated serum ALT levels, hepatocellular necrosis, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation. ASMase-induced ceramide generation activated JNK resulting in BimL phosphorylation and translocation to mitochondria, as the inhibition of ASMase by imipramine prevented these events. In contrast, blockade of ceramide catabolism by N-oleyolethanolamine (NOE), a ceramidase inhibitor, enhanced ceramide levels and potentiated I/R injury compared with vehicle-treated mice. Pentoxifylline treatment prevented TNF upregulation and ASMase activation. Furthermore, 9 of 11 mice treated with imipramine survived 7 days after total liver ischemia, compared with 4 of 12 vehicle-treated mice, whereas 8 of 8 NOE-treated mice died within 2 days of total liver ischemia. In conclusion, ceramide generated from ASMase plays a key role in I/R-induced liver damage, and its modulation may be of therapeutic relevance.

  11. A rare case of hepatic duct injury from blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Hasaniya, Nahidh W; Premaratne, Shyamal; Premaratne, Ishani D; McNamara, J Judson

    2013-01-01

    A 25 year-old male was brought to the emergency room following an apparent suicide attempt by jumping from the fourth floor. Patient had a large abdominal laceration in the right upper quadrant (RUQ). CT scan showed a sub-scapular hematoma of the liver. Due to the repeated episodes of hypotension, a laporotomy was performed and the left hepatic artery was ligated while the ductal injury was managed with a Roux-en-Y left hepatic jejunostomy and stent. Bile leakage was resolved post-operatively by day 5 and the patient was discharged home on day 13 after clearance from psychiatry. While non-iatrogenic extrahepatic biliary trauma is rare, a high degree of suspicion is essential, especially in cases like the one discussed in this report. Diagnosis can be difficult in patients undergoing observation.

  12. Hemorrhage-induced hepatic injury and hypoperfusion can be prevented by direct peritoneal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Ryan T; Zakaria, El Rasheid; Matheson, Paul J; Cobb, Mahoney E; Parker, John R; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-04-01

    Crystalloid fluid resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock (HS) that restores/maintains central hemodynamics often culminates in multi-system organ failure and death due to persistent/progressive splanchnic hypoperfusion and end-organ damage. Adjunctive direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) using peritoneal dialysis solution reverses HS-induced splanchnic hypoperfusion and improves survival. We examined HS-mediated hepatic perfusion (galactose clearance), tissue injury (histopathology), and dysfunction (liver enzymes). Anesthetized rats were randomly assigned (n = 8/group): (1) sham (no HS); (2) HS (40% mean arterial pressure for 60 min) plus conventional i.v. fluid resuscitation (CR; shed blood + 2 volumes saline); (3) HS + CR + 30 mL intraperitoneal (IP) DPR; or (4) HS + CR + 30 mL IP saline. Hemodynamics and hepatic blood flow were measured for 2 h after CR completion. In duplicate animals, liver and splanchnic tissues were harvested for histopathology (blinded, graded), hepatocellular function (liver enzymes), and tissue edema (wet-dry ratio). Group 2 decreased liver blood flow, caused liver injuries (focal to submassive necrosis, zones 2 and 3) and tissue edema, and elevated liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 149 +/- 28 microg/mL and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 234 +/- 24 microg/mL; p < 0.05) compared to group 1 (73 +/- 9 and 119 +/- 10 microg/mL, respectively). Minimal/no injuries were observed in group 3; enzymes were normalized (ALT 89 +/- 9 microg/mL and AST 150 +/- 17 microg/mL), and tissue edema was similar to sham. CR from HS restored and maintained central hemodynamics but did not restore or maintain liver perfusion and was associated with significant hepatocellular injury and dysfunction. DPR added to conventional resuscitation (blood and crystalloid) restored and maintained liver perfusion, prevented hepatocellular injury and edema, and preserved liver function.

  13. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Shaker, Mohamed E; Zalata, Khaled R; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Shiha, Gamal E; Ibrahim, Tarek M

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl(4) twice weekly for 8weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) during the last 4weeks of CCl(4)-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stress parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10mg/kg), nilotinib (20mg/kg) and silymarin (100mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl(4)-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20mg/kg) and imatinib (20mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The protective effect of huperzine A against hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Yang, J; Jiang, Q

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, hepatic ischemia reperfusion (HI/R) injury is regarded as a serious concern in clinical practices. Huperzine A (HupA) is an alkaloid isolated from the Chinese folk medicine huperzia serrate, which has possessed diverse pharmacological actions. A mouse model of HI/R was caused by clamping the hepatic artery, the hepatoportal vein, and the bile duct with a vascular clamp for 30 minutes followed by reperfusion for 6 hours under anesthesia. The sham group experienced the identical procedure without hepatic ischemia. The HupA group received an injection into the tail vein 5 minutes prior to HI/R at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg. The vehicle group was injected with physiological saline instead of HupA. The liver function was assessed by determinations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Tissue levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondiadehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) were also measured spectrophotometrically. In addition, the activities of hepatic inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 were also measured. Furthermore, the apoptotic damage was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity in hepatic tissues. Treatment with HupA in mice at the doses of 167 and 500 μg/kg remarkably reduced serum ALT and AST activities in HupA-treated ischemic mice. Furthermore, HupA treatment could enhance the activities of hepatic tissue SOD, CAT, and GSH but decrease MDA tissue content. The activities of inflammatory cytokines including NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were all decreased in ischemic mice treated with HupA. Colorimetric test results illustrated that a marked reduction of caspase-3 activity was found in the HupA-treated group compared with the vehicle group. Our present data suggest that HupA has a protective role against HI/R injury of mice and antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic

  15. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Mariam; Shahin, Allen; Mensah-Brown, Eric P K; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2013-01-12

    A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice treated with ConA. Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to. Subsequent declines in liver bioenergetics

  16. [Protective effect of Tanreqing injection on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in rats].

    PubMed

    Lei, Yang; Zhou, Ai-Min; Guo, Tao; Tan, Ye; Tao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2013-04-01

    To observe the protective effect of Tanreqing injection(TRQ) on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatic injury in rats. Rats were randomly divided into the normal group and the model group, and injected subcutaneously with 100% CCl4 5 mL x kg(-1) to establish the single CCl4 infection model, in order to observe the changes in rat liver injury after 3 h and 6 h. Subsequently, the multiple CCl4 infection liver injury model was reproduced by subcutaneously injecting 100% CCl4 (5 mL x kg(-1)), 50% CCl4 olive oil solution (2 mL x kg(-1)) and then 20% CCl4 olive oil solution (2 mL x kg(-1)). At 6 h after the first CCl4 injection, the rats were divided into six groups: the model group, the control group, the diammonium glycyrrhizinate-treated group, and TRQ high, middle and low dose groups. They were injected through caudal veins, while a normal control group was set up. Their weight and liver-body ratio were observed. Hepatic inflammation was observed with HE staining. Assay kits were adopted to detect ALT, AST, T. Bil, D. Bil, CHE, TBA, gamma-GT and Alb. According to the single injection model, serum AST and T. Bil of model rats were obviously increased at 6 h after single subcutaneous injection of CCl4, with disordered lobular structure in liver tissues, notable swollen liver cells and remarkable liver injury. According to the results of the multiple injection pharmacological experiment, compared with the normal group, the model group had higher serum ALT, AST, and gamma-GT activities (P < 0. 05), TBA and T. Bil contents (P < 0.05) and lower CHE activity (P < 0.05). HE staining showed disorganized lobular structure in liver tissues and notable ballooning degeneration in liver cells. Compared with the model group, TRQ high and middle dose groups and the diammonium glycyrrhizinate-treated group showed significant charges in serum liver function and inflammation in liver cells. Specifically, TRQ high and middle dose groups were superior to the diammonium

  17. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion-injured rats.

  18. Effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandis, Hayati; Karapolat, Sami; Yildirim, Umran; Saritas, Ayhan; Gezer, Suat; Memisogullari, Ramazan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of Urtica dioica on hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion injury. METHODS: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham group (group 1), control group (group 2), and Urtica dioica group (group 3). All the rats were exposed to hepatic ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. In group 2, a total of 2 ml/kg 0.9% saline solution was given intraperitoneally. In group 3, a total of 2 ml/kg Urtica dioica was given intraperitoneally. At the end of the procedure, liver tissue and blood samples were taken from all rats. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, ceruloplasmin, catalase, paraoxonase, arylesterase, and lipid hydroperoxide levels were measured. Liver tissue histopathologies were also evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1, and significantly lower in group 3 than in group 2. Also, group 2 had higher serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels but lower catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels than group 1. In group 3, serum lipid hydroperoxides and ceruloplasmin levels were significantly lower, and catalase, paraoxonase, and arylesterase levels were higher than those in group 2. Histopathological examination showed that liver tissue damage was significantly decreased in group 3 compared with group 2. CONCLUSIONS: Urtica dioica has a protective effect on the liver in hepatic ischemia‐reperfusion‐injured rats. PMID:21340227

  19. Tangeretin Alleviates Cisplatin-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury in Rats: Targeting MAPKs and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Omar, Hany A; Mohamed, Wafaa R; Arab, Hany H; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A

    2016-01-01

    Despite its broad applications, cisplatin affords considerable nephro- and hepatotoxicity through triggering inflammatory and oxidative stress cascades. The aim of the current investigation was to study the possible protective effects of tangeretin on cisplatin-induced hepatotoxicity. The impact of tangeretin on cisplatin-evoked hepatic dysfunction and histopathologic changes along with oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic biomarkers were investigated compared to silymarin. Tangeretin pre-treatment significantly improved liver function tests (ALT and AST), inhibited cisplatin-induced lipid profile aberrations (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and diminished histopathologic structural damage in liver tissues. Tangeretin also attenuated cisplatin-induced hepatic inflammatory events as indicated by suppression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and enhancement of interleukin-10 (IL-10). Meanwhile, it lowered malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2) levels with restoration of glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Regarding mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, tangeretin attenuated cisplatin-induced increase in phospho-p38, phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK) and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2) in liver tissues. In addition, tangeretin downregulated Bax expression with augmentation of Bcl-2 promoting liver cell survival. Our results highlight the protective effects of tangeretin against cisplatin-induced acute hepatic injury via the concerted modulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, MAPKs and apoptotic pathways.

  20. Ischemic Preconditioning Produces Comparable Protection Against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Under Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Jeong, J S; Kim, D; Kim, K Y; Ryu, S; Han, S; Shin, B S; Kim, G S; Gwak, M S; Ko, J S

    2017-11-01

    Various volatile anesthetics and ischemic preconditioning (IP) have been demonstrated to exert protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver. We aimed to determine whether application of IP under isoflurane and sevoflurane anesthesia would confer protection against hepatic I/R injury in rats. Thirty-eight rats weighing 270 to 300 grams were randomly divided into 2 groups: isoflurane (1.5%) and sevoflurane (2.5%) anesthesia groups. Each group was subdivided into sham (n = 3), non-IP (n = 8; 45 minutes of hepatic ischemia), and IP (n = 8, IP consisting of 10-minute ischemia plus 15-minute reperfusion before prolonged ischemia) groups. The degree of hepatic injury and expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and caspase 3 were compared at 2 hours after reperfusion. Hepatic ischemia induced significant degree of I/R injuries in both isoflurane and sevoflurane non-IP groups. In both anesthetic groups, introduction of IP dramatically attenuated I/R injuries as marked by significantly lower aspartate aminotransferase and aminotransferase levels and better histologic grades compared with corresponding non-IP groups. There were 2.3- and 1.7-fold increases in Bcl-2 mRNA levels in isoflurane and sevoflurane IP groups, respectively, compared with corresponding non-IP groups (both P < .05). Caspase 3 level was significantly high in the isoflurane non-IP group compared with the sham group; however, there were no differences among the sevoflurane groups. The degree of hepatic I/R injury was significantly high in both isoflurane and sevoflurane groups in rats. However, application of IP significantly protected against I/R injury in both volatile anesthetic groups to similar degrees, and upregulation of Bcl-2 might be an important mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Apocynin alleviated hepatic oxidative burden and reduced liver injury in hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Lu, Long-Sheng; Wu, Chau-Chung; Hung, Li-Man; Chiang, Meng-Tsan; Lin, Ching-Ting; Lin, Chii-Wann; Su, Ming-Jai

    2007-05-01

    This study addressed the effects of apocynin, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase inhibitor, on hepatic oxidative burden and liver injury during diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia. Male Wistar rats were fed a 4% cholesterol-enriched diet for 3 weeks. Apocynin was administered in drinking water concurrently. The high-cholesterol diet (HC) significantly increased the serum level of cholesterol and hepatic cholesterol ester deposition, and these parameters were similar between the HC and high-cholesterol diet plus apocynin (HCA) groups. The HC group showed abnormal liver function tests [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (Alk-P)] as well as increased Evans blue extravasation and macrophages infiltration. Apocynin treatment could suppress these inflammation-related parameters. In vivo measurement of NADPH-derived cellular autofluorescence suggested that HC increased oxidative stress in hepatocytes. Biochemical analysis of redox status including thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, and oxidized glutathione also confirmed the phenomenon. Apocynin treatment was able to alleviate these indices of oxidative burden owing to HC. Furthermore, apocynin-abrogated HC induced gp91(phox) expression, suggesting the involvement of NADPH oxidase in the pathogenesis. We concluded that apocynin suppressed NADPH oxidase activation and subsequent liver injuries owing to high-cholesterol intake in rats. The impacts of cholesterol metabolism disorders on pathogenesis and progression of steatohepatitis warrant further clinical investigation.

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (Acanthaceae) against CCl4-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing; Liu, Xi; Huang, Quanfang; Zhang, Shijun; Zheng, Li; Wei, Ling; He, Min; Jiao, Yang; Huang, Jianchun; Fu, Shujie; Chen, Zhaoni; Li, Yongwen; Zhuo, Lang; Huang, Renbin

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of the polysaccharide isolated from Tarphochlamys affinis (PTA) against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Liver injury was induced in rats by the administration of CCl4 twice a week for 2 weeks. During the experiment, the model group received CCl4 only; the treatment groups received various drugs plus CCl4, whereas the normal control group received an equal volume of saline. Compared with the CCl4 group, PTA significantly decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the serum and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the liver. Moreover, the content of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced. Histological findings also confirmed the anti-hepatotoxic characterisation. In addition, PTA significantly inhibited the proinflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Further investigation showed that the inhibitory effect of PTA on the pro-inflammatory cytokines was associated with the down-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In brief, our results show that the protective effect of PTA against CCl4-induced hepatic injury may rely on its ability to reduce oxidative stress and suppress inflammatory responses.

  3. Protective effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on the injury associated with hepatic ischaemia reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Gregorio Martínez; Rodríguez H, María A; Giuliani, Attilia; Núñez Sellés, Alberto J; Rodríguez, Niurka Pons; León Fernández, Olga Sonia; Re, L

    2003-03-01

    The effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on treatment of injury associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion was tested. Vimang protects from the oxidative damage induced by oxygen-based free radicals as shown in several in vitro test systems conducted. The ability of Vimang to reduce liver damage was investigated in rats undergoing right-lobe blood fl ow occlusion for 45 min followed by 45 min of reperfusion. The ischaemia/reperfusion model leads to an increase of transaminase (ALT and AST), membrane lipid peroxidation, tissue neutrophil in filtration, DNA fragmentation, loss of protein -SH groups, cytosolic Ca2+ overload and a decrease of catalase activity. Oral administration of Vimang (50, 110 and 250 mg/kg, b.w.) 7 days before reperfusion, reduced transaminase levels and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner (p < 0.05). Vimang also restored the cytosolic Ca2+ levels and inhibited polymorphonuclear migration at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.w., improved the oxidation of total and non protein sulfhydryl groups and prevented modification in catalase activity, uric acid and lipid peroxidation markers (p < 0.05). These data suggest that Vimang could be a useful new natural drug for preventing oxidative damage during hepatic injury associated with free radical generation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury: an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma practice management guideline.

    PubMed

    Stassen, Nicole A; Bhullar, Indermeet; Cheng, Julius D; Crandall, Marie; Friese, Randall; Guillamondegui, Oscar; Jawa, Randeep; Maung, Adrian; Rohs, Thomas J; Sangosanya, Ayodele; Schuster, Kevin; Seamon, Mark; Tchorz, Kathryn M; Zarzuar, Ben L; Kerwin, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    During the last century, the management of blunt force trauma to the liver has changed from observation and expectant management in the early part of the 1900s to mainly operative intervention, to the current practice of selective operative and nonoperative management. These issues were first addressed by the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma in the Practice Management Guidelines for Nonoperative Management of Blunt Injury to the Liver and Spleen published online in 2003. Since that time, a large volume of literature on these topics has been published requiring a reevaluation of the previous Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma guideline. The National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health MEDLINE database were searched using PubMed (http://www.pubmed.gov). The search was designed to identify English-language citations published after 1996 (the last year included in the previous guideline) using the keywords liver injury and blunt abdominal trauma. One hundred seventy-six articles were reviewed, of which 94 were used to create the current practice management guideline for the selective nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury. Most original hepatic guidelines remained valid and were incorporated into the greatly expanded current guidelines as appropriate. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries currently is the treatment modality of choice in hemodynamically stable patients, irrespective of the grade of injury or patient age. Nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries should only be considered in an environment that provides capabilities for monitoring, serial clinical evaluations, and an operating room available for urgent laparotomy. Patients presenting with hemodynamic instability and peritonitis still warrant emergent operative intervention. Intravenous contrast enhanced computed tomographic scan is the diagnostic modality of choice for evaluating blunt hepatic injuries. Repeated imaging should be

  5. Extracellular vesicles from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against murine hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Haga, Hiroaki; Yan, Irene K; Borrelli, David A; Matsuda, Akiko; Parasramka, Mansi; Shukla, Neha; Lee, David D; Patel, Tushar

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and associated inflammation contributes to liver dysfunction and complications after liver surgery and transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to reduce hepatic IRI because of their reparative immunomodulatory effects in injured tissues. Recent studies have highlighted beneficial effects of extracellular vesicles from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-EV) on tissue injury. The effects of systemically administered mouse bone marrow-derived MSC-EV were evaluated in an experimental murine model of hepatic IRI induced by cross-clamping the hepatic artery and portal vein for 90 minutes followed by reperfusion for periods of up to 6 hours. Compared with controls, intravenous administration of MSC-EV 30 minutes prior to IRI dramatically reduced the extent of tissue necrosis, decreased caspase 3-positive and apoptotic cells, and reduced serum aminotransferase levels. MSC-EV increased hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 12, and the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, and reduced mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 during IRI. MSC-EV increased cell viability and suppressed both oxidative injury and nuclear factor kappa B activity in murine hepatocytes in vitro. In conclusion, the administration of extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow-derived MSCs may ameliorate hepatic IRI by reducing hepatic injury through modulation of the inflammatory response.Liver Transplantation 23 791-803 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Saccharomyces boulardii ameliorates clarithromycin- and methotrexate-induced intestinal and hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Duman, Deniz Güney; Kumral, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir; Ercan, Feriha; Deniz, Mustafa; Can, Güray; Cağlayan Yeğen, Berrak

    2013-08-28

    Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. We aimed to investigate whether S. boulardii could alter the effects of clarithromycin (CLA) and methotrexate (MTX) on oro-caecal intestinal transit and oxidative damage in rats. Rats were divided into two groups receiving a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) or CLA (20 mg/kg per d) for 1 week. Groups were treated with either saline or S. boulardii (500 mg/kg) twice per d throughout the experiment. The control group was administered only saline. Following decapitation, intestinal transit and inflammation markers of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase were measured in intestinal and hepatic tissues. CLA and MTX increased intestinal transit, while S. boulardii treatment slowed down CLA-facilitated transit back to control level. Both MTX and CLA increased lipid peroxidation while depleting the antioxidant GSH content in the hepatic and ileal tissues. Conversely, lipid peroxidation was depressed and GSH levels were increased in the ileal and hepatic tissues of S. boulardii-treated rats. Increased ileal neutrophil infiltration due to MTX and CLA treatments was also reduced by S. boulardii treatment. Histological analysis supported that S. boulardii protected intestinal tissues against the inflammatory effects of both agents. These findings suggest that S. boulardii ameliorates intestinal injury and the accompanying hepatic inflammation by supporting the antioxidant state of the tissues and by inhibiting the recruitment of neutrophils. Moreover, a preventive effect on MTXinduced toxicity is a novel finding of S. boulardii, proposing it as an adjunct to chemotherapy regimens.

  7. Microparticles Mediate Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Are the Targets of Diannexin (ASP8597)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Heng Jian; Croft, Kevin; Mori, Trevor; Farrell, Geoffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI) can cause hepatic failure after liver surgery or transplantation. IRI causes oxidative stress, which injures sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), leading to recruitment and activation of Kupffer cells, platelets and microcirculatory impairment. We investigated whether injured SECs and other cell types release microparticles during post-ischemic reperfusion, and whether such microparticles have pro-inflammatory, platelet-activating and pro-injurious effects that could contribute to IRI pathogenesis. Methods C57BL6 mice underwent 60 min of partial hepatic ischemia followed by 15 min–24 hrs of reperfusion. We collected blood and liver samples, isolated circulating microparticles, and determined protein and lipid content. To establish mechanism for microparticle production, we subjected murine primary hepatocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Because microparticles express everted phosphatidylserine residues that are the target of annexin V, we analyzed the effects of an annexin V-homodimer (Diannexin or ASP8597) on post-ischemia microparticle production and function. Results Microparticles were detected in the circulation 15–30 min after post-ischemic reperfusion, and contained markers of SECs, platelets, natural killer T cells, and CD8+ cells; 4 hrs later, they contained markers of macrophages. Microparticles contained F2-isoprostanes, indicating oxidative damage to membrane lipids. Injection of mice with TNF-α increased microparticle formation, whereas Diannexin substantially reduced microparticle release and prevented IRI. Hypoxia-re-oxygenation generated microparticles from primary hepatocytes by processes that involved oxidative stress. Exposing cultured hepatocytes to preparations of microparticles isolated from the circulation during IRI caused injury involving mitochondrial membrane permeability transition. Microparticles also activated platelets and induced neutrophil migration in vitro. The inflammatory

  8. Antioxidant properties of repaglinide and its protections against cyclosporine A-induced renal tubular injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dao; Li, Jin; Li, Hui; Wu, Qiong; Li, Qi-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Repaglinide (RG) is an antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. It has a good safety and efficacy profile in diabetic patients with complications in renal impairment and is an appropriate treatment choice, even for individuals with more severe degrees of renal malfunctions. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effect of RG on cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced rat renal impairment and to evaluate the antioxidant mechanisms by which RG exerts its protective actions. Materials and Methods: Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into five groups: administrations of olive oil (control, PO), RG (0.4 mg/kg, PO), CsA (30 mg/kg in olive oil, SC), RG (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg, PO) plus CsA (30 mg/kg in olive oil SC) every day for 15 days. Results: SC administration of CsA (30 mg/kg) to rats produced marked elevations in the levels of renal impairment parameters such as urinary protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), serum creatinine (SCr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). It also caused histologic injury to the kidneys. Oral administration of RG (0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg) markedly decreased all the aforementioned changes. In addition, CsA caused increases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione in kidney homogenate, which were reversed significantly by both doses of RG. Conclusion: The findings of our study indicate that RG may play an important role in protecting the kidney from oxidative insult. PMID:27635199

  9. Drag reducing polymers decrease hepatic injury and metastases after liver ischemia-reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Hamza O.; Sud, Vikas; Goswami, Julie; Loughran, Patricia; Huang, Hai; Simmons, Richard L.; Tsung, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Surgery, a crucial therapeutic modality in the treatment of solid tumors, can induce sterile inflammatory processes which can result in metastatic progression. Liver ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, an inevitable consequence of hepatic resection of metastases, has been shown to foster hepatic capture of circulating cancer cells and accelerate metastatic growth. Efforts to reduce these negative consequences have not been thoroughly investigated. Drag reducing polymers (DRPs) are blood-soluble macromolecules that can, in nanomolar concentrations, increase tissue perfusion, decrease vascular resistance and decrease near-wall microvascular concentration of neutrophils and platelets thereby possibly reducing the inflammatory microenvironment. We hypothesize that DRP can potentially be used to ameliorate metastatic capture of tumor cells and tumor growth within the I/R liver. Methods Experiments were performed utilizing a segmental ischemia model of mice livers. Five days prior or immediately prior to ischemia, murine colon adenocarcinoma cells (MC38) were injected into the spleen. DRP (polyethylene oxide) or a control of low-molecular-weight polyethylene glycol without drag reducing properties were administered intraperitoneally at the onset of reperfusion. Results After three weeks from I/R, we observed that liver I/R resulted in an increased ability to capture and foster growth of circulating tumor cells; in addition, the growth of pre-existing micrometastases was accelerated three weeks later. These effects were significantly curtailed when mice were treated with DRPs at the time of I/R. Mechanistic investigations in vivo indicated that DRPs protected the livers from I/R injury as evidenced by significant decreases in hepatocellular damage, neutrophil recruitment into the liver, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, deposition of platelets, formation of microthrombi within the liver sinusoids and release of inflammatory cytokines

  10. Aqueous Extract of Gynura Bicolor Attenuated Hepatic Steatosis, Glycative, Oxidative, and Inflammatory Injury Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mei-Chin; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Wen-Hu; Mong, Mei-Chin

    2017-11-01

    Gynura bicolor leaf aqueous extract (GAE) is rich in phytochemicals including phenolic acids, flavonoids, carotenoids, and anthocyanins. Effects of GAE upon hepatic injury in mice with chronic ethanol intake were examined. Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with ethanol was used to induce hepatic lipid accumulation, oxidative, glycative, and inflammatory injury. GAE at 0.25% or 0.5% was added in feeds, and supplied to mice consumed Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with ethanol for 6 wk. Blood and liver were collected for analyses. Results showed that ethanol increased plasma and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol content, and affected plasma levels of insulin, adiponectin, leptin, and ghrelin. GAE at both doses decreased lipid accumulation, and at high dose improved hormones abnormality. Histological data revealed that GAE supplement mitigated hepatic lipid deposit. Ethanol increased plasma N ε -(carboxyethymethyl)-lysine and pentosidine levels. GAE at high doses lowered those glycative factors. Ethanol depleted glutathione content, increased CYP2E1 activity and reactive oxygen species production, and reduced the activity of glutathione peroxide, glutathione reductase and catalase in liver. GAE supplement at both doses reversed these alterations and attenuated hepatic oxidative stress. GAE supplement also at both doses decreased hepatic inflammatory cytokines release in ethanol treated mice. These findings support that leaves of G. bicolor is a functional food with liver protective activities against ethanol. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Comparison of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin in the treatment of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic oxidative stress, injury and fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shaker, Mohamed E., E-mail: mshaker2222@yahoo.com; Zalata, Khaled R.; Mehal, Wajahat Z.

    2011-04-15

    Effective and well-tolerated anti-fibrotic drugs are currently lacking. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the potential anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin on established hepatic fibrosis in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) rat model. Male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of CCl{sub 4} twice weekly for 8 weeks, as well as daily intraperitoneal treatments of imatinib (10 and 20 mg/kg), nilotinib (10 and 20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) during the last 4 weeks of CCl{sub 4}-intoxication. At the end of the study, hepatic damage was evaluated by analysis of liver function tests and hepatic oxidative stressmore » parameters. Hepatic fibrosis was evaluated by histopathology and morphometry, as well as collagen and 4-hydroxyproline contents. Nilotinib (20 mg/kg) was the most effective treatment to counteract CCl{sub 4}-induced hepatic injury as indicated by liver function tests and histopathology. Nilotinib (10 mg/kg), nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and silymarin (100 mg/kg) treatments reduced the mean score of hepatic fibrosis by 31%, 68% and 47%, respectively, and hepatic collagen content by 47%, 49% and 18%, respectively in CCl{sub 4}-treated rats. Hepatic morphometric evaluation and 4-hydroxyproline content revealed that CCl{sub 4}-induced fibrosis was ameliorated significantly by nilotinib (20 mg/kg) and imatinib (20 mg/kg). Unlike nilotinib, imatinib (20 mg/kg) showed some sort of hepatic injury evidenced by elevation of serum aminotransferases and total bilirubin levels, and hepatic total nitrate/nitrite content, as well as characteristic anisonucleosis visualized with the hematoxylin-eosin staining. In conclusion, this study provides the evidence that nilotinib exerts anti-fibrotic activity and suggests that it may be valuable in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis in humans. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research Highlights: > The anti-fibrotic effects of imatinib, nilotinib and silymarin were

  12. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine.These symptoms can last up to five ... of hepatitis A cases require hospitalization. Swallowing fecal matter, even in microscopic quantities. Infection occurs most often ...

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of an immortal human fetal hepatic cell transplantation on CCL(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y B; Song, H; Zhong, B S; Wang, Z Y; Ying, S J; Wang, F

    2010-09-01

    Hepatocyte transplantation has been widely confirmed in the animal model experiments as an effective method for treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. However, the lack of donor organs remains a major problem. One solution is the development of transplantable hepatocytes. Herein we have transplanted intraperitoneally an established immortalized human fetal hepatic cell line (HL-7702) into CCl(4)-treated mice with acute liver injury to determine whether they provided life-saving metabolic support. The results showed lower levels of blood ammonia and higher content of liver albumin (P < .05) after HL-7702 transplantation versus nontransplanted controls at days 3 and 7. Histologic examination showed the transplantation group to be less affected at day 7 with no difference at day 14. In conclusion, an established immortal human fetal hepatic cell line may be a promising cell source providing life-saving metabolic support as a bioartificial liver device for the treatment of acute liver injury. 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Hepatic Expression of Serum Amyloid A1 Is Induced by Traumatic Brain Injury and Modulated by Telmisartan

    PubMed Central

    Villapol, Sonia; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Balarezo, Maria G.; Campbell, Ashley M.; Saavedra, Juan M.; Shewmaker, Frank P.; Symes, Aviva J.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury affects the whole body in addition to the direct impact on the brain. The systemic response to trauma is associated with the hepatic acute-phase response. To further characterize this response, we performed controlled cortical impact injury on male mice and determined the expression of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), an apolipoprotein, induced at the early stages of the acute-phase response in liver and plasma. After cortical impact injury, induction of SAA1 was detectable in plasma at 6 hours post-injury and in liver at 1 day post-injury, followed by gradual diminution over time. In the liver, cortical impact injury increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and expression of mRNA encoding the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL10. An increase in angiotensin II AT1 receptor mRNA at 3 days post-injury was also observed. Administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist telmisartan 1 hour post-injury significantly decreased liver SAA1 levels and CXCL10 mRNA expression, but did not affect CXCL1 expression or the number of apoptotic cells or infiltrating leukocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SAA1 is induced in the liver after traumatic brain injury and that telmisartan prevents this response. Elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of the liver after brain injury will assist in understanding the efficacy of therapeutic approaches to brain injury. PMID:26435412

  15. Association Between MC-2 Peptide and Hepatic Perfusion and Liver Injury Following Resuscitated Hemorrhagic Shock.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Paul J; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Smith, Jason W; Matheson, Samuel A; Downard, Cynthia D; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, Richard N

    2016-03-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) due to trauma remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, despite continuing progression of advanced life support and treatment. Trauma is the third most common cause of death worldwide and is the leading cause of death in the 1- to 44-year-old age group. Hemorrhagic shock often progresses to multiple organ failure despite conventional resuscitation (CR) that restores central hemodynamics. To examine whether MC-2 would bind glycosaminoglycans to decrease proinflammatory cytokines' influence in the liver, minimize organ edema, prevent liver injury, and improve hepatic perfusion. MC-2, a synthetic octapeptide derived from the heparin-binding domain of murine interferon gamma (IFN-γ), binds glycosaminoglycans to modulate serum and interstitial cytokine levels and activity. A controlled laboratory study of 3y male Sprague-Dawley rats that were randomized to 4 groups of 8 each: sham, sham+MC-2 (50 mg/kg), HS/CR, or HS/CR+MC-2 (HS = 40% of baseline mean arterial pressure for 60 minutes; CR = return of shed blood and 2 volumes of saline). The study began in March, 2013. Effective hepatic blood flow (EHBF) by galactose clearance, wet-dry weights, cytokines, histopathology, complete metabolic panel, and complete blood cell count were performed at 4 hours after CR. MC-2 partially reversed the HS/CR-induced hepatic hypoperfusion at 3 and 4 hours postresuscitation compared with HS/CR alone. Effective hepatic blood flow decreased during the HS period from a mean (SD) of 7.4 (0.3) mL/min/100 g and 7.5 (0.5) mL/min/100g at baseline to 3.7 (0.4) mL/min/100g and 5.9 (0.5) mL/min/100g for the HS/CR and HS/CR+MC-2 groups, respectively (P <.05). Effective hepatic blood flow remained constant in the sham groups throughout the experimental protocol. Organ edema was increased in the ileum and liver in the HS/CR vs sham group, and MC-2 decreased edema in the ileum vs the HS/CR group. MC-2 in HS also decreased levels of alanine

  16. [Protective effects of agmatine on lipopolysaccharide -induced acute hepatic injury in mice].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan -fei; Fan, Xia; Zheng, Zhi-hua; Yang, Xue; Liu, Zheng; Gong, Jian-ping; Liang, Hua-ping

    2013-12-01

    To observe the effect of agmatine ( AGM) on lipopolysaccharide ( LPS )-induced acute hepatic injury in mice, and to explore its related mechanism. Sixty C57BU6 mice were randomly divided into control group ( n = 20, with intra-peritoneal injection of phosphate buffer saline 10 mg/kg), model group ( n = 20, with intra-peritoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg), and AGM group (n=20, with intra-peritoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg and AGM 200 mg/kg). Ten mice in each group were sacrificed at 6 hours and 24 hours, respectively, after modeling, blood samples were collected for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-a ( TNF -a) and interleukin ( IL-113 and IL-6) by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at 6 hours after modeling , and for determination of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and total bilirubin (TBil) by automatic biochemistry analyzer at 24 hours after modeling. Hepatic homogenate was also collected for determining the endo nuclear nuclear factor-KB ( NF -KB) p65 by Western blotting at 6 hours after modeling, and for observation of pathological changes at 24 hours after modeling. At 6 hours after modeling, .the mice in model group became lethargic and quiet, and their food and water assumption was reduced, but AGM was found to be able to greatly improve the general status of animals in AGM group. AGM was found to lower the contents of serum TNF-a ( IJ.g/L: 296.3 ± 42.5 vs. 627.2 ± 81.3, t=7.327, P=0.002), IL-113 ( f.Lg/L: 109.1 ± 12.3 vs. 264.2 ± 18.8, t= 11.958, P=0.001), IL-6 ( mg/L: 11.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.6 ± 2.5, t=6.729, P=0.003), ALT (U!L: 107.9 ± 8.5 vs. 189.9 ± 13.6, t=8.856, P=0.001 ), AST (UIL: 347.4 ± 24.9 vs. 716.8 ± 60.4, t=9.793, P=0.001) and TBil ( f.Lmol!L: 8.3 ± 0.9 vs. 10.6 ± 0.5, t=3.869, P=0.018) in mice with acute hepatic injury induced by LPS. AGM also depressed TNF -a ( ng/g: 287.4 ± 32.5 vs. 461.5 ± 31.4, t=6.673, P= 0.003), IL-113 (pg/g: 146.7 ± 13.5 vs. 351.6 ± 28.7, t=11.190, P=0.001) and

  17. Acute Liver Injury Induces Nucleocytoplasmic Redistribution of Hepatic Methionine Metabolism Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Miguel; Garrido, Francisco; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; Pacheco, María; Partearroyo, Teresa; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The discovery of methionine metabolism enzymes in the cell nucleus, together with their association with key nuclear processes, suggested a putative relationship between alterations in their subcellular distribution and disease. Results: Using the rat model of d-galactosamine intoxication, severe changes in hepatic steady-state mRNA levels were found; the largest decreases corresponded to enzymes exhibiting the highest expression in normal tissue. Cytoplasmic protein levels, activities, and metabolite concentrations suffered more moderate changes following a similar trend. Interestingly, galactosamine treatment induced hepatic nuclear accumulation of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) α1 and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase tetramers, their active assemblies. In fact, galactosamine-treated livers showed enhanced nuclear MAT activity. Acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication mimicked most galactosamine effects on hepatic MATα1, including accumulation of nuclear tetramers. H35 cells that overexpress tagged-MATα1 reproduced the subcellular distribution observed in liver, and the changes induced by galactosamine and APAP that were also observed upon glutathione depletion by buthionine sulfoximine. The H35 nuclear accumulation of tagged-MATα1 induced by these agents correlated with decreased glutathione reduced form/glutathione oxidized form ratios and was prevented by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and glutathione ethyl ester. However, the changes in epigenetic modifications associated with tagged-MATα1 nuclear accumulation were only prevented by NAC in galactosamine-treated cells. Innovation: Cytoplasmic and nuclear changes in proteins that regulate the methylation index follow opposite trends in acute liver injury, their nuclear accumulation showing potential as disease marker. Conclusion: Altogether these results demonstrate galactosamine- and APAP-induced nuclear accumulation of methionine metabolism enzymes as active oligomers and unveil the implication of

  18. Hepatitis B vaccination status and needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in syria.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, Rabi; Al Ali, Radwan; Moukeh, Ghamez; Lahdo, Ayham; Mouhammad, Yaser; Nasser, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Aleppo University hospitals. A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n = 321). Two hundred and forty-six (76.6%) HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8%) had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4%) were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR = 16,95% CI (2.55-100), P < 0.01], doctors [OR = 10,95% CI (2.1 47.57), P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03), P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19), P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57), P < 0.01], respectively. HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored.

  19. Hepatitis B Vaccination Status and Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers in Syria

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Rabi; Al Ali, Radwan; Moukeh, Ghamez; Lahdo, Ayham; Mouhammad, Yaser; Nasser, Mahmood

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although a majority of countries in the Middle East show intermediate or high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which clearly poses a serious public health problem in the region, the situation in the Republic of Syria remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the hepatitis B vaccination status, to assess the number of vaccinations administered, and to estimate the annual incidence of needlestick injuries (NSIs) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Aleppo University hospitals. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design with a survey questionnaire was used for exploring details of NSIs during 2008, hepatitis B vaccination status, and HBV infection among a random stratified sample of HCWs in three tertiary hospitals in Aleppo (n = 321). Results: Two hundred and forty-six (76.6%) HCWs had sustained at least one NSI during 2008. Nine (2.8%) had HBV chronic infection and 75 HCWs (23.4%) were never vaccinated. Anesthesiology technicians had the greatest exposure risk when compared to office workers [OR = 16,95% CI (2.55-100), P < 0.01], doctors [OR = 10,95% CI (2.1 47.57), P < 0.01], and nurses [OR = 6.75,95% CI (1.56-29.03), P = 0.01]. HCWs under 25 and between the age of 25 and 35 years were at increased risk for NSI when compared to HCWs older than 45 years [OR = 3.12,95% CI (1.19-8.19), P = 0.02] and [OR = 3.05,95% CI (1.42-6.57), P < 0.01], respectively. Conclusion: HCWs at Aleppo University hospitals are frequently exposed to blood-borne infections. Precautions and protection from NSIs are important in preventing infection of HCWs. Education about the transmission of blood-borne infections, vaccination, and post-exposure prophylaxis must be implemented and strictly monitored. PMID:20300414

  20. The protective effect of diosmin on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Tanrikulu, Yusuf; Şahin, Mefaret; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Devrim, Erdinc; Tanrikulu, Ceren Sen; Erdemli, Esra; Erel, Serap; Bayraktar, Kenan; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2013-01-01

    Liver ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important pathologic process leading to bodily systemic effects and liver injury. Our study aimed to investigate the protective effects of diosmin, a phlebotrophic drug with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, in a liver IRI model. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups. Sham group, control group (ischemia-reperfusion), intraoperative treatment group, and preoperative treatment group. Ischemia reperfusion model was formed by clamping hepatic pedicle for a 60 minute of ischemia followed by liver reperfusion for another 90 minutes. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured as antioaxidant enzymes in the liver tissues, and malondialdehyde (MDA) as oxidative stress marker, xanthine oxidase (XO) as an oxidant enzyme and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as antioaxidant enzyme were measured in the liver tissues and the plasma samples. Hepatic function tests were lower in treatment groups than control group (p<0.001 for ALT and AST). Plasma XO and MDA levels were lower in treatment groups than control group, but plasma GSH-Px levels were higher (p<0.05 for all). Tissue MDA levels were lower in treatment groups than control group, but tissue GSH-Px, SOD, CAT and XO levels were higher (p<0.05 for MDA and p<0.001 for others). Samples in control group histopathologically showed morphologic abnormalities specific to ischemia reperfusion. It has been found that both preoperative and intraoperative diosmin treatment decreases cellular damage and protects cells from toxic effects in liver IRI. As a conclusion, diosmin may be used as a protective agent against IRI in elective and emergent liver surgical operations. PMID:24289756

  1. Hepatic FcRn regulates albumin homeostasis and susceptibility to liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Pyzik, Michal; Rath, Timo; Kuo, Timothy T.; Win, Sanda; Baker, Kristi; Hubbard, Jonathan J.; Grenha, Rosa; Gandhi, Amit; Krämer, Thomas D.; Mezo, Adam R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Nienaber, Vicki; Andersen, Jan Terje; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Blumberg, Laurence; Purohit, Shalaka; Jones, Susan D.; Christianson, Greg; Lencer, Wayne I.; Sandlie, Inger; Kaplowitz, Neil; Roopenian, Derry C.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    The neonatal crystallizable fragment receptor (FcRn) is responsible for maintaining the long half-life and high levels of the two most abundant circulating proteins, albumin and IgG. In the latter case, the protective mechanism derives from FcRn binding to IgG in the weakly acidic environment contained within endosomes of hematopoietic and parenchymal cells, whereupon IgG is diverted from degradation in lysosomes and is recycled. The cellular location and mechanism by which FcRn protects albumin are partially understood. Here we demonstrate that mice with global or liver-specific FcRn deletion exhibit hypoalbuminemia, albumin loss into the bile, and increased albumin levels in the hepatocyte. In vitro models with polarized cells illustrate that FcRn mediates basal recycling and bidirectional transcytosis of albumin and uniquely determines the physiologic release of newly synthesized albumin into the basal milieu. These properties allow hepatic FcRn to mediate albumin delivery and maintenance in the circulation, but they also enhance sensitivity to the albumin-bound hepatotoxin, acetaminophen (APAP). As such, global or liver-specific deletion of FcRn results in resistance to APAP-induced liver injury through increased albumin loss into the bile and increased intracellular albumin scavenging of reactive oxygen species. Further, protection from injury is achieved by pharmacologic blockade of FcRn–albumin interactions with monoclonal antibodies or peptide mimetics, which cause hypoalbuminemia, biliary loss of albumin, and increased intracellular accumulation of albumin in the hepatocyte. Together, these studies demonstrate that the main function of hepatic FcRn is to direct albumin into the circulation, thereby also increasing hepatocyte sensitivity to toxicity. PMID:28330995

  2. Ethanol extracts collected from the Styela clava tunic alleviate hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through inhibition of hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kil Soo; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-10-01

    The Styela clava tunic (SCT) is known as a good raw material for preparing anti-inflammatory compounds, wound healing films, guided bone regeneration, and food additives. To investigate whether ethanol extracts of the SCT (EtSCT) could protect against hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in ICR mice, alterations in serum biochemical indicators, histopathology, hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were observed in ICR mice pretreated with EtSCT for 5 days before CCl 4 injection. EtSCT contained 15.6 mg/g of flavonoid and 37.5 mg/g phenolic contents with high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (93.3%) and metal chelation activity (46.5%). The EtSCT+CCl 4 -treated groups showed decreased levels of ALT, LDH, and AST, indicating toxicity and a necrotic area in the liver, while the level of ALP remained constant. The formation of active caspase-3 and enhancement of Bax/Bcl-2 expression was effectively inhibited in the EtSCT+CCl 4 -treated groups. Furthermore, the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation of p38 in the TNF-α downstream signaling pathway rapidly recovered in the EtSCT+CCl 4 -treated groups. The EtSCT+CCl 4 -treated groups showed a significant decrease in hepatic fibrosis markers including collagen accumulation, MMP-2 expression, TGF-β1 concentration, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Moreover, a significant decline in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression were observed in the EtSCT+CCl 4 -treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that EtSCT can protect against hepatic injury induced by CCl 4 -derived reactive intermediates through the suppression of hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  3. Ethanol extracts collected from the Styela clava tunic alleviate hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through inhibition of hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Sung, Ji Eun; Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Kil Soo; Hong, Jin Tae; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-01-01

    The Styela clava tunic (SCT) is known as a good raw material for preparing anti-inflammatory compounds, wound healing films, guided bone regeneration, and food additives. To investigate whether ethanol extracts of the SCT (EtSCT) could protect against hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in ICR mice, alterations in serum biochemical indicators, histopathology, hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis were observed in ICR mice pretreated with EtSCT for 5 days before CCl4 injection. EtSCT contained 15.6 mg/g of flavonoid and 37.5 mg/g phenolic contents with high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (93.3%) and metal chelation activity (46.5%). The EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups showed decreased levels of ALT, LDH, and AST, indicating toxicity and a necrotic area in the liver, while the level of ALP remained constant. The formation of active caspase-3 and enhancement of Bax/Bcl-2 expression was effectively inhibited in the EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups. Furthermore, the levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the phosphorylation of p38 in the TNF-α downstream signaling pathway rapidly recovered in the EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups. The EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups showed a significant decrease in hepatic fibrosis markers including collagen accumulation, MMP-2 expression, TGF-β1 concentration, and phosphorylation of Smad2/3. Moreover, a significant decline in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression were observed in the EtSCT+CCl4-treated groups. Taken together, these results indicate that EtSCT can protect against hepatic injury induced by CCl4-derived reactive intermediates through the suppression of hepatic apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. PMID:29097839

  4. Research on Protective Effect and Mechanism of Idazoxan on lps Attacked Acute Hepatic Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Junyu; Ying, Shangqi; Kang, Wenyuan; Huang, Wenjuan; Liang, Huaping

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To observe the protection effect of Idazoxan (IDA) on LPS induced acute hepatic injury, and to explore its action mechanism. Methods: 60 adult C57BL/6 mice were divided into a control group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of phosphate buffer), a model group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg) and a agmatine group (20 mice, intraperitoneal injection of LPS 10 mg/kg and agmatine 200 mg/kg) according to random number table method. Blood and liver tissue were collected for preparation of tissue homogenate. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was adopted for detecting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL- 1β and IL - 6) contents in the serum and liver tissue at 24h after molding. Automatic biochemical analyzer is used for determining alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level at 24h after molding; The liver tissue pathology changes were observed at 24h after molding. Macrophage RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by 10 μg/mL LPS and with or without IDA (100 μmol/L). 2’, 7’-dichlorofluoresce in diacetate (DCFH-DA) was used as a fluorescent probe for detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level; qRT - PCR method was used for detecting antioxidant enzymes HO-1 and NQO-1 mRNA expression level at 2h, 4h and 8 h. Results: mice in the model group suffered from depression, curling and food water forbidding at 6h after molding. Mice in the Idazoxan group have obviously better spirit and activity than that of model group. The serum ALT, AST and LDH level of LPS attacked acute hepatic injury mice can be effectively alleviated after Idazoxan treatment. The expression of proinflammatory factor TNF-α and IL-6 in the liver can be reduced. The liver showed obvious pathological changes at 24 h after injection, such as liver cell swelling, necrosis, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, etc.; The liver cell injury was prominently alleviated in IDA

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus bisporus industrial wastewater against CCl₄-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiafu; Ou, Yixin; Yew, Tai Wai David; Liu, Jingna; Leng, Bo; Lin, Zhichao; Su, Yi; Zhuang, Yuanhong; Lin, Jiaofen; Li, Xiumin; Xue, Yu; Pan, Yutian

    2016-01-01

    During the industrial production of canned mushroom (Agaricus bisporus), a large quantity of wastewater is produced. In this study, the wastewater generated during the canning of mushroom was analyzed. From this wastewater, four polysaccharide components (Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001, and Abap1002) with hepatic-protective activity were isolated by ultrafiltration, DEAE cellulose-52 chromatography and Sephadex G-200 size-exclusion chromatography. Results of ultraviolet spectra analysis and molecular weight determination showed that Abnp1001, Abnp1002, Abap1001 and Abap1002 were uniform with average molecular weights of 336, 12.8, 330 and 15.8kDa, respectively. The monosaccharide composition analysis using gas chromatography (GC) showed that the four fractions were heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of glucose. Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analysis showed that the isolated fractions were all composed of β-glycoside linkages. Additionally, the potential hepatoprotective activities of these polysaccharides against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in mice were studied. Notably, Abnp1002 and Abap1002 could lower the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations in serum in a dose dependent manner and reduce the hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, as well as inflammatory infiltration. These results indicate that these two polysaccharides had protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice and suggest that the polysaccharides extracted from A. bisporus industrial wastewater might have potential in therapeutics of acute hepatic injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The let-7/Lin28 axis regulates activation of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Kelly; Huang, Li; Sato, Keisaku; Wu, Nan; Annable, Tami; Zhou, Tianhao; Ramos-Lorenzo, Sugeily; Wan, Ying; Huang, Qiaobing; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Alpini, Gianfranco; Meng, Fanyin

    2017-07-07

    The let-7/Lin28 axis is associated with the regulation of key cellular regulatory genes known as microRNAs in various human disorders and cancer development. This study evaluated the role of the let-7/Lin28 axis in regulating a mesenchymal phenotype of hepatic stellate cells in alcoholic liver injury. We identified that ethanol feeding significantly down-regulated several members of the let-7 family in mouse liver, including let-7a and let-7b. Similarly, the treatment of human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) significantly decreased the expressions of let-7a and let-7b. Conversely, overexpression of let-7a and let-7b suppressed the myofibroblastic activation of cultured human HSCs induced by LPS and TGF-β, as evidenced by repressed ACTA2 (α-actin 2), COL1A1 (collagen 1A1), TIMP1 (TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 1), and FN1 (fibronectin 1); this supports the notion that HSC activation is controlled by let-7. A combination of bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter assay, and Western blot analysis revealed that Lin28B and high-mobility group AT-hook (HMGA2) were the direct targets of let-7a and let-7b. Furthermore, Lin28B deficiency increased the expression of let-7a/let-7b as well as reduced HSC activation and liver fibrosis in mice with alcoholic liver injury. This feedback regulation of let-7 by Lin28B is verified in hepatic stellate cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the model. The identification of the let-7/Lin28 axis as an important regulator of HSC activation as well as its upstream modulators and down-stream targets will provide insights into the involvement of altered microRNA expression in contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver fibrosis and novel therapeutic approaches for human alcoholic liver diseases. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Role of caspase-1 and interleukin-1{beta} in acetaminophen-induced hepatic inflammation and liver injury

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut, E-mail: hjaeschke@kumc.ed

    2010-09-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can result in serious liver injury and potentially death. Toxicity is dependent on metabolism of APAP to a reactive metabolite initiating a cascade of intracellular events resulting in hepatocellular necrosis. This early injury triggers a sterile inflammatory response with formation of cytokines and innate immune cell infiltration in the liver. Recently, IL-1{beta} signaling has been implicated in the potentiation of APAP-induced liver injury. To test if IL-1{beta} formation through caspase-1 is critical for the pathophysiology, C57Bl/6 mice were treated with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VD-fmk to block the inflammasome-mediated maturation of IL-1{beta} during APAP overdose (300 mg/kg APAP).more » This intervention did not affect IL-1{beta} gene transcription but prevented the increase in IL-1{beta} plasma levels. However, APAP-induced liver injury and neutrophil infiltration were not affected. Similarly, liver injury and the hepatic neutrophilic inflammation were not attenuated in IL-1-receptor-1 deficient mice compared to wild-type animals. To evaluate the potential of IL-1{beta} to increase injury, mice were given pharmacological doses of IL-1{beta} after APAP overdose. Despite increased systemic activation of neutrophils and recruitment into the liver, there was no alteration in injury. We conclude that endogenous IL-1{beta} formation after APAP overdose is insufficient to activate and recruit neutrophils into the liver or cause liver injury. Even high pharmacological doses of IL-1{beta}, which induce hepatic neutrophil accumulation and activation, do not enhance APAP-induced liver injury. Thus, IL-1 signaling is irrelevant for APAP hepatotoxicity. The inflammatory cascade is a less important therapeutic target than intracellular signaling pathways to attenuate APAP-induced liver injury.« less

  8. Kupffer Cell p38 MAPK Signaling Drives Post Burn Hepatic Damage and Pulmonary Inflammation when Alcohol Intoxication Precedes Burn Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Michael M.; O’Halloran, Eileen B.; Ippolito, Jill A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Clinical and animal studies demonstrate that alcohol intoxication at the time of injury worsens post-burn outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the role and mechanism of Kupffer cell derangement in exacerbating post-burn end organ damage in alcohol exposed mice. Design Interventional study. Setting Research Institute. Subjects Male C57BL/6 mice. Interventions Alcohol administered 30 minutes before a 15% scald burn injury. Antecedent Kupffer cell depletion with clodronate liposomes (0.5 mg/kg). p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibition via SB203580 (10 mg/kg). Measurements and Main Results Kupffer cells were isolated 24 hours after injury and analyzed for p38 activity and IL-6 production. Intoxicated burned mice demonstrated a 2-fold (p<0.05) elevation of Kupffer cell p38 activation relative to either insult alone and this corresponded to a 43% (p<0.05) increase in IL-6 production. Depletion of Kupffer cells attenuated hepatic damage as seen by decreases of 53% (p<0.05) in serum ALT and 74% (p<0.05) in hepatic triglycerides, as well as a 77% reduction (p<0.05) in serum IL-6 levels compared to matched controls. This mitigation of hepatic damage was associated with a 54% decrease (p<0.05) in pulmonary neutrophil infiltration and reduced alveolar wall thickening by 45% (p<0.05). In vivo p38 inhibition conferred nearly identical hepatic and pulmonary protection after the combined injury as mice depleted of Kupffer cells. Conclusions Intoxication exacerbates post-burn hepatic damage through p38-dependent IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. PMID:27322363

  9. Reduction of rewarming injury of the hepatic graft by a heat insulator.

    PubMed

    Wakiyama, S; Yanaga, K; Soejima, Y; Nishizaki, T; Sugimachi, K

    1997-04-01

    The deleterious effect of rewarming in orthotopic liver transplantation is recognized. This study examined the significance of rewarming the hepatic allograft, and the possibility of using a heat insulator to reduce rewarming injury. After total hepatectomy in rats with in situ perfusion by chilled (4 degrees C) lactated Ringer's solution, the livers were divided into four groups of ten each: group 1, 4-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution and 15 min of rewarming; group 2, 6-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution; group 3, 6-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution and 15 min of rewarming; group 4, 6-h preservation in chilled Ringer's solution and 15 min of rewarming with a heat insulator. Glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG) concentrations in the final graft effluent, and the amount of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in liver tissue after preservation, were measured. GPT and NAG concentrations in the final graft effluent of group 3 were higher than those of group 2 (P < 0.01), whereas values in group 4 were lower than those of group 3 (P < 0.05). The final ATP concentration in group 3 was significantly lower than that in group 2 (P < 0.01), whereas the value in group 4 was significantly higher than that of group 3 (P < 0.01). Rewarming diminishes the viability of a liver graft with degradation of ATP, and a heat insulator reduces rewarming injury.

  10. The protective effects of shikonin on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury are mediated by the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Zhang, QingHui; Mo, Wenhui; Yu, Qiang; Xu, Shizan; Li, Jingjing; Li, Sainan; Feng, Jiao; Wu, Liwei; Lu, Xiya; Zhang, Rong; Li, Linqiang; Cheng, Keran; Zhou, Yuqing; Zhou, Shunfeng; Kong, Rui; Wang, Fan; Dai, Weiqi; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Zhao, Yan; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which can result in severe liver injury and dysfunction, occurs in a variety of conditions such as liver transplantation, shock, and trauma. Cell death in hepatic I/R injury has been linked to apoptosis and autophagy. Shikonin plays a significant protective role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of shikonin on hepatic I/R injury and explore the underlying mechanism. Mice were subjected to segmental (70%) hepatic warm ischemia to induce hepatic I/R injury. Two doses of shikonin (7.5 and 12.5 mg/kg) were administered 2 h before surgery. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, I/R, and shikonin preconditioning at two doses (7.5 and 12.5 mg/kg). The serum and liver tissues were collected at three time points (3, 6, and 24 h). Shikonin significantly reduced serum AST and ALT levels and improved pathological features. Shikonin affected the expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, caspase 9, Beclin-1, and LC3, and upregulated PI3K and p-Akt compared with the levels in the I/R group. Shikonin attenuated hepatic I/R injury by inhibiting apoptosis and autophagy through a mechanism involving the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling. PMID:28322249

  11. MRI-based assessment of liver perfusion and hepatocyte injury in the murine model of acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Byk, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Zaneta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chlopicki, Stefan; Skorka, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    To assess alterations in perfusion and liver function in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse model of acute liver failure (ALF) using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gd-EOB-DTPA contrast agent and arterial spin labelling (ASL). BALB/c mice were studied using a 9.4 T MRI system. The IntraGateFLASH TM and FAIR-EPI pulse sequences were used for optimum mouse abdomen imaging. The average perfusion values for the liver of the control and ConA group were equal to 245 ± 20 and 200 ± 32 ml/min/100 g (p = 0.008, respectively). DCE-MRI showed that the time to the peak of the image enhancement was 6.14 ± 1.07 min and 9.72 ± 1.69 min in the control and ConA group (p < 0.001, respectively), while the rate of the contrast wash-out in the control and ConA group was 0.037 ± 0.008 and 0.021 ± 0.008 min -1 (p = 0.004, respectively). These results were consistent with hepatocyte injury in the ConA-treated mice as confirmed by histopathological staining. Both the ASL and DCE-MRI techniques represent a reliable methodology to assess alterations in liver perfusion and hepatocyte integrity in murine hepatitis.

  12. L-arginine reverses alterations in drug disposition induced by spinal cord injury by increasing hepatic blood flow.

    PubMed

    Vertiz-Hernandez, Antonio; Castaneda-Hernandez, Gilberto; Martinez-Cruz, Angelina; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia; Grijalva, Israel; Guizar-Sahagun, Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    High hepatic extraction drugs--such as phenacetin, methylprednisolone, and cyclosporine--exhibit an increased bioavailability after acute spinal cord injury (SCI) due to an impaired clearance. For these drugs, metabolic clearance depends on hepatic blood flow. Thus, it is possible that pharmacokinetic alterations can be reversed by increasing liver perfusion. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of L-arginine, a nitric oxide precursor, on the pharmacokinetics of a prototype drug with high hepatic extraction, and on hepatic microvascular blood flow (MVBF) after acute SCI. Pharmacokinetics of i.v. phenacetin was studied in rats 24 h after a severe T-5 spinal cord contusion; animals being pretreated with L-arginine 100 mg/kg i.v. or vehicle. MVBF was assessed under similar experimental conditions using laser Doppler flowmetry. SCI significantly altered phenacetin pharmacokinetics. Clearance was significantly reduced, resulting in a prolonged half-life and an increase in bioavailability, while volume of distribution was decreased. Pharmacokinetic alterations were reversed when injured rats were pretreated with L -arginine. It was also observed that L-arginine significantly increased hepatic MVBF in injured rats, notwithstanding it exhibited a limited effect on sham-injured animals. Our data hence suggest that L-arginine is able to reverse SCI-induced alterations in phenacetin pharmacokinetics due to an impaired hepatic MVBF, likely by increased nitric oxide synthesis leading to vasodilation. Further studies are warranted to examine the potential usefulness of nitric oxide supplementation in a clinical setting.

  13. Protection of rat liver against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by a novel selenocysteine-containing 7-mer peptide

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qianqian; Pan, Yu; Cheng, Yupeng; Li, Huiling; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury causes acute organ damage or dysfunction, and remains a problem for liver transplantation. In the I-R phase, the generation of reactive oxygen species aggravates the injury. In the current study, a novel selenocysteine-containing 7-mer peptide (H-Arg-Sec-Gly-Arg-Asn-Ala-Gln-OH) was constructed to imitate the active site of an antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase (GPX). The 7-mer peptide which has a lower molecular weight, and improved water-solubility, higher stability and improved cell membrane permeability compared with other GPX mimics. Its GPX activity reached 13 U/µmol, which was 13 times that of ebselen (a representative GPX mimic). The effect of this GPX mimic on I-R injury of the liver was assessed in rats. The 7-mer peptide significantly inhibited the increase in serum hepatic amino-transferases, tissue malondialdehyde, nitric oxide contents, myeloperoxidase activity and decrease of GPX activity compared with I-R tissue. Following treatment with the 7-mer peptide, the expression of B-cell CLL/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) was significantly upregulated at the mRNA and protein level compared with the I-R group, as determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. By contrast, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) was downregulated by the 7-mer peptide compared the I-R group. Histological and ultrastructural changes of the rat liver tissue were also compared among the experimental groups. The results of the current study suggest that the 7-mer peptide protected the liver against hepatic I-R injury via suppression of oxygen-derived free radicals and regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression, which are involved in the apoptosis of liver cells. The findings of the present study will further the investigation of the 7-mer peptide as an effective therapeutic agent in hepatic I-R injury. PMID:27431272

  14. Exaggerated Hepatic Injury Due to Acetaminophen Challenge in Mice Lacking C-C Chemokine Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Hogaboam, Cory M.; Bone-Larson, Cynthia L.; Steinhauser, Matthew L.; Matsukawa, Akihiro; Gosling, Jennifa; Boring, Landin; Charo, Israel F.; Simpson, Kenneth J.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Kunkel, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 is one of the major C-C chemokines that has been implicated in liver injury. The C-C chemokine receptor, CCR2, has been identified as the primary receptor that mediates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) responses in the mouse. Accordingly, the present study addressed the role of CCR2 in mice acutely challenged with acetaminophen (APAP). Mice genetically deficient in CCR2 (CCR2−/−) and their wild-type counterparts (CCR2+/+) were fasted for 10 hours before receiving an intraperitoneal injection of APAP (300 mg/kg). Liver and serum samples were removed from both groups of mice before and at 24 and 48 hours post APAP. Significantly elevated levels of MCP-1 were detected in liver samples from CCR2+/+ and CCR2−/− mice at 24 hours post-APAP. Although CCR2+/+ mice exhibited no liver injury at any time after receiving APAP, CCR2−/− mice exhibited marked evidence of necrotic and TUNEL-positive cells in the liver, particularly at 24 hours post-APAP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of liver homogenates from both groups of mice at the 24 hours time point revealed that liver tissue from CCR2−/− mice contained significantly greater amounts of immunoreactive IFN-γ and TNF-α. The in vivo immunoneutralization of IFN-γ or TNF-α significantly attenuated APAP-induced liver injury in CCR2−/− mice and increased hepatic IL-13 levels. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that CCR2 expression in the liver provides a hepatoprotective effect through its regulation of cytokine generation during APAP challenge. PMID:10751350

  15. [Application of standardized systems for assessment of prognosis of the traumatic process in patients with penetrating abdominal wounds and hepatic injuries].

    PubMed

    Hur'iev, S O; Novykov, F M; Shuryhin, O Iu; Ivanov, V I

    2011-04-01

    There were examined 131 injured persons, suffering penetrating abdominal wounding and hepatic injury. Correlation analysis was done, basing on studying of the results of the injured persons state estimation, using prognostic scales, aiming to prognosticate the traumatic process course.

  16. Protective effects of a traditional Chinese herbal formula Jiang-Xian HuGan on Concanavalin A-induced mouse hepatitis via NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huan-Huan; Li, Hai-Long; Li, Yue-Xuan; You, Yan; Guan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Su-Lin; Liu, Li-Xin; Bao, Wei-Lian; Zhou, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Yan

    2018-05-10

    Jiang-Xian HuGan (JXHG) formulated by five natural products including Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), Curcuma longa L., Ligustrum lucidum, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has exhibited a great hepatoprotective effect. We investigated the effect of JXHG on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute live injury in mice, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Jiangkanling Capsule (900 mg/kg), low-dose JXHG (LJXHG, 700 mg/kg), high-dose JXHG (HJXHG, 1400 mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage daily for 20 days prior to a single intravenous injection of ConA (20 mg/kg). Liver injury was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of enzymes and cytokines as well as liver histological analysis. We also measured the hepatic expression of cytokines at mRNA levels and the proteins related to NF-κB and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways. Our results showed that JXHG pretreatment significantly alleviated ConA-induced live injury as evidenced by decreased serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST), and reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and mortality. Furthermore, JXHG was able to significantly reduce the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, down-regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and up-regulate IL-10 as well as superoxide-dimutase-1 (SOD1), glutathione reductase (GSR) and Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) mRNA in the liver tissues after Con A injection. In addition, JXHG pretreatment dramatically suppressed the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 (p65), increased Nrf2 expression, and decreased the expression ratio of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in liver tissues. These results suggest that JXHG protects against ConA-induced acute live injury through inhibiting NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway and promoting Nrf2 mediated anti-oxidative stress signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  17. Cardiopulmonary bypass after severe blunt hepatic injury: management of multi-system blunt trauma in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Streit, Stephanie; Kavarana, Minoo; Scheurer, Mark A; Cina, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    A 16-year-old adolescent male sustained combined injuries to the tricuspid valve and liver. This injury is exceptional due to the mechanism and the circumstances in which it took place: a flying pumpkin thrown from a sport utility vehicle. An echocardiogram demonstrated a flail chordal apparatus associated with the posterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve, creating substrate for severe tricuspid regurgitation with preserved right heart function. He was treated with non-operative management for the liver injury; he remained hemodynamically stable and was discharged home. He underwent successful repair of the tricuspid valve 17 days following the initial injury necessitating systemic anticoagulation and was discharged home two days later. The patient recovered fully without residual valvular pathology or hepatic sequelae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The ameliorative effect of thymol against hydrocortisone-induced hepatic oxidative stress injury in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Aboelwafa, Hanaa R; Yousef, Hany N

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hydrocortisone induces oxidative stress in hepatocytes and to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of thymol against such hepatic injury. Twenty-four adult male rats were divided into control, thymol, hydrocortisone, and hydrocortisone+thymol groups. The 4 groups were treated daily for 15 days. Hydrocortisone significantly induced oxidative stress in the liver tissues, marked by increased serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total oxidative capacity (TOC), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) accompanied by marked decline of serum levels of total protein, albumin, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Also, marked elevation in the levels of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and TNF-α, beside significant decrease in the level of glutathione (GSH) in hepatic tissues were recorded. These biochemical alterations were accompanied by histopathological changes marked by destruction of the normal hepatic architecture, in addition to ultrastructural alterations represented by degenerative features covering almost all the cytoplasmic organelles of the hepatocytes. Supplementation of hydrocortisone-treated rats with thymol reversed most of the biochemical, histological, and ultrastructural alterations. The results of our study confirm that thymol has strong ameliorative effect against hydrocortisone-induced oxidative stress injury in hepatic tissues.

  19. Association between exposures to brominated trihalomethanes, hepatic injury and type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andrianou, Xanthi D; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Burch, James B; Seth, Ratanesh K; Ioannou, Androniki; Picolos, Michael; Christophi, Costas A; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    hepatic injury (ALT) and inflammation (leptin) was recognized via the use of selected biomarkers of effect. Our evidence that THM could act as hepatic toxins with a further initiation of diabetogenic effects call for additional studies to help us better understand the disease process of the two co-morbidities (NAFLD and T2DM). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Analysis of clinical prognosis and the correlation between bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and the level of hepatic arterial embolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, H Y; Yu, X P; Feng, R; Hu, H J; Xiao, W W

    2017-05-23

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and the level of hepatic arterial embolization, and to analyze the clinical prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Methods: From January18, 2012 to December18, 2014, 21 patients underwent TACE for HCC were retrospectively reviewed, including patients' clinical and pathological data. The clinical outcome and relevant factors for bile duct injury were analyzed. Results: A total of 21 patients were identified with bile duct injury at our single institution. All patients received 48 TACE treatments, including proper hepatic artery (14), left hepatic artery (3), the right hepatic artery (10), left and right hepatic artery (9) and tumor artery branches (12). Thirty-five bile duct injury occurred in 21 patients: 7 cases was close to the tumor, 2 distant to the tumor, 7 at right liver, 2 left liver, 11 both lobes of liver and 6 hepatic hilar. After medical conservative treatment and biliary tract inside and outside drainage, liver function of 10 cases were improved. In four patients with hepatic bile duct stricture and biloma, the effect of drainage was not obvious, which subsequently caused biliary complications such as infection, gallbladder and common bile duct stones. Three patients with liver cirrhosis at decompensation stage developed complications, and one of them died of hepatic encephalopathy. Four patients experienced tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. Conclusions: The location of bile duct injury after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is quite consistent with the level of hepatic arterial embolization. There may be some blood vessels mainly involved in blood supply of biliary duct. Complete embolism of these vessels may lead to bile duct injuries. Biliary drainage is ineffective in patients with hilar bile duct stricture, and can lead to complications of biliary tract later on.

  1. Hepatic expression of serum amyloid A1 is induced by traumatic brain injury and modulated by telmisartan.

    PubMed

    Villapol, Sonia; Kryndushkin, Dmitry; Balarezo, Maria G; Campbell, Ashley M; Saavedra, Juan M; Shewmaker, Frank P; Symes, Aviva J

    2015-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury affects the whole body in addition to the direct impact on the brain. The systemic response to trauma is associated with the hepatic acute-phase response. To further characterize this response, we performed controlled cortical impact injury on male mice and determined the expression of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1), an apolipoprotein, induced at the early stages of the acute-phase response in liver and plasma. After cortical impact injury, induction of SAA1 was detectable in plasma at 6 hours post-injury and in liver at 1 day post-injury, followed by gradual diminution over time. In the liver, cortical impact injury increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and expression of mRNA encoding the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL10. An increase in angiotensin II AT1 receptor mRNA at 3 days post-injury was also observed. Administration of the AT1 receptor antagonist telmisartan 1 hour post-injury significantly decreased liver SAA1 levels and CXCL10 mRNA expression, but did not affect CXCL1 expression or the number of apoptotic cells or infiltrating leukocytes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that SAA1 is induced in the liver after traumatic brain injury and that telmisartan prevents this response. Elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of the liver after brain injury will assist in understanding the efficacy of therapeutic approaches to brain injury. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Alda-1, an ALDH2 activator, protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via inhibition of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Ye, Fang; Huang, Chan-Yan; Chen, Wan-Mei; Huang, Wen-Qi

    2018-04-13

    Previous studies have proved that activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase two (ALDH2) can attenuate oxidative stress through clearance of cytotoxic aldehydes, and can protect against cardiac, cerebral, and lung ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. In this study, we investigated the effects of the ALDH2 activator Alda-1 on hepatic I/R injury. Partial warm ischemia was performed in the left and middle hepatic lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats for 1 h, followed by 6 h of reperfusion. Rats received either Alda-1 or vehicle by intravenous injection 30 min before ischemia. Blood and tissue samples of the rats were collected after 6-h reperfusion. Histological injury, proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular apoptosis, ALDH2 expression and activity, 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (4-HNE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured. BRL-3A hepatocytes were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). Cell viability, ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined. Pretreatment with Alda-1 significantly alleviated I/R-induced elevations of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase, and significantly blunted the pathological injury of the liver. Moreover, Alda-1 significantly inhibited ROS and proinflammatory cytokines production, 4-HNE and MDA accumulation, and apoptosis. Increased ALDH2 activity was found after Alda-1 administration. No significant changes in ALDH2 expression were observed after I/R. ROS was also higher in H/R cells than in control cells, which was aggravated upon treatment with 4-HNE, and reduced by Alda-1 treatment. Cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential were inhibited in H/R cells, which was attenuated upon Alda-1 treatment. Activation of ALDH2 by Alda-1 attenuates hepatic I/R injury via clearance of cytotoxic aldehydes.

  3. Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase (Mkp)-1 Protects Mice against Acetaminophen-induced Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wancket, Lyn M.; Meng, Xiaomei; Rogers, Lynette K.; Liu, Yusen

    2012-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation promotes hepatocyte death during acetaminophen overdose, a common cause of drug-induced liver failure. While mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase (Mkp)-1 is a critical negative regulator of JNK MAPK, little is known about the role of Mkp-1 during hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the role of Mkp-1 during acute acetaminophen toxicity. Mkp-1+/+ and Mkp-1−/− mice were dosed ip with vehicle or acetaminophen at 300 mg/kg (for mechanistic studies) or 400 mg/kg (for survival studies). Tissues were collected 1–6 hr post 300 mg/kg dosing to assess glutathione levels, organ damage, and MAPK activation. Mkp-1−/− mice exhibited more rapid plasma clearance of acetaminophen than did Mkp-1+/+ mice, indicated by a quicker decline of plasma acetaminophen level. Moreover, Mkp-1−/− mice suffered more severe liver injury, indicated by higher plasma alanine transaminase activity and more extensive centrilobular apoptosis and necrosis. Hepatic JNK activity in Mkp-1−/− mice was higher than in Mkp-1+/+ mice. Finally, Mkp-1−/− mice displayed a lower overall survival rate and shorter median survival time after dosing with 400 mg/kg acetaminophen. The more severe phenotype exhibited by Mkp-1−/− mice indicates that Mkp-1 plays a protective role during acute acetaminophen overdose, potentially through regulation of JNK. PMID:22623522

  4. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032; Zhu, Bo

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid andmore » glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.« less

  5. Clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A complicated by acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jung Hwan; Kim, Ja Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Paik, Yong Han; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Lee, Kwan Sik

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of acute viral hepatitis A (AHA) in Korea is increasing rapidly. Additionally, we are encountering more cases with acute kidney injury (AKI), which was once regarded as a rare complication of AHA. Thus, we investigated recent aspects of the incidence and clinical characteristics of AHA complicated by AKI. Patients diagnosed with AHA at 2 referral hospitals in Seoul during the period January 2006 to December 2009 were enrolled. Of 1025 patients, 71 (6.9%) had AKI. The incidence of AKI was 3.1% in 2006, 6.0% in 2007, 8.9% in 2008, and 6.9% in 2009. Patients with AKI were predominantly male, heavy alcohol drinkers, and smokers, and also had a higher rate of underlying hypertension than patients without AKI. At admission, patients with AKI had significantly higher white blood cell counts, prolonged prothrombin times, and elevated liver enzymes, including total and direct bilirubin, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and C-reactive protein. Additionally, patients with AKI had a higher peak total bilirubin level and lower initial serum albumin level than patients without AKI. Although most patients with AHA complicated by AKI recover with conservative treatment, we should pay particular attention to patients who have risk factors for AKI.

  6. Relationship between liver injury and serum cytokeratin 18 levels in asymptomatic hepatitis B virus carriers and in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

    PubMed

    Balkan, Ayhan; Yılmaz, Nimet; Balkan, Yasemin; Koruk, Irfan; Örkmez, Mustafa; Aydınlı, Musa; Koruk, Mehmet

    2017-06-01

    Apoptosis represents a well-known mechanism of cell death involved in most chronic liver injuries. Our aim was to investigate the serum fragment level of cytokeratin 18 (CK18), M30, in asymptomatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and to evaluate the relationship between serum M30 levels and the severity of hepatic injury. Asymptomatic HBV carriers (n=169), patients with CHB (n=100), and healthy control subjects (n=43) were enrolled in the study. Serum CK18 (M30) levels were analysed in all subjects. Liver biopsy for histopathological assessment was performed in asymptomatic HBV carriers and in patients with CHB infection. Serum CK18 (M30) levels were significantly higher in asymptomatic HBV carriers (198.77±77.62U/L) than in healthy control subjects (146.92±40.18U/L). Patients with CHB (283.02±147.45U/L) had significantly higher CK18 (M30) levels than asymptomatic HBV carriers (p=0.001). The diagnostic efficacy of CK18 (M30) levels in distinguishing patients with HBeAg-negative CHB from asymptomatic HBV carriers was found to be moderate (c-statistics: 0.695), and the diagnostic cut-off value of CK18 (M30) was 262U/L (specificity: 85%, sensitivity: 48%, positive likelihood ratio: 3.35, and negative likelihood ratio: 0.60). There was a positive correlation between serum CK18 (M30) levels and histological activity index scores in asymptomatic HBV carriers and patients with CHB. Serum CK18 (M30) levels may be a valuable indicator in distinguishing asymptomatic HBV carriers from patients with HBeAg-negative CHB when considered together with ALT and HBV-DNA levels. Copyright © 2017 Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary fat sources differentially modulate intestinal barrier and hepatic inflammation in alcohol-induced liver injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wei; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Sun, Xinguo; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Endotoxemia is a causal factor in the development of alcoholic liver injury. The present study aimed at determining the interactions of ethanol with different fat sources at the gut-liver axis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pair fed control or ethanol liquid diet for 8 wk. The liquid diets were based on a modified Lieber-DeCarli formula, with 30% total calories derived from corn oil (rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids). To test the effects of saturated fats, corn oil in the ethanol diet was replaced by either cocoa butter (CB, rich in long-chain saturated fatty acids) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, exclusively medium-chain saturated fatty acids). Ethanol feeding increased hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cell infiltration and perturbed hepatic and serum metabolite profiles. Ethanol feeding with CB or MCT alleviated ethanol-induced liver injury and attenuated ethanol-induced metabolic perturbation. Both CB and MCT also normalized ethanol-induced hepatic macrophage activation, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration. Ethanol feeding elevated serum endotoxin level, which was normalized by MCT but not CB. In accordance, ethanol-induced downregulations of intestinal occludin and zonula occludens-1 were normalized by MCT but not CB. However, CB normalized ethanol-increased hepatic endotoxin level in association with upregulation of an endotoxin detoxifying enzyme, argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1). Knockdown ASS1 in H4IIEC3 cells resulted in impaired endotoxin clearance and upregulated cytokine expression. These data demonstrate that the protection of saturated fats against alcohol-induced liver injury occur via different actions at the gut-liver axis and are chain length dependent. PMID:24113767

  8. Tezosentan, a Novel Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, Markedly Reduces Rat Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Three Different Models

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Douglas G.; Kaldas, Fady; Anselmo, Dean; Katori, Masamichi; Shen, Xiu-Da; Lassman, Charles; Kaldas, Marian; Clozel, Martine; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dual endothelin (ET) receptor blockade in rat models of liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). Three models of IRI were used: (1) in vivo total hepatic warm ischemia with portal shunting for 60 minutes with control (saline) and treatment groups (15 mg/kg tezosentan intravenously prior to reperfusion), (2) ex vivo hepatic perfusion after 24 hours of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution with control and treatment groups (10 mg/kg tezosentan in the perfusate), and (3) syngeneic liver transplantation (LT) after 24 hours of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution with control and treatment groups (10 mg/kg tezosentan intravenously prior to reperfusion). Tezosentan treatment significantly improved serum transaminase and histology after IRI in all 3 models. This correlated with reduced vascular resistance, improved bile production, and an improved oxygen extraction ratio. Treatment led to a reduction in neutrophil infiltration and interleukin-1 beta and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 production. A reduction in endothelial cell injury as measured by purine nucleoside phosphorylase was seen. Survival after LT was significantly increased with tezosentan treatment (90% versus 50%). In conclusion, this is the first investigation to examine dual receptor ET blockade in 3 models of hepatic IRI and the first to use the parenterally administered agent tezosentan. The results demonstrate that in both warm and cold IRI tezosentan administration improves sinusoidal hemodynamics and is associated with improved tissue oxygenation and reduced endothelial cell damage. In addition, reduced tissue inflammation, injury, and leukocyte chemotactic signaling were seen. These results provide compelling data for the further investigation of the use of tezosentan in hepatic IRI. PMID:19025917

  9. Interleukin-1 inhibition facilitates recovery from liver injury and promotes regeneration of hepatocytes in alcoholic hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Iracheta-Vellve, Arvin; Petrasek, Jan; Gyogyosi, Benedek; Bala, Shashi; Csak, Timea; Kodys, Karen; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration contribute to liver failure in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key inflammatory cytokine in the pathobiology of AH. The role of IL-1 in liver regeneration in the recovery phase of alcohol-induced liver injury is unknown. In this study, we tested IL-1 receptor antagonist to block IL-1 signalling in a mouse model of acute-on-chronic liver injury on liver inflammation and hepatocyte regeneration in AH. We observed that inhibition of IL-1 signalling decreased liver inflammation and neutrophil infiltration, and resulted in enhanced regeneration of hepatocytes and increased rate of recovery from liver injury in AH. Our novel findings suggest that IL-1 drives sustained liver inflammation and impaired hepatocyte regeneration even after cessation of ethanol exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Hepatic TNF-α Expression and Liver Injury via an IL-10- and PGE2-EP4-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Longxian; Yang, Jianzhuan; Lu, Haifeng; Li, Lanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has essential role in the pathogenesis of D-galactosamine-sensitized animal models and alcoholic liver diseases of humans, by stimulating release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause hepatic damage and intestinal barrier impairment. Oral pretreatment of probiotics has been shown to attenuate LPS-induced hepatic injury, but it is unclear whether the effect is direct or due to improvement in the intestinal barrier. The present study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with probiotics enables the liver to withstand directly LPS-induced hepatic injury and inflammation. In a mouse model of LPS-induced hepatic injury, the levels of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of mice with depleted intestinal commensal bacteria were not significantly different from that of the control models. Pre-feeding mice for 10 days with Lactobacillus fermentum ZYL0401 (LF41), significantly alleviated LPS-induced hepatic TNF-α expression and liver damage. After LF41 pretreatment, mice had dramatically more L.fermentum-specific DNA in the ileum, significantly higher levels of ileal cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and interleukin 10 (IL-10) and hepatic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, hepatic COX-1, COX-2, and IL-10 protein levels were not changed after the pretreatment. There were also higher hepatic IL-10 protein levels after LPS challenge in LF41-pretreaed mice than in the control mice. Attenuation of hepatic TNF-α was mediated via the PGE2/E prostanoid 4 (EP4) pathway, and serum ALT levels were attenuated in an IL-10-dependent manner. A COX-2 blockade abolished the increase in hepatic PGE2 and IL-10 associated with LF41. In LF41-pretreated mice, a blockade of IL-10 caused COX-2-dependent promotion of hepatic PGE2, without affecting hepatic COX-2levels. In LF41-pretreated mice, COX2 prevented enhancing TNF-α expression in both hepatic mononuclear cells and the ileum, and averted TNF-α-mediated increase in

  11. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young C.; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.

    2007-08-15

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomymore » also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards.« less

  12. Contrasting effects of cord injury on intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of diclofenac: a drug with intermediate hepatic extraction.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Antonio, L; Arauz, J; Franco-Bourland, R E; Guízar-Sahagún, G; Castañeda-Hernández, G

    2012-08-01

    Laboratory investigation in rats submitted to experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine the effect of acute SCI on the pharmacokinetics of diclofenac, a marker drug of intermediate hepatic extraction, administered by the intravenous and the oral routes. Female Wistar rats were submitted to complete section of the spinal cord at the T8 level. SCI and sham-injured rats received 3.2 mg kg(-1) of diclofenac sodium either intravenously or orally, diclofenac concentration was measured in whole blood samples and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Diclofenac was not selected as test drug because of its therapeutic properties, but because to its biopharmaceutical properties, that is, intermediate hepatic extraction. Diclofenac bioavailability after intravenous administration was increased in injured rats compared with controls due to a reduced clearance. In contrast, oral diclofenac bioavailability was diminished in SCI animals due to a reduction in drug absorption, which overrides the effect on clearance. Acute SCI induces significant pharmacokinetic changes for diclofenac, a marker drug with intermediate hepatic extraction. SCI-induced pharmacokinetic changes are not only determined by injury characteristics, but also by the route of administration and the biopharmaceutical properties of the studied drug.

  13. Diosmin Attenuates Methotrexate-Induced Hepatic, Renal, and Cardiac Injury: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Hesham A.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the beneficial role of diosmin, a biologically active flavonoid, against methotrexate- (MTX-) induced hepatic, renal, and cardiac injuries in mice. Male Swiss albino mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (at 20 mg/kg, body weight) either alone or in combination with oral diosmin (at 50 or 100 mg/kg body weight, for 10 days). Serum was used to evaluate tissue injury markers, while hepatic, renal, and cardiac tissue samples were obtained for determination of antioxidant activity as well as histopathological examination. Diosmin treatment ameliorated the MTX-induced elevation of serum alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases, urea, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinases as well as plasma proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1-beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha). Additionally, both diosmin doses significantly reduced tissue levels of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide and increased those of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase, compared to the MTX-intoxicated group. Histopathological examination showed that diosmin significantly minimized the MTX-induced histological alterations and nearly restored the normal architecture of hepatic, renal, and cardiac tissues. Based on these findings, diosmin may be a promising agent for protection against MTX-induced cytotoxicity in patients with cancer and autoimmune diseases. PMID:28819543

  14. Withaferin A induces Nrf2-dependent protection against liver injury: Role of Keap1-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Palliyaguru, Dushani L; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Skoko, John J; Yagishita, Yoko; Singh, Shivendra V; Kensler, Thomas W

    2016-12-01

    Small molecules of plant origin offer presumptively safe opportunities to prevent carcinogenesis, mutagenesis and other forms of toxicity in humans. However, the mechanisms of action of such plant-based agents remain largely unknown. In recent years the stress responsive transcription factor Nrf2 has been validated as a target for disease chemoprevention. Withania somnifera (WS) is a herb used in Ayurveda (an ancient form of medicine in South Asia). In the recent past, withanolides isolated from WS, such as Withaferin A (WA) have been demonstrated to be preventive and therapeutic against multiple diseases in experimental models. The goals of this study are to evaluate withanolides such as WA as well as Withania somnifera root extract as inducers of Nrf2 signaling, to probe the underlying signaling mechanism of WA and to determine whether prevention of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatic toxicity in mice by WA occurs in an Nrf2-dependent manner. We observed that WA profoundly protects wild-type mice but not Nrf2-disrupted mice against APAP hepatotoxicity. WA is a potent inducer of Nrf2-dependent cytoprotective enzyme expression both in vivo and in vitro. Unexpectedly, WA induces Nrf2 signaling at least in part, in a Keap1-independent, Pten/Pi3k/Akt-dependent manner in comparison to prototypical Nrf2 inducers, sulforaphane and CDDO-Im. The identification of WA as an Nrf2 inducer that can signal through a non-canonical, Keap1-independent pathway provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of other regulatory partners of Nrf2 in the dietary and pharmacological induction of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic alterations are accompanied by changes to bile acid transporter-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nizamutdinov, Damir; DeMorrow, Sharon; McMillin, Matthew; Kain, Jessica; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Frampton, Gabriel; Bricker, Paul Clint S; Hurst, Jacob; Shapiro, Lee A

    2017-01-20

    Annually, there are over 2 million incidents of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and treatment options are non-existent. While many TBI studies have focused on the brain, peripheral contributions involving the digestive and immune systems are emerging as factors involved in the various symptomology associated with TBI. We hypothesized that TBI would alter hepatic function, including bile acid system machinery in the liver and brain. The results show activation of the hepatic acute phase response by 2 hours after TBI, hepatic inflammation by 6 hours after TBI and a decrease in hepatic transcription factors, Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3 at 2 and 24 hrs after TBI. Bile acid receptors and transporters were decreased as early as 2 hrs after TBI until at least 24 hrs after TBI. Quantification of bile acid transporter, ASBT-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus, revealed a significant decrease following TBI. These results are the first to show such changes following a TBI, and are compatible with previous studies of the bile acid system in stroke models. The data support the emerging idea of a systemic influence to neurological disorders and point to the need for future studies to better define specific mechanisms of action.

  16. Hepatic alterations are accompanied by changes to bile acid transporter-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Nizamutdinov, Damir; DeMorrow, Sharon; McMillin, Matthew; Kain, Jessica; Mukherjee, Sanjib; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Frampton, Gabriel; Bricker, Paul Clint S.; Hurst, Jacob; Shapiro, Lee A.

    2017-01-01

    Annually, there are over 2 million incidents of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and treatment options are non-existent. While many TBI studies have focused on the brain, peripheral contributions involving the digestive and immune systems are emerging as factors involved in the various symptomology associated with TBI. We hypothesized that TBI would alter hepatic function, including bile acid system machinery in the liver and brain. The results show activation of the hepatic acute phase response by 2 hours after TBI, hepatic inflammation by 6 hours after TBI and a decrease in hepatic transcription factors, Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3 at 2 and 24 hrs after TBI. Bile acid receptors and transporters were decreased as early as 2 hrs after TBI until at least 24 hrs after TBI. Quantification of bile acid transporter, ASBT-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus, revealed a significant decrease following TBI. These results are the first to show such changes following a TBI, and are compatible with previous studies of the bile acid system in stroke models. The data support the emerging idea of a systemic influence to neurological disorders and point to the need for future studies to better define specific mechanisms of action. PMID:28106051

  17. Protectin D1 reduces concanavalin A-induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Shanshan; Yan, Bingdi; Yu, Jinyan; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group. PD1 pretreatment was demonstrated to significantly inhibit elevated plasma aminotransferase levels, high mobility group box 1 and liver necrosis, which were observed in Con A‑induced hepatitis. Furthermore, compared with the Con A group, PD1 pretreatment prevented the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and interleukin‑2, ‑1β and ‑6. In addition, pretreatment with PD1 markedly downregulated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cell infiltration in the liver. PD1 pretreatment was observed to suppress the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and Toll‑like receptor (TLR) 4 in liver tissue samples. Further data indicated that PD1 pretreatment inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) signaling pathway and chemokine (C‑X3‑C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) axis by preventing phosphorylation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α and NF‑κB in Con A‑induced liver injury. Therefore, these results suggest that PD1 administration protects mice against Con A‑induced liver injury via

  18. Exercise-Induced Release of Pharmacologically Active Substances and Their Relevance for Therapy of Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) features constant parenchymal injury and repair together with an increasing hepatic impairment, finally leading to fibrosis and cirrhosis and a heightened risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Closely related to the rise in obesity, the worldwide prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the most common form of CLD, has reached an epidemic dimension and is estimated to afflict up to 46% of the general population, including more than one out of three U.S. citizens. Up to now there is no effective drug treatment available, which is why recommendations encompass both exercise programs and changes in dietary habits. Exercise is well-known for unleashing potent anti-inflammatory effects, which can principally counteract liver inflammation and chronic low-grade inflammation. This review article summarizes the underlying mechanisms responsible for the exercise-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, illustrates the application in animal models as well as in humans, and highlights the therapeutic value when possible. Based on the available results there is no doubt that exercise can even be beneficial in an advanced stage of liver disease and it is the goal of this review article to provide evidence for the therapeutic impact on fibrosis, cirrhosis, and HCC and to assess whether exercise might be of value as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of CLD. In principle, all exercise programs carried out in these high-risk patients should be guided and observed by qualified healthcare professionals to guarantee the patients’ safety. Nevertheless, it is also necessary to additionally determine the optimal amount and intensity of exercise to maximize its value, which is why further studies are essential. PMID:27625607

  19. Multiple alterations of canalicular membrane transport activities in rats with CCl(4)-induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Im-Sook; Lee, Young-Mi; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2003-04-01

    The influence of CCl(4)-induced experimental hepatic injury (CCl(4)-EHI) on the expression and transport activities of primary active transporters on the canalicular membrane, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a bile salt export pump (Bsep) and a multidrug resistance associated protein2 (Mrp2), was assessed. CCl(4)-EHI was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of CCl(4) to rats at a dose of 1 ml/kg 24 h prior to the preparation of canalicular liver plasma membrane (cLPM) vesicles and pharmacokinetic studies. The expression of each transporter was measured for the vesicles via Western blot analysis at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after the injection of CCl(4). The in vivo canalicular excretion clearance (CL(exc)) of [(3)H]daunomycin, [(3)H]taurocholate and [(3)H]17beta-estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG), representative substrates of P-gp, Bsep, and Mrp2, respectively, was determined following an i.v. infusion to rats. The uptake of each substrate into cLPM vesicles in the presence of ATP was also measured by a rapid filtration technique. As the result of the CCl(4)-EHI, the protein level of transporters was altered as a function of time in multiple manners; it was increased by 3.6-fold for P-gp, unchanged for Bsep, and decreased by 73% for Mrp2 at 24 h. The in vivo CL(exc) and the intrinsic uptake clearance into cLPM vesicles (CL(int)) at 24 h after the CCl(4) injection (CCl(4)-EHI(24 h)) were also influenced by the EHI in a similar manner; they were increased by 1.8- and 1.9-fold for daunomycin, unchanged for taurocholate, and decreased by 41 and 39% for E(2)17betaG, respectively, consistent with multiple alterations in the expression of the relevant transporters.

  20. Apigenin inhibits d-galactosamine/LPS-induced liver injury through upregulation of hepatic Nrf-2 and PPARγ expressions in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Jun; Ye, Hua; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun-Long; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2017-11-04

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound widely distributed in a variety of vegetables, medicinal plants and health foods. This study aimed to examine the protective effect of apigenin against d-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse liver injury and to investigate the potential biochemical mechanisms. The results showed that after oral administration of apigenin 100-200 mg/kg for 7 days, the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were decreased, and the severity of liver injury was alleviated. Importantly, apigenin pretreatment increased the levels of hepatic nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein expressions as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase activities, decreased the levels of hepatic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein expression and tumor necrosis factor-α. These findings demonstrated that apigenin could prevent the D-GalN/LPS-induced liver injury in mice, and its mechanisms might be associated with the increments of Nrf-2-mediated antioxidative enzymes and modulation of PPARγ/NF-κB-mediated inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased serum enzyme levels associated with kupffer cell reduction with no signs of hepatic or skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Koza-Taylor, Petra H; Bell, Rosonald R; Obert, Leslie A; Runnels, Herbert A; Beebe, Jean S; Lawton, Michael P; Sadis, Seth

    2011-07-01

    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that is responsible for the survival and proliferation of monocytes and the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages, including Kupffer cells (KCs) in the liver. KCs play an important role in the clearance of several serum enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, that are typically elevated as a result of liver or skeletal muscle injury. We used three distinct animal models to investigate the hypothesis that increases in the levels of serum enzymes can be the result of decreases in KCs in the apparent absence of hepatic or skeletal muscle injury. Specifically, neutralizing M-CSF activity via a novel human monoclonal antibody reduced the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte population, depleted KCs, and increased aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase serum enzyme levels in cynomolgus macaques. In addition, the treatment of rats with clodronate liposomes depleted KCs and led to increased serum enzyme levels, again without evidence of tissue injury. Finally, in the osteopetrotic (Csf1(op)/Csf1(op)) mice lacking functional M-CSF and having reduced levels of KCs, the levels of serum enzymes are higher than in wild-type littermates. Together, these findings support a mechanism for increases in serum enzyme levels through M-CSF regulation of tissue macrophage homeostasis without concomitant histopathological changes in either the hepatic or skeletal system. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental and clinical evidence for modification of hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion injury by N-acetylcysteine during major liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jegatheeswaran, Santhalingam; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatic ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury occurs in both liver resectional surgery and in transplantation. The biochemistry of I/R injury involves short-lived oxygen free radicals. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a thiol-containing synthetic compound used in the treatment of acetaminophen toxicity. The present study is a detailed overview of the experimental and clinical evidence for the use of NAC as a pharmaco-protection agent in patients undergoing major liver surgery or transplantation. Methods A computerized search of the Medline, Embase and SCI databases for the period from 1st January 1988 to 31st December 2008 produced 40 reports. For clinical studies, the quality of reports was assessed according to the criteria reported by the Cochrane communication review group. Results Nineteen studies evaluated NAC in experimental liver I/R injury. NAC was administered before induction of ischaemia in 13. The most widely used concentration was 150 mg/kg by intravenous bolus. Fifteen studies report an improvement in outcome, predominantly a reduction in transaminase. Seven studies used an isolated perfused liver model with all showing improvement (predominantly an improvement in bile production after N-acetylcysteine). Two out of four transplantation models showed an improvement in hepatic function. Clinical studies in transplantation show a modest improvement in transaminase levels with no beneficial effect on either patient or graft survival. Conclusion N-acetylcysteine, given before induction of a liver I/R injury in an experimental model can ameliorate liver injury. Clinical outcome data are limited and there is currently little evidence to justify use either in liver transplantation or in liver resectional surgery. PMID:21241423

  3. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training.

    PubMed

    Du, Fang; Ding, Ye; Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage.

  4. Morphology and Molecular Mechanisms of Hepatic Injury in Rats under Simulated Weightlessness and the Protective Effects of Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Jun; Li, Zhili; Tian, Jijing; She, Ruiping; Wang, Desheng; Wang, Huijuan; Lv, Dongqiang; Chang, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of long-term simulated weightlessness on liver morphology, enzymes, glycogen, and apoptosis related proteins by using two-month rat-tail suspension model (TS), and liver injury improvement by rat-tail suspension with resistance training model (TS&RT). Microscopically the livers of TS rats showed massive granular degeneration, chronic inflammation, and portal fibrosis. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum swelling and loss of membrane integrity were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The similar, but milder, morphological changes were observed in the livers of TS&RT rats. Serum biochemistry analysis revealed that the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were significantly higher (p<0.05) in TS rats than in controls. The levels of ALT and AST in TS&RT rats were slightly lower than in RT rats, but they were insignificantly higher than in controls. However, both TS and TS&RT rats had significantly lower levels (p<0.05) of serum glucose and hepatic glycogen than in controls. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3 were higher in TS rats than in TS&RT and control rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) showed that TS rats had higher mRNA levels (P < 0.05) of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 transcription than in control rats; whereas mRNA expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were slightly higher in TS rats. TS&RT rats showed no significant differences of above 4 mRNAs compared with the control group. Our results demonstrated that long-term weightlessness caused hepatic injury, and may trigger hepatic apoptosis. Resistance training slightly improved hepatic damage. PMID:26000905

  5. Polarized release of hepatic microRNAs into bile and serum in response to cellular injury and impaired liver function.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Cornelia J; Farid, Waqar R R; Roest, Henk P; Ramakrishnaiah, Vedashree; de Ruiter, Petra E; de Jonge, Jeroen; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Metselaar, Herold J; Tilanus, Hugo W; Kazemier, Geert; Ijzermans, Jan N M; van der Laan, Luc J W

    2016-06-01

    Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in serum and bile are currently under intense investigation for biomarker purposes in liver disease. However, the directions and pathways by which miRNAs are released from hepatic cells remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the release of hepatocyte and cholangiocyte-derived miRNAs (HDmiRs and CDmiRs) into blood and bile during various (patho)physiological hepatic conditions. MiRNA release was analysed using longitudinally collected tissue and paired bile and serum samples (n = 124) that were obtained from liver transplant recipients during follow-up. Cell-type specificity of HDmiRs and CDmiRs was confirmed in liver and common bile duct biopsies (P < 0.001). Analysis of paired bile and serum samples showed up to 20-times higher miRNA-levels in bile compared to serum (P < 0.0001). Fractionation of bile showed the majority of miRNAs being present in the unpelletable supernatant, where protein conjunctions protect miRNAs against degradation (P < 0.0001). During episodes of liver injury and histologically proven rejection in liver transplant recipients, relative HDmiR-levels in bile decreased while its levels in serum increased (P ≤ 0.015). Simultaneously, relative CDmiR-levels in bile significantly increased, while their levels in serum decreased. Related to liver excretory function, a strong positive correlation was observed between HDmiR-122 levels and bilirubin excretion into bile (R = 0.694, P < 0.0001), whereas CDmiRs showed an inverse correlation (P < 0.05). During impaired excretory function and injury, the liver shows polarized release of extracellular HDmiRs and CDmiRs. This sheds new light on the biology of hepatic miRNA release which is relevant for the interpretation of hepatic miRNAs as biomarkers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Biochemical metabolic changes assessed by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy after radiation-induced hepatic injury in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ri-Sheng; Hao, Liang; Dong, Fei; Mao, Jian-Shan; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Ying; Lin, Min; Wang, Zhi-Kang; Ding, Wen-Hong

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare the features of biochemical metabolic changes detected by hepatic phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) with the liver damage score (LDS) and pathologic changes in rabbits and to investigate the diagnostic value of 31P MRS in acute hepatic radiation injury. METHODS: A total of 30 rabbits received different radiation doses (ranging 5-20 Gy) to establish acute hepatic injury models. Blood biochemical tests, 31P MRS and pathological examinations were carried out 24 h after irradiation. The degree of injury was evaluated according to LDS and pathology. Ten healthy rabbits served as controls. The MR examination was performed on a 1.5 T imager using a 1H/31P surface coil by the 2D chemical shift imaging technique. The relative quantities of phosphomonoesters (PME), phosphodiesters (PDE), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were measured. The data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: (1) Relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites: (a) ATP: there were significant differences (P < 0.05) (LDS-groups: control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group, 1.83 ± 0.33 vs 1.55 ± 0.24 vs 1.27 ± 0.09 vs 0.98 ± 0.18; pathological groups: control group vs mild group vs moderate group vs severe group, 1.83 ± 0.33 vs 1.58 ± 0.25 vs 1.32 ± 0.07 vs 1.02 ± 0.18) of ATP relative quantification among control group, mild injured group, moderate injured group, and severe injured group according to both LDS grading and pathological grading, respectively, and it decreased progressively with the increased degree of injury (r = -0.723, P = 0.000). (b) PME and Pi; the relative quantification of PME and Pi decreased significantly in the severe injured group, and the difference between the control group and severe injured group was significant (P < 0.05) (PME: LDS-control group vs LDS-severe group, 0.86 ± 0.23 vs 0.58 ± 0.22, P = 0.031; pathological control group vs pathological severe group, 0.86 ± 0.23 vs 0.60

  7. Heme Oxygenase-1 Protects Corexit 9500A-Induced Respiratory Epithelial Injury across Species

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, Octavio M.; Karki, Suman; Surolia, Ranu; Wang, Zheng; Watson, R. Douglas; Thannickal, Victor J.; Powell, Mickie; Watts, Stephen; Kulkarni, Tejaswini; Batra, Hitesh; Bolisetty, Subhashini; Agarwal, Anupam; Antony, Veena B.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Corexit 9500A (CE) on respiratory epithelial surfaces of terrestrial mammals and marine animals are largely unknown. This study investigated the role of CE-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-apoptotic and antioxidant activity, in human bronchial airway epithelium and the gills of exposed aquatic animals. We evaluated CE-mediated alterations in human airway epithelial cells, mice lungs and gills from zebrafish and blue crabs. Our results demonstrated that CE induced an increase in gill epithelial edema and human epithelial monolayer permeability, suggesting an acute injury caused by CE exposure. CE induced the expression of HO-1 as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) and NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), which are associated with ROS production. Importantly, CE induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent apoptosis of epithelial cells. The expression of the intercellular junctional proteins, such as tight junction proteins occludin, zonula occludens (ZO-1), ZO-2 and adherens junctional proteins E-cadherin and Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), were remarkably inhibited by CE, suggesting that these proteins are involved in CE-induced increased permeability and subsequent apoptosis. The cytoskeletal protein F-actin was also disrupted by CE. Treatment with carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) significantly inhibited CE-induced ROS production, while the addition of HO-1 inhibitor, significantly increased CE-induced ROS production and apoptosis, suggesting a protective role of HO-1 or its reaction product, CO, in CE-induced apoptosis. Using HO-1 knockout mice, we further demonstrated that HO-1 protected against CE-induced inflammation and cellular apoptosis and corrected CE-mediated inhibition of E-cadherin and FAK. These observations suggest that CE activates CRP and NOX4-mediated ROS production, alters permeability by inhibition of junctional proteins, and leads to caspase-3 dependent apoptosis of epithelial cells, while HO-1 and its

  8. Hepatic overexpression of the prodomain of furin lessens progression of atherosclerosis and reduces vascular remodeling in response to injury.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xia; Basu, Debapriya; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Maoxiang; Rudic, R Dan; Jiang, Xian-Cheng; Jin, Weijun

    2014-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease, involving elevated LDL-c, lipid accumulation in the blood vessel wall, foam cell formation and vascular dysfunction. Lowering plasma LDL-c is the cornerstone of current management of cardiovascular disease. However, new approaches which reduce plasma LDL-c and lessen the pathological vascular remodeling occurring in the disease should also have therapeutic value. Previously, we found that overexpression of profurin, the 83-amino acid prodomain of the proprotein convertase furin, lowered plasma HDL levels in wild-type mice. The question that remained was whether it had effects on apolipoprotein B (ApoB)-containing lipoproteins. Adenovirus mediated overexpression of hepatic profurin in Ldlr(-/-)mice and wild-type mice were used to evaluate effects of profurin on ApoB-containing lipoproteins, atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Hepatic profurin overexpression resulted in a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesion development in Ldlr(-/-)mice and a robust reduction in plasma LDL-c. Metabolic studies revealed lower secretion of ApoB and triglycerides in VLDL particles. Mechanistic studies showed that in the presence of profurin, hepatic ApoB, mainly ApoB100, was degraded by proteasomes. There was no effect on ApoB mRNA expression. Importantly, short-term hepatic profurin overexpression did not result in hepatic lipid accumulation. Blood vessel wall thickening caused by either wire-induced femoral artery injury or common carotid artery ligation was reduced. Profurin expression inhibited proliferation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. These results indicate that a profurin-based therapy has the potential to treat atherosclerosis by improving metabolic lipid profiles and reducing both atherosclerotic lesion development and pathological vascular remodeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.

    PubMed

    Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury.

  10. Polyunsaturated fat in the methionine-choline-deficient diet influences hepatic inflammation but not hepatocellular injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gene S; Yan, Jim S; Ng, Raymond K; Kakar, Sanjay; Maher, Jacquelyn J

    2007-08-01

    Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diets that cause steatohepatitis in rodents are typically enriched in polyunsaturated fat. To determine whether the fat composition of the MCD formula influences the development of liver disease, we manufactured custom MCD formulas with fats ranging in PUFA content from 2% to 59% and tested them for their ability to induce steatohepatitis. All modified-fat MCD formulas caused identical degrees of hepatic steatosis and resulted in a similar distribution of fat within individual hepatic lipid compartments. The fatty acid composition of hepatic lipids, however, reflected the fat composition of the diet. Mice fed a PUFA-rich MCD formula showed extensive hepatic lipid peroxidation, induction of proinflammatory genes, and histologic inflammation. When PUFAs were substituted with more saturated fats, lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory gene induction, and hepatic inflammation all declined significantly. Despite the close relationship between PUFAs and hepatic inflammation in mice fed MCD formulas, dietary fat had no impact on MCD-mediated damage to hepatocytes. Indeed, histologic apoptosis and serum alanine aminotransferase levels were comparable in all MCD-fed mice regardless of dietary fat content. Together, these results indicate that dietary PUFAs promote hepatic inflammation but not hepatotoxicity in the MCD model of liver disease. These findings emphasize that individual dietary nutrients can make specific contributions to steatohepatitis.

  11. Acute lethal toxicity, hyperkalemia associated with renal injury and hepatic damage after intravenous administration of cadmium nitrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Dote, Emi; Dote, Tomotaro; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Shimbo, Yukari; Fujihara, Michiko; Kono, Koichi

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium nitrate Cd(NO(3))(2) (CdN) is commonly used in Ni-Cd battery factories. The possibility of accidental exposure to CdN is great. CdN is very soluble in water compared to other Cd compounds. Therefore, acute toxicity would be expected to be quick due to rapid absorption after exposure. However, the mechanisms of CdN toxicity have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the acute lethal toxicity and harmful systemic effects of acute exposure to large doses of CdN. The lethal dose and dose-response study of the liver and kidney were determined after intravenous administration of CdN in rats. The LD(50) of CdN was determined to be 5.5 mg/kg. Doses of 2.1, 4.2, 6.3 mg/kg were selected for the dose-response study. Liver injury was induced at doses greater than 4.2 mg/kg. Severe hepatic injury occurred in the 6.3 mg/kg group, which would have been caused by acute exposure to the high concentration of Cd that exceeded the critical concentration in hepatic tissue. A remarkable decrease in urine volume in the 6.3 mg/kg group indicated acute renal failure. A decrease in creatinine clearance suggested acute glomerular dysfunction at doses greater than 4.2 mg/kg. Increases in urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase/creatinine, beta(2)-microglobulin and glucose in the 6.3 mg/kg group indicated proximal tubular injury. Secretion of K ion was also severely affected by proximal tubular injury and severe decreases in urine volume, and an increase in serum K ion was identified at doses greater than 4.2 mg/kg. Thus severe hyperkalemia might be associated with the cardiac-derived lethal toxicity of CdN.

  12. Multidisciplinary approach for the management of complex hepatic injuries AAST-OIS grades IV-V: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Asensio, J A; Petrone, P; García-Núñez, L; Kimbrell, B; Kuncir, E

    2007-01-01

    Complex hepatic injuries grades IV-V are highly lethal. The objective of this study is to assess the multidisciplinary approach for their management and to evaluate if survival could be improved with this approach. Prospective 54-month study of all patients sustaining hepatic injuries grades IV-V managed operatively at a Level I Trauma Center. survival. univariate and stepwise logistic regression. Seventy-five patients sustained penetrating (47/63%) and blunt (28/37%) injuries. Seven (9%) patients underwent emergency department thoracotomy with a mortality of 100%. Out of the 75 patients, 52 (69%) sustained grade IV, and 23 (31%) grade V. The estimated blood loss was 3,539+/-3,040 ml. The overall survival was 69%, adjusted survival excluding patients requiring emergency department thoracotomy was 76%. Survival stratified to injury grade: grade IV 42/52-81%, grade V 10/23-43%. Mortality grade IV versus V injuries (p < 0.002; RR 2.94; 95% CI 1.52-5.70). Risk factors for mortality: packed red blood cells transfused in operating room (p=0.024), estimated blood loss (p < 0.001), dysryhthmia (p < 0.0001), acidosis (p = 0.051), hypothermia (p = 0.04). The benefit of angiography and angioembolization indicated: 12% mortality (2/17) among those that received it versus a 36% mortality (21/58) among those that did not (p = 0.074; RR 0.32; 95% CI 0.08-1.25). Stepwise logistic regression identified as significant independent predictors of outcome: estimated blood loss (p= 0.0017; RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.08-1.41) and number of packed red blood cells transfused in the operating room (p = 0.0358; RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.01-1.34). The multidisciplinary approach to the management of these severe grades of injuries appears to improve survival in these highly lethal injuries. A prospective multi-institutional study is needed to validate this approach.

  13. Pretreatment with propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate ameliorated concanavalin A-induced liver injury by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shizan; Wu, Liwei; Zhang, Qinghui; Feng, Jiao; Li, Sainan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Mo, Wenhui; Wang, Wenwen; Lu, Xiya; Yu, Qiang; Chen, Kan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Xu, Ling; Zhou, Yingqun; Fan, Xiaoming; Guo, Chuanyong

    2017-09-15

    Propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS), a sulfated polysaccharide possesses anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effect of PSS on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced liver injury in mice and examined the underlying mechanisms. Balb/C mice were injected intravenously with Con A (25mg/kg) to generate a model of acute liver injury. PSS (25 or 50mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h before the Con A administration. The levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined, and liver injury was assessed histopathologically 2, 8, and 24h after Con A injection. Pretreatment with PSS reduced the levels of serum liver enzymes, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β, and attenuated histopathological damage in Con A-induced liver injury in mice. The effects of Con A were mediated by apoptosis and autophagy, as indicated by changes in protein and gene expression of related factors after Con A injection. PSS activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway and showed a protective function against apoptosis and autophagy. PSS ameliorated Con A-induced liver injury by downregulating inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α and IL-1β and regulating apoptosis and autophagy via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Hepatic CD14 Expression between Two Different Endotoxin Shock Model Mice: Relation between Hepatic Injury and CD14 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hozumi, Hiroyasu; Tada, Rui; Murakami, Taisuke; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    CD14 is a glycoprotein that recognizes gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exists in both membrane-bound and soluble forms. Infectious and/or inflammatory diseases induce CD14 expression, which may be involved in the pathology of endotoxin shock. We previously found that the expression of CD14 protein differs among the endotoxin shock models used, although the reasons for these differences are unclear. We hypothesized that the differences in CD14 expression might be due to liver injury, because the hepatic tissue produces CD14 protein. We investigated CD14 expression in the plasma and liver in the carrageenan (CAR)-primed and D-galN-primed mouse models of endotoxin shock. Our results showed that severe liver injury was not induced in CAR-primed endotoxin shock model mice. In this CAR-primed model, the higher mRNA and protein expression of CD14 was observed in the liver, especially in the interlobular bile duct in contrast to D-galN-primed-endotoxin shock model mice. Our findings indicated that the molecular mechanism(s) underlying septic shock in CAR-primed and D-galN-primed endotoxin shock models are quite different. Because CD14 expression is correlated with clinical observations, the CAR-primed endotoxin shock model might be useful for studying the functions of CD14 during septic shock in vivo. PMID:23308276

  15. Operative management and outcomes in 103 AAST-OIS grades IV and V complex hepatic injuries: trauma surgeons still need to operate, but angioembolization helps.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Juan A; Roldán, Gustavo; Petrone, Patrizio; Rojo, Esther; Tillou, Areti; Kuncir, Eric; Demetriades, Demetrios; Velmahos, George; Murray, James; Shoemaker, William C; Berne, Thomas V; Chan, Linda

    2003-04-01

    American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) Organ Injury Scale (OIS) grades IV and V complex hepatic injuries are highly lethal. Our objectives were to review experience and identify predictors of outcome and to evaluate the role of angioembolization in decreasing mortality. This was a retrospective 8-year study of all patients sustaining AAST-OIS grades IV and V hepatic injuries managed operatively. Statistical analysis was performed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The main outcome measure was survival. The study included 103 patients, with a mean Revised Trauma Score of 5.61 +/- 2.55 and a mean Injury Severity Score of 33 +/- 9.5. Mechanism of injury was penetrating in 80 (79%) and blunt in 23 (21%). Emergency department thoracotomy was performed in 21 (25%). AAST grade IV injuries occurred in 51 (47%) and grade V injuries occurred in 52 (53%). Mean estimated blood loss was 9,414 mL. Overall survival was 43%. Adjusted overall survival rate after emergency department thoracotomy patients were excluded was 58%. Results stratified to AAST-OIS injury grade were as follows: grade IV, 32 of 51 (63%); grade V, 12 of 52 (23%); grade IV versus grade V (p < 0.001) odds ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 2.72 (1.40-3.04). Logistic regression analysis identified as independent predictors of outcome Revised Trauma Score (adjusted p < 0.0002), angioembolization (adjusted p < 0.0177), direct approach to hepatic veins (adjusted p < 0.0096), and packing (adjusted p < 0.0013). Improvements in mortality can be achieved with an appropriate operative approach. Angioembolization as an adjunct procedure decreases mortality in AAST-OIS grades IV and V hepatic injuries.

  16. Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury in mice via inhibiting JNK/ERK MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai-Yan; Lian, Li-Hua; Jiang, Ying-Zi; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the in vivo hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms of Gentiana manshurica Kitagawa (GM) in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury in mice. METHODS: GM (200, 150 or 50 mg/kg body weight) or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC; 300 mg/kg body weight) was administrated orally with a single dose 2 h prior to APAP (300 mg/kg body weight) injection in mice. RESULTS: APAP treatment significantly depleted hepatic glutathione (GSH), increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal levels, and decreased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, the pretreatment of GM significantly alleviated APAP-induced oxidative stress by increasing GSH content, decreasing serum ALT, AST and MDA, and retaining the activity of GSH-px and SOD in the liver. Furthermore, GM pretreatment can inhibit caspase-3 activation and phosphorylation of c-Jun-NH2-terminal protein kinase 2 (JNK1/2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). GM also remarkably attenuated hepatocyte apoptosis confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling method. CONCLUSION: Hepatoprotective effects of GM against APAP-induced acute toxicity are mediated either by preventing the decline of hepatic antioxidant status or its direct anti-apoptosis capacity. These results support that GM is a potent hepatoprotective agent. PMID:20082487

  17. Differential effects of traumatic brain injury on the cytochrome p450 system: a perspective into hepatic and renal drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kalsotra, Auinash; Turman, Cheri M; Dash, Pramod K; Strobel, Henry W

    2003-12-01

    Traumatic brain injury is known to cause several secondary effects, one of which is altered drug clearance. Given the fact that patients who sustain TBI are subsequently treated with a variety of pharmacological agents for the purpose of either neuroprotection or physiological support, it is imperative to clarify changes in expression and/or activities of enzymes involved in clearing drugs. The mixed function oxidase system, which consists of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase, plays a vital role in phase I drug metabolism. This paper addresses the issue as to what extent TBI affects the levels and activity of various rat CYP450 subfamilies. Our results show that TBI induces tissue-specific and time-dependent alterations. Total hepatic CYP450 content showed a biphasic response with a decrease seen at 24 h followed by an increase at 2 weeks. CYP450 reductase, in contrast, showed an opposite temporal profile. Immunoblot analyses and marker substrate metabolism demonstrated a clear decrease in hepatic CYP1A levels while a significant increase in kidney was seen at both 24 h and 2 weeks. A dramatic induction of CYP3A was evident at 2 weeks in liver, while no changes were noticed in CYP2B or CYP2D subfamilies. CYP4F subfamily showed induction in kidney only. Collectively, the data reveal the differential effects of TBI on hepatic and renal drug metabolism.

  18. Multiphoton microscopy can visualize zonal damage and decreased cellular metabolic activity in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorling, Camilla A.; Liu, Xin; Burczynski, Frank J.; Fletcher, Linda M.; Gobe, Glenda C.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-11-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a common occurrence in liver surgery. In orthotopic transplantation, the donor liver is exposed to periods of ischemia and when oxygenated blood is reintroduced to the liver, oxidative stress may develop and lead to graft failure. The aim of this project was to investigate whether noninvasive multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, without external markers, were useful in detecting early liver damage caused by I/R injury. Localized hepatic ischemia was induced in rats for 1 h followed by 4 h reperfusion. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy was conducted prior to ischemia and up to 4 h of reperfusion and compared to morphological and biochemical assessment of liver damage. Liver function was significantly impaired at 2 and 4 h of reperfusion. Multiphoton microscopy detected liver damage at 1 h of reperfusion, manifested by vacuolated cells and heterogeneous spread of damage over the liver. The damage was mainly localized in the midzonal region of the liver acinus. In addition, fluorescence lifetime imaging showed a decrease in cellular metabolic activity. Multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy detected evidence of early I/R injury both structurally and functionally. This provides a simple noninvasive technique useful for following progressive liver injury without external markers.

  19. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation triggers inflammatory response and tissue injury associated with hepatic ischemia-reperfusion: therapeutic potential of mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Horváth, Bėla; Zsengellėr, Zsuzsanna; Bátkai, Sándor; Cao, Zongxian; Kechrid, Malek; Holovac, Eileen; Erdėlyi, Katalin; Tanchian, Galin; Liaudet, Lucas; Stillman, Isaac E.; Joseph, Joy; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, however its exact role and its spatial-temporal relationship with inflammation are elusive. Herein we explored the spatial-temporal relationship of oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory response during the course of hepatic I/R and the possible therapeutic potential of mitochondrial-targeted antioxidants, using a mouse model of segmental hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hepatic I/R was characterized by early (at 2 hours of reperfusion) mitochondrial injury, decreased complex I activity, increased oxidant generation in the liver or liver mitochondria, and profound hepatocellular injury/dysfunction with acute pro-inflammatory response (TNF-α, MIP-1αCCL3, MIP-2/CXCL2) without inflammatory cell infiltration, followed by marked neutrophil infiltration and more pronounced secondary wave of oxidative/nitrative stress in the liver (starting from 6 hours of reperfusion and peaking at 24 hours). Mitochondrially-targeted antioxidants, MitoQ or Mito-CP, dose-dependently attenuated I/R-induced liver dysfunction, the early and delayed oxidative and nitrative stress response (HNE/carbonyl adducts, malondialdehyde, 8-OHdG, and 3-nitrotyrosine formation), mitochondrial and histopathological injury/dysfunction, as well as delayed inflammatory cell infiltration and cell death. Mitochondrially generated oxidants play a central role in triggering the deleterious cascade of events associated with hepatic I/R, which may be targeted by novel antioxidants for therapeutic advantage. PMID:22683818

  20. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Causes Liver Injury in High-Fructose-Fed Male Mice Through Enhanced Hepatic Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ming; Chen, Theresa; Prough, Russell A.; Cave, Matthew C.; McClain, Craig J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity and the metabolic syndrome occur in approximately one-third of patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The increased consumption of fructose parallels the increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in the United States and worldwide. In this study, we investigated whether dietary high fructose potentiates chronic alcohol-induced liver injury, and explored potential mechanism(s). Methods Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to 4 groups: control, high fructose, chronic ethanol (EtOH), and high fructose plus chronic alcohol. The mice were fed either control diet or high-fructose diet (60%, w/w) for 18 weeks. Chronic alcohol-fed mice were given 20% (v/v) ethanol (Meadows-Cook model) ad libitum as the only available liquid from the 9th week through the 18th week. Liver injury, steatosis, hepatic inflammatory gene expression, and copper status were assessed. Results High-fructose diet and chronic alcohol consumption alone each induce hepatic fat accumulation and impair copper status. However, the combination of dietary high fructose plus chronic alcohol synergistically induced liver injury as evidenced by robustly increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, but the combination did not exacerbate hepatic fat accumulation nor worsen copper status. Moreover, FE-fed mice were characterized by prominent microvesicular steatosis. High-fructose diet and chronic alcohol ingestion together led to a significant up-regulation of Kupffer cell (KC) M1 phenotype gene expression (e.g., tumor necrosis factor-a and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling gene expression, which is also associated with the up-regulation of KCs and activation marker gene expression, including Emr1, CD68, and CD163. Conclusions Our data suggest that dietary high fructose may potentiate chronic alcohol consumption-induced liver injury. The underlying mechanism might be due to the

  1. Mechanism of estrogen-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage: Akt-dependent HO-1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jun-Te; Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Schwacha, Martin G; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2007-10-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt) is known to be involved in proinflammatory and chemotactic events in response to injury. Akt activation also leads to the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 mediates potent, anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates organ injury. Although studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) prevents organ damage following trauma-hemorrhage, it remains unknown whether Akt/HO-1 plays any role in E2-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage. To study this, male rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure, approximately 40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by fluid resuscitation. At the onset of resuscitation, rats were treated with vehicle, E2 (1 mg/kg body weight), E2 plus the PI-3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI 182,780). At 2 h after sham operation or trauma-hemorrhage, plasma alpha-GST and hepatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IL-6, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and MIP-2 levels were measured. Hepatic Akt and HO-1 protein levels were also determined. Trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic injury markers (alpha-GST and MPO activity), cytokines, ICAM-1, and chemokine levels. These parameters were markedly improved in the E2-treated rats following trauma-hemorrhage. E2 treatment also increased hepatic Akt activation and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated, trauma-hemorrhage rats, which were abolished by coadministration of Wortmannin or ICI 182,780. These results suggest that the salutary effects of E2 on hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage are in part mediated via an ER-related, Akt-dependent up-regulation of HO-1.

  2. Insulin in UW solution exacerbates hepatic ischemia / reperfusion injury by energy depletion through the IRS-2 / SREBP-1c pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian Liang; Man, Kwan; Ng, Kevin T; Lee, Terence K; Lo, Chung Mau; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2004-09-01

    Ischemia / reperfusion (I / R) injury is related to tissue graft energy status. Insulin, which is currently used in the University of Wisconsin (UW) preservation solution with insulin (UWI), is an anabolic hormone and was shown to exacerbate the hepatic I / R injury in our previous study. In this study, the energy status and regulation of metabolism genes by insulin were investigated in liver grafts preserved by UW solution. Insulin could significantly decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level after 3 hours of preservation, as well as total adenine nucleotides (TANs) and energy charge (EC) levels. Energy regeneration deteriorated in the grafts preserved by insulin in terms of ATP and EC levels at 24 hours after transplantation. The insulin signal was transduced through the insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) pathway and the activity of IRS-2 was decreased gradually at the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level during cold preservation. Downstream targeting genes such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), glucokinase (GKC), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) genes, as well as phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) were activated and they showed the similar expression profiles during cold preservation. Lipoprotein metabolism was accelerated by insulin through upregulation of the activity of apolipoprotein C-III (Apo C-III) during cold preservation. The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 pathway was inhibited during cold preservation. In conclusion, insulin in UW solution exacerbates hepatic I / R injury by energy depletion as the graft maintains its anabolic activity. The key enzyme activities of the energy-consuming process of glycogen and fatty acid synthesis as well as lipoprotein metabolism were accelerated by insulin through the IRS-2 / SREBP-1c pathway.

  3. CD248/endosialin critically regulates hepatic stellate cell proliferation during chronic liver injury via a PDGF-regulated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Annika; Aldridge, Victoria; Haldar, Debashis; Naylor, Amy J; Weston, Christopher J; Hedegaard, Ditte; Garg, Abhilok; Fear, Janine; Reynolds, Gary M; Croft, Adam P; Henderson, Neil C; Buckley, Christopher D; Newsome, Philip N

    2016-07-01

    CD248 (endosialin) is a stromal cell marker expressed on fibroblasts and pericytes. During liver injury, myofibroblasts are the main source of fibrotic matrix. To determine the role of CD248 in the development of liver fibrosis in the rodent and human setting. CD248 expression was studied by immunostaining and quantitative PCR in both normal and diseased human and murine liver tissue and isolated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Hepatic fibrosis was induced in CD248(-/-) and wild-type controls with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment. Expression of CD248 was seen in normal liver of humans and mice but was significantly increased in liver injury using both immunostaining and gene expression assays. CD248 was co-expressed with a range of fibroblast/HSC markers including desmin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in murine and human liver sections. CD248 expression was restricted to isolated primary murine and human HSC. Collagen deposition and α-SMA expression, but not inflammation and neoangiogenesis, was reduced in CD248(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice after CCl4 treatment. Isolated HSC from wild-type and CD248(-/-) mice expressed platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α) and PDGFR-β at similar levels. As expected, PDGF-BB stimulation induced proliferation of wild-type HSC, whereas CD248(-/-) HSC did not demonstrate a proliferative response to PDGF-BB. Abrogated PDGF signalling in CD248(-/-) HSC was confirmed by significantly reduced c-fos expression in CD248(-/-) HSC compared with wild-type HSC. Our data show that deletion of CD248 reduces susceptibility to liver fibrosis via an effect on PDGF signalling, making it an attractive clinical target for the treatment of liver injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Carbon Monoxide Protects against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via ROS-Dependent Akt Signaling and Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kong, Jin Sun; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Ryter, Stefan W.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may exert important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states through the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. CO can protect organ tissues from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by modulating intracellular redox status and by inhibiting inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CO in organ I/R injury remain incompletely understood. In this study, a murine model of hepatic warm I/R injury was employed to assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways in the protective effects of CO against inflammation and injury. Inhibition of GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway played a crucial role in CO-mediated protection. CO treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3-beta (GSK3β) in the liver after I/R injury. Furthermore, administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, compromised the protective effect of CO and decreased the level of phospho-GSK3β after I/R injury. These results suggest that CO protects against liver damage by maintaining GSK3β phosphorylation, which may be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides additional support for the therapeutic potential of CO in organ injury and identifies GSK3β as a therapeutic target for CO in the amelioration of hepatic injury. PMID:24454979

  5. Carbon monoxide protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury via ROS-dependent Akt signaling and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Joe, Yeonsoo; Kong, Jin Sun; Jeong, Sun-Oh; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Ryter, Stefan W; Chung, Hun Taeg

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may exert important roles in physiological and pathophysiological states through the regulation of cellular signaling pathways. CO can protect organ tissues from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by modulating intracellular redox status and by inhibiting inflammatory, apoptotic, and proliferative responses. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of CO in organ I/R injury remain incompletely understood. In this study, a murine model of hepatic warm I/R injury was employed to assess the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent signaling pathways in the protective effects of CO against inflammation and injury. Inhibition of GSK3 through the PI3K/Akt pathway played a crucial role in CO-mediated protection. CO treatment increased the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3-beta (GSK3β) in the liver after I/R injury. Furthermore, administration of LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3K, compromised the protective effect of CO and decreased the level of phospho-GSK3β after I/R injury. These results suggest that CO protects against liver damage by maintaining GSK3β phosphorylation, which may be mediated by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Our study provides additional support for the therapeutic potential of CO in organ injury and identifies GSK3β as a therapeutic target for CO in the amelioration of hepatic injury.

  6. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 targets hypoxia-inducible factor 1α to protect against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Lu, Yue-Xin; Cheng, Daqing; Zhang, Kuo; Zheng, Jilin; Liu, Yupeng; Wang, Xiaozhan; Yuan, Yu-Feng; Tang, Yi-Da

    2018-05-09

    Sterile inflammation is an essential factor causing hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. As a critical regulator of inflammation, the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) in hepatic I/R injury remains undetermined. In this study, we discovered that MCPIP1 downregulation was associated with hepatic I/R injury in liver transplant patients and a mouse model. Hepatocyte-specific Mcpip1 gene knockout (HKO) and transgenic (HTG) mice demonstrated that MCPIP1 functions to ameliorate liver damage, reduce inflammation, prevent cell death, and promote regeneration. A mechanistic study revealed that MCPIP1 interacted with and maintained hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression by deubiquitinating HIF-1α. Notably, HIF-1α inhibitor reversed the protective effect of MCPIP1, while HIF-1α activator compensated for the detrimental effect of MCPIP1 deficiency. Thus, we identified the MCPIP1-HIF-1α axis as a critical pathway that may be a good target for intervention in hepatic I/R injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. A pilot study of the use of kaolin-impregnated gauze (Combat Gauze) for packing high-grade hepatic injuries in a hypothermic coagulopathic swine model.

    PubMed

    Sena, Matthew J; Douglas, Geoffrey; Gerlach, Travis; Grayson, J Kevin; Pichakron, Kullada O; Zierold, Dustin

    2013-08-01

    Severe hepatic injuries may be highly lethal, and perihepatic packing remains the mainstay of treatment. This is not always successful, particularly in the setting of hypothermia and coagulopathy. Kaolin-impregnated Combat Gauze (CG) is an effective hemostatic dressing used primarily to treat external wounds. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of CG to control severe hemorrhage in hypothermic, coagulopathic swine with a high-grade hepatic injury. Anesthetized animals underwent splenectomy and were cooled to 32°C while undergoing a 60% exchange transfusion with Hextend. A grade V liver injury was created in the left middle hepatic lobe. Animals were allowed to freely bleed for 30 s and then randomized to treatment with CG or plain gauze laparotomy pads (PG) applied to the injury site. Animals were then resuscitated with warmed Hextend. There was no difference between groups in preinjury hemodynamic or laboratory values. Animals packed with CG had less blood loss when compared with standard packing (CG = 25 mL/kg versus PG = 58 mL/kg, P = 0.05). There was a trend towards lower hetastarch resuscitation requirements in the CG group (CG = 7 mL/kg versus PG = 44 mL/kg, P = 0.06) but no statistically significant difference in mortality (CG = 13% versus PG = 50%, P = 0.11). Histology of the injury sites revealed more adherent clot in the CG group, but no inflammation, tissue necrosis, or residual material. In pigs with severe hepatic injury, Combat Gauze reduced blood loss and resuscitation requirements when compared with plain laparotomy pads. Combat Gauze may be safe and effective for use on severe liver injuries. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Apigenin protects against alcohol-induced liver injury in mice by regulating hepatic CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress and PPARα-mediated lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Liu, Jin-Cheng; Zhou, Rui-Jun; Zhao, Xi; Liu, Mei; Ye, Hua; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2017-09-25

    Alcohol is a major cause of liver injury, and there are currently no ideal pharmacological reagents that can prevent or reverse this disease. Apigenin is one of the most common flavonoids present in numerous plants and has many beneficial effects. But whether or not apigenin may protect against alcohol-induced liver injury remains unknown. Our aim was to examine the effect and potential mechanisms. The experimental mice were given 56% erguotou wine or simultaneously given apigenin 150-300 mg/kg by gavage for 30 days. The results showed that in the apigenin-treated mice, the expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and nuclear factor kappa B proteins as well as contents of hepatic malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were reduced, while the levels of hepatic reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase were increased, especially in the 300 mg/kg group. A significant change in hepatic steatosis was also observed in the apigenin 300 mg/kg group. Apigenin pretreatment could increase the expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 proteins, and decrease the expression of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase proteins. These findings demonstrated that apigenin might exert a protective effect on alcohol-induced liver injury, and its mechanisms might be related to the regulations of hepatic CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress and PPARα-mediated lipogenic gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Successful repair of injured hepatic veins and inferior vena cava following blunt traumatic injury, by using cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    PubMed

    Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Evangelakis, Erotokritos; Kokkinos, Chrysostomos; Kaoutzanis, Gavriel

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the retrohepatic veins continues to carry high mortality rates. In the last few decades various management strategies have been proposed. However, treatment of such injuries still remains highly variable and technically challenging due to the surgically inaccessible location of these vessels and the consequent difficulty controlling bleeding. We report a successful repair of complete transection of the two main extraparenchymal hepatic veins and laceration of the retrohepatic inferior vena cava using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) following blunt abdominal trauma. Immediate CPB with or without HCA can be life-saving and should be considered for patients with complex isolated retrohepatic venous injuries.

  10. Complications of Nonoperative Management of High-grade Blunt Hepatic Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and stenting of biliary leaks, and CT scan-guided drainage of hepatic or perihepatic abscesses or biliary collections by...1 B). Stenting was successful in decreasing the biliary leak, but repeat ERCP was required for increased serum bilirubin, pain, and fever...Finally, failure of percutaneous drainage techniques or biliary stenting may require operative intervention. In summary, although patients with high

  11. Synergistic protective effect of picrorhiza with honey in acetaminophen induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prashant; Tripathi, Alok; Agrawal, Tripti; Narayan, Chandradeo; Singh, B M; Kumar, Mohan; Kumar, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    Rhizome of picrorhiza along with honey prevents hepatic damage and cure the acetaminophen (paracetamol) induced hepatotoxicity by modulating the activity of hepatic enzymes. Here, we studied the in vivo effects of Picrorhiza kurroa and honey on acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity Balb/c mice model. Hepatic histopathological observations of acetaminophen fed (day-6) group showed more congestion, hemorrhage, necrosis, distorted hepatic architecture and nuclear inclusion. Such damages were recompensed to normal by picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed increased activity of SGPT and SGOT in injured liver tissues, and that too was compensated to normal with picrorhiza or honey alone or both in combinations. We observed 1.27 and 1.23-fold enhanced activity of SGPT in serum and liver lysate, respectively while SGOT showed 1.66 and 1.11 fold enhanced activity. These two enzymes are signature enzymes of liver damage. Thus, our results support that honey may be used with drug picrorhiza due to its synergistic role to enhance hepatoprotective and hepatoregenerative ability along with allopathic drugs to mitigate the hepatotoxic effects.

  12. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  13. Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury, Erythropoietin, and Anakinra on Hepatic Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in an Experimental Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gail D; Peterson, Todd C; Vonder Haar, Cole; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; MacDonald, James W; Kantor, Eric D; Hoane, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to considerable data demonstrating a decrease in cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in inflammation and infection, clinically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an increase in CYP and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of TBI alone and with treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) or anakinra on the gene expression of hepatic inflammatory proteins, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and transporters in a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury model. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Plasma cytokine and liver protein concentrations of CYP2D4, CYP3A1, EPHX1, and UGT2B7 were determined. There was no effect of TBI, TBI + EPO, or TBI + anakinra on gene expression of the inflammatory factors shown to be associated with decreased expression of hepatic metabolic enzymes in models of infection and inflammation. IL-6 plasma concentrations were increased in TBI animals and decreased with EPO and anakinra treatment. There was no significant effect of TBI and/or anakinra on gene expression of enzymes or transporters known to be involved in drug disposition. TBI + EPO treatment decreased the gene expression of Cyp2d4 at 72 h with a corresponding decrease in CYP2D4 protein at 72 h and 7 days. CYP3A1 protein was decreased at 24 h. In conclusion, EPO treatment may result in a significant decrease in the metabolism of Cyp-metabolized drugs. In contrast to clinical TBI, there was not a significant effect of experimental TBI on CYP or UGT metabolic enzymes.

  14. A Prominent Role of Interleukin-18 in Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury Advocates Its Blockage for Therapy of Hepatic Necroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Malte; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Mühl, Heiko

    2018-01-01

    Acetaminophen [paracetamol, N -acetyl- p -aminophenol (APAP)]-induced acute liver injury (ALI) not only remains a persistent clinical challenge but likewise stands out as well-characterized paradigmatic model of drug-induced liver damage. APAP intoxication associates with robust hepatic necroinflammation the role of which remains elusive with pathogenic but also pro-regenerative/-resolving functions being ascribed to leukocyte activation. Here, we shine a light on and put forward a unique role of the interleukin (IL)-1 family member IL-18 in experimental APAP-induced ALI. Indeed, amelioration of disease as previously observed in IL-18-deficient mice was further substantiated herein by application of the IL-18 opponent IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BPd:Fc) to wild-type mice. Data altogether emphasize crucial pathological action of this cytokine in APAP toxicity. Adding recombinant IL-22 to IL-18BPd:Fc further enhanced protection from liver injury. In contrast to IL-18, the role of prototypic pro-inflammatory IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α is controversially discussed with lack of effects or even protective action being repeatedly reported. A prominent detrimental function for IL-18 in APAP-induced ALI as proposed herein should relate to its pivotal role for hepatic expression of interferon-γ and Fas ligand, both of which aggravate APAP toxicity. As IL-18 serum levels increase in patients after APAP overdosing, targeting IL-18 may evolve as novel therapeutic option in those hard-to-treat patients where standard therapy with N -acetylcysteine is unsuccessful. Being a paradigmatic experimental model of ALI, current knowledge on ill-fated properties of IL-18 in APAP intoxication likewise emphasizes the potential of this cytokine to serve as therapeutic target in other entities of inflammatory liver diseases.

  15. Statin-induced liver injury in an area endemic for hepatitis B virus infection: risk factors and outcome analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Yueh; Huang, Yi-Shin; Perng, Chin-Lin; Huang, Bryan; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Statin-induced liver injury (SILI) is quite rare, but may be severe. Little is known about the impact of chronic hepatitis B infection (CHBI) on SILI. We aimed to investigate the risk factors and outcome of SILI, with special reference to its interaction with CHBI. Patients with SILI were recruited from our hospital, and three-to-one drug-matched controls were randomly selected. The clinical data of the patients were then compared. A total of 108 patients with SILI and 324 controls were enrolled. The patients with SILI were both older and had a higher statin dose than the controls. There was no predilection of liver injury associated with the seven available statins. Among the SILI patients, there was no statistical difference between the baseline and peak liver enzyme tests, and latency and severity between hepatitis B carriers (n = 16) and non-carriers (n = 92). High dose of statin and age were the two independent risk factors of SILI (OR and 95% CI: 1.93, 1.08-3.35, P = 0.025, and 1.73, 1.07-2.80, P = 0.027, respectively). Permanent discontinuation of statin was noted in 50 (46.3%) patients with SILI due to severe SILI or recurrent hepatotoxicity after rechallenge of other statins. High dose of statin and old age may increase patient susceptibility to SILI; however, CHBI and abnormal baseline liver tests are not risk factors of SILI. Nonetheless, SILI is still worthy of notice, because nearly half of the overt cases discontinued statin treatment due to severe hepatotoxicity in this study. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved in the mechanisms of chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Shaoshan

    We previously confirmed that rats overloaded with aluminum exhibited hepatic function damage and increased susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. However, the mechanism of liver toxicity by chronic aluminum overload is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) signaling pathway and its effect on liver injury in aluminum-overloaded rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established via the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al{sup 3+} 200 mg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 20 weeks). The 5-LO inhibitor, caffeic acid (10 and 30 mg/kg), was intragastrically administered 1 h after aluminum administration.more » Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. Immunochemistry and RT-PCR methods were used to detect 5-LO protein and mRNA expression in the liver, respectively. Caffeic acid administration protected livers against histopathological injury, decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and LTs levels, increased the reactive oxygen species content, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-LO in aluminum overloaded rats. Our results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is mechanistically involved in chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure and that the 5-LO signaling pathway, which associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potential therapeutic target for chronic non-infection liver diseases. - Highlights: • 5-LO signaling contributes to mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of aluminum overload. • Oxidative and inflammatory reaction involve in chonic aluminum hepatotoxicity. • 5-LO inhibitor has a protective effect on aluminum-overload liver injury. • 5-LO signaling is a potential therapeutic target for non-infection liver diseases.« less

  17. Bee's honey attenuates non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-induced hepatic injury through the regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jia; Liu, Yingxia; Xing, Feiyue; Leung, Tung Ming; Liong, Emily C; Tipoe, George L

    2016-06-01

    We aim to examine whether honey ameliorates hepatic injury in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) animal and cell line steatosis models. NASH was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rat by 8-week feeding with a high-fat diet. During the experiment, 5 g/kg honey was intragastrically fed daily. Rat normal hepatocyte BRL-3A cell was treated with sodium palmitate (SP) to induce steatosis in the absence or presence of honey pre-treatment or specific siRNA/overexpress plasmid of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) or antagonist/agonist of Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3). Honey significantly improved the high-fat-diet-induced hepatic injury, steatosis, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation in rats. Honey also inhibited the overexpression of TXNIP and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. These effects were replicated in BRL-3A cell line which showed that the down-regulation of TXNIP or inhibition of NLRP3 contributed to the suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, inflammation, and re-balanced lipid metabolism. In contrast, overexpression of TXNIP or agonism of NLRP3 exacerbated the cellular damage induced by SP. Suppression of the TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway may partly contribute to the amelioration of hepatic injury during the progression of NASH by honey. Targeting hepatic TXNIP-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway is a potential therapeutic way for the prevention and treatment of NASH.

  18. Treatment with milk thistle extract (Silybum marianum), ursodeoxycholic acid, or their combination attenuates cholestatic liver injury in rats: Role of the hepatic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Alaca, Nuray; Özbeyli, Dilek; Uslu, Serap; Şahin, Hasan Hüseyin; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Kurtel, Hızır; Öktem, Gülperi; Çağlayan Yeğen, Berrak

    2017-11-01

    Cholestasis, which results in hepatic cell death, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure, is associated with oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of milk thistle (MT, Silybum marianum) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or their combination on the activation of hepatic stem cells and on the severity of cholestasis liver injury in rats. Under anesthesia, bile ducts of female Sprague Dawley rats were ligated (BDL) or had sham operation. BDL rats were administered saline, UDCA (15 mg/kg/d), MT (600 mg/kg/d), or UDCA+MT by gavage for 10 days. On the 11th day, rats were sacrificed and blood and liver samples were obtained. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Hepatic injury, a-smooth muscle actin expression, and stem cell markers c-kit, c-Myc, Oct3/4, and SSEA-1 were histologically determined. Histological scores, serum ALT, and hepatic MDA levels were higher in BDL group than in the sham rats, while all treatments significantly reduced these levels. The reduction in ALT was significantly greater in UCDA+MT-treated group than in other treatment groups. c-Kit, c-Myc, Oct3/4, and SSEA-1 were increased in saline-treated BDL group with respect to sham-operated control group, and these markers were significantly reduced in all treatment groups. In addition to a modulatory effect on the stem cell-induced regenerative response of the liver, UDCA, MT, and their combination demonstrated similar anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects on cholestasis-induced hepatic injury.

  19. Ameliorative Effect of Gallic Acid on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Injury and Hepatic Dysfunction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olayinka, Ebenezer Tunde; Ore, Ayokanmi; Ola, Olaniyi Solomon; Adeyemo, Oluwatobi Adewumi

    2015-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP), a bifunctional alkylating agent used in chemotherapy has been reported to induce organ toxicity mediated by generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic substance, is a natural antioxidant with proven free radical scavenging activity and offers protection against oxidative damage. This research study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effect of GA against CP-induced toxicity in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats (180–200 g) were randomized into five treatment groups: (A) control, (B) CP, 2 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), (C) pre-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days followed by CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, (D) co-treatment with GA (20 mg/kg b.w) and CP (2 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days, and (E) GA (20 mg/kg b.w.) for seven days. CP induced marked renal and hepatic damages as plasma levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin and activities of AST, ALT, ALP and GGT were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the CP-treated group relative to control. In addition, hepatic levels of GSH, vitamin C and activities of SOD, catalase and GST significantly reduced in the CP-treated group when compared with control. This was accompanied with a significant increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation. The restoration of the markers of renal and hepatic damages as well as antioxidant indices and lipid peroxidation by pre- and co-treatment with GA clearly shows that GA offers ameliorative effect by scavenging the reactive oxygen species generated by CP. This protective effect may be attributed to the antioxidant property of gllic acid. PMID:29083393

  20. Phoenix dactylifera protects against oxidative stress and hepatic injury induced by paracetamol intoxication in rats.

    PubMed

    Salem, Gamal A; Shaban, Ahmed; Diab, Hussain A; Elsaghayer, Wesam A; Mjedib, Manal D; Hnesh, Aomassad M; Sahu, Ravi P

    2018-05-16

    The current studies were sought to determine effects of antioxidant potential of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera leaves (PLAE and PLME) against the widely-used analgesic paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity. Groups of rats were treated with or without PCM (1500 mg/kg), PLAE and PLME (300 mg/kg) and n-acetylcysteine (NAC, 50 mg/kg) followed by assessments of liver function tests, oxidative stress, antioxidant defenses, and hepatotoxicity. We observed that PCM significantly elevated serum liver markers, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and bilirubin compared to control (untreated) group. These PCM-induced effects were associated with oxidative stress as demonstrated by increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced levels of hepatic antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pretreatment of PLME decreased ALT and AST by 78.2% and tissue MDA by 54.1%, and increased hepatic GPx (3.5 folds), CAT (7 folds) and SOD (2.5 folds) compared to PCM group. These PLME-mediated effects were comparable to NAC pretreatment. Histological analysis demonstrates that PLME conserved hepatic tissues against lesions such as inflammation, centrilobular necrosis, and hemorrhages induced by PCM. In contrast, PLAE-mediated effects were less effective in reducing levels of liver function enzymes, oxidative stress, and liver histopathological profiles, and restoring antioxidant defenses against PCM-induced intoxication. These findings indicate that PLME exerts protective effects against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity via scavenging free radicals and restoring hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Thus, PLME and its bioactive components could further be evaluated for their pharmacological properties against drug-induced deleterious effects. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Protective effect of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis (Hoyle 1885) cuttlebone against CCl4 induced hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Subhapradha, Namasivayam; Shanmugam, Vairamani; Shanmugam, Annaian

    2014-04-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a potent hepatotoxic agent causing hepatic necrosis and it is widely used in animal models for induction of acute and chronic liver damage. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects of chitosan from Sepia kobiensis against CCl4 induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats was studied by measuring the activity of lipid peroxidation (TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides), non enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, CAT and GPx), liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST), lipid profile (FFA, TG, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol) and histopathological changes. Rats treated with chitosan against CCl4 toxicity showed significantly decreased levels of ALT and AST activities, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acid in plasma and tissue. Whereas the treatment with chitosan along with CCl4 showed markedly increased level of hepatic and circulatory in SOD, CAT, GPx and reduced glutathione and decreased the malondialdehyde level. Histopathological observations proved the marked hepatoprotective effect of chitosan. The CCl4 induced alterations in circulatory and hepatic antioxidant defense system were normalized by chitosan and it could be concluded that the hepatoprotective effect of chitosan may be due to its antioxidant and antilipidemic properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanism of Salutary Effects of Astringinin on Rodent Hepatic Injury following Trauma-Hemorrhage: Akt-Dependent Hemeoxygenase-1 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lau, Ying-Tung; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Astringinin can attenuate organ injury following trauma-hemorrhage, the mechanism remains unknown. Protein kinase B/hemeoxygenase-1 (Akt/HO-1) pathway exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether Akt/HO-1 plays any role in astringinin-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage. For study this, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure 35–40 mmHg for 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. A single dose of astringinin (0.3 mg/kg body weight) with or without a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or a HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin) was administered during resuscitation. Various parameters were measured at 24 h post-resuscitation. Results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased plasma aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) concentrations and hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-3, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and interleukin-6 levels. These parameters were significantly improved in the astringinin-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Astringinin treatment also increased hepatic Akt activation and HO-1 expression as compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of wortmannin or chromium-mesoporphyrin abolished the astringinin-induced beneficial effects on post-resuscitation pro-inflammatory responses and hepatic injury. These findings collectively suggest that the salutary effects of astringinin administration on attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage are likely mediated via Akt dependent HO-1 up-regulation. PMID:22022464

  3. Mechanism of salutary effects of astringinin on rodent hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage: Akt-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Lau, Ying-Tung; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Astringinin can attenuate organ injury following trauma-hemorrhage, the mechanism remains unknown. Protein kinase B/hemeoxygenase-1 (Akt/HO-1) pathway exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in various tissues. The aim of this study is to elucidate whether Akt/HO-1 plays any role in astringinin-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage. For study this, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure 35-40 mmHg for 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. A single dose of astringinin (0.3 mg/kg body weight) with or without a PI3K inhibitor (wortmannin) or a HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin) was administered during resuscitation. Various parameters were measured at 24 h post-resuscitation. Results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased plasma aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) concentrations and hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-3, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and interleukin-6 levels. These parameters were significantly improved in the astringinin-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Astringinin treatment also increased hepatic Akt activation and HO-1 expression as compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of wortmannin or chromium-mesoporphyrin abolished the astringinin-induced beneficial effects on post-resuscitation pro-inflammatory responses and hepatic injury. These findings collectively suggest that the salutary effects of astringinin administration on attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage are likely mediated via Akt dependent HO-1 up-regulation.

  4. Effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol on delivery outcomes of pregnant rats and inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J.; Luo, Y.; Yang, X.F.; Yang, M.X.; Yang, J.; Yang, X.S.; Zhou, J.; Gao, F.; He, L.T.; Xu, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to nonylphenol (NP) on delivery outcome of pregnant rats and subsequent inflammatory hepatic injury in newborn rats. The pregnant rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (corn oil) and NP exposure group. Thirty-four pregnant rats were administered NP or corn oil by gavage from the sixth day of pregnancy to 21 days postpartum, with blood samples collected at 12 and 21 days of pregnancy and 60 days after delivery. The NP concentration was measured by HPLC, with chemiluminescence used for detection of estrogen and progesterone levels. Maternal delivery parameters were also observed. Liver and blood of the newborn rats were collected and subjected to automatic biochemical detection of liver function and blood lipid analyzer (immunoturbidimetry), and ultrastructural observation of the hepatic microstructure, with the TNF-α and IL-1β hepatic tissue levels evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the control group, the pregnant and postpartum serum NP and estradiol levels of the mother rats in the NP group were significantly increased, together with lowered progesterone level, increased number of threatened abortion and dystocia, and fewer newborn rats and lower litter weight. Serum and hepatic NP levels of the newborn rats measured 60 days after birth were significantly higher than those of the control group, as well as lower testosterone levels and increased estradiol levels. When observed under electron microscope, the hepatocyte nuclei of the control group were large and round, with evenly distributed chromatin. The chromatin of hepatocytes in the NP group presented deep staining of the nuclei, significant lipid decrease in the cytoplasm, and the majority of cells bonded with lysate. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that there was almost no TNF-α or IL-1β expression in the hepatocytes of the control group, while the number of TNF-α-, PCNA-, and IL-1β-positive cells

  5. Branched-chain amino acids alleviate hepatic steatosis and liver injury in choline-deficient high-fat diet induced NASH mice.

    PubMed

    Honda, Takashi; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Luo, Fangqiong; Lingyun, Ma; Ishizu, Yoji; Kuzuya, Teiji; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Nakano, Isao; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Feng, Guo-Gang; Katano, Yoshiaki; Kohama, Tomoya; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; Shimomura, Yoshiharu; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2017-04-01

    For successful treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), it may be important to treat the individual causative factors. At present, however, there is no established treatment for this disease. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been used to treat patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the effects of BCAAs on hepatic steatosis and disease progression, we investigated the effects of BCAA supplementation in mice fed a choline-deficient high-fat diet (CDHF), which induces NASH. Male mice were divided into four groups that received (1) choline-sufficient high fat (HF) diet (HF-control), (2) HF plus 2% BCAA in drinking water (HF-BCAA), (3) CDHF diet (CDHF-control), or (4) CDHF-BCAA for 8weeks. We monitored liver injury, hepatic steatosis and cholesterol, gene expression related to lipid metabolism, and hepatic fat accumulation. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and hepatic triglyceride (TG) were significantly elevated in CDHF-control relative to HF-control. Liver histopathology revealed severe steatosis, inflammation, and pericellular fibrosis in CDHF-control, confirming the NASH findings. Serum ALT levels and hepatic TG and lipid droplet areas were significantly lower in CDHF-BCAA than in CDHF-control. Gene expression and protein level of fatty acid synthase (FAS), which catalyzes the final step in fatty acid biosynthesis, was significantly decreased in CDHF-BCAA than in CDHF-control (P<0.05). Moreover, hepatic total and free cholesterol of CDHF-BCAA was significantly lower than those of CDHF-control. BCAA can alleviate hepatic steatosis and liver injury associated with NASH by suppressing FAS gene expression and protein levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of late identified iatrogenic injuries of the right and left hepatic duct after laparoscopic cholecystectomy without transhepatic stent and Witzel drainage: Case report.

    PubMed

    Rifatbegovic, Zijah; Kovacevic, Maja; Nikic, Branka

    2018-05-26

    Most of the case reports about high type iatrogenic hepatic duct injuries reports how to treat and make Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy below the junction of the liver immediately after this condition is recognised during surgical procedure when the injury was made. Hereby we present a case where we made Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy without transhepatic billiary stent and also without Witzel drainage one month after the iatrogenic injury. A 21-year-old woman suffered from iatrogenic high transectional lesion of both hepatic ducts during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a local hospital. Iatrogenic injury was not immediately recognized. Ten days later due to patient complaints and large amount of bile in abdominal drain sac, second surgery was performed to evacuate biloma. Symptoms reappeared again, together with bile in abdominal sac, and then patient was sent to our Clinical Center. After performing additional diagnostics, high type (Class E) of iatrogenic hepatic duct injury was diagnosed. A revision surgical procedure was performed. During the exploration we found high transection lesion of right and left hepatic duct, and we decided to do Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. We created a part of anastomosis between the jejunum and liver capsule with polydioxanone suture (PDS) 4-0 because of poor quality of the remaining parts of the hepatic ducts. We made two separate hepaticojejunal anastomoses (left and right) that we partly connected to the liver capsule, where we had a defect of hepatic ducts, without Witzel enterostomy and transhepatic biliary stent. There were no significant postoperative complications. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) was made one year after the surgical procedure, which showed the proper width of the intrahepatic bile ducts, with no signs of stenosis of anastomoses. In most cases, treatment iatrogenic BDI is based on primary repair of the duct, ductal repair with a stent or creating duct-enteric anastomosis, often used and

  7. Natural killer cells mediate severe liver injury in a murine model of halothane hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Christine M; Fullerton, Aaron M; Roth, Robert A; Ganey, Patricia E

    2011-04-01

    Severe halothane (HAL)-induced hepatotoxicity occurs in one in 6000-30,000 patients by an unknown mechanism. Female sex is a risk factor in humans and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that a sex difference in natural killer (NK) cell activity contributes to HAL-induced liver injury. HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-γ knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-γ compared with immunoglobulin G-treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-γ and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity.

  8. Natural Killer Cells Mediate Severe Liver Injury in a Murine Model of Halothane Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Christine M.; Fullerton, Aaron M.; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2011-01-01

    Severe halothane (HAL)-induced hepatotoxicity occurs in one in 6000–30,000 patients by an unknown mechanism. Female sex is a risk factor in humans and rodents. We tested the hypothesis that a sex difference in natural killer (NK) cell activity contributes to HAL-induced liver injury. HAL (15 mmol/kg, ip) treatment resulted in severe liver injury by 12 h in female, wild-type BALB/cJ mice, and the magnitude of liver injury varied with stage of the estrous cycle. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice developed only mild liver injury. Plasma interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) was elevated 10-fold in HAL-treated females compared with similarly treated male mice or with OVX female mice. IFN-γ knockout mice were resistant to severe HAL-induced liver injury. The deactivation of NK cells with anti-asialo GM1 treatment attenuated liver injury and the increase in plasma IFN-γ compared with immunoglobulin G–treated control mice. Mice with a mutated form of perforin, a protein involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity, were protected from severe liver injury. Furthermore, HAL increased the activity of NK cells in vivo, as indicated by increased surface expression of CD69, an early activation marker. In response to HAL, NK cell receptor ligands on the surface of hepatocytes were expressed in a manner that can activate NK cells. These results confirm the sexual dimorphic hepatotoxic response to HAL in mice and suggest that IFN-γ and NK cells have essential roles in the development of severe HAL-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:21245496

  9. Protective effects of pretreatment with oleanolic acid in rats in the acute phase of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: role of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Gui, Bo; Hua, Fuzhou; Chen, Jie; Xu, Zeping; Sun, Hongbin; Qian, Yanning

    2014-01-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) has been used to treat liver disorders, but whether it can attenuate hepatic ischemia-reperfusion- (IR-) associated liver dysfunction remains unexplored. In the present study, 160 male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into five groups: group SH received neither hepatic IR nor drugs; group IR received hepatic IR without drugs; group CM and group OA received 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose and 100 mg/kg OA, intragastrically, once a day for seven days before the hepatic IR, respectively; on the basis of treatment in group OA, group OA+wortmannin further received 15 μg/kg of PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, intraperitoneally, 30 min before the hepatic IR. Then each group was equally divided into four subgroups according to four time points (preoperation, 0 h, 3 h, and 6 h after reperfusion). Serum ALT activity, IL-1β concentration, and hepatic phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and GSK-3β protein expression were serially studied. We found that OA pretreatment improved histological status and decreased serum ALT and IL-1β levels. It also increased p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-GSK-3β protein expression at all the four time points. Prophylactic wortmannin partially reversed OA's protective effects. The data indicate that OA pretreatment protects liver from IR injury during the acute phase partially through PI3K/Akt-mediated inactivation of GSK-3β.

  10. Involvement of the TNF and FasL produced by CD11b Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ikarashi, Masami; Nishiyama, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Seki, Shuhji

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that F4/80(+) Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68(+) Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b(+) Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80(+) or CD68(+) cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b(+) cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b(+) Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h) after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b(+) Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL). Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b(+) Kupffer cells), anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d-/- mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b(+) Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68(+) Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b(+) macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b(+) Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.

  11. Involvement of the TNF and FasL Produced by CD11b Kupffer Cells/Macrophages in CCl4-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Atsushi; Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ikarashi, Masami; Nishiyama, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Manabu; Seki, Shuhji

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that F4/80+ Kupffer cells are subclassified into CD68+ Kupffer cells with phagocytic and ROS producing capacity, and CD11b+ Kupffer cells with cytokine-producing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury is a well-known chemical-induced hepatocyte injury. In the present study, we investigated the immunological role of Kupffer cells/macrophages in CCl4-induced hepatitis in mice. The immunohistochemical analysis of the liver and the flow cytometry of the liver mononuclear cells showed that clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment greatly decreased the spindle-shaped F4/80+ or CD68+ cells, while the oval-shaped F4/80+ CD11b+ cells increased. Notably, severe hepatic injury induced by CCl4 was further aggravated by c-lipo-pretreatment. The population of CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages dramatically increased 24 hour (h) after CCl4 administration, especially in c-lipo-pretreated mice. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells expressed intracellular TNF and surface Fas-ligand (FasL). Furthermore, anti-TNF Ab pretreatment (which decreased the FasL expression of CD11b+ Kupffer cells), anti-FasL Ab pretreatment or gld/gld mice attenuated the liver injury induced by CCl4. CD1d−/− mouse and cell depletion experiments showed that NKT cells and NK cells were not involved in the hepatic injury. The adoptive transfer and cytotoxic assay against primary cultured hepatocytes confirmed the role of CD11b+ Kupffer cells in CCl4-induced hepatitis. Interestingly, the serum MCP-1 level rapidly increased and peaked at six h after c-lipo pretreatment, suggesting that the MCP-1 produced by c-lipo-phagocytized CD68+ Kupffer cells may recruit CD11b+ macrophages from the periphery and bone marrow. The CD11b+ Kupffer cells producing TNF and FasL thus play a pivotal role in CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury. PMID:24667392

  12. Can intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging characterize the cellular injury and microcirculation alteration in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury? An animal study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Weitao; Li, Jinglei; Guo, Chengwei; Chen, Shuting; Liu, Yu-Bao; Liu, Zaiyi; Wu, Haijun; Wang, Guangyi; Liang, Changhong

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) can be used to quantitatively analyze the cellular injury and microcirculation alterations in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI). Thirty-two New Zealand white rabbits were randomly and equally assigned to the sham group, 1-hour, 4-hour, and 12-hour groups according to the reperfusion time after 1 hour of ischemia using a 70% liver ischemia-reperfusion injury model. All the animals underwent IVIM-DWI with 12 b values at 1.5T. The imaging parameters (IVIM parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) among different groups were compared. The correlations between imaging parameters and histological scores, and the ratio of serum aspartate aminotransferase to serum alanine aminotransferase (serum AST/ALT) were analyzed. During the first hour of HIRI, true diffusion coefficient (D) and ADC significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while there was no significant decrease in perfusion fraction (f) (P = 0.708). There was fair to good correlation between histological scores and f (rs  = -0.493 with the sham cases excluded, and -0.682 with all cases, both P < 0.05) and ADC (rs  = -0.479 with the sham cases excluded, and -0.766 with all cases, both P < 0.05). There was no correlation between imaging parameters and serum AST/ALT with the sham cases excluded (P = 0.673 for f, 0.568 for D, 0.403 for ADC), and good correlation between D, ADC, and serum AST/ALT (r = 0.747 and 0.748, both P < 0.001) with all cases. IVIM-DWI can quantitatively characterize an animal model of HIRI, with D and ADC sensitive in early detection of cellular injury, as well as fair to good correlation between f, ADC, and microcirculation alteration. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1327-1336. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced gastrointestinal and hepatic injury: pathologists' perspective.

    PubMed

    Karamchandani, Dipti M; Chetty, Runjan

    2018-04-27

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are a relatively new class of 'miracle' dugs that have revolutionised the treatment and prognosis of some advanced-stage malignancies, and have increased the survival rates significantly. This class of drugs includes cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 inhibitors such as ipilimumab; programmed cell death protein-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab and avelumab; and programmed cell death protein ligand-1 inhibitors such as atezolizumab. These drugs stimulate the immune system by blocking the coinhibitory receptors on the T cells and lead to antitumoural response. However, a flip side of these novel drugs is immune-related adverse events (irAEs), secondary to immune-mediated process due to disrupted self-tolerance. The irAEs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract/liver may result in diarrhoea, colitis or hepatitis. An accurate diagnosis of CPI-induced colitis and/or hepatitis is essential for optimal patient management. As we anticipate greater use of these drugs in the future given the significant clinical response, pathologists need to be aware of the spectrum of histological findings that may be encountered in GI and/or liver biopsies received from these patients, as well as differentiate them from its histopathological mimics. This present review discusses the clinical features, detailed histopathological features, management and the differential diagnosis of the luminal GI and hepatic irAEs that may be encountered secondary to CPI therapy. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. The pathogenesis of diclofenac induced immunoallergic hepatitis in a canine model of liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Saravanakumar; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Spanel, Reinhard; Länger, Florian; Han, Hyoung-Yun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Yoon, Seokjoo; Borlak, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a common adverse drug reaction and may result in serious inflammatory reactions of the liver. To investigate mechanism of immunoallergic hepatitis beagle dogs were given 1 or 3 mg/kg/day (HD) oral diclofenac for 28 days. HD diclofenac treatment caused liver function test abnormalities, reduced haematocrit and haemoglobin but induced reticulocyte, WBC, platelet, neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Histopathology evidenced hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion, apoptosis, acute lobular hepatitis, granulomas and mastocytosis. Whole genome scans revealed 663 significantly regulated genes of which 82, 47 and 25 code for stress, immune response and inflammation. Immunopathology confirmed strong induction of IgM, the complement factors C3&B, SAA, SERPING1 and others of the classical and alternate pathway. Alike, marked expression of CD205 and CD74 in Kupffer cells and lymphocytes facilitate antigen presentation and B-cell differentiation. The highly induced HIF1A and KLF6 protein expression in mast cells and macrophages sustain inflammation. Furthermore, immunogenomics discovered 24, 17, 6 and 11 significantly regulated marker genes to hallmark M1/M2 polarized macrophages, lymphocytic and granulocytic infiltrates; note, the latter was confirmed by CAE staining. Other highly regulated genes included alpha-2-macroglobulin, CRP, hepcidin, IL1R1, S100A8 and CCL20. Diclofenac treatment caused unprecedented induction of myeloperoxidase in macrophages and oxidative stress as shown by SOD1/SOD2 immunohistochemistry. Lastly, bioinformatics defined molecular circuits of inflammation and consisted of 161 regulated genes. Altogether, the mechanism of diclofenac induced liver hypersensitivity reactions involved oxidative stress, macrophage polarization, mastocytosis, complement activation and an erroneous programming of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:29296203

  15. Association of serum retinoic acid with hepatic steatosis and liver injury in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Chen, Hongen; Wang, Jingjing; Zhou, Wenjing; Sun, Ruifang; Xia, Min

    2015-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA), an active metabolite of vitamin A (retinol), has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism and hepatic steatosis in animal models. However, the relation between RA and liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is unknown. This study aimed at examining the association of RA with NAFLD and NASH in Chinese subjects. Serum RA concentration was determined by ELISA in 41 control subjects, 45 patients with NAFLD, and 38 patients with NASH. The associations of RA with adiposity, serum glucose, lipid profiles, and markers of liver damage were studied. Moreover, both mRNA and protein levels of retinoic X receptor α (RXRα) in the liver were analyzed in subjects with different degrees of hepatic steatosis. Serum RA concentrations in patients with NAFLD (1.42 ± 0.47 ng/mL) and NASH (1.14 ± 0.26 ng/mL) were significantly lower than those in control subjects (2.70 ± 0.52 ng/mL) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, serum RA concentrations were significantly different between subjects with normal glucose tolerance and those with type 2 diabetes in control [2.87 ± 0.52 (n = 28) vs. 2.32 ± 0.44 ng/mL (n = 13)], NAFLD [1.61 ± 0.37 (n = 29) vs. 1.28 ± 0.41 ng/mL (n = 16)], and NASH [1.35 ± 0.34 (n = 24) vs. 1.07 ± 0.29 ng/mL (n = 14)] groups. In human liver tissue, RXRα mRNA expression was inversely correlated with the exacerbation of hepatic steatosis. Both serum RA concentrations and RXRα mRNA levels were inversely correlated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.700, P < 0.001, and r = -0.611, P = 0.002, respectively). Compared with grade 0 severity, the concentration of RXRα protein was lower in more severe grades in patients with NAFLD. These results show that circulating RA concentrations were lower in subjects with NAFLD and were associated with hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01940263. © 2015

  16. Free radical-triggered hepatic injury of experimental obstructive jaundice of rats involves overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced activation of nuclear factor kappaB.

    PubMed

    Liu, T Z; Lee, K T; Chern, C L; Cheng, J T; Stern, A; Tsai, L Y

    2001-10-01

    Excessive production of hydroxyl radicals in blood and liver has previously been demonstrated by us in rats with obstructive jaundice induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). In this study, we demonstrate overproduction of superoxide radicals in circulating blood of CBDL rats by the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence technique. To pinpoint the molecular agents that mediate these processes, we measured circulating proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta ( IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in controls and CBDL rats. Concentrations of these cytokines in blood of CBDL rats were markedly elevated when compared to the controls (TNF-alpha: 36.7 +/- 5.0 vs 13.8 +/- 0.5 pg/mL; IL-6: 2,814 +/- 1,740 vs 0 pg/mL; IL-1beta: 11.9 +/- 2.6 vs 0 pg/mL). The overproduction of free radicals triggered by elevated cytokines in CBDL rats was correlated with the activation of NF-kappaB in hepatic tissue. Using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end label staining technique, we showed that hepatic tissue sections from CBDL rats had an increase in the apoptotic index (AI). Based on these findings, we propose that the severe hepatic injury in CBDL rats is mediated by a cycle that involves the activation of NF-kappaB by combined action of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). NF-KB, in turn, initiates the transcription of cytokine genes (eg, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha), which triggers hepatic injury, at least in part, by a free radical-mediated apoptotic mechanism. Elevated ROS may be as a positive-feedback signal that triggers NF-KB reactivation; the severe hepatic injury of CBDL rats may result from perpetuation of this vicious cycle.

  17. [Experimental study of active ingredients group in liver protection from erzhi wan on acute hepatic injury induced by CCl4 in mice].

    PubMed

    Yan, Bing; Cai, Xiujiang; Yao, Weifeng; Zhang, Li; Huang, Meiyan; Ding, Anwei

    2012-05-01

    To study the active ingredients in liver protection from Erzhi Wan (AIEP) on acute hepatic injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in mice. Sixty Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: the normal group, the model group, bifendate group (150 mg x kg(-1)), high AIEP group (19.8 g x kg(-1)), middle AIEP group (13.2 g x kg(-1)) and low AIEP group (6.6 g x kg(-1)). The treatment groups were orally administered once per day for 7 d separately, whereas the normal and model groups were orally administered with saline. Except normal rats, all the other rats were injected intraperitoneally CCl4 20 mL x kg(-1) once. The rats were sacrificed 16 h after CCl4 administration. Serum and liver samples were collected for analysis. The acute hepatic injury model was prepared by CCl4 injected intraperitoneally. Then, the therapeutic effects of AIEP on the model were evaluated by the activity determination of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspirate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver,and the hepatic pathohistological changes following the treatment. The activities of ALT and AST and the MDA content in liver was significantly increased and the activity of SOD was largely inhibited in the animals of modeling group. Following the treatment with AIEP, ALT and AST activities and MDA content were significantly reduced and SOD activity was obviously increased in the mice of treatment group. Furthermore, AIEP could ameliorate the hepatic pathological changes. AIEP have protective effects on acute hepatic injury induced by CCL4 in mice, and are the effect of the liver protecting active sites.

  18. Sortilin 1 Loss-of-Function Protects Against Cholestatic Liver Injury by Attenuating Hepatic Bile Acid Accumulation in Bile Duct Ligated Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jibiao; Woolbright, Benjamin L; Zhao, Wen; Wang, Yifeng; Matye, David; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Li, Tiangang

    2018-01-01

    Sortilin 1 (Sort1) is an intracellular trafficking receptor that mediates protein sorting in the endocytic or secretory pathways. Recent studies revealed a role of Sort1 in the regulation of cholesterol and bile acid (BA) metabolism. This study further investigated the role of Sort1 in modulating BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in bile duct ligated mice. We found that Sort1 knockout (KO) mice had attenuated liver injury 24 h after bile duct ligation (BDL), which was mainly attributed to less bile infarct formation. Sham-operated Sort1 KO mice had about 20% larger BA pool size than sham-operated wildtype (WT) mice, but 24 h after BDL Sort1 KO mice had significantly attenuated hepatic BA accumulation and smaller BA pool size. After 14 days BDL, Sort1 KO mice showed significantly lower hepatic BA concentration and reduced expression of inflammatory and fibrotic marker genes, but similar degree of liver fibrosis compared with WT mice. Unbiased quantitative proteomics revealed that Sort1 KO mice had increased hepatic BA sulfotransferase 2A1, but unaltered phase-I BA metabolizing cytochrome P450s or phase-III BA efflux transporters. Consistently, Sort1 KO mice showed elevated plasma sulfated taurocholate after BDL. Finally, we found that liver Sort1 was repressed after BDL, which may be due to BA activation of farnesoid x receptor. In conclusion, we report a role of Sort1 in the regulation of hepatic BA detoxification and cholestatic liver injury in mice. The mechanisms underlying increased hepatic BA elimination in Sort1 KO mice after BDL require further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Expression of TNF-alpha and immunohistochemical distribution of hepatic macrophage surface markers in carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Orfila, C; Lepert, J C; Alric, L; Carrera, G; Beraud, M; Vinel, J P; Pipy, B

    1999-10-01

    In liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride, secondary hepatic injury occurs from inflammatory processes originating from products released by activated Kupffer cells, which play a central role in hepatic inflammation. The purpose of our study was to demonstrate, in rats, the relationships between a function of the hepatic macrophages, TNF-alpha production and the state of activation of these cells, characterized by their phenotype, in the different phases of the process and development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis model. The immunohistochemical localization of proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and surface surface makers (ED1 and ED2) was studied in hepatitis and cirrhosis in response to 3 and 9 weeks ingestion of carbon tetrachloride. After carbon tetrachloride ingestion, accompanying the increased necrosis, immunohistochemical analysis of liver tissue sections demonstrated the significantly increased number of cells expressing ED1, ED2 and TNF-alpha, compared to normal. The number of cells expressing the surface phenotypic markers of liver macrophages increased and this change was concomitantly associated with an increased cellular expression of TNF-alpha. Local macrophage proliferation and influx of newly recruited blood monocytes resulted in an increase of the macrophage population. The populational changes involved difference in functional activity and enhanced TNF-alpha expression. This cytokine expressed in the carbon tetrachloride-induced inflammatory process is associated with the development of fibrosis and may contribute to disease severity.

  20. Management of severe blunt hepatic injury in the era of computed tomography and transarterial embolization: A systematic review and critical appraisal of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melloul, Emmanuel; Denys, Alban; Demartines, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    During the last decade, the management of blunt hepatic injury has considerably changed. Three options are available as follows: nonoperative management (NOM), transarterial embolization (TAE), and surgery. We aimed to evaluate in a systematic review the current practice and outcomes in the management of Grade III to V blunt hepatic injury. The MEDLINE database was searched using PubMed to identify English-language citations published after 2000 using the key words blunt, hepatic injury, severe, and grade III to V in different combinations. Liver injury was graded according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification on computed tomography (CT). Primary outcome analyzed was success rate in intention to treat. Critical appraisal of the literature was performed using the validated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence "Quality Assessment for Case Series" system. Twelve articles were selected for critical appraisal (n = 4,946 patients). The median quality score of articles was 4 of 8 (range, 2-6). Overall, the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) at admission was 26 (range, 0.6-75). A median of 66% (range, 0-100%) of patients was managed with NOM, with a success rate of 94% (range, 86-100%). TAE was used in only 3% of cases (range, 0-72%) owing to contrast extravasation on CT with a success rate of 93% (range, 81-100%); however, 9% to 30% of patients required a laparotomy. Thirty-one percent (range, 17-100%) of patients were managed with surgery owing to hemodynamic instability in most cases, with 12% to 28% requiring secondary TAE to control recurrent hepatic bleeding. Mortality was 5% (range, 0-8%) after NOM and 51% (range, 30-68%) after surgery. NOM of Grade III to V blunt hepatic injury is the first treatment option to manage hemodynamically stable patients. TAE and surgery are considered in a highly selective group of patients with contrast extravasation on CT or shock at admission, respectively. Additional standardization of

  1. A hot water extract of turmeric (Curcuma longa) suppresses acute ethanol-induced liver injury in mice by inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Uchio, Ryusei; Higashi, Yohei; Kohama, Yusuke; Kawasaki, Kengo; Hirao, Takashi; Muroyama, Koutarou; Murosaki, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) is a widely used spice that has various biological effects, and aqueous extracts of turmeric exhibit potent antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Bisacurone, a component of turmeric extract, is known to have similar effects. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines play an important role in ethanol-induced liver injury. This study was performed to evaluate the influence of a hot water extract of C. longa (WEC) or bisacurone on acute ethanol-induced liver injury. C57BL/6 mice were orally administered WEC (20 mg/kg body weight; BW) or bisacurone (60 µg/kg BW) at 30 min before a single dose of ethanol was given by oral administration (3·0 g/kg BW). Plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased in ethanol-treated mice, while the increase of these enzymes was significantly suppressed by prior administration of WEC. The increase of alanine aminotransferase was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with bisacurone. Compared with control mice, animals given WEC had higher hepatic tissue levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione, as well as lower hepatic tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TNF-α protein and IL-6 mRNA. These results suggest that oral administration of WEC may have a protective effect against ethanol-induced liver injury by suppressing hepatic oxidation and inflammation, at least partly through the effects of bisacurone.

  2. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use.

  3. Effect of infliximab on acute hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Pergel, Ahmet; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Karabicak, Ilhan; Kesicioglu, Tugrul; Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Ozer, Ender; Arslan, Zakir; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of infliximab (IFX) against liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and I/R+IFX. IFX was given at a dose of 3 mg/kg for three days before I/R. Rat livers were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 90 h of reperfusion. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels were measured in the serum. The liver was removed to evaluate the histopathologic changes. The I/R group had a significant increase in AST, ALT, MDA, and TNF-α levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity compared with the sham group. The use of IFX significantly reduced the ALT, AST, MDA and TNF-α levels and significantly increased GSH-Px activity. IFX attenuated the histopathologic changes. IFX has a protective effect on liver I/R injury. This liver protective effect may be related to antioxidant and anti-TNF-α effects. We propose that, for the relief of liver injury subsequent to transplantation, liver resection, trauma, and shock, tentative treatments can be incorporated with IFX, which is already approved for clinical use. PMID:26885068

  4. Hepatic injury due to combined choline-deprivation and thioacetamide administration: an experimental approach to liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Al-Humadi, Hussam; Theocharis, Stamatios; Dontas, Ismene; Stolakis, Vasileios; Zarros, Apostolos; Kyriakaki, Argyro; Al-Saigh, Rafal; Liapi, Charis

    2012-12-01

    The induction of prolonged choline-deprivation (CD) in rats receiving thioacetamide (TAA) is an experimental approach of mild hepatotoxicity that could resemble commonly presented cases in clinical practice (in which states of malnutrition and/or alcoholism are complicated by the development of other liver-associated diseases). The present study aimed to investigate the time-dependent effects of a 30-, a 60- and a 90-day dietary CD and/or TAA administration on the adult rat liver histopathology and the serum markers of hepatic functional integrity. Rats were divided into four main groups: (a) control, (b) CD, (c) TAA and (d) CD + TAA. Dietary CD was provoked through the administration of choline-deficient diet, while TAA administration was performed ad libitum through the drinking water (300 mg/l of drinking water). Histological examination of the CD + TAA liver sections revealed micro- and macro-vesicular steatosis with degeneration and primary fibrosis at day 30, to extensive steatosis and fibrosis at day 90. Steatosis was mostly of the macrovesicular type, involving all zones of the lobule, while inflammatory infiltrate consisted of foci of acute and chronic inflammatory cells randomly distributed in the lobule. These changes were accompanied by gradually increasing mitotic activity, as well as by a constantly high alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistochemical staining. The determination of hepatocellular injury markers such as the serum enzyme levels' of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase demonstrated a decrease at day 30 (they returned to control levels at days 60 and 90). However, the determination of those serum enzymes used for the assessment of cholestatic liver injury (gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase) revealed a constant (time-independent) statistically-significant increase versus control values. Long-term combined dietary CD and TAA administration could be a more realistic experimental approach to human liver diseases

  5. Relationship between pseudoaneurysm formation and biloma after successful transarterial embolization for severe hepatic injury: permanent embolization using stainless steel coils prevents pseudoaneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Tarui, Takehiko; Murata, Atsuo; Matsuda, Takeaki; Yamaguti, Yoshihiro; Shimazaki, Shuji

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between bilomas and pseudoaneurysm complications after severe hepatic injury. Angiography was performed in patients with American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade > or = III hepatic injury on contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scanning. When contrast extravasation was observed, transarterial embolization (TAE) was performed. After TAE, technetium-99m pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan cholescintigraphy was performed to detect the coexistence of bilomas. Follow-up angiography was performed when a biloma was detected. Eighty consecutive patients underwent angiography; after angiography, five patients died. The remaining 75 patients who underwent cholescintigraphy were included in this study. All 11 patients who had bilomas had angiographic evidence of contrast extravasation. The biloma frequency was higher in patients with grades IV and V injuries than in those with grade III injury (p = 0.024). Follow-up angiography revealed pseudoaneurysms in 7 of these 11 patients. All six patients in whom only gelatin sponge pledget injection was used to embolize had pseudoaneurysms. Among them, two patients had computed tomographic evidence of massive intra-abdominal fluid collection. In contrast, only one of five patients who received the combination of gelatin sponge pledget injection and stainless steel coils to permanently embolize injured arteries had a pseudoaneurysm. In this patient, the pseudoaneurysm was found in the peripheral part of the collateral vessels. All patients with pseudoaneurysms underwent repeat TAE and were discharged from the hospital uneventfully. In patients with high-grade hepatic injury and arterial bleeding who developed biloma, use of a gelatin sponge, an absorbable embolic material, is associated with a risk of pseudoaneurysm formation. Permanent arterial embolization using stainless steel coils is indicated to decrease this risk.

  6. Lymphotoxin-beta receptor signaling regulates hepatic stellate cell function and wound healing in a murine model of chronic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ruddell, Richard G; Knight, Belinda; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E E; Akhurst, Barbara; Summerville, Lesa; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Olynyk, John K; Ramm, Grant A

    2009-01-01

    Lymphotoxin-beta (LTbeta) is a proinflammatory cytokine and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily known for its role in mediating lymph node development and homeostasis. Our recent studies suggest a role for LTbeta in mediating the pathogenesis of human chronic liver disease. We hypothesize that LTbeta co-ordinates the wound healing response in liver injury via direct effects on hepatic stellate cells. This study used the choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model of chronic liver injury, which induces inflammation, liver progenitor cell proliferation, and portal fibrosis, to assess (1) the cellular expression of LTbeta, and (2) the role of LTbeta receptor (LTbetaR) in mediating wound healing, in LTbetaR(-/-) versus wild-type mice. In addition, primary isolates of hepatic stellate cells were treated with LTbetaR-ligands LTbeta and LTbeta-related inducible ligand competing for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells (LIGHT), and mediators of hepatic stellate cell function and fibrogenesis were assessed. LTbeta was localized to progenitor cells immediately adjacent to activated hepatic stellate cells in the periportal region of the liver in wild-type mice fed the CDE diet. LTbetaR(-/-) mice fed the CDE diet showed significantly reduced fibrosis and a dysregulated immune response. LTbetaR was demonstrated on isolated hepatic stellate cells, which when stimulated by LTbeta and LIGHT, activated the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Neither LTbeta nor LIGHT had any effect on alpha-smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, transforming growth factor beta, or procollagen alpha(1)(I) expression; however, leukocyte recruitment-associated factors intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and regulated upon activation T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were markedly up-regulated. RANTES caused the chemotaxis of a liver progenitor cell line expressing CCR5. This study suggests that

  7. Prenatal administration of the cytochrome P4501A inducer, {Beta}-naphthoflavone (BNF), attenuates hyperoxic lung injury in newborn mice: Implications for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants

    SciTech Connect

    Couroucli, Xanthi I., E-mail: xanthic@bcm.edu; Liang Yanhong Wei; Jiang Weiwu

    Supplemental oxygen contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. In this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that prenatal treatment of pregnant mice (C57BL/6J) with the cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 inducer, ss-napthoflavone (BNF), will lead to attenuation of lung injury in newborns (delivered from these dams) exposed to hyperoxia by mechanisms entailing transplacental induction of hepatic and pulmonary CYP1A enzymes. Pregnant mice were administered the vehicle corn oil (CO) or BNF (40 mg/kg), i.p., once daily for 3 days on gestational days (17-19), and newborns delivered from the mothers were either maintained in room air or exposed tomore » hyperoxia (> 95% O{sub 2}) for 1-5 days. After 3-5 days of hyperoxia, the lungs of CO-treated mice showed neutrophil infiltration, pulmonary edema, and perivascular inflammation. On the other hand, BNF-pretreated neonatal mice showed decreased susceptibility to hyperoxic lung injury. These mice displayed marked induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) (CYP1A1) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD) (CYP1A2) activities, and levels of the corresponding apoproteins and mRNA levels until PND 3 in liver, while CYP1A1 expression alone was augmented in the lung. Prenatal BNF did not significantly alter gene expression of pulmonary NAD(P)H quinone reductase (NQO1). Hyperoxia for 24-72 h resulted in increased pulmonary levels of the F{sub 2}-isoprostane 8-iso-PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, whose levels were decreased in mice prenatally exposed to BNF. In conclusion, our results suggest that prenatal BNF protects newborns against hyperoxic lung injury, presumably by detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides by CYP1A enzymes, a phenomenon that has implications for prevention of BPD in infants. - Highlights: > Supplemental oxygen is routinely administered to premature infants. > Hyperoxia causes lung injury in experimental animals. > Prenatal treatment of mice with beta-naphthoflavone attenuates

  8. Inhibition of GSK-3beta ameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury through GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yong-Xiang; Lu, Ling; Wu, Zheng-Shan; Pu, Li-Yong; Sun, Bei-Cheng; Wang, Xue-Hao

    2012-06-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta/beta-catenin signaling regulates ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced apoptosis and proliferation, and inhibition of GSK-3beta has beneficial effects on I/R injury in the heart and the central nervous system. However, the role of this signaling in hepatic I/R injury remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling in hepatic I/R injury. Male C57BL/6 mice (weighing 22-25 g) were pretreated with either SB216763, an inhibitor of GSK-3beta, or vehicle. These mice were subjected to partial hepatic I/R. Blood was collected for test of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver specimen for assays of phosphorylation at the Ser9 residue of GSK-3beta, GSK-3beta activity, axin 2 and the anti-apoptotic factors Bcl-2 and survivin, as well as the proliferative factors cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and apoptotic index (TUNEL). Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining were used. SB216763 increased phospho-GSK-3beta levels and suppressed GSK-3beta activity (1880+/-229 vs 3280+/-272 cpm, P<0.01). ALT peaked at 6 hours after reperfusion. Compared with control, SB216763 decreased ALT after 6 hours of reperfusion (4451+/-424 vs 7868+/-845 IU/L, P<0.01), and alleviated hepatocyte necrosis and vacuolization. GSK-3beta inhibition led to the accumulation of beta-catenin in the cytosol (0.40+/-0.05 vs 1.31+/-0.11, P<0.05) and nucleus (0.62+/-0.14 vs 1.73+/-0.12, P<0.05), beta-catenin further upregulated the expression of axin 2. Upregulation of GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling increased Bcl-2, survivin and cyclin D1. Serological and histological analyses showed that SB216763 alleviated hepatic I/R-induced injury by reducing apoptosis (1.4+/-0.2% vs 3.6+/-0.4%, P<0.05) and enhanced liver proliferation (56+/-8% vs 19+/-4%, P<0.05). Inhibition of GSK-3beta ameliorates hepatic I/R injury through the GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

  9. Liver injury in acute hepatitis A is associated with decreased frequency of regulatory T cells caused by Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Lee, Jeewon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Sung, Pil Soo; Jung, Min Kyung; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Jung Il; Park, Hana; Cheong, Jae Youn; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    Foxp3(+)CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, but their role in acute viral hepatitis remains elusive. Herein, we investigated alteration in the peripheral blood Treg population during acute hepatitis A (AHA) and its implication in the immune-mediated liver injury. The study included 71 patients with AHA, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated. The suppressive activity of Treg population was determined by assessing anti-CD3/CD28-stimulated proliferation of Treg-depleted and reconstituted PBMCs. Treg cell frequency, phenotype and apoptosis in PBMCs were analysed by flow cytometry. The frequency of circulating Tregs was reduced during AHA. Moreover, the suppressive activity of the total Treg pool in the peripheral blood was attenuated during AHA. Treg frequency and suppressive activity of the Treg population inversely correlated with the serum alanine aminotransferase level. Fas was overexpressed on Tregs during AHA, suggesting their susceptibility to Fas-induced apoptosis. Indeed, increased apoptotic death was observed in Tregs of patients with AHA compared with healthy controls. In addition, agonistic anti-Fas treatment further increased apoptotic death of Tregs from patients with AHA. The decreased Treg frequency and Fas overexpression on Tregs were not observed in other acute liver diseases such as acute hepatitis B, acute hepatitis C and toxic/drug-induced hepatitis. The size of the Treg pool was contracted during AHA, resulting from apoptosis of Tregs induced by a Fas-mediated mechanism. Decrease in Treg numbers led to reduced suppressive activity of the Treg pool and consequently resulted in severe liver injury during AHA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Long-term intake of a high-protein diet increases liver triacylglycerol deposition pathways and hepatic signs of injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rúa, Rubén; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, Andreu; van Schothorst, Evert M; Oliver, Paula

    2017-08-01

    Intake of high-protein (HP) diets has increased over the last years, mainly due to their popularity for body weight control. Liver is the main organ handling ingested macronutrients and it is associated with the beginning of different pathologies. We aimed to deepen our knowledge on molecular pathways affected by long-term intake of an HP diet. We performed a transcriptome analysis on liver of rats chronically fed with a casein-rich HP diet and analyzed molecular parameters related to liver injury. Chronic increase in the dietary protein/carbohydrate ratio up-regulated processes related with amino acid uptake/metabolism and lipid synthesis, promoting a molecular environment indicative of hepatic triacylglycerol (TG) deposition. Moreover, changes in expression of genes involved in acid-base maintenance and oxidative stress indicate alterations in the pH balance due to the high acid load of the diet, which has been linked to liver/health damage. Up-regulation of immune-related genes was also observed. In concordance with changes at gene expression level, we observed increased liver TG content and increased serum markers of hepatic injury/inflammation (aspartate transaminase, C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha). Moreover, the HP diet strongly increased hepatic mRNA and protein levels of HSP90, a marker of liver injury. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term consumption of an HP diet, resulting in a high acid load, results in a hepatic transcriptome signature reflecting increased TG deposition and increased signs of health risk (increased inflammation, alterations in the acid-base equilibrium and oxidative stress). Persistence of this altered metabolic status could have unhealthy consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function.

  12. The Protective Effects of Trypsin Inhibitor on Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury and Liver Graft Survival

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lianyue; Liu, Hongyu; Fu, Peiyao; Li, Zhuonan; Li, Peidong; Xie, Lijuan; Xin, Mingang; Wang, Zhanpeng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the protective effects of ulinastatin (urinary trypsin inhibitor, UTI) on liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft survival. We employed mouse liver cold IRI and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTx) models. UTI was added to lactated Ringer's (LR) solution for liver perfusion and preservation in vitro or combined with UTI injection intraperitoneally to the liver graft recipient. Our results indicated that UTI supplementation protected the liver from cold IRI in a dose-dependent manner and prolonged liver graft survival from extended cold preserved liver donors significantly. The underlying mechanism of UTI on liver IRI may be mediated by inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine release, increasing the expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 and decreasing the expression of the proapoptosis genes of Caspase-3 and Bax, and further protects hepatocytes from apoptotic death and improves liver function. PMID:26783413

  13. Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Horváth, Béla; Bátkai, Sándor; Park, Ogyi; Tanashian, Galin; Gao, Rachel Y; Patel, Vivek; Wink, David A.; Liaudet, Lucas; Haskó, György; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a pivotal mechanism of liver damage following liver transplantation or hepatic surgery. We have investigated the effects of cannabidiol(CBD), the non-psychotropic constituent of marijuana, in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury. I/R triggered time-dependent increases/changes in markers of liver injury (serum transaminases), hepatic oxidative/nitrative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, nitrotyrosine content/staining, gp91phox and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA), mitochondrial dysfunction (decreased complex I activity), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α/2, inter-cellular adhesion molecule 1 mRNA levels, tissue neutrophil infiltration, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB) activation), stress signaling (p38MAPK and JNK) and cell death (DNA fragmentation, PARP activity, and TUNEL). CBD significantly reduced the extent of liver inflammation, oxidative/nitrative stress and cell death, and also attenuated the bacterial endotoxin-triggered NF-KB activation and TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells, likewise the adhesion molecules expression in primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α, and attachment of human neutrophils to the activated endothelium. These protective effects were preserved in CB2 knockout mice and were not prevented by CB1/2 antagonists in vitro. Thus, CBD may represent a novel, protective strategy against I/R injury by attenuating key inflammatory pathways and oxidative/nitrative tissue injury, independent from classical CB1/2 receptors. PMID:21362471

  14. HDACi Valproic Acid (VPA) and Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) Delay but Fail to Protect against Warm Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Ruess, Dietrich A; Probst, Moriz; Marjanovic, Goran; Wittel, Uwe A; Hopt, Ulrich T; Keck, Tobias; Bausch, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDAC) catalyze N-terminal deacetylation of lysine-residues on histones and multiple nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. In various animal models, such as trauma/hemorrhagic shock, ischemic stroke or myocardial infarction, HDAC inhibitor (HDACi) application is cyto- and organoprotective and promotes survival. HDACi reduce stress signaling, cell death and inflammation. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury during major liver resection or transplantation increases morbidity and mortality. Assuming protective properties, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the HDACi VPA and SAHA on warm hepatic I/R. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats (age: 6-8 weeks) were randomized to VPA, SAHA, vehicle control (pre-) treatment or sham-groups and underwent partial no-flow liver ischemia for 90 minutes with subsequent reperfusion for 6, 12, 24 and 60 hours. Injury and regeneration was quantified by serum AST and ALT levels, by macroscopic aspect and (immuno-) histology. HDACi treatment efficiency, impact on MAPK/SAPK-activation and Hippo-YAP signaling was determined by Western blot. Treatment with HDACi significantly enhanced hyperacetylation of Histone H3-K9 during I/R, indicative of adequate treatment efficiency. Liver injury, as measured by macroscopic aspect, serum transaminases and histology, was delayed, but not alleviated in VPA and SAHA treated animals. Importantly, tissue destruction was significantly more pronounced with VPA. SAPK-activation (p38 and JNK) was reduced by VPA and SAHA in the early (6h) reperfusion phase, but augmented later on (JNK, 24h). Regeneration appeared enhanced in SAHA and VPA treated animals and was dependent on Hippo-YAP signaling. VPA and SAHA delay warm hepatic I/R injury at least in part through modulation of SAPK-activation. However, these HDACi fail to exert organoprotective effects, in this setting. For VPA, belated damage is even aggravated.

  15. Milrinone-induced postconditioning reduces hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats: the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tomomi; Tosaka, Shinya; Tosaka, Reiko; Maekawa, Takuji; Cho, Sungsam; Eguchi, Susumu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sumikawa, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning (PostC) protects the liver against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor, has been reported to exhibit preconditioning properties against hepatic IR injury; however, its PostC properties remain unknown. This study investigated whether milrinone has PostC properties against hepatic IR injury and the roles of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats were separated into six groups: (1) group S: animals that underwent sham operation without ischemia, (2) group C: ischemia followed by reperfusion with no other intervention, (3) group M: milrinone administered immediately after reperfusion, (4) group MW: wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, injected before milrinone administration, (5) group MN: l-NAME, a NOS inhibitor, injected before milrinone administration, and (6) group MD, milrinone administered 30 min after reperfusion. Except for group S, all groups underwent 1 h of warm ischemia of median and left lateral lobes, followed by 5 h of reperfusion. Biochemical liver function analysis and histologic examination were performed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and lactic dehydrogenase levels, histologic damage scores, and apoptotic rate in group M were significantly lower than those in group C. The inhibition of PI3K or NOS prevented this protective effect. Milrinone administered 30 min after reperfusion did not show obvious protective effects. Milrinone-induced PostC protects against hepatic IR injury when it is administered immediately after reperfusion, and PI3K and NOS may play an important role in this protective effect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Flurbiprofen, a Cyclooxygenase Inhibitor, Protects Mice from Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting GSK-3β Signaling and Mitochondrial Permeability Transition

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Hailong; Chen, Huan; Wang, Chengcai; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Fang; Guo, Meng; Wang, Quanxing; Shi, Xueyin

    2012-01-01

    Flurbiprofen acts as a nonselective inhibitor for cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2), but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unclear. Mice were randomized into sham, I/R and flurbiprofen (Flurb) groups. The hepatic artery and portal vein to the left and median liver lobes were occluded for 90 min and unclamped for reperfusion to establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia. Pretreatment of animals with flurbiprofen prior to I/R insult significantly decreased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prevented hepatocytes from I/R-induced apoptosis/necrosis. Moreover, flurbiprofen dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore opening, and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that flurbiprofen markedly inhibited glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β activity and increased phosphorylation of GSK-3β at Ser9, which, consequently, could modulate the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT)–cyclophilin D (CyP-D) complex and the susceptibility to MPT induction. Therefore, administration of flurbiprofen prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through inhibition of MPT and inactivation of GSK-3β, and provides experimental evidence for clinical use of flurbiprofen to protect liver function in surgical settings in addition to its conventional use for pain relief. PMID:22714712

  17. Management of adult blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Kozar, Rosemary A; McNutt, Michelle K

    2010-12-01

    To review the nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury in the adult trauma population. Although liver injury scale does not predict need for surgical intervention, a high-grade complex liver injury should alert the physician to a patient at increased risk of hepatic complications following nonoperative management. Blunt hepatic injury remains a frequent intraabdominal injury in the adult trauma population. The management of blunt hepatic injury has undergone a major paradigm shift from mandatory operative exploration to nonoperative management. Hemodynamic instability with a positive focused abdominal sonography for trauma and peritonitis are indications for emergent operative intervention. Although surgical intervention for blunt hepatic trauma is not as common as in years past, it is imperative that the current trauma surgeon be familiar with the surgical skill set to manage complex hepatic injuries. This study represents a review of both nonoperative and operative management of blunt hepatic injury.

  18. Effects of in vivo hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury on the hepatobiliary disposition of rhodamine 123 and its metabolites in isolated perfused rat livers.

    PubMed

    Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Shaik, Imam H; Mehvar, Reza

    2012-01-01

    A few studies have shown that normothermic hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury may affect the mRNA and/or protein levels of canalicular transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). However, the effects of the injury on the functions of these canalicular transporters with respect to the biliary excretion of drugs remain largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of warm hepatic IR on the hepatobiliary disposition of rhodamine 123 (RH-123), a P-gp substrate, and its glucuronidated metabolite (RH-Glu), an Mrp2 substrate, in rats. Twenty four or 72 h following a 60-min partial ischemia or sham operation in rats, livers were isolated and perfused ex vivo with a constant concentration (~100 ng/mL) of RH-123. The concentration of RH-123 and its glucuronidated (RH-Glu) and deacylated (RH-110) metabolites were determined in the outlet perfusate, bile, and the liver tissue using HPLC, and relevant pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Twenty-four-h IR caused a significant reduction in the hepatic extraction ratio of RH-123 (IR: 0.857 ± 0.078; Sham: 0.980 ± 0.017) and the biliary recovery of the parent drug and RH-Glu by 43% and 44%, respectively. The reductions in the biliary recovery were associated with significant reductions in the apparent biliary clearance of RH-123 and RH-Glu. Mass balance data showed that the formation of the glucuronidated or deacylated metabolite was not significantly affected by the 24-h IR injury. In contrast to the 24-h IR, the injury did not have any effect on the hepatobiliary disposition of RH-123 or its metabolites following 72 h of reperfusion. It is concluded that the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are subject to biliary excretion by the canalicular P-gp and Mrp2 transporters may be altered shortly after hepatic IR injury.

  19. Ascorbate promotes carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in senescence marker protein 30-deficient mice by enhancing inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ki, Mi-Ran; Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Jin-Kyu; Hong, Il-Hwa; Han, Seon-Young; You, Sang-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Seung-Sook; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2011-06-01

    The genetic deletion of the senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30) gene results in ascorbate deficiency and the premature aging processes in mice. Apparent liver injury of SMP30(-/-) mice was less severe than those of wild type (WT) mice, upon chronic CCl(4) injection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology underlying the mild CCl(4) toxicity in SMP30(-/-) mice. Along with the lower level of serum alanine aminotransferase, the livers of SMP30(-/-) mice revealed a lesser glycogen depletion, a decrease in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated inflammatory signaling in parallel with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase and glutathione peroxidase, and the lower lipid peroxidation as compared to those of WT mice. CCl(4)-induced proliferation, measured by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, was low in SMP30(-/-) mice as compared with that of WT mice whereas the levels of p21 and Bax were comparable to those of the CCl(4)-treated WT mice. Moreover, CCl(4) toxicity in ascorbate-fed SMP30(-/-) mice was comparable to that of the CCl(4)-alone treated WT mice, accompanied by an increase in the above mentioned factors. Conversely, ascorbate partly compensated for the CCl(4)-induced oxidative stress in WT mice, indicating that sufficient ascorbate may be required for an antioxidant function under severe levels of oxidative stress. Our data suggest that the restoration of ascorbate-deficiency reverses a sluggish immune system into an activated condition by an increase in JNK-mediated inflammation and free radical cascade; thus leading to accelerated hepatic damage in SMP30(-/-) mice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanism of the stationary canalicular excretion of tributylmethyl ammonium in rats with a CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook; Park, So-Ra; Hong, Soon-Sun; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2005-02-01

    The in vivo canalicular excretion clearance of tributylmethyl ammonium (TBuMA), a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate, was previously reported to be unaffected by the induction of an experimental hepatic injury (EHI) by CCl(4) despite the increased expression of P-gp in the EHI liver. The objective of this study, therefore, was to elucidate the mechanism for the unchanged canalicular excretion clearance of TBuMA in EHI rats. TBuMA uptake was increased in cLPM vesicles from EHI rats compared with that from control rats. The total bile salt concentration in EHI liver was significantly reduced compared with that in a control liver. Because, in our previous studies, the uptake of TBuMA by cLPM vesicles was found to be significantly enhanced in the presence of bile salts, the reduction in bile salt levels in the EHI liver may be related to the unaltered TBuMA clearance. Despite the fact that the uptake of TBuMA by cLPM vesicles was increased by the addition of an EHI liver extract, the extent of the increase was comparatively less compared to the addition of a control liver extract. The in vivo excretion clearance of TBuMA was increased in a taurodeoxycholate dose-dependent manner in EHI rats. These observations suggest, therefore, that despite the induction of P-gp expression by the EHI, the in vivo canalicular excretion clearance of TBuMA remains unaltered as the result of an offset by reduced levels of bile salt(s). Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Reduced inflammatory response and increased microcirculatory disturbances during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in steatotic livers of ob/ob mice

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Tadashi; Ito, Yoshiya; Wijeweera, Jayanthika; Liu, Jie; Malle, Ernst; Farhood, Anwar; McCuskey, Robert S.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    Steatosis is a major risk factor for complications after liver surgery. Since neutrophil cytotoxicity is critical for ischemia-reperfusion injury in normal livers, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an exaggerated inflammatory response could cause the increased injury in steatotic livers. In C57Bl/6 mice, 60 min of warm hepatic ischemia triggered a gradual increase in hepatic neutrophil accumulation during reperfusion with peak levels of 100-fold over baseline at 12 h of reperfusion. Neutrophil extravasation and a specific neutrophil-induced oxidant stress (immunostaining for hypochlorous acid-modified epitopes) started at 6 h of reperfusion and peaked at 12–24 h. Ob/ob mice, which had a severe macrovesicular steatosis, suffered significantly higher injury (alanine transaminase activity: 18,000 ± 2,100 U/l; 65% necrosis) compared with lean littermates (alanine transaminase activity: 4,900 ± 720 U/l; 24% necrosis) at 6 h of reperfusion. However, 62% fewer neutrophils accumulated in steatotic livers. This correlated with an attenuated increase in mRNA levels of several proinflammatory genes in ob/ob mice during reperfusion. In contrast, sham-operated ob/ob mice had a 50% reduction in liver blood flow and 35% fewer functional sinusoids compared with lean littermates. These deficiencies in liver blood flow and the microcirculation were further aggravated only in ob/ob mice during reperfusion. The attenuated inflammatory response and reduced neutrophil-induced oxidant stress observed in steatotic livers during reperfusion cannot be responsible for the dramatically increased injury in ob/ob mice. In contrast, the aggravated injury appears to be mediated by ischemic necrosis due to massive impairment of blood and oxygen supply in the steatotic livers. PMID:17307725

  2. Protective Effect of Tropisetron on Rodent Hepatic Injury after Trauma-Hemorrhagic Shock through P38 MAPK-Dependent Hemeoxygenase-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tsai, Yung-Fong

    2012-01-01

    Tropisetron can decrease inflammatory cell responses and alleviate organ damage caused by trauma-hemorrhage, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/hemeoxygenase-1 (p38 MAPK/HO-1) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects on different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK/HO-1 plays any role in the tropisetron-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35–40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, several treatment regimens were administered: four doses of tropisetron alone (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg body weight), or a single dose of tropisetron (1 mg/kg body weight) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB-203580, 2 mg/kg body weight) or HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin, 2.5 mg/kg body weight). Various parameters were measured, and the animals were sacrificed at 24 h post-resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased the following parameters: plasma concentrations of aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT), hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and -3 (CINC-1 and CINC-3), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). These parameters were significantly improved in the tropisetron-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Tropisetron treatment also increased hepatic p38 MAPK and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 or chromium-mesoporphyrin with tropisetron abolished the tropisetron-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of tropisetron administration on alleviation of hepatic injury

  3. Protective effect of tropisetron on rodent hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhagic shock through P38 MAPK-dependent hemeoxygenase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tsai, Yung-Fong

    2012-01-01

    Tropisetron can decrease inflammatory cell responses and alleviate organ damage caused by trauma-hemorrhage, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/hemeoxygenase-1 (p38 MAPK/HO-1) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects on different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK/HO-1 plays any role in the tropisetron-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, several treatment regimens were administered: four doses of tropisetron alone (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg body weight), or a single dose of tropisetron (1 mg/kg body weight) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB-203580, 2 mg/kg body weight) or HO antagonist (chromium-mesoporphyrin, 2.5 mg/kg body weight). Various parameters were measured, and the animals were sacrificed at 24 h post-resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased the following parameters: plasma concentrations of aspartate (AST) and alanine aminotransferases (ALT), hepatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and -3 (CINC-1 and CINC-3), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). These parameters were significantly improved in the tropisetron-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Tropisetron treatment also increased hepatic p38 MAPK and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 or chromium-mesoporphyrin with tropisetron abolished the tropisetron-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of tropisetron administration on alleviation of hepatic injury

  4. Wheatgrass-Derived Polysaccharide Has Antiinflammatory, Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects on LPS-Induced Hepatic Injury in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nepali, Sarmila; Ki, Hyeon-Hui; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hoon-Yeon; Kim, Dae-Ki; Lee, Young-Mi

    2017-07-01

    Hepatic injury occurs frequently during sepsis, and polysaccharides isolated from plants have been reported to have antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in various models. However, the effect of wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide (WGP) has not been previously studied. In the present study, we investigated the effect of WGP on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in mice. Mice were pre-treated with WGP (100 or 200 mg/kg daily for 2 days) and then challenged with LPS (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and sacrificed after 12 h. Wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide decreased serum aminotransferase levels and histological changes as compared with LPS-challenged mice. Wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide also significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine up-regulation and improved the oxidative status of liver tissues. Furthermore, these effects were found to be mediated by the suppression of the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), due to inhibitions of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-activated kinase (TAK)-1 phosphorylation and inhibition of kappa B (IκB)-α degradation. In addition, WGP inhibited the activations of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Wheatgrass-derived polysaccharide also attenuated hepatic cell death by modulating caspase-3 and apoptosis associated mitochondrial proteins, such as, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X (Bax). Taken together, WGP possesses antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic activity and ameliorates LPS-induced liver injury in mice. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Previous physical exercise alters the hepatic profile of oxidative-inflammatory status and limits the secondary brain damage induced by severe traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Mauro Robson Torres; Ferreira, Ana Paula de Oliveira; Busanello, Guilherme Lago; da Silva, Luís Roberto Hart; da Silveira Junior, Mauro Eduardo Porto; Fiorin, Fernando da Silva; Arrifano, Gabriela; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Cuevas, María J; Bresciani, Guilherme; González-Gallego, Javier; Fighera, Michele Rechia; Royes, Luiz Fernando Freire

    2017-09-01

    An early inflammatory response and oxidative stress are implicated in the signal transduction that alters both hepatic redox status and mitochondrial function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Peripheral oxidative/inflammatory responses contribute to neuronal dysfunction after TBI Exercise training alters the profile of oxidative-inflammatory status in liver and protects against acute hyperglycaemia and a cerebral inflammatory response after TBI. Approaches such as exercise training, which attenuates neuronal damage after TBI, may have therapeutic potential through modulation of responses by metabolic organs. The vulnerability of the body to oxidative/inflammatory in TBI is significantly enhanced in sedentary compared to physically active counterparts. Although systemic responses have been described after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known regarding potential interactions between brain and peripheral organs after neuronal injury. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate whether a peripheral oxidative/inflammatory response contributes to neuronal dysfunction after TBI, as well as the prophylactic role of exercise training. Animals were submitted to fluid percussion injury after 6 weeks of swimming training. Previous exercise training increased mRNA expression of X receptor alpha and ATP-binding cassette transporter, and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 expression per se in liver. Interestingly, exercise training protected against hepatic inflammation (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6), oxidative stress (decreases in non-protein sulfhydryl and glutathione, as well as increases in 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate oxidation and protein carbonyl), which altered hepatic redox status (increases in myeloperoxidase and superoxide dismutase activity, as well as inhibition of catalase activity) mitochondrial function (decreases in methyl-tetrazolium and Δψ, as well as

  6. The impact of a massive transfusion protocol (1:1:1) on major hepatic injuries: does it increase abdominal wall closure rates?

    PubMed

    Ball, Chad G; Dente, Christopher J; Shaz, Beth; Wyrzykowski, Amy D; Nicholas, Jeffrey M; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Feliciano, David V

    2013-10-01

    Massive transfusion protocols (MTPs) using high plasma and platelet ratios for exsanguinating trauma patients are increasingly popular. Major liver injuries often require massive resuscitations and immediate hemorrhage control. Current published literature describes outcomes among patients with mixed patterns of injury. We sought to identify the effects of an MTP on patients with major liver trauma. Patients with grade 3, 4 or 5 liver injuries who required a massive blood component transfusion were analyzed. We compared patients with high plasma:red blood cell:platelet ratio (1:1:1) transfusions (2007-2009) with patients injured before the creation of an institutional MTP (2005-2007). Among 60 patients with major hepatic injuries, 35 (58%) underwent resuscitation after the implementation of an MTP. Patient and injury characteristics were similar between cohorts. Implementation of the MTP significantly improved plasma: red blood cell:platelet ratios and decreased crystalloid fluid resuscitation (p = 0.026). Rapid improvement in early acidosis and coagulopathy was superior with an MTP (p = 0.009). More patients in the MTP group also underwent primary abdominal fascial closure during their hospital stay (p = 0.021). This was most evident with grade 4 injuries (89% vs. 14%). The mean time to fascial closure was 4.2 days. The overall survival rate for all major liver injuries was not affected by an MTP (p = 0.61). The implementation of a formal MTP using high plasma and platelet ratios resulted in a substantial increase in abdominal wall approximation. This occurred concurrently to a decrease in the delivered volume of crystalloid fluid.

  7. Mir-338-3p Mediates Tnf-A-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Targeting PP4r1 to Regulate PP4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lin; Wang, Shuyue; Sun, Libo; Huang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Tao; Guo, Jun; Man, Yong; Tang, Weiqing; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Recent studies have indicated that miR-338-3p plays an important role in cancer. Here, we investigated whether miR-338-3p mediates tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. The activation of the insulin signalling pathway and the level of glycogenesis were examined in the livers of the db/db and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in HEP1-6 cells transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor. Computational prediction of microRNA target, luciferase assay and Western blot were used to assess the miR-338-3p target. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to determine the transcriptional regulator of miR-338-3p. miR-338-3p was down-regulated in the livers of the db/db, HFD-fed and TNF-α-treated C57BL/6J mice, as well as in mouse HEP1-6 hepatocytes treated with TNF-α. Importantly the down-regulation of miR-338-3p induced insulin resistance, as indicated by impaired glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Further research showed that the down-regulated miR-338-3p resulted in the impaired AKT/ glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSl·Gβ) signalling pathway and glycogen synthesis. In contrast, hepatic over-expression of miR-338-3p rescued the TNF-α-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, protein phosphatase 4 regulator subunit 1 (PP4R1) was identified as a direct target of miR-338-3p that mediated hepatic insulin signalling by regulating protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). Finally we identified hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4α) as the transcriptional regulator of miRNA-338-3p. Our studies provide novel insight into the critical role and molecular mechanism by which miR-338-3p is involved in TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance. miR-338-3p might mediate TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance by targeting PP4R1 to regulate PP4 expression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Tranilast reduces serum IL-6 and IL-13 and protects against thioacetamide-induced acute liver injury and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Rania R; Elkashef, Wagdi F; Said, Eman

    2015-07-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious neuropsychiatric disorder usually affecting either acute or chronic hepatic failure patients. Hepatic encephalopathy was replicated in a validated rat model to assess the potential protective efficacy of tranilast against experimentally induced hepatic encephalopathy. Thioacetamide injection significantly impaired hepatic synthetic, metabolic and excretory functions with significant increase in serum NO, IL-6 and IL-13 levels and negative shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance. Most importantly, there was a significant increase in serum ammonia levels with significant astrocytes' swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks of hepatic encephalopathy. Tranilast administration (300 mg/kg, orally) for 15 days significantly improved hepatic functions, restored oxidant/antioxidant balance, reduced serum NO, IL-6 and IL-13 levels. Meanwhile, serum ammonia significantly declined with significant reduction in astrocytes' swelling and vacuolization. Several mechanisms can be implicated in the observed hepato- and neuroprotective potentials of tranilast, such as its anti-inflammatory potential, its antioxidant potential as well as its immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis B What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a viral infection that ... to prevent spreading hepatitis B to others . Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis B is a short-term ...

  10. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are a common cause of liver injury, particularly ... problem. However, if you took high doses of acetaminophen , treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  11. Autoantibody presentation in drug-induced liver injury and idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis: the influence of human leucocyte antigen alleles.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Camilla; Castiella, Agustin; Gomez-Moreno, Eva M; Otazua, Pedro; López-Nevot, Miguel-Ángel; Zapata, Eva; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Ruiz-Cabello, Francisco; Medina-Cáliz, Inmaculada; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Soriano, German; Roman, Eva; Hallal, Hacibe; Moreno-Planas, José M; Prieto, Martin; Andrade, Raúl J; Lucena, M Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Positive autoantibody (AAB) titres are commonly encountered in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and in a proportion of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) patients. The underlying mechanism for selective AAB occurrence in DILI is unknown, but could be associated with variations in immune-associated genes. Hence, we aimed to analyse human leucocyte antigen (HLA) allele compositions in DILI with positive (+) and negative (-) AAB titres and in AIH patients. High-resolution genotyping of HLA class I (A, B, C) and II (DRB1, DQB1) loci was performed on 207 DILI and 50 idiopathic AIH patients and compared with 885 healthy Spanish controls. Compared with controls, HLA-B*08:01 [44 vs. 9.7%, P=3.7E-13/corrected P-value (Pc)=1.0E-11], C*07:01 (46 vs. 24%, P=6.4E-04/Pc=0.012), DRB1*03:01 (58 vs. 21.5%, P=5.0E-09/Pc=1.0E-07) and DQB1*02:01 (56 vs. 22%, P=6.8E-08/Pc=9.0E-07) were significantly more frequent in AIH patients. The HLA-A*01:01 frequency was increased in the same population, but did not reach significance after Bonferroni's correction (34 vs. 19%, P=0.02/Pc=0.37). Fifty-eight of 207 DILI patients presented positive titres for at least one AAB (predominantly antinuclear antibody 76% and antismooth muscle antibody 28%). There was a tendency towards higher representation of DRB1*14:01 and DQB1*05:03 in DILI AAB+ compared with DILI AAB- (13.8 vs. 4.0%, P=0.02/Pc=0.5; 13.8 vs. 4.7%, P=0.04/Pc=0.5). The presence of HLA alleles B*08:01, C*07:01, DRB1*03:01, DQB1*02:01 and possibly A*01:01 enhances the risk of AIH (type 1) in Spanish patients. These alleles form part of the ancestral haplotype 8.1. HLA-DRB1*14:01 and DQB1*05:03 could potentially increase the risk of positive AAB (particularly antinuclear antibody) in Spanish DILI patients.

  12. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-10

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications.

  13. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-01

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications. PMID:23724364

  14. The antioxidative and hepatoprotective effects comparison of Chinese angelica polysaccharide(CAP)and selenizing CAP (sCAP) in CCl4 induced hepatic injury mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Chao; Tian, Weijun; Liu, Kuanhui; Hou, Ranran; Yue, Chanjuan; Wu, Yi; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Jiaguo; Hu, Yuanliang; Yang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Chinese angelica polysaccharides (CAP) and selenizing CAP (sCAP) were prepared and identified through FTIR and SEM observation. Their antioxidant activities in vitro and hepatoprotective effects in vivo were compared by free radical-scavenging tests or with CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury model mice. The results showed that for DPPH radical, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical, the scavenging capabilities of sCAP were significantly stronger than those of CAP . In hepatic injury model mice, sCAP could significantly reduce ALT, AST and ALP contents and raised TP content in serum, significantly reduce MDA and ROS contents and raised SOD and T-AOC activities in liver homogenate in comparison with CAP; obviously relieve the pathological changes of liver and significantly inhibit the expressions of p-ERK, p-JNK and p-p38 protein as compared with those in model control group. These results indicate that selenylation modification can enhance the antioxidant and hepatoprotective actions of Chinese angelica polysaccharide. A action mechanism of sCAP is suppressing the protein expression of MAPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The hepatocurative effects of Cynara scolymus L. leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Colak, Emine; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Tekin, Neslihan; Colak, Ertugrul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Degirmenci, Irfan; Gunes, Hasan Veysi

    2016-01-01

    Cynara scolymus is a pharmacologically important medicinal plant containing phenolic acids and flavonoids. Experimental studies indicate antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of C. scolymus but there have been no studies about therapeutic effects of liver diseases yet. In the present study, hepatocurative effects of C. scolymus leaf extract on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury in rats were investigated by serum hepatic enzyme levels, oxidative stress indicator (malondialdehyde-MDA), endogenous antioxidants, DNA fragmentation, p53, caspase 3 and histopathology. Animals were divided into six groups: control, olive oil, CCl4, C. scolymus leaf extract, recovery and curative. CCl4 was administered at a dose of 0.2 mL/kg twice daily on CCl4, recovery and curative groups. Cynara scolymus extract was given orally for 2 weeks at a dose of 1.5 g/kg after CCl4 application on the curative group. Significant decrease of serum alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate-aminotransferase (AST) levels were determined in the curative group. MDA levels were significantly lower in the curative group. Significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity in the curative group was determined. In the curative group, C. scolymus leaf extract application caused the DNA % fragmentation, p53 and caspase 3 levels of liver tissues towards the normal range. Our results indicated that C. scolymus leaf extract has hepatocurative effects of on CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injury by reducing lipid peroxidation, providing affected antioxidant systems towards the normal range. It also had positive effects on the pathway of the regulatory mechanism allowing repair of DNA damage on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  16. Gut-derived lipopolysaccharide promotes T-cell-mediated hepatitis in mice through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Le-Xing; Yan, He-Xin; Yang, Wen; Tang, Liang; Zhang, Hui-Lu; Liu, Qiong; Zou, Shan-Shan; He, Ya-Qin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Robust clinical and epidemiologic data support the role of inflammation as a key player in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Our previous data showed that gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promote HCC development by activating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed on myeloid-derived cells. However, the effects of gut-derived LPS on other types of liver injury models are yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of gut-derived LPS and TLR4 signaling in a T-cell-mediated hepatitis-Con A-induced hepatitis model, which mimic the viral hepatitis. Reduction of endotoxin using antibiotics regimen or genetic ablation of TLR4 in mice significantly alleviate Con A-induced liver injury by inhibiting the infiltration of T lymphocytes into the liver and the activation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes as well as the production of T helper 1 cytokines; in contrast, exogenous LPS can promote Con A-induced hepatitis and CD4(+) T cells activation in vivo and in vitro. Reconstitution of TLR4-expressing myeloid cells in TLR4-deficient mice restored Con A-induced liver injury and inflammation, indicating the major cell target of LPS. In addition, TLR4 may positively regulate the target hepatocellular apoptosis via the perforin/granzyme B pathway. These data suggest that gut-derived LPS and TLR4 play important positive roles in Con A-induced hepatitis and modulation of the gut microbiotia may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention to treat acute hepatitis induced by hepatitis virus infection, thus to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma.

  17. DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein suppresses lipogenesis and ameliorates hepatic steatosis and acute-on-chronic liver injury in alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanqing; Shen, Feng; Sherban, Alex; Nocon, Allison; Li, Yu; Wang, Hua; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Rui, Xianliang; Han, Jinyan; Jiang, Bingbing; Lee, Donghwan; Li, Na; Keyhani-Nejad, Farnaz; Fan, Jian-Gao; Liu, Feng; Kamat, Amrita; Musi, Nicolas; Guarente, Leonard; Pacher, Pal; Gao, Bin; Zang, Mengwei

    2018-02-19

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by lipid accumulation and liver injury. However, how chronic alcohol consumption causes hepatic lipid accumulation remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a causal role in alcoholic steatosis, inflammation, and liver injury. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to hyperactivation of mTORC1, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream kinase S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in hepatocytes. Aberrant activation of mTORC1 was likely attributed to the defects of the DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the liver of chronic-plus-binge ethanol-fed mice and in the liver of patients with ALD. Conversely, adenoviral overexpression of hepatic DEPTOR suppressed mTORC1 signaling and ameliorated alcoholic hepatosteatosis, inflammation, and acute-on-chronic liver injury. Mechanistically, the lipid-lowering effect of hepatic DEPTOR was attributable to decreased proteolytic processing, nuclear translocation, and transcriptional activity of the lipogenic transcription factor sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). DEPTOR-dependent inhibition of mTORC1 also attenuated alcohol-induced cytoplasmic accumulation of the lipogenic regulator lipin 1 and prevented alcohol-mediated inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. Pharmacological intervention with rapamycin alleviated the ability of alcohol to up-regulate lipogenesis, to down-regulate fatty acid oxidation, and to induce steatogenic phenotypes. Chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding led to activation of SREBP-1 and lipin 1 through S6K1-dependent and independent mechanisms. Furthermore, hepatocyte-specific deletion of SIRT1 disrupted DEPTOR function, enhanced mTORC1 activity, and exacerbated alcoholic fatty liver, inflammation, and liver injury in mice. The dysregulation of SIRT1

  18. Gastric injury from (90)Y to left hepatic lobe tumors adjacent to the stomach: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Gates, Vanessa L; Hickey, Ryan; Marshall, Karen; Williams, Melissa; Salzig, Krystina; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2015-12-01

    Radioembolization with (90)Y microspheres is a locoregional radiation therapy for unresectable hepatic neoplasm. Non-target delivery of (90)Y microspheres resulting in gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms is a recognized complication; there is minimal knowledge regarding the radiation effect to the gastric wall from left hepatic lobe (90)Y treatments. Our aim was to study the incidence of GI complications when the target tissue (hepatic parenchyma ± tumor) is in close proximity to the gastric wall. We hypothesized that liver (tumor) to stomach proximity does not correlate with increased toxicity. Between November 2011 and September 2013, we studied all patients who underwent left lobe radioembolization with (90)Y glass microspheres. With Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, we retrospectively reviewed MRI/CT images of these patients, identifying a subset of patients with the left hepatic lobe <1 cm from the gastric wall. Patients were seen in clinic 1 month posttreatment and subsequently at 3-month intervals. Short- and long-term gastric adverse events were tabulated. Ninety-seven patients successfully underwent left hepatic lobe (90)Y microsphere radioembolization in which the average distance from the liver to the stomach wall was 1.0 ± 2.8 mm. The average dose for patients who received radioembolization to the left hepatic lobe was 109 ± 57 Gy. Fifty patients had tumor within 1 cm of the gastric wall. The average dose for patients who received radioembolization to the left hepatic lobe with tumor within 1 cm of the gastric wall was 121 ± 41 Gy. There were no reportable or recordable medical events. Of the patients, 34% reported abdominal pain that was grade 1-2; 65% of the patients reported no abdominal pain. None of the 97 patients developed a clinically evident GI ulcer. Patients with left lobe tumors adjacent to or abutting the stomach do not exhibit acute or chronic radiation effects following radioembolization with glass microspheres.

  19. Risk of Liver Injury Associated with Chinese Herbal Products Containing Radix bupleuri in 639,779 Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hsing; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Background Chinese herbal products (CHPs) containing Radix bupleuri are often prescribed for chronic hepatitis. There have been no epidemiological studies in populations with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Our study was conducted to determine the association between the use of CHPs containing Radix bupleuri and the risk of hospitalisation related to liver injury among HBV-infected patients in Taiwan. Methods From a total of 639,779 patients with diagnoses related to HBV infection, we included hospitalised adult cases with a primary diagnosis of liver injury in the database of Taiwan's national health insurance during the period 1997–2004. Case-control and case-crossover designs were used to assess the risk of hospitalisation with conditional logistic regression models constructed and adjusted for 270 conventionally hepatotoxic drugs. Cumulative doses of these CHPs and Radix bupleuri were assessed for any dose-response relationship. Findings In total, we collected 1,080 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In the case-control design, the adjusted odds ratio was 1.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30 to 2.77). The risks from prescribing the CHPs Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang and Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang were significantly high, and dose-response relationships were found. The risk of adding each 19 gm dose of Radix bupleuri was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.66 to 2.89). The results using the case-crossover design remained similar. Conclusions Prescribing Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, or CHPs containing more than 19 gram of Radix bupleuri in HBV-infected patients might increase their risks of liver injury. Further studies are indicated to corroborate the above findings. PMID:21264326

  20. Preventive effects of interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine induced acute liver injury via regulating inflammatory response in hepatic macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Long; Duan, Chaoli; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xiaofang; Yin, Hongyan; Wang, Tianxi; Huang, Caoxin; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu; Li, Xuejun

    2017-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharide/d-Galactosamine (LPS/d-Gal)-induced acute liver injury is characterized by significant inflammatory responses including TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and is a widely applied experimental model for inflammation research. TNF-α is critical in the progression of LPS/d-Gal-induced liver injury. However, the role of IL-6 in this model is still unknown. In the present study, we aim to elucidate the involvement of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of acute liver injury induced by LPS/d-Gal in mice and its underlying mechanism. To induce acute liver injury, LPS (50μg/kg body weight) and d-Gal (400mg/kg body weight) were injected intraperitoneally in the C57BL/6 mice. The vehicle (saline) or a single dose of recombinant IL-6 (200μg/kg body weight) was administered 2h prior to LPS/d-Gal injection. Mice were sacrificed 2h and 6h after LPS/d-Gal injection. The results indicated that IL-6 treatment could protect mice from LPS/d-Gal-induced tissue damage, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) elevation, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and inflammation. Furthermore, in vitro study showed that IL-6 treatment could significantly suppress LPS-triggered expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, TNF-α, RANTES and MCP-1 in macrophages while promoting the expression of M2 markers, such as Arg-1 and Mrc-1 in macrophages. Taken together, these findings revealed a novel and unexpected role of IL-6 in ameliorating LPS/d-Gal-induced acute liver injury via regulating inflammatory responses in hepatic macrophages. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Primary hepatic artery embolization in pediatric blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Ong, Caroline C P; Toh, Luke; Lo, Richard H G; Yap, Te-Lu; Narasimhan, Kannan

    2012-12-01

    Non-operative management of isolated blunt hepatic trauma is recommended except when hemodynamic instability requires immediate laparotomy. Hepatic artery angioembolization is increasingly used for hepatic injuries with ongoing bleeding as demonstrated by contrast extravasation on the CT scan. It is used primarily or after laparotomy to control ongoing hemorrhage. Hepatic angioembolization as part of multimodality management of hepatic trauma is reported mainly in adults, with few pediatric case reports. We describe our institution experience with primary pediatric hepatic angioembolization and review the literature with regard to indications and complications. Two cases (3 and 8 years old), with high-grade blunt hepatic injuries with contrast extravasation on the CT scan were successfully managed by emergency primary hepatic angioembolization with minimal morbidity and avoided laparotomy. To date, the only reports of pediatric hepatic angioembolization for trauma are 5 cases for acute bleeding and 15 delayed cases for pseudoaneurysm. The role of hepatic angioembolization in the presence of an arterial blush on CT in adults is accepted, but contested in a pediatric series, despite higher transfusion rate and mortality rate. We propose that hepatic angioembolization should be considered adjunct treatment, in lieu of, or in addition to emergency laparotomy for hemostasis in pediatric blunt hepatic injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Melatonin pretreatment enhances the therapeutic effects of exogenous mitochondria against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats through suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Hwa; Chen, Yen-Ta; Yang, Chih-Chao; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Sung, Pei-Hsun; Chiang, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chua, Sarah; Chung, Sheng-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ling; Huang, Tien-Hung; Kao, Gour-Shenq; Chen, Sheng-Yi; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin (Mel) enhances exogenous mitochondria (Mito) treatment against rodent hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In vitro study utilized three groups of hepatocytes (i.e. nontreatment, menadione, and menadione-melatonin treatment, 4.0 × 10(5) each), while in vivo study used adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 40) equally divided into sham-control (SC), IR (60-min left-lobe ischemia + 72-hr reperfusion), IR-Mel (melatonin at 30 min/6/8 hr after reperfusion), IR-Mito (mitochondria 15,000 μg/rat 30 min after reperfusion), and IR-Mel-Mito. Following menadione treatment in vitro, oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (cleaved caspase-3/PARP), DNA damage (γ-H2AX/CD90/XRCC1), mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers, and mitochondrial permeability transition were found to be lower, whereas mitochondrial cytochrome c were found to be higher in hepatocytes with melatonin treatment compared to those without (all P < 0.001). In vivo study demonstrated highest liver injury score and serum AST in IR group, but lowest in SC group and higher in IR-Mito group than that in groups IR-Mel and IR-Mel-Mito, and higher in IR-Mel group than that in IR-Mel-Mito group after 72-hr reperfusion (all P < 0.003). Protein expressions of inflammatory (TNF-α/NF-κB/IL-1β/MMP-9), oxidative stress (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized protein), apoptotic (caspase-3/PARP/Bax), and mitochondria damage (cytosolic cytochrome c) biomarkers displayed an identical pattern, whereas mitochondria integrity marker (mitochondrial cytochrome c) showed an opposite pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Microscopically, expressions of apoptotic nuclei, inflammatory (MPO(+) /CD68(+) /CD14(+) cells), and DNA damage (γ-H2AX(+) cells) biomarkers exhibited an identical pattern compared to that of liver injury score (all P < 0.001) among five groups. Melatonin-supported mitochondria treatment offered an additional

  3. Relationship between in vivo chlorzoxazone hydroxylation, hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 content and liver injury in obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Myriam; Rodrigo, Ramón; Varela, Nelson; Araya, Julia; Poniachik, Jaime; Csendes, Attila; Smok, Gladys; Videla, Luis A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in the liver of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is correlated both with the in vivo activity of the cytochrome and with the development of liver injury. For this purpose, the liver content of CYP2E1 was determined by Western blot and the CYP2E1 activity by the in vivo hydroxylation of chlorzoxazone (CLZ). The study groups were obese women with an average body mass index (BMI) of 40.3kg/m(2), who underwent therapeutic gastroplasty or gastrectomy with a gastro-jejunal anastomosis. Further, the hepatic histology was determined to establish the pathological score grouping the subjects into three categories: control, steatosis and steatohepatitis. The liver CYP2E1 content and the CLZ hydroxylation of obese patients with steatosis and, particularly, with steatohepatitis were significantly higher than controls and correlated positively with both the severity of the liver damage. These data provide evidence that CYP2E1 would be involved in the mechanism of liver injury found in obese NAFLD patients. Also, the correlation between liver CYP2E1 content and in vivo CLZ hydroxylation would validate the latter as a reliable indicator of liver injury in NAFLD, thus providing a simple and not invasive method to study these patients.

  4. A new cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist HU-910 attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Bėla; Magid, Lital; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Bátkai, Sándor; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Park, Ogyi; Tanchian, Galin; Gao, Rachel Y; Goodfellow, Catherine E; Glass, Michelle; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We have investigated the effects of a novel CB2 receptor agonist ((1S,4R)-2-(2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenyl)-7,7-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-en-1-yl)methanol (HU-910) on liver injury induced by 1 h of ischaemia followed by 2, 6 or 24 h of reperfusion, using a well-established mouse model of segmental hepatic I/R. KEY RESULTS Displacement of [3H]CP55940 by HU-910 from specific binding sites in CHO cell membranes transfected with human CB2 or CB1 receptors (hCB1/2) yielded Ki values of 6 nM and 1.4 µM respectively. HU-910 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production by hCB2 CHO cells (EC50= 162 nM) and yielded EC50 of 26.4 nM in [35S]GTPγS binding assays using hCB2 expressing CHO membranes. HU-910 given before ischaemia significantly attenuated levels of I/R-induced hepatic pro-inflammatory chemokines (CCL3 and CXCL2), TNF-α, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress and cell death. Some of the beneficial effect of HU-910 also persisted when given at the beginning of the reperfusion or 1 h after the ischaemic episode. Furthermore, HU-910 attenuated the bacterial endotoxin-triggered TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells and expression of adhesion molecules in primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α. Pretreatment with a CB2 receptor antagonist attenuated the protective effects of HU-910, while pretreatment with a CB1 antagonist tended to enhance them. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS HU-910 is a potent CB2 receptor agonist which may exert protective effects in various diseases associated with inflammation and tissue injury. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph

  5. A new cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist HU-910 attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Bėla; Magid, Lital; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Bátkai, Sándor; Rajesh, Mohanraj; Park, Ogyi; Tanchian, Galin; Gao, Rachel Y; Goodfellow, Catherine E; Glass, Michelle; Mechoulam, Raphael; Pacher, Pál

    2012-04-01

    Cannabinoid CB(2) receptor activation has been reported to attenuate myocardial, cerebral and hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We have investigated the effects of a novel CB(2) receptor agonist ((1S,4R)-2-(2,6-dimethoxy-4-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenyl)-7,7-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-en-1-yl)methanol (HU-910) on liver injury induced by 1 h of ischaemia followed by 2, 6 or 24 h of reperfusion, using a well-established mouse model of segmental hepatic I/R. Displacement of [(3) H]CP55940 by HU-910 from specific binding sites in CHO cell membranes transfected with human CB(2) or CB(1) receptors (hCB(1/2) ) yielded K(i) values of 6 nM and 1.4 µM respectively. HU-910 inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production by hCB(2) CHO cells (EC(50) = 162 nM) and yielded EC(50) of 26.4 nM in [(35) S]GTPγS binding assays using hCB(2) expressing CHO membranes. HU-910 given before ischaemia significantly attenuated levels of I/R-induced hepatic pro-inflammatory chemokines (CCL3 and CXCL2), TNF-α, inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophil infiltration, oxidative stress and cell death. Some of the beneficial effect of HU-910 also persisted when given at the beginning of the reperfusion or 1 h after the ischaemic episode. Furthermore, HU-910 attenuated the bacterial endotoxin-triggered TNF-α production in isolated Kupffer cells and expression of adhesion molecules in primary human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells stimulated with TNF-α. Pretreatment with a CB(2) receptor antagonist attenuated the protective effects of HU-910, while pretreatment with a CB(1) antagonist tended to enhance them. HU-910 is a potent CB(2) receptor agonist which may exert protective effects in various diseases associated with inflammation and tissue injury. This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-8. To view Part I of Cannabinoids in Biology and

  6. Rutin exhibits hepatoprotective effects in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by reducing hepatic lipid levels and mitigating lipid-induced oxidative injuries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingsheng; Pan, Ran; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Fuli; Hu, Linfeng; Ding, Bin; Zhu, Linwensi; Xia, Yongliang; Dou, Xiaobing

    2017-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by excessive accumulation of hepatic lipids and oxidative injury of hepatocytes. Rutin is a natural flavonoid with significant roles in combating cellular oxidative stress and regulating lipid metabolism. The current study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying rutin's hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Rutin treatment was applied to male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet and HepG2 cells challenged with oleic acid. Hepatic lipid accumulation was evaluated by triglyceride assay and Oil Red O staining. Oxidative hepatic injury was assessed by malondialdehyde assay, superoxide dismutase assay and reactive oxygen species assay. The expression levels of various lipogenic and lipolytic genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. In addition, liver autophagy was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In both fat-challenged murine liver tissues and HepG2 cells, rutin treatment was shown to significantly lower triglyceride content and the abundance of lipid droplets. Rutin was also found to reduce cellular malondialdehyde level and restore superoxide dismutase activity in hepatocytes. Among the various lipid-related genes, rutin treatment was able to restore the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) and its downstream targets, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 and 2 (CPT-1 and CPT-2), while suppressing those of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), diglyceride acyltransfase 1 and 2 (DGAT-1 and 2), as well as acyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). In addition, rutin was shown to repress the autophagic function of liver tissues by down-regulating key autophagy biomarkers, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β). The experimental data demonstrated that rutin could reduce triglyceride content and mitigate oxidative injuries in fat

  7. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-07-21

    High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher's exact or Pearson's chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student's t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann-Whitney's U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of complications than motorcyclists. The results also

  8. How Does the Severity of Injury Vary between Motorcycle and Automobile Accident Victims Who Sustain High-Grade Blunt Hepatic and/or Splenic Injuries? Results of a Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ting-Min; Tsai, Tsung-Cheng; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: High-grade blunt hepatic and/or splenic injuries (BHSI) remain a great challenge for trauma surgeons. The main aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics, mortality rates, and outcomes of high-grade BHSI in motorcyclists and car occupants hospitalized for treatment of traumatic injuries in a Level I trauma center in southern Taiwan. Methods: High-grade BHSI are defined as grade III-VI blunt hepatic injuries and grade III-V blunt splenic injuries. This retrospective study reviewed the data of 101 motorcyclists and 32 car occupants who experienced a high-grade BHSI from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Two-sided Fisher’s exact or Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to compare categorical data, unpaired Student’s t-test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data, and Mann–Whitney’s U test was used to compare non-normally distributed data. Results: In this study, the majority (76%, 101/133) of high-grade BHSI were due to motorcycle crashes. Car occupants had a significantly higher injury severity score (ISS; 26.8 ± 10.9 vs. 20.7 ± 10.4, respectively, p = 0.005) and organ injured score (OIS; 3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 3.4 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.033), as well as a significantly longer hospital length of stay (LOS; 21.2 days vs. 14.6 days, respectively, p = 0.038) than did motorcyclists. Car occupants with high-grade BHSI also had worse clinical presentations than their motorcyclist counterparts, including a significantly higher incidence of hypotension, hyperpnea, tube thoracostomy, blood transfusion >4 units, LOS in intensive care unit >5 days, and complications. However, there were no differences in the percentage of angiography or laparotomy performed or mortality rate between these two groups of patients. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that car occupants with high-grade BHSI were injured more severely, had a higher incidence of worse clinical presentation, had a longer hospital LOS, and had a higher incidence of

  9. Amelioration of CCl4-induced liver injury in rats by selenizing Astragalus polysaccharides: Role of proinflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mohammed; Liu, Dandan; Abdulrahim, Yassin; Liu, Yunhuan; Qian, Gang; Khan, Alamzeb; Gan, Fang; Huang, Kehe

    2017-10-01

    Selenizing Astragalus polysaccharides (sAPS) were prepared by nitric acid-sodium selenite method. Effect of sAPS on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms were investigated in the rat. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five equal groups as follows: control group; CCl 4 group; CCl 4 +Astragalus polysaccharides group; CCl 4 +sodium selenite group and CCl 4 +selenizing Astragalus polysaccharides group. The results showed that sAPS significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase in the serum, malondialdehyde and hydroxyproline content in liver (P<0.01), and increased the levels of total protein, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase in liver of rats induced by CCl 4. In addition, expression levels of antioxidant-related genes (GPX1, SOD1, and Nrf2) were significantly increased following supplementation of the sAPS (P<0.01). Furthermore, sAPS effectively ameliorated CCl 4 induced hepatic necrosis and inflammation, and it also reduced the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2 and NFκB (P<0.01) . Moreover, sAPS significantly decreased the expression levels of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen 1, TGF-β1, but increased the Bcl-2/Bax mRNA ratio in rats administered CCl 4 (P<0.01). Taken together, it could be concluded that sAPS could increase the activities of Astragalus polysaccharides and sodium selenite to protect the liver from damage by attenuating hepatic inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrogenesis, and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in hepatic stellate cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic Alterations of IL-6/STAT3 Signaling by Placental Stem Cells Promote Hepatic Regeneration in a Rat Model with CCl4-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Moon, Ji Wook; Choi, Jong-Ho; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Gi Jin

    2015-05-01

    Human chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) isolated from the placenta have been reported to demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models of liver injury; however, the underlying epigenetic mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated. Thus, we investigated whether CP-MSCs influence epigenetic processes during regeneration of the injured liver. CP-MSCs were engrafted into a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-injured rat model through direct transplantation into the liver (DTX), intrasplenic transplantation (STX), and intravenous transplantation via the tail vein (TTX). Non-transplanted (NTX) rats were maintained as sham controls. Liver tissues were analyzed after transplantation using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation and human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed using CCl4-treated hepatic cells that were co-cultured with CP-MSCs. The Ki67 labeling index, cell cyclins, albumin, IL-6, and gp130 levels were elevated in the CP-MSC transplantation groups. The concentration of hIL-6 in supernatants and the proliferation of CCl4-treated rat hepatic cells were enhanced by co-culturing with CP-MSCs (p<0.05), while the methylation of IL-6/IL-6R and STAT3 by CP-MSC transplantation decreased. These results suggest that administration of CP-MSCs promotes IL-6/STAT3 signaling by decreasing the methylation of the IL-6/SATA3 promoters and thus inducing the proliferation of hepatic cells in a CCl4-injured liver rat model. These data advance our understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms in injured livers, and can facilitate the development of cell-based therapies using placenta-derived stem cells.

  11. Ebselen pretreatment attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury and prevents hyperglycemia by improving hepatic insulin signaling and β-cell survival in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Kang, S; Kim, D S; Shin, B K; Moon, N R; Daily, J W

    2014-08-01

    Transient carotid artery occlusion causes ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury resulting in neuron and pancreatic β-cell death with consequential post-stroke hyperglycemia, which can lead to diabetes and may accelerate the development of Alzheimer's disease. Antioxidants have been shown to protect against the I/R injury and destruction of neurons. However, it is unknown whether the protection against I/R injury extends to the pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, we investigated whether treatment with ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic, prevents neuronal and β-cell death following I/R in gerbils susceptible to stroke. After 28 days post artery occlusion, there was widespread neuronal cell death in the CA1 of the hippocampus and elevated IL-1β and TNF-α levels. Pretreatment with ebselen prevented the death by 56% and attenuated neurological damage (abnormal eyelid drooping, hair bristling, muscle tone, flexor reflex, posture, and walking patterns). Ischemic gerbils also exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity which induced post-stroke hyperglycemia associated with decreased β-cell mass due to increased β-cell apoptosis. Ebselen prevented the increased β-cell apoptosis, possibly by decreasing IL-1β and TNF-α in islets. Ischemia also attenuated hepatic insulin signaling, and expression of GLUT2 and glucokinase, whereas ebselen prevented the attenuation and suppressed gluconeogenesis by decreasing PEPCK expression. In conclusion, antioxidant protection by ebselen attenuated I/R injury of neurons and pancreatic β-cells and prevented subsequent impairment of glucose regulation that could lead to diabetes and Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate Immune-Mediated Liver Injury and Compromise Virus Control During Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Mengmeng; Yuan, Xu; Liu, Dan; Ma, Yuhong; Zhu, Jun; Cui, Jun; Yu, Mengxue; Li, Changyong; Guo, Deyin

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been used as therapeutic tools not only for their ability to differentiate toward different cells, but also for their unique immunomodulatory properties. However, it is still unknown how MSCs may affect immunity during hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This study was designed to explore the effect of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) on hepatic natural killer (NK) cells in a mouse model of acute HBV infection. Mice were injected with 1 × 10 6 BM-MSCs, which stained with chloromethyl derivatives of fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe, 24 h before hydrodynamic injection of viral DNA (pHBV1.3) through the tail vein. In vivo imaging system revealed that BM-MSCs were accumulated in the injured liver, and they attenuated immune-mediated liver injury during HBV infection, as shown by lower alanine aminotransferase levels, reduced proinflammatory cytokine production, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver. Importantly, administration of BM-MSCs restrained the increased expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D), an important receptor required for NK cell activation in the liver from HBV-infected mice. BM-MSCs also reduced NKG2D expression on NK cells and suppressed the cytotoxicity of NK cells in vitro. Furthermore, BM-MSC-derived transforming growth factor-β1 suppressed NKG2D expression on NK cells. As a consequence, BM-MSC treatment enhanced HBV gene expression and replication in vivo. These results demonstrate that adoptive transfer of BM-MSCs influences innate immunity and limits immune-mediated liver injury during acute HBV infection by suppressing NK cell activity. Meanwhile, the effect of BM-MSCs on prolonging virus clearance needs to be considered in the future.

  13. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shu-Fan; Sun, Kai; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Xue; Cai, Ning; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xu, Long-Mei; Kong, Xian-Ming; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-01-08

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci.

  14. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Results Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. Conclusion These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci. PMID:24397824

  15. Effects of OPC-6535 on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in the rat: involvement of superoxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha from hepatic macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tadashi; Sakurai, Kazushi; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Saniabadi, Abby R; Nagamoto, Hisashi; Tsukada, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Minoru

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of OPC-6535 on Propionibacterium acnes-primed and lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in the rat. P. acnes was administered intravenously to the rat at 16 mg/kg 7 days before the experiments. In liver perfusion experiments, lipopolysaccharide was mixed in perfusion buffer at 2.5 microg/mL. The chemiluminescence method and histochemical reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium were used for detecting superoxide. Release of cytokines into the perfusate was examined. In in vivo experiments, lipopolysaccharide was administered intravenously to the rat at 200 microg/kg. Concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and cytokines were determined in the plasma, and myeloperoxidase activity was measured in the liver tissue. OPC-6535 was given intravenously at 1 mg/kg 30 minutes before lipopolysaccharide challenge, and was then, in perfusion experiments, added to the buffer at 10 micromol/L. In perfusion experiments, P. acnes and lipopolysaccharide caused dramatic production of superoxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and growth-related oncogene/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (GRO/CINC-1). Superoxide was mainly from hepatic macrophages. Treatment with OPC-6535 suppressed superoxide and TNF-alpha but did not affect GRO/CINC-1. In in vivo experiments, P. acnes and lipopolysaccharide increased the level of TNF-alpha, GRO/CINC-1, AST and ALT in the plasma, and myeloperoxidase activity in the liver. OPC-6535 reduced TNF-alpha, AST, and ALT, but did not affect GRO/CINC-1 or myeloperoxidase. Attenuation of liver injury by OPC-6535 is believed to be due to its inhibitory effects on superoxide and TNF-alpha production by hepatic macrophages in P. acnes- and lipopolysaccharide-treated rats.

  16. miR-494 up-regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway via targetting PTEN and attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Su, Song; Luo, De; Liu, Xiangdong; Liu, Jiang; Peng, Fangyi; Fang, Cheng; Li, Bo

    2017-10-31

    A rat HIRI model was constructed and treated with an intraperitoneal injection of agomir- miR-494 or agomir-NC (negative control) for 7 days after the surgery. The pathophysiological changes in sham-operated rats, HIRI, HIRI + agomir- miR-494 , and HIRI + agomir-NC were compared. The effect of miR-494 was also assessed in an H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis model. Hepatic AML12 cells were transfected with mimics NC or miR-494 mimics, followed by 6-h H 2 O 2 treatment. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Further, the miR-494 target gene was identified by luciferase reporter assay, and verified both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The activity of AKT pathway was further analyzed in vivo by Western blot. HIRI + agomir- miR-494 rats exhibited significantly higher miR-494 expression, lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) level, lower hepatic MDA, TOA, and OSI, alleviated hepatic necrosis, reduced hepatocyte apoptosis, and decreased expression of apoptosis-related proteins, when compared with HIRI + agomir-NC rats ( P <0.05 or 0.01). After H 2 O 2 treatment, AML-12 cells transfected with miR-494 mimics had significantly higher proliferation and lower apoptosis rate compared with mimics NC group ( P <0.01). PTEN was identified as an miR-494 target gene. PTEN expression was significantly down-regulated in AML12 cells transfected with miR-494 mimics, and was up-regulated by treatment of miR-494 inhibitor ( P <0.01). Moreover, HIRI + agomir- miR-494 rats exhibited significantly lower PTEN expression, and higher p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K levels compared with HIRI + agomir-NC rats. Therefore, miR-494 protected rats against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through down-regulating its downstream target gene PTEN , leading to the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Trends in hepatic injury associated with unintentional overdose of paracetamol (Acetaminophen) in products with and without opioid: an analysis using the National Poison Data System of the American Association of Poison Control Centers, 2000-7.

    PubMed

    Bond, G Randall; Ho, Mona; Woodward, Randall W

    2012-02-01

    Unintended hepatic injury associated with the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen)-containing products has been growing. The aim of the study was to seek a better understanding of the causes of this observation in order to evaluate the potential impact of proposed preventive measures. Retrospective analysis of a large database containing prospectively collected patient exposure data, clinical symptomatology and outcome. The National Poison Data System database for 2000-7 involving exposures to paracetamol and an opioid was obtained and analysed. This dataset was limited to non-suicidal cases in patients 13 years of age and older. For comparison, the parallel, mutually exclusive dataset involving exposures to one or more non-opioid containing paracetamol products was analysed. Trends in the numbers of patients exposed, treated, and mildly and severely injured were obtained and compared with each other and with trends calculated from publicly available data on sales and population. The association of injury with the number of paracetamol-containing products and the reason for taking them were also assessed. Comparators: During the study period, the US population of those 15 years of age and over rose 8.5%; all pharmaceutical-related calls to all US poison centres rose 25%. For the 8-year period from 2001 to 2008, sales of over-the-counter paracetamol products rose 5% (single-ingredient products fell 3%; paracetamol-containing combination cough and cold products rose 11%) and prescription paracetamol combination products rose 67%. Opioids with paracetamol: A total of 119 731 cases were identified, increasing 70% over the period. The exposure merited acetylcysteine treatment in 8995 cases (252% increase). In total, 2729 patients (2.3%) experienced some hepatic injury (500% increase). Minor injuries rose faster than severe injuries (833% vs 280%) and most injuries (73.0%) were from overuse of a single combination product only, but the injury rate increased with use of

  18. Carvedilol Improves Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis in the Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Rats by Regulating Kuppfer Cells and Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Renata Ferreira de Carvalho; Brito, Gerly Anne de Castro; Miguel, Emilio de Castro; Guedes, Paulo Marcos Matta; de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and antifibrotic effects of carvedilol (CARV) in rats with ethanol-induced liver injury. Methods Liver injury was induced by gavage administration of alcohol (7 g/kg) for 28 consecutive days. Eighty Wistar rats were pretreated with oral CARV at 1, 3, or 5 mg/kg or with saline 1 h before exposure to alcohol. Liver homogenates were assayed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level as well as for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity and liver triglyceride (TG) levels were also assayed. Immunohistochemical analyses of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B/ligand (RANK/RANKL), suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS1), the Kupffer cell marker IBA-1 (ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx-1) expression were performed. Confocal microscopy analysis of IL-1β and NF-κB expression and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for TNFα, PCI, PCIII, and NF-κB were performed. Results CARV treatment (5 mg/kg) during the alcohol exposure protocol was associated with reduced steatosis, hepatic cord degeneration, fibrosis and necrosis, as well as reduced levels of AST (p < 0.01), ALT (p < 0.01), TG (p < 0.001), MPO (p < 0.001), MDA (p < 0.05), and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α, both p < 0.05), and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 (p < 0.001) and GSH (p < 0.05), compared to the alcohol-only group. Treatment with CARV 5 mg/kg also reduced expression levels of COX-2, RANK, RANKL, IBA-1, and ICAM-1 (all p < 0.05), while increasing expression of SOCS1, SOD-1, and GPx-1 (all p < 0.05) and decreasing expression of IL-1β and NF-κB (both, p < 0.05). Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that mRNA production of TNF

  19. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests ...

  20. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver, and taking certain medicines can also cause hepatitis. Less commonly, viral infections such as mononucleosis or cytomegalovirus can cause ... months, the person has chronic hepatitis. What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is liver inflammation caused by the ...

  1. Effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on function of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, antioxidative enzymes, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Tan, G-Y; Yang, L; Fu, Y-Q; Feng, J-H; Zhang, M-H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute high ambient temperatures on dysfunction of hepatic mitochondrial respiration, the antioxidative enzyme system, and oxidative injury in broiler chickens. One hundred twenty-eight 6-wk-old broiler chickens were assigned randomly to 4 groups and subsequently exposed to 25 (control), 32, 35, and 38 degrees C (RH, 70 +/- 5%) for 3 h, respectively. The rectal temperatures, activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase), content of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and the activity of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes were determined. The results showed that exposure to high ambient temperature induced a significant elevation of rectal temperature, antioxidative enzyme activity, and formation of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, as well as dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in comparison with control (P < 0.05). Almost all of the indicators changed in a temperature-dependent manner with the gradual increase of ambient temperature from 32 to 38 degrees C; differences in each parameter (except catalase) among the groups exposed to different high ambient temperatures were also statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results of the present study suggest that, in the broiler chicken model used here, acute exposure to high temperatures may depress the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This inactivation results subsequently in overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which ultimately results in oxidative injury. However, this hypothesis needs to be evaluated more rigorously in future studies. It has also been shown that, with the gradual increase in temperature, the oxidative injury induced by heat stress in broiler chickens becomes increasingly severe, and this stress response presents in a temperature-dependent manner in the temperature range of 32 to 38 degrees C.

  2. The vitamin D analogue paricalcitol attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury through down-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung; Lee, Soyoung; Jung, Namhee; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Jinwoo; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Jun, Jinhyun; Lee, Won-Mee; Chang, Yeonsoo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have revealed that vitamin D and its synthetic analogues have a protective effect on experimental ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models in several organs, but little is known about its effect on the liver. The aim of this study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of vitamin D in a model of liver I/R in rats, focusing on Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, which has been shown to be involved in I/R injury. Material and methods Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups: Saline + Sham, Saline + I/R, Paricalcitol + Sham, and Paricalcitol + I/R. A synthetic vitamin D2 analogue, paricalcitol, was intraperitoneally injected 24 h prior to surgery. The animals were subjected to 60 min of partial warm ischemia (70%), followed by reperfusion for 6 h on the same day. The ischemic lobe of the liver and blood were collected for molecular biochemical analyses. Results Liver damage following I/R was diminished by pretreatment with paricalcitol. Pretreatment with paricalcitol decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), in both plasma and liver tissue. In addition, pretreatment with paricalcitol markedly down-regulated the expression of TLR4, HMGB1, TNF-α and NF-κB. Conclusions The vitamin D analogue paricalcitol attenuates hepatic I/R injury through down-regulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway and might be considered to be a potential nutritional therapeutic agent against I/R injury in the liver. PMID:28261302

  3. Mild Hypothermia and Acute Kidney Injury in Liver Transplantation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Cirrhosis; End Stage Liver Disease; Acute Kidney Injury; Liver Transplant; Complications; Chronic Kidney Diseases; Hepatitis c; Hepatitis B; NASH - Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis; Alcoholic Cirrhosis; Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  4. Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury: roles of Ca2+ and other intracellular mediators of impaired bile flow and hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; De Bruijn, Menno T; Padbury, Robert T A; Barritt, Gregory J

    2006-06-01

    Liver resection and liver transplantation have been successful in the treatment of liver tumors and end-stage liver disease. This success has led to an expansion in the pool of patients potentially treatable by liver surgery and, in the case of transplantation, to a shortage of liver donors. At present, there are significant numbers of potential candidates for liver resection and liver donation who have fatty livers, are aged, or have livers damaged by chemotherapy. All of these are at high risk for ischemic reperfusion (IR) injury. The aims of this review are to assess current knowledge of the clinical effectiveness of ischemic preconditioning and intermittent ischemia in reducing IR damage in liver surgery; to evaluate the use of bile flow as a sensitive indicator of IR liver damage; and to analyze the molecular mechanisms, especially intracellular Ca2+, involved in IR injury and ischemic preconditioning. It is concluded that bile flow is a sensitive indicator of IR injury. Together with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules, intracellular Ca2+ in hepatocytes plays a key role in the normal regulation of bile flow and in IR-induced injury and cell death. Ischemic preconditioning is an effective strategy to reduce IR injury but there is considerable scope for improvement, especially in patients with fatty and aged livers. The development of effective new strategies to reduce IR injury will depend on improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved, especially by gaining a better perspective of the relative importance of the various intrahepatocyte signaling pathways involved.

  5. Successful use of N-acetylcysteine to treat severe hepatic injury caused by a dietary fitness supplement.

    PubMed

    El Rahi, Cynthia; Thompson-Moore, Nathaniel; Mejia, Patricia; De Hoyos, Patricio

    2015-06-01

    In the absence of adequate premarketing efficacy and safety evaluations, adverse events from over-the-counter supplements are emerging as a public health concern. Specifically, bodybuilding products are being identified as a frequent cause of drug-induced liver injury. We present a case of a 20-year-old Hispanic male who presented with acute nausea and vomiting accompanied by severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain, shivering, and shortness of breath. Laboratory data pointed to mixed cholestatic and hepatocellular damage, and after exclusion of known alternate etiologies, the patient was diagnosed with acute drug-induced liver injury secondary to the use of "Friction," a bodybuilding supplement. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 20% oral solution was initiated empirically at a dose of 4000 mg [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] (70 mg/kg) every 4 hours and was continued once the diagnosis was made. Within 48 hours of admission to our hospital, the patient began to show clinical resolution of right abdominal pain and tolerance to oral diet associated with a significant decline toward normal in his liver function tests and coagulopathy. The WHO-UMC causality assessment system suggested a "certain causality" between exposure to the supplement and the acute liver injury. In the event of suspected drug-induced liver injury, treatment with NAC should be considered given its favorable risk-benefit profile. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  6. Changes in serum cytokine levels, hepatic and intestinal morphology in aflatoxin B1-induced injury: modulatory roles of melatonin and flavonoid-rich fractions from Chromolena odorata.

    PubMed

    Akinrinmade, Fadeyemi Joseph; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen; Amid, Adetayo

    2016-05-01

    Aflatoxins are known to produce chronic carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects, as well as acute inflammatory effects, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The potentials of the flavonoid-rich extract from Chromolena odorata (FCO) and melatonin (a standard anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and morphology of liver and small intestines were evaluated in this study. We utilized Wistar albino rats (200-230 g) randomly divided into five groups made up of group A, control rats; group B, rats given AFB1 (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice on days 5 and 7; rats in groups C, D, and E were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or oral doses of FCO1 (50 mg/kg) and FCO2 (100 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively, along with AFB1 injection on days 5 and 7. Serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined using commercial ELISA kits and histopathological evaluation of the liver, duodenum, and ileum were also carried out. We observed significant elevation (p < 0.05) in serum IL-1β correlating with hemorrhages and leucocytic and lymphocytic infiltration in the liver and intestines as evidences of an acute inflammatory response to AFB1 administration. All treatments yielded significant reduction (p < 0.05) in IL-1β levels, although TNF-α levels were not significantly altered in all rats that received AFB1, irrespective of the treatments. Melatonin and FCO2 produced considerable protection of hepatic tissues, although melatonin was not quite effective in protecting the intestinal lesions. Our findings suggest a modulation of cytokine expression that may, in part, be responsible for the abilities of C. odorata or melatonin in amelioration of hepatic and intestinal lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 injury.

  7. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Cardiac and Hepatic Injury in Doxorubicin Rat Model by Inhibiting Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) remains the most effective anticancer agent which is widely used in several adult and pediatric cancers, but its application is limited for its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for many diseases. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline (H2 saline) ameliorated the mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and histopathological changes caused by DOX in rats. Meanwhile, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also attenuated after H2 saline treatment. What is more, we further demonstrated that H2 saline treatment could inhibit cardiac and hepatic inflammation and apoptosis relative proteins expressions by western blotting test. In conclusion, our results revealed a protective effect of H2 saline on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:28104928

  8. Ginger Essential Oil Ameliorates Hepatic Injury and Lipid Accumulation in High Fat Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lee, Wan-Ching; Lin, Yu-En; Ho, Chi-Tang; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Shih-Hang; Panyod, Suraphan; Chu, Yung-Lin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-03-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective efficacy and mechanism of action of ginger essential oil (GEO) against the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Mice were maintained on either a control diet or high-fat diet (HFD) supplemented with GEO (12.5, 62.5, and 125 mg/kg) or citral (2.5 and 25 mg/kg) for 12 weeks. We demonstrated that GEO and its major component (citral) lowered HFD-induced obesity in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by anti-hyperlipidemic effects by reducing serum free fatty acid, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels. Moreover, liver histological results showed that administration of 62.5 and 125 mg/kg GEO and 25 mg/kg citral significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation. Further assessment by Western blotting and investigation of the lipid metabolism revealed that hepatic protein expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were down-regulated by GEO and citral, indicating that GEO and citral suppressed HFD-stimulated lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Furthermore, GEO and citral effectively enhanced the antioxidant capacities and reduced inflammatory response in mouse liver, which exerted protective effects against steatohepatitis. Collectively, GEO and citral exhibited potent hepatoprotective effects against NAFLD induced by HFD in obese mice. Thus, GEO might be an effective dietary supplement to ameliorate NAFLD-related metabolic diseases, and citral could play a vital role in its management.

  9. Consumption of Goats’ Milk Protects Mice From Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Hepatic Injury and Improves the Associated Gut Microbiota Imbalance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiachao; Wang, Zhaoxia; Huo, Dongxue; Shao, Yuyu

    2018-01-01

    Drugs used to treat liver diseases have serious side effects; it is important to search for safe functional foods with hepatoprotective functions and few side effects. In this study, potential hepatoprotective effects of goats’ milk and cows’ milk on mice with CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury were evaluated. We also elucidated the role of goats’ and cows’ milk on the regulation of CCl4-induced gut microbiota imbalance. In mice with liver damage induced by CCl4, administration of goats’ milk for 7 days prior to injection of CCl4 had beneficial effects on the indicators of liver damage within 1 day: the area of liver necrosis was small; activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and expression of the genes CYP2E1 and TNF-α were lower than that of model group of mice. By 7 days after CCl4 injection, there were no significant differences in liver damage indicators (ALT, AST, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione) between the goats’ milk group, which continued to receive goats’ milk, and the untreated control group of mice showing that goats’ milk continued to protect against liver damage. Throughout the entire experiment, the community of gut microbes from mice in the goats’ milk treatment was more similar to the untreated control group than to the cows’ milk group and the model group, indicating that intake of goats’ milk prior and post-CCl4 injection effectively prevented and alleviated the intestinal microbial disorder that caused by CCl4 in mice. Our research suggests that goats’ milk could be developed as a potential functional food to prevent/protect against liver injury. PMID:29867999

  10. CD49a promotes T-cell-mediated hepatitis by driving T helper 1 cytokine and interleukin-17 production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonglin; Peng, Hui; Chen, Yongyan; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the T-cell-mediated immune response is important in many diseases. In this study, we used concanavalin A (Con A) -induced hepatitis to investigate the role of CD49a in the molecular and cellular mechanism of the T-cell-mediated immune response. We found that CD49a−/− mice had significantly reduced levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and were protected from Con A-induced hepatitis. CD49a deficiency led to decreased production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) after Con A injection. Furthermore, we found that hepatic CD4+ T cells and invariant natural killer T cells up-regulated CD49a expression, along with enhanced activation after Con A injection, leading to production of inflammatory cytokines by these T cells. Blockade of CD49a in vivo ameliorated Con A-induced hepatitis with reduced production of IFN-γ and IL-17A. Hence, CD49a promoted Con A-induced hepatitis through enhancing inflammatory cytokine production (IFN-γ and IL-17A) by CD4+ T and invariant natural killer T cells. The protective effect of CD49a blockade antibody suggested a new target therapeutic molecule for intervention of T-cell-mediated liver injury. PMID:24164540

  11. [Dynamic detection of duck hepatitis B virus cccDNA in serum of ducks with liver injury].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ke-kai; Wang, Qing; Miao, Xiao-hui; Xu, Wen-sheng

    2010-09-21

    To confirm whether DHBV cccDNA could be detected in serum of DHBV-infected ducks after liver injury. Twenty four ducks with persistent DHBV infection were divided into 4 groups with the following treatments: A, D-galactosamine (D-GalN, 2.2 g/kg) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 µg/kg); B, 10 mg/kg of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) every 12 h twice following D-GalN and LPS; C, 15 mg/kg of CCl4 every 12 h twice following D-GalN and LPS; D, normal saline as normal control (NC). At 0 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h post-treatment, sera were collected from each duck for determination of serum DHBV load, DHBV cccDNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). And ducks were eventually sacrificed to obtain liver specimens for pathological assessment of liver lesions and determination of intrahepatic total DHBV DNA and DHBV cccDNA. (1) No obvious pathological change was observed in the liver of ducks from NC group while the indices of liver injury were significantly different between Groups A, B and C; (2) DHBV cccDNA was undetectable in the sera of ducks from NC and A group at all time points. In contrast, DHBV cccDNA, varying from 3.17 × 10(3) copies/ml to 1.72 × 10(4) copies/ml, was detected in the sera of 2 ducks from Group B and 3 ducks from Group C at 36 h post-treatment. The occurrence of DHBV cccDNA in serum was significantly correlated with the degree of liver injury while no significant association with serum ALT level and DHBV load as well as with the level of intrahepatic total DHBV DNA and DHBV cccDNA was observed. DHBV cccDNA may be detected in the serum when the liver of duck is seriously damaged. The incidence of DHBV cccDNA occurrence in the serum is significantly associated with the severity of liver injury.

  12. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible to the effects of toxins. Having hepatitis. Chronic infection with a hepatitis virus (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or one of the other — extremely rare — hepatitis viruses that may persist in the body) makes your liver more vulnerable. Aging. As you age, your liver breaks down harmful ...

  13. Morin Hydrate Mitigates Cisplatin-Induced Renal and Hepatic Injury by Impeding Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress and Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    K V, Athira; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Samudrala, Pavan Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala; Gogoi, Ranadeep

    2016-12-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug; however, it induces damage on kidney and liver at clinically effective higher doses. Morin hydrate possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of morin hydrate (50 and 100 mg/kg, orally) against the renohepatic toxicity induced by a high dose of cisplatin (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Renal and hepatic function, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and inflammatory markers along with histopathology were evaluated. Morin hydrate ameliorated cisplatin-induced renohepatic toxicity significantly at 100 mg/kg as evidenced from the significant reversal of cisplatin-induced body weight loss, mortality, functional and structural alterations of kidney, and liver. The protective role offered by morin hydrate against cisplatin-induced renohepatic toxicity is by virtue of its free radical scavenging property, thereby abating the depletion of cellular antioxidant defense components and through modulation of inflammatory cytokines. We speculate morin hydrate as a protective candidate against renohepatic toxicity of cisplatin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery to the liver (hepatic artery) after a liver transplant Swelling of blood vessels leading to reduced blood ... the illness causing hepatic ischemia can be treated. Death from liver failure due to hepatic ischemia is ...

  15. Protective effects against hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury after rat orthotopic liver transplantation because of BCL-2 overexpression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kun; Ma, Long; Xu, Ting; Qin, Zhensheng; Xia, Tianfang; Wang, Yi; Yu, Xiangyou; Pang, Liqun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the protective effects and mechanism of recombinant adenovirus Ad.VSG-hBCL-2 towards ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat liver graft. Recombinant adenovirus Ad.VSG-hBCL-2 was injected into the donor rat liver of the experiment group through the portal vein, the laparotomy was performed for liver 36 h later, and the liver was save in lactated Ringer's solution at 4°C for 4 h, "two-cuff method" was used to perform the orthotopic liver transplantation. The bile secretion situations of two groups were observed 6 h after the portal vein reflow; the recipient rats were killed to detect the plasma levels of AST, ALT and LDH. And the expressions of Bcl-2 and TNF-α in liver tissue, and TUNEL assay was used to detect the apoptosis of liver tissue cells, electron microscopy was used to observe the changes of subcellular structures of liver tissue. 6 h after the surgery, the immunohistochemistry and Western Blot test showed that the Bcl-2 expression in the liver of the experiment group significantly increased than the control group, the bile secretion increased, the levels of AST, ALT and LDH were significantly lower, and the TNF-α expression increased significantly. The changes of cellular morphology of the experiment group were milder, and the apoptotic index was significantly lower than the control group. The portal vein-transfected recombinant adenovirus Ad.VSG-hBCL-2 could be effectively expressed in rat liver, and the high expressed Bcl-2 could reduce the ischemia/reperfusion injury in the transplanted liver.

  16. Alleviative effects from boswellic acid on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury - Corrected and republished from: Biomedicine (Taipei). 2016 Jun; 6 (2): 9. doi: 10.7603/s40681-016-0009-1PMCID: PMC4864770.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lung-Che; Hu, Li-Hong; Yin, Mei-Chin

    2017-06-01

    Protective effects of boswellic acid (BA) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in Balb/ cA mice were examined. BA, at 0.05 or 0.1%, was supplied for 4 weeks. Acute liver injury was induced by APAP treatment. Results showed that BA intake increased hepatic BA bioavailability. APAP treatment decreased glutathione (GSH) level, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production; and lowered activity and protein expression of glutathione reductase (GR) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in liver. BA intake at both doses alleviated subsequent APAP-induced oxidative stress by retaining GSH content, decreasing ROS and GSSG formations, reserving activity and expression of GR and HO-1 in liver, and lowering hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 activity and expression. APAP treatment enhanced hepatic levels of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. BA pre-intake diminished APAP-induced release of those inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. APAP up-regulated hepatic protein expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, TLR-4, MyD88, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p50, NF-κB p65 and JNK. BA pre-intake at both doses suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65 and p-JNK, and only at 0.1% down-regulated hepatic TLR-3, TLR-4 and MyD88 expression. APAP led to obvious foci of inflammatory cell infiltration in liver, determined by H&E stain. BA intake at both doses attenuated hepatic inflammatory infiltration. These findings support that boswellic acid is a potent hepato-protective agent. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  17. Dynamic movement of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol and peripheral circulation in massive hepatic cell injury.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Mori, Masaaki; Naruto, Takuya; Kobayashi, Naoki; Sugai, Toshiyuki; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shumpei

    2004-12-01

    In the process of apoptosis, it is known that the transition of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol occurs, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is one of the molecules responsible for this event. But in the state of hypercytokine induced by D-galactosamine (D-GaIN)/Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the localization of cytochrome c is little known. Rats were administrated with D-GaIN(700 mg/kg)/LPS(200 microg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were collected and examined for levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the apoptosis of liver cells, and the localization of cytochrome c. Before administration of D-GaIN/LPS, cytochrome c was definitely localized in the mitochondria. At 2 h after simultaneous administration of D-GaIN/LPS, cytochrome c had accumulated in the cytosol following abrupt increases of plasma TNF-alpha. Massive cell destruction due to apoptosis proved by Terminal deoxynucleo-tidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining was observed in liver tissue 4 h later and markedly increased levels of cytochrome c were detected in the plasma 12 h after D-GaIN/LPS administration. Liver injury induced by simultaneous administration of D-GaIN/LPS was closely associated with the production of TNF-alpha, and also with the dynamic movement of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol, and then into the systemic circulation. The detection of plasma cytochrome c levels may be a useful clinical tool for the detection of apoptosis in vivo.

  18. Genipin protects d-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury through suppression of the necroptosis-mediated inflammasome signaling.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Jong; Hong, Jeong-Min; Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2017-10-05

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening syndrome resulting from massive inflammation and hepatocyte death. Necroptosis, a programmed cell death controlled by receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) 1 and RIP3, has been shown to play an important role in regulating inflammation via crosstalk between other intracellular signaling. The inflammasome is a major intracellular multiprotein that induces inflammatory responses by mediating immune cell infiltration, thus potentiating injury. Genipin, a major active compound of the gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic properties. This study investigated the hepatoprotective mechanisms of genipin on d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALF, particularly focusing on interaction between necroptosis and inflammasome. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of genipin (25, 50, and 100mg/kg) or necrostatin-1 (Nec-1, a necroptosis inhibitor; 1.8mg/kg) 1h prior to GalN (800mg/kg)/LPS (40μg/kg) injection and were killed 3h after GalN/LPS injection. Genipin improved the survival rate and attenuated increases in serum aminotransferase activities and inflammatory cytokines after GalN/LPS injection. Genipin reduced GalN/LPS-induced increases in RIP3, phosphorylated RIP1 and RIP3 protein expression, and RIP1/RIP3 necrosome complex, similar to the effects of Nec-1. GalN/LPS significantly increased serum levels of high-mobility group box 1 and interleukin (IL)-33, which were attenuated by genipin and Nec-1. Moreover, similar to Nec-1, genipin attenuated GalN/LPS-induced increases in the protein expression levels of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1, inflammasome components, and levels of liver and serum IL-1β. Taken together, our findings suggest that genipin ameliorates GalN/LPS-induced hepatocellular damage by suppressing necroptosis-mediated inflammasome signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  20. Biomarkers of Lung Injury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Unlike the hepatic, cardiovascular, nervous, or excretory organ systems, where there .ls a strong contribution of host factors or extracellular biochemical milieu in causing organ damage, the causes of lung injuries and subsequent diseases are primarily from direct environmental ...

  1. Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency alters hepatic phospholipid and choline metabolism: Post-translational repression of phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase is a consequence rather than a cause of liver injury in homocystinuria.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, René L; Jiang, Hua; Kennelly, John P; Orlicky, David J; Allen, Robert H; Stabler, Sally P; Maclean, Kenneth N

    2017-04-01

    Classical homocystinuria (HCU) due to inactivating mutation of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a poorly understood life-threatening inborn error of sulfur metabolism. A previously described cbs-/- mouse model exhibits a semi-lethal phenotype due to neonatal liver failure. The transgenic HO mouse model of HCU exhibits only mild liver injury and recapitulates multiple aspects of the disease as it occurs in humans. Disruption of the methionine cycle in HCU has the potential to impact multiple aspect of phospholipid (PL) metabolism by disruption of both the Kennedy pathway and phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) mediated synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Comparative metabolomic analysis of HO mouse liver revealed decreased levels of choline, and choline phosphate indicating disruption of the Kennedy pathway. Alterations in the relative levels of multiple species of PL included significant increases in PL degradation products consistent with enhanced membrane PL turnover. A significant decrease in PC containing 20:4n6 which primarily formed by the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC was consistent with decreased flux through PEMT. Hepatic expression of PEMT in both the cbs-/- and HO models is post-translationally repressed with decreased levels of PEMT protein and activity that inversely-correlates with the scale of liver injury. Failure to induce further repression of PEMT in HO mice by increased homocysteine, methionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine or depletion of glutathione combined with examination of multiple homocysteine-independent models of liver injury indicated that repression of PEMT in HCU is a consequence rather than a cause of liver injury. Collectively, our data show significant alteration of a broad range of hepatic PL and choline metabolism in HCU with the potential to contribute to multiple aspects of pathogenesis in this disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumor Necrosis Factor-producing T-regulatory Cells Are Associated With Severe Liver Injury in Patients With Acute Hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon Seok; Jung, Min Kyung; Lee, Jeewon; Choi, Seong Jin; Choi, Sung Hoon; Lee, Hyun Woong; Lee, Jong-Joo; Kim, Hyung Joon; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Won; Park, Su-Hyung; Huh, Jun R; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo; Park, Jun Yong; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2018-03-01

    CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + T-regulatory (Treg) cells control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. However, under inflammatory conditions, Treg cells produce cytokines that promote inflammation. We investigated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by Treg cells in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA), and examined the characteristics of these cells and association with clinical factors. We analyzed blood samples collected from 63 patients with AHA at the time of hospitalization (and some at later time points) and 19 healthy donors in South Korea. Liver tissues were collected from patients with fulminant AHA during liver transplantation. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from whole blood and lymphocytes were isolated from liver tissues and analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytokine production from Treg cells (CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + ) was measured by immunofluorescence levels following stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Epigenetic stability of Treg cells was determined based on DNA methylation patterns. Phenotypes of Treg cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and an RORγt inhibitor, ML-209, was used to inhibit TNF production. Treg cell suppression assay was performed by co-culture of Treg-depleted peripheral blood mononuclear cells s and isolated Treg cells. A higher proportion of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + Treg cells from patients with AHA compared with controls produced TNF upon stimulation with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 (11.2% vs 2.8%). DNA methylation analysis confirmed the identity of the Treg cells. TNF-producing Treg cells had features of T-helper 17 cells, including up-regulation of RORγt, which was required for TNF production. The Treg cells had reduced suppressive functions compared with Treg cells from controls. The frequency of TNF-producing Treg cells in AHA patients' blood correlated with their serum level of alanine aminotransferase. Treg cells from patients with AHA have altered functions compared with Treg cells from healthy

  3. Urological injuries following trauma.

    PubMed

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  5. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  6. Hemagglutinating virus of Japan-artificial viral envelope liposome-mediated cotransfer of bag-1 and bcl-2 genes protects hepatic cells against ischemic injury through BAG-1-assisted preferential enhancement of bcl-2 protein expression.

    PubMed

    Yanada, Shinobu; Sasaki, Masao; Takayama, Shinichi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2005-05-01

    Hepatic injury subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was demonstrated in our previous study to be prevented by hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-artificial viral envelope (AVE) liposome-mediated gene transfer of the antiapoptotic gene, human bcl-2 (h-bcl-2). In the present study, we introduced simultaneously both mouse Bcl-2-associated athanogene 1 (m-bag-1) and the h-bcl-2 gene by the same HVJ-AVE liposome transfection method, and found that I/R-induced hepatic injuries such as release of hepatic marker enzymes into blood, cell morphological degeneration, and cellular DNA strand cleavage were suppressed more effectively than by transfection with either gene singly. In addition, the h-Bcl-2 expression level in the ischemic state, but not in the nonischemic state, was markedly higher in h-bcl-2/m-bag-1-cotransfected liver than in h-bcl-2-transfected liver. In contrast, the m-BAG-1 expression level in the ischemic state, but not in the nonischemic state, was only slightly higher in h-bcl-2/m-bag-1-cotransfected liver than in m-bag-1-transfected liver. Thus, with dual gene cotransfer, coexistent Bcl-2 protein exerts no activity to assist a marked enhancement of BAG-1 protein, whereas the function of overexpressed BAG-1 as a Bcl-2-binding protein may lead to the enhancement of efficient expression of h-Bcl-2 in I/R-treated liver as compared with nonischemic liver, which results in repression of diverse I/R-induced cell death symptoms, presumably through the formation of functional complexes of BAG-1 and Bcl-2.

  7. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  9. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  10. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood. Until recently, hepatitis C treatment required weekly injections and oral medications that many ... have varied from 14 to 50 percent. Acute hepatitis C also responds well to antiviral therapy. Causes Hepatitis C infection is caused by the ...

  11. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  12. Advances in viral hepatitis: 50 years of Australian gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Geoff

    2009-10-01

    Viral hepatitis classification, treatments and pathogenesis has been increasingly defined over the past 50 years. Australian researchers have made significant contributions in the areas of viral hepatitis A vaccine development, treatment outcomes for chronic hepatitis B and C, the role of liver transplantation and the pathogenesis of injury and disease progression. This review outlines some of these contributions.

  13. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    PubMed

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Impacts of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury on Expressions of Hepatic Cytochrome P450 1A2, 2B1, 2D1, and 3A2 in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Junrui; Cheng, Jingmin; Xiao, Wenjing; Fan, Kaihua; Gu, Jianwen; Yu, Botao; Yin, Guangfu; Wu, Juan; Ren, Jiandong; Hou, Jun; Jiang, Yan; Tan, Yonghong; Jin, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzyme superfamily is one of the most important drug-metabolizing enzyme systems, which is responsible for the metabolism of a large number of clinically relevant medications used in traumatic brain injury (TBI) therapy. Modification of CYP450 expression may have important influences on drug metabolism and lead to untoward effects on those with narrow therapeutic windows. However, the impact of blast-induced TBI (bTBI) on the expression of CYP450 has received little attention. The subfamilies of CYP1A, 2B, 2D, and 3A account for about 85 % of all human drug metabolism of clinical significance. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expressions of hepatic CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 in rats suffering bTBI. Meanwhile, we also measured some important cytokines in serum after injury, and calculated the correlation between these cytokines and the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. The results showed that bTBI could significantly reduce mRNA expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2 at the early stage and induce the expressions from 48 h to 1 week after injury. The protein expressions of these CYP450s had all been downregulated from 24 to 48 h post- injury, and then began to elevate at 48 h after bTBI. The cytokines, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α, increased significantly in the early phase, and began to reduce at the delayed phase of bTBI. The serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but not IL-2 were significantly negative correlated with the mRNA expressions of CYP2B1 and CYP2D1 and the proteins expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2. In conclusion, our work has, for the first time, indicated that bTBI has significant impact on the expressions of CYP1A2, CYP2B1, CYP2D1, and CYP3A2, which may be related to the cytokines induced by the injury.

  15. Exosomes from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (hiPSC-MSCs) Protect Liver against Hepatic Ischemia/ Reperfusion Injury via Activating Sphingosine Kinase and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingdong; Li, Dawei; Han, Conghui; Wu, Haoyu; Xu, Longmei; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jianjun; Chen, Xiaosong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exosomes produced by human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hiPSC-MSCs-Exo) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Exosomes derived from hiPSC-MSCs were isolated and characterized both biochemically and biophysically. hiPSC-MSCs-Exo were injected systemically into a murine ischemia/reperfusion injury model via the inferior vena cava, and then the therapeutic effects were evaluated. The serum levels of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as histological changes were examined. Primary hepatocytes and human hepatocyte cell line HL7702 were used to test whether exosomes could induce hepatocytes proliferation in vitro. In addition, the expression levels of proliferation markers (proliferation cell nuclear antigen, PCNA; Phosphohistone-H3, PHH3) were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Moreover, SK inhibitor (SKI-II) and S1P1 receptor antagonist (VPC23019) were used to investigate the role of sphingosine kinase and sphingosine-1-phosphate-dependent pathway in the effects of hiPSC-MSCs-Exo on hepatocytes. hiPSCs were efficiently induced into hiPSC-MSCs that had typical MSC characteristics. hiPSC-MSCs-Exo had diameters ranging from 100 to 200 nm and expressed exosome markers (Alix, CD63 and CD81). After hiPSC-MSCs-Exo administration, hepatocyte necrosis and sinusoidal congestion were markedly suppressed in the ischemia/reperfusion injury model, with lower histopathological scores. The levels of hepatocyte injury markers AST and ALT were significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control, and the expression levels of proliferation markers (PCNA and PHH3) were greatly induced after hiPSC-MSCs-Exo administration. Moreover, hiPSC-MSCs-Exo also induced primary hepatocytes and HL7702 cells proliferation in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. We found that hiPSC-MSCs-Exo could

  16. SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) knockdown protects mice from acute liver injury by reducing vascular endothelial cell damage

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, E; Atorrasagasti, C; Aquino, JB; Militello, R; Bayo, J; Fiore, E; Piccioni, F; Salvatierra, E; Alaniz, L; García, MG; Bataller, R; Corrales, F; Gidekel, M; Podhajcer, O; Colombo, MI; Mazzolini, G

    2015-01-01

    Secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is involved in many biological process including liver fibrogenesis, but its role in acute liver damage is unknown. To examine the role of SPARC in acute liver injury, we used SPARC knock-out (SPARC−/−) mice. Two models of acute liver damage were used: concanavalin A (Con A) and the agonistic anti-CD95 antibody Jo2. SPARC expression levels were analyzed in liver samples from patients with acute-on-chronic alcoholic hepatitis (AH). SPARC expression is increased on acute-on-chronic AH patients. Knockdown of SPARC decreased hepatic damage in the two models of liver injury. SPARC−/− mice showed a marked reduction in Con A-induced necroinflammation. Infiltration by CD4+ T cells, expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 and apoptosis were attenuated in SPARC−/− mice. Sinusoidal endothelial cell monolayer was preserved and was less activated in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC knockdown reduced Con A-induced autophagy of cultured human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1). Hepatic transcriptome analysis revealed several gene networks that may have a role in the attenuated liver damaged found in Con A-treated SPARC−/− mice. SPARC has a significant role in the development of Con A-induced severe liver injury. These results suggest that SPARC could represent a therapeutic target in acute liver injury. PMID:25410742

  17. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  18. Hepatic Enzyme Decline after Pediatric Blunt Trauma: A Tool for Timing Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Amy L.; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Burke, Bonnie L.; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern…

  19. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  20. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  1. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a disease of worldwide distribution which occurs in endemic and epidemic form and is transmitted primarily by person-to-person contact through the fecal-oral route. Common source epidemics due to contamination of food are relatively common, and water-borne epidemics have been described less frequently. The presumed etiologic agent of hepatitis A has now been visualized by immune electron microscopic (IEM) techniques in early acute-illness-phase stools of humans with hepatitis A as well as in chimpanzees experimentally infected with material known to contain hepatitis A virus. In addition, several new serologic tests for the detection of antibody against hepatitis A virus have been described. These include complement fixation and immune adherence techniques. Current data suggest that hepatitis A is caused by a single viral agent lacking the morphologic heterogeneity of hepatitis B viral components and that there may be relative antigenic homogeneity between strains of virus recovered from various parts of the world. Serologic studies to date also indicate that hepatitis A virus is not a major contributing cause in post-transfusion hepatitis. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:183390

  3. Down-regulation of a hepatic transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 is involved in alteration of pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin and its metabolites in a rat model of chronic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Makino, Toshiaki; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Watanabe, Akito; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Imamura, Sachiko; Iizuka, Seiichi; Inoue, Makoto; Mizukami, Hajime

    2008-07-01

    Glycyrrhizin (GL) has been used to treat chronic hepatitis in Japan and Europe. It is thought to induce pseudoaldosteronism via inhibition of type 2 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2) by glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a major metabolite of GL. A previous clinical study suggested that 3-monoglucuronyl-glycyrrhetinic acid (3MGA), another metabolite of GL, might play a more important role in the pathogenesis of pseudoaldosteronism. The present study evaluates the pharmacokinetics of GL and its metabolites in rats with chronic liver injury induced by a choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet to clarify the relationship between 3MGA and pseudoaldosteronism. In rats fed a CDAA diet, plasma concentrations and urinary eliminations of GL and 3MGA were markedly higher than in the rats fed the control diet; the plasma concentration of GA was unaffected when GL was orally administered. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the suppression of levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2 and its localization in the hepatic tissue of rats fed a CDAA diet. When 3MGA was i.v. injected in rats fed a CDAA diet or injected in Mrp2-dysfunctional Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, plasma concentrations of 3MGA were higher, and biliary excretion of 3MGA was lower than in each control group. The results suggested that 3MGA would be excreted to bile via hepatic Mrp2 and that its dysfunction would reduce 3MGA clearance. 3MGA accumulated by liver fibrosis resulted in the increased excretion through renal tubule and might be strongly related to the pathogenesis of pseudoaldosteronism because 11beta-HSD2 is expressed in renal tubular epithelial cells.

  4. Osthole ameliorates hepatic fibrosis and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Wei; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Fu, Shu-Ling; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process which ultimately leads to cirrhosis in almost patients with chronic hepatic injury. However, progressive fibrosis is a reversible scarring response. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the prevailing process during hepatic fibrosis. Osthole is an active component majorly contained in the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. This present study investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole on rat liver fibrosis and HSC activation. We established the thioacetamide (TAA)-model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce hepatic fibrosis. Rats were divided into three groups: control, TAA, and TAA + osthole (10 mg/kg). In vivo, osthole significantly reduced liver injury by diminishing levels of plasma AST and ALT, improving histological architecture, decreasing collagen and α-SMA accumulation, and improving hepatic fibrosis scores. Additionally, osthole reduced the expression of fibrosis-related genes significantly. Osthole also suppressed the production of fibrosis-related cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly suppressed in osthole-treated liver. Osthole also ameliorated TAA-induced injury through reducing cellular oxidation. Osthole showed inhibitory effects in inflammation-related genes and chemokines production as well. In vitro, we assessed osthole effects in activated HSCs (HSC-T6 and LX-2). Osthole attenuated TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion in HSCs. Furthermore, osthole decreased TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activities significantly. Besides, osthole alleviated TGF-β1- or ET-1-induced HSCs contractility. Our study demonstrated that osthole improved TAA-caused liver injury, fibrogenesis and inflammation in rats. In addition, osthole suppressed HSCs activation in vitro significantly.

  5. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  6. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  7. NOD2: a potential target for regulating liver injury.

    PubMed

    Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Dharancy, Sébastien; Berrebi, Dominique; Louvet, Alexandre; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Philpott, Dana J; Giovannini, Marco; Chareyre, Fabrice; Pages, Gilles; Gantier, Emilie; Girardin, Stephen E; Garcia, Irène; Hudault, Sylvie; Conti, Filoména; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Chamaillard, Mathias; Desreumaux, Pierre; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Mathurin, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    The recent discovery of bacterial receptors such as NOD2 that contribute to crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems in the digestive tract constitutes an important challenge in our understanding of liver injury mechanisms. The present study focuses on NOD2 functions during liver injury. NOD2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA were quantified using real-time PCR in liver samples from patients and mice with liver injury. We evaluated the susceptibility of concanavalin A (ConA) challenge in NOD2-deficient mice (Nod2-/-) compared to wild-type littermates. We tested the effect of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the specific activator of NOD2, on ConA-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. We studied the cellular distribution and the role of NOD2 in immune cells and hepatocytes. We demonstrated that NOD2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were upregulated during liver injury in mice and humans. Nod2-/- mice were resistant to ConA-induced hepatitis compared to their wild-type littermates, through reduced IFN-gamma production by immune cells. Conversely, administration of MDP exacerbated ConA-induced liver injury. MDP was a strong inducer of IFN-gamma in freshly isolated human PBMC, splenocytes and hepatocytes. Our study supports the hypothesis that NOD2 contributes to liver injury via a regulatory mechanism affecting immune cells infiltrating the liver and hepatocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NOD2 may represent a new therapeutic target in liver diseases.

  8. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccines protect you? During your lifetime, you need: One series of the hepatitis A vaccine (two shots given at least 6 months apart) One series of the hepatitis B vaccine (three or four shots given over a 6-month period) Most people ...

  9. The farnesoid X receptor agonist obeticholic acid upregulates biliary excretion of asymmetric dimethylarginine via MATE-1 during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Berardo, Clarissa; Siciliano, Veronica; Rizzo, Vittoria; Adorini, Luciano; Richelmi, Plinio

    2018-01-01

    Background We previously showed that increased asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) biliary excretion occurs during hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), prompting us to study the effects of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on bile, serum and tissue levels of ADMA after I/R. Material and methods Male Wistar rats were orally administered 10mg/kg/day of OCA or vehicle for 5 days and were subjected to 60 min partial hepatic ischemia or sham-operated. After a 60 min reperfusion, serum, tissue and bile ADMA levels, liver mRNA and protein expression of ADMA transporters (CAT-1, CAT-2A, CAT-2B, OCT-1, MATE-1), and enzymes involved in ADMA synthesis (protein-arginine-N-methyltransferase-1, PRMT-1) and metabolism (dimethylarginine-dimethylaminohydrolase-1, DDAH-1) were measured. Results OCA administration induced a further increase in biliary ADMA levels both in sham and I/R groups, with no significant changes in hepatic ADMA content. A reduction in CAT-1, CAT-2A or CAT-2B transcripts was found in OCA-treated sham-operated rats compared with vehicle. Conversely, OCA administration did not change CAT-1, CAT-2A or CAT-2B expression, already reduced by I/R. However, a marked decrease in OCT-1 and increase in MATE-1 expression was observed. A similar trend occurred with protein expression. Conclusion The reduced mRNA expression of hepatic CAT transporters suggests that the increase in serum ADMA levels is probably due to decreased liver uptake of ADMA from the systemic circulation. Conversely, the mechanism involved in further increasing biliary ADMA levels in sham and I/R groups treated with OCA appears to be MATE-1-dependent. PMID:29346429

  10. Variant Anatomy of the Hepatic Vasculature: Importance in Hepatobiliary Resections

    PubMed Central

    Tigga, Sarika Rachel; Budhiraja, Virendra; Rastogi, Rakhi

    2017-01-01

    A variant anatomy of the hepatic vasculature has a clinically significant role in hepatobiliary transplantation, resection, tumour embolisation as well as in extrahepatic abdominal surgeries involving the stomach, pancreas or gall bladder. During routine cadaveric dissection, we observed a case of unusually small calibre hepatic artery proper. An accessory hepatic artery was seen emerging from the superior mesenteric artery to the right hepatic lobe along with an accessory hepatic vein from the right hepatic lobe that drained directly into the inferior vena cava. Such accessory hepatic vessels complicate and necessitate an alteration of surgical methodology during resection of hepatic lobes. Preoperative knowledge of variant hepatic vasculature is crucial for minimising the iatrogenic injury and facilitating successful abdominal surgeries. PMID:28764144

  11. Features of Hepatitis in Hepatitis-associated Aplastic Anemia: Clinical and Histopathologic Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Bertuch, Alison; Sasa, Ghadir S; Himes, Ryan W; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAA) is a rare variant of aplastic anemia in which patients present with severe pancytopenia after an episode of acute hepatitis. The marrow failure is often rapid, severe, and usually fatal if untreated. The preceding hepatitis is largely under-studied. Retrospective study of the clinical and histopathologic features of hepatitis in pediatric patients who subsequently developed aplastic anemia and comparison with consecutive cases of acute liver failure and random cases of autoimmune hepatitis during the same time frame. All 7 patients of HAA had significant elevations in aminotransferases and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia at initial presentation. Echoing liver function indices, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction-type endothelial injury was seen histomorphologically. Autoimmune hepatitis serology such as anti-F-actin, anti-liver/kidney microsome, and hypergammaglobulinemia was negative in all patients. Five of 7 patients (71.4%) had, however, elevated antinuclear antibody, all with a speckled pattern. Hepatitis virus serology was negative in all patients. By immunohistochemical staining, the lobular CD8/CD4 lymphocyte ratio was markedly elevated in all of the initial samples with significant reduction in this ratio (P = 0.03) in 3 patients post treatment (ursodiol, antibiotics, and/or immunosuppressive therapy). Hepatitis preceding HAA is characterized by marked elevation of aminotransferases, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, elevated antinuclear antibody with a speckled pattern, cholestatic hepatitis with sinusoidal obstruction morphology, and CD8 dominant lobular infiltrates. The present study suggests HAA may result from cytotoxic T-cell-mediated sinusoidal endothelial and hepatocytic injury.

  12. [Morbimortality in patients with hepatic trauma].

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena da; Ehrhardt, Rogério; Miranda, Antonio Lopes de

    2013-06-01

    The liver is the intra-abdominal organ more injured in patient victims of trauma. The injury occurs more frequently in the penetrating trauma. The incidence of mortality for injuries of the liver is 10%. To evaluate the mortality of the patients with hepatic trauma, the treatment applied and its evolution. Were analyzed, retrospectively, the charts of all patients with hepatic trauma and surgical indication. Were analyzed: gender, age, ISS (injury severity score), classification of the abdominal trauma type (open or closed), causing instrument of the open traumas, degree of the injury, hepatic segments involved, presence of associated injuries, type of surgical treatment: not-therapeutic laparotomy and therapeutic laparotomy, reoperations, complications, time of hospitalization in days and mortality. One hundred and thirty-seven patients participated. Of these, 124 were men (90.5%). The majority (56.2%) had 20-29 years old. Closed abdominal trauma was most prevalent (67.9%). Of the penetrating traumas, the originated with firearms were in 24.8%. One hundred and three patients had only one injured hepatic segment (75.2%) and 34 (24.8%) two. Grade II injuries were in 66.4%. Of the 137 patients with laparotomy, 89 had been not-therapeutic, while in 48 it was necessary to repair associated injuries. Spleen and diaphragm had been the more frequently injured structures, 30% and 26%, respectively. The ISS varied of eight to 72, being the ISS > 50 (eight patients) associate with fatal evolution (five patients). Biliary fistula and hepatic abscess had been the main complications. Seven deaths had occurred. Concomitant injuries, hepatic and other organs, associated with ISS > 50 presented higher possibility of complications and death.

  13. Hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McCord, Kelly W; Webb, Craig B

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the common pathophysiology that constitutes hepatic dysfunction, regardless of the inciting cause. The systemic consequences of liver failure and the impact of this condition on other organ systems are highlighted. The diagnostic tests available for determining the cause and extent of liver dysfunction are outlined, treatment strategies aimed at supporting hepatic health and recovery are discussed, and prognosis is briefly covered. The article emphasizes the fact that because of the central role of the liver in maintaining normal systemic homeostasis, hepatic dysfunction cannot be effectively addressed as an isolated entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Parvovirus B19 Associated Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Saxena, Priyanka; Rangegowda, Devraj; Chowdhury, Ashok; Gupta, Nalini; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection can present with myriads of clinical diseases and syndromes; liver manifestations and hepatitis are examples of them. Parvovirus B19 hepatitis associated aplastic anemia and its coinfection with other hepatotropic viruses are relatively underrecognized, and there is sufficient evidence in the literature suggesting that B19 infections can cause a spectrum of liver diseases from elevation of transaminases to acute hepatitis to fulminant liver failure and even chronic hepatitis. It can also cause fatal macrophage activation syndrome and fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis. Parvovirus B19 is an erythrovirus that can only be replicate in pronormoblasts and hepatocytes, and other cells which have globosides and glycosphingolipids in their membrane can also be affected by direct virus injury due to nonstructural protein 1 persistence and indirectly by immune mediated injury. The virus infection is suspected in bone marrow aspiration in cases with sudden drop of hemoglobin and onset of transient aplastic anemia in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent patients and is confirmed either by IgM and IgG positive serology, PCR analysis, and in situ hybridization in biopsy specimens or by application of both. There is no specific treatment for parvovirus B19 related liver diseases, but triple therapy regimen may be effective consisting of immunoglobulin, dehydrohydrocortisone, and cyclosporine. PMID:24232179

  15. [Role of multislice computed tomography in the diagnosis of acute rupture of the thoracic aorta and hepatic artery in a patient with severe concomitant injury].

    PubMed

    Muslimov, R Sh; Sharifullin, F A; Chernaia, N R; Novruzbekov, M S; Kokov, L S

    2015-01-01

    Acute traumatic aortic rupture is associated with extremely high mortality rates and requires emergency diagnosis and treatment. This clinical example shows the role of multislice spiral computed tomography in the emergency diagnosis of rupture of two large arterial vessels in severe concomitant injury. It presents the benefits of this rapid and noninvasive imaging technique, an algorithm of the study and the semiotics of injuries in patients with suspected traumatic aortic rupture. The paper also shows the importance of this method in defining treatment policy and then in the assessment of the results of the performed correction.

  16. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  17. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 hours after birth, followed by a second shot 1 month later, and the third shot 5 months ... the hepatitis B virus should get the first shot within 1 to 2 months after birth, the second shot ...

  18. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been available since the 1980s. A three-shot series will protect and contribute to the elimination of this highly infectious disease. Up to 1.4 million Americans have chronic HBV infection. Hepatitis ...

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system is believed to orchestrate an immune attack onto the liver cell. Current knowledge suggests that both T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 programmes are involved in the generation of the liver damage. Release of TH2 cytokines leads to the production of autoantibodies to the hepatocyte membrane that recruit killer cells. TH1 cytokines induce macrophage activation which contributes to hepatocyte destruction. Patients commonly possess the "autoimmune" HLA A1/B8/DR3 haplotype and a silent gene at the C4A locus with consequent partial deficiency of the complement component C4. Two main types of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised according to the presence of circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies. Patients with smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody may be adults or children, while patients with antiliver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody are usually children or very young adults. In both types there is a preponderance of females. LKM1 antibody is also present in a proportion of adult patients, mainly male, with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This observation originally led to the suggestion that hepatitis C virus may be the cause of this form of autoimmune hepatitis, but several studies have shown that the epitopes target of the LKM1 antibody in autoimmune hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C virus infection differ. Although autoimmune hepatitis responds satisfactorily to immunosuppression in the short term, progression to cirrhosis is frequent. It is hoped that ongoing research will provide a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage leading to a more effective and specific mode of treatment.

  20. [Surgical management, prognostic factors, and outcome in hepatic trauma].

    PubMed

    Ott, R; Schön, M R; Seidel, S; Schuster, E; Josten, C; Hauss, J

    2005-02-01

    Hepatic trauma is a rare surgical emergency with significant morbidity and mortality. Extensive experience in liver surgery is a prerequisite for the management of these injuries. The medical records of 68 consecutive patients with hepatic trauma were retrospectively reviewed for the severity of liver injury, management, morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Of the patients, 14 were treated conservatively and 52 surgically (24 suture/fibrin glue, 16 perihepatic packing, 11 resections, 1 liver transplantation). Two patients died just before emergency surgery could be performed. Overall mortality was 21% (14/68), and 13, 14, 6, 27, and 50% for types I, II, III, IV, and V injuries, respectively. Only nine deaths (all type IV and V) were liver related, while four were caused by extrahepatic injuries and one by concomitant liver cirrhosis. With respect to treatment, conservative management, suture, and resection had a low mortality of 0, 4, and 9%, respectively. In contrast, mortality was 47% in patients in whom only packing was performed (in severe injuries). Stepwise multivariate regression analysis proved prothrombin values <40%, ISS scores >30, and transfusion requirements of more than 10 red packed cells to be significant risk factors for post-traumatic death. Type I-III hepatic injuries can safely be treated by conservative or simple surgical means. However, complex hepatic injuries (types IV and V) carry a significant mortality and may require hepatic surgery, including liver resection or even transplantation. Therefore, patients with severe hepatic injuries should be treated in a specialized institution.

  1. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  2. Hepatic Complications of Anorexia Nervosa.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Elissa; Bakshi, Neeru; Watters, Ashlie; Rosen, Hugo R; Mehler, Philip S

    2017-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric illnesses due to the widespread organ dysfunction caused by the underlying severe malnutrition. Starvation causes hepatocyte injury and death leading to a rise in aminotransferases. Malnutrition-induced hepatitis is common among individuals with AN especially as body mass index decreases. Acute liver failure associated with coagulopathy and encephalopathy can rarely occur. Liver enzymes may also less commonly increase as part of the refeeding process due to hepatic steatosis and can be distinguished from starvation hepatitis by the finding of a fatty liver on ultrasonography. Individuals with AN and starvation-induced hepatitis are at increased risk of hypoglycemia due to depleted glycogen stores and impaired gluconeogenesis. Gastroenterology and hepatology consultations are often requested when patients with AN and signs of hepatitis are hospitalized. It should be noted that additional laboratory testing, imaging, or liver biopsy all have low diagnostic yield, are costly, and potentially invasive, therefore, not generally recommended for diagnostic purposes. While the hepatitis of AN can reach severe levels, a supervised increase in caloric intake and a return to a healthy body weight often quickly lead to normalization of elevated aminotransferases caused by starvation.

  3. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  4. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  5. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  6. Transforming growth factor-beta and platelet-derived growth factor signal via c-Jun N-terminal kinase-dependent Smad2/3 phosphorylation in rat hepatic stellate cells after acute liver injury.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Katsunori; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Mori, Shigeo; Tahashi, Yoshiya; Yamagata, Hideo; Furukawa, Fukiko; Seki, Toshihito; Nishizawa, Mikio; Fujisawa, Junichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2005-04-01

    After liver injury, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) regulate the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and tissue remodeling. Mechanisms of PDGF signaling in the TGF-beta-triggered cascade are not completely understood. TGF-beta signaling involves phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 at linker and C-terminal regions. Using antibodies to distinguish Smad2/3 phosphorylated at linker regions from those phosphorylated at C-terminal regions, we investigated Smad2/3-mediated signaling in rat liver injured by CCl(4) administration and in cultured HSCs. In acute liver injury, Smad2/3 were transiently phosphorylated at both regions. Although linker-phosphorylated Smad2 remained in the cytoplasm of alpha-smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive mesenchymal cells adjacent to necrotic hepatocytes in centrilobular areas, linker-phosphorylated Smad3 accumulated in the nuclei. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the activated HSCs directly phosphorylated Smad2/3 at linker regions. Co-treatment of primary cultured HSCs with TGF-beta and PDGF activated the JNK pathway, subsequently inducing endogenous linker phosphorylation of Smad2/3. The JNK pathway may be involved in migration of resident HSCs within the space of Disse to the sites of tissue damage because the JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited HSC migration induced by TGF-beta and PDGF signals. Moreover, treatment of HSCs with both TGF-beta and PDGF increased transcriptional activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 through linker phosphorylation of Smad3. In conclusion, TGF-beta and PDGF activate HSCs by transmitting their signals through JNK-mediated Smad2/3 phosphorylation at linker regions, both in vivo and in vitro.

  7. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  8. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis Testing Day ... Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People with HIV infection in the ...

  9. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C ... Project Princeton Workshop Public Health and International Programs Liver Cancer Connect Coalition Against Hepatitis for People of African ...

  10. Endothelin and hepatic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Khimji, Al-karim; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    Liver wound healing is a coordinated response to injury caused by infections (hepatitis) or toxins (alcohol) or other processes where activation of hepatic stellate cells are a central component. During stellate cell activation, a major phenotypic transformation occurs which leads to increased production of increased extracellular matrix proteins and smooth muscle α-actin the results is organ dysfunction due to gross architectural disruption and impaired blood flow. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is produced in increased amounts and the cellular source of ET-1 shifts from endothelial cells to stellate cells during liver injury thus setting a feedback loop which accentuates further activation, stellate cell proliferation, and production of extracellular matrix proteins. Therapy directed at intervening the ET-1 signaling pathway has significant therapeutic potential in patients with liver disease. PMID:21421048

  11. Mistletoe hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J; Colin-Jones, D G

    1981-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with nausea, general malaise, and a dull ache in the right hypochondrium. Liver biopsy showed slight inflammatory-cell infiltration, and results of liver function tests suggested hepatitis. Hepatitis B surface antigen was not detected, and a cholecystogram was normal. Two years later she presented with similar symptoms, and both illnesses were found to have occurred after ingestion of a herbal remedy containing kelp, motherwort, skullcap, and mistletoe. A challenge test established this to be the cause of the illness. Mistletoe is the only constituent of the tablets known to contain any potential toxin and thus was probably the cause of the illness. Mistletoe is widely used in herbal remedies, whose ingestion may therefore cause hepatitis. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6779941

  12. Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates hepatic injury following blunt chest trauma and hemorrhagic shock by reducing local inflammation, NF-kappaB activation and HMGB1 release.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nils; Dieteren, Scott; Franz, Niklas; Köhler, Kernt; Mörs, Katharina; Nicin, Luka; Schmidt, Julia; Perl, Mario; Marzi, Ingo; Relja, Borna

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of patients with multiple trauma including blunt chest/thoracic trauma (TxT) and hemorrhagic shock (H) is still challenging. Numerous studies show detrimental consequences of TxT and HS resulting in strong inflammatory changes, organ injury and mortality. Additionally, the reperfusion (R) phase plays a key role in triggering inflammation and worsening outcome. Ethyl pyruvate (EP), a stable lipophilic ester, has anti-inflammatory properties. Here, the influence of EP on the inflammatory reaction and liver injury in a double hit model of TxT and H/R in rats was explored. Female Lewis rats were subjected to TxT followed by hemorrhage/H (60 min, 35±3 mm Hg) and resuscitation/R (TxT+H/R). Reperfusion was performed by either Ringer`s lactated solution (RL) alone or RL supplemented with EP (50 mg/kg). Sham animals underwent all surgical procedures without TxT+H/R. After 2h, blood and liver tissue were collected for analyses, and survival was assessed after 24h. Resuscitation with EP significantly improved haemoglobin levels and base excess recovery compared with controls after TxT+H/R, respectively (p<0.05). TxT+H/R-induced significant increase in alanine aminotransferase levels and liver injury were attenuated by EP compared with controls (p<0.05). Local inflammation as shown by increased gene expression of IL-6 and ICAM-1, enhanced ICAM-1 and HMGB1 protein expression and infiltration of the liver with neutrophils were also significantly attenuated by EP compared with controls after TxT+H/R (p<0.05). EP significantly reduced TxT+H/R-induced p65 activation in liver tissue. Survival rates improved by EP from 50% to 70% after TxT+H/R. These data support the concept that the pronounced local pro-inflammatory response in the liver after blunt chest trauma and hemorrhagic shock is associated with NF-κB. In particular, the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl pyruvate seem to be regulated by the HMGB1/NF-κB axis in the liver, thereby, restraining

  13. Insulin protects against hepatic damage postburn.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Cox, Robert A; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury. Animals were randomized to receive saline (controls) or insulin (2.5 IU/kg q. 24 h) and euthanized at 24 and 48 h postburn. Burn injury induced dramatic changes in liver structure and function, including induction of the ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Insulin decreased hepatocyte caspase-3 activation and apoptosis significantly at 24 and 48 h postburn. Furthermore, insulin administration decreased ER stress significantly and reversed structural and functional changes in hepatocyte mitochondria. Finally, insulin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC-1. Insulin alleviates burn-induced ER stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities, and inflammation leading to improved hepatic structure and function significantly. These results support the use of insulin therapy after traumatic injury to improve patient outcomes.

  14. Insulin Protects against Hepatic Damage Postburn

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Kraft, Robert; Song, Juquan; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Cox, Robert A; Brooks, Natasha C; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kulp, Gabriela A; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren

    2011-01-01

    Burn injury causes hepatic dysfunction associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress/UPR leads to hepatic apoptosis and activation of the Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, leading to vast metabolic alterations. Insulin has been shown to attenuate hepatic damage and to improve liver function. We therefore hypothesized that insulin administration exerts its effects by attenuating postburn hepatic ER stress and subsequent apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats received a 60% total body surface area (TBSA) burn injury. Animals were randomized to receive saline (controls) or insulin (2.5 IU/kg q. 24 h) and euthanized at 24 and 48 h postburn. Burn injury induced dramatic changes in liver structure and function, including induction of the ER stress response, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocyte apoptosis, and up-regulation of inflammatory mediators. Insulin decreased hepatocyte caspase-3 activation and apoptosis significantly at 24 and 48 h postburn. Furthermore, insulin administration decreased ER stress significantly and reversed structural and functional changes in hepatocyte mitochondria. Finally, insulin attenuated the expression of inflammatory mediators IL-6, MCP-1, and CINC-1. Insulin alleviates burn-induced ER stress, hepatocyte apoptosis, mitochondrial abnormalities, and inflammation leading to improved hepatic structure and function significantly. These results support the use of insulin therapy after traumatic injury to improve patient outcomes. PMID:21267509

  15. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  16. Gasoline immersion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, L.A.; Cruse, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical burns and pulmonary complications are the most common problems encountered in the patient immersed in gasoline. Our patient demonstrated a 46-percent total-body-surface area, partial-thickness chemical burn. Although he did not develop bronchitis or pneumonitis, he did display persistent atelectasis, laryngeal edema, and subsequent upper airway obstruction. This had not previously been reported in gasoline inhalation injuries. Hydrocarbon hepatitis secondary to the vascular endothelial damage is apparently a reversible lesion with no reported long-term sequelae. Gasoline immersion injuries may be a series multisystem injury and require the burn surgeon to take a multisystem approach to its diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. In: Goldman L, ... Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. ... Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George ...

  18. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically given in two shots. The first one is followed by a booster shot six months later. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a hepatitis A vaccine for the following people: All children at age 1, or older children who didn't receive the ...

  19. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  20. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... will discuss other treatment options with you. For example, if 1 round of treatment did not decrease your viral ... Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: hepatitis, Infectious Disease September 1, ... ContentAllergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?Read Article >>Allergy ...

  1. Hepatic rupture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Wan, DaLong; Zhang, LeLe; Xu, ShiGuo; Xie, HaiYang; Lin, ShengZhang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Currently, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is regarded as the first-line treatment modality of pyogenic liver abscess. Severe complications associated with PCD were uncommon. Hepatic rupture is an uncommon but life-threatening liver trauma with high mortality. Its management is challenging because a delay in the diagnosis may lead to fatal hemorrhagic shock. To our knowledge, PCD-associated hepatic rupture has never been reported. Patient concerns: We report herein a rare case of PCD-associated hepatic rupture. Its clinical courses and our therapeutic approaches are presented. Moreover, the clinical significance, underlying causes, and current views on severe liver trauma management will be discussed briefly. Diagnoses: A diabetic patient suffering from fever and malaise was diagnosed with a pyogenic liver abscess. PCD was performed because intravenous antibiotics were ineffective. The patient developed a liver rupture following PCD, with clinical and imaging confirmation but without further progression. Interventions: Surgical repair and vascular intervention were both inappropriate. As a result, medical treatments with supportive care were adopted and were found to be effective. Outcomes: The patient's condition improved gradually, with stabilized imaging and laboratory performance. He recovered uneventfully during follow-ups. Lessons: Hepatic rupture should be listed as an extremely rare but severe complication of PCD. Immediate suspicion and effective intervention may avoid an unfavorable consequence. PMID:29480839

  2. Small bowel dilation in children with short bowel syndrome is associated with mucosal damage, bowel-derived bloodstream infections, and hepatic injury.

    PubMed

    Hukkinen, Maria; Mutanen, Annika; Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2017-09-01

    Liver disease occurs frequently in short bowel syndrome. Whether small bowel dilation in short bowel syndrome could influence the risk of liver injury through increased bacterial translocation remains unknown. Our aim was to analyze associations between small bowel dilation, mucosal damage, bloodstream infections, and liver injury in short bowel syndrome patients. Among short bowel syndrome children (n = 50), maximal small bowel diameter was measured in contrast series and expressed as the ratio to the height of the fifth lumbar vertebra (small bowel diameter ratio), and correlated retrospectively to fecal calprotectin and plasma citrulline-respective markers of mucosal inflammation and mass-bloodstream infections, liver biochemistry, and liver histology. Patients with pathologic small bowel diameter ratio >2.17 had increased fecal calprotectin and decreased citrulline (P < .04 each). Of 33 bloodstream infections observed during treatment with parenteral nutrition, 16 were caused by intestinal bacteria, cultured 15 times more frequently when small bowel diameter ratio was >2.17 (P < .001). Intestinal bloodstream infections were predicted by small bowel diameter ratio (odds ratio 1.88, P = .017), and their frequency decreased after operative tapering procedures (P = .041). Plasma bilirubin concentration, gamma-glutamyl transferase activity, and histologic grade of cholestasis correlated with small bowel diameter ratio (0.356-0.534, P < .014 each), and were greater in the presence of intestinal bloodstream infections (P < .001 for all). Bloodstream infections associated with portal inflammation, cholestasis, and fibrosis grades (P < .031 for each). In linear regression, histologic cholestasis was predicted by intestinal bloodstream infections, small bowel diameter ratio, and parenteral nutrition (β = 0.36-1.29; P < .014 each), while portal inflammation by intestinal bloodstream infections only (β = 0.62; P = .033). In children with short bowel

  3. A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) ameliorates CCl4-induced hepatic injury and fibrosis through reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and stellate cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Savita; Khan, Mehtab A; Bekhit, Mena; Bai, Haibo; Cornish, Toby; Mizuma, Masamichi; Rudek, Michelle A; Zhao, Ming; Maitra, Amarnath; Ray, Balmiki; Lahiri, Debomoy; Maitra, Anirban; Anders, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Plant-derived polyphenols such as curcumin hold promise as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of chronic liver diseases. However, its development is plagued by poor aqueous solubility resulting in poor bioavailability. To circumvent the suboptimal bioavailability of free curcumin, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc™) that overcomes this major pitfall of the free compound. In this study, we show that NanoCurc™ results in sustained intrahepatic curcumin levels that can be found in both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. NanoCurc™ markedly inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis. It also enhances antioxidant levels in the liver and inhibits pro-fibrogenic transcripts associated with activated myofibroblasts. Finally, we show that NanoCurc™ directly induces stellate cell apoptosis in vitro. Our results suggest that NanoCurc™ might be an effective therapy for patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:21691262

  4. Phase II Study of Chemoembolization With Drug-Eluting Beads in Patients With Hepatic Neuroendocrine Metastases: High Incidence of Biliary Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Bhagat, Nikhil, E-mail: nbhagat1@jhmi.edu; Reyes, Diane K., E-mail: dreyes@jhmi.edu; Lin, Mingde, E-mail: ming.lin@philips.com

    2013-04-15

    To evaluate safety in an interim analysis of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with doxorubicin-eluting beads (DEB) in 13 patients with hepatic metastases from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) as part of a phase II trial. Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent were obtained. Thirteen patients completed preliminary safety analysis. Their mean age was 65 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status was 0/1, tumor burden range was 4-75 %, and mean targeted tumor size was 5.9 cm. Up to four DEB-TACE sessions (100-300 {mu}m beads loaded with {<=}100 mg doxorubicin) within 6 months were allowed. Tumor response was assessed by magnetic resonance imagingmore » 1 month after treatment using contrast-enhancement [European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) and size Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST)] criteria. Safety was assessed by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria. DEB-TACE was successfully performed in all 13 patients. At 1 month follow-up, there was a mean 12 % decrease in tumor size (p < 0.0003) and a 56 % decrease in tumor enhancement (p < 0.0001). By EASL criteria, the targeted lesion objective response rate was 78 %. Grade 3 to 4 toxicities were fatigue (23 %), increased alanine amino transferase (15 %), hyperglycemia (15 %), and abdominal pain (8 %). Seven patients developed bilomas (54 %); all of these patients had multiple small (<4 cm) lesions. Subsequently, four underwent percutaneous drainage, three for abscess formation and one for symptoms related to mass effect. Although biloma and liver abscess are known risks after TACE, the high incidence in our study population was unexpected and forced interruption of the trial. Although this occurred in a small group of patients, we have changed our technique and patient selection as a result of these findings, thus allowing resumption of the trial.« less

  5. Evaluation and Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Suraweera, Duminda; Sundaram, Vinay; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a spectrum of neurocognitive manifestations often seen in patients with liver injury or rarely in patients with portosystemic shunting without liver injury. It can be divided into minimal (covert) hepatic encephalopathy and overt hepatic encephalopathy, depending on the severity. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy have compromised clinical outcomes, decreased quality of life, and increased healthcare utilization, often resulting in a heavy financial and personal burden on caregivers. The diagnosis remains largely clinical, with the exclusion of possible other causes for the altered mental status. Current treatment strategies include nonabsorbable disaccharides and antibiotics. This review will focus on the diagnosis, management and clinical impact of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:27377741

  6. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  7. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Biliary leakage due to a rapidly growing post-traumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Keiji; Kosuge, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Sugiyama, Mitsugi

    2004-01-01

    Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms are rare. We report a very unusual case of bile duct injury complicated with an asymptomatic post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysm. A previously healthy 17-year-old man sustained multiple traumas after a motorcycle accident. Post-traumatic hepatic pseudoaneurysms were detected after blunt liver injury. The rapid growth of the pseudoaneurysms in the hepatic hilus compressed the common hepatic bile duct and caused extrahepatic bile leakage at the lateral lobe. At first, the hepatic arterial pseudoaneurysms were embolized and bile leakage at the left lobe was treated conservatively. Finally, however, segment 2 and 3 partial liver resection should have been performed to stop the bile leakage. Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm should be ruled out, in addition to the presence of biliary tract injury, if the intraperitoneal bile leakage appears after liver injury.

  9. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  10. Early post-splenectomy sepsis after missile injury in adults.

    PubMed Central

    Ellias, Y. A.; Elias, M. A.; Gorey, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Early septic complications were studied in 292 patients operated on for penetrating missile injury of the abdomen with involvement of either the spleen or the liver, at Basrah Teaching Hospital between January 1983 and April 1986. Depending on associated injuries, patients with splenectomy were divided into three groups, the first with isolated splenic injury, the second with splenic and associated extra-intestinal organ injury, and the third with splenic and intestinal injuries with or without extra-intestinal organ injury. Patients with hepatic injury were classified similarly. Splenectomy was carried out for any degree of splenic injury. Grade I hepatic injuries were managed by débridement and suturing while major grades II-IV underwent segmentectomy or lobectomy. Patients were considered septic if they had any three of four clinical criteria: temperature higher than 39 degrees C; significant haemodynamic deterioration; respiratory alkalosis, or oliguria. Of the total, 79 were excluded due to: early transfer 51, incomplete records 8, perioperative death 11, and having combined splenic and hepatic injuries 9 (excluded by definition), leaving 104 (74.8%) patients with splenectomy and 109 (71.1%) with hepatic injury available for study. Sepsis developed in 48 (46.1%) of patients after splenectomy and in 28 (25.7%) with hepatic injury. This difference was significant (P greater than 0.005). In patients with isolated splenic injury, eight (25.8%) were septic while three (13.6%) of those with isolated hepatic injury developed sepsis. This was not significant (P = 0.32, Fisher's exact test). When either was associated with an injury to an extra-intestinal organ, 15 (50%) of the splenectomy group developed sepsis compared to five (23.8%) of the hepatic injury group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2042899

  11. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  12. Sonographic diagnosis of hepatic erosion caused by umbilical catheterization.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, R; Narese, D; Ognibene, N; Rossi, E; Antonello, M; Basile, M; Di Maurizio, M; Defilippi, C

    2016-01-01

    The use of umbilical venous catheter (UVC) is common practice in neonatal units. The traumatic injury of the hepatic parenchyma is a rare complication. We present a case of a preterm newborn underwent ultrasound examination revealing a hyperechogenic focal lesion at the confluence of the hepatic veins This finding, according to patient's history, was suspected to be a traumatic injury of the liver parenchyma caused by umbilical catheterization. During sonographic follow-up this lesion gradually reduced until complete resolution. Finally, when focal hyperechogenic hepatic lesion is incidentally detected in newborn with history of UVC placement, the radiologists must consider the traumatic etiology.

  13. Hepatic arterial embolization in the management of blunt hepatic trauma: indications and complications.

    PubMed

    Letoublon, Christian; Morra, Irene; Chen, Yao; Monnin, Valerie; Voirin, David; Arvieux, Catherine

    2011-05-01

    The objective was to clarify the role of hepatic arterial embolization (AE) in the management of blunt hepatic trauma. Retrospective observational study of 183 patients with blunt hepatic trauma admitted to a trauma referral center over a 9-year period. The charts of 29 patients (16%) who underwent hepatic angiography were reviewed for demographics, injury specific data, management strategy, angiographic indication, efficacy and complications of embolization, and outcome. AE was performed in 23 (79%) of the patients requiring angiography. Thirteen patients managed conservatively underwent emergency embolization after preliminary computed tomography scan. Six had postoperative embolization after damage control laparotomy and four had delayed embolization. Arterial bleeding was controlled in all the cases. Sixteen patients (70%) had one or more liver-related complications; temporary biliary leak (n=11), intra-abdominal hypertension (n=14), inflammatory peritonitis (n=3), hepatic necrosis (n=3), gallbladder infarction (n=2), and compressive subcapsular hematoma (n=1). Unrecognized hepatic necrosis could have contributed to the late posttraumatic death of one patient. AE is a key element in modern management of high-grade liver injuries. Two principal indications exist in the acute postinjury phase: primary hemostatic control in hemodynamically stable or stabilized patients with radiologic computed tomography evidence of active arterial bleeding and adjunctive hemostatic control in patients with uncontrolled suspected arterial bleeding despite emergency laparotomy. Successful management of injuries of grade III upward often entails a combined angiographic and surgical approach. Awareness of the ischemic complications due to angioembolization is important.

  14. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  15. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  17. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  18. Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Coinfected with HIV and Hepatitis C Virus Receiving Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir in a Real-World, Urban, Ryan White Clinic.

    PubMed

    Michal, Jessica L; Rab, Saira; Patel, Manish; Kyle, Alison W; Miller, Lesley S; Easley, Kirk A; Kalapila, Aley G

    2018-06-19

    Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF), an antiviral treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV), and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), an antiretroviral for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), may be coadministered in patients coinfected with these viruses. A drug interaction between LDV and TDF could increase TDF-associated nephrotoxicity rates; however, there is minimal clinical evidence describing acute kidney injury (AKI) rates in this population. This study was conducted at a Ryan White-funded facility in Atlanta, Georgia, that cares for over 5,000 patients with AIDS. This retrospective cohort used chart review to assess occurrence of and risk factors for AKI in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients receiving LDV/SOF and antiretroviral therapy (ART). AKI rates were compared between TDF-containing and non-TDF-containing ART groups according to Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Additional evaluated risk factors for AKI included chronic kidney disease and use of boosted protease inhibitor-based ART. In the 117 included patients, the overall incidence of AKI was 27.3%. AKI occurred more frequently in the non-TDF group (13/86, 15.1% vs. 19/31, 61.3%, p < .001). All AKI was KDIGO stage 1. From multivariable logistic regression, the only independent predictor of AKI was treatment with non-TDF relative to TDF (adjusted odds ratio 6.51, 95% confidence interval 2.34-18.10, p < .001). In this real-world cohort of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients, KDIGO-defined AKI was common, but occurred less frequently in patients receiving TDF-based ART. Our study suggests that patients with normal baseline renal function can be safely treated with TDF and LDV/SOF without significant nephrotoxicity if renal function is closely monitored.

  19. Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) presenting as subfulminant hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Z; Broida, E; Monselise, Y; Kazatsker, A; Baruch, J; Pappo, O; Skappa, E; Tur-Kaspa, R

    2000-03-01

    Giant cell hepatitis (GCH) in adults is a rare event. The diagnosis of GCH is based on findings of syncytial giant hepatocytes. It is commonly associated with either viral infection or autoimmune hepatitis type I. A patient with GCH due to autoimmune hepatitis type II (LKM1+) is described, a combination that has not been previously reported. Corticosteroid therapy was effective in decreasing serum liver enzymes; however, the patient deteriorated rapidly and developed subfulminant hepatic failure. Although an emergency orthotopic liver transplantation was performed, the patient died because of reperfusion injury. Interestingly, only a few giant hepatocytes were noted in the explanted liver. This case stresses the association of GCH with autoimmune disorders, the possible immune mechanism involved in the formation of giant cell hepatocytes, and illustrates the rapidly progressive course and unfavorable prognosis that these patients can develop.

  20. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  1. An analytical review of vasculobiliary injury in laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Steven M; Helton, W Scott

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Biliary injuries are frequently accompanied by vascular injuries, which may worsen the bile duct injury and cause liver ischemia. We performed an analytical review with the aim of defining vasculobiliary injury and setting out the important issues in this area. Methods A literature search of relevant terms was peformed using OvidSP. Bibliographies of papers were also searched to obtain older literature. Results Vasculobiliary injury was defined as: an injury to both a bile duct and a hepatic artery and/or portal vein; the bile duct injury may be caused by operative trauma, be ischaemic in origin or both, and may or may not be accompanied by various degrees of hepatic ischaemia. Right hepatic artery (RHA) vasculobiliary injury (VBI) is the most common variant. Injury to the RHA likely extends the biliary injury to a higher level than the gross observed mechanical injury. VBI results in slow hepatic infarction in about 10% of patients. Repair of the artery is rarely possible and the overall benefit unclear. Injuries involving the portal vein or common or proper hepatic arteries are much less common, but have more serious effects including rapid infarction of the liver. Conclusions Routine arteriography is recommended in patients with a biliary injury if early repair is contemplated. Consideration should be given to delaying repair of a biliary injury in patients with occlusion of the RHA. Patients with injuries to the portal vein or proper or common hepatic should be emergently referred to tertiary care centers. PMID:21159098

  2. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Tun-Abraham, Mauro Enrique; Martínez-Ordaz, José Luis; Romero-Hernández, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic pseudoaneurysm is rare and potentially fatal. It occurs as a consequence of injury to the vascular wall, erosion diathermy through clips, biliary leakage and secondary infection. The main symptom is intra-abdominal bleeding. To communicate the case of two patients with hepatic pseudoaneurysm. Case 1: We present a 43 year-old male with a history of grade IV liver injury due to blunt abdominal trauma and managed surgically. Case 2: A 67 year-old man with bile duct injury after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both patients presented with biliary leakage, abdominal sepsis and late intra-abdominal bleeding. Tomographic studies showed the lesion. Superselective embolization was performed proximal and distal to the lesion with good results. During follow-up, none of them showed signs of recurrent bleeding. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is rare and usually secondary to bile duct injury associated with vascular injury after cholecystectomy or liver trauma. Arteriography with embolization is the best diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Surgery is indicated for hemodynamically unstable patients, embolization failure or rebleeding. Early diagnosis reduces morbidity and mortality of this complication.

  3. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article.

    PubMed

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-10-01

    Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate.

  4. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Context: Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Evidence Acquisition: Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Results: Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Conclusions: Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate. PMID:26587034

  5. Hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome of impaired brain function occurring in patients with advanced liver diseases. The precise pathophysiology of HE is still under discussion; the leading hypothesis focus on the role of neurotoxins, impaired neurotransmission due to metabolic changes in liver failure, changes in brain energy metabolism, systemic inflammatory response and alterations of the blood brain barrier. HE produces a wide spectrum of nonspecific neurological and psychiatric manifestations. Minimal HE is diagnosed by abnormal psychometric tests. Clinically overt HE includes personality changes, alterations in consciousness progressive disorientation in time and space, somnolence, stupor and, finally, coma. Except for clinical studies, no specific tests are required for diagnosis. HE is classified according to the underlying disease, the severity of manifestations, its time course and the existence of precipitating factors. Treatment of overt HE includes supportive therapies, treatment of precipitating factors, lactulose and/or rifaximin. Routine treatment for minimal HE is only recommended for selected patients. PMID:28533911

  6. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  7. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  9. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  10. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  11. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  12. Reassessing Immune Control of Hepatitis A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christopher M.; Feng, Zongdi; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    There is renewed interest in hepatitis A virus (HAV) pathogenesis and immunity after 2–3 decades of limited progress. From a public health perspective, the average age at infection has increased in developing countries, resulting in more severe hepatitis that is poorly understood mechanistically. More fundamentally, there is interest in comparing immunity to HAV and hepatitis C virus (HCV): small, positive-strand RNA viruses with very different infection outcomes. Here, we review evidence that circulating HAV virions are cloaked in membranes, with consequences for induction of innate immunity and antibody-mediated neutralization. We also consider the contribution of CD4+ helper versus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to antiviral immunity and liver injury, and present a model of non-cytotoxic immune control of HAV infection. PMID:25617494

  13. Reassessing immune control of hepatitis A virus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher M; Feng, Zongdi; Lemon, Stanley M

    2015-04-01

    There is renewed interest in hepatitis A virus (HAV) pathogenesis and immunity after 2-3 decades of limited progress. From a public health perspective, the average age at infection has increased in developing countries, resulting in more severe hepatitis that is poorly understood mechanistically. More fundamentally, there is interest in comparing immunity to HAV and hepatitis C virus (HCV): small, positive-strand RNA viruses with very different infection outcomes. Here, we review evidence that circulating HAV virions are cloaked in membranes, with consequences for induction of innate immunity and antibody-mediated neutralization. We also consider the contribution of CD4+ helper versus CD8+ cytotoxic T cells to antiviral immunity and liver injury, and present a model of non-cytotoxic immune control of HAV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-06-27

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment.

  15. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:27358680

  16. Liver graft vascular variant with 3 extra-hepatic arteries.

    PubMed

    Martins, Paulo N

    2010-06-01

    Vascular anatomy of the liver is varied, and the "standard" anatomy is seen in 55%-80% of cases. It is very important that extrahepatic arteries are identified precisely at the time of graft procurement to avoid injuries that might compromise the liver function. In the present case the liver donor had the vascular anatomy of Michels type VII, e.g. a hepatic artery originating from the celiac trunk and going to the left lobe, an accessory left hepatic artery coming from the left gastric artery, and a replaced right hepatic artery coming from the superior mesenteric artery. This pattern of vascular supply is uncommon, representing less than 5% of cases. The replaced hepatic artery was reconstructed in the back-table with polypropylene suture 7.0 by connecting it to the stump of the splenic artery, and the celiac trunk of the graft was anastomosed to the recipient common hepatic artery.

  17. [TRAUMATIC INTRAORGANIC HEPATIC AND SPLENIC HEMATOMAS].

    PubMed

    Timerbulatov, V M; Khalikov, A A; Timerbulatov, Sh V; Verzakova, I V; Amirova, A M; Smyr, R A

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of application results of complex research methods of diagnostics of intraorganic hepatic and splenic hematomas was made. At the same time, options of these methods were used for determination of prescription of injury. The ultrasound, CT, MR-imaging, videolaparoscopy, angiography, Doppler ultrasonics, impedometry, biochemical, laboratory and cytological study of punctate sample from hematomas were applied for this purpose in 33 patients. According to authors, an evolution of hematomas happened in 3 stages, each of this stage was characterized by specified data associated with investigation results. The staging procedure of hematomas or their evolution allowed setting the prescription of injury.

  18. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  19. Orlistat-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Sall, D; Wang, J; Rashkin, M; Welch, M; Droege, C; Schauer, D

    2014-12-01

    Orlistat was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and has been shown to be superior to placebo in achieving weight loss. It is generally well tolerated. However, severe liver injury has been reported. We present a case of hepatic failure in a patient taking orlistat. A 54-year-old African-American woman with hypertension presented with hepatic failure. She had noticed increasing fatigue, jaundice and confusion. She used alcohol sparingly and denied tobacco or illicit drug use, but had been taking over-the-counter orlistat for the past two months. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus, jaundice, asterixis and slow speech. Laboratory testing showed markedly abnormal liver function tests with coagulopathy. Acute viral and autoimmune serologies were negative, as was toxicology screen. Liver biopsy showed necrotic hepatic parenchyma likely secondary to drug toxicity. Based upon her clinical presentation and time course, the pattern of liver injury seen on liver biopsy and lack of an alternative plausible explanation, her liver failure was most likely associated with orlistat use. She continued to deteriorate and ultimately underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Fourteen cases of severe liver injury associated with orlistat use have been reported, four of which are detailed in the literature. This is the second published case of liver failure associated with over-the-counter orlistat usage. Clinicians should be aware of the growing number of cases associating liver injury and orlistat use and carefully monitor their patients on this medication for signs of hepatic dysfunction. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  20. [Iatrogenic bile duct injuries during the process of laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Qian, G; Wu, M; Zhang, Y

    1995-11-01

    Twelve patients with iatrogenic bile duct injuries occurred during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) were treated from June 1992 to May 1994. All the patients underwent re-operation and were cured. The causes and characteristics of the injuries were: (1) perforation of the common hepatic or common bile duct caused by dissecting hook (3 cases); (2) necrosis and perforation of the common hepatic duct due to diathermic injury (1 case); (3) clamping of the common hepatic duct by Ti clip (1 case); (4) secondary high bile duct stricture following a failed end-to-end anastomosis or hepatico-cholangio-jejunostomy of the amputated common hepatic duct (5 cases); (5) delayed high bile duct stricture (2 cases). It is emphasized that the severity of bile duct injuries by LC be should not overlooked, and more experience in this field be accumulated to avoid this serious complication.

  1. Metabolic Response to Injury and Role of Anabolic Hormones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    hepatic steatosis . Even in the face of high carbohydrate feeding, far and away the greatest component of re-esterified triglyceride is from the...periphery rather than de-novo synthesized fatty acid [28]. Therefore, hepatic steatosis associated with injury is due to fat substrate cycling from the...dependent tissues are assured an energy source by increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and peripheral resistance to insulin. While this is beneficial, to a point

  2. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  3. Obesity-induced hepatic hypoperfusion primes for hepatic dysfunction after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Paul J; Hurt, Ryan T; Franklin, Glen A; McClain, Craig J; Garrison, R Neal

    2009-10-01

    Obese patients (BMI>35) after blunt trauma are at increased risk compared to non-obese for organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stay, infection, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and mortality. Obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) produce a low grade systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) with compromised hepatic blood flow, which increases with body mass index. We hypothesized that obesity further aggravates liver dysfunction by reduced hepatic perfusion following resuscitated hemorrhagic shock (HEM). Age-matched Zucker rats (Obese, 314-519 g & Lean, 211-280 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 10-12/group): (1) Lean-Sham; (2) Lean, HEM, and resuscitation (HEM/RES); (3) Obese-Sham; and (4) Obese-HEM/RES. HEM was 40% of mean arterial pressure (MAP) for 60 min; RES was return of shed blood/5 min and 2 volumes of saline/25 min. Hepatic blood flow (HBF) using galactose clearance, liver enzymes and complete metabolic panel were measured over 4 h after completion of RES. Obese rats had increased MAP, heart rate, and fasting blood glucose and BUN concentrations compared to lean controls, required less blood withdrawal (mL/g) to maintain 40% MAP, and RES did not restore BL MAP. Obese rats had decreased HBF at BL and during HEM/RES, which persisted 4 h post RES. ALT and BUN were increased compared to Lean-HEM/RES at 4 h post-RES. These data suggest that obesity significantly contributes to trauma outcomes through compromised vascular control or through fat-induced sinusoidal compression to impair hepatic blood flow after HEM/RES resulting in a greater hepatic injury. The pro-inflammatory state of NAFLD seen in obesity appears to prime the liver for hepatic ischemia after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock, perhaps intensified by insidious and ongoing hepatic hypoperfusion established prior to the traumatic injury or shock.

  4. Submassive hepatic necrosis induced by dichloropropanol.

    PubMed

    Haratake, J; Furuta, A; Iwasa, T; Wakasugi, C; Imazu, K

    1993-06-01

    A hitherto undescribed industrial liver injury of fulminant form induced by dichloropropanol is reported. Two middle-aged men developed severe hepatic injury just after cleaning a dichloropropanol tank at a plant producing dichloropropanol. They died from hepatic failure 4 and 11 days respectively, after carrying out the work. Liver specimens taken at autopsy from one of the cases showed submassive hepatic necrosis. This accident prompted us to undertake an experimental study in rats of intraperitoneal one-shot injection of two isomeric substances of dichloropropanol, that is, 2,3-dichloro-1-propanol (DC1P) and 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (DC2P). Saline was injected into the control rats. One, two, four, six, 24, 48, 72 h, and 1 week after the injection, rats in each group were sacrificed. Neither control nor DC1P-injected rats showed significant biochemical or histopathological abnormalities. DC2P-injected rats revealed elevations of transaminase from 6 h after the injections, and submassive necrosis of the liver was observed in many rats. It was concluded that the severe liver injuries in both the human cases and rats in our study were caused by DC2P.

  5. Hepatic enzyme decline after pediatric blunt trauma: a tool for timing child abuse?

    PubMed

    Baxter, Amy L; Lindberg, Daniel M; Burke, Bonnie L; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F

    2008-09-01

    Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern could indicate a developing complication. Retrospective review of pediatric patients with injuries including blunt liver trauma admitted to one of four urban level 1 trauma centers from 1990 to 2000. Cases were excluded for shock, death within 48 h, complications, or inability to determine injury time. Transaminase concentration decline was modeled by individual patients, by injury grade, and as a ratio with regard to injury time. One hundred and seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) clearance changed significantly over time. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) fell more slowly. Of the 118 patients who had multiple measurements of AST, for 112 (95%) the first concentration obtained was the highest. When ALT was greater than AST, the injury was older than 12h (97% specificity (95% CI, 95-99%), sensitivity 42% (95% CI, 33-50%)). Patients with enzymes that rose after 14 h post-injury were more likely to develop complications (RR=24, 95% CI 10-58). Hepatic transaminases rise rapidly after uncomplicated blunt liver injury, then fall predictably. Persistently stable or increasing concentrations may indicate complications. ALT>AST indicates subacute injury.

  6. Long-term administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzung-Yan; Wang, Guei-Jane; Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Lin, Han-Chieh

    2003-11-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is metabolized by cytochrome P450 to form a reactive trichloromethyl radical that triggers a chain of lipid peroxidation. These changes lead to cell injury, and chronic liver injury leads to excessive deposition of collagen in liver, resulting in liver fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term Salvia miltiorrhiza administration in CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats. Salvia miltiorrhiza (10, 25 or 50 mg kg(-1) twice a day) was given for 9 weeks, beginning at the same time as the injections of CCl4. Rats receiving CCl4 alone showed a decreased hepatic glutathione level and an increased glutathione-S-transferase content. The hepatic thiobarbituratic acid-reactive substance levels were increased. CCl4 also caused a prominent collagen deposition in liver histology that was further supported by the increased hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor-beta1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen I. Salvia miltiorrhiza administration led to a dose-dependent increase in hepatic glutathione levels and a decrease in peroxidation products. Additionally, it reduced the mRNA expression of markers for hepatic fibrogenesis. In conclusion, long-term administration of Salvia miltiorrhiza in rats ameliorated the CCl4-induced hepatic injury that probably related to a reduced oxidant stress and degree of hepatic fibrosis.

  7. [Differential chronic hepatitis diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis comprises a group of disorders of the liver exhibiting a chronic necroinflammatory process that differs in etiology, clinical course and treatment strategies. A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is usually made when inflammation and liver cell necrosis persist for longer than 6 months. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic patients to those with advanced hepatic failure. Both sexes and all age groups are affected. Chronic hepatitis may emerge as a sequelae of hepatitis C and less often after hepatitis B. Both diseases are treatable and require rapid and exact diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must exclude autoimmune hepatitis, chronic steatohepatitis, congenital metabolic hepatopathies and drug-induced hepatopathies. Laboratory tests, histologic investigations and clinical differential diagnosis must exclude other causes of chronic liver disease.

  8. Traumatic hepatic artery laceration managed by transarterial embolization in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Sara C; Coker, Matthew T; Hernandez, J Alberto; Pimpalwar, Sheena A; Minifee, Paul K; Fishman, Douglas S; Nuchtern, Jed G; Naik-Mathuria, Bindi J

    2013-05-01

    While blunt abdominal trauma with associated liver injury is a common finding in pediatric trauma patients, hepatic artery transection with subsequent treatment by transarterial embolization has rarely been reported. We present a case of a child who suffered from a hepatic artery injury which was successfully managed by supraselective transarterial microcoil embolization, discuss management strategies in these patients, and provide a review of currently available literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of neurotrauma on hepatic drug clearance.

    PubMed

    Boucher, B A; Kuhl, D A; Fabian, T C; Robertson, J T

    1991-11-01

    Lorazepam, antipyrine, and indocyanine green were administered to 10 patients with severe head injuries as marker substrates of hepatic glucuronidation, oxidation, and hepatic blood flow, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were determined at baseline (20 to 80 hours after injury) and up to three additional times thereafter (study days 4, 7, and 14). Antipyrine clearance was increased significantly from baseline (0.50 +/- 0.31 ml/min/kg) on study days 4, 7, and 14 (p less than 0.0001). Increases in antipyrine clearance from baseline to the last study day were observed in all study patients ranging from 14% to 207%. A significant increase was also observed in lorazepam clearance on study day 14 relative to baseline (1.39 +/- 0.56 ml/min/kg) (p less than 0.005). Increases in lorazepam clearance occurred in seven of nine patients over time ranging from 9% to 130%. The unbound fraction of lorazepam did not change significantly over the study period. Likewise, no significant change was observed in the clearance of indocyanine green over time. Antipyrine clearance and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (r = 0.41), and lorazepam clearance and C-reactive protein (r = -0.38) were significantly correlated (p less than 0.05). Similarly, antipyrine and lorazepam clearances were significantly correlated with injury severity based on the Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score (r = -0.43 and r = -0.37, respectively). These findings suggest that hepatic oxidative and conjugative metabolism increase significantly over time in patients after acute head injury. An awareness of the potential for pharmacokinetic alterations in similarly metabolized drugs used for patients with severe head injuries is recommended.

  10. Grand Rounds: Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Singal, Ashwani K; Louvet, Alexandre; Shah, Vijay H; Kamath, Patrick S

    2018-06-13

    A 33-year-old Caucasian male was admitted to hospital with recent onset of jaundice of 2-3 weeks duration. He reported heavy use of alcohol for the last 10 years with the last drink a day prior to the onset of symptoms. At admission, he was alert and oriented to time, place, and person, and was deeply jaundiced. His laboratory profile can be summarised as follows: haemoglobin 12.1 g/dl, white blood cell count 18,700 with 81% neutrophils, serum bilirubin 33 (direct 22) mg/dl, aspartate aminotransferase 147 IU/L, alanine aminotransferase 62 IU/L, alkaline phosphatase 117 IU/L, serum albumin 2.8 gm/dl, serum creatinine 0.6 mg/dl, prothrombin time 18.3 (control 14.5) seconds, and international normalized ratio 1.48. He was diagnosed with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey discriminant function score of 50) and treated with prednisolone for 28 days with symptomatic and biochemical improvement. His Lille score at seven days was 0.4, and his serum bilirubin had decreased to 3.5 mg/dl at the end of treatment. He was also seen by the addiction team during hospitalisation; he agreed to follow through on recommendations. He was dismissed after completing a three-week inpatient rehabilitation programme but relapsed to alcohol use three months later, and was readmitted with alcohol withdrawal. He was readmitted two months later (about six months from the first episode) for a second episode of severe alcoholic hepatitis. At admission, his model for end-stage liver disease score was 32 and he was treated again with corticosteroids. His Lille score at seven days was 0.6 and steroids were discontinued. The hospital course was complicated by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia with development of acute kidney injury. He continued to worsen, developing multiorgan failure. After a course of one month, the family's preference was for him to receive comfort measures. This scenario raises several questions. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the

  11. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV–HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016–2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Recent findings Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Summary Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for

  12. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can ... of thermal injuries. Over half of deaths from fires are due to inhalation injuries. Symptoms of inhalation ...

  13. Sports Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  14. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Tujioka, Hiroto; Ueda, Hiroki; Hamagami, Hiroko; Kida, Youhei; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2005-10-14

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003. Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (X320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized, so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy, levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized. The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  15. Nonoperative manag