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Sample records for a-induced hepatitis model

  1. Suppressive role of hepatic dendritic cells in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tomiyama, C; Watanabe, H; Izutsu, Y; Watanabe, M; Abo, T

    2011-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis is a mouse model of acute autoimmune hepatitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic dendritic cells (DC) in the immune modulation of tissue damage. Almost all hepatic DC were plasmacytoid DC (CD11c+ I-Alow B220+); however, conventional DC were CD11c+ I-Ahigh B220–. At an early stage (3–6 h) after Con A administration, the number of DC in both the liver and spleen decreased, increasing thereafter (12–24 h) in parallel with hepatic failure. The hepatic CD11c+ DC population contained many CD11b- cells, while the majority of splenic CD11c+ DC were CD11b+. After Con A administration, the proportion of I-A+ and CD11b+ cells within the CD11c+ DC population tended to increase in the liver, but not in the spleen. Similarly, expression of the activation markers CD80, CD86 and CD40 by CD11c+ DC increased in the liver, but not in the spleen. Next, adoptive transfer of DC isolated from the liver and spleen was performed 3 h after Con A administration to examine the immunomodulatory function of DC. Only hepatic DC had the ability to suppress hepatic failure. Analysis of cytokine production and subsequent identification of the effector cells showed that hepatic DC achieved this by suppressing the production of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-2, rather than modulating effector cell function. PMID:21985372

  2. Hypervitaminosis A-induced hepatic fibrosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Juliana M; Daniel, Alexandre G T; Aloia, Thiago P A; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, André R; Simões, Denise M N; Reche-Júior, Archivaldo; Cogliati, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    The excessive intake of vitamin A in the form of vitamin concentrate, supplement or vitamin-rich liver can result in hypervitaminosis A in man and animals. Although osteopathologies resulting from chronic vitamin A intoxication in cats are well characterized, no information is available concerning feline hypervitaminosis A-induced liver disease. We report the first case of hepatic stellate cell lipidosis and hepatic fibrosis in a domestic cat that had been fed a diet based on raw beef liver. Radiographic examination revealed exostoses and ankylosis between vertebrae C1 and T7, compatible with deforming cervical spondylosis. Necropsy showed a slightly enlarged and light yellow to bronze liver. Microscopic and ultrastructural analyses of liver tissues revealed diffuse and severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. These cells showed immunopositive staining for α-smooth muscle actin and desmin markers. The necropsy findings of chronic liver disease coupled with osteopathology supported the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis A. As in human hepatology, if there is dietary evidence to support increased intake of vitamin A, then hypervitaminosis A should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic liver disease in cats.

  3. CRISPR/Cas9 Technology Targeting Fas Gene Protects Mice From Concanavalin-A Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-Cheng; Liang, Pu-Ping; Wong, Cheuk-Wa; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Huang, Jun-Jiu; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Waye, Mary Miu-Yee; Fu, Wei-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is a life-threatening disease which occurs in patients without preexisting liver disease. Nowadays, there is no ideal therapeutic tool in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. Recent studies suggested that a novel technology termed CRISPR/Cas9 may be a promising approach for the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure. In this project, we have designed single chimeric guide RNAs specifically targeting the genomic regions of mouse Fas gene. The in vitro and in vivo effects of sgRNAs on the production of Fas protein were examined in cultured mouse cells and in a hydrodynamic injection-based mouse model, respectively. The in vivo delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 could maintain liver homeostasis and protect hepatocytes from Fas-mediated cell apoptosis in the fulminant hepatic failure model. Our study indicates the clinical potential of developing the CRISPR/Cas9 system as a novel therapeutic strategy to rescue Concanavalin-A-induced fulminant hepatic failure in the mouse model. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 530-536, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Side, Syafruddin; Irwan, Mulbar, Usman; Sanusi, Wahidah

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation for Hepatitis B discuss in this paper. Population devided by four variables, namely: Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR). Several factors affect the population in this model is vaccination, immigration and emigration that occurred in the population. SEIR Model obtained Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) non-linear System 4-D which then reduces to 3-D. SEIR model simulation undertaken to predict the number of Hepatitis B cases. The results of the simulation indicates the number of Hepatitis B cases will increase and then decrease for several months. The result of simulation using the number of case in Makassar also found the basic reproduction number less than one, that means, Makassar city is not an endemic area of Hepatitis B. With approval from the proceedings editor article 020185 titled, "SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B," is retracted from the public record, as it is a duplication of article 020198 published in the same volume.

  5. SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Side, Syafruddin; Irwan, Mulbar, Usman; Sanusi, Wahidah

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation for Hepatitis B discuss in this paper. Population devided by four variables, namely: Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR). Several factors affect the population in this model is vaccination, immigration and emigration that occurred in the population. SEIR Model obtained Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) non-linear System 4-D which then reduces to 3-D. SEIR model simulation undertaken to predict the number of Hepatitis B cases. The results of the simulation indicates the number of Hepatitis B cases will increase and then decrease for several months. The result of simulation using the number of case in Makassar also found the basic reproduction number less than one, that means, Makassar city is not an endemic area of Hepatitis B.

  6. Complexation of cytochrome P-450 isozymes in hepatic microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Murray, M

    1988-05-01

    Potassium ferricyanide-elicited reactivation of steroid hydroxylase activities, in hepatic microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced male rats, was used as an indicator of complex formation between individual cytochrome P-450 isozymes and the SKF 525-A metabolite. Induction of male rats with SKF 525-A (50 mg/kg for three days) led to apparent increases in androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 beta- and 6 beta-hydroxylation to 6.7- and 3-fold of control activities. Steroid 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was decreased to 0.8-fold of control and 16 alpha-hydroxylation was unchanged. Ferricyanide-elicited dissociation of the SKF 525-A metabolite-P-450 complex revealed an even greater induction of 16 beta- and 6 beta-hydroxylase activities (to 1.8- and 1.6-fold of activities in the absence of ferricyanide). Androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity increased 2-fold after ferricyanide but 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity was unaltered. An antibody directed against the male-specific cytochrome P-450 UT-A decreased androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity to 13% of control in hepatic microsomes from untreated rats. In contrast, 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity in microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced rats, before and after dissociation with ferricyanide, was reduced by anti UT-A IgG to 32 and 19% of the respective uninhibited controls. Considered together, these observations strongly suggest that the phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozymes PB-B and PCN-E are present in an inactive complexed state in microsomes from SKF 525-A-induced rat liver. Further, the increased susceptibility of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity to inhibition by an antibody to cytochrome P-450 UT-A, following ferricyanide treatment of microsomes, suggests that this male sexually differentiated enzyme is also complexed after in vivo SKF 525-A dosage. In contrast, the constitutive isozyme cytochrome P-450 UT-F, which is active in steroid 7 alpha-hydroxylation, does not appear

  7. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) attenuates concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongmei; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Li; Guo, Yun; Zheng, Changqing

    2014-05-01

    (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant polyphenolic compound present in green tea and has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG against concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. EGCG (5 mg/kg) was administered orally by gavage to mice twice daily for 10 days before an intravenous injection of ConA. We found that EGCG effectively rescued lethality, improved hepatic pathological damage, and decreased serum levels of alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in ConA-challenged mice. Furthermore, EGCG also significantly prevented the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-6 in serum, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and restored glutathione (GSH) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver tissues from ConA-challenged mice. Finally, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and TLR9 protein in liver tissues were significantly inhibited by EGCG pretreatment. Taken together, our data suggest that EGCG possesses hepatoprotective properties against ConA-induced liver injury through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant actions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates apoptosis and autophagy in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting BNIP3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sainan; Xia, Yujing; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most effective compound in green tea, and possesses a wide range of beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and anticancer effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EGCG in concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis in mice and explored the possible mechanisms involved in these effects. Methods Balb/C mice were injected with ConA (25 mg/kg) to induce acute autoimmune hepatitis, and EGCG (10 or 30 mg/kg) was administered orally twice daily for 10 days before ConA injection. Serum liver enzymes, proinflammatory cytokines, and other marker proteins were determined 2, 8, and 24 hours after the ConA administration. Results BNIP3 mediated cell apoptosis and autophagy in ConA-induced hepatitis. EGCG decreased the immunoreaction and pathological damage by reducing inflammatory factors, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-1β. EGCG also exhibited an antiapoptotic and antiautophagic effect by inhibiting BNIP3 via the IL-6/JAKs/STAT3 pathway. Conclusion EGCG attenuated liver injury in ConA-induced hepatitis by downregulating IL-6/JAKs/STAT3/BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:26929598

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN MICE LIVER IN DYNAMICS OF CONCANAVALIN A - INDUCED HEPATITIS.

    PubMed

    Pavlovych, S I; Makogon, N V; Grushka, N G; Bryzgina, T M; Janchiy, R I

    The injure of the liver tissue and its infiltration by cells of the innate and adaptive immunity in dynamics of Con A-induced hepatitis in mice was studied. The semiquantitative method of damage rate of microcirculation channel and liver parenchyma was used, leukocyte liver infiltration and cellular composition of infiltrates were investigated also. Primary liver reaction to the Con-A was the inflammatory changes in the vascular bed, followed by disturbances in the parenchyma.The sufficient increasing of leukocyte migration to the liver was revealed. Besides, the neutrophile infiltration was increased first with a maximum at 6 hours of the experiment (63,9 ±4,6%, p<0,001 to the control level) ,and then the lymphocyte infiltration was increased with creation of manycellular lymphocytemacrophage infiltrates (62% at 48 hours comparing to 6 hours of experiment) and sufficient quantity of plasma cells population (4,9%, p<0,05 comparing to 6 hours of experiment). The obtained data gives the base to suggest that the elevated infiltration of liver tissue by leukocytes, particularly by lymphocytes and monocytes, together with necrotic death increasing creats the conditions for effective intracellular interaction and immune response to autoantigenes. This can be the essential pathogenic mechanism of development of autoimmune liver deseases.

  10. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Teens / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis (pronounced: hep-uh-TIE-tiss) is an ...

  11. Forced expression of Hnf4a induces hepatic gene activation through directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yahoo, Neda; Pournasr, Behshad; Rostamzadeh, Jalal; Fathi, Fardin

    2016-08-05

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have a diverse differentiation potential. These unique features make ES cells as an attractive source for developmental biology studies. Having the mature hepatocyte in the lab with functional activities is valuable in drug discovery studies. Overexpression of hepatocyte lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) becomes a promising approach in pluripotent cell differentiation toward liver cells. Many studies generate transgenic ES cell lines to examine the effects of specific TFs overexpression in cell differentiation. In the present report, we have addressed whether a suspension or adherent model of differentiation is an appropriate way to study the role of Hnf4a overexpression. We generated ES cells that carried a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Hnf4a using lentiviral vectors. The transduced cells were subjected to induced Hnf4a overexpression through both spontaneous and directed differentiation methods. Gene expression analysis showed substantially increased expression of hepatic gene markers, particularly Ttr and endogenous Hnf4a, in transduced cells differentiated by the directed approach. These results demonstrated that forced expression of TFs during directed differentiation would be an appropriate way to study relevant gene activation and the effects of overexpression in the context of hepatic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Superoxide produced by Kupffer cells is an essential effector in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Nakashima, Masahiro; Habu, Yoshiko; Shono, Satoshi; Uchida, Takefumi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Seki, Shuhji

    2008-12-01

    Although concanavalin A (Con-A)-induced experimental hepatitis is thought to be induced by activated T cells, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and cytokines, precise mechanisms are still unknown. In the current study, we investigated the roles of Kupffer cells, NKT cells, FasL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and superoxide in Con-A hepatitis in C57BL/6 mice. Removal of Kupffer cells using gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)) from the liver completely inhibited Con-A hepatitis, whereas increased serum TNF and IFN-gamma levels were not inhibited at all. Unexpectedly, anti-FasL antibody pretreatment did not inhibit Con-A hepatitis, whereas it inhibited hepatic injury induced by a synthetic ligand of NKT cells, alpha-galactosylceramide. Furthermore, GdCl(3) pretreatment changed neither the activation-induced down-regulation of NK1.1 antigens as well as T cell receptors of NKT cells nor the increased expression of the CD69 activation antigen of hepatic T cells. CD68(+) Kupffer cells greatly increased in proportion in the early phase after Con-A injection; this increase was abrogated by GdCl(3) pretreatment. Anti-TNF antibody (Ab) pretreatment did not inhibit the increase of Kupffer cells, but it effectively suppressed superoxide/reactive oxygen production from Kupffer cells and the resulting hepatic injury. Conversely, depletion of NKT cells in mice by NK1.1 Ab pretreatment did suppress both the increase of CD68(+) Kupffer cells and Con-A hepatitis. Consistently, the diminution of oxygen radicals produced by Kupffer cells by use of free radical scavengers greatly inhibited Con-A hepatitis without suppressing cytokine production. However, adoptive transfer experiments also indicate that a close interaction/cooperation of Kupffer cells with NKT cells is essential for Con-A hepatitis. Superoxide produced by Kupffer cells may be the essential effector in Con-A hepatitis, and TNF and NKT cells support their activation and superoxide production.

  13. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol ... not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  14. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Kids / Hepatitis What's in this article? ... have liver damage because of it. What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  15. Establishment of a hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; He, Fu-Liang; Liu, Fu-Quan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2015-08-28

    To determine the feasibility and safety of establishing a porcine hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol. Twenty-one healthy Guizhou miniature pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups and three control groups. The pigs in the three experimental groups were subjected to hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of 80% alcohol, respectively, while those in the three control groups underwent hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of saline, respectively. Hepatic arteriography and direct portal phlebography were performed on all animals before and after perfusion, and the portal venous pressure and diameter were measured before perfusion, immediately after perfusion, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after perfusion. The following procedures were performed at different time points: routine blood sampling, blood biochemistry, blood coagulation and blood ammonia tests before surgery, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after surgery; hepatic biopsy before surgery, within 6 h after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wk after surgery; abdominal enhanced computed tomography examination before surgery and at 6 wk after surgery; autopsy and multi-point sampling of various liver lobes for histological examination at 6 wk after surgery. In experimental group 1, different degrees of hepatic fibrosis were observed, and one pig developed hepatic cirrhosis. In experimental group 2, there were cases of hepatic cirrhosis, different degrees of increased portal venous pressure, and intrahepatic portal venous bypass, but neither extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation nor death occurred. In experimental group 3, two animals died and three animals developed hepatic cirrhosis, and different degrees of increased portal venous pressure and intrahepatic portal venous bypass were also observed, but there was no extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation. It is feasible to establish an animal model of hepatic cirrhosis and

  16. Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp mimetics and soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor as therapeutic modalities for concanavalin A induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, R; Shirin, H; Hershkoviz, R; Lider, O; Kenet, G; Aeed, H; Matas, Z; Zaidel, L; Halpern, Z

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: It has been shown that synthetic non-peptidic analogues of Arg-Gly-Asp, a major cell adhesive ligand of extracellular matrix, prevented an increase in serum aminotransferase activity, as a manifestation of concanavalin A induced liver damage in mice. This study examined the effects of an Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic on liver histology and cytokine release in response to concanavalin A administration, and the efficacy of soluble receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha in preventing hepatitis in this model of liver injury. METHODS: Mice were pretreated with either the Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic SF-6,5 or recombinant soluble receptor of TNF alpha before their inoculation with 10 mg/kg concanavalin A. Liver enzymes, histology, and the serum values of TNF alpha and interleukin (IL)6 were examined. RESULTS: The histopathological damage in the liver, and the concanavalin A induced release of TNF alpha and IL6 were significantly inhibited by the synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic (p < 0.001). Liver injury, manifested by the increase in serum aminotransferase and cytokines, as well as by histological manifestations of hepatic damage, was effectively prevented by pretreatment of the mice with the soluble TNF receptor (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the efficacy of a synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp mimetic and soluble TNF receptor in the prevention of immune mediated liver damage in mice. Images PMID:9155591

  17. The Protective Effect of Intrasplenic Transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 Gene-Modified Fetal Hepatocytes on ConA-Induced Hepatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Background Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. Aim To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Methods Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Results Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Conclusions Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease. PMID:23516562

  18. The protective effect of intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 gene-modified fetal hepatocytes on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xueting; Qian, Yun; Xu, Chenhuai; Hong, Bo; Xu, Wanhong; Shen, Ling; Jin, Changzhong; Wu, Zhigang; Tong, Xiangmin; Yao, Hangping

    2013-01-01

    Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced hepatitis is an experimental murine model mirroring the pathology of human autoimmune hepatitis. To investigate the effects of intrasplenically transplanted fetal hepatocytes (BNL.CL2) transfected with recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP) and IL-4 fusion protein on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was used to infect BNL.CL2 cells. IL-4 and IL-18BP fusion protein expression were detected by ELISA and Western blotting. BNL.CL2 cells infected with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 were intrasplenically transplanted into mice. After 10 days, mice were injected with ConA (15 mg/kg), and sacrificed 18 hours later. Liver injury was assessed by serum transaminase and liver histology. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70 and monocyte-chemoattracting protein (MCP)-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates were detected by ELISA. Signaling molecules in liver homogenates were analyzed by Western blotting. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 effectively expressed the IL-18BP/IL-4 fusion protein for more than 14 days in BNL.CL12 cells. Treatment of mice with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 before ConA injection significantly reduced the elevated plasma levels of transaminases compared with ConA control groups. TNF-α, IL-18, IL-12p70 and MCP-1 levels in serum and liver homogenates from mice transplanted with Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL2 were lower and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than control groups. Phosphorylation levels of NF-κB p65, AKT, p38 and JNK1/2 in liver homogenates were markedly suppressed by Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4. Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4 was effectively transfected into mouse BNL.CL2 cells. Intrasplenic transplantation of Ad-IL-18BP/IL-4-BNL.CL12 cells alleviated the severity of inflammation in ConA-induced experimental hepatitis and provides a useful basis for the targeted gene therapy of liver disease.

  19. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamsi, Mariam; Shahin, Allen; Mensah-Brown, Eric P K; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2013-01-12

    A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ-/- mice treated with ConA. Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to. Subsequent declines in liver bioenergetics

  20. Animal model for hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 170 million people in the world and chronic HCV infection develops into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, the effective compounds have been approved for HCV treatment, the protease inhibitor and polymerase inhibitor (direct acting antivirals; DAA). DAA-based therapy enabled to cure from HCV infection. However, development of new drug and vaccine is still required because of the generation of HCV escape mutants from DAA, development of HCC after treatment of DAA, and the high cost of DAA. In order to develop new anti-HCV drug and vaccine, animal infection model of HCV is essential. In this manuscript, we would like to introduce the history and the current status of the development of HCV animal infection model.

  1. Monitoring liver macrophages using nanobodies targeting Vsig4: concanavalin A induced acute hepatitis as paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fang; Devoogdt, Nick; Sparkes, Amanda; Morias, Yannick; Abels, Chloé; Stijlemans, Benoit; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; De Baetselier, Patrick; Schoonooghe, Steve; Beschin, Alain; Raes, Geert

    2015-02-01

    Kupffer cells (KCs) are liver resident macrophages which are important for tissue homeostasis and have been implicated in immunogenic, tolerogenic and pathogenic immune reactions depending on the insult. These cells and the biomarkers they express thus represent interesting in vivo sensors for monitoring liver inflammation. In the current study, we explored whether KCs can be monitored non-invasively using single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) with (99m)Tc labeled nanobodies (Nbs) targeting selected biomarkers. Nbs targeting V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing 4 (Vsig4) or macrophage mannose receptor (MMR) accumulated in the liver of untreated mice. The liver targeting of anti-Vsig4 Nbs, but not anti-MMR Nbs, was blunted upon depletion of macrophages, highlighting specificity of anti-Vsig4 Nbs for liver macrophage imaging. Ex vivo flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis confirmed that anti-Vsig4 Nbs specifically targeted KCs but no other cell types in the liver. Upon induction of acute hepatitis using concanavalin A (ConA), down-regulation of the in vivo imaging signal obtained using anti-Vsig4 Nbs reflected reduction in KC numbers and transient modulation of Vsig4 expression on KCs. Overall, these results indicate that Nbs targeting Vsig4 as molecular imaging biomarker enable non-invasive monitoring of KCs during hepatic inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential involvement of IL-6 in the early and late phase of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) release in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sternak, Magdalena; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Szafarz, Malgorzata; Walczak, Maria; Sitek, Barbara; Wojcik, Tomasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Exogenous 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the profile of release of endogenous MNA during the initiation and progression of murine hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA). In particular we aimed to clarify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the energy state of hepatocytes in MNA release in early and late phases of ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Hepatitis was induced by ConA in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice, and various parameters of liver inflammation and injury, as well as the energy state of hepatocytes, were analysed in relation to MNA release. The decrease in ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD ratios, cytokine release (IL-6, IFN-ɤ), acute phase response (e.g. haptoglobin) and liver injury (alanine aminotransaminase, ALT) were all blunted in ConA-induced hepatitis in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice. The release of MNA in response to Con A was also significantly blunted in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice in the early stage of ConA-induced hepatitis. In turn, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activities were blunted in the liver and MNA plasma concentration was elevated to similar degree in the late stage after Concanavalin A in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that in ConA-induced hepatitis, early, but not late MNA release was IL-6-dependent. Our results suggest that in the initiation and early hepatitis, MNA release is linked to the energy deficit/impaired redox status in hepatocytes, while in a later phase, MNA release is rather linked to the systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    PubMed

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  5. Nonhuman Primate Models of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections.

    PubMed

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2018-04-23

    Although phylogenetically unrelated, human hepatitis viruses share an exclusive or near exclusive tropism for replication in differentiated hepatocytes. This narrow tissue tropism may contribute to the restriction of the host ranges of these viruses to relatively few host species, mostly nonhuman primates. Nonhuman primate models thus figure prominently in our current understanding of the replication and pathogenesis of these viruses, including the enterically transmitted hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), and have also played major roles in vaccine development. This review draws comparisons of HAV and HEV infection from studies conducted in nonhuman primates, and describes how such studies have contributed to our current understanding of the biology of these viruses. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever, fatigue, lack of appetite, nausea, jaundice and dark urine.These symptoms can last up to five ... of hepatitis A cases require hospitalization. Swallowing fecal matter, even in microscopic quantities. Infection occurs most often ...

  7. The impact of desorption kinetics from albumin on hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance: a model study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sophia; Goss, Kai-Uwe

    2018-05-23

    Until now, the question whether slow desorption of compounds from transport proteins like the plasma protein albumin can affect hepatic uptake and thereby hepatic metabolism of these compounds has not yet been answered conclusively. This work now combines recently published experimental desorption rate constants with a liver model to address this question. For doing so, the used liver model differentiates the bound compound in blood, the unbound compound in blood and the compound within the hepatocytes as three well-stirred compartments. Our calculations show that slow desorption kinetics from albumin can indeed limit hepatic metabolism of a compound by decreasing hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance. The extent of this decrease, however, depends not only on the value of the desorption rate constant but also on how much of the compound is bound to albumin in blood and how fast intrinsic metabolism of the compound in the hepatocytes is. For strongly sorbing and sufficiently fast metabolized compounds, our calculations revealed a twentyfold lower hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance for the slowest known desorption rate constant compared to the case when instantaneous equilibrium between bound and unbound compound is assumed. The same desorption rate constant, however, has nearly no effect on hepatic extraction efficiency and hepatic clearance of weakly sorbing and slowly metabolized compounds. This work examines the relevance of desorption kinetics in various example scenarios and provides the general approach needed to quantify the effect of flow limitation, membrane permeability and desorption kinetics on hepatic metabolism at the same time.

  8. Development of a murine model of blunt hepatic trauma.

    PubMed

    Nemzek-Hamlin, Jean A; Hwang, Haejin; Hampel, Joseph A; Yu, Bi; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2013-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of blunt hepatic trauma in humans, there are few rodent models of blunt trauma that can be used to study the associated inflammatory responses. We present a mouse model of blunt hepatic trauma that was created by using a cortical contusion device. Male mice were anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine-buprenorphine and placed in left lateral recumbency. A position of 2 mm ventral to the posterior axillary line and 5 mm caudal to the costal margin on the right side was targeted for impact. An impact velocity of 6 m/s and a piston depth of 12 mm produced a consistent pattern of hepatic injury with low mortality. All mice that recovered from anesthesia survived without complication for the length of the study. Mice were euthanized at various time points (n = 5 per group) until 7 d after injury for gross examination and collection of blood and peritoneal lavage fluids. Some mice were reanesthetized for serial monitoring of hepatic lesions via MRI. At 2 h after trauma, mice consistently displayed laceration, hematoma, and discoloration of the right lateral and caudate liver lobes, with intraabdominal hemorrhage but no other gross injuries. Blood and peritoneal lavage fluid were collected from all mice for cytokine analysis. At 2 h after trauma, there were significant increases in plasma IL10 as well as peritoneal lavage fluid IL6 and CXCL1/KC; however, these levels decreased within 24 h. At 7 d after trauma, the mice had regained body weight, and the hepatic lesions, which initially had increased in size during the first 48 h, had returned to their original size. In summary, this technique produced a reliable, low mortality, murine model that recreates features of blunt abdominal liver injury in human subjects with similar acute inflammatory response.

  9. Analysis of Hepatic Blood Flow Using Chaotic Models

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, M. E.; Moazamipour, H.; Hudson, D. L.; Anderson, M. F.

    1990-01-01

    The study of chaos in physical systems is an important new theoretical development in modeling which has emerged in the last fifteen years. It is particularly useful in explaining phenomena which arise in nonlinear dynamic systems, for which previous mathematical models produced results with intractable solutions. Analysis of blood flow is such an application. In the work described here, chaotic models are used to analyze hepatic artery and portal vein blood flow obtained from a pulsed Doppler ultrasonic flowmeter implanted in dogs. ImagesFigure 3

  10. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  11. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Marano, Cinzia; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-01-20

    In most low- and middle-income countries, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is shifting or expected to shift from high endemicity to intermediate or low endemicity. A decreased risk of HAV infection will cause an increase in the average age at infection and will therefore increase the proportion of infections that results in severe disease. Mathematical models can provide insights into the factors contributing to this epidemiological transition. An MSLIR compartmental dynamic transmission model stratified by age and setting (rural and urban) was developed and calibrated with demographic, environmental, and epidemiological data from Thailand. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of urbanization and access to clean drinking water. The model was used to project various epidemiological measures. The age at midpoint of population immunity remains considerably younger in rural areas than in urban areas. The mean age of symptomatic hepatitis A infection in Thailand has shifted from childhood toward early adulthood in rural areas and is transitioning from early adulthood toward middle adulthood in urban areas. The model showed a significant decrease in incidence rates of total and symptomatic infections in rural and urban settings in Thailand over the past several decades as water access has increased, although the overall incidence rate of symptomatic HAV is projected to slightly increase in the coming decades. Modeling the relationship between water, urbanization, and HAV endemicity is a novel approach in the estimation of HAV epidemiological trends and future projections. This approach provides insights about the shifting HAV epidemiology and could be used to evaluate the public health impact of vaccination and other interventions in a diversity of settings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Brazil and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Guignard, Adrienne; Marano, Cinzia; Rojas, Rosalba; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV. Methods: An age-specific deterministic, dynamic compartmental transmission model with stratification by setting (rural versus urban) was calibrated with country-specific data on demography, urbanization, and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of setting-specific access to safe water. The model was then used to project various HAV-related epidemiological outcomes in Brazil and in Mexico from 1950 to 2050. Results: The projected epidemiological outcomes were qualitatively similar in the 2 countries. The age at the midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) increased considerably and the mean age of symptomatic HAV cases shifted from childhood to early adulthood. The projected overall incidence rate of HAV infections decreased by about two thirds as safe water access improved. However, the incidence rate of symptomatic HAV infections remained roughly the same over the projection period. The incidence rates of HAV infections (all and symptomatic alone) were projected to become similar in rural and urban settings in the next decades. Conclusion: This model featuring population age structure, urbanization and access to safe water as key contributors to the epidemiological transition for HAV was previously validated with data from Thailand and fits equally well with data from Latin American countries. Assuming no introduction of a vaccination program over the projection period, both Brazil and Mexico were projected to

  13. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Brazil and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Guignard, Adrienne; Marano, Cinzia; Rojas, Rosalba; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2017-08-03

    Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV. An age-specific deterministic, dynamic compartmental transmission model with stratification by setting (rural versus urban) was calibrated with country-specific data on demography, urbanization, and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of setting-specific access to safe water. The model was then used to project various HAV-related epidemiological outcomes in Brazil and in Mexico from 1950 to 2050. The projected epidemiological outcomes were qualitatively similar in the 2 countries. The age at the midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) increased considerably and the mean age of symptomatic HAV cases shifted from childhood to early adulthood. The projected overall incidence rate of HAV infections decreased by about two thirds as safe water access improved. However, the incidence rate of symptomatic HAV infections remained roughly the same over the projection period. The incidence rates of HAV infections (all and symptomatic alone) were projected to become similar in rural and urban settings in the next decades. This model featuring population age structure, urbanization and access to safe water as key contributors to the epidemiological transition for HAV was previously validated with data from Thailand and fits equally well with data from Latin American countries. Assuming no introduction of a vaccination program over the projection period, both Brazil and Mexico were projected to experience a continued decrease in HAV incidence rates

  14. A Thermodynamic Model for Genome Packaging in Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2015-10-20

    Understanding the fundamentals of genome packaging in viral capsids is important for finding effective antiviral strategies and for utilizing benign viral particles for gene therapy. While the structure of encapsidated genomic materials has been routinely characterized with experimental techniques such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, much less is known about the molecular driving forces underlying genome assembly in an intracellular environment and its in vivo interactions with the capsid proteins. Here we study the thermodynamic basis of the pregenomic RNA encapsidation in human Hepatitis B virus in vivo using a coarse-grained molecular model that captures the essential components of nonspecific intermolecular interactions. The thermodynamic model is used to examine how the electrostatic interaction between the packaged RNA and the highly charged C-terminal domains (CTD) of capsid proteins regulate the nucleocapsid formation. The theoretical model predicts optimal RNA content in Hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids with different CTD lengths in good agreement with mutagenesis measurements, confirming the predominant role of electrostatic interactions and molecular excluded-volume effects in genome packaging. We find that the amount of encapsidated RNA is not linearly correlated with the net charge of CTD tails as suggested by earlier theoretical studies. Our thermodynamic analysis of the nucleocapsid structure and stability indicates that ∼10% of the CTD residues are free from complexation with RNA, resulting in partially exposed CTD tails. The thermodynamic model also predicts the free energy of complex formation between macromolecules, which corroborates experimental results for the impact of CTD truncation on the nucleocapsid stability. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete virus infection model of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Min, Lequan; Pian, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    In 1996 Nowak and his colleagues proposed a differential equation virus infection model, which has been widely applied in the study for the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Biological dynamics may be described more practically by discrete events rather than continuous ones. Using discrete systems to describe biological dynamics should be reasonable. Based on one revised Nowak et al's virus infection model, this study introduces a discrete virus infection model (DVIM). Two equilibriums of this model, E1 and E2, represents infection free and infection persistent, respectively. Similar to the case of the basic virus infection model, this study deduces a basic virus reproductive number R0 independing on the number of total cells of an infected target organ. A proposed theorem proves that if the basic virus reproductive number R0<1 then the virus free equilibrium E1 is locally stable. The DVIM is more reasonable than an abstract discrete susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIRS) whose basic virus reproductive number R0 is relevant to the number of total cells of the infected target organ. As an application, this study models the clinic HBV DNA data of a patient who was accepted via anti-HBV infection therapy with drug lamivudine. The results show that the numerical simulation is good in agreement with the clinic data.

  16. The Chimpanzee Model of Viral Hepatitis: Advances in Understanding the Immune Response and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations. More recently, chimpanzee research was instrumental in the development of curative therapies for hepatitis C virus infections. Over a span of 40 years, this research would identify the causative agent of NonA,NonB hepatitis, validate the molecular tools for drug discovery, and provide safety and efficacy data on the therapies that now provide a rapid and complete cure of HCV chronic infections. Several cocktails of antivirals are FDA approved that eliminate the virus following 12 weeks of once-per-day oral therapy. This represents the first cure of a chronic viral disease and, once broadly implemented, will dramatically reduce the occurrence of cirrhosis and liver cancer. The recent contributions of chimpanzees to our current understanding of T cell immunity for HCV, development of novel therapeutics for HBV, and the biology of HAV are reviewed. Finally, a perspective is provided on the events leading to the cessation of the use of chimpanzees in research and the future of the chimpanzees previously used to bring about these amazing breakthroughs in human healthcare. PMID:29045731

  17. Requirements for global elimination of hepatitis B: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Nayagam, Shevanthi; Thursz, Mark; Sicuri, Elisa; Conteh, Lesong; Wiktor, Stefan; Low-Beer, Daniel; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective prevention and treatment interventions, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection continues to cause nearly 1 million deaths each year. WHO aspires to global control and elimination of HBV infection. We aimed to evaluate the potential impact of public health interventions against HBV, propose targets for reducing incidence and mortality, and identify the key developments required to achieve them. We developed a simulation model of the global HBV epidemic, incorporating data on the natural history of HBV, prevalence, mortality, vaccine coverage, treatment dynamics, and demographics. We estimate the impact of current interventions and scaling up of existing interventions for prevention of infection and introducing wide-scale population screening and treatment interventions on the worldwide epidemic. Vaccination of infants and neonates is already driving a large decrease in new infections; vaccination has already prevented 210 million new chronic infections by 2015 and will have averted 1·1 million deaths by 2030. However, without scale-up of existing interventions, our model showed that there will be a cumulative 63 million new cases of chronic infection and 17 million HBV-related deaths between 2015 and 2030 because of ongoing transmission in some regions and poor access to treatment for people already infected. A target of a 90% reduction in new chronic infections and 65% reduction in mortality could be achieved by scaling up the coverage of infant vaccination (to 90% of infants), birth-dose vaccination (to 80% of neonates), use of peripartum antivirals (to 80% of hepatitis B e antigen-positive mothers), and population-wide testing and treatment (to 80% of eligible people). These interventions would avert 7·3 million deaths between 2015 and 2030, including 1·5 million cases of cancer deaths. An elimination threshold for incidence of new chronic infections would be reached by 2090 worldwide. The annual cost would peak at US$7·5 billion

  18. Magnolol Attenuates Concanavalin A-induced Hepatic Fibrosis, Inhibits CD4+ T Helper 17 (Th17) Cell Differentiation and Suppresses Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation: Blockade of Smad3/Smad4 Signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjun; Ju, Baoling; Zhang, Xiaoli; Zhu, Yanfei; Nie, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Lei, Qiuxia

    2017-06-01

    Magnolol is a pharmacological biphenolic compound extracted from Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis, which displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. This study was aimed at exploring the potential effect of magnolol on immune-related liver fibrosis. Herein, BALB/c mice were injected with concanavalin A (ConA, 8 mg/kg/week) up to 6 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis, and magnolol (10, 20, 30 mg/kg/day) was given to these mice orally throughout the whole experiment. We found that magnolol preserved liver function and attenuated liver fibrotic injury in vivo. In response to ConA stimulation, the CD4 + T cells preferred to polarizing towards CD4 + T helper 17 (Th17) cells in liver. Magnolol was observed to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation in ConA-treated liver in addition to suppressing interleukin (IL)-17A generation. Hepatic stellate cells were activated in fibrotic liver as demonstrated by increased alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and desmin. More transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and activin A were secreted into the serum. Magnolol suppressed this abnormal HSC activation. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of Smad3 in its linker area (Thr179, Ser 204/208/213) was inhibited by magnolol. In vitro, the recombinant IL-17A plus TGF-β1 or activin A induced activation of human LX2 HSCs and promoted their collagen production. Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway was activated in LX2 cells exposed to the fibrotic stimuli, as illustrated by the up-regulated phospho-Smad3 and the enhanced interaction between Smad3 and Smad4. These alterations were suppressed by magnolol. Collectively, our study reveals a novel antifibrotic effect of magnolol on Th17 cell-mediated fibrosis. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  19. Empirical fitness models for hepatitis C virus immunogen design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gregory R.; Ferguson, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 170 million people worldwide, 2%-3% of the global population, and kills 350 000 each year. Prophylactic vaccination offers the most realistic and cost effective hope of controlling this epidemic in the developing world where expensive drug therapies are not available. Despite 20 years of research, the high mutability of the virus and lack of knowledge of what constitutes effective immune responses have impeded development of an effective vaccine. Coupling data mining of sequence databases with spin glass models from statistical physics, we have developed a computational approach to translate clinical sequence databases into empirical fitness landscapes quantifying the replicative capacity of the virus as a function of its amino acid sequence. These landscapes explicitly connect viral genotype to phenotypic fitness, and reveal vulnerable immunological targets within the viral proteome that can be exploited to rationally design vaccine immunogens. We have recovered the empirical fitness landscape for the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (protein NS5B) responsible for viral genome replication, and validated the predictions of our model by demonstrating excellent accord with experimental measurements and clinical observations. We have used our landscapes to perform exhaustive in silico screening of 16.8 million T-cell immunogen candidates to identify 86 optimal formulations. By reducing the search space of immunogen candidates by over five orders of magnitude, our approach can offer valuable savings in time, expense, and labor for experimental vaccine development and accelerate the search for a HCV vaccine. Abbreviations: HCV—hepatitis C virus, HLA—human leukocyte antigen, CTL—cytotoxic T lymphocyte, NS5B—nonstructural protein 5B, MSA—multiple sequence alignment, PEG-IFN—pegylated interferon.

  20. Capsaicin affects brain function in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure in mice

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Magen, I; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiav, L; Zolotarev, O; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome caused by liver failure. In view of the effects of cannabinoids in a thioacetamide-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy and liver disease and the beneficial effect of capsaicin (a TRPV1 agonist) in liver disease, we assumed that capsaicin may also affect hepatic encephalopathy. Experimental approach: Fulminant hepatic failure was induced in mice by thioacetamide and 24 h later, the animals were injected with one of the following compound(s): 2-arachidonoylglycerol (CB1, CB2 and TRPV1 receptor agonist); HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist), SR141716A (CB1 receptor antagonist); SR141716A+2-arachidonoylglycerol; SR144528 (CB2 receptor antagonist); capsaicin; and capsazepine (TRPV1 receptor agonist and antagonist respectively). Their neurological effects were evaluated on the basis of activity in the open field, cognitive function in an eight-arm maze and a neurological severity score. The mice were killed 3 or 14 days after thioacetamide administration. 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, respectively. Results: Capsaicin had a neuroprotective effect in this animal model as shown by the neurological score, activity and cognitive function. The effect of capsaicin was blocked by capsazepine. Thioacetamide induced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and the cerebellum and raised brain 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were decreased by capsaicin, SR141716A and HU-308. Thioacetamide lowered brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol levels, an effect reversed by capsaicin. Conclusions: Capsaicin improved both liver and brain dysfunction caused by thioacetamide, suggesting that both the endocannabinoid and the vanilloid systems play important roles in hepatic encephalopathy. Modulation of these systems may have therapeutic value. PMID:19764982

  1. Restorative effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on hepatic function in an experimental regression model of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanuo; Shi, Yan; Sun, Yan; Liu, Luying; Bai, Xianyong; Wang, Dong; Li, Hongxing

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process, in which fibrotic tissue is excessively deposited in the liver during the repair process that follows hepatic injury. Early prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis has great significance on the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a water-soluble monomer extracted from safflower, which serves numerous pharmacological roles. However, it remains to be elucidated how HSYA regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of HSYA on the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. A rat model of hepatic fibrosis was established in the present study, and the rats were administered various doses of HSYA. The effects of HSYA on pathological alterations of the liver tissue in rats with hepatic fibrosis were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining. In order to explore the anti-hepatic fibrosis effects and underlying mechanisms of HSYA, serum levels, and hepatic function and hepatic fibrosis indices were evaluated. The results demonstrated that HSYA can improve the general condition of rats with hepatic fibrosis and relieve cellular swelling of the liver, fatty degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroplastic proliferation. Subsequent to administration of HSYA, globulin was increased during hepatic fibrosis caused by tetrachloromethane. However, total cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and levels of hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen III N-terminal peptide, collagen type IV and hydroxyproline were significantly reduced. The results additionally demonstrated that HSYA could enhance superoxide dismutase activity and reduce malondialdehyde levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals. PMID:27909717

  2. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, NC; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, EM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT1A, on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. KEY RESULTS Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. PMID:21182490

  3. Cannabidiol improves brain and liver function in a fulminant hepatic failure-induced model of hepatic encephalopathy in mice.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Y; Grigoriadis, Nc; Poutahidis, T; Vorobiev, L; Magen, I; Ilan, Y; Mechoulam, R; Berry, Em

    2011-04-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We investigated the effects of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa with anti-inflammatory properties that activates the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 5-HT(1A) , on brain and liver functions in a model of hepatic encephalopathy associated with fulminant hepatic failure induced in mice by thioacetamide. Female Sabra mice were injected with either saline or thioacetamide and were treated with either vehicle or cannabidiol. Neurological and motor functions were evaluated 2 and 3 days, respectively, after induction of hepatic failure, after which brains and livers were removed for histopathological analysis and blood was drawn for analysis of plasma liver enzymes. In a separate group of animals, cognitive function was tested after 8 days and brain 5-HT levels were measured 12 days after induction of hepatic failure. Neurological and cognitive functions were severely impaired in thioacetamide-treated mice and were restored by cannabidiol. Similarly, decreased motor activity in thioacetamide-treated mice was partially restored by cannabidiol. Increased plasma levels of ammonia, bilirubin and liver enzymes, as well as enhanced 5-HT levels in thioacetamide-treated mice were normalized following cannabidiol administration. Likewise, astrogliosis in the brains of thioacetamide-treated mice was moderated after cannabidiol treatment. Cannabidiol restores liver function, normalizes 5-HT levels and improves brain pathology in accordance with normalization of brain function. Therefore, the effects of cannabidiol may result from a combination of its actions in the liver and brain. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. A model for the extended studies of hepatic hemodynamics and metabolism in swine.

    PubMed

    Drougas, J G; Barnard, S E; Wright, J K; Sika, M; Lopez, R R; Stokes, K A; Williams, P E; Pinson, C W

    1996-12-01

    To our knowledge postoperative hepatic hemodynamics and hepatic metabolism have not been fully studied on a long-term basis. Our goal was to develop a large animal model that would permit the measurement of hepatic blood flow (BF), perihepatic pressures (P), and hepatic metabolism in a long-term setting. Catheters were inserted into the jugular vein, carotid artery, pulmonary artery, hepatic vein, and portal vein (PV) of 27 commercially bred pigs; ultrasonic transit time flowmeter probes were placed around the hepatic artery and PV. Daily postoperative measurements of jugular vein P, carotid artery P, pulmonary artery P, hepatic vein P, and PVP, as well as hepatic artery BF and PVBF, were recorded for 20 days. Hepatic carbohydrate metabolism was assessed by arteriovenous difference techniques. Jugular vein P, pulmonary artery P, hepatic vein P, PVP, and heart rate reached steady-state values during the first week, with a mean +/- SEM of 1.0 +/- 0.3 mm Hg for jugular vein P, 21.4 +/- 2.1 mm Hg for pulmonary artery P, 4.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg for HVP, 7.8 +/- 0.5 mm Hg for PVP, and 116 +/- 4 beats per minute for heart rate. Mean carotid artery P increased from 65 +/- 3 mm Hg during surgery to 94 +/- 2 mm Hg on postoperative day 1 (P < 0.001) and to a mean 101 +/- 2 mm Hg thereafter. Total hepatic BF reached a steady-state value of 1,132 +/- 187 ml/min by postoperative day 7 (P = 0.19). Over week 1 hepatic artery BF measured as a percentage of total hepatic BF decreased from 35.0 +/- 3.0% to 15.5 +/- 2.7%, and PVBF increased from 65.0 +/- 3.0% to 84.5 +/- 2.7% (P < 0.005); both variables were steady thereafter. In the hemodynamic steady state the net hepatic balances of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and alanine in 5 pigs were 9.9 +/- 4.0, -4.2 +/- 0.4, -2.3 +/- 1.1, and -0.68 +/- 0.22 micromol/kg per min respectively. The net gut (portal-drained viscera) balances of glucose, lactate, alanine, and glycerol were -2.0 +/- 2.5, 1.1 +/- 0.5, 0.73 +/- 0.18, and -0.69 +/- 0

  5. Effects of model traumatic injury on hepatic drug metabolism in the rat. IV. Glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Griffeth, L K; Rosen, G M; Rauckman, E J

    1985-01-01

    A previously validated small mammal trauma model, hind-limb ischemia secondary to infrarenal aortic ligation in the rat, was utilized to investigate the effects of traumatic injury on hepatic glucuronidation activity. As was previously observed with hepatic oxidative drug metabolism, model trauma resulted in a significant decrease in the in vivo glucuronidation of chloramphenicol, with a 23% drop in clearance of this drug. The effect on in vivo pharmacokinetics appeared to result from a complex interaction between trauma's differential influences on conjugating enzyme(s), deconjugating enzyme(s), and hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid levels, as well as the relative physiological importance of these variables. Hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activities towards both p-nitrophenol and chloramphenicol were elevated (44-54%) after model injury when measured in native hepatic microsomes. However, microsomes which had been "activated" by treatment with Triton X-100 showed no significant difference between control and traumatized animals. Serum beta-glucuronidase activities were elevated by 58%, while hepatic beta-glucuronidase rose by about 16%. Nevertheless, in vivo deconjugation showed no significant change. Model trauma also resulted in a 46% decrease in hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid content. Thus, the observed post-traumatic depression of in vivo chloramphenicol glucuronidation could be due either to a diminished availability of a necessary cofactor (UDP-glucuronic acid) or to an alteration in enzyme kinetics or function in vivo.

  6. Hepatitis C Virus-Related Lymphomagenesis in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Kasama, Yuri; Salem, Nagla Elwy; Machida, Keigo; Kohara, Michinori

    2011-01-01

    B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a typical extrahepatic manifestation frequently associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The mechanism by which HCV infection leads to lymphoproliferative disorder remains unclear. Our group established HCV transgenic mice that expressed the full HCV genome in B cells (RzCD19Cre mice). We observed a 25.0% incidence of diffuse large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (22.2% in male and 29.6% in female mice) within 600 days of birth. Interestingly, RzCD19Cre mice with substantially elevated serum-soluble interleukin-2 receptor α-subunit (sIL-2Rα) levels (>1000 pg/mL) developed B cell lymphomas. Another mouse model of lymphoproliferative disorder was established by persistent expression of HCV structural proteins through disruption of interferon regulatory factor-1 (irf-1_/_/CN2 mice). Irf-1_/_/CN2 mice showed extremely high incidences of lymphomas and lymphoproliferative disorders. Moreover, these mice showed increased levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and Bcl-2 as well as increased Bcl-2 expression, which promoted oncogenic transformation of lymphocytes. PMID:22084693

  7. Hepatic SILAC proteomic data from PANDER transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Athanason, Mark G; Stevens, Stanley M; Burkhardt, Brant R

    2016-12-01

    This article contains raw and processed data related to research published in "Quantitative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Hepatic Lipogenesis and Liver X Receptor Activation in the PANDER Transgenic Model" (M.G. Athanason, W.A. Ratliff, D. Chaput, C.B. MarElia, M.N. Kuehl, S.M., Jr. Stevens, B.R. Burkhardt (2016)) [1], and was generated by "spike-in" SILAC-based proteomic analysis of livers obtained from the PANcreatic-Derived factor (PANDER) transgenic mouse (PANTG) under various metabolic conditions [1]. The mass spectrometry output of the PANTG and wild-type B6SJLF mice liver tissue and resulting proteome search from MaxQuant 1.2.2.5 employing the Andromeda search algorithm against the UniprotKB reference database for Mus musculus has been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://www.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository with dataset identifiers PRIDE: PXD004171 and doi:10.6019/PXD004171. Protein ratio values representing PANTG/wild-type obtained by MaxQuant analysis were input into the Perseus processing suite to determine statistical significance using the Significance A outlier test (p<0.05). Differentially expressed proteins using this approach were input into Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to determined altered pathways and upstream regulators that were altered in PANTG mice.

  8. [Development of a hepatitis B virus carrier transgenic mice model].

    PubMed

    Caner, Müge; Arat, Sezen; Bircan, Rifat

    2008-01-01

    The studies for the development of transgenic mice models which provide important profits for the studies concerning immunopathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are in progress since 20 years. For this purpose different lineages bearing whole HBV genome or selected viral genes have been developed and their usage in clarifying the HBV replication and pathogenesis mechanisms have been emphasized. The aim of this study was to develop and breed a HBV carrier mice model. In the study the full HBV genome has been transferred to mouse embryos by microinjection procedure. Following transgenic manipulation, the HBV carriers among the daughter mice have been detected by molecular methods in which HBV-DNA replication and expression have been shown. The manipulations for transgene transfers have been performed in TUBITAK Marmara Research Center Transgene Laboratory, Gebze, Istanbul. The HBV-DNA carrier mice have been demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the DNA samples obtained from tail tissues and also by dot-blot hybridization of the mice sera. Integrated HBV-DNA has been detected by applying in-situ hybridization to the liver tissue sections. HBV-DNA expression has been shown by reverse transcriptase PCR method with total RNA molecules that have been isolated from the liver tissues of the HBV-DNA carrier mice. HBsAg has been detected in the liver by immunohistochemical method, and HBsAg and HBeAg have additionally been demonstrated by ELISA. HBV genome, expression of the genome and the expression products have been determined in approximately 10% of the mice of which HBV-DNA have been transferred. By inbreeding heterozygote carrier mice, homozygote HBV transgenic mice line have been obtained. These HBV transgenic mice are the first lineages developed in our country. It is hopefully thought that this HBV carrier transgenic mouse model may contribute to the studies on the pathogenesis of HBV infections which are important health problems in the

  9. Antenna design for microwave hepatic ablation using an axisymmetric electromagnetic model

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, John M; Yang, Deshan; Converse, Mark C; Webster, John G; Mahvi, David M

    2006-01-01

    Background An axisymmetric finite element method (FEM) model was employed to demonstrate important techniques used in the design of antennas for hepatic microwave ablation (MWA). To effectively treat deep-seated hepatic tumors, these antennas should produce a highly localized specific absorption rate (SAR) pattern and be efficient radiators at approved generator frequencies. Methods and results As an example, a double slot choked antenna for hepatic MWA was designed and implemented using FEMLAB™ 3.0. Discussion This paper emphasizes the importance of factors that can affect simulation accuracy, which include boundary conditions, the dielectric properties of liver tissue, and mesh resolution. PMID:16504153

  10. Physiologically based modeling of hepatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fish, as in mammals, the liver generally viewed as the principal site of chemical biotransformation. For waterborne exposures, such as those conducted in support of standardized BCF testing, the effects of hepatic metabolism on chemical accumulation can be simulated using rela...

  11. Asymptomatic Hepadnaviral Persistence and Its Consequences in the Woodchuck Model of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooney-Cousins, Patricia M.; Michalak, Tomasz I.

    2015-01-01

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is molecularly and pathogenically closely related to hepatitis B virus (HBV). Both viruses display tropism towards hepatocytes and cells of the immune system and cause similar liver pathology, where acute hepatitis can progress to chronic hepatitis and to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Two forms of occult hepadnaviral persistence were identified in the woodchuck-WHV model: secondary occult infection (SOI) and primary occult infection (POI). SOI occurs after resolution of a serologically apparent infection with hepatitis or after subclinical serologically evident virus exposure. POI is caused by small amounts of virus and progresses without serological infection markers, but the virus genome and its replication are detectable in the immune system and with time in the liver. SOI can be accompanied by minimal hepatitis, while the hallmark of POI is normal liver morphology. Nonetheless, HCC develops in about 20% of animals with SOI or POI within 3 to 5 years. The virus persists throughout the lifespan in both SOI and POI at serum levels rarely greater than 100 copies/mL, causes hepatitis and HCC when concentrated and administered to virus-naïve woodchucks. SOI is accompanied by virus-specific T and B cell immune responses, while only virus-specific T cells are detected in POI. SOI coincides with protection against reinfection, while POI does not and hepatitis develops after challenge with liver pathogenic doses >1000 virions. Both SOI and POI are associated with virus DNA integration into the liver and the immune system genomes. Overall, SOI and POI are two distinct forms of silent hepadnaviral persistence that share common characteristics. Here, we review findings from the woodchuck model and discuss the relevant observations made in human occult HBV infection (OBI). PMID:26623268

  12. Asymptomatic Hepadnaviral Persistence and Its Consequences in the Woodchuck Model of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Mulrooney-Cousins, Patricia M; Michalak, Tomasz I

    2015-09-28

    Woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is molecularly and pathogenically closely related to hepatitis B virus (HBV). Both viruses display tropism towards hepatocytes and cells of the immune system and cause similar liver pathology, where acute hepatitis can progress to chronic hepatitis and to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Two forms of occult hepadnaviral persistence were identified in the woodchuck-WHV model: secondary occult infection (SOI) and primary occult infection (POI). SOI occurs after resolution of a serologically apparent infection with hepatitis or after subclinical serologically evident virus exposure. POI is caused by small amounts of virus and progresses without serological infection markers, but the virus genome and its replication are detectable in the immune system and with time in the liver. SOI can be accompanied by minimal hepatitis, while the hallmark of POI is normal liver morphology. Nonetheless, HCC develops in about 20% of animals with SOI or POI within 3 to 5 years. The virus persists throughout the lifespan in both SOI and POI at serum levels rarely greater than 100 copies/mL, causes hepatitis and HCC when concentrated and administered to virus-naïve woodchucks. SOI is accompanied by virus-specific T and B cell immune responses, while only virus-specific T cells are detected in POI. SOI coincides with protection against reinfection, while POI does not and hepatitis develops after challenge with liver pathogenic doses >1000 virions. Both SOI and POI are associated with virus DNA integration into the liver and the immune system genomes. Overall, SOI and POI are two distinct forms of silent hepadnaviral persistence that share common characteristics. Here, we review findings from the woodchuck model and discuss the relevant observations made in human occult HBV infection (OBI).

  13. Pathophysiological appraisal of a rat model of total hepatic ischemia with an extracorporeal portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Nakamura, S; Sakaguchi, T; Mitsuoka, H; Tsuchiya, Y; Kojima, Y; Konno, H; Baba, S

    1998-11-01

    Animal models of total hepatic ischemia (THI) and reperfusion injury are restricted by concomitant splanchnic congestion. This study was performed to determine the requirement suitable for an extracorporeal portosystemic shunt (PSS) to maintain the intestinal integrity in a rat model of THI. Using a polyethylene tube (0.86 or 1 mm i.d.), PSS was placed between the mesenteric and jugular veins. Comparison was done between THI models with or without PSS and a partial ischemia model with hepatectomy of the nonischemic lobes. Well-tolerated hepatic ischemic period, portal pressure after 10 min of hepatic ischemia, portal endotoxin levels at 1 h after reperfusion, histological features of the small bowel just before reperfusion, and local jejunal and ileal blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation index (ISO2) were compared among the models. Animals without PSS poorly tolerated 30 min of THI. Animals receiving THI with PSS or partial hepatic ischemia tolerated a longer ischemic period (60 min) with a significantly higher small bowel ISO2, lower portal pressure and endotoxin levels (P < 0.01), and less histological damage of the small bowel when compared to those receiving THI without PSS. Portal endotoxin levels after THI with PSS using a 1-mm i.d. tube as well as partial hepatic ischemia were significantly lower than those after THI with PSS using a 0.86-mm i.d. tube. THI with PSS using a 1-mm i.d. tube was strikingly similar to partial hepatic ischemia in the pathophysiological profile during hepatic ischemia. PSS with a tube 1 mm or more in inner diameter offers pathophysiological advantages in experiments on THI and reperfusion. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Do 3D Printing Models Improve Anatomical Teaching About Hepatic Segments to Medical Students? A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangxue; Nie, Lanying; Zhang, Huijian; Wang, Zhanglin; Ye, Qiang; Tang, Lei; Huang, Wenhua; Li, Jianyi

    2016-08-01

    It is a difficult and frustrating task for young surgeons and medical students to understand the anatomy of hepatic segments. We tried to develop an optimal 3D printing model of hepatic segments as a teaching aid to improve the teaching of hepatic segments. A fresh human cadaveric liver without hepatic disease was CT scanned. After 3D reconstruction, three types of 3D computer models of hepatic structures were designed and 3D printed as models of hepatic segments without parenchyma (type 1) and with transparent parenchyma (type 2), and hepatic ducts with segmental partitions (type 3). These models were evaluated by six experts using a five-point Likert scale. Ninety two medical freshmen were randomized into four groups to learn hepatic segments with the aid of the three types of models and traditional anatomic atlas (TAA). Their results of two quizzes were compared to evaluate the teaching effects of the four methods. Three types of models were successful produced which displayed the structures of hepatic segments. By experts' evaluation, type 3 model was better than type 1 and 2 models in anatomical condition, type 2 and 3 models were better than type 1 model in tactility, and type 3 model was better than type 1 model in overall satisfaction (P < 0.05). The first quiz revealed that type 1 model was better than type 2 model and TAA, while type 3 model was better than type 2 and TAA in teaching effects (P < 0.05). The second quiz found that type 1 model was better than TAA, while type 3 model was better than type 2 model and TAA regarding teaching effects (P < 0.05). Only TAA group had significant declines between two quizzes (P < 0.05). The model with segmental partitions proves to be optimal, because it can best improve anatomical teaching about hepatic segments.

  15. Rhesus monkey model of liver disease reflecting clinical disease progression and hepatic gene expression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Tan, Tao; Wang, Junfeng; Niu, Yuyu; Yan, Yaping; Guo, Xiangyu; Kang, Yu; Duan, Yanchao; Chang, Shaohui; Liao, Jianpeng; Si, Chenyang; Ji, Weizhi; Si, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a significant public health issue with heavy medical and economic burdens. The aetiology of ALD is not yet completely understood. The development of drugs and therapies for ALD is hampered by a lack of suitable animal models that replicate both the histological and metabolic features of human ALD. Here, we characterize a rhesus monkey model of alcohol-induced liver steatosis and hepatic fibrosis that is compatible with the clinical progression of the biochemistry and pathology in humans with ALD. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression was conducted to identify potential molecular signatures of ALD progression. The up-regulation of expression of hepatic genes related to liver steatosis (CPT1A, FASN, LEPR, RXRA, IGFBP1, PPARGC1A and SLC2A4) was detected in our rhesus model, as was the down-regulation of such genes (CYP7A1, HMGCR, GCK and PNPLA3) and the up-regulation of expression of hepatic genes related to liver cancer (E2F1, OPCML, FZD7, IGFBP1 and LEF1). Our results demonstrate that this ALD model reflects the clinical disease progression and hepatic gene expression observed in humans. These findings will be useful for increasing the understanding of ALD pathogenesis and will benefit the development of new therapeutic procedures and pharmacological reagents for treating ALD. PMID:26442469

  16. Psoriatic inflammation causes hepatic inflammation with concomitant dysregulation in hepatic metabolism via IL-17A/IL-17 receptor signaling in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Zoheir, Khairy M A; Ansari, Mushtaq A; El-Sherbeeny, Ahmed M; Alanazi, Khalid M; Alotaibi, Moureq R; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2017-02-01

    Psoriatic inflammation has been shown to be associated with cardiovascular dysfunction and systemic inflammation. Recently, psoriasis has also been linked to hepatic disorders, however underlying mechanism connecting the two are unknown. IL-17A being a central pro-inflammatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis may be involved in hepatic inflammation through its receptor and downward signaling; however so far no study has investigated IL-17A related signaling in the liver during psoriasis in a murine model. Therefore, this study explored psoriasis-induced hepatic inflammation and concurrent metabolic changes. Mice were applied topically imiquimod (IMQ) to develop psoriatic inflammation. Additionally mice were also treated either with IL-17A or anti-IL17A antibody to explore the role of IL-17 related signaling in liver. Mice were then assessed for hepatic inflammation through assessment of inflammatory/oxidative stress markers (IL-17RC, NFκB, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β, GM-CSF, ICAM-1, iNOS, lipid peroxides and myeloperoxidase activity) as well as hepatic injury (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and protein/lipid metabolic biomarkers (total proteins, albumin, total bilirubin, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and total cholesterol). IMQ treatment led to hepatic inflammation as evidenced by increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with concomitant dysregulation in hepatic protein/lipid metabolism. Treatment with IL-17A further aggravated, whereas treatment with anti-IL17A antibody ameliorated IMQ-induced changes in hepatic injury/inflammation and protein/lipid metabolism. Our study shows for the first time that psoriatic inflammation leads to hepatic inflammation which results in dysregulated protein/lipid metabolism through IL-17RC/NFκB signaling. This could result in increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling fructose-load-induced hepatic de-novo lipogenesis by model simplification.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard J; Musante, Cynthia J

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic de-novo lipogenesis is a metabolic process implemented in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Clinically, the rate of this process can be ascertained by use of labeled acetate and stimulation by fructose administration. A systems pharmacology model of this process is desirable because it facilitates the description, analysis, and prediction of this experiment. Due to the multiple enzymes involved in de-novo lipogenesis, and the limited data, it is desirable to use single functional expressions to encapsulate the flux between multiple enzymes. To accomplish this we developed a novel simplification technique which uses the available information about the properties of the individual enzymes to bound the parameters of a single governing 'transfer function'. This method should be applicable to any model with linear chains of enzymes that are well stimulated. We validated this approach with computational simulations and analytical justification in a limiting case. Using this technique we generated a simple model of hepatic de-novo lipogenesis in these experimental conditions that matched prior data. This model can be used to assess pharmacological intervention at specific points on this pathway. We have demonstrated this with prospective simulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition. This simplification technique suggests how the constituent properties of an enzymatic chain of reactions gives rise to the sensitivity (to substrate) of the pathway as a whole.

  18. Modeling fructose-load-induced hepatic de-novo lipogenesis by model simplification

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Richard J; Musante, Cynthia J

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic de-novo lipogenesis is a metabolic process implemented in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Clinically, the rate of this process can be ascertained by use of labeled acetate and stimulation by fructose administration. A systems pharmacology model of this process is desirable because it facilitates the description, analysis, and prediction of this experiment. Due to the multiple enzymes involved in de-novo lipogenesis, and the limited data, it is desirable to use single functional expressions to encapsulate the flux between multiple enzymes. To accomplish this we developed a novel simplification technique which uses the available information about the properties of the individual enzymes to bound the parameters of a single governing ‘transfer function’. This method should be applicable to any model with linear chains of enzymes that are well stimulated. We validated this approach with computational simulations and analytical justification in a limiting case. Using this technique we generated a simple model of hepatic de-novo lipogenesis in these experimental conditions that matched prior data. This model can be used to assess pharmacological intervention at specific points on this pathway. We have demonstrated this with prospective simulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition. This simplification technique suggests how the constituent properties of an enzymatic chain of reactions gives rise to the sensitivity (to substrate) of the pathway as a whole. PMID:28469410

  19. An Evaluation of the Venous Equilibrium Model for Hepatic Clearance using Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Livers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The venous equilibrium model is widely used to describe hepatic clearance (CLH) of chemicals metabolized by the liver. If chemical delivery to the tissue does not limit CLH, this model predicts that CLH will approximately equal the product of intrinsic metabolic clearance and a t...

  20. Model of complete separation of the hepatic veins from the systemic venous system.

    PubMed

    Brizard, C P; Goussef, N; Chachques, J C; Carpentier, A F

    2000-12-01

    In patients undergoing a Fontan operation, partial diversion of the hepatic veins to the pulmonary venous atrium has been tried with various techniques. They failed because of the development of intrahepatic collaterals leading to an unacceptable right-to-left shunting. We postulate that to avoid the formation of intrahepatic collaterals, the totality of the liver has to be drained into the same pressure compartment. We have designed a model of cavopulmonary anastomosis in which a prosthetic conduit reproduces an azygos continuation, associated with the diversion of the totality of the hepatic venous return. This article reports on the early hemodynamics and the fate of the separation of the two venous compartments in long-term survivors. Eighteen goats were operated on; the pulmonary artery and hepatic vein pressures were recorded. During month 2, an opacification of the inferior vena cava and the cavopulmonary connection was performed. Between months 6 and 14, another opacification was performed, together with pressure recording at both ends of the conduit. Postoperatively the pulmonary artery pressure was pulsatile with a mean of 10 mm Hg and the hepatic vein pressure was 0 mm Hg. The first angiogram showed patent tubes with fast progression of the contrast. Throughout the inferior vena cava injection, there was no opacification of the portal or hepatic veins. The late study showed a narrowed conduit in all animals. During the injection, a collateral was injected, feeding into the inferior mesenteric vein. No collateral circulation could be seen draining directly into the liver. The median gradient between the two ends of the conduit was 11 mm Hg. The isolation of the entire hepatic venous drainage is feasible and efficient for the separation of two pressure compartments. No intrahepatic collaterals are observed with this model at short- or long-term follow-up. The separation of the hepatic venous drainage should persist without collateral circulation as long as

  1. Integrated internist - addiction medicine - hepatology model for hepatitis C management for individuals on methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Martinez, A D; Dimova, R; Marks, K M; Beeder, A B; Zeremski, M; Kreek, M J; Talal, A H

    2012-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among drug users, HCV evaluation and treatment acceptance are extremely low among these patients when referred from drug treatment facilities for HCV management. We sought to increase HCV treatment effectiveness among patients from a methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) by maintaining continuity of care. We developed, instituted and retrospectively assessed the effectiveness of an integrated, co-localized care model in which an internist-addiction medicine specialist from MMTP was embedded in the hepatitis clinic. Methadone maintenance treatment program patients were referred, evaluated by the internist and hepatologist in hepatitis clinic and provided HCV treatment with integration between both sites. Of 401 evaluated patients, anti-HCV antibody was detected in 257, 86% of whom were older than 40 years. Hepatitis C virus RNA levels were measured in 222 patients, 65 of whom were aviremic. Of 157 patients with detectable HCV RNA, 125 were eligible for referral to the hepatitis clinic, 76 (61%) of whom accepted and adhered with the referral. Men engaged in MMTP <36 months were significantly less likely to be seen in hepatitis clinic than men in MMTP more than 36 months (odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval 2.6-22.9) or women. We evaluated liver histology in 63 patients, and 83% had moderate to advanced liver disease. Twenty-four patients initiated treatment with 19 completing and 13 (54%) achieving sustained response. In conclusion, integrated care between the MMTP and the hepatitis clinic improves adherence with HCV evaluation and treatment compared to standard referral practices. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Mir-338-3p Mediates Tnf-A-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Targeting PP4r1 to Regulate PP4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lin; Wang, Shuyue; Sun, Libo; Huang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Tao; Guo, Jun; Man, Yong; Tang, Weiqing; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Recent studies have indicated that miR-338-3p plays an important role in cancer. Here, we investigated whether miR-338-3p mediates tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. The activation of the insulin signalling pathway and the level of glycogenesis were examined in the livers of the db/db and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in HEP1-6 cells transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor. Computational prediction of microRNA target, luciferase assay and Western blot were used to assess the miR-338-3p target. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to determine the transcriptional regulator of miR-338-3p. miR-338-3p was down-regulated in the livers of the db/db, HFD-fed and TNF-α-treated C57BL/6J mice, as well as in mouse HEP1-6 hepatocytes treated with TNF-α. Importantly the down-regulation of miR-338-3p induced insulin resistance, as indicated by impaired glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Further research showed that the down-regulated miR-338-3p resulted in the impaired AKT/ glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSl·Gβ) signalling pathway and glycogen synthesis. In contrast, hepatic over-expression of miR-338-3p rescued the TNF-α-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, protein phosphatase 4 regulator subunit 1 (PP4R1) was identified as a direct target of miR-338-3p that mediated hepatic insulin signalling by regulating protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). Finally we identified hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4α) as the transcriptional regulator of miRNA-338-3p. Our studies provide novel insight into the critical role and molecular mechanism by which miR-338-3p is involved in TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance. miR-338-3p might mediate TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance by targeting PP4R1 to regulate PP4 expression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Comparisons of forecasting for hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using three neural networks models.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Ni; Huang, Daizheng

    2016-01-01

    This study compares and evaluates the prediction of hepatitis in Guangxi Province, China by using back propagation neural networks based genetic algorithm (BPNN-GA), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), and wavelet neural networks (WNN). In order to compare the results of forecasting, the data obtained from 2004 to 2013 and 2014 were used as modeling and forecasting samples, respectively. The results show that when the small data set of hepatitis has seasonal fluctuation, the prediction result by BPNN-GA will be better than the two other methods. The WNN method is suitable for predicting the large data set of hepatitis that has seasonal fluctuation and the same for the GRNN method when the data increases steadily.

  4. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis B What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a viral infection that ... to prevent spreading hepatitis B to others . Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis B is a short-term ...

  5. A statistical model to estimate the impact of a hepatitis A vaccination programme.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Manuel; Pilar Muñoz, M; Domínguez, Angela; Borras, Eva; Carmona, Gloria

    2008-11-11

    A program of routine hepatitis A+B vaccination in preadolescents was introduced in 1998 in Catalonia, a region situated in the northeast of Spain. The objective of this study was to quantify the reduction in the incidence of hepatitis A in order to differentiate the natural reduction of the incidence of hepatitis A from that produced due to the vaccination programme and to predict the evolution of the disease in forthcoming years. A generalized linear model (GLM) using negative binomial regression was used to estimate the incidence rates of hepatitis A in Catalonia by year, age group and vaccination. Introduction of the vaccine reduced cases by 5.5 by year (p-value<0.001), but there was a significant interaction between the year of report and vaccination that smoothed this reduction (p-value<0.001). The reduction was not equal in all age groups, being greater in the 12-18 years age group, which fell from a mean rate of 8.15 per 100,000 person/years in the pre-vaccination period (1992-1998) to 1.4 in the vaccination period (1999-2005). The model predicts the evolution accurately for the group of vaccinated subjects. Negative binomial regression is more appropriate than Poisson regression when observed variance exceeds the observed mean (overdispersed count data), can cause a variable apparently contribute more on the model of what really makes it.

  6. Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Nguyen, Hannah H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Fisher, Dennis G; Odell, Anne; Xandre, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Adult vaccination compliance rates vary according to sample and type of vaccine administered (influenza, pneumococcal). This study looked at vaccination of a community sample of low-income, minority adults. Nurses offered free vaccination for hepatitis A and B in the form of the combined Twinrix vaccine to adults on a walk-in basis. In addition to dosing information, participants completed the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Coping Strategies Indicator and the Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Skaff's extended Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical framework. Count regression was used to model receipt of one, two, or three doses. The majority of participants were male with a mean age of 40 years. The distribution of doses was: 173 individuals (27.6%) received one dose only, 261 (41.7%) received two doses, and 191 (30.5%) received three doses of vaccine. The multivariate count regression model including being male, having previously been told by a health care provider that one has syphilis, having severe negative emotions, and perceived social support were associated with participants' receiving fewer doses of hepatitis vaccine. A greater problem-solving score was associated with a higher number of vaccine doses received. Despite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Specific Inhibition of Hepatic Lactate Dehydrogenase Reduces Oxalate Production in Mouse Models of Primary Hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chengjung; Pursell, Natalie; Gierut, Jessica; Saxena, Utsav; Zhou, Wei; Dills, Michael; Diwanji, Rohan; Dutta, Chaitali; Koser, Martin; Nazef, Naim; Storr, Rachel; Kim, Boyoung; Martin-Higueras, Cristina; Salido, Eduardo; Wang, Weimin; Abrams, Marc; Dudek, Henryk; Brown, Bob D

    2018-06-15

    Primary hyperoxalurias (PHs) are autosomal recessive disorders caused by the overproduction of oxalate leading to calcium oxalate precipitation in the kidney and eventually to end-stage renal disease. One promising strategy to treat PHs is to reduce the hepatic production of oxalate through substrate reduction therapy by inhibiting liver-specific glycolate oxidase (GO), which controls the conversion of glycolate to glyoxylate, the proposed main precursor to oxalate. Alternatively, diminishing the amount of hepatic lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression, the proposed key enzyme responsible for converting glyoxylate to oxalate, should directly prevent the accumulation of oxalate in PH patients. Using RNAi, we provide the first in vivo evidence in mammals to support LDH as the key enzyme responsible for converting glyoxylate to oxalate. In addition, we demonstrate that reduction of hepatic LDH achieves efficient oxalate reduction and prevents calcium oxalate crystal deposition in genetically engineered mouse models of PH types 1 (PH1) and 2 (PH2), as well as in chemically induced PH mouse models. Repression of hepatic LDH in mice did not cause any acute elevation of circulating liver enzymes, lactate acidosis, or exertional myopathy, suggesting further evaluation of liver-specific inhibition of LDH as a potential approach for treating PH1 and PH2 is warranted. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd; Kreps, Meagan N.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Blossom, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+ mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+ mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. PMID:25026505

  9. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd J; Kreps, Meagan N; Erickson, Stephen W; Blossom, Sarah J

    2014-09-15

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling and Control of a Delayed Hepatitis B Virus Model with Incubation Period and Combination Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Deshun; Liu, Fei

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a hepatitis B virus (HBV) model with an incubation period and delayed state and control variables is firstly proposed. Furthermore, the combination treatment is adopted to have a longer-lasting effect than mono-therapy. The equilibrium points and basic reproduction number are calculated, and then the local stability is analyzed on this model. We then present optimal control strategies based on the Pontryagin's minimum principle with an objective function not only to reduce the levels of exposed cells, infected cells and free viruses nearly to zero at the end of therapy, but also to minimize the drug side-effect and the cost of treatment. What's more, we develop a numerical simulation algorithm for solving our HBV model based on the combination of forward and backward difference approximations. The state dynamics of uninfected cells, exposed cells, infected cells, free viruses, CTL and ALT are simulated with or without optimal control, which show that HBV is reduced nearly to zero based on the time-varying optimal control strategies whereas the disease would break out without control. At last, by the simulations, we prove that strategy A is the best among the three kinds of strategies we adopt and further comparisons have been done between model (1) and model (2).

  11. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guo-Bao; Xiang, Zhan-Wang; Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun

    2016-05-03

    This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors.

  12. A mouse model of severe halothane hepatitis based on human risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dugan, Christine M; MacDonald, Allen E; Roth, Robert A; Ganey, Patricia E

    2010-05-01

    Halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro-ethane) is an inhaled anesthetic that induces severe, idiosyncratic liver injury, i.e., "halothane hepatitis," in approximately 1 in 20,000 human patients. We used known human risk factors (female sex, adult age, and genetics) as well as probable risk factors (fasting and inflammatory stress) to develop a murine model with characteristics of human halothane hepatitis. Female and male BALB/cJ mice treated with halothane developed dose-dependent liver injury within 24 h; however, the liver injury was severe only in females. Livers had extensive centrilobular necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and steatosis. Fasting rendered mice more sensitive to halothane hepatotoxicity, and 8-week-old female mice were more sensitive than males of the same age or than younger (4-week-old) females. C57BL/6 mice were insensitive to halothane, suggesting a strong genetic predisposition. In halothane-treated females, plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater than in males, and neutrophils were recruited to liver more rapidly and to a greater extent. Anti-CD18 serum attenuated halothane-induced liver injury in female mice, suggesting that neutrophil migration, activation, or both are required for injury. Coexposure of halothane-treated male mice to lipopolysaccharide to induce modest inflammatory stress converted their mild hepatotoxic response to a pronounced, female-like response. This is the first animal model of an idiosyncratic adverse drug reaction that is based on human risk factors and produces reproducible, severe hepatitis from halothane exposure with lesions characteristic of human halothane hepatitis. Moreover, these results suggest that a more robust innate immune response underlies the predisposition of female mice to halothane hepatitis.

  13. Expression of hepatic lipid droplets is decreased in the nitrofen model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromizu; Kutasy, Balazs; Friedmacher, Florian; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Puri, Prem

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal mortality in newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been attributed to increased amounts of liver hernia ion through the diaphragmatic defect. Antenatal studies in human and rodent fetus with CDH further demonstrated a contribution of the developing liver in the pathogenesis of CDH. The abnormal hepatic growth in experimental animal models, therefore, indicates a disruption of normal liver development in CDH. However, the underlying structural, histological and functional changes in the liver of animals with CDH remain unclear. We design this study to test the hypothesis that the morphological and cellular liver development is altered in the nitrogen-induced CDH model. Pregnant rats were exposed to either olive oil or nitrofen on day 9 of gestation (D9). Livers and chest were harvested on D21 and divided into two groups: control (n = 8), nitrofen with CDH (CDH, n = 8). Haematoxylin-eosin (Straub et al. Histopathology 68:617-631, 2013) staining was performed to evaluate underlying morphological changes. Apoptosis was checked by using TUNEL staining and apoptotic cell number was counted on 16-16 slides in 25 fields by two independent viewers. Hepatic lipid droplet expressions were evaluated by hepatic adipose differentiation-related protein (ARDP) expression. Compared to controls markedly increased hypertrophy was seen in CDH group. Significantly increased apoptotic cell numbers were detected in CDH group compared to controls (5.1 ± 1.5 vs 2.1 ± 0.6) (p < 0.05). The relative mRNA expression levels of ARDP were significantly reduced in CDH group compared to controls. Immunohistochemistry showed markedly decreased hepatic ADRP immunoreactivity in CDH fetuses compared to controls. Our findings provide strong evidence of hepatic hypertrophy and increased cell apoptosis in the liver of nitrofen-induced CDH. These morphological changes may affect liver lipid droplet expression function.

  14. Long-Term Adult Feline Liver Organoid Cultures for Disease Modeling of Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Kruitwagen, Hedwig S; Oosterhoff, Loes A; Vernooij, Ingrid G W H; Schrall, Ingrid M; van Wolferen, Monique E; Bannink, Farah; Roesch, Camille; van Uden, Lisa; Molenaar, Martijn R; Helms, J Bernd; Grinwis, Guy C M; Verstegen, Monique M A; van der Laan, Luc J W; Huch, Meritxell; Geijsen, Niels; Vries, Robert G; Clevers, Hans; Rothuizen, Jan; Schotanus, Baukje A; Penning, Louis C; Spee, Bart

    2017-04-11

    Hepatic steatosis is a highly prevalent liver disease, yet research is hampered by the lack of tractable cellular and animal models. Steatosis also occurs in cats, where it can cause severe hepatic failure. Previous studies demonstrate the potential of liver organoids for modeling genetic diseases. To examine the possibility of using organoids to model steatosis, we established a long-term feline liver organoid culture with adult liver stem cell characteristics and differentiation potential toward hepatocyte-like cells. Next, organoids from mouse, human, dog, and cat liver were provided with fatty acids. Lipid accumulation was observed in all organoids and interestingly, feline liver organoids accumulated more lipid droplets than human organoids. Finally, we demonstrate effects of interference with β-oxidation on lipid accumulation in feline liver organoids. In conclusion, feline liver organoids can be successfully cultured and display a predisposition for lipid accumulation, making them an interesting model in hepatic steatosis research. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polythiol-containing, recombinant mannosylated-albumin is a superior CD68+/CD206+ Kupffer cell-targeted nanoantioxidant for treatment of two acute hepatitis models.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Hirata, Kenshiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Inatsu, Akihito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Tanaka, Motohiko; Sasaki, Yutaka; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2015-02-01

    Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Kupffer cells (KC), especially CD68(+) KC, play a key role in the induction of hepatic oxidative stress and injuries, we developed a polythiolated- and mannosylated human serum albumin (SH-Man-HSA), which functions as a novel nanoantioxidant for delivering thiol to CD68(+) KC. In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance coupled with pharmacokinetics and immunohistochemical studies showed that SH-Man-HSA possessed powerful radical-scavenging activity and rapidly and selectively delivered thiols to the liver via mannose receptor (CD206) on CD68(+) cells. SH-Man-HSA significantly improved the survival rate of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-treated mice. Moreover, SH-Man-HSA exhibited excellent hepatoprotective functions, not by decreasing tumor necrosis factor or interferon-γ production that is closely associated with Con-A-induced hepatitis, but by suppressing ROS production. Interestingly, the protective effect of SH-Man-HSA was superior to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). This could be attributed to the difference in the inhibition of hepatic oxidative stress between the two antioxidants depending on their potential for thiol delivery to the liver. Similar results were also observed for acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatopathy models. Flow cytometric data further confirmed that an increase in F4/80(+)/ROS(+) cells was dramatically decreased by SH-Man-HSA. The administration of SH-Man-HSA at 4 hours following a Con-A or APAP injection also exhibited a profound hepatoprotective action against these hepatitis models, whereas this was not observed for NAC. It can be concluded therefore that SH-Man-HSA has great potential for use in a rescue therapy for hepatopathy as a nanoantioxidant because of its ability to efficiently and rapidly deliver thiols to CD68(+)/CD206(+) KC. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Induced hypothermia reduces the hepatic inflammatory response in a swine multiple trauma model.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Matthias; Hildebrand, Frank; Weuster, Matthias; Mommsen, Philipp; Mohr, Juliane; Witte, Ingo; Raeven, Pierre; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Flohé, Sascha; van Griensven, Martijn; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pfeifer, Roman

    2014-06-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia following trauma has been introduced in several studies to reduce the posttraumatic inflammation and organ injury. In this study, we analyzed the effects of induced mild hypothermia (34°C) on the inflammation of the shock organs liver and kidney. In a porcine model of multiple trauma including blunt chest trauma, liver laceration, and hemorrhagic shock followed by fluid resuscitation, the influence of induced hypothermia on hepatic and renal damage and organ-specific inflammation were evaluated. A total of 40 pigs were randomly assigned to four groups, which were sham (anesthesia only) or trauma groups receiving either hypothermia or normothermia. The parameters analyzed were laboratory parameters (aspartate transaminase [AST], lactate dehydrogenase, urea, creatinine) as well as hepatic and renal cytokine expression determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (interleukin 6 [IL-6], IL-8). Blinded analysis of histologic changes in the liver and kidney was performed. Fifteen and a half hours following combined trauma, hepatic cytokine expression and liver damage were significantly increased in animals with normothermia compared with the respective sham group. Hypothermia, however, resulted in a fivefold reduced hepatic expression of IL-8 (mean ± SE, 2.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.01) when compared with the normothermic trauma group (IL-8, 12.8 ± 4.7). Accordingly, granulocyte infiltration and a histologic, semiquantitative score for liver injury were significantly higher in the normothermic trauma group. Serum AST levels raised significantly after trauma and normothermia compared with the respective sham group, while AST levels showed no difference from the sham groups in the hypothermic trauma group. In contrast, neither trauma nor hypothermia influenced the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 and tissue injury in the kidney. Therapeutic hypothermia seems to attenuate the hepatic inflammatory response and the associated liver injury after severe

  17. Modeling the Health and Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Bruggmann, Philip; Bihl, Florian; Blach, Sarah; Lavanchy, Daniel; Razavi, Homie; Semela, David; Negro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of liver disease in Switzerland and carries a significant cost burden. Currently, only conservative strategies are in place to mitigate the burden of hepatitis C in Switzerland. This study expands on previously described modeling efforts to explore the impact of: no treatment, and treatment to reduce HCC and mortality. Furthermore, the costs associated with untreated HCV were modeled. Methods Hepatitis C disease progression and mortality were modeled. Baseline historical assumptions were collected from the literature and expert interviews and strategies were developed to show the impact of different levels of intervention (improved drug cure rates, treatment and diagnosis) until 2030. Results Under the historical standard of care, the number of advanced stage cases was projected to increase until 2030, at which point the annual economic burden of untreated viremic infections was projected to reach €96.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: €36 – €232) million. Scenarios to reduce HCV liver-related mortality by 90% by 2030 required treatment of 4,190 ≥F2 or 3,200 ≥F3 patients annually by 2018 using antivirals with a 95% efficacy rate. Delaying the implementation of these scenarios by 2 or 5 years reduced the impact on mortality to 75% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions With today’s treatment efficacy and uptake rates, hepatitis C disease burden is expected to increase through 2030. A substantial reduction in disease burden can be achieved by means of both higher efficacy drugs and increased treatment uptake. However, these efforts cannot be undertaken without a simultaneous effort to diagnose more infections. PMID:26107467

  18. Modeling the Health and Economic Burden of Hepatitis C Virus in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Müllhaupt, Beat; Bruggmann, Philip; Bihl, Florian; Blach, Sarah; Lavanchy, Daniel; Razavi, Homie; Semela, David; Negro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of liver disease in Switzerland and carries a significant cost burden. Currently, only conservative strategies are in place to mitigate the burden of hepatitis C in Switzerland. This study expands on previously described modeling efforts to explore the impact of: no treatment, and treatment to reduce HCC and mortality. Furthermore, the costs associated with untreated HCV were modeled. Hepatitis C disease progression and mortality were modeled. Baseline historical assumptions were collected from the literature and expert interviews and strategies were developed to show the impact of different levels of intervention (improved drug cure rates, treatment and diagnosis) until 2030. Under the historical standard of care, the number of advanced stage cases was projected to increase until 2030, at which point the annual economic burden of untreated viremic infections was projected to reach €96.8 (95% Uncertainty Interval: €36 - €232) million. Scenarios to reduce HCV liver-related mortality by 90% by 2030 required treatment of 4,190 ≥F2 or 3,200 ≥F3 patients annually by 2018 using antivirals with a 95% efficacy rate. Delaying the implementation of these scenarios by 2 or 5 years reduced the impact on mortality to 75% and 57%, respectively. With today's treatment efficacy and uptake rates, hepatitis C disease burden is expected to increase through 2030. A substantial reduction in disease burden can be achieved by means of both higher efficacy drugs and increased treatment uptake. However, these efforts cannot be undertaken without a simultaneous effort to diagnose more infections.

  19. Hepatic apoptotic activity following transient normothermic inflow occlusion and reperfusion in the swine model.

    PubMed

    Helling, T S; Edwards, C A; Helling, T S; Chang, C C; Hodges, M C; Dhar, A; VanWay, C

    1999-09-01

    Accelerated hepatic apoptosis was first described in portal vein-ligated livers but has since been reported in a variety of liver injuries. Because porto-prival states can induce apoptosis we sought to determine whether transient ischemic periods followed by reperfusion would trigger such cell death. The cytokines TNF-alpha and TGF-beta are known to facilitate apoptosis and are released in response to a number of stimuli including ischemia. We also investigated alterations in plasma and tissue levels of these cytokines which might lend support to their role in increased apoptotic activity following ischemia/reperfusion. Female pigs were used as the experimental model. Inflow occlusion of portal and hepatic arterial blood was performed to a portion of the swine liver directing the entire splanchnic flow to the remaining hepatic lobes for a period of 2 h. The livers were then reperfused and plasma and tissue samples taken for determination of apoptotic activity utilizing cell death immunoperoxidase staining of 3'-OH DNA ends generated by fragmentation and ELISA assay of histone-associated DNA fragments. Plasma and tissue levels of TNF-alpha and plasma levels of TGF-beta were determined by ELISA assay. An increase in apoptotic activity following reperfusion was seen at Day 2 and Day 4 compared to preischemic values by the cell death stain. The ELISA cell death assay showed an increase in apoptotic activity at 60 min, Day 2, and Day 4. Moreover, the ELISA cell death assay showed enhanced apoptotic activity in "hyperperfused" hepatic lobes compared to preischemic, or resting, liver. This was also observed when compared to sham-operated animals. Surprisingly, there was no detectable increase in plasma TNF-alpha or TGF-beta levels following ischemia/reperfusion, although homogenized liver TNF-alpha levels were increased at 60 min and Day 2 following reperfusion. We conclude that transient hepatic inflow occlusion followed by reperfusion can induce increased apoptotic

  20. Costs of a public health model to increase receipt of hepatitis-related services for persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eric P; Rosenberg, Stanley; Dixon, Lisa B; Goldberg, Richard W; Wolford, George L; Himelhoch, Seth; Tapscott, Stephanie

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the costs and impact on receipt of hepatitis and HIV testing and hepatitis immunization services of a public health intervention model that was designed for use by persons with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Between 2006 and 2008, a random sample of 202 nonelderly, predominantly African-American males with a psychotic or major depressive disorder and a co-occurring substance use disorder was recruited at four community mental health outpatient programs in a large metropolitan area. Participants were randomly assigned at each site to enhanced treatment as usual (N=97), including education about blood-borne diseases and referrals for testing and vaccinations, or to an experimental intervention (N=105) that provided on-site infectious disease education, screening of risk level, pretest counseling, testing for HIV and hepatitis B and C, vaccination for hepatitis A and B, and personalized risk-reduction counseling. The authors compared the two study groups to assess the average costs of improving hepatitis and HIV testing and hepatitis A and B vaccination in this population. The average cost per participant was $423 for the intervention and $24 for the comparison condition (t=52.7, df=201, p<.001). The costs per additional person tested was $706 for hepatitis C, $776 for hepatitis B, and $3,630 for HIV, and the cost per additional person vaccinated for hepatitis was $561. Delivery of hepatitis and HIV public health services to persons with serious mental illness in outpatient mental health settings can be as cost-effective as similar interventions for other at-risk populations.

  1. Application of zero-inflated poisson mixed models in prognostic factors of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Pourhoseingholi, Asma; Zayeri, Farid; Jafari, Ali Akbar; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health problem. Evaluation of risk factors is one of the solutions which help protect people from the infection. This study aims to employ zero-inflated Poisson mixed models to evaluate prognostic factors of hepatitis C. The data was collected from a longitudinal study during 2005-2010. First, mixed Poisson regression (PR) model was fitted to the data. Then, a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was fitted with compound Poisson random effects. For evaluating the performance of the proposed mixed model, standard errors of estimators were compared. The results obtained from mixed PR showed that genotype 3 and treatment protocol were statistically significant. Results of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model showed that age, sex, genotypes 2 and 3, the treatment protocol, and having risk factors had significant effects on viral load of HCV patients. Of these two models, the estimators of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model had the minimum standard errors. The results showed that a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was the almost best fit. The proposed model can capture serial dependence, additional overdispersion, and excess zeros in the longitudinal count data.

  2. Modeling Inborn Errors of Hepatic Metabolism Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pournasr, Behshad; Duncan, Stephen A

    2017-11-01

    Inborn errors of hepatic metabolism are because of deficiencies commonly within a single enzyme as a consequence of heritable mutations in the genome. Individually such diseases are rare, but collectively they are common. Advances in genome-wide association studies and DNA sequencing have helped researchers identify the underlying genetic basis of such diseases. Unfortunately, cellular and animal models that accurately recapitulate these inborn errors of hepatic metabolism in the laboratory have been lacking. Recently, investigators have exploited molecular techniques to generate induced pluripotent stem cells from patients' somatic cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, thereby offering an innovative approach to unravel the mechanisms underlying inborn errors of hepatic metabolism. Moreover, such cell models could potentially provide a platform for the discovery of therapeutics. In this mini-review, we present a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in using pluripotent stem cells for such studies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Disease Modeling and Gene Therapy of Copper Storage Disease in Canine Hepatic Organoids.

    PubMed

    Nantasanti, Sathidpak; Spee, Bart; Kruitwagen, Hedwig S; Chen, Chen; Geijsen, Niels; Oosterhoff, Loes A; van Wolferen, Monique E; Pelaez, Nicolas; Fieten, Hille; Wubbolts, Richard W; Grinwis, Guy C; Chan, Jefferson; Huch, Meritxell; Vries, Robert R G; Clevers, Hans; de Bruin, Alain; Rothuizen, Jan; Penning, Louis C; Schotanus, Baukje A

    2015-11-10

    The recent development of 3D-liver stem cell cultures (hepatic organoids) opens up new avenues for gene and/or stem cell therapy to treat liver disease. To test safety and efficacy, a relevant large animal model is essential but not yet established. Because of its shared pathologies and disease pathways, the dog is considered the best model for human liver disease. Here we report the establishment of a long-term canine hepatic organoid culture allowing undifferentiated expansion of progenitor cells that can be differentiated toward functional hepatocytes. We show that cultures can be initiated from fresh and frozen liver tissues using Tru-Cut or fine-needle biopsies. The use of Wnt agonists proved important for canine organoid proliferation and inhibition of differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that successful gene supplementation in hepatic organoids of COMMD1-deficient dogs restores function and can be an effective means to cure copper storage disease. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantifying the Contribution of the Liver to Glucose Homeostasis: A Detailed Kinetic Model of Human Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    König, Matthias; Bulik, Sascha; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of the liver in glucose homeostasis, a detailed mathematical model of human hepatic glucose metabolism is lacking so far. Here we present a detailed kinetic model of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in human hepatocytes integrated with the hormonal control of these pathways by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. Model simulations are in good agreement with experimental data on (i) the quantitative contributions of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism to hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization under varying physiological states. (ii) the time courses of postprandial glycogen storage as well as glycogen depletion in overnight fasting and short term fasting (iii) the switch from net hepatic glucose production under hypoglycemia to net hepatic glucose utilization under hyperglycemia essential for glucose homeostasis (iv) hormone perturbations of hepatic glucose metabolism. Response analysis reveals an extra high capacity of the liver to counteract changes of plasma glucose level below 5 mM (hypoglycemia) and above 7.5 mM (hyperglycemia). Our model may serve as an important module of a whole-body model of human glucose metabolism and as a valuable tool for understanding the role of the liver in glucose homeostasis under normal conditions and in diseases like diabetes or glycogen storage diseases. PMID:22761565

  5. The development of a combined mathematical model to forecast the incidence of hepatitis E in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Li, Jian; Yuan, Zheng-An; Hu, Jia-Yu; Yu, Yan; Lu, Yi-Han

    2013-09-08

    Sporadic hepatitis E has become an important public health concern in China. Accurate forecasting of the incidence of hepatitis E is needed to better plan future medical needs. Few mathematical models can be used because hepatitis E morbidity data has both linear and nonlinear patterns. We developed a combined mathematical model using an autoregressive integrated moving average model (ARIMA) and a back propagation neural network (BPNN) to forecast the incidence of hepatitis E. The morbidity data of hepatitis E in Shanghai from 2000 to 2012 were retrieved from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. The ARIMA-BPNN combined model was trained with 144 months of morbidity data from January 2000 to December 2011, validated with 12 months of data January 2012 to December 2012, and then employed to forecast hepatitis E incidence January 2013 to December 2013 in Shanghai. Residual analysis, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and stationary R square methods were used to compare the goodness-of-fit among ARIMA models. The Bayesian regularization back-propagation algorithm was used to train the network. The mean error rate (MER) was used to assess the validity of the combined model. A total of 7,489 hepatitis E cases was reported in Shanghai from 2000 to 2012. Goodness-of-fit (stationary R2=0.531, BIC= -4.768, Ljung-Box Q statistics=15.59, P=0.482) and parameter estimates were used to determine the best-fitting model as ARIMA (0,1,1)×(0,1,1)12. Predicted morbidity values in 2012 from best-fitting ARIMA model and actual morbidity data from 2000 to 2011 were used to further construct the combined model. The MER of the ARIMA model and the ARIMA-BPNN combined model were 0.250 and 0.176, respectively. The forecasted incidence of hepatitis E in 2013 was 0.095 to 0.372 per 100,000 population. There was a seasonal variation with a peak during January-March and a nadir during August-October. Time series analysis

  6. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-assisted hepatic resection in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Gandini, Alessandro; Melodelima, David; Schenone, Francesco; N'Djin, Apoutou William; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Rivoire, Michel

    2012-07-01

    Bleeding is the main cause of postoperative complications of hepatic surgery. To minimize intraoperative bleeding during hepatectomy, resections are generally carried out under hepatic vascular control despite the risk of liver dysfunction in patients with chronic liver disease. This study evaluates the feasibility and safety of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)-assisted hepatic resection during an open procedure in an animal model. Three groups of 12-14-week-old Landrace pigs (n = 7/group) were used to evaluate HIFU-assisted liver resection (group A) vs liver resection with or without portal triad clamping (groups B and C). In each pig, liver resection was performed on the right and left paramedian lobes. The following were evaluated and compared in the 3 groups: total blood loss, blood loss/cm(2) of resection area, clip density, procedure duration, morbidity, and mortality. Median blood loss was significantly lower in group A than in group B (P = .02), and group C (P = .007). Median blood loss/cm(2) of resection area was 4.77 mL/cm² in group A, 11.35 mL/cm² in group B, 12.22 mL/cm² in Group C. Precoagulation resulted in sealing blood vessels <5 mm; therefore, median clip density during liver transection was 0.78 clip/cm² in group A, 1.61 clip/cm(2) in group B, and 1.57 clip/cm(2) in group C. Median duration of the surgical procedure was 12 min in group A, 21 min in group B, and 19 min in group C. HIFU-assisted hepatic resection during an open procedure in an animal model is safe, reduces bleeding, and allows real-time ultrasound guidance.

  7. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic cell lines as a new model for host interaction with hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Shun; Kakinuma, Sei; Asahina, Yasuhiro; Kamiya, Akihide; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Nitta, Sayuri; Asano, Yu; Nagata, Hiroko; Otani, Satoshi; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Murakawa, Miyako; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Ujino, Saneyuki; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Iwamoto, Masashi; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not eradicated by current antiviral therapies due to persistence of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in host cells, and thus development of novel culture models for productive HBV infection is urgently needed, which will allow the study of HBV cccDNA eradication. To meet this need, we developed culture models of HBV infection using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocyte lineages, including immature proliferating hepatic progenitor-like cell lines (iPS-HPCs) and differentiated hepatocyte-like cells (iPS-Heps). These cells were susceptible to HBV infection, produced HBV particles, and maintained innate immune responses. The infection efficiency of HBV in iPS-HPCs predominantly depended on the expression levels of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), and was low relative to iPS-Heps: however, long-term culture of iPS-Heps was difficult. To provide a model for HBV persistence, iPS-HPCs overexpressing NTCP were established. The long-term persistence of HBV cccDNA was detected in iPS-HPCs overexpressing NTCP, and depended on the inhibition of the Janus-kinase signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that iPS-derived hepatic cell lines can be utilized for novel HBV culture models with genetic variation to investigate the interactions between HBV and host cells and the development of anti-HBV strategies. PMID:27386799

  8. Serum from CCl4-induced acute rat injury model induces differentiation of ADSCs towards hepatic cells and reduces liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Baig, Maria Tayyab; Ali, Gibran; Awan, Sana Javaid; Shehzad, Umara; Mehmood, Azra; Mohsin, Sadia; Khan, Shaheen N; Riazuddin, Sheikh

    2017-10-01

    Cellular therapies hold promise to alleviate liver diseases. This study explored the potential of allogenic serum isolated from rat with acute CCl 4 injury to differentiate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) towards hepatic lineage. Acute liver injury was induced by CCl 4 which caused significant increase in serum levels of VEGF, SDF1α and EGF. ADSCs were preconditioned with 3% serum isolated from normal and acute liver injury models. ADSCs showed enhanced expression of hepatic markers (AFP, albumin, CK8 and CK19). These differentiated ADSCs were transplanted intra-hepatically in CCl 4 -induced liver fibrosis model. After one month of transplantation, fibrosis and liver functions (alkaline phosphatase, ALAT and bilirubin) showed marked improvement in acute injury group. Elevated expression of hepatic (AFP, albumin, CK 18 and HNF4a) and pro survival markers (PCNA and VEGF) and improvement in liver architecture as deduced from results of alpha smooth muscle actin, Sirius red and Masson's trichome staining was observed.

  9. History, ethics, advantages and limitations of experimental models for hepatic ablation.

    PubMed

    Ong, Seok Ling; Gravante, Gianpiero; Metcalfe, Matthew S; Dennison, Ashley R

    2013-01-14

    Numerous techniques developed in medicine require careful evaluation to determine their indications, limitations and potential side effects prior to their clinical use. At present this generally involves the use of animal models which is undesirable from an ethical standpoint, requires complex and time-consuming authorization, and is very expensive. This process is exemplified in the development of hepatic ablation techniques, starting experiments on explanted livers and progressing to safety and efficacy studies in living animals prior to clinical studies. The two main approaches used are ex vivo isolated non-perfused liver models and in vivo animal models. Ex vivo non perfused models are less expensive, easier to obtain but not suitable to study the heat sink effect or experiments requiring several hours. In vivo animal models closely resemble clinical subjects but often are expensive and have small sample sizes due to ethical guidelines. Isolated perfused ex vivo liver models have been used to study drug toxicity, liver failure, organ transplantation and hepatic ablation and combine advantages of both previous models.

  10. On the validity of the dispersion model of hepatic drug elimination when intravascular transit time densities are long-tailed.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Stedtler, C; Roberts, M S

    1997-09-01

    The dispersion model with mixed boundary conditions uses a single parameter, the dispersion number, to describe the hepatic elimination of xenobiotics and endogenous substances. An implicit a priori assumption of the model is that the transit time density of intravascular indicators is approximately by an inverse Gaussian distribution. This approximation is limited in that the model poorly describes the tail part of the hepatic outflow curves of vascular indicators. A sum of two inverse Gaussian functions is proposed as an alternative, more flexible empirical model for transit time densities of vascular references. This model suggests that a more accurate description of the tail portion of vascular reference curves yields an elimination rate constant (or intrinsic clearance) which is 40% less than predicted by the dispersion model with mixed boundary conditions. The results emphasize the need to accurately describe outflow curves in using them as a basis for determining pharmacokinetic parameters using hepatic elimination models.

  11. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. Methods This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. Results The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. Conclusion The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors. PMID:27028994

  12. Modelling hepatitis C therapy—predicting effects of treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Perelson, Alan S.; Guedj, Jeremie

    2015-06-30

    Mathematically modelling changes in HCV RNA levels measured in patients who receive antiviral therapy has yielded many insights into the pathogenesis and effects of treatment on the virus. By determining how rapidly HCV is cleared when viral replication is interrupted by a therapy, one can deduce how rapidly the virus is produced in patients before treatment. This knowledge, coupled with estimates of the HCV mutation rate, enables one to estimate the frequency with which drug resistant variants arise. Modelling HCV also permits the deduction of the effectiveness of an antiviral agent at blocking HCV replication from the magnitude of themore » initial viral decline. One can also estimate the lifespan of an HCV-infected cell from the slope of the subsequent viral decline and determine the duration of therapy needed to cure infection. The original understanding of HCV RNA decline under interferon-based therapies obtained by modelling needed to be revised in order to interpret the HCV RNA decline kinetics seen when using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In addition, there also exist unresolved issues involving understanding therapies with combinations of DAAs, such as the presence of detectable HCV RNA at the end of therapy in patients who nonetheless have a sustained virologic response.« less

  13. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Joshua D; Evanoff, Ryan; Wilkinson, Tom E; Divers, Thomas J; Knowles, Donald P; Mealey, Robert H

    2015-05-01

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; nonprimate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes hepatitis has been lacking. In this study, we detected EHCV in 2 horses that developed post-transfusion hepatitis. Plasma and serum from these horses were used to experimentally transmit EHCV to 4 young adult Arabian horses, two 1-month-old foals (1 Arabian and 1 Arabian-pony cross), and 2 foals (1 Arabian and 1 Arabian-pony cross) with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Our results demonstrated that EHCV had infection kinetics similar to HCV and that infection was associated with acute and chronic liver disease as measured by elevations of liver-specific enzymes and/or by histopathology. Although most of these animals were coinfected with equine pegivirus (EPgV), also a flavivirus, EPgV viral loads were much lower and often undetectable in both liver and blood. Three additional young adult Arabian-pony crosses and 1 SCID foal were then inoculated with plasma containing only EHCV, and evidence of mild hepatocellular damage was observed. The different levels of liver-specific enzyme elevation, hepatic inflammation, and duration of viremia observed during EHCV infection suggested that the magnitude and course of liver disease was mediated by the virus inoculum and/or by host factors, including breed, age, and adaptive immune status. This work documents the complete infection kinetics and liver pathology associated with acute and chronic EHCV infection in horses and further justifies it as a large animal model for HCV. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Modelling hepatitis C therapy—predicting effects of treatment

    PubMed Central

    Perelson, Alan S.; Guedj, Jeremie

    2015-01-01

    Mathematically modelling HCV RNA changes measured in patients who receive antiviral therapy has yielded many insights into the pathogenesis and effects of treatment on the virus. By determining how rapidly HCV is cleared when viral replication is interrupted by a therapy, one can deduce how rapidly the virus is produced in patients before treatment. This knowledge, coupled with estimates of the HCV mutation rate, enables one to estimate the frequency with which drug resistant variants arise. Modelling HCV also permits the deduction of antiviral agent effectiveness at blocking HCV replication from the magnitude of the initial viral decline. One can also estimate the lifespan of an HCV infected cell from the slope of the subsequent viral decline and, determine the duration of therapy needed to cure infection. Our understanding of HCV RNA decline under IFN-based therapies needs to be revised in order to understand the HCV RNA decline kinetics seen when using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In this Review, we also discuss the unresolved issues involving understanding therapies with combinations of DAAs, such as whether a sustained virological response necessarily involves elimination of all infected cells PMID:26122475

  15. Intracellular hepatitis C modeling predicts infection dynamics and viral protein mechanisms

    DOE PAGES

    Aunins, Thomas R.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Subramanya, Gitanjali; ...

    2018-03-21

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem, with nearly 2 million new infections occurring every year and up to 85% of these becoming chronic infections that pose serious long-term health risks. To effectively reduce the prevalence of HCV infection and associated diseases, it is important to understand the intracellular dynamics of the viral lifecycle. Here, we present a detailed mathematical model that represents the full hepatitis C lifecycle. It is the first full HCV model to be fit to acute intracellular infection data and the first to explore the functions of distinct viral proteins, probing multiple hypotheses ofmore » cis- and trans-acting mechanisms to provide insights for drug targeting. Model parameters were derived from the literature, experiments, and fitting to experimental intracellular viral RNA, extracellular viral titer, and HCV core and NS3 protein kinetic data from viral inoculation to steady-state. Our model predicts faster rates for protein translation and polyprotein cleavage than previous replicon models and demonstrates that the processes of translation and synthesis of viral RNA have the most influence on the levels of the species we tracked in experiments. Overall, our experimental data and the resulting mathematical infection model reveal information about the regulation of core protein during infection, produce specific insights into the roles of the viral core, NS5A, and NS5B proteins, and demonstrate the sensitivities of viral proteins and RNA to distinct reactions within the lifecycle.« less

  16. Intracellular hepatitis C modeling predicts infection dynamics and viral protein mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Aunins, Thomas R.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Subramanya, Gitanjali

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem, with nearly 2 million new infections occurring every year and up to 85% of these becoming chronic infections that pose serious long-term health risks. To effectively reduce the prevalence of HCV infection and associated diseases, it is important to understand the intracellular dynamics of the viral lifecycle. Here, we present a detailed mathematical model that represents the full hepatitis C lifecycle. It is the first full HCV model to be fit to acute intracellular infection data and the first to explore the functions of distinct viral proteins, probing multiple hypotheses ofmore » cis- and trans-acting mechanisms to provide insights for drug targeting. Model parameters were derived from the literature, experiments, and fitting to experimental intracellular viral RNA, extracellular viral titer, and HCV core and NS3 protein kinetic data from viral inoculation to steady-state. Our model predicts faster rates for protein translation and polyprotein cleavage than previous replicon models and demonstrates that the processes of translation and synthesis of viral RNA have the most influence on the levels of the species we tracked in experiments. Overall, our experimental data and the resulting mathematical infection model reveal information about the regulation of core protein during infection, produce specific insights into the roles of the viral core, NS5A, and NS5B proteins, and demonstrate the sensitivities of viral proteins and RNA to distinct reactions within the lifecycle.« less

  17. Hepatic function imaging using dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI and pharmacokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jia; Yang, Zhiying; Xie, Sheng; Sun, Yongliang; Yuan, Chun; Chen, Huijun

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether pharmacokinetic modeling parameters with different output assumptions of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with serum-based liver function tests, and compare the goodness of fit of the different output assumptions. A 6-min DCE-MRI protocol was performed in 38 patients. Four dual-input two-compartment models with different output assumptions and a published one-compartment model were used to calculate hepatic function parameters. The Akaike information criterion fitting error was used to evaluate the goodness of fit. Imaging-based hepatic function parameters were compared with blood chemistry using correlation with multiple comparison correction. The dual-input two-compartment model assuming venous flow equals arterial flow plus portal venous flow and no bile duct output better described the liver tissue enhancement with low fitting error and high correlation with blood chemistry. The relative uptake rate Kir derived from this model was found to be significantly correlated with direct bilirubin (r = -0.52, P = 0.015), prealbumin concentration (r = 0.58, P = 0.015), and prothrombin time (r = -0.51, P = 0.026). It is feasible to evaluate hepatic function by proper output assumptions. The relative uptake rate has the potential to serve as a biomarker of function. Magn Reson Med 78:1488-1495, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  18. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests ...

  19. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver, and taking certain medicines can also cause hepatitis. Less commonly, viral infections such as mononucleosis or cytomegalovirus can cause ... months, the person has chronic hepatitis. What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis A is liver inflammation caused by the ...

  20. Optimization,Modeling, and Control: Applications to Klystron Designing and Hepatitis C Virus Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankford, George Bernard

    In this dissertation, we address applying mathematical and numerical techniques in the fields of high energy physics and biomedical sciences. The first portion of this thesis presents a method for optimizing the design of klystron circuits. A klystron is an electron beam tube lined with cavities that emit resonant frequencies to velocity modulate electrons that pass through the tube. Radio frequencies (RF) inserted in the klystron are amplified due to the velocity modulation of the electrons. The routine described in this work automates the selection of cavity positions, resonant frequencies, quality factors, and other circuit parameters to maximize the efficiency with required gain. The method is based on deterministic sampling methods. We will describe the procedure and give several examples for both narrow and wide band klystrons, using the klystron codes AJDISK (Java) and TESLA (Python). The rest of the dissertation is dedicated to developing, calibrating and using a mathematical model for hepatitis C dynamics with triple drug combination therapy. Groundbreaking new drugs, called direct acting antivirals, have been introduced recently to fight off chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The model we introduce is for hepatitis C dynamics treated with the direct acting antiviral drug, telaprevir, along with traditional interferon and ribavirin treatments to understand how this therapy affects the viral load of patients exhibiting different types of response. We use sensitivity and identifiability techniques to determine which parameters can be best estimated from viral load data. We use these estimations to give patient-specific fits of the model to partial viral response, end-of-treatment response, and breakthrough patients. We will then revise the model to incorporate an immune response dynamic to more accurately describe the dynamics. Finally, we will implement a suboptimal control to acquire a drug treatment regimen that will alleviate the systemic cost

  1. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Lactoferrin Dampens High-Fructose Corn Syrup-Induced Hepatic Manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24816278

  3. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    PubMed

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  4. Validation of a preclinical model of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatic neoplasia in Yucatan miniature pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jennifer; Tinkey, Peggy T.; Avritscher, Rony; Van Pelt, Carolyn; Eskandari, Ghazaleh; George, Suraj Konnath; Xiao, Lianchun; Cressman, Erik; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Rashid, Asif; Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Amin, Hesham M.; Uthamanthil, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to reduce time to tumor onset in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) swine model via partial liver embolization (PLE) and to characterize the model for use in translational research. Methods Eight Yucatan miniature pigs were injected intraperitoneally with either saline (n=2) or DEN (n=6) solution weekly for 12 weeks. Three of the DEN-treated pigs underwent PLE. Animals underwent periodic radiological evaluation, liver biopsy, and blood sampling, and full necropsy was performed at study termination (~29 months). Results All DEN-treated pigs developed hepatic adenoma and HCC. PLE accelerated the time to adenoma development but not to HCC development. Biomarker analysis results showed that IGF1 levels decreased in all DEN-treated pigs, as functional liver capacity decreased with progression of HCC. VEGF and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with disease progression. Immunohistochemical probing of HCC tissues demonstrated the expression of several important survival-promoting proteins. Conclusion To our knowledge, we are the first to demonstrate accelerated development of hepatic neoplasia in Yucatan miniature pigs. Our HCC swine model closely mimics the human condition (i.e., progressive disease stages and expression of relevant molecular markers) and is a viable translational model. PMID:27305144

  5. Public health impact and cost effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination for hepatitis a in Jordan: a dynamic model approach.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Daniels, Vincent J; James, Cerise K; Kanıbir, Muhammet Nabi; Pilsbury, Matthew; Marks, Morgan; Goveia, Michelle G; Elbasha, Elamin H; Dasbach, Erik; Acosta, Camilo J

    2018-03-07

    As the socioeconomic conditions in Jordan have improved over recent decades the disease and economic burden of Hepatitis A has increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential health and economic impact of a two-dose hepatitis A vaccine program covering one-year old children in Jordan. We adapted an age-structured population model of hepatitis A transmission dynamics to project the epidemiologic and economic impact of vaccinating one-year old children for 50 years in Jordan. The epidemiologic model was calibrated using local data on hepatitis A in Jordan. These data included seroprevalence and incidence data from the Jordan Ministry of Health as well as hospitalization data from King Abdullah University Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. We assumed 90% of all children would be vaccinated with the two-dose regimen by two years of age. The economic evaluation adopted a societal perspective and measured benefits using the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The modeled vaccination program reduced the incidence of hepatitis A in Jordan by 99%, 50 years after its introduction. The model projected 4.26 million avoided hepatitis A infections, 1.42 million outpatient visits, 22,475 hospitalizations, 508 fulminant cases, 95 liver transplants, and 76 deaths over a 50 year time horizon. In addition, we found, over a 50 year time horizon, the vaccination program would gain 37,502 QALYs and save over $42.6 million in total costs. The vaccination program became cost-saving within 6 years of its introduction and was highly cost-effective during the first 5 years. A vaccination program covering one-year old children is projected to be a cost-saving intervention that will significantly reduce the public health and economic burden of hepatitis A in Jordan.

  6. Determinants of [13N]ammonia kinetics in hepatic PET experiments: a minimal recirculatory model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Roelsgaard, Klaus; Bender, Dirk; Keiding, Susanne

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a modelling approach for the analysis of the systemic kinetics of the tracer nitrogen-13 ammonia administered for dynamic liver scanning. The radioactive half-life of this tracer is 9.8 min, which limits the time span in which data are available in a positron emission tomography experimental setting. A circulatory pharmacokinetic model was applied to the metabolism of ammonia in anaesthetised pigs, which incorporated data from serial measurements of [(13)N]ammonia and [(13)N]metabolite activity in arterial and portal venous blood together with blood flow rates through the portal vein and through the hepatic artery obtained over 20 min after intravenous injection of [(13)N]ammonia. Model analysis showed that up to 20 min after injection the time course of [(13)N]ammonia concentration in arterial blood is primarily determined by distribution kinetics (steady-state volume of distribution 1,856+/-531 ml kg(-1)). Simultaneous fitting of arterial ammonia and metabolite blood concentrations allowed for estimation of the hepatic [(13)N]ammonia clearance (10.25+/-1.84 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), which accounted for the formation of the circulating metabolites.

  7. Dynamic analysis and optimal control for a model of hepatitis C with treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suxia; Xu, Xiaxia

    2017-05-01

    A model for hepatitis C is formulated to study the effects of treatment and public concern on HCV transmission dynamics. The stability of equilibria and persistence of the model are analyzed, and an optimal control measure is performed to prevent the spread of HCV with minimal infected individuals and cost. The dynamical analysis reveals that the disease-free equilibrium of the model is asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number R0 is less than unity. On the other hand, if R0 > 1 , the disease is uniformly persistent. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of different vital parameters on R0. For the corresponding optimality system, the optimal solution is discussed by Pontryagin Maximum Principle, and the comparisons of model-predicted consequences with control or not are presented.

  8. Validation and comparison of seventeen noninvasive models for evaluating liver fibrosis in Chinese hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Dong, Minhui; Wu, Jingwen; Yu, Xueping; Li, Jing; Yang, Sisi; Qi, Xun; Mao, Richeng; Zhang, Yongmei; Yu, Jie; Zhu, Haoxiang; Yang, Feifei; Qin, Yanli; Zhang, Jiming

    2018-01-03

    To avoid liver biopsy, many noninvasive models comprised of serum markers for liver fibrosis assessment have been developed. Given that most of them were developed in hepatitis C cohorts and few of them have been validated in Chinese hepatitis B patients, we aim to conduct this validation and compare their diagnostic accuracies in such a population. A total of 937 HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy were included in this single-centre retrospective study. The diagnostic accuracies of the 17 noninvasive models were assessed by areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs), using histologically evaluated fibrotic stages of the biopsy specimens as standards. To compare efficiencies of the models, a grading system based on AUROC levels was developed. For discriminating significant fibrosis in all patients, the best three noninvasive models were King's score (AUROC = 0.756), Virahep-C model (AUROC = 0.756) and GPR (AUROC = 0.744); and for diagnosing cirrhosis, Lok index (AUROC = 0.832), FI (AUROC = 0.820) and FIB-4 (AUROC = 0.818) got the first three places. AUROCs in HBeAg-positive group were generally higher than those in HBeAg-negative group. In addition, based on the grading system, Virahep-C and GPR outstood others in evaluating liver fibrosis in all patients. In Chinese HBV-infected patients, Virahep-C models and GPR had high accuracies in diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, while the most discussed models like APRI and FIB-4 did not outstand. Assessment should take into account the HBeAg sero-status, since these noninvasive models were more appropriate for HBeAg-positive patients than HBeAg-negative ones. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Protective effects of a traditional Chinese herbal formula Jiang-Xian HuGan on Concanavalin A-induced mouse hepatitis via NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huan-Huan; Li, Hai-Long; Li, Yue-Xuan; You, Yan; Guan, Yun-Yun; Zhang, Su-Lin; Liu, Li-Xin; Bao, Wei-Lian; Zhou, Yong; Shen, Xiao-Yan

    2018-05-10

    Jiang-Xian HuGan (JXHG) formulated by five natural products including Freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea), Curcuma longa L., Ligustrum lucidum, Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., has exhibited a great hepatoprotective effect. We investigated the effect of JXHG on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute live injury in mice, and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanisms. Jiangkanling Capsule (900 mg/kg), low-dose JXHG (LJXHG, 700 mg/kg), high-dose JXHG (HJXHG, 1400 mg/kg) were administered to mice by oral gavage daily for 20 days prior to a single intravenous injection of ConA (20 mg/kg). Liver injury was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of enzymes and cytokines as well as liver histological analysis. We also measured the hepatic expression of cytokines at mRNA levels and the proteins related to NF-κB and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathways. Our results showed that JXHG pretreatment significantly alleviated ConA-induced live injury as evidenced by decreased serum levels of glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST), and reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and mortality. Furthermore, JXHG was able to significantly reduce the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, down-regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and up-regulate IL-10 as well as superoxide-dimutase-1 (SOD1), glutathione reductase (GSR) and Glutathione peroxidase 2 (GPX2) mRNA in the liver tissues after Con A injection. In addition, JXHG pretreatment dramatically suppressed the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 (p65), increased Nrf2 expression, and decreased the expression ratio of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-3 in liver tissues. These results suggest that JXHG protects against ConA-induced acute live injury through inhibiting NF-κB mediated inflammatory pathway and promoting Nrf2 mediated anti-oxidative stress signaling pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. New models of hepatitis E virus replication in human and porcine hepatocyte cell lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute, enterically-transmitted hepatitis. It is associated with large epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions where it is endemic or with sporadic cases in non-endemic regions. Unlike other hepatitis viruses, HEV has several animal reservoirs. Phylogenetic studie...

  11. The pharmacokinetics and hepatic disposition of repaglinide in pigs: mechanistic modeling of metabolism and transport.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, Erik; Bredberg, Ulf; Lennernäs, Hans

    2012-04-02

    The predictive power of using in vitro systems in combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to elucidate the relative importance of metabolism and carrier-mediated transport for the pharmacokinetics was evaluated using repaglinide as a model compound and pig as the test system. Repaglinide was chosen as model drug as previous studies in humans have shown that repaglinide is subject to both carrier-mediated influx to the liver cells and extensive hepatic metabolism. A multiple sampling site model in pig was chosen since it provides detailed in vivo information about the liver disposition. The underlying assumption was that both metabolism and carrier-mediated transport are also important for the hepatic disposition of repaglinide in pigs. Microsomes and primary hepatocytes were used for in vitro evaluation of enzyme kinetics and cellular disposition, respectively. In vitro data were generated both with and without metabolism inhibitors (ketoconazole, bezafibrate and trimethoprim) and transport inhibitors (diclofenac and quinine) providing input into a semi-PBPK model. In vivo data were also generated with and without the same enzyme and transporter inhibitors, alone and in combination. The pigs were given repaglinide as intravenous infusions with and without inhibitors in a sequential manner, i.e., a control phase and a test phase. Parameters describing the passive and carrier-mediated flux as well as metabolism were estimated in the control phase. The result from test phase was used to gain further knowledge of the findings from the control phase. The in vivo pig model enabled simultaneous sampling from plasma (pre- and postliver and peripheral) as well as from bile and urine. A semi-PBPK model consisting of 11 compartments (6 tissues + 5 sampling sites) was constructed for the mechanistic elucidation of the liver disposition, in vitro based in vivo predictions, sensitivity analyses and estimations of individual pharmacokinetic

  12. Noninvasive models for assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Da-Wu; Dong, Jing; Liu, Yu-Rui; Jiang, Jia-Ji; Zhu, Yue-Yong

    2016-01-01

    There are approximately 240 million patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Up to 40% of HBV-infected patients can progress to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic end-stage liver disease during their lifetime. This, in turn, is responsible for around 650000 deaths annually worldwide. Repeated hepatitis flares may increase the progression of liver fibrosis, making the accurate diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis critical in order to make antiviral therapeutic decisions for HBV-infected patients. Liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosing liver fibrosis. However, this technique has recently been challenged by the development of several novel noninvasive tests to evaluate liver fibrosis, including serum markers, combined models and imaging techniques. In addition, the cost and accessibility of imaging techniques have been suggested as additional limitations for invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in developing countries. Therefore, a noninvasive assessment model has been suggested to evaluate liver fibrosis, specifically in HBV-infected patients, owing to its high applicability, inter-laboratory reproducibility, wide availability for repeated assays and reasonable cost. The current review aims to present the status of knowledge in this new and exciting field, and to highlight the key points in HBV-infected patients for clinicians. PMID:27547009

  13. Hepatitis B virus core antigen determines viral persistence in a C57BL/6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Huang, Li-Rung; Yang, Hung-Chih; Tzeng, Horng-Tay; Hsu, Ping-Ning; Wu, Hui-Lin; Chen, Pei-Jer; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2010-05-18

    We recently developed a mouse model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence, in which a single i.v. hydrodynamic injection of HBV DNA to C57BL/6 mice allows HBV replication and induces a partial immune response, so that about 20-30% of the mice carry HBV for more than 6 months. The model was used to identify the viral antigen crucial for HBV persistence. We knocked out individual HBV genes by introducing a premature termination codon to the HBV core, HBeAg, HBx, and polymerase ORFs. The specific-gene-deficient HBV mutants were hydrodynamically injected into mice and the HBV profiles of the mice were monitored. About 90% of the mice that received the HBcAg-mutated HBV plasmid exhibited high levels of hepatitis B surface antigenemia and maintained HBsAg expression for more than 6 months after injection. To map the region of HBcAg essential for viral clearance, we constructed a set of serial HBcAg deletion mutants for hydrodynamic injection. We localized the essential region of HBcAg to the carboxyl terminus, specifically to the 10 terminal amino acids (HBcAg176-185). The majority of mice receiving this HBV mutant DNA did not elicit a proper HBcAg-specific IFN-gamma response and expressed HBV virions for 6 months. These results indicate that the immune response triggered in mice by HBcAg during exposure to HBV is important in determining HBV persistence.

  14. Estimation of Hepatitis C Disease Burden and Budget Impact of Treatment Using Health Economic Modeling.

    PubMed

    Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Chen, Qiushi; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2018-06-01

    Oral direct-acting antiviral agents have revolutionized treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Nonetheless, barriers exist to elimination of HCV as a public health threat including low uptake of treatment, limited budget allocations for HCV treatment, and low awareness rates of HCV status among infected people. Mathematical modeling provides a systematic framework to analyze and compare potential solutions and elimination strategies by simulating the HCV epidemic under different conditions. Such models evaluate impact of interventions in advance of implementation. This article describes key components of developing an HCV burden model and illustrates its use by simulating the HCV epidemic in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic analysis of a hepatitis B model with three-age-classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suxia; Zhou, Yicang

    2014-07-01

    Based on the fact that the likelihood of becoming chronically infected is dependent on age at primary infection Kane (1995) [2], Edmunds et al. (1993) [3], Medley et al. (2001) [4], and Ganem and Prince (2004) [6], we formulate a hepatitis B transmission model with three age classes. The reproduction number, R0 is defined and the dynamical behavior of the model is analyzed. It is proved that the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable if R0<1, and there exists at least one endemic equilibrium and that the disease is uniformly persistent if R0>1. The unique endemic equilibrium and its global stability is obtained in a special case. Simulations are also conducted to compare the dynamical behavior of the model with and without age classes.

  16. A Model for the Estimation of Hepatic Insulin Extraction After a Meal.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Francesca; Dalla Man, Chiara; Vella, Adrian; Cobelli, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    Quantitative assessment of hepatic insulin extraction (HE) after an oral glucose challenge, e.g., a meal, is important to understand the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of the current study is to develop a model of system for estimating HE. Nine different models, of increasing complexity, were tested on data of 204 normal subjects, who underwent a mixed meal tolerance test, with frequent measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations. All these models included a two-compartment model of C-peptide kinetics, an insulin secretion model, a compartmental model of insulin kinetics (with number of compartments ranging from one to three), and different HE descriptions, depending on plasma glucose and insulin. Model performances were compared on the basis of data fit, precision of parameter estimates, and parsimony criteria. The three-compartment model of insulin kinetics, coupled with HE depending on glucose concentration, showed the best fit and a good ability to precisely estimate the parameters. In addition, the model calculates basal and total indices of HE ( HE b and HE tot , respectively), and provides an index of HE sensitivity to glucose ( S G HE ). A new physiologically based HE model has been developed, which allows an improved quantitative description of glucose regulation. The use of the new model provides an in-depth description of insulin kinetics, thus enabling a better understanding of a given subject's metabolic state.

  17. An in vitro hepatic zonation model with a continuous oxygen gradient in a microdevice.

    PubMed

    Sato, Asako; Kadokura, Kanae; Uchida, Hideyuki; Tsukada, Kosuke

    2014-10-31

    In a hepatic lobule, different sets of metabolic enzymes are expressed in the periportal (PP) and pericentral (PC) regions, forming a functional zonation, and the oxygen gradient is considered a determinant of zone formation. It is desirable to reproduce lobular microenvironment in vitro, but incubation of primary hepatocytes in conventional culture dishes has been limited at fixed oxygen concentrations due to technical difficulties. We designed a cell culture microdevice with an oxygen gradient to reproduce the hepatic microenvironment in vitro. The oxygen gradient during cell culture was monitored using a laser-assisted phosphorescence quenching method, and the cellular oxygen consumption rate could be estimated from changes in the gradient. Culture medium was continuously exchanged through microchannels installed in the device to maintain the oxygen gradient for a long term without transient hyper-oxygenation. The oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes at 70.0mmHg and 31.4mmHg of partial oxygen pressure, which correspond to PP and PC regions in the microdevice, were 3.67×10(-10) and 3.15×10(-10)mol/s/10(6) cells, respectively. Antimycin A changed the oxygen gradient profile, indicating that cellular respiration can be estimated during cell culture. RT-PCR analysis of hepatocytes cultured under the oxygen gradient showed that mRNA expression of PEPCK and GK significantly increased in culture areas corresponding to PP and PC regions, respectively. These results indicate that the developed microdevice can reproduce the hepatic lobular microenvironment. The oxygen gradient in the microdevice can be closely controlled by changing the sizes of gas channels and the ambient oxygen concentration around the device; therefore, it could be expected to mimic the oxygen gradient of various organs, and it may be applicable to other pathological models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pioglitazone retrieves hepatic antioxidant DNA repair in a mice model of high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Pi-Jung; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Hung, Wei-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Yang, Ching-Hsiu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Shin, Shyi-Jang

    2008-01-01

    Background Pioglitazone was reported to improve hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation in human studies. To investigate whether the hepato-protective effect of pioglitazone was associated with an improvement of antioxidant defense mechanism, oxidative DNA damage and repair activity were determined in a high fat diet model. Male C57BL/6 mice were respectively fed with a 30% fat diet, the same diet with pioglitazone 100 mg/kg/day, or a chow diet as control for 8 weeks. Tissue oxidative stress was indicated by malondialdehyde concentration. Oxidative DNA damage was detected by immunohistochemical 8-oxoG staining. Enzymatic antioxidant defense was detected by the real-time PCR of superoxide dismutase (Sod1, Sod2) and DNA glycosylase (Ogg1, MutY). Oxidative DNA repair was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting of OGG1 expression. Results Our results show that hepatic steatosis was induced by a high-fat diet and improved by adding pioglitazone. Malondialdehyde concentration and 8-oxoG staining were strongly increased in the high-fat diet group, but attenuated by pioglitazone. Gene expressions of antioxidant defense mechanism: Sod1, Sod2, Ogg1 and MutY significantly decreased in the high-fat diet group but reversed by pioglitazone co-administration. Conclusion The attenuation of hepatic oxidative DNA damage by pioglitazone in a high-fat diet may be mediated by up-regulation of the antioxidant defense mechanism and oxidative DNA repair activity. The diminution of oxidative damage may explain the clinical benefit of pioglitazone treatment in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:18822121

  19. Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits hepatic cystogenesis in experimental models of polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Munoz-Garrido, Patricia; Marin, José J G; Perugorria, María J; Urribarri, Aura D; Erice, Oihane; Sáez, Elena; Úriz, Miriam; Sarvide, Sarai; Portu, Ainhoa; Concepcion, Axel R; Romero, Marta R; Monte, María J; Santos-Laso, Álvaro; Hijona, Elizabeth; Jimenez-Agüero, Raúl; Marzioni, Marco; Beuers, Ulrich; Masyuk, Tatyana V; LaRusso, Nicholas F; Prieto, Jesús; Bujanda, Luis; Drenth, Joost P H; Banales, Jesús M

    2015-10-01

    Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) are genetic disorders characterized by progressive biliary cystogenesis. Current therapies show short-term and/or modest beneficial effects. Cystic cholangiocytes hyperproliferate as a consequence of diminished intracellular calcium levels ([Ca(2+)]i). Here, the therapeutic value of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was investigated. Effect of UDCA was examined in vitro and in polycystic (PCK) rats. Hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and the bile acid (BA) content were evaluated from the liver, bile, serum, and kidneys by HPLC-MS/MS. Chronic treatment of PCK rats with UDCA inhibits hepatic cystogenesis and fibrosis, and improves their motor behaviour. As compared to wild-type animals, PCK rats show increased BA concentration ([BA]) in liver, similar hepatic Cyp7a1 mRNA levels, and diminished [BA] in bile. Likewise, [BA] is increased in cystic fluid of PLD patients compared to their matched serum levels. In PCK rats, UDCA decreases the intrahepatic accumulation of cytotoxic BA, normalizes their diminished [BA] in bile, increases the BA secretion in bile and diminishes the increased [BA] in kidneys. In vitro, UDCA inhibits the hyperproliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes via a PI3K/AKT/MEK/ERK1/2-dependent mechanism without affecting apoptosis. Finally, the presence of glycodeoxycholic acid promotes the proliferation of polycystic human cholangiocytes, which is inhibited by both UDCA and tauro-UDCA. UDCA was able to halt the liver disease of a rat model of PLD through inhibiting cystic cholangiocyte hyperproliferation and decreasing the levels of cytotoxic BA species in the liver, which suggests the use of UDCA as a potential therapeutic tool for PLD patients. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. All rights reserved.

  20. Inactivated ORF virus shows antifibrotic activity and inhibits human hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication in preclinical models.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Daniela; Urban, Andreas; Knorr, Andreas; Hirth-Dietrich, Claudia; Siegling, Angela; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Mercer, Andrew A; Limmer, Andreas; Schumak, Beatrix; Knolle, Percy; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Weber, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Inactivated orf virus (iORFV), strain D1701, is a potent immune modulator in various animal species. We recently demonstrated that iORFV induces strong antiviral activity in animal models of acute and chronic viral infections. In addition, we found D1701-mediated antifibrotic effects in different rat models of liver fibrosis. In the present study, we compare iORFV derived from two different strains of ORFV, D1701 and NZ2, respectively, with respect to their antifibrotic potential as well as their potential to induce an antiviral response controlling infections with the hepatotropic pathogens hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Both strains of ORFV showed anti-viral activity against HCV in vitro and against HBV in a transgenic mouse model without signs of necro-inflammation in vivo. Our experiments suggest that the absence of liver damage is potentially mediated by iORFV-induced downregulation of antigen cross-presentation in liver sinus endothelial cells. Furthermore, both strains showed significant anti-fibrotic activity in rat models of liver fibrosis. iORFV strain NZ2 appeared more potent compared to strain D1701 with respect to both its antiviral and antifibrotic activity on the basis of dosages estimated by titration of active virus. These results show a potential therapeutic approach against two important human liver pathogens HBV and HCV that independently addresses concomitant liver fibrosis. Further studies are required to characterize the details of the mechanisms involved in this novel therapeutic principle.

  1. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-01-01

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling. PMID:26858399

  2. Deterministically patterned biomimetic human iPSC-derived hepatic model via rapid 3D bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuanyi; Qu, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Li, Yi-Shuan; Yuan, Suli; Zhang, Hong; Liu, Justin; Wang, Pengrui; Lai, Cheuk Sun Edwin; Zanella, Fabian; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Sheikh, Farah; Chien, Shu; Chen, Shaochen

    2016-02-23

    The functional maturation and preservation of hepatic cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are essential to personalized in vitro drug screening and disease study. Major liver functions are tightly linked to the 3D assembly of hepatocytes, with the supporting cell types from both endodermal and mesodermal origins in a hexagonal lobule unit. Although there are many reports on functional 2D cell differentiation, few studies have demonstrated the in vitro maturation of hiPSC-derived hepatic progenitor cells (hiPSC-HPCs) in a 3D environment that depicts the physiologically relevant cell combination and microarchitecture. The application of rapid, digital 3D bioprinting to tissue engineering has allowed 3D patterning of multiple cell types in a predefined biomimetic manner. Here we present a 3D hydrogel-based triculture model that embeds hiPSC-HPCs with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and adipose-derived stem cells in a microscale hexagonal architecture. In comparison with 2D monolayer culture and a 3D HPC-only model, our 3D triculture model shows both phenotypic and functional enhancements in the hiPSC-HPCs over weeks of in vitro culture. Specifically, we find improved morphological organization, higher liver-specific gene expression levels, increased metabolic product secretion, and enhanced cytochrome P450 induction. The application of bioprinting technology in tissue engineering enables the development of a 3D biomimetic liver model that recapitulates the native liver module architecture and could be used for various applications such as early drug screening and disease modeling.

  3. The interplay between hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes in an in vitro model of NASH.

    PubMed

    Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J; Giraudi, Pablo J; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Tiribelli, Claudio; Rosso, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    A complex interplay exists between hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells (HSC) in hepatic fibrogenesis. The activation of HSCs after liver injury leads to production of extracellular matrix (ECM). Co-culture models could be useful to mimic the liver microenvironment. This study evaluates the effect of free fatty acids (FFA) on HSC cells and the interplay with hepatocytes via both soluble-mediator and cell-cell contact. The human hepatocyte cell line (HuH7) and HSC cells (LX2) were exposed to FFA for 24 h in 3 different experimental set-ups: (A) monoculture of HSC; (B) Transwell® system (effect of soluble mediators); and (C) Simultaneous Co-Culture (SCC) (cell-to-cell connections). Intracellular FFA accumulation was assessed qualitatively (microscopy) and quantitatively (flow cytometry); the activation of HSC (alpha smooth muscle actin, α-SMA) expression of ECM components were quantified by RT-PCR. FFA exposure induces intracellular fat accumulation in all the experimental set-up but the expression of α-SMA was significantly increased only in SCC. On the contrary, the expression of ECM was substantially decreased in the transwell® system. The HSC activation is independent of FFA accumulation but requires cell-to-cell interaction with hepatocyte. On the contrary, the gene regulation of ECM components seems to occur through paracrine mediators. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hemodynamic parameters in a surgical devascularization model of fulminant hepatic failure in the minipig.

    PubMed

    Kieslichová, E; Ryska, M; Pantoflícek, T; Ryska, O; Zazula, R; Skobová, J

    2005-01-01

    Animal models of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) are important for studying the pathophysiology of this process and for evaluation of the efficacy of artificial and bioartificial liver support systems. In experiments, hemodynamic parameters were monitored in a group of minipigs with FHF induced by surgical devascularization, and compared with those in a control group. During the experiment, animals were analgosedated and were on mechanical lung ventilation. Crystalloid and colloidal solutions were administered and norepinephrine in continuous infusion was applied if mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased below 60 mm Hg despite adequate intravascular volumes. An increase in heart rate, and decreases in MAP and systemic vascular resistance, compared with the baseline, occurred in the FHF group from 6 h after surgery. A comparison of FHF and control groups revealed no significant differences in systemic vascular resistance and MAP until after 12 h after surgery (systemic vascular resistance index: 953 FHF vs. 1658 controls; p < 0.05; MAP: 58.1 FHF vs. 76 controls; p < 0.05). No significant differences in CI were seen between the FHF group and controls. FHF animals survived for about 13 h after surgery, i.e. a period, which we consider long enough to test a support device. The parameters are believed to be quite adequate, as we were able to maintain satisfactory hemodynamic stability in all experimental animals with induced acute hepatic failure.

  5. Decreasing mitochondrial fission alleviates hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Brookes, Paul S; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-09-15

    Mitochondria produce the majority of cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and their capacity to do so is influenced by many factors. Mitochondrial morphology is recently suggested as an important contributor in controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, which is affected by environmental factors, including metabolic alterations. Underscoring its bioenergetic influence, altered mitochondrial morphology is reported in tissues of patients and in animal models of metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we found that mitochondrial fission plays a vital role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The development of hepatic steatosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, and hepatic tissue damage, induced by a high-fat diet, were alleviated in genetically manipulated mice suppressing mitochondrial fission. The alleviation of steatosis was recapitulated in primary hepatocytes with the inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, our study indicates that fission inhibition enhances proton leak under conditions of free fatty acid incubation, implicating bioenergetic change through manipulating mitochondrial fission. Taken together, our results suggest a mechanistic role for mitochondrial fission in the etiology of NAFLD. The efficacy of decreasing mitochondrial fission in the suppression of NAFLD suggests that mitochondrial fission represents a novel target for therapeutic treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... susceptible to the effects of toxins. Having hepatitis. Chronic infection with a hepatitis virus (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or one of the other — extremely rare — hepatitis viruses that may persist in the body) makes your liver more vulnerable. Aging. As you age, your liver breaks down harmful ...

  7. Modelling Hepatitis B Virus Antiviral Therapy and Drug Resistant Mutant Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Julie; Dix, Trevor; Allison, Lloyd; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Yuen, Lilly

    Despite the existence of vaccines, the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a serious global health concern. HBV targets liver cells. It has an unusual replication process involving an RNA pre-genome that the reverse transcriptase domain of the viral polymerase protein translates into viral DNA. The reverse transcription process is error prone and together with the high replication rates of the virus, allows the virus to exist as a heterogeneous population of mutants, known as a quasispecies, that can adapt and become resistant to antiviral therapy. This study presents an individual-based model of HBV inside an artificial liver, and associated blood serum, undergoing antiviral therapy. This model aims to provide insights into the evolution of the HBV quasispecies and the individual contribution of HBV mutations in the outcome of therapy.

  8. Global prevalence, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in 2016: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    2018-06-01

    The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Although no virological cure exists for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, existing therapies to control viral replication and prophylaxis to minimise mother-to-child transmission make elimination of HBV feasible. We aimed to estimate the national, regional, and global prevalence of HBsAg in the general population and in the population aged 5 years in 2016, as well as coverage of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment. In this modelling study, we used a Delphi process that included a literature review in PubMed and Embase, followed by interviews with experts, to quantify the historical epidemiology of HBV infection. We then used a dynamic HBV transmission and progression model to estimate the country-level and regional-level prevalence of HBsAg in 2016 and the effect of prophylaxis and treatment on disease burden. We developed models for 120 countries, 78 of which were populated with data approved by experts. Using these models, we estimated that the global prevalence of HBsAg in 2016 was 3·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·4-4·6), corresponding to 291 992 000 (251 513 000-341 114 000) infections. Of these infections, around 29 million (10%) were diagnosed, and only 4·8 million (5%) of 94 million individuals eligible for treatment actually received antiviral therapy. Around 1·8 (1·6-2·2) million infections were in children aged 5 years, with a prevalence of 1·4% (1·2-1·6). We estimated that 87% of infants had received the three-dose HBV vaccination in the first year of life, 46% had received timely birth-dose vaccination, and 13% had received hepatitis B immunoglobulin along with the full vaccination regimen. Less than 1% of mothers with a high viral load had received antiviral therapy to reduce mother-to-child transmission. Our estimate of HBV prevalence in 2016 differs from previous studies, potentially because we took into

  9. MRI-based assessment of liver perfusion and hepatocyte injury in the murine model of acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Byk, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Zaneta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chlopicki, Stefan; Skorka, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    To assess alterations in perfusion and liver function in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse model of acute liver failure (ALF) using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gd-EOB-DTPA contrast agent and arterial spin labelling (ASL). BALB/c mice were studied using a 9.4 T MRI system. The IntraGateFLASH TM and FAIR-EPI pulse sequences were used for optimum mouse abdomen imaging. The average perfusion values for the liver of the control and ConA group were equal to 245 ± 20 and 200 ± 32 ml/min/100 g (p = 0.008, respectively). DCE-MRI showed that the time to the peak of the image enhancement was 6.14 ± 1.07 min and 9.72 ± 1.69 min in the control and ConA group (p < 0.001, respectively), while the rate of the contrast wash-out in the control and ConA group was 0.037 ± 0.008 and 0.021 ± 0.008 min -1 (p = 0.004, respectively). These results were consistent with hepatocyte injury in the ConA-treated mice as confirmed by histopathological staining. Both the ASL and DCE-MRI techniques represent a reliable methodology to assess alterations in liver perfusion and hepatocyte integrity in murine hepatitis.

  10. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) potentiates autoimmune hepatitis in the CYP2D6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Peter; Messmer, Marie; Bayer, Monika; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Hintermann, Edith; Christen, Urs

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe development non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasing worldwide. In particular NASH, which is characterized by an active hepatic inflammation, has often severe consequences including progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we investigated how metabolic liver injury is influencing the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We used the CYP2D6 mouse model in which wild type C57BL/6 mice are infected with an Adenovirus expressing the major liver autoantigen cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Such mice display several features of human AIH, including interface hepatitis, formation of LKM-1 antibodies and CYP2D6-specific T cells, as well as hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD was induced with a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that pre-existing NAFLD potentiates the severity of AIH. Mice fed for 12 weeks with a HFD displayed increased cellular infiltration of the liver, enhanced hepatic fibrosis and elevated numbers of liver autoantigen-specific T cells. Our data suggest that a pre-existing metabolic liver injury constitutes an additional risk for the severity of an autoimmune condition of the liver, such as AIH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... artery to the liver (hepatic artery) after a liver transplant Swelling of blood vessels leading to reduced blood ... the illness causing hepatic ischemia can be treated. Death from liver failure due to hepatic ischemia is ...

  12. Application of a hybrid method combining grey model and back propagation artificial neural networks to forecast hepatitis B in china.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ruijing; Chen, Xiaojun; Yan, Yu; Huang, Daizheng

    2015-01-01

    Accurate incidence forecasting of infectious disease provides potentially valuable insights in its own right. It is critical for early prevention and may contribute to health services management and syndrome surveillance. This study investigates the use of a hybrid algorithm combining grey model (GM) and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) to forecast hepatitis B in China based on the yearly numbers of hepatitis B and to evaluate the method's feasibility. The results showed that the proposal method has advantages over GM (1, 1) and GM (2, 1) in all the evaluation indexes.

  13. From whole body to cellular models of hepatic triglyceride metabolism: man has got to know his limitations

    PubMed Central

    Green, Charlotte J.; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morten, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a main metabolic organ in the human body and carries out a vital role in lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of conditions from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) through to cirrhosis. Although obesity is a known risk factor for hepatic steatosis, it remains unclear what factor(s) is/are responsible for the primary event leading to retention of intrahepatocellular fat. Studying hepatic processes and the etiology and progression of disease in vivo in humans is challenging, not least as NAFLD may take years to develop. We present here a review of experimental models and approaches that have been used to assess liver triglyceride metabolism and discuss their usefulness in helping to understand the aetiology and development of NAFLD. PMID:25352434

  14. [Logistic regression model of noninvasive prediction for portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingliang; Li, Xiaojie; Hu, Kunpeng; Zhao, Kun; Yang, Peisheng; Liu, Bo

    2015-05-12

    To explore the risk factors of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) in patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis and establish a Logistic regression model of noninvasive prediction. The clinical data of 234 hospitalized patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis from March 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The dependent variable was the occurrence of PHG while the independent variables were screened by binary Logistic analysis. Multivariate Logistic regression was used for further analysis of significant noninvasive independent variables. Logistic regression model was established and odds ratio was calculated for each factor. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of model were evaluated by the curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC). According to univariate Logistic regression, the risk factors included hepatic dysfunction, albumin (ALB), bilirubin (TB), prothrombin time (PT), platelet (PLT), white blood cell (WBC), portal vein diameter, spleen index, splenic vein diameter, diameter ratio, PLT to spleen volume ratio, esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). Multivariate analysis showed that hepatic dysfunction (X1), TB (X2), PLT (X3) and splenic vein diameter (X4) were the major occurring factors for PHG. The established regression model was Logit P=-2.667+2.186X1-2.167X2+0.725X3+0.976X4. The accuracy of model for PHG was 79.1% with a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 80.8%. Hepatic dysfunction, TB, PLT and splenic vein diameter are risk factors for PHG and the noninvasive predicted Logistic regression model was Logit P=-2.667+2.186X1-2.167X2+0.725X3+0.976X4.

  15. Models and methods for in vitro testing of hepatic gap junctional communication.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michaël; Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Willebrords, Joost; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-12-25

    Inherent to their pivotal roles in controlling all aspects of the liver cell life cycle, hepatocellular gap junctions are frequently disrupted upon impairment of the homeostatic balance, as occurs during liver toxicity. Hepatic gap junctions, which are mainly built up by connexin32, are specifically targeted by tumor promoters and epigenetic carcinogens. This renders inhibition of gap junction functionality a suitable indicator for the in vitro detection of nongenotoxic hepatocarcinogenicity. The establishment of a reliable liver gap junction inhibition assay for routine in vitro testing purposes requires a cellular system in which gap junctions are expressed at an in vivo-like level as well as an appropriate technique to probe gap junction activity. Both these models and methods are discussed in the current paper, thereby focusing on connexin32-based gap junctions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A network model for the propagation of Hepatitis C with HIV co-infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucit, Arnaud; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2017-05-01

    We define and examine a model of epidemic propagation for a virus such as Hepatitis C (with HIV co-infection) on a network of networks, namely the network of French urban areas. One network level is that of the individual interactions inside each urban area. The second level is that of the areas themselves, linked by individuals travelling between these areas and potentially helping the epidemic spread from one city to another. We choose to encode the second level of the network as extra, special nodes in the first level. We observe that such an encoding leads to sensible results in terms of the extent and speed of propagation of an epidemic, depending on its source point.

  17. Selenite exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in mouse model of type 2 diabetes through oxidative stress-mediated JNK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jun, E-mail: hustzhj@hust.edu.cn; Xu, Gang; Bai, Zhaoshuai

    Recent evidence suggests a potential pro-diabetic effect of selenite treatment in type 2 diabetics; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of selenite treatment in a nongenetic mouse model of type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet (HFD)/streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice were orally gavaged with selenite at 0.5 or 2.0 mg/kg body weight/day or vehicle for 4 weeks. High-dose selenite treatment significantly elevated fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin resistance index, in parallel with impaired glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance and pyruvate tolerance. High-dose selenite treatment also attenuated hepatic IRS1/Akt/FoxO1 signaling and pyruvate kinase genemore » expressions, but elevated the gene expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxyl kinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and selenoprotein P (SelP) in the liver. Furthermore, high-dose selenite treatment caused significant increases in MDA contents, protein carbonyl contents, and a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver, concurrent with enhanced ASK1/MKK4/JNK signaling. Taken together, these findings suggest that high-dose selenite treatment exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in mouse model of type 2 diabetes, at least in part through oxidative stress-mediated JNK pathway, providing new mechanistic insights into the pro-diabetic effect of selenite in type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Selenite exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance in HFD/STZ-induced diabetic mice. • Selenite elevates hepatic gluconeogenesis and reduces glycolysis in diabetic mice. • Selenite exacerbates hepatic oxidative stress and triggers JNK signaling pathway. • Selenite elevates hepatic selenoprotein P expression in diabetic mice.« less

  18. Selective cytoprotective effect of histamine on doxorubicin-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Lamas, DJMartinel; Nicoud, MB; Sterle, HA; Carabajal, E; Tesan, F; Perazzo, JC; Cremaschi, GA; Rivera, ES; Medina, VA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the potential protective effect of histamine on Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced hepatic and cardiac toxicity in different rodent species and in a triple-negative breast tumor-bearing mice model. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Balb/c mice were divided into four groups: control (received saline), histamine (5 mg/kg for rats and 1 mg/kg for mice, daily subcutaneous injection starting 24 h before treatment with Dox), Dox (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally injected three times a week for 2 weeks) and Dox+histamine (received both treatments). Tissue toxicity was evaluated by histopathological studies and oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. The combined effect of histamine and Dox was also investigated in vitro and in vivo in human MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer model. Heart and liver of Dox-treated animals displayed severe histological damage, loss of tissue weight, increased TBARS levels and DNA damage along with an augment in serum creatine kinase-myocardial band. Pretreatment with histamine prevented Dox-induced tissue events producing a significant preservation of the integrity of both rat and mouse myocardium and liver, through the reduction of Dox-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. Histamine treatment preserved anti-tumor activity of Dox, exhibiting differential cytotoxicity and increasing the Dox-induced inhibition of breast tumor growth. Findings provide preclinical evidence indicating that histamine could be a promising candidate as a selective cytoprotective agent for the treatment of Dox-induced cardiac and hepatic toxicity, and encourage the translation to clinical practice. PMID:27551485

  19. A murine model of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis: Xenoimmunization with human antigens.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Pascal; Djilali-Saiah, Idriss; Vitozzi, Susana; Alvarez, Fernando

    2004-04-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by an immune-mediated injury of the hepatic parenchyma of unknown pathogenesis. Type 2 AIH is identified by the presence of anti-liver-kidney microsomes type 1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. The current study shows that a murine model of AIH can be generated by DNA immunization against type 2 AIH self-antigens (P450 2D6 and formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase). A pCMV plasmid containing the N-terminal region of mouse CTLA-4 and the antigenic region of human CYP2D6 (672-1,377 bp) and human formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD; 1,232-1,668 bp) was used for DNA immunization of C57BL/6 female mice. Immunized mice showed elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), with peaks at 4 and 7 months postinjection. Periportal, portal, and intralobular liver inflammatory infiltrates were observed at histology. Mainly CD4+ lymphocytes, but also CD8+ and B lymphocytes, were found in the liver. Cytotoxic-specific T cells were found in both the liver and spleen of these animals. Mice developed anti-LKM1 and anti-LC1 antibodies of immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) subclass, against specific mouse autoantigens. The ALT levels correlated with both the presence of anti-LKM1/anti-LC1 antibodies and the presence of liver necroinflammation. In conclusion, in mice, DNA immunization against human autoantigens breaks tolerance and induces an autoimmune liver disease. Molecular mimicry between foreign and self-antigens explains the liver injury. This model of AIH resembles human type 2 AIH and will be helpful for the study of its pathogenesis.

  20. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  1. Effect of Rifaximin on Hepatic Fibrosis in Bile Duct-ligated Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Kak; Kwon, Oh Sang; Lee, Jong Joon; Park, Yeon Ho; Choi, Cheol Soo; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Choi, Duck Joo; Kim, Yun Soo; Kim, Ju Hyun

    2017-11-25

    The translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides from the gut can promote fibrosis in cirrhotic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rifaximin on hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct-ligated rat model. The bile duct ligation (BDL) was carried out for eight days (acute injury model: sham-operated rats [G1], BDL rats [G2], and BDL rats treated with rifaximin [G3]) or 22 days (chronic injury model: sham-operated rats [G4], BDL rats [G5], and BDL rats treated with rifaximin [G6]). Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/day) was administered daily via gavage after BDL. Liver function, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and hepatic hydroxyproline levels were measured. Moreover, a histological analysis of fibrosis contents was performed using sirius red stain. In the acute injury model, the liver function and TNF-α level were not improved after the rifaximin treatment. The hydroxyproline levels (µg/g liver tissue) in G1, G2, and G3 were 236.4±103.1, 444.8±114.4, and 312.5±131.6, respectively; and fibrosis contents (%) were 0.22±0.04, 1.64±0.53, and 1.66±0.44, respectively. The rifaximin treatment did not ameliorate acute BDL-induced fibrosis. In the chronic injury model, the hydroxyproline levels in G4, G5, and G6 were 311.5±72.9, 1,110.3±357.9, and 944.3±209.3, respectively; and fibrosis contents (%) were 0.19±0.03, 5.04±0.18, and 4.42±0.68, respectively (G5 vs. G6, p=0.059). The rifaximin treatment marginally ameliorated chronic BDL-induced fibrosis. Rifaximin did not reduce inflammation and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rat model.

  2. Hepatic 3D spheroid models for the detection and study of compounds with cholestatic liability

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Messner, Simon; Mortiz, Wolfgang; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) is poorly understood and its preclinical prediction is mainly limited to assessing the compound’s potential to inhibit the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Here, we evaluated two 3D spheroid models, one from primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and one from HepaRG cells, for the detection of compounds with cholestatic liability. By repeatedly co-exposing both models to a set of compounds with different mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and a non-toxic concentrated bile acid (BA) mixture for 8 days we observed a selective synergistic toxicity of compounds known to cause cholestatic or mixed cholestatic/hepatocellular toxicity and the BA mixture compared to exposure to the compounds alone, a phenomenon that was more pronounced after extending the exposure time to 14 days. In contrast, no such synergism was observed after both 8 and 14 days of exposure to the BA mixture for compounds that cause non-cholestatic hepatotoxicity. Mechanisms behind the toxicity of the cholestatic compound chlorpromazine were accurately detected in both spheroid models, including intracellular BA accumulation, inhibition of ABCB11 expression and disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the observed synergistic toxicity of chlorpromazine and BA was associated with increased oxidative stress and modulation of death receptor signalling. Combined, our results demonstrate that the hepatic spheroid models presented here can be used to detect and study compounds with cholestatic liability. PMID:27759057

  3. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  4. 3D Spatially Resolved Models of the Intracellular Dynamics of the Hepatitis C Genome Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Sebastian; Grillo, Alfio; Herrmann, Eva; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors. The NSPs are responsible for the replication of the vRNA and their movement is restricted to the ER surface. Therefore, in this study we developed fully spatio-temporal resolved models of the vRNA replication cycle of HCV. Our simulations are performed upon realistic reconstructed cell structures—namely the ER surface and the membranous webs—based on data derived from immunostained cells replicating HCV vRNA. We visualized 3D simulations that reproduced dynamics resulting from interplay of the different components of our models (vRNA, NSPs, and a host factor), and we present an evaluation of the concentrations for the components within different regions of the cell. Thus far, our model is restricted to an internal portion of a hepatocyte and is qualitative more than quantitative. For a quantitative adaption to complete cells, various additional parameters will have to be determined through further in vitro cell biology experiments, which can be stimulated by the results described in the present study. PMID:28973992

  5. Hepatic retransplantation in New England--a regional experience and survival model.

    PubMed

    Powelson, J A; Cosimi, A B; Lewis, W D; Rohrer, R J; Freeman, R B; Vacanti, J P; Jonas, M; Lorber, M I; Marks, W H; Bradley, J

    1993-04-01

    Hepatic retransplantation (reTx) offers the only alternative to death for patients who have failed primary hepatic transplantation (PTx). Assuming a finite number of donor organs, reTx also denies the chance of survival for some patients awaiting PTx. The impact of reTx on overall survival (i.e., the survival of all candidates for transplantation) must therefore be clarified. Between 1983 and 1991, 651 patients from the New England Organ Bank underwent liver transplantation, and 73 reTx were performed in 71 patients (11% reTx rate). The 1-year actuarial survival for reTx (48%) was significantly less than for PTx (70%, P < 0.05). This survival varied, dependent on the interval of time following PTx in which the reTx was performed (0-3 days, 57% survival; 4-30 days, 24%; 30-365 days, 54%; and > 365 days, 83%). Patients on the regional waiting list had an 18% mortality rate while awaiting transplantation. These results were incorporated into a mathematical model describing survival as a function of reTx rate, assuming a limited supply of donor livers. ReTx improves the 1-year survival rate for patients undergoing PTx but decreases overall survival (survival of all candidates) for liver transplantation. In the current era of persistently insufficient donor numbers, strategies based on minimizing the use of reTx, especially in the case of patients in whom chances of success are minimal, will result in the best overall rate of patient survival.

  6. Hepatic differentiation of human iPSCs in different 3D models: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Meier, Florian; Freyer, Nora; Brzeszczynska, Joanna; Knöspel, Fanny; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Greuel, Selina; Damm, Georg; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Deschl, Ulrich; Ross, James A; Beilmann, Mario; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source from which to derive distinct somatic cell types for in vitro or clinical use. Existent protocols for hepatic differentiation of hiPSCs are primarily based on 2D cultivation of the cells. In the present study, the authors investigated the generation of hiPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells using two different 3D culture systems: A 3D scaffold-free microspheroid culture system and a 3D hollow-fiber perfusion bioreactor. The differentiation outcome in these 3D systems was compared with that in conventional 2D cultures, using primary human hepatocytes as a control. The evaluation was made based on specific mRNA expression, protein secretion, antigen expression and metabolic activity. The expression of α-fetoprotein was lower, while cytochrome P450 1A2 or 3A4 activities were higher in the 3D culture systems as compared with the 2D differentiation system. Cells differentiated in the 3D bioreactor showed an increased expression of albumin and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, as well as secretion of α-1-antitrypsin as compared with the 2D differentiation system, suggesting a higher degree of maturation. In contrast, the 3D scaffold-free microspheroid culture provides an easy and robust method to generate spheroids of a defined size for screening applications, while the bioreactor culture model provides an instrument for complex investigations under physiological-like conditions. In conclusion, the present study introduces two 3D culture systems for stem cell derived hepatic differentiation each demonstrating advantages for individual applications as well as benefits in comparison with 2D cultures.

  7. Hepatic differentiation of human iPSCs in different 3D models: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Brzeszczynska, Joanna; Knöspel, Fanny; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Greuel, Selina; Damm, Georg; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Deschl, Ulrich; Ross, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source from which to derive distinct somatic cell types for in vitro or clinical use. Existent protocols for hepatic differentiation of hiPSCs are primarily based on 2D cultivation of the cells. In the present study, the authors investigated the generation of hiPSC-derived hepatocyte-like cells using two different 3D culture systems: A 3D scaffold-free microspheroid culture system and a 3D hollow-fiber perfusion bioreactor. The differentiation outcome in these 3D systems was compared with that in conventional 2D cultures, using primary human hepatocytes as a control. The evaluation was made based on specific mRNA expression, protein secretion, antigen expression and metabolic activity. The expression of α-fetoprotein was lower, while cytochrome P450 1A2 or 3A4 activities were higher in the 3D culture systems as compared with the 2D differentiation system. Cells differentiated in the 3D bioreactor showed an increased expression of albumin and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, as well as secretion of α-1-antitrypsin as compared with the 2D differentiation system, suggesting a higher degree of maturation. In contrast, the 3D scaffold-free microspheroid culture provides an easy and robust method to generate spheroids of a defined size for screening applications, while the bioreactor culture model provides an instrument for complex investigations under physiological-like conditions. In conclusion, the present study introduces two 3D culture systems for stem cell derived hepatic differentiation each demonstrating advantages for individual applications as well as benefits in comparison with 2D cultures. PMID:29039463

  8. Comparative Analysis of Hepatic CD14 Expression between Two Different Endotoxin Shock Model Mice: Relation between Hepatic Injury and CD14 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hozumi, Hiroyasu; Tada, Rui; Murakami, Taisuke; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2013-01-01

    CD14 is a glycoprotein that recognizes gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and exists in both membrane-bound and soluble forms. Infectious and/or inflammatory diseases induce CD14 expression, which may be involved in the pathology of endotoxin shock. We previously found that the expression of CD14 protein differs among the endotoxin shock models used, although the reasons for these differences are unclear. We hypothesized that the differences in CD14 expression might be due to liver injury, because the hepatic tissue produces CD14 protein. We investigated CD14 expression in the plasma and liver in the carrageenan (CAR)-primed and D-galN-primed mouse models of endotoxin shock. Our results showed that severe liver injury was not induced in CAR-primed endotoxin shock model mice. In this CAR-primed model, the higher mRNA and protein expression of CD14 was observed in the liver, especially in the interlobular bile duct in contrast to D-galN-primed-endotoxin shock model mice. Our findings indicated that the molecular mechanism(s) underlying septic shock in CAR-primed and D-galN-primed endotoxin shock models are quite different. Because CD14 expression is correlated with clinical observations, the CAR-primed endotoxin shock model might be useful for studying the functions of CD14 during septic shock in vivo. PMID:23308276

  9. Hepatitis C: Managing Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pain: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  10. Peromyscus as a model system for human hepatitis C: An opportunity to advance our understanding of a complex host parasite system.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Critchlow, Justin T; Kapoor, Amit; Friedman, David A; Hudson, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, there are 185 million people infected with hepatitis C virus and approximately 350,000 people die each year from hepatitis C associated liver diseases. Human hepatitis C research has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate in vivo model system. Most of the in vivo research has been conducted on chimpanzees, which is complicated by ethical concerns, small sample sizes, high costs, and genetic heterogeneity. The house mouse system has led to greater understanding of a wide variety of human pathogens, but it is unreasonable to expect Mus musculus to be a good model system for every human pathogen. Alternative animal models can be developed in these cases. Ferrets (influenza), cotton rats (human respiratory virus), and woodchucks (hepatitis B) are all alternative models that have led to a greater understanding of human pathogens. Rodent models are tractable, genetically amenable and inbred and outbred strains can provide homogeneity in results. Recently, a rodent homolog of hepatitis C was discovered and isolated from the liver of a Peromyscus maniculatus. This represents the first small mammal (mouse) model system for human hepatitis C and it offers great potential to contribute to our understanding and ultimately aid in our efforts to combat this serious public health concern. Peromyscus are available commercially and can be used to inform questions about the origin, transmission, persistence, pathology, and rational treatment of hepatitis C. Here, we provide a disease ecologist's overview of this new virus and some suggestions for useful future experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Geometric modeling of hepatic arteries in 3D ultrasound with unsupervised MRA fusion during liver interventions.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Maxime; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Tang, An; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Modulating the chemotherapy injection rate with regard to blood flow velocities in the tumor-feeding arteries during intra-arterial therapies may help improve liver tumor targeting while decreasing systemic exposure. These velocities can be obtained noninvasively using Doppler ultrasound (US). However, small vessels situated in the liver are difficult to identify and follow in US. We propose a multimodal fusion approach that non-rigidly registers a 3D geometric mesh model of the hepatic arteries obtained from preoperative MR angiography (MRA) acquisitions with intra-operative 3D US imaging. The proposed fusion tool integrates 3 imaging modalities: an arterial MRA, a portal phase MRA and an intra-operative 3D US. Preoperatively, the arterial phase MRA is used to generate a 3D model of the hepatic arteries, which is then non-rigidly co-registered with the portal phase MRA. Once the intra-operative 3D US is acquired, we register it with the portal MRA using a vessel-based rigid initialization followed by a non-rigid registration using an image-based metric based on linear correlation of linear combination. Using the combined non-rigid transformation matrices, the 3D mesh model is fused with the 3D US. 3D US and multi-phase MRA images acquired from 10 porcine models were used to test the performance of the proposed fusion tool. Unimodal registration of the MRA phases yielded a target registration error (TRE) of [Formula: see text] mm. Initial rigid alignment of the portal MRA and 3D US yielded a mean TRE of [Formula: see text] mm, which was significantly reduced to [Formula: see text] mm ([Formula: see text]) after affine image-based registration. The following deformable registration step allowed for further decrease of the mean TRE to [Formula: see text] mm. The proposed tool could facilitate visualization and localization of these vessels when using 3D US intra-operatively for either intravascular or percutaneous interventions to avoid vessel perforation.

  12. Computational design of hepatitis C vaccines using maximum entropy models and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gregory; Ferguson, Andrew

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 170 million people and kills 350,000 annually. Vaccination offers the most realistic and cost effective hope of controlling this epidemic. Despite 20 years of research, no vaccine is available. A major obstacle is the virus' extreme genetic variability and rapid mutational escape from immune pressure. Improvements in the vaccine design process are urgently needed. Coupling data mining with spin glass models and maximum entropy inference, we have developed a computational approach to translate sequence databases into empirical fitness landscapes. These landscapes explicitly connect viral genotype to phenotypic fitness and reveal vulnerable targets that can be exploited to rationally design immunogens. Viewing these landscapes as the mutational ''playing field'' over which the virus is constrained to evolve, we have integrated them with agent-based models of the viral mutational and host immune response dynamics, establishing a data-driven immune simulator of HCV infection. We have employed this simulator to perform in silico screening of HCV immunogens. By systematically identifying a small number of promising vaccine candidates, these models can accelerate the search for a vaccine by massively reducing the experimental search space.

  13. Hepatic blood flow measurement III. Total hepatic blood flow measured by ICG clearance and electromagnetic flowmeters in a canine septic shock model.

    PubMed Central

    Nxumalo, J L; Teranaka, M; Schenk, W G

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the ICG clearance method for the measurement of THBF in abnormal circulatory states remains questionable. In this study THBF measured by this method is compared with the electromagnetic flow technique in a canine spetic model. Good correlation is demonstrated between the two in normal control animals. However, in the septic animals the ICG underestimated the electromagnetic flow result by 20%. This is true in both the high and the low cardiac output septic shock pictures that emerge. In the septic animals, the total hepatic blood flow as measured by the ICG was almost equal to the portal vein flow alone measured by the electromagnetic flowmeters suggesting that this was the quantity it was measuring in this abnormal state. Pathophysiologic mechanisms that may explain the discrepancy are given. PMID:637587

  14. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, William B.; Bogle, I. David L.

    2016-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR) and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes meant that the

  15. The diagnostic value of a globulin/platelet model for evaluating liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Banu Demet; Altinkaya, Engin; Sevinc, Eylem; Ozen, Mustafa; Karaman, Hatice; Karaman, Ahmet; Poyrazoglu, Orhan

    2015-12-01

    Liver biopsy, which is considered the best method for evaluating hepatic fibrosis, has important adverse events. Therefore, non-invasive tests have been developed to determine the degree of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. To verify the usefulness of a new fibrosis index the globulin/platelet model in patients with chronic hepatitis B and to compare it with other noninvasive tests for predicting significant fibrosis. This study was the second to evaluate the globulin/platelet model in HBV patients. We retrospectively investigated 228 patients with chronic hepatitis B who performed liver biopsy from 2013 to 2014. The globulin/platelet model, APGA [AST/Platelet/Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase/Alfa-fetoprotein], FIB4, fibrosis index, cirrhosis discriminate score, and Fibro-quotient were calculated, and the diagnostic accuracies of all of the fibrosis indices were compared between the F0-2 (no-mild fibrosis) and F3-6 (significant fibrosis) groups. All of the noninvasive markers were significantly correlated with the stage of liver fibrosis (p < 0,001). To predict significant fibrosis (F ≥ 3), the area under the curve (95% CI) was found to be greatest for APGA (0.83 [0.74-0.86]), followed by FIB-4 (0.75[0.69-0.80]), the globulin/platelet model (0.74 [0.68-0.79]), fibrosis index (0.72 [0.6-0.78], cirrhosis discriminate score (0.71 [0.64-0.76]) and Fibro-quotient (0.62 [0.55-0.7]). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of APGA was significantly higher than that of the other noninvasive fibrosis markers (p < 0.05). While the APGA index was found to be the most valuable test for the prediction significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, GP model was the thirth valuable test. Therefore, we recommended that APGA could be used instead of the GP model for prediction liver fibrosis.

  16. The study on mechanism of the modified Chinese herbal compound, jianpijiedu, on a mouse model of hepatic carcinoma cachexia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoguo; Luo, Haoxuan; Deng, Liuxiang; Zhang, Shijun; Chen, Zexiong

    2016-10-01

    Various studies have investigated hepatic carcinoma cachexia, however, there is little published information regarding the effect of Chinese Medicine carcinoma cachexia. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of modified Chinese herbal compound jianpijiedu (MJPJD) on a mouse model of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia. C57BL/6 mice were randomized to five groups: Control (Group A); xenograft tumor (Group B); low concentration of MJPJD (Group C); high concentration of MJPJD (Group D) and medroxyprogesterone (MPA) combined with indometacin (IND; Group E). The mouse model of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia was established by abdominal injection of H22 hepatic carcinoma cells. Subsequently, the body weight, food intake and gastrocnemius weight were recorded, and the levels of interleukin (IL)‑lα, IL‑6, tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in ascites were detected by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The protein expression levels of muscle RING‑finger protein‑1 (MU‑RF1) and atrogin 1 were detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, and the mRNA levels in gastrocnemius were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Compared with the xenograft tumor group, the administration of MJPJD inhibited the increase in body weight and the volume of ascites, the consumption of gastrocnemius was reduced, the net weight of ascites was maintained, the food intake was enhanced and the levels of the cytokines IL‑lα, IL‑6, TNF‑α in ascites and the levels of MU‑RF1 and atrogin 1 proteins were reduced. These results indicated that MJPJD delays the pathological process of ascites‑induced hepatic carcinoma cachexia, and the mechanism of action may be correlated with a reduction in the levels of IL‑lα, IL‑6, TNF‑α and inhibiting the activation of the ubiquitin proteosome pathway.

  17. Transporter-Enzyme Interplay: Deconvoluting Effects of Hepatic Transporters and Enzymes on Drug Disposition Using Static and Dynamic Mechanistic Models.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2016-07-01

    A large body of evidence suggests hepatic uptake transporters, organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), are of high clinical relevance in determining the pharmacokinetics of substrate drugs, based on which recent regulatory guidances to industry recommend appropriate assessment of investigational drugs for the potential drug interactions. We recently proposed an extended clearance classification system (ECCS) framework in which the systemic clearance of class 1B and 3B drugs is likely determined by hepatic uptake. The ECCS framework therefore predicts the possibility of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) involving OATPs and the effects of genetic variants of SLCO1B1 early in the discovery and facilitates decision making in the candidate selection and progression. Although OATP-mediated uptake is often the rate-determining process in the hepatic clearance of substrate drugs, metabolic and/or biliary components also contribute to the overall hepatic disposition and, more importantly, to liver exposure. Clinical evidence suggests that alteration in biliary efflux transport or metabolic enzymes associated with genetic polymorphism leads to change in the pharmacodynamic response of statins, for which the pharmacological target resides in the liver. Perpetrator drugs may show inhibitory and/or induction effects on transporters and enzymes simultaneously. It is therefore important to adopt models that frame these multiple processes in a mechanistic sense for quantitative DDI predictions and to deconvolute the effects of individual processes on the plasma and hepatic exposure. In vitro data-informed mechanistic static and physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are proven useful in rationalizing and predicting transporter-mediated DDIs and the complex DDIs involving transporter-enzyme interplay. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. FXR agonist obeticholic acid reduces hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of toxic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Len; Mannaerts, Inge; Schierwagen, Robert; Govaere, Olivier; Klein, Sabine; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Farre, Ricard; Wenes, Mathias; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Nevens, Frederik; van Grunsven, Leo A.; Trebicka, Jonel; Laleman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic inflammation drives hepatic stellate cells (HSC), resulting in liver fibrosis. The Farnesoid-X receptor (FXR) antagonizes inflammation through NF-κB inhibition. We investigated preventive and therapeutic effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in toxic cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) intoxication. OCA was given during or after intoxication with vehicle-treated rats as controls. At sacrifice, fibrosis, hemodynamic and biochemical parameters were assessed. HSC activation, cell turn-over, hepatic NF-κB activation, pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines were determined. The effect of OCA was further evaluated in isolated HSC, Kupffer cells, hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC). OCA decreased hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis during TAA-administration and reversed fibrosis in established cirrhosis. Portal pressure decreased through reduced intrahepatic vascular resistance. This was paralleled by decreased expression of pro-fibrotic cytokines (transforming growth-factor β, connective tissue growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor β-receptor) as well as markers of hepatic cell turn-over, by blunting effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1). In vitro, OCA inhibited both LSEC and Kupffer cell activation; while HSC remained unaffected. This related to NF-κB inhibition via up-regulated IκBα. In conclusion, OCA inhibits hepatic inflammation in toxic cirrhotic rats resulting in decreased HSC activation and fibrosis. PMID:27634375

  19. Effects of strain and age on hepatic gene expression profiles in murine models of HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Loguinov, Alexandre; Fleming, Robert E; Vulpe, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is an iron overload disorder most commonly caused by a defect in the HFE gene. While the genetic defect is highly prevalent, the majority of individuals do not develop clinically significant iron overload, suggesting the importance of genetic modifiers. Murine hfe knockout models have demonstrated that strain background has a strong effect on the severity of iron loading. We noted that hepatic iron loading in hfe-/- mice occurs primarily over the first postnatal weeks (loading phase) followed by a timeframe of relatively static iron concentrations (plateau phase). We thus evaluated the effects of background strain and of age on hepatic gene expression in Hfe knockout mice (hfe-/-). Hepatic gene expression profiles were examined using cDNA microarrays in 4- and 8-week-old hfe-/- and wild-type mice on two different genetic backgrounds, C57BL/6J (C57) and AKR/J (AKR). Genes differentially regulated in all hfe-/- mice groups, compared with wild-type mice, including those involved in cell survival, stress and damage responses and lipid metabolism. AKR strain-specific changes in lipid metabolism genes and C57 strain-specific changes in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix protein genes were detected in hfe-/- mice. Mouse strain and age are each significantly associated with hepatic gene expression profiles in hfe-/- mice. These affects may underlie or reflect differences in iron loading in these mice.

  20. Micro-CT measurements of tumoral vessels supplied by portal circulation in hepatic colorectal metastasis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hong Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the micro CT findings of tumoral vessels supplied by portal circulation during establishment of hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer in a mouse model. Hepatic metastases were induced in 15 BALB/c mice through the injection of murine colonic adenocarcinoma tumor cells into the mesenteric vein. Micro-CT imaging of the tumoral vessels was obtained to clarify the microvascular architecture. We evaluated the sinusoidal structure, diameter of the tumoral vessels (DTV) and blood vessel density (BVD) according to tumor sizes ranging from 201 to 3,000 µm in diameter. A total of 116 tumors were observed on day 15 after cell injection. The mean diameter of a normal hepatic sinusoid was 11.7 ± 2.0 µm on micro CT. The DTV supplied by the portal vein of tumors measuring 1,001-1,500 µm in diameter was greater than that of tumors 200-1,000 µm in diameter. The mean BVD from the portal vein gradually decrease according to size of tumor from 201 to 3,000 µm in diameter (r(2)  = -0.584, P < 0.01). The characteristics of tumoral vessels supplied by portal circulation during establishment of hepatic colorectal metastases were well visualized with micro-CT imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032; Zhu, Bo

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid andmore » glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.« less

  2. Ethanol affects hepatitis C pathogenesis: humanized SCID Alb-uPA mouse model.

    PubMed

    Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Sun, Yimin; Simpson, Ronda L; Poluektova, Larisa E; Ganesan, Murali; Wisecarver, James L; Mercer, David F

    2014-07-18

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates the course of hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, worsens outcomes and contributes to the development of chronic infection that exhibits low anti-viral treatment efficiency. The lack of suitable in vivo models makes HCV-ethanol studies very difficult. Here, we examine whether chimeric SCID Alb-uPA mice transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HCV develop worsening pathology when fed ethanol. After 5 weeks of feeding, such mice fed chow+water (control) or chow+20% ethanol in water (EtOH) diets mice developed oxidative stress, decreased proteasome activity and increased steatosis. Importantly, HCV(+) mice in the control group cleared HCV RNA after 5 weeks, while the infection persisted in EtOH-fed mice at the same or even higher levels compared with pre-feeding HCV RNA. We conclude that in chimeric SCID Alb-uPA mice, EtOH exposure causes the complex biochemical and histological changes typical for alcoholic liver injury. In addition, ethanol feeding delays the clearance of HCV RNA thereby generating persistent infection and promoting liver injury. Overall, this model is appropriate for conducting HCV-ethanol studies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Tezosentan, a Novel Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, Markedly Reduces Rat Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Three Different Models

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Douglas G.; Kaldas, Fady; Anselmo, Dean; Katori, Masamichi; Shen, Xiu-Da; Lassman, Charles; Kaldas, Marian; Clozel, Martine; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dual endothelin (ET) receptor blockade in rat models of liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI). Three models of IRI were used: (1) in vivo total hepatic warm ischemia with portal shunting for 60 minutes with control (saline) and treatment groups (15 mg/kg tezosentan intravenously prior to reperfusion), (2) ex vivo hepatic perfusion after 24 hours of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution with control and treatment groups (10 mg/kg tezosentan in the perfusate), and (3) syngeneic liver transplantation (LT) after 24 hours of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution with control and treatment groups (10 mg/kg tezosentan intravenously prior to reperfusion). Tezosentan treatment significantly improved serum transaminase and histology after IRI in all 3 models. This correlated with reduced vascular resistance, improved bile production, and an improved oxygen extraction ratio. Treatment led to a reduction in neutrophil infiltration and interleukin-1 beta and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 production. A reduction in endothelial cell injury as measured by purine nucleoside phosphorylase was seen. Survival after LT was significantly increased with tezosentan treatment (90% versus 50%). In conclusion, this is the first investigation to examine dual receptor ET blockade in 3 models of hepatic IRI and the first to use the parenterally administered agent tezosentan. The results demonstrate that in both warm and cold IRI tezosentan administration improves sinusoidal hemodynamics and is associated with improved tissue oxygenation and reduced endothelial cell damage. In addition, reduced tissue inflammation, injury, and leukocyte chemotactic signaling were seen. These results provide compelling data for the further investigation of the use of tezosentan in hepatic IRI. PMID:19025917

  4. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy to detect hepatic necrosis after normothermic ischemia: animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Renan A.; Vollet-Filho, Jose D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Fernandez, Jorge L.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Sankarankutty, Ajith K.

    2015-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for liver failure. However, the success of the transplantation procedure depends on liver graft conditions. The tissue function evaluation during the several transplantation stages is relevant, in particular during the organ harvesting, when a decision is made concerning the viability of the graft. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy is a good option because it is a noninvasive and fast technique. A partial normothermic hepatic ischemia was performed in rat livers, with a vascular occlusion of both median and left lateral lobes, allowing circulation only for the right lateral lobe and the caudate lobe. Fluorescence spectra under excitation at 532 nm (doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser) were collected using a portable spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA). The fluorescence emission was collected before vascular occlusion, after ischemia, and 24 hours after reperfusion. A morphometric histology analysis was performed as the gold standard evaluation - liver samples were analyzed, and the percentage of necrotic tissue was obtained. The results showed that changes in the fluorescence emission after ischemia can be correlated with the amount of necrosis evaluated by a morphometric analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the generated model was 0.90 and the root mean square error was around 20%. In this context, the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique after normothermic ischemia showed to be a fast and efficient method to differentiate ischemic injury from viable tissues.

  6. A Proinflammatory Role of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Murine Immune-Mediated Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Katrin; Karimi, Khalil; Meiners, Jana; Voetlause, Ruth; Steinmann, Silja; Dammermann, Werner; Lüth, Stefan; Asghari, Farahnaz; Wegscheid, Claudia; Horst, Andrea K; Tiegs, Gisa

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) mediate inflammatory immune responses in the context of diseases triggered by the alarmin IL-33. In recent years, IL-33 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated liver diseases. However, the immunoregulatory function of ILC2s in the inflamed liver remains elusive. Using the murine model of Con A-induced immune-mediated hepatitis, we showed that selective expansion of ILC2s in the liver was associated with highly elevated hepatic IL-33 expression, severe liver inflammation, and infiltration of eosinophils. CD4 + T cell-mediated tissue damage and subsequent IL-33 release were responsible for the activation of hepatic ILC2s that produced the type 2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 during liver inflammation. Interestingly, ILC2 depletion correlated with less severe hepatitis and reduced accumulation of eosinophils in the liver, whereas adoptive transfer of hepatic ILC2s aggravated liver inflammation and tissue damage. We further showed that, despite expansion of hepatic ILC2s, 3-d IL-33 treatment before Con A challenge potently suppressed development of immune-mediated hepatitis. We found that IL-33 not only activated hepatic ILC2s but also expanded CD4 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells (Treg) expressing the IL-33 receptor ST2 in the liver. This Treg subset also accumulated in the liver during resolution of immune-mediated hepatitis. In summary, hepatic ILC2s are poised to respond to the release of IL-33 upon liver tissue damage through expression of type 2 cytokines thereby participating in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated hepatitis. Inflammatory activity of ILC2s might be regulated by IL-33-elicited ST2 + Tregs that also arise in immune-mediated hepatitis. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Molecular models of NS3 protease variants of the Hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Nelson J F; Arcuri, Helen A; Bonalumi, Carlos E; de Souza, Fátima P; Mello, Isabel M V G C; Rahal, Paula; Pinho, João R R; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2005-01-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately three percent of the world population. In view of the lack of vaccines against HCV, there is an urgent need for an efficient treatment of the disease by an effective antiviral drug. Rational drug design has not been the primary way for discovering major therapeutics. Nevertheless, there are reports of success in the development of inhibitor using a structure-based approach. One of the possible targets for drug development against HCV is the NS3 protease variants. Based on the three-dimensional structure of these variants we expect to identify new NS3 protease inhibitors. In order to speed up the modeling process all NS3 protease variant models were generated in a Beowulf cluster. The potential of the structural bioinformatics for development of new antiviral drugs is discussed. The atomic coordinates of crystallographic structure 1CU1 and 1DY9 were used as starting model for modeling of the NS3 protease variant structures. The NS3 protease variant structures are composed of six subdomains, which occur in sequence along the polypeptide chain. The protease domain exhibits the dual beta-barrel fold that is common among members of the chymotrypsin serine protease family. The helicase domain contains two structurally related beta-alpha-beta subdomains and a third subdomain of seven helices and three short beta strands. The latter domain is usually referred to as the helicase alpha-helical subdomain. The rmsd value of bond lengths and bond angles, the average G-factor and Verify 3D values are presented for NS3 protease variant structures. This project increases the certainty that homology modeling is an useful tool in structural biology and that it can be very valuable in annotating genome sequence information and contributing to structural and functional genomics from virus. The structural models will be used to guide future efforts in the structure-based drug design of a new generation of NS3 protease variants

  8. [Development of Markov models for economics evaluation of strategies on hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Yang, P C; Zhang, S X; Sun, P P; Cai, Y L; Lin, Y; Zou, Y H

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To construct the Markov models to reflect the reality of prevention and treatment interventions against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, simulate the natural history of HBV infection in different age groups and provide evidence for the economics evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China. Methods: According to the theory and techniques of Markov chain, the Markov models of Chinese HBV epidemic were developed based on the national data and related literature both at home and abroad, including the settings of Markov model states, allowable transitions and initial and transition probabilities. The model construction, operation and verification were conducted by using software TreeAge Pro 2015. Results: Several types of Markov models were constructed to describe the disease progression of HBV infection in neonatal period, perinatal period or adulthood, the progression of chronic hepatitis B after antiviral therapy, hepatitis B prevention and control in adults, chronic hepatitis B antiviral treatment and the natural progression of chronic hepatitis B in general population. The model for the newborn was fundamental which included ten states, i.e . susceptiblity to HBV, HBsAg clearance, immune tolerance, immune clearance, low replication, HBeAg negative CHB, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. The susceptible state to HBV was excluded in the perinatal period model, and the immune tolerance state was excluded in the adulthood model. The model for general population only included two states, survive and death. Among the 5 types of models, there were 9 initial states assigned with initial probabilities, and 27 states for transition probabilities. The results of model verifications showed that the probability curves were basically consistent with the situation of HBV epidemic in China. Conclusion: The Markov models developed can be used in economics evaluation of

  9. Cure model survival analysis after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Cucchetti, Alessando; Ferrero, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Donadon, Matteo; Russolillo, Nadia; Ercolani, Giorgio; Stacchini, Giacomo; Mazzotti, Federico; Torzilli, Guido; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cure is achieved when a patient population has the same mortality as cancer-free individuals; however, data regarding the probability of cure after hepatectomy of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) have never been provided. We aimed to assess the probability of being statistically cured from CLM by hepatic resection. Data from 1,012 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for CLM (2001-2012) were used to fit a nonmixture cure model to compare mortality after surgery to that expected for the general population matched by sex and age. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival was 18.9 and 15.8 %; the corresponding overall survival was 44.3 and 32.7 %. In the entire study population, the probability of being cured from CLM was 20 % (95 % confidence interval 16.5-23.5). After the first year, the mortality excess of resected patients, in comparison to the general population, starts to decline until it approaches zero 6 years after surgery. After 6.48 years, patients alive without tumor recurrence can be considered cured with 99 % certainty. Multivariate analysis showed that cure probabilities range from 40.9 % in patients with node-negative primary tumors and metachronous presentation of a single lesion <3 cm, to 1.5 % in patients with node positivity, and synchronous presentation of multiple, large CLMs. A model for the calculation of a cure fraction for each possible clinical scenario is provided. Using a cure model, the present results indicate that statistical cure of CLM is possible after hepatectomy; providing this information can help clinicians give more precise answer to patients' questions.

  10. A cost-effectiveness model to personalize antiviral therapy in naive patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Iannazzo, Sergio; Colombatto, Piero; Ricco, Gabriele; Oliveri, Filippo; Bonino, Ferruccio; Brunetto, Maurizia R

    2015-03-01

    Rapid virologic response is the best predictor of sustained virologic response with dual therapy in genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C, and its evaluation was proposed to tailor triple therapy in F0-F2 patients. Bio-mathematical modelling of viral dynamics during dual therapy has potentially higher accuracy than rapid virologic in the identification of patients who will eventually achieve sustained response. Study's objective was the cost-effectiveness analysis of a personalized therapy in naïve F0-F2 patients with chronic hepatitis C based on a bio-mathematical model (model-guided strategy) rather than on rapid virologic response (guideline-guided strategy). A deterministic bio-mathematical model of the infected cell dynamics was validated in a cohort of 135 patients treated with dual therapy. A decision-analytic economic model was then developed to compare model-guided and guideline-guided strategies in the Italian setting. The outcomes of the cost-effectiveness analysis with model-guided and guideline-guided strategy were 19.1-19.4 and 18.9-19.3 quality-adjusted-life-years. Total per-patient lifetime costs were €25,200-€26,000 with model-guided strategy and €28,800-€29,900 with guideline-guided strategy. When comparing model-guided with guideline-guided strategy the former resulted more effective and less costly. The adoption of the bio-mathematical predictive criterion has the potential to improve the cost-effectiveness of a personalized therapy for chronic hepatitis C, reserving triple therapy for those patients who really need it. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dysregulation of hepatic zinc transporters in a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qian; Li, Qiong; Zhong, Wei; Zhang, Jiayang; Sun, Xiuhua; Tan, Xiaobing; Yin, Xinmin; Sun, Xinguo; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency is a consistent phenomenon observed in patients with alcoholic liver disease, but the mechanisms have not been well defined. The objective of this study was to determine if alcohol alters hepatic zinc transporters in association with reduction of hepatic zinc levels and if oxidative stress mediates the alterations of zinc transporters. C57BL/6 mice were pair-fed with the Lieber-DeCarli control or ethanol diets for 2, 4, or 8 wk. Chronic alcohol exposure reduced hepatic zinc levels, but increased plasma and urine zinc levels, at all time points. Hepatic zinc finger proteins, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α), were downregulated in ethanol-fed mice. Four hepatic zinc transporter proteins showed significant alterations in ethanol-fed mice compared with the controls. ZIP5 and ZIP14 proteins were downregulated, while ZIP7 and ZnT7 proteins were upregulated, by ethanol exposure at all time points. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that chronic ethanol exposure upregulated cytochrome P-450 2E1 and caused 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation in the liver. For the in vitro study, murine FL-83B hepatocytes were treated with 5 μM 4-hydroxynonenal or 100 μM hydrogen peroxide for 72 h. The results from in vitro studies demonstrated that 4-hydroxynonenal treatment altered ZIP5 and ZIP7 protein abundance, and hydrogen peroxide treatment changed ZIP7, ZIP14, and ZnT7 protein abundance. These results suggest that chronic ethanol exposure alters hepatic zinc transporters via oxidative stress, which might account for ethanol-induced hepatic zinc deficiency. PMID:24924749

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  13. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the ...

  14. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  15. Hepatitis C: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Home » Hepatitis C » Hepatitis C Treatment Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Hepatitis C Treatment for Veterans and the Public Treatment ...

  16. Simultaneous quantification of hepatic MRI-PDFF and R2* in a rabbit model with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Xiaojing; Ma, Lin; Li, Shengli

    2018-06-20

    Quantification of hepatic fat and iron content is important for early detection and monitoring of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients. This study evaluated quantification efficiency of hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) by MRI using NAFLD rabbits. R2* was also measured to investigate whether it correlates with fat levels in NAFLD. NAFLD rabbit model was successfully established by high fat and cholesterol diet. Rabbits underwent MRI examination for fat and iron analyses, compared with liver histological findings. MR examinations were performed on a 3.0T MR system using multi-echo 3D gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequence. MRI-PDFF showed significant differences between different steatosis grades with medians of 3.72% (normal), 5.43% (mild), 9.11% (moderate) and 11.17% (severe), whereas this was not observed in R2*. Close correlation between MRI-PDFF and histological steatosis was observed (r=0.78, P=0.000). Hepatic iron deposit was not found in any rabbits. There was no correlation between R2* and either liver MRI-PDFF or histological steatosis. MR measuring MRI-PDFF and R2* simultaneously provides promising quantification of steatosis and iron. Rabbit NAFLD model confirmed accuracy of MRI-PDFF for liver fat quantification. R2* measurement and relationship between fat and iron of NAFLD liver need further experimental investigation.

  17. Cutthroat trout virus as a surrogate in vitro infection model for testing inhibitors of hepatitis E virus replication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debing, Yannick; Winton, James; Neyts, Johan; Dallmeier, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. Although most infections are self-limiting, mortality is particularly high in pregnant women. Chronic infections can occur in transplant and other immune-compromised patients. Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis E has been reported with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, however severe side effects were observed. We employed the cutthroat trout virus (CTV), a non-pathogenic fish virus with remarkable similarities to HEV, as a potential surrogate for HEV and established an antiviral assay against this virus using the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line. Ribavirin and the respective trout interferon were found to efficiently inhibit CTV replication. Other known broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA virus replication such as the nucleoside analog 2′-C-methylcytidine resulted only in a moderate antiviral activity. In its natural fish host, CTV levels largely fluctuate during the reproductive cycle with the virus detected mainly during spawning. We wondered whether this aspect of CTV infection may serve as a surrogate model for the peculiar pathogenesis of HEV in pregnant women. To that end the effect of three sex steroids on in vitro CTV replication was evaluated. Whereas progesterone resulted in marked inhibition of virus replication, testosterone and 17β-estradiol stimulated viral growth. Our data thus indicate that CTV may serve as a surrogate model for HEV, both for antiviral experiments and studies on the replication biology of the Hepeviridae.

  18. A Descriptive Model of Patient Readiness, Motivators, and Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Australian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%–3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. Method and Findings We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. Conclusion This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for

  19. A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for peer-based education to address lack of

  20. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  1. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood. Until recently, hepatitis C treatment required weekly injections and oral medications that many ... have varied from 14 to 50 percent. Acute hepatitis C also responds well to antiviral therapy. Causes Hepatitis C infection is caused by the ...

  2. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  3. A Randomized Trial of a Hepatitis Care Coordination Model in Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; McKnight, Courtney; Hettema, Jennifer; Khalili, Mandana; Min, Albert; Jordan, Ashly E.; Pepper, Nicole; Hall, Jessica; Hengl, Nicholas S.; Young, Christopher; Shopshire, Michael S.; Manuel, Jennifer K.; Coffin, Lara; Hammer, Hali; Shapiro, Bradley; Seewald, Randy M.; Bodenheimer, Henry C.; Sorensen, James L.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Perlman, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the efficacy of a hepatitis care coordination intervention to improve linkage to hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination and clinical evaluation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among methadone maintenance patients. Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 489 participants from methadone maintenance treatment programs in San Francisco, California, and New York City from February 2008 through June 2011. We randomized participants to a control arm (n = 245) and an intervention arm (n = 244), which included on-site screening, motivational-enhanced education and counseling, on-site vaccination, and case management services. Results. Compared with the control group, intervention group participants were significantly more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 41.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 19.4, 90.0) to receive their first vaccine dose within 30 days and to receive an HCV evaluation within 6 months (OR = 4.10; 95% CI = 2.35, 7.17). A combined intervention adherence outcome that measured adherence to HAV–HBV vaccination, HCV evaluation, or both strongly favored the intervention group (OR = 8.70; 95% CI = 5.56, 13.61). Conclusions. Hepatitis care coordination was efficacious in increasing adherence to HAV–HBV vaccination and HCV clinical evaluation among methadone patients. PMID:23947319

  4. Dietary fat intake promotes the development of hepatic steatosis independently from excess caloric consumption in a murine model.

    PubMed

    de Meijer, Vincent E; Le, Hau D; Meisel, Jonathan A; Akhavan Sharif, M Reza; Pan, Amy; Nosé, Vânia; Puder, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease results from overconsumption and is a significant and increasing cause of liver failure. The type of diet that is conducive to the development of this disease has not been established, and evidence-based treatment options are currently lacking. We hypothesized that the onset of hepatic steatosis is linked to the consumption of a diet with a high fat content, rather than related to excess caloric intake. In addition, we also hypothesized that fully manifested hepatic steatosis could be reversed by reducing the fat percentage in the diet of obese mice. C57BL/6J male mice were fed either a purified rodent diet containing 10% fat or a diet with 60% of calories derived from fat. A pair-feeding design was used to distinguish the effects of dietary fat content and caloric intake on dietary-induced hepatic lipid accumulation and associated injury. Livers were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for lipid metabolism-related gene expression. After 9 weeks, mice on the 60%-fat diet exhibited more weight gain, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis compared with mice on a 10%-fat diet with equal caloric intake. Furthermore, mice with established metabolic syndrome at 9 weeks showed reversal of hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and obesity when switched to a 10%-fat diet for an additional 9 weeks, independent of caloric intake. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that transcripts related to both de novo lipogenesis and increased uptake of free fatty acids were significantly up-regulated in mice pair-fed a 60%-fat diet compared with 10%-fat-fed animals. Dietary fat content, independent from caloric intake, is a crucial factor in the development of hepatic steatosis, obesity, and insulin resistance in the C57BL/6J diet-induced obesity model caused by increased uptake of free fatty acids and de novo lipogenesis. In addition, once established, all these features of the

  5. Osthole attenuates hepatic injury in a rodent model of trauma-hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35-40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway.

  6. Osthole Attenuates Hepatic Injury in a Rodent Model of Trauma-Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huang-Ping; Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Yung-Fong; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences show that osthole possesses anti-inflammatory properties and protective effects following shock-like states, but the mechanism of these effects remains unknown. The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) pathway exerts anti-inflammatory effects in injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether p38 MAPK plays any role in the osthole-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure maintained at approximately 35–40 mmHg for 90 minutes), followed by fluid resuscitation. During resuscitation, a single dose of osthole (3 mg/kg, intravenously) with and without a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 (2 mg/kg, intravenously), SB-203580 or vehicle was administered. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) concentrations and various hepatic parameters were measured (n = 8 rats/group) at 24 hours after resuscitation. The results showed that trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic myeloperoxidase activity, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6 levels, and plasma ALT and AST concentrations. These parameters were significantly improved in the osthole-treated rats subjected to trauma-hemorrhage. Osthole treatment also increased hepatic phospho-p38 MAPK expression compared with vehicle-treated trauma-hemorrhaged rats. Co-administration of SB-203580 with osthole abolished the osthole-induced beneficial effects on the above parameters and hepatic injury. These results suggest that the protective effect of osthole administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through p38 MAPK-dependent pathway. PMID:23755293

  7. Mechanistic Characterization and Molecular Modeling of Hepatitis B Virus Polymerase Resistance to Entecavir

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Ann W.; Langley, David R.; Colonno, Richard J.; Tenney, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Entecavir (ETV) is a deoxyguanosine analog competitive inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase that exhibits delayed chain termination of HBV DNA. A high barrier to entecavir-resistance (ETVr) is observed clinically, likely due to its potency and a requirement for multiple resistance changes to overcome suppression. Changes in the HBV polymerase reverse-transcriptase (RT) domain involve lamivudine-resistance (LVDr) substitutions in the conserved YMDD motif (M204V/I ± L180M), plus an additional ETV-specific change at residues T184, S202 or M250. These substitutions surround the putative dNTP binding site or primer grip regions of the HBV RT. Methods/Principal Findings To determine the mechanistic basis for ETVr, wildtype, lamivudine-resistant (M204V, L180M) and ETVr HBVs were studied using in vitro RT enzyme and cell culture assays, as well as molecular modeling. Resistance substitutions significantly reduced ETV incorporation and chain termination in HBV DNA and increased the ETV-TP inhibition constant (Ki) for HBV RT. Resistant HBVs exhibited impaired replication in culture and reduced enzyme activity (kcat) in vitro. Molecular modeling of the HBV RT suggested that ETVr residue T184 was adjacent to and stabilized S202 within the LVDr YMDD loop. ETVr arose through steric changes at T184 or S202 or by disruption of hydrogen-bonding between the two, both of which repositioned the loop and reduced the ETV-triphosphate (ETV-TP) binding pocket. In contrast to T184 and S202 changes, ETVr at primer grip residue M250 was observed during RNA-directed DNA synthesis only. Experimentally, M250 changes also impacted the dNTP-binding site. Modeling suggested a novel mechanism for M250 resistance, whereby repositioning of the primer-template component of the dNTP-binding site shifted the ETV-TP binding pocket. No structural data are available to confirm the HBV RT modeling, however, results were consistent with phenotypic analysis of comprehensive

  8. Mechanistic characterization and molecular modeling of hepatitis B virus polymerase resistance to entecavir.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ann W; Langley, David R; Colonno, Richard J; Tenney, Daniel J

    2010-02-12

    Entecavir (ETV) is a deoxyguanosine analog competitive inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase that exhibits delayed chain termination of HBV DNA. A high barrier to entecavir-resistance (ETVr) is observed clinically, likely due to its potency and a requirement for multiple resistance changes to overcome suppression. Changes in the HBV polymerase reverse-transcriptase (RT) domain involve lamivudine-resistance (LVDr) substitutions in the conserved YMDD motif (M204V/I +/- L180M), plus an additional ETV-specific change at residues T184, S202 or M250. These substitutions surround the putative dNTP binding site or primer grip regions of the HBV RT. To determine the mechanistic basis for ETVr, wildtype, lamivudine-resistant (M204V, L180M) and ETVr HBVs were studied using in vitro RT enzyme and cell culture assays, as well as molecular modeling. Resistance substitutions significantly reduced ETV incorporation and chain termination in HBV DNA and increased the ETV-TP inhibition constant (K(i)) for HBV RT. Resistant HBVs exhibited impaired replication in culture and reduced enzyme activity (k(cat)) in vitro. Molecular modeling of the HBV RT suggested that ETVr residue T184 was adjacent to and stabilized S202 within the LVDr YMDD loop. ETVr arose through steric changes at T184 or S202 or by disruption of hydrogen-bonding between the two, both of which repositioned the loop and reduced the ETV-triphosphate (ETV-TP) binding pocket. In contrast to T184 and S202 changes, ETVr at primer grip residue M250 was observed during RNA-directed DNA synthesis only. Experimentally, M250 changes also impacted the dNTP-binding site. Modeling suggested a novel mechanism for M250 resistance, whereby repositioning of the primer-template component of the dNTP-binding site shifted the ETV-TP binding pocket. No structural data are available to confirm the HBV RT modeling, however, results were consistent with phenotypic analysis of comprehensive substitutions of each ETVr position

  9. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model. PMID:18955295

  10. Gut-derived lipopolysaccharide promotes T-cell-mediated hepatitis in mice through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Le-Xing; Yan, He-Xin; Yang, Wen; Tang, Liang; Zhang, Hui-Lu; Liu, Qiong; Zou, Shan-Shan; He, Ya-Qin; Wang, Chao; Wu, Meng-Chao; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2012-09-01

    Robust clinical and epidemiologic data support the role of inflammation as a key player in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. Our previous data showed that gut-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS) promote HCC development by activating Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expressed on myeloid-derived cells. However, the effects of gut-derived LPS on other types of liver injury models are yet to be studied. The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of gut-derived LPS and TLR4 signaling in a T-cell-mediated hepatitis-Con A-induced hepatitis model, which mimic the viral hepatitis. Reduction of endotoxin using antibiotics regimen or genetic ablation of TLR4 in mice significantly alleviate Con A-induced liver injury by inhibiting the infiltration of T lymphocytes into the liver and the activation of CD4(+) T lymphocytes as well as the production of T helper 1 cytokines; in contrast, exogenous LPS can promote Con A-induced hepatitis and CD4(+) T cells activation in vivo and in vitro. Reconstitution of TLR4-expressing myeloid cells in TLR4-deficient mice restored Con A-induced liver injury and inflammation, indicating the major cell target of LPS. In addition, TLR4 may positively regulate the target hepatocellular apoptosis via the perforin/granzyme B pathway. These data suggest that gut-derived LPS and TLR4 play important positive roles in Con A-induced hepatitis and modulation of the gut microbiotia may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention to treat acute hepatitis induced by hepatitis virus infection, thus to prevent hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. The pathology of halothane hepatotoxicity in a guinea-pig model: a comparison with human halothane hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lunam, C. A.; Hall, P. M.; Cousins, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The pathology of halothane hepatotoxicity is described in detail in a guinea-pig model. Twenty-two of 40 guinea-pigs developed liver damage after exposure to 1% halothane in 21% O2 for 4 h. The other 18 animals showed no evidence of hepatic injury. Two distinct patterns of damage were identified: mild damage, in which livers had focal areas of necrosis, and severe damage, where necrosis was confluent around the terminal hepatic venules, often extending to the portal tracts. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was significantly elevated in guinea-pigs with severe liver damage. Hepatocytes in the damaged areas showed degenerative changes ranging from vacuolization to ballooning degeneration and necrosis. Inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes, were often present in the areas of necrosis. The pathology of mild and severe liver injury in the guinea-pig closely resembles the spectrum of injury observed in non-fatal halothane hepatitis in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2818932

  12. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2017-06-01

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  13. Modeling the long-term persistence of hepatitis A antibody after a two-dose vaccination schedule in Argentinean children.

    PubMed

    López, Eduardo L; Contrini, María Marta; Mistchenko, Alicia; Kieffer, Alexia; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Desai, Kamal; Rasuli, Anvar; Armoni, Judith

    2015-04-01

    Long-term seroprotection data are essential for decision-making on the need and timing of vaccine boosters. Based on data from longitudinal serological studies, modeling can provide estimates on long-term antibody persistence and inform such decision-making. We examined long-term anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody persistence in Argentinean children ≤15 years after the initial study where they completed a 2-dose course of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim 80U Pediatric, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood serum samples were taken at baseline, 2 weeks (post first dose), 6 months (pre-booster), 6.5 months (post-booster), 10 years and 14-15 years after first vaccine dose. We fitted 8 statistical model types, predominantly mixed effects models, to anti-HAV persistence data, to identify the most appropriate and best fitting models for our data set and to predict individuals' anti-HAV levels and seroprotection rates up to 30 years post vaccination. Fifty-four children (mean age at enrollment 30.4 months) were enrolled up to 15 years post first vaccine dose. There were 3 distinct periods of antibody concentration: rapid rise up to peak concentration post-booster, rapid decay from post-booster to 10 years, followed by slower decay. A 3-segmented linear mixed effects model was the most appropriate for the data set. Extrapolating based on the available 14-15-year follow-up, the analysis predicted that 88% of individuals anti-HAV seronegative prior to vaccination would remain seroprotected at 30 years post vaccination and lifelong seroprotection for vaccinees seropositive prior to vaccination. Currently available data demonstrate that Avaxim 80U Pediatric confers to most vaccinees a high level of seroprotection against hepatitis A infection for at least 20-30 years.

  14. An Inducible Transgenic Mouse Model for Immune Mediated Hepatitis Showing Clearance of Antigen Expressing Hepatocytes by CD8+ T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cebula, Marcin; Ochel, Aaron; Hillebrand, Upneet; Pils, Marina C.; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Hauser, Hansjörg; Wirth, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    The liver has the ability to prime immune responses against neo antigens provided upon infections. However, T cell immunity in liver is uniquely modulated by the complex tolerogenic property of this organ that has to also cope with foreign agents such as endotoxins or food antigens. In this respect, the nature of intrahepatic T cell responses remains to be fully characterized. To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms that regulate the CD8+ T cell responses in the liver, we established a novel OVA_X_CreERT2 mouse model. Upon tamoxifen administration OVA antigen expression is observed in a fraction of hepatocytes, resulting in a mosaic expression pattern. To elucidate the cross-talk of CD8+ T cells with antigen-expressing hepatocytes, we adoptively transferred Kb/OVA257-264-specific OT-I T cells to OVA_X_CreERT2 mice or generated triple transgenic OVA_X CreERT2_X_OT-I mice. OT-I T cells become activated in OVA_X_CreERT2 mice and induce an acute and transient hepatitis accompanied by liver damage. In OVA_X_CreERT2_X_OT-I mice, OVA induction triggers an OT-I T cell mediated, fulminant hepatitis resulting in 50% mortality. Surviving mice manifest a long lasting hepatitis, and recover after 9 weeks. In these experimental settings, recovery from hepatitis correlates with a complete loss of OVA expression indicating efficient clearance of the antigen-expressing hepatocytes. Moreover, a relapse of hepatitis can be induced upon re-induction of cured OVA_X_CreERT2_X_OT-I mice indicating absence of tolerogenic mechanisms. This pathogen-free, conditional mouse model has the advantage of tamoxifen inducible tissue specific antigen expression that reflects the heterogeneity of viral antigen expression and enables the study of intrahepatic immune responses to both de novo and persistent antigen. It allows following the course of intrahepatic immune responses: initiation, the acute phase and antigen clearance. PMID:23869228

  15. Arf Suppresses Hepatic Vascular Neoplasia in a Carcinogen-Exposed Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Stephanie E; Gurley, Kay E; Moser, Russell D; Kemp, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic haemangiosarcoma is a deadly malignancy whose aetiology remains poorly understood. Inactivation of the CDKN2A locus, which houses the ARF and p16INK4a tumour suppressor genes, is a common event in haemangiosarcoma patients, but the precise role of ARF in vascular tumourigenesis is unknown. To determine the extent to which ARF suppresses vascular neoplasia, we examined the incidence of hepatic vascular lesions in Arf-deficient mice exposed to the carcinogen urethane (i.p. 1 mg/g). Loss of Arf resulted in elevated morbidity and increased the incidence of both haemangiomas and incipient haemangiosarcomas. Suppression of vascular lesion development by ARF was heavily dependent on both Arf gene-dosage and the genetic strain of the mouse. Trp53-deficient mice also developed hepatic vascular lesions after exposure to urethane, suggesting that ARF signals through a p53-dependent pathway to inhibit the development of hepatic haemangiosarcoma. Our findings provide strong evidence that inactivation of Arf is a causative event in vascular neoplasia and suggest that the ARF pathway may be a novel molecular target for therapeutic intervention in haemangiosarcoma patients. PMID:22430984

  16. OVERVIEW OF AN INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATION ON EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF MODEL HEPATOTOXICANTS ON HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the Effects of Methapyrilene and Clofibrate on Hepatic Gene Expression: A Collaboration Between Laboratories and a Comparison of Platform and Analytical Approaches

    Roger G. Ulrich1, John C. Rockett2, G. Gordon Gibson3 and Syril Pettit4

    1 Rosetta Inpharmat...

  17. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  18. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  19. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Decline during Treatment with the Protease Inhibitor Danoprevir Using a Multiscale Model

    DOE PAGES

    Rong, Libin; Guedj, Jeremie; Dahari, Harel; ...

    2013-03-14

    The current paradigm for studying hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics in patients utilizes a standard viral dynamic model that keeps track of uninfected (target) cells, infected cells, and virus. The model does not account for the dynamics of intracellular viral replication, which is the major target of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In this paper, we describe and study a recently developed multiscale age-structured model that explicitly considers the potential effects of DAAs on intracellular viral RNA production, degradation, and secretion as virus into the circulation. We show that when therapy significantly blocks both intracellular viral RNA production and virus secretion,more » the serum viral load decline has three phases, with slopes reflecting the rate of serum viral clearance, the rate of loss of intracellular viral RNA, and the rate of loss of intracellular replication templates and infected cells, respectively. We also derive analytical approximations of the multiscale model and use one of them to analyze data from patients treated for 14 days with the HCV protease inhibitor danoprevir. Analysis suggests that danoprevir significantly blocks intracellular viral production (with mean effectiveness 99.2%), enhances intracellular viral RNA degradation about 5-fold, and moderately inhibits viral secretion (with mean effectiveness 56%). Finally, the multiscale model can be used to study viral dynamics in patients treated with other DAAs and explore their mechanisms of action in treatment of hepatitis C.« less

  20. Predictive model for inflammation grades of chronic hepatitis B: Large-scale analysis of clinical parameters and gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Weichen; Ma, Yanyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Jingyi; Zhang, Menghan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yi; Wu, Lijun; Pan, Yida; Zhang, Yitong; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Xinxin; Zhang, Zhanqing; Zhang, Jiming; Li, Hai; Lu, Lungen; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiucun; Yuan, Zhenghong; Liu, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Liver biopsy is the gold standard to assess pathological features (eg inflammation grades) for hepatitis B virus-infected patients although it is invasive and traumatic; meanwhile, several gene profiles of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) have been separately described in relatively small hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected samples. We aimed to analyse correlations among inflammation grades, gene expressions and clinical parameters (serum alanine amino transaminase, aspartate amino transaminase and HBV-DNA) in large-scale CHB samples and to predict inflammation grades by using clinical parameters and/or gene expressions. We analysed gene expressions with three clinical parameters in 122 CHB samples by an improved regression model. Principal component analysis and machine-learning methods including Random Forest, K-nearest neighbour and support vector machine were used for analysis and further diagnosis models. Six normal samples were conducted to validate the predictive model. Significant genes related to clinical parameters were found enriching in the immune system, interferon-stimulated, regulation of cytokine production, anti-apoptosis, and etc. A panel of these genes with clinical parameters can effectively predict binary classifications of inflammation grade (area under the ROC curve [AUC]: 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.93), validated by normal samples. A panel with only clinical parameters was also valuable (AUC: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.65-0.86), indicating that liquid biopsy method for detecting the pathology of CHB is possible. This is the first study to systematically elucidate the relationships among gene expressions, clinical parameters and pathological inflammation grades in CHB, and to build models predicting inflammation grades by gene expressions and/or clinical parameters as well. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Economic model of a birth cohort screening program for hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Lisa J; Pawar, Vivek S; Panchmatia, Hemangi R; Rubin, Jaime L; Davis, Gary L; Younossi, Zobair M; Capretta, James C; O'Grady, Michael J; Weinstein, Milton C

    2012-05-01

    Recent research has identified high hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among older U.S. residents who contracted HCV decades ago and may no longer be recognized as high risk. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of screening 100% of U.S. residents born 1946-1970 over 5 years (birth-cohort screening), compared with current risk-based screening, by projecting costs and outcomes of screening over the remaining lifetime of this birth cohort. A Markov model of the natural history of HCV was developed using data synthesized from surveillance data, published literature, expert opinion, and other secondary sources. We assumed eligible patients were treated with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin, with genotype 1 patients receiving a direct-acting antiviral in combination. The target population is U.S. residents born 1946-1970 with no previous HCV diagnosis. Among the estimated 102 million (1.6 million chronically HCV infected) eligible for screening, birth-cohort screening leads to 84,000 fewer cases of decompensated cirrhosis, 46,000 fewer cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 10,000 fewer liver transplants, and 78,000 fewer HCV-related deaths. Birth-cohort screening leads to higher overall costs than risk-based screening ($80.4 billion versus $53.7 billion), but yields lower costs related to advanced liver disease ($31.2 billion versus $39.8 billion); birth-cohort screening produces an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $37,700 per quality-adjusted life year gained versus risk-based screening. Sensitivity analyses showed that reducing the time horizon during which health and economic consequences are evaluated increases the ICER; similarly, decreasing the treatment rates and efficacy increases the ICER. Model results were relatively insensitive to other inputs. Birth-cohort screening for HCV is likely to provide important health benefits by reducing lifetime cases of advanced liver disease and HCV-related deaths and is cost-effective at conventional willingness

  2. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Ostojić, Rajko

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an unresolving, hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause that is characterized by the presence of periportal hepatitis on histologic examination, tissue autoantibodies in serum, and hypergammaglobulinemia. By international consensus, the designation autoimmune hepatitis has replaced alternative terms for the condition. Three types of autoimmune hepatitis have been proposed based on immunoserologic findings. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) or smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) (or both) in serum. Seventy percent of patients with type 1 of autoimmune hepatitis are women. This type is the most common form and accounts for at least 80% of cases. Type 2 is characterized by the presence of antibodies to liver-kidney microsome type 1 (anti-LKM1) in serum. Patients with this type of autoimmune hepatitis are predominantly children. Type 3 autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by the presence of antibodies to soluble liver antigen (anti-SLA) in serum. There are no individual features that are pathognomonic of autoimmune hepatitis, and its diagnosis requires the confident exclusion of other conditions. The large majority of patients show satisfactory response to corticosteroid (usually prednisone or prednisolone) therapy. For the past 30 years it has been customary to add azathioprine as a "steroid sparing" agent to allow lower doses of steroids to be used and remission, once achieved, can be sustained in many patients with azathioprine alone after steroid withdrawal. Patients with autoimmune hepatitis who have decompensated during or after corticosteroid therapy are candidates for liver transplantation.

  3. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  4. Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus Cell-to-Cell Spread Using a Stochastic Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Danyelle N.; Perelson, Alan S.; Dahari, Harel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has been proposed that viral cell-to-cell transmission plays a role in establishing and maintaining chronic infections. Thus, understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of cell-to-cell spread is fundamental to elucidating the dynamics of infection and may provide insight into factors that determine chronicity. Because hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from cell to cell and has a chronicity rate of up to 80% in exposed individuals, we examined the dynamics of HCV cell-to-cell spread in vitro and quantified the effect of inhibiting individual host factors. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we performed HCV spread assays and assessed the appropriateness of different stochastic models for describing HCV focus expansion. To evaluate the effect of blocking specific host cell factors on HCV cell-to-cell transmission, assays were performed in the presence of blocking antibodies and/or small-molecule inhibitors targeting different cellular HCV entry factors. In all experiments, HCV-positive cells were identified by immunohistochemical staining and the number of HCV-positive cells per focus was assessed to determine focus size. We found that HCV focus expansion can best be explained by mathematical models assuming focus size-dependent growth. Consistent with previous reports suggesting that some factors impact HCV cell-to-cell spread to different extents, modeling results estimate a hierarchy of efficacies for blocking HCV cell-to-cell spread when targeting different host factors (e.g., CLDN1 > NPC1L1 > TfR1). This approach can be adapted to describe focus expansion dynamics under a variety of experimental conditions as a means to quantify cell-to-cell transmission and assess the impact of cellular factors, viral factors, and antivirals. IMPORTANCE The ability of viruses to efficiently spread by direct cell-to-cell transmission is thought to play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of viral persistence. As such, elucidating the dynamics of cell

  5. [Use the Markov-decision tree model to optimize vaccination strategies of hepatitis E among women aged 15 to 49].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z M; Ji, S B; Shi, X L; Zhao, Y Y; Zhang, X F; Jin, H

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility of different hepatitis E vaccination strategies in women aged 15 to 49. Methods: The Markov-decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the cost-utility of three hepatitis E virus vaccination strategies. Parameters of the models were estimated on the basis of published studies and experience of experts. Both methods on sensitivity and threshold analysis were used to evaluate the uncertainties of the model. Results: Compared with non-vaccination group, strategy on post-screening vaccination with rate as 100%, could save 0.10 quality-adjusted life years per capital in the women from the societal perspectives. After implementation of screening program and with the vaccination rate reaching 100%, the incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) of vaccination appeared as 5 651.89 and 6 385.33 Yuan/QALY, respectively. Vaccination post to the implementation of a screening program, the result showed better benefit than the vaccination rate of 100%. Results from the sensitivity analysis showed that both the cost of hepatitis E vaccine and the inoculation compliance rate presented significant effects. If the cost were lower than 191.56 Yuan (RMB) or the inoculation compliance rate lower than 0.23, the vaccination rate of 100% strategy was better than the post-screening vaccination strategy, otherwise the post-screening vaccination strategy appeared the optimal strategy. Conclusion: Post-screening vaccination for women aged 15 to 49 from social perspectives seemed the optimal one but it had to depend on the change of vaccine cost and the rate of inoculation compliance.

  6. Application of a Combined Model with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) in Forecasting Hepatitis Incidence in Heng County, China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Gao, Lian; Liang, Bingyu; Huang, Jiegang; Zang, Ning; Liao, Yanyan; Yu, Jun; Lai, Jingzhen; Qin, Fengxiang; Su, Jinming; Ye, Li; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis is a serious public health problem with increasing cases and property damage in Heng County. It is necessary to develop a model to predict the hepatitis epidemic that could be useful for preventing this disease. Methods The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model were used to fit the incidence data from the Heng County CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) from January 2005 to December 2012. Then, the ARIMA-GRNN hybrid model was developed. The incidence data from January 2013 to December 2013 were used to validate the models. Several parameters, including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and mean square error (MSE), were used to compare the performance among the three models. Results The morbidity of hepatitis from Jan 2005 to Dec 2012 has seasonal variation and slightly rising trend. The ARIMA(0,1,2)(1,1,1)12 model was the most appropriate one with the residual test showing a white noise sequence. The smoothing factor of the basic GRNN model and the combined model was 1.8 and 0.07, respectively. The four parameters of the hybrid model were lower than those of the two single models in the validation. The parameters values of the GRNN model were the lowest in the fitting of the three models. Conclusions The hybrid ARIMA-GRNN model showed better hepatitis incidence forecasting in Heng County than the single ARIMA model and the basic GRNN model. It is a potential decision-supportive tool for controlling hepatitis in Heng County. PMID:27258555

  7. Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteriophages as Models for Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Emmoth, Eva; Rovira, Jordi; Rajkovic, Andreja; Corcuera, Elena; Wilches Pérez, Diego; Dergel, Irene; Ottoson, Jakob R; Widén, Frederik

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log 10 reductions of ≥4.2, ≥5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively. Escherichia coli coliphage ϕX174 displayed a lower reduction of 1.1, while Escherichia coli coliphage MS2 was unaffected. For ham at 600 MPa, the corresponding reductions were 4.1, 4.4, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.3 log 10 . LA treatment at 2.2 M gave log 10 reductions in the viral spectrum of 0.29-2.1 for swine liver and 0.87-3.1 for ham, with ϕX174 and MNV 1, respectively, as the most stable microorganisms. The ILP treatment gave log 10 reductions of 1.6-2.8 for swine liver, 0.97-2.2 for ham and 1.3-2.3 for sausage, at 15-60 J cm -2 , with MS2 as the most stable microorganism. The HPP treatment gave significantly (p < 0.05) greater virus reduction on swine liver than ham for the viruses at equivalent pressure/time combinations. For ILP treatment, reductions on swine liver were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than on ham for all microorganisms. The results presented here could be used in assessments of different strategies to protect consumers against virus contamination and in advice to food producers. Conservative model indicators for the pathogenic viruses could be suggested.

  8. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  9. Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a disease of worldwide distribution which occurs in endemic and epidemic form and is transmitted primarily by person-to-person contact through the fecal-oral route. Common source epidemics due to contamination of food are relatively common, and water-borne epidemics have been described less frequently. The presumed etiologic agent of hepatitis A has now been visualized by immune electron microscopic (IEM) techniques in early acute-illness-phase stools of humans with hepatitis A as well as in chimpanzees experimentally infected with material known to contain hepatitis A virus. In addition, several new serologic tests for the detection of antibody against hepatitis A virus have been described. These include complement fixation and immune adherence techniques. Current data suggest that hepatitis A is caused by a single viral agent lacking the morphologic heterogeneity of hepatitis B viral components and that there may be relative antigenic homogeneity between strains of virus recovered from various parts of the world. Serologic studies to date also indicate that hepatitis A virus is not a major contributing cause in post-transfusion hepatitis. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:183390

  10. Illness perceptions and explanatory models of viral hepatitis B & C among immigrants and refugees: a narrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owiti, John A; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Sweeney, Lorna; Foster, Graham R; Bhui, Kamaldeep S

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV) infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many countries with traditionally low prevalence (such as UK) are now planning interventions (screening, vaccination, and treatment) of high-risk immigrants from countries with high prevalence. This review aimed to synthesise the evidence on immigrants' knowledge of HBV and HCV that might influence the uptake of clinical interventions. The review was also used to inform the design and successful delivery of a randomised controlled trial of targeted screening and treatment. Five databases (PubMed, CINHAL, SOCIOFILE, PsycINFO & Web of Science) were systematically searched, supplemented by reference tracking, searches of selected journals, and of relevant websites. We aimed to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated knowledge of HBV and HCV among immigrants from high endemic areas to low endemic areas. Evidence, extracted according to a conceptual framework of Kleinman's explanatory model, was subjected to narrative synthesis. We adapted the PEN-3 model to categorise and analyse themes, and recommend strategies for interventions to influence help-seeking behaviour. We identified 51 publications including quantitative (n = 39), qualitative (n = 11), and mixed methods (n = 1) designs. Most of the quantitative studies included small samples and had heterogeneous methods and outcomes. The studies mainly concentrated on hepatitis B and ethnic groups of South East Asian immigrants residing in USA, Canada, and Australia. Many immigrants lacked adequate knowledge of aetiology, symptoms, transmission risk factors, prevention strategies, and treatment, of hepatitis HBV and HCV. Ethnicity, gender, better education, higher income, and English proficiency influenced variations in levels and forms of knowledge. Immigrants are vulnerable to HBV and HCV, and risk life-threatening complications from these infections because of poor knowledge and help

  11. Cutthroat trout virus as a surrogate in vitro infection model for testing inhibitors of hepatitis E virus replication.

    PubMed

    Debing, Yannick; Winton, James; Neyts, Johan; Dallmeier, Kai

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. Although most infections are self-limiting, mortality is particularly high in pregnant women. Chronic infections can occur in transplant and other immune-compromised patients. Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis E has been reported with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, however severe side effects were observed. We employed the cutthroat trout virus (CTV), a non-pathogenic fish virus with remarkable similarities to HEV, as a potential surrogate for HEV and established an antiviral assay against this virus using the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line. Ribavirin and the respective trout interferon were found to efficiently inhibit CTV replication. Other known broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA virus replication such as the nucleoside analog 2'-C-methylcytidine resulted only in a moderate antiviral activity. In its natural fish host, CTV levels largely fluctuate during the reproductive cycle with the virus detected mainly during spawning. We wondered whether this aspect of CTV infection may serve as a surrogate model for the peculiar pathogenesis of HEV in pregnant women. To that end the effect of three sex steroids on in vitro CTV replication was evaluated. Whereas progesterone resulted in marked inhibition of virus replication, testosterone and 17β-estradiol stimulated viral growth. Our data thus indicate that CTV may serve as a surrogate model for HEV, both for antiviral experiments and studies on the replication biology of the Hepeviridae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hepatitis KidsHealth / For Parents / Hepatitis Print en español Hepatitis What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The ...

  13. Hepatitis C: Mental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting Tested Just Diagnosed Treatment Choice Program ... Pain Mental Health Sex and Sexuality (for Hepatitis C) Success Stories FAQs For Health Care Providers Provider ...

  14. Circular RNA Profiling and Bioinformatic Modeling Identify Its Regulatory Role in Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xing-Ya; He, Chong-Xin; Wang, Yu-Qin; Sun, Chao; Li, Guang-Ming; Su, Qing; Pan, Qin; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) exhibit a wide range of physiological and pathological activities. To uncover their role in hepatic steatosis, we investigated the expression profile of circRNAs in HepG2-based hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat stimulation. Differentially expressed circRNAs were subjected to validation using QPCR and functional analyses using principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering, target prediction, gene ontology (GO), and pathway annotation, respectively. Bioinformatic integration established the circRNA-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network so as to identify the mechanisms underlying circRNAs' metabolic effect. Here we reported that hepatic steatosis was associated with a total of 357 circRNAs. Enrichment of transcription-related GOs, especially GO: 0006355, GO: 004589, GO: 0045944, GO: 0045892, and GO: 0000122, demonstrated their specific actions in transcriptional regulation. Lipin 1 (LPIN1) was recognized to mediate the transcriptional regulatory effect of circRNAs on metabolic pathways. circRNA-miRNA-mRNA network further identified the signaling cascade of circRNA_021412/miR-1972/LPIN1, which was characterized by decreased level of circRNA_021412 and miR-1972-based inhibition of LPIN1. LPIN1-induced downregulation of long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSLs) expression finally resulted in the hepatosteatosis. These findings identify circRNAs to be important regulators of hepatic steatosis. Transcription-dependent modulation of metabolic pathways may underlie their effects, partially by the circRNA_021412/miR-1972/LPIN1 signaling.

  15. INACTIVATION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS AND MODEL VIRUSES IN WATER BY FREE CHLORINE AND MONOCHLORAMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The kinetics and extent of inactivation of hepatitis A virus (HAV) as well as three other viruses, coxsackievirus B5 (CB5) and coliphages MS2 and X174, by 0.5 mg/l free chlorine, pH 6-10, and 10 mg/1 monochloramine, pH8, in 0.01 M phosphate buffer were determined. These results i...

  16. Deficient copper concentrations in dried-defatted hepatic tissue from ob/ob mice: A potential model for study of defective copper regulation in metabolic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Church, Stephanie J; Begley, Paul; Kureishy, Nina; McHarg, Selina; Bishop, Paul N; Bechtold, David A; Unwin, Richard D; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-05-08

    Ob/ob mice provide an animal model for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) in patients with obesity and type-2 diabetes. Low liver copper has been linked to hepatic lipid build-up (steatosis) in animals with systemic copper deficiency caused by low-copper diets. However, hepatic copper status in patients with NAFLD or NASH is uncertain, and a validated animal model useful for the study of hepatic copper regulation in common forms of metabolic liver disease is lacking. Here, we report parallel measurements of essential metal levels in whole-liver tissue and defatted-dried liver tissue from ob/ob and non-obese control mice. Measurements in whole-liver tissue from ob/ob mice at an age when they have developed NAFLD/NASH, provide compelling evidence for factitious lowering of copper and all other essential metals by steatosis, and so cannot be used to study hepatic metal regulation in this model. By marked contrast, metal measurements in defatted-dried liver samples reveal that most essential metals were actually normal and indicate specific lowering of copper in ob/ob mice, consistent with hepatic copper deficiency. Thus ob/ob mice can provide a model useful for the study of copper regulation in NAFLD and NASH, provided levels are measured in defatted-dried liver tissue. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel Interventional Management of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Nanosecond Pulses on Experimental Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinhua; Zhang, Ruiqing; Aji, Tuerganaili; Shao, Yingmei; Chen, Yonggang; Wen, Hao

    2017-07-03

    The nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is investigated as an alternative plan for benign hepatic hydatid cyst. Altogether 72 C57B6 mice were included. Normal group (n = 12) had no parasite injection and the other 60 mice were used to induce hydatid cyst in liver by injecting protoscolices in portal vein. The liver hydatid cysts were exposed to nsPEF with different doses and then follow up. The standard surgery was performed as positive control. The hydatid cyst growth was monitored by ultrasound; the morphology was checked by gross anatomy and pathology was tested by H&E stain. In nsPEF-treated groups no hepatic failure nor bleeding were observed. As a comparison, in the surgery group, high post-treatment complications occurred (50%). Significant parasite growth inhibition was seen in high nsPEF dose group as compared with control group (P < 0.05). Pathological analysis confirmed destruction of hydatid cyst with sharp demarcation defined by the electrodes. Laboratory analysis showed nsPEF stimulated a time-dependent infection and recoverable liver function. The traumatic reactions defined by white blood count was significant lower than surgery groups (P < 0.05).Preliminary studies demonstrate nsPEF ablation can be applied on hepatic hydatid by inhibiting parasite growth, destructing the cyst and stimulating infections.

  18. The effect of cocoa supplementation on hepatic steatosis, reactive oxygen species and LFABP in a rat model of NASH

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Non alcoholic steatohepatitis is hypothesised to develop via a mechanism involving fat accumulation and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to investigate if an increase in oxidative stress was associated with changes in the expression of liver fatty acid binding protein in a rat model of non alcoholic steatohepatitis and whether cocoa supplementation attenuated those changes. Methods Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high fat control diet, a high fat methionine choline deficient diet, or one of four 12.5% cocoa supplementation regimes in combination with the high fat methionine choline deficient diet. Results Liver fatty acid binding protein mRNA and protein levels were reduced in the liver of animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. Increased hepatic fat content was accompanied by higher levels of oxidative stress in animals with fatty liver disease when compared to controls. An inverse association was found between the levels of hepatic liver fatty acid binding protein and the level of hepatic oxidative stress in fatty liver disease. Elevated NADPH oxidase protein levels were detected in the liver of animals with increased severity in inflammation and fibrosis. Cocoa supplementation was associated with partial attenuation of these pathological changes, although the severity of liver disease induced by the methionine choline deficient diet prevented complete reversal of any disease associated changes. Red blood cell glutathione was increased by cocoa supplementation, whereas liver glutathione was reduced by cocoa compared to methionine choline deficient diet fed animals. Conclusion These findings suggest a potential role for liver fatty acid binding protein and NADPH oxidase in the development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis. Furthermore, cocoa supplementation may have be of therapeutic benefit in less sever forms of NASH. PMID:22081873

  19. Modeling the fiscal costs and benefits of alternative treatment strategies in the United Kingdom for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) infection causes substantial direct health costs, but also impacts broader societal and governmental costs, such as tax revenue and social protection benefits. This study investigated the broader fiscal costs and benefits of curative interventions for chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) that allow individuals to avoid long-term HCV attributed health conditions. A prospective cohort model, assessing the long-term fiscal consequences of policy decisions, was developed for HCV infected individuals, following the generational accounting analytic framework that combines age-specific lifetime gross taxes paid and governmental transfers received (i.e. healthcare and social support costs). The analysis assessed the burden of a theoretical cohort of untreated HCV infected patients with the alternative of treating these patients with a highly efficacious curative intervention (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir [LDV/SOF]). It also compared treating patients at all fibrosis stages (Stages F0-F4) compared to late treatment (Stage F4). Based on projected lifetime work activity and taxes paid, the treated cohort paid an additional £5,900 per patient compared to the untreated cohort. Lifetime government disability costs of £97,555 and £125,359 per patient for treated cohort vs no treatment cohort were estimated, respectively. Lifetime direct healthcare costs in the treated cohort were £32,235, compared to non-treated cohort of £26,424, with an incremental healthcare costs increase of £5,901 per patient. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) of total government benefits and savings relative to government treatment costs (including LDV/SOF) ranged from 1.8-5.6. Treating patients early resulted in 77% less disability costs, 43% lower healthcare costs, and 33% higher tax revenue. The ability to cure Hepatitis C offers considerable fiscal benefits beyond direct medical costs and savings attributed to reduced disability costs, public allowances, and improved tax revenue. Changes in parameters

  20. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... vaccines protect you? During your lifetime, you need: One series of the hepatitis A vaccine (two shots given at least 6 months apart) One series of the hepatitis B vaccine (three or four shots given over a 6-month period) Most people ...

  1. A Bayesian Approach for Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Pegylated Interferon α-2a in Hepatitis C Patients.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammad I

    2017-11-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study describes the population pharmacokinetics of PEG-IFN-α-2a in hepatitis C patients using a Bayesian approach. A possible association between patient characteristics and pharmacokinetic parameters is also explored. A Bayesian population pharmacokinetic modeling approach, using WinBUGS version 1.4.3, was applied to a cohort of patients (n = 292) with chronic HCV infection. Data were obtained from two phase III studies sponsored by Hoffmann-La Roche. Demographic and clinical information were evaluated as possible predictors of pharmacokinetic parameters during model development. A one-compartment model with an additive error best fitted the data, and a total of 2271 PEG-IFN-α-2a measurements from 292 subjects were analyzed using the proposed population pharmacokinetic model. Sex was identified as a predictor of PEG-IFN-α-2a clearance, and hemoglobin baseline level was identified as a predictor of PEG-IFN-α-2a volume of distribution. A population pharmacokinetic model of PEG-IFN-α-2a in patients with chronic HCV infection was presented in this study. The proposed model can be used to optimize PEG-IFN-α-2a dosing in patients with chronic HCV infection. Optimal PEG-IFN-α-2a selection is important to maximize response and/or to avoid potential side effects such as thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. NV15942 and NV15801.

  2. Proteomic Profiling of Liver and Plasma in Chronic Ethanol Feeding Model of Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Deer Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Amer, Samir M; Kaphalia, Lata; Soman, Kizhake V; Wiktorowicz, John E; Shakeel Ansari, Ghulam A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2017-10-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse, a major risk factor for such diseases as hepatitis and cirrhosis, impairs hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; key ethanol [EtOH]-metabolizing enzyme). Therefore, differentially altered hepatic and plasma proteomes were identified in chronic EtOH feeding model of hepatic ADH-deficient (ADH - ) deer mice to understand the metabolic basis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ADH - deer mice were fed 3.5 g% EtOH via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 3 months and histology of the liver assessed. Liver and plasma proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The proteins differentially expressed were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Histology of the liver showed panlobular steatosis and infiltration of T lymphocytes. Using the criteria of ≥1.5 for fold change (p-value ≤0.05) with expectation value (E ≤10 -3 ) and protein score (≥64), 18 proteins in the livers and 5 in the plasma of EtOH-fed mice were differentially expressed and identified. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, cytochrome b-5, endo A cytokeratin, ATP synthase, heat-shock 70 kD proteins, enoyl CoA hydratase, stress-70 protein, peroxiredoxin 1, and ornithine carbamoyl transferase were up-regulated in the livers. However, carbonic anhydrase 3, mitochondrial ATP synthase, aldolase 2, actin γ, laminin receptor, and carbamoyl phosphate synthase were down-regulated. Contrary to the increased expression of creatine kinase M-type, a decreased expression of serine protease inhibitor A3A precursor, sulfated glycoprotein-2 (clusterin), and apolipoprotein E isoforms were found in the plasma of EtOH group. Chronic EtOH feeding in ADH - deer mice causes steatosis and infiltration of T lymphocytes in the livers along with increased expression of proteins involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, fibrosis, fatty acid β oxidation and biogenesis, and decreased expression of proteins involved in ATP synthesis, carbohydrate

  3. Chronic intermittent hypoxia causes hepatitis in a mouse model of diet-induced fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Savransky, Vladimir; Bevans, Shannon; Nanayakkara, Ashika; Li, Jianguo; Smith, Philip L; Torbenson, Michael S; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2007-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) causes chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during sleep. OSA is associated with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in obese individuals and may contribute to progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from steatosis to NASH. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CIH induces inflammatory changes in the liver in mice with diet-induced hepatic steatosis. C57BL/6J mice (n = 8) on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet were exposed to CIH for 6 mo and were compared with mice on the same diet exposed to intermittent air (control; n = 8). CIH caused liver injury with an increase in serum ALT (461 +/- 58 U/l vs. 103 +/- 16 U/l in the control group; P < 0.01) and AST (637 +/- 37 U/l vs. 175 +/- 13 U/l in the control group; P < 0.001), whereas alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were unchanged. Histology revealed hepatic steatosis in both groups, with mild accentuation of fat staining in the zone 3 hepatocytes in mice exposed to CIH. Animals exposed to CIH exhibited lobular inflammation and fibrosis in the liver, which were not evident in control mice. CIH caused significant increases in lipid peroxidation in serum and liver tissue; significant increases in hepatic levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and CXC chemokine MIP-2; a trend toward an increase in TNF-alpha; and an increase in alpha1(I)-collagen mRNA. We conclude that CIH induces lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the livers of mice on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.

  4. The pathogenesis of diclofenac induced immunoallergic hepatitis in a canine model of liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Saravanakumar; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Spanel, Reinhard; Länger, Florian; Han, Hyoung-Yun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Yoon, Seokjoo; Borlak, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a common adverse drug reaction and may result in serious inflammatory reactions of the liver. To investigate mechanism of immunoallergic hepatitis beagle dogs were given 1 or 3 mg/kg/day (HD) oral diclofenac for 28 days. HD diclofenac treatment caused liver function test abnormalities, reduced haematocrit and haemoglobin but induced reticulocyte, WBC, platelet, neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Histopathology evidenced hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion, apoptosis, acute lobular hepatitis, granulomas and mastocytosis. Whole genome scans revealed 663 significantly regulated genes of which 82, 47 and 25 code for stress, immune response and inflammation. Immunopathology confirmed strong induction of IgM, the complement factors C3&B, SAA, SERPING1 and others of the classical and alternate pathway. Alike, marked expression of CD205 and CD74 in Kupffer cells and lymphocytes facilitate antigen presentation and B-cell differentiation. The highly induced HIF1A and KLF6 protein expression in mast cells and macrophages sustain inflammation. Furthermore, immunogenomics discovered 24, 17, 6 and 11 significantly regulated marker genes to hallmark M1/M2 polarized macrophages, lymphocytic and granulocytic infiltrates; note, the latter was confirmed by CAE staining. Other highly regulated genes included alpha-2-macroglobulin, CRP, hepcidin, IL1R1, S100A8 and CCL20. Diclofenac treatment caused unprecedented induction of myeloperoxidase in macrophages and oxidative stress as shown by SOD1/SOD2 immunohistochemistry. Lastly, bioinformatics defined molecular circuits of inflammation and consisted of 161 regulated genes. Altogether, the mechanism of diclofenac induced liver hypersensitivity reactions involved oxidative stress, macrophage polarization, mastocytosis, complement activation and an erroneous programming of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:29296203

  5. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode’s ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  6. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Background. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose. PMID:25435714

  7. Modelling the burden of hepatitis C infection among people who inject drugs in Norway, 1973-2030.

    PubMed

    Meijerink, Hinta; White, Richard A; Løvlie, Astrid; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; Dalgard, Olav; Amundsen, Ellen J; Melum, Espen; Kløvstad, Hilde

    2017-08-03

    Lack of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence data in (Norwegian) high-risk groups impedes the ability to make informed decisions on prevention measures. Thus we rely on modelling to estimate the incidence and burden of HCV infections. We constructed a compartmental model for HCV infections in Norway among active and former people who inject drugs (PWIDs). We based yearly transition rates on literature. The model was fitted to absolute numbers of hepatitis C associated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death from national data sources (2000-2013). We estimated the number (95%CI) of HCV infections, cirrhosis, HCC and death and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) due to HCV infections in Norway, 1973-2030. We assumed treatment rates in the projected period were similar to those in 2013. The estimated proportion of chronic HCV (including those with cirrhosis and HCC) among PWIDs was stable from 2000 (49%; 4441/9108) to 2013 (43%; 3667/8587). We estimated that the incidence of HCV among PWIDs was 381 new infections in 2015. The estimated number of people with cirrhosis, HCC, and liver transplant was predicted to increase until 2022 (1537 people). DALYs among active PWIDs estimated to peak in 2006 (3480 DALYs) and decrease to 1870 DALYs in 2030. Chronic HCV infection contributes most to the total burden of HCV infection, and peaks at 1917 DALYs (52%) in 2007. The burden of HCV related to PWID increased until 2006 with 81/100,000 DALYs inhabitants and decreased to 68/100,000 DALYs in 2015. The burden of HCV associated with injecting drug use is considerable, with chronic HCV infection contributing most to the total burden. This model can be used to estimate the impact of different interventions on the HCV burden in Norway and to perform cost-benefit analyses of various public health measures.

  8. Metabolite screening of aromatic amine hair dyes using in vitro hepatic models.

    PubMed

    Skare, J A; Hewitt, N J; Doyle, E; Powrie, R; Elcombe, C

    2009-11-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic amines are widely used ingredients in permanent hair dyes. However, little has been published on their potential for oxidation via hepatic cytochrome P450s. Therefore, the authors screened nine such compounds for their potential to undergo oxidative metabolism in human liver microsomes. Toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA), p-aminophenol, m-aminophenol, p-methylaminophenol, N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine, and 1-hydroxyethyl-4,5-diaminopyrazole showed no evidence of oxidative metabolism. Oxidized metabolites of 4-amino-2-hydroxytoluene (AHT), 2-methyl-5- hydroxyethylaminophenol (MHEAP), and phenyl methyl pyrazolone (PMP) were detected, but there was no evidence of beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent covalent binding to microsomal protein, suggesting that these are not reactive metabolites. Metabolism of AHT, MHEAP, PMP, and TDA was further studied in human hepatocytes. All these compounds underwent conjugation, but no oxidative metabolites were found. The results suggest that none of the hair dye ingredients tested showed evidence of hepatic metabolism to potentially biologically reactive oxidized metabolites.

  9. Hepatic glucocorticoid receptor antagonism is sufficient to reduce elevated hepatic glucose output and improve glucose control in animal models of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Peer B; von Geldern, Thomas W; Ohman, Lars; Osterland, Marie; Wang, Jiahong; Zinker, Bradley; Wilcox, Denise; Nguyen, Phong T; Mika, Amanda; Fung, Steven; Fey, Thomas; Goos-Nilsson, Annika; Grynfarb, Marlena; Barkhem, Tomas; Marsh, Kennan; Beno, David W A; Nga-Nguyen, Bach; Kym, Philip R; Link, James T; Tu, Noah; Edgerton, Dale S; Cherrington, Alan; Efendic, Suad; Lane, Benjamin C; Opgenorth, Terry J

    2005-07-01

    Glucocorticoids amplify endogenous glucose production in type 2 diabetes by increasing hepatic glucose output. Systemic glucocorticoid blockade lowers glucose levels in type 2 diabetes, but with several adverse consequences. It has been proposed, but never demonstrated, that a liver-selective glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (LSGRA) would be sufficient to reduce hepatic glucose output (HGO) and restore glucose control to type 2 diabetic patients with minimal systemic side effects. A-348441 [(3b,5b,7a,12a)-7,12-dihydroxy-3-{2-[{4-[(11b,17b)-17-hydroxy-3-oxo-17-prop-1-ynylestra-4,9-dien-11-yl] phenyl}(methyl)amino]ethoxy}cholan-24-oic acid] represents the first LSGRA with significant antidiabetic activity. A-348441 antagonizes glucocorticoid-up-regulated hepatic genes, normalizes postprandial glucose in diabetic mice, and demonstrates synergistic effects on blood glucose in these animals when coadministered with an insulin sensitizer. In insulin-resistant Zucker fa/fa rats and fasted conscious normal dogs, A-348441 reduces HGO with no acute effect on peripheral glucose uptake. A-348441 has no effect on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis or on other measured glucocorticoid-induced extrahepatic responses. Overall, A-348441 demonstrates that an LSGRA is sufficient to reduce elevated HGO and normalize blood glucose and may provide a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Validation of Ten Noninvasive Diagnostic Models for Prediction of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jieyao; Hou, Jinlin; Ding, Huiguo; Chen, Guofeng; Xie, Qing; Wang, Yuming; Zeng, Minde; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Noninvasive models have been developed for fibrosis assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy in evaluating liver fibrosis of these methods have not been validated and compared in the same group of patients. The aim of this study was to verify the diagnostic performance and reproducibility of ten reported noninvasive models in a large cohort of Asian CHB patients. Methods The diagnostic performance of ten noninvasive models (HALF index, FibroScan, S index, Zeng model, Youyi model, Hui model, APAG, APRI, FIB-4 and FibroTest) was assessed against the liver histology by ROC curve analysis in CHB patients. The reproducibility of the ten models were evaluated by recalculating the diagnostic values at the given cut-off values defined by the original studies. Results Six models (HALF index, FibroScan, Zeng model, Youyi model, S index and FibroTest) had AUROCs higher than 0.70 in predicting any fibrosis stage and 2 of them had best diagnostic performance with AUROCs to predict F≥2, F≥3 and F4 being 0.83, 0.89 and 0.89 for HALF index, 0.82, 0.87 and 0.87 for FibroScan, respectively. Four models (HALF index, FibroScan, Zeng model and Youyi model) showed good diagnostic values at given cut-offs. Conclusions HALF index, FibroScan, Zeng model, Youyi model, S index and FibroTest show a good diagnostic performance and all of them, except S index and FibroTest, have good reproducibility for evaluating liver fibrosis in CHB patients. Registration Number ChiCTR-DCS-07000039. PMID:26709706

  11. Hepatic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    McCord, Kelly W; Webb, Craig B

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews the common pathophysiology that constitutes hepatic dysfunction, regardless of the inciting cause. The systemic consequences of liver failure and the impact of this condition on other organ systems are highlighted. The diagnostic tests available for determining the cause and extent of liver dysfunction are outlined, treatment strategies aimed at supporting hepatic health and recovery are discussed, and prognosis is briefly covered. The article emphasizes the fact that because of the central role of the liver in maintaining normal systemic homeostasis, hepatic dysfunction cannot be effectively addressed as an isolated entity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic Modeling of Human Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Predicts Higher Risk of Hypoglycemic Events in Rigorous Insulin Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    König, Matthias; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A major problem in the insulin therapy of patients with diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is the increased occurrence of hypoglycemic events which, if left untreated, may cause confusion or fainting and in severe cases seizures, coma, and even death. To elucidate the potential contribution of the liver to hypoglycemia in T2DM we applied a detailed kinetic model of human hepatic glucose metabolism to simulate changes in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism induced by deviations of the hormones insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine from their normal plasma profiles. Our simulations reveal in line with experimental and clinical data from a multitude of studies in T2DM, (i) significant changes in the relative contribution of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism to hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization; (ii) decreased postprandial glycogen storage as well as increased glycogen depletion in overnight fasting and short term fasting; and (iii) a shift of the set point defining the switch between hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization to elevated plasma glucose levels, respectively, in T2DM relative to normal, healthy subjects. Intriguingly, our model simulations predict a restricted gluconeogenic response of the liver under impaired hormonal signals observed in T2DM, resulting in an increased risk of hypoglycemia. The inability of hepatic glucose metabolism to effectively counterbalance a decline of the blood glucose level becomes even more pronounced in case of tightly controlled insulin treatment. Given this Janus face mode of action of insulin, our model simulations underline the great potential that normalization of the plasma glucagon profile may have for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:22977253

  13. Alogliptin alleviates hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by promoting CPT1a expression via Thr172 phosphorylation of AMPKα in the liver.

    PubMed

    Tobita, Hiroshi; Sato, Shuichi; Yazaki, Tomotaka; Mishiro, Tsuyoshi; Ishimura, Norihisa; Ishihara, Shunnji; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2018-05-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO) has been reported to be effective for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alogliptin (ALO) may have efficacy against NAFLD progression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study examined the effectiveness of ALO in a rodent model of NAFLD and diabetes mellitus. KK‑Ay mice were used to produce an NAFLD model via administration of a choline‑deficient (CD) diet. To examine the effects of alogliptin, KK‑Ay mice were provided with a CD diet with 0.03% ALO and/or 0.02% PIO orally for 8 weeks. Biochemical parameters, pathological alterations and hepatic mRNA levels associated with fatty acid metabolism were assessed. Severe hepatic steatosis was observed in KK‑Ay mice fed with a CD diet, which was alleviated by the administration of ALO and/or PIO. ALO administration increased the hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) mRNA expression level and enhanced the Thr172 phosphorylation of AMP‑activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) in the liver. PIO administration tended to decrease the hepatic fatty acid synthase mRNA expression level and increase the serum adiponectin level. Homeostasis model of assessment‑insulin resistance values tended to improve with ALO and PIO administration. ALO and PIO alleviated hepatic steatosis in KK‑Ay mice fed with a CD diet. ALO increased hepatic mRNA expression levels associated with fatty acid oxidation. In addition, the results of the present study suggested that ALO promotes CPT1a expression via Thr172 phosphorylation of AMPKα.

  14. Hepatic overexpression of steroid sulfatase ameliorates mouse models of obesity and type 2 diabetes through sex-specific mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M; Selcer, Kyle W; Xie, Wen

    2014-03-21

    The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome.

  15. Pig model mimicking chronic hepatitis E virus infection in immunocompromised patients to assess immune correlates during chronicity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian M.; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Yugo, Danielle M.; Heffron, C. Lynn; Rogers, Adam J.; Kenney, Scott P.; Tian, Debin; Matzinger, Shannon R.; Overend, Christopher; Catanzaro, Nicholas; LeRoith, Tanya; Wang, Heng; Piñeyro, Pablo; Lindstrom, Nicole; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients, although the mechanism remains unknown because of the lack of an animal model. We successfully developed a pig model of chronic HEV infection and examined immune correlates leading to chronicity. The conditions of immunocompromised patients were mimicked by treating pigs with an immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Immunocompromised pigs infected with HEV progressed to chronicity, because 8/10 drug-treated HEV-infected pigs continued fecal virus shedding beyond the acute phase of infection, whereas the majority (7/10) of mock-treated HEV-infected pigs cleared fecal viral shedding at 8 wk postinfection. During chronic infection, serum levels of the liver enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase and fecal virus shedding were significantly higher in immunocompromised HEV-infected pigs. To identify potential immune correlates of chronic infection, we determined serum levels of cytokines and cell-mediated immune responses in pigs. Results showed that HEV infection of immunocompromised pigs reduced the serum levels of Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IL-12, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, particularly during the acute phase of infection. Furthermore IFN-γ–specific CD4+ T-cell responses were reduced in immunocompromised pigs during the acute phase of infection, but TNF-α–specific CD8+ T-cell responses increased during the chronic phase of infection. Thus, active suppression of cell-mediated immune responses under immunocompromised conditions may facilitate the establishment of chronic HEV infection. This pig model will aid in delineating the mechanisms of chronic HEV infection and in developing effective therapeutics against chronic hepatitis E. PMID:28630341

  16. Pig model mimicking chronic hepatitis E virus infection in immunocompromised patients to assess immune correlates during chronicity.

    PubMed

    Cao, Dianjun; Cao, Qian M; Subramaniam, Sakthivel; Yugo, Danielle M; Heffron, C Lynn; Rogers, Adam J; Kenney, Scott P; Tian, Debin; Matzinger, Shannon R; Overend, Christopher; Catanzaro, Nicholas; LeRoith, Tanya; Wang, Heng; Piñeyro, Pablo; Lindstrom, Nicole; Clark-Deener, Sherrie; Yuan, Lijuan; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2017-07-03

    Chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant clinical problem in immunocompromised individuals such as organ transplant recipients, although the mechanism remains unknown because of the lack of an animal model. We successfully developed a pig model of chronic HEV infection and examined immune correlates leading to chronicity. The conditions of immunocompromised patients were mimicked by treating pigs with an immunosuppressive regimen including cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. Immunocompromised pigs infected with HEV progressed to chronicity, because 8/10 drug-treated HEV-infected pigs continued fecal virus shedding beyond the acute phase of infection, whereas the majority (7/10) of mock-treated HEV-infected pigs cleared fecal viral shedding at 8 wk postinfection. During chronic infection, serum levels of the liver enzyme γ-glutamyl transferase and fecal virus shedding were significantly higher in immunocompromised HEV-infected pigs. To identify potential immune correlates of chronic infection, we determined serum levels of cytokines and cell-mediated immune responses in pigs. Results showed that HEV infection of immunocompromised pigs reduced the serum levels of Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IL-12, and Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10, particularly during the acute phase of infection. Furthermore IFN-γ-specific CD4 + T-cell responses were reduced in immunocompromised pigs during the acute phase of infection, but TNF-α-specific CD8 + T-cell responses increased during the chronic phase of infection. Thus, active suppression of cell-mediated immune responses under immunocompromised conditions may facilitate the establishment of chronic HEV infection. This pig model will aid in delineating the mechanisms of chronic HEV infection and in developing effective therapeutics against chronic hepatitis E.

  17. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... People ALF Near You Events ALF Blogs Financial Information Policies Advocacy Patient Advisory Council Media Center Careers ... and abdomen (ascites) or hepatic encephalopathy. For more information about cirrhosis of the liver and symptoms, call ...

  18. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 12 hours after birth, followed by a second shot 1 month later, and the third shot 5 months ... the hepatitis B virus should get the first shot within 1 to 2 months after birth, the second shot ...

  19. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been available since the 1980s. A three-shot series will protect and contribute to the elimination of this highly infectious disease. Up to 1.4 million Americans have chronic HBV infection. Hepatitis ...

  20. Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Assess Propofol Hepatic and Renal Glucuronidation in Isolation: Utility of In Vitro and In Vivo Data

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine L.; Gertz, Michael; Houston, J. Brian

    2013-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach was used to assess the prediction accuracy of propofol hepatic and extrahepatic metabolic clearance and to address previously reported underprediction of in vivo clearance based on static in vitro–in vivo extrapolation methods. The predictive capacity of propofol intrinsic clearance data (CLint) obtained in human hepatocytes and liver and kidney microsomes was assessed using the PBPK model developed in MATLAB software. Microsomal data obtained by both substrate depletion and metabolite formation methods and in the presence of 2% bovine serum albumin were considered in the analysis. Incorporation of hepatic and renal in vitro metabolic clearance in the PBPK model resulted in underprediction of propofol clearance regardless of the source of in vitro data; the predicted value did not exceed 35% of the observed clearance. Subsequently, propofol clinical data from three dose levels in intact patients and anhepatic subjects were used for the optimization of hepatic and renal CLint in a simultaneous fitting routine. Optimization process highlighted that renal glucuronidation clearance was underpredicted to a greater extent than liver clearance, requiring empirical scaling factors of 17 and 9, respectively. The use of optimized clearance parameters predicted hepatic and renal extraction ratios within 20% of the observed values, reported in an additional independent clinical study. This study highlights the complexity involved in assessing the contribution of extrahepatic clearance mechanisms and illustrates the application of PBPK modeling, in conjunction with clinical data, to assess prediction of clearance from in vitro data for each tissue individually. PMID:23303442

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Hepatitis C Prevalence Reduction with Antiviral Treatment Scale-Up in Persons Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago

    DOE PAGES

    Echevarria, Desarae; Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; ...

    2015-08-21

    New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) provide an opportunity to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons who inject drugs (PWID). In our paper, we use a mathematical model to predict the impact of a DAA-treatment scale-up on HCV prevalence among PWID and the estimated cost in metropolitan Chicago.

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Hepatitis C Prevalence Reduction with Antiviral Treatment Scale-Up in Persons Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago

    SciTech Connect

    Echevarria, Desarae; Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee

    New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) provide an opportunity to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons who inject drugs (PWID). In our paper, we use a mathematical model to predict the impact of a DAA-treatment scale-up on HCV prevalence among PWID and the estimated cost in metropolitan Chicago.

  3. Extracts of black and brown rice powders improve hepatic lipid accumulation via the activation of PPARα in obese and diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Felix, Angelina Dr; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Mami; Katsumata-Tsuboi, Rie; Satoh, Ryo; Soon Hui, Teoh; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Inoue, Hirofumi; Uehara, Mariko

    2017-11-01

    Rice powder extract (RPE) from black and brown rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) improves hepatic lipid accumulation in obese and diabetic model mice via peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. RPE showed PPARα agonistic activity which did not differ between black and brown RPE despite a higher anthocyanin content in black RPE.

  4. The Efficacy of Social Role Models to Increase Motivation to Obtain Vaccination against Hepatitis B among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vet, R.; de Wit, J. B. F.; Das, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of role models in persuasive messages about risk and social norms to increase motivation to obtain hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM at risk for HBV in The Netherlands (N = 168) were recruited online via a range of websites and were randomly assigned to one of four…

  5. Impact of using different blood donor subpopulations and models on the estimation of transfusion transmission residual risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mapako, Tonderai; Janssen, Mart P; Mvere, David A; Emmanuel, Jean C; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe; Postma, Maarten J; van Hulst, Marinus

    2016-06-01

    Various models for estimating the residual risk (RR) of transmission of infections by blood transfusion have been published mainly based on data from high-income countries. However, to obtain the data required for such an assessment remains challenging for most developing settings. The National Blood Service Zimbabwe (NBSZ) adapted a published incidence-window period (IWP) model, which has less demanding data requirements. In this study we assess the impact of various definitions of blood donor subpopulations and models on RR estimates. We compared the outcomes of two published models and an adapted NBSZ model. The Schreiber IWP model (Model 1), an amended version (Model 2), and an adapted NBSZ model (Model 3) were applied. Variably the three models include prevalence, incidence, preseroconversion intervals, mean lifetime risk, and person-years at risk. Annual mean RR estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of the three models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were determined using NBSZ blood donor data from 2002 through 2011. The annual mean RR estimates for Models 1 through 3 were 1 in 6542, 5805, and 6418, respectively for HIV; 1 in 1978, 2027, and 1628 for HBV; and 1 in 9588, 15,126, and 7750, for HCV. The adapted NBSZ model provided comparable results to the published methods and these highlight the high occurrence of HBV in Zimbabwe. The adapted NBSZ model could be used as an alternative to estimate RRs when in settings where two repeat donations are not available. © 2016 AABB.

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    1996-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is an inflammatory liver disease in which the immune system is believed to orchestrate an immune attack onto the liver cell. Current knowledge suggests that both T helper 1 (TH1) and TH2 programmes are involved in the generation of the liver damage. Release of TH2 cytokines leads to the production of autoantibodies to the hepatocyte membrane that recruit killer cells. TH1 cytokines induce macrophage activation which contributes to hepatocyte destruction. Patients commonly possess the "autoimmune" HLA A1/B8/DR3 haplotype and a silent gene at the C4A locus with consequent partial deficiency of the complement component C4. Two main types of autoimmune hepatitis are recognised according to the presence of circulating non-organ specific autoantibodies. Patients with smooth muscle antibody and/or antinuclear antibody may be adults or children, while patients with antiliver kidney microsomal type 1 (LKM1) antibody are usually children or very young adults. In both types there is a preponderance of females. LKM1 antibody is also present in a proportion of adult patients, mainly male, with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. This observation originally led to the suggestion that hepatitis C virus may be the cause of this form of autoimmune hepatitis, but several studies have shown that the epitopes target of the LKM1 antibody in autoimmune hepatitis and chronic hepatitis C virus infection differ. Although autoimmune hepatitis responds satisfactorily to immunosuppression in the short term, progression to cirrhosis is frequent. It is hoped that ongoing research will provide a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of liver damage leading to a more effective and specific mode of treatment.

  7. A mathematical model for HIV and hepatitis C co-infection and its assessment from a statistical perspective.

    PubMed

    Castro Sanchez, Amparo Yovanna; Aerts, Marc; Shkedy, Ziv; Vickerman, Peter; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Salamina, Guiseppe; Hens, Niel

    2013-03-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a clear threat for public health, with high prevalences especially in high risk groups such as injecting drug users. People with HIV infection who are also infected by HCV suffer from a more rapid progression to HCV-related liver disease and have an increased risk for cirrhosis and liver cancer. Quantifying the impact of HIV and HCV co-infection is therefore of great importance. We propose a new joint mathematical model accounting for co-infection with the two viruses in the context of injecting drug users (IDUs). Statistical concepts and methods are used to assess the model from a statistical perspective, in order to get further insights in: (i) the comparison and selection of optional model components, (ii) the unknown values of the numerous model parameters, (iii) the parameters to which the model is most 'sensitive' and (iv) the combinations or patterns of values in the high-dimensional parameter space which are most supported by the data. Data from a longitudinal study of heroin users in Italy are used to illustrate the application of the proposed joint model and its statistical assessment. The parameters associated with contact rates (sharing syringes) and the transmission rates per syringe-sharing event are shown to play a major role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Joint application of mathematic models in assessing the residual risk of hepatitis C virus transmitted through blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei

    2011-09-01

    The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.

  9. Progression and Regression of Hepatic Lesions in a Mouse Model of NASH Induced by Dietary Intervention and Its Implications in Pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhi-Ming; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Xikun; Zou, Haixia; Yang, Shurong; Shen, Yiyun; Xu, Juehua; Workman, Heather C; Usborne, Amy L; Hua, Haiqing

    2018-01-01

    Understanding of the temporal changes of hepatic lesions in the progression and regression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is vital to elucidation of the pathogenesis of NASH, and critical to the development of a strategy for NASH pharmacotherapy. There are challenges in studying hepatic lesion progression and regression in NASH patients due to the slow development of NASH in humans, one being the requirement for multiple biopsies during the longitudinal follow-up. Here we studied lesion progression and regression in the diet-induced animal model of NASH by application or removal of the pathogenic diet for multiple time periods. Male C57BL/6 mice fed Western diet developed progressive hepatic steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, inflammation, and hepatocyte degeneration, as well as perisinusoidal fibrosis and occasionally portal fibrosis as early as 2 months after initiation of the Western diet. In the same period, the mice exhibited elevated ALT (alanine aminotransferase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) enzyme activities, CK18 (cytokeratin-18), PIIINP (N-terminal propeptide of type III collagen), and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1). Hepatic steatosis diminished rapidly when the Western diet was replaced by normal rodent chow diet and hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte degeneration were also reduced. Interestingly, perisinusoidal fibrosis and portal fibrosis regressed 8 months after chow diet replacement. To understand pharmacotherapy for NASH, mice with established NASH hepatic lesions were treated with either FXR agonist obeticholic acid (Ocaliva), or CCR2/5 antagonist Cenicriviroc. Similar to the diet replacement, metabolic modulator Ocaliva markedly reduced steatosis/macrovesicular vacuolation, hepatic inflammation, and hepatocyte degeneration effectively, but exhibited no significant effect on liver fibrosis. Anti-inflammation drug Cenicriviroc, on the other hand, markedly decreased inflammation and hepatocyte degeneration, and

  10. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. Methods We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks. Results LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. Conclusions We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC. PMID:21247503

  11. Differential effect of corn oil-based low trans structured fat on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile in an atherogenic mouse model: comparison to hydrogenated trans fat.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yun-Young; Kwon, Eun-Young; Kim, Hye-Jin; Jeon, Seon-Min; Lee, Ki-Teak; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2011-01-20

    Trans fat are not desirable in many aspects on health maintenance. Low trans structured fats have been reported to be relatively more safe than trans fats. We examined the effects of low trans structured fat from corn oil (LC), compared with high trans fat shortening, on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in apo E deficient mice which is an atherogenic animal model. The animals were fed a high trans fat (10% fat: commercial shortening (CS)) or a low trans fat (LC) diet for 12 weeks. LC decreased apo B and hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride concentration compared to the CS group but significantly increased plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride concentration and fecal lipids with a simultaneous increase in HDL-cholesterol level, apo A-I, and the ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol (HTR). Reduction of hepatic lipid levels by inclusion of LC intake was observed alongside modulation of hepatic enzyme activities related to cholesterol esterification, fatty acid metabolism and fecal lipids level compared to the CS group. The differential effects of LC intake on the plasma and hepatic lipid profile seemed to be partly due to the fatty acid composition of LC which contains higher MUFA, PUFA and SFA content as well as lower content of trans fatty acids compared to CS. We suggest that LC may exert a dual effect on plasma and hepatic lipid metabolism in an atherogenic animal model. Accordingly, LC, supplemented at 10% in diet, had an anti-atherogenic effect on these apo E-/- mice, and increased fecal lipids, decreased hepatic steatosis, but elevated plasma lipids. Further studies are needed to verify the exact mode of action regarding the complex physiological changes and alteration in lipid metabolism caused by LC.

  12. Effect of Traumatic Brain Injury, Erythropoietin, and Anakinra on Hepatic Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters in an Experimental Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gail D; Peterson, Todd C; Vonder Haar, Cole; Farin, Fred M; Bammler, Theo K; MacDonald, James W; Kantor, Eric D; Hoane, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    In contrast to considerable data demonstrating a decrease in cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in inflammation and infection, clinically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in an increase in CYP and UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of TBI alone and with treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) or anakinra on the gene expression of hepatic inflammatory proteins, drug-metabolizing enzymes, and transporters in a cortical contusion impact (CCI) injury model. Microarray-based transcriptional profiling was used to determine the effect on gene expression at 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days post-CCI. Plasma cytokine and liver protein concentrations of CYP2D4, CYP3A1, EPHX1, and UGT2B7 were determined. There was no effect of TBI, TBI + EPO, or TBI + anakinra on gene expression of the inflammatory factors shown to be associated with decreased expression of hepatic metabolic enzymes in models of infection and inflammation. IL-6 plasma concentrations were increased in TBI animals and decreased with EPO and anakinra treatment. There was no significant effect of TBI and/or anakinra on gene expression of enzymes or transporters known to be involved in drug disposition. TBI + EPO treatment decreased the gene expression of Cyp2d4 at 72 h with a corresponding decrease in CYP2D4 protein at 72 h and 7 days. CYP3A1 protein was decreased at 24 h. In conclusion, EPO treatment may result in a significant decrease in the metabolism of Cyp-metabolized drugs. In contrast to clinical TBI, there was not a significant effect of experimental TBI on CYP or UGT metabolic enzymes.

  13. An Ex Vivo Model for Studying Hepatic Schistosomiasis and the Effect of Released Protein from Dying Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Nawaratna, Sujeevi K.; Harvie, Marina; Ramm, Grant A.; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Background We report the use of an ex vivo precision cut liver slice (PCLS) mouse model for studying hepatic schistosomiasis. In this system, liver tissue is unfixed, unfrozen, and alive for maintenance in culture and subsequent molecular analysis. Methods and Findings Using thick naive mouse liver tissue and sterile culture conditions, the addition of soluble egg antigen (SEA) derived from Schistosoma japonicum eggs, followed 4, 24 and 48hrs time points. Tissue was collected for transcriptional analysis and supernatants collected to quantitate liver enzymes, cytokines and chemokines. No significant hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by supernatant liver enzymes due to the presence of SEA. A proinflammatory response was observed both at the transcriptional level and at the protein level by cytokine and chemokine bead assay. Key genes observed elevated transcription in response to the addition of SEA included: IL1-α and IL1-β, IL6, all associated with inflammation. The recruitment of antigen presenting cells was reflected in increases in transcription of CD40, CCL4 and CSF1. Indications of tissue remodeling were seen in elevated gene expression of various Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMP3, 9, 10, 13) and delayed increases in TIMP1. Collagen deposition was significantly reduced in the presence of SEA as shown in COL1A1 expression by qPCR after 24hrs culture. Cytokine and chemokine analysis of the culture supernatants confirmed the elevation of proteins including IL6, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL5. Conclusions This ex vivo model system for the synchronised delivery of parasite antigen to liver tissue provides an insight into the early phase of hepatic schistosomiasis, corresponding with the release of soluble proteins from dying schistosome eggs. PMID:25965781

  14. Strong and multi-antigen specific immunity by hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-based vaccines in a murine model of chronic hepatitis B: HBcAg is a candidate for a therapeutic vaccine against hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Sheikh Mohammad Fazle; Chen, Shiyi; Al-Mahtab, Mamun; Abe, Masanori; Hiasa, Yoichi; Onji, Morikazu

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are essential for the control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and prevention of liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, most immune therapeutic approaches in CHB patients have been accomplished with hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-based prophylactic vaccines with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes. In this study, we prepared HBsAg-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) and HBcAg-pulsed DC by culturing spleen DC from HBV transgenic mice (HBV TM) and evaluated the immunomodulatory capabilities of these antigens, which may serve as a better therapy for CHB. The kinetics of HBsAg, antibody levels against HBsAg (anti-HBs), proliferation of HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific lymphocytes, production of antigen-specific CTL, and activation of endogenous DC were compared between HBV TM vaccinated with either HBsAg- or HBcAg-pulsed DC. Vaccination with HBsAg-pulsed DC induced HBsAg-specific immunity, but failed to induce HBcAg-specific immunity in HBV TM. However, immunization of HBV TM with HBcAg-pulsed DC resulted in: (1) HBsAg negativity, (2) production of anti-HBs, and (3) development of HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific T cells and CTL in the spleen and the liver. Additionally, significantly higher levels of activated endogenous DC were detected in HBV TM immunized with HBcAg-pulsed DC compared to HBsAg-pulsed DC (p<0.05). The capacity of HBcAg to modulate both HBsAg- and HBcAg-specific immunity in HBV TM, and activation of endogenous DC in HBV TM without inducing liver damage suggests that HBcAg should be an integral component of the therapeutic vaccine against CHB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Alt+1 Content Alt+2 What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Posters: Eliminate hepatitis World Hepatitis Day 2017 ...

  16. Hepatitis B Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 11 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  17. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  18. Long-term natural history of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: an analysis using the Markov chain model.

    PubMed

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Ohisa, Masayuki; Akita, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Junko

    2018-04-19

    The relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated. A total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age < 40; Group B (413 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age ≥ 40; Group C (1273 PY units), persistently HBeAg positive. Yearly transition probabilities from each liver state [chronic HBV infection, chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negativity] were calculated using the Markov chain model. In the analysis of 1 year liver disease state transition probabilities, the liver states remained almost the same in Group A. In Groups B and C, each liver state tended to progress to a worse state. Assuming a chronic hepatitis B state at age 40 as the starting condition for simulation over the next 40 years, the chronic hepatitis B state accounted for approximately 60% of males aged ≥ 50 and approximately 40% of females aged ≥ 60 in Group A, and the HBsAg-negative state accounted for approximately 30-40% of males and females aged ≥ 60. In Groups B and C, the probabilities of patients with cirrhosis and HCC gradually increased with age. Not only patients with persistent HBeAg positive, but also patients with delayed HBeAg seroconversion showed poor prognosis of liver-related natural history.

  19. The hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis and early liver cirrhosis in a rat model: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunmei; Liu, Ailian; Wang, Yuanyuan; Geng, Xiaoling; Hao, Li; Song, Qingwei; Sun, Bo; Wang, Heqing; Zhao, Gang

    2014-07-17

    To evaluate the hepatocyte phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in the early diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis and assessment of liver function in a rat model. In 2 groups of SD rats, liver fibrosis was induced in experimental animals by repetitive carbon tetrachloride injections, while the control group received saline injections. Five experimental rats and 2 control rats were randomly selected at weeks 4, 8, 12. One week after carbon tetrachloride administration, MRI (FIRM T1WI) scan was performed. Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.08mL) was injected into the rat's tail vein and hepatocyte phase images were obtained after 20min. The pre-enhanced phase and hepatocyte phase signal intensities (SI) were measured, and the relative contrast enhancement index (RCEI) was calculated. ANOVA analysis (LSD) of RCEI values in controls (n=6), hepatic fibrosis (n=7), and histopathologically-determined early cirrhosis group (n=6) was performed. RECI values showed a decreasing trend in the control group, hepatic fibrosis and early cirrhosis groups (1.11±0.43, 0.96±0.22, and 0.57±0.33, respectively). While the difference between the control and early cirrhosis groups was statistically significant (p=0.013), there was no significant difference in the hepatic fibrosis group vs the control (p=0.416) and the hepatic fibrosis group vs the early cirrhosis group (p=0.054). Hepatocyte phase RCEI values obtained with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI scan indicate liver injury in hepatic fibrosis and early cirrhosis. RCEI values are helpful for early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Costs and clinical outcomes of primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: a decision analytic model.

    PubMed

    Saab, Sammy; DeRosa, Vincent; Nieto, Jose; Durazo, Francisco; Han, Steven; Roth, Bennett

    2003-04-01

    Current guidelines recommend upper endoscopic screening for patients with hepatic cirrhosis and primary prophylaxis with a nonselective beta-blocker for those with large varices. However, only 25% of cirrhotics develop large varices. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the most cost-effective approach for primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage. Using a Markov model, we compared the costs and clinical outcomes of three strategies for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding. In the first strategy, patients were given a beta-blocker without undergoing upper endoscopy. In the second strategy, patients underwent upper endoscopic screening; those found to have large varices were treated with a beta-blocker. In the third strategy, no prophylaxis was used. Selected sensitivity analyses were performed to validate outcomes. Our results show screening prophylaxis was associated with a cost of $37,300 and 5.72 quality-adjusted life yr (QALYs). Universal prophylaxis was associated with a cost of $34,100 and 6.65 QALYs. The no prophylaxis strategy was associated with a cost of $36,600 and 4.84 QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $800/QALY for the endoscopic strategy relative to the no prophylaxis strategy. Screening endoscopy was cost saving when the compliance, bleed risk without beta-blocker, and variceal bleed costs were increased, and when the discount rate, bleed risk on beta-blockers, and cost of upper endoscopy were decreased. In contrast, the universal prophylaxis strategy was persistently cost saving relative to the no prophylaxis strategy. In comparing the strategies, sensitivity analysis on the death rates from variceal hemorrhage did not alter outcomes. Our results provide economic and clinical support for primary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding in patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Universal prophylaxis with beta-blocker is preferred because it is consistently associated with the lowest costs and highest QALYs.

  1. A High Protein Diet during Pregnancy Affects Hepatic Gene Expression of Energy Sensing Pathways along Ontogenesis in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Michael; Murani, Eduard; Metges, Cornelia C.; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    In rodent models and in humans the impact of gestational diets on the offspring's phenotype was shown experimentally and epidemiologically. The underlying programming of fetal development was shown to be associated with an increased risk of degenerative diseases in adulthood, including the metabolic syndrome. There are clues that diet-dependent modifications of the metabolism during fetal life can persist until adulthood. This leads to the hypothesis that the offspring's transcriptomes show short-term and long-term changes depending on the maternal diet. To this end pregnant German landrace gilts were fed either a high protein diet (HP, 30% CP) or an adequate protein diet (AP, 12% CP) throughout pregnancy. Hepatic transcriptome profiles of the offspring were analyzed at prenatal (94 dpc) and postnatal stages (1, 28, 188 dpn). Depending on the gestational dietary exposure, mRNA expression levels of genes related to energy metabolism, N-metabolism, growth factor signaling pathways, lipid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism and stress/immune response were affected either in a short-term or in a long-term manner. Gene expression profiles at fetal stage 94 dpc were almost unchanged between the diets. The gestational HP diet affected the hepatic expression profiles at prenatal and postnatal stages. The effects encompassed a modulation of the genome in terms of an altered responsiveness of energy and nutrient sensing pathways. Differential expression of genes related to energy production and nutrient utilization contribute to the maintenance of development and growth performance within physiological norms, however the modulation of these pathways may be accompanied by a predisposition for metabolic disturbances up to adult stages. PMID:21789176

  2. Silymarin attenuated hepatic steatosis through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in a mouse model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Ni, Xunjun; Wang, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin, which derived from the milk thistle plant (silybum marianum), has been used for centuries as a natural remedy for diseases of the liver and biliary tract. Considering the therapeutic potential to liver disease, we tested efficacy of silymarin on hepatic steatosis with a high fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and investigated possible effects on lipid metabolic pathways. In our study, silymarin could attenuate the hepatic steatosis, which was proved by both Oil Red O staining and hepatic triglyceride (TG) level determination. Furthermore, compared with INT-747, a potent and selective FXR agonist, silymarin could preserve plasmatic high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to a higher level and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to a lower level, which benefited more to the circulation system. Through real-time PCR analysis, we clarified a vital protective role of silymarin in mRNA regulation of genes involved in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. It was also shown that silymarin had no effects on body weight, food intake, and liver transaminase. Taken together, silymarin could attenuate hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of NAFLD through regulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress, and benefit to the circulation system. All these findings shed new light on NAFLD treatment.

  3. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  4. Hepatitis B & C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... HIV SERVICES LOCATOR Locator Search Search Hepatitis B & C Topics Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis Testing Day ... Women's Health Issues Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infection People with HIV infection in the ...

  5. Adult Living with Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C ... Project Princeton Workshop Public Health and International Programs Liver Cancer Connect Coalition Against Hepatitis for People of African ...

  6. Model based estimates of long-term persistence of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine-induced antibodies in adults.

    PubMed

    Hens, Niel; Habteab Ghebretinsae, Aklilu; Hardt, Karin; Van Damme, Pierre; Van Herck, Koen

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we review the results of existing statistical models of the long-term persistence of hepatitis A vaccine-induced antibodies in light of recently available immunogenicity data from 2 clinical trials (up to 17 years of follow-up). Healthy adult volunteers monitored annually for 17 years after the administration of the first vaccine dose in 2 double-blind, randomized clinical trials were included in this analysis. Vaccination in these studies was administered according to a 2-dose vaccination schedule: 0, 12 months in study A and 0, 6 months in study B (NCT00289757/NCT00291876). Antibodies were measured using an in-house ELISA during the first 11 years of follow-up; a commercially available ELISA was then used up to Year 17 of follow-up. Long-term antibody persistence from studies A and B was estimated using statistical models for longitudinal data. Data from studies A and B were modeled separately. A total of 173 participants in study A and 108 participants in study B were included in the analysis. A linear mixed model with 2 changepoints allowed all available results to be accounted for. Predictions based on this model indicated that 98% (95%CI: 94-100%) of participants in study A and 97% (95%CI: 94-100%) of participants in study B will remain seropositive 25 years after receiving the first vaccine dose. Other models using part of the data provided consistent results: ≥95% of the participants was projected to remain seropositive for ≥25 years. This analysis, using previously used and newly selected model structures, was consistent with former estimates of seropositivity rates ≥95% for at least 25 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mistletoe hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J; Colin-Jones, D G

    1981-01-01

    A 49-year-old woman presented with nausea, general malaise, and a dull ache in the right hypochondrium. Liver biopsy showed slight inflammatory-cell infiltration, and results of liver function tests suggested hepatitis. Hepatitis B surface antigen was not detected, and a cholecystogram was normal. Two years later she presented with similar symptoms, and both illnesses were found to have occurred after ingestion of a herbal remedy containing kelp, motherwort, skullcap, and mistletoe. A challenge test established this to be the cause of the illness. Mistletoe is the only constituent of the tablets known to contain any potential toxin and thus was probably the cause of the illness. Mistletoe is widely used in herbal remedies, whose ingestion may therefore cause hepatitis. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:6779941

  8. The induction of autoimmune hepatitis in the human leucocyte antigen‐DR4 non‐obese diabetic mice autoimmune hepatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Xiao, X.; Tai, N.; Vijay, G. M.; Gülden, E.; Beland, K.; Lapierre, P.; Alvarez, F.; Hu, Z.; Colle, I.; Ma, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease characterized by progressive inflammation, female preponderance and seropositivity for autoantibodies such as anti‐smooth muscle actin and/or anti‐nuclear, anti‐liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti‐LKM1) and anti‐liver cytosol type 1 (anti‐LC1) in more than 80% of cases. AIH is linked strongly to several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐DR3, ‐DR7 and ‐DR13. HLA‐DR4 has the second strongest association with adult AIH, after HLA‐DR3. We investigated the role of HLA‐DR4 in the development of AIH by immunization of HLA‐DR4 (DR4) transgenic non‐obese diabetic (NOD) mice with DNA coding for human CYP2D6/FTCD fusion autoantigen. Immunization of DR4 mice leads to sustained mild liver injury, as assessed biochemically by elevated alanine aminotransferase, histologically by interface hepatitis, plasma cell infiltration and mild fibrosis and immunologically by the development of anti‐LKM1/anti‐LC1 antibodies. In addition, livers from DR4 mice had fewer regulatory T cells (Tregs), which had decreased programmed death (PD)‐1 expression. Splenic Tregs from these mice also showed impaired inhibitory capacity. Furthermore, DR4 expression enhanced the activation status of CD8+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in naive DR4 mice compared to naive wild‐type (WT) NOD mice. Our results demonstrate that HLA‐DR4 is a susceptibility factor for the development of AIH. Impaired suppressive function of Tregs and reduced PD‐1 expression may result in spontaneous activation of key immune cell subsets, such as antigen‐presenting cells and CD8+ T effectors, facilitating the induction of AIH and persistent liver damage. PMID:27414259

  9. The induction of autoimmune hepatitis in the human leucocyte antigen-DR4 non-obese diabetic mice autoimmune hepatitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, M; Xiao, X; Tai, N; Vijay, G M; Gülden, E; Beland, K; Lapierre, P; Alvarez, F; Hu, Z; Colle, I; Ma, Y; Wen, L

    2016-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease characterized by progressive inflammation, female preponderance and seropositivity for autoantibodies such as anti-smooth muscle actin and/or anti-nuclear, anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) in more than 80% of cases. AIH is linked strongly to several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3, -DR7 and -DR13. HLA-DR4 has the second strongest association with adult AIH, after HLA-DR3. We investigated the role of HLA-DR4 in the development of AIH by immunization of HLA-DR4 (DR4) transgenic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with DNA coding for human CYP2D6/FTCD fusion autoantigen. Immunization of DR4 mice leads to sustained mild liver injury, as assessed biochemically by elevated alanine aminotransferase, histologically by interface hepatitis, plasma cell infiltration and mild fibrosis and immunologically by the development of anti-LKM1/anti-LC1 antibodies. In addition, livers from DR4 mice had fewer regulatory T cells (T regs ), which had decreased programmed death (PD)-1 expression. Splenic T regs from these mice also showed impaired inhibitory capacity. Furthermore, DR4 expression enhanced the activation status of CD8 + T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in naive DR4 mice compared to naive wild-type (WT) NOD mice. Our results demonstrate that HLA-DR4 is a susceptibility factor for the development of AIH. Impaired suppressive function of T regs and reduced PD-1 expression may result in spontaneous activation of key immune cell subsets, such as antigen-presenting cells and CD8 + T effectors, facilitating the induction of AIH and persistent liver damage. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  10. [Autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Färkkilä, Martti

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic liver disease with two subtypes, type 1 with anti nuclear or smooth muscle antibodies and type 2 with LKM1 or LC1 antibodies, and both with hypergammaglobulinemia and typical histology. Prevalence of AIH is between 10 to 17 per 100000 in Europe. Up to 20-40 % of cases present with acute hepatitis. Budesonide can be used as a first line induction therapy in non-cirrhotic patients, and tiopurines, mercaptopurine or mycophenolic acid as maintenance therapies. Patients not responding to conventional therapy can be treated with ciclosporin, tacrolimus or rituximab or finally with liver transplantation.

  11. Systematic Review of Modelling Approaches for the Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis C Treatment with Direct-Acting Antivirals.

    PubMed

    Chhatwal, Jagpreet; He, Tianhua; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A

    2016-06-01

    New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are highly effective for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. However, their prices have been widely debated. Decision-analytic models can project the long-term value of HCV treatment. Therefore, understanding of the methods used in these models and how they could influence results is important. Our objective was to describe and systematically review the methodological approaches in published cost-effectiveness models of chronic HCV treatment with DAAs. We searched several electronic databases, including Medline, Embase and EconLit, from 2011 to 2015. Study selection was performed by two reviewers independently. We included any cost-effectiveness analysis comparing DAAs with the old standard of care for HCV treatment. We excluded non-English-language studies and studies not reporting quality-adjusted life-years. One reviewer collected data and assessed the quality of reporting, using the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) statement. Another reviewer crosschecked the abstracted information. The development methods of the included studies were synthetized on the basis of good modelling practice recommendations. Review of 304 citations revealed 36 cost-effectiveness analyses. The reporting quality scores of most articles were rated as acceptable, between 67 and 100 %. The majority of the studies were conducted in Europe (50 %), followed by the USA (44 %). Fifty-six percent of the 36 studies evaluated the cost effectiveness of HCV treatment in both treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients, 97 % included genotype 1 patients and 53 % evaluated the cost effectiveness of second-generation or oral DAAs in comparison with the previous standard of care or other DAAs. Twenty-one models defined health states in terms of METAVIR fibrosis scores. Only one study used a discrete-event simulation approach, and the remainder used state-transition models. The time horizons varied; however, 89 % of

  12. Human variation and CYP enzyme contribution in benfuracarb metabolism in human in vitro hepatic models.

    PubMed

    Abass, Khaled; Reponen, Petri; Mattila, Sampo; Rautio, Arja; Pelkonen, Olavi

    2014-01-13

    Human responses to the toxicological effects of chemicals are often complicated by a substantial interindividual variability in toxicokinetics, of which metabolism is often the most important factor. Therefore, we investigated human variation and the contributions of human-CYP isoforms to in vitro metabolism of benfuracarb. The primary metabolic pathways were the initial sulfur oxidation to benfuracarb-sulfoxide and the nitrogen-sulfur bond cleavage to carbofuran (activation). The Km, Vmax, and CL(int) values of carbofuran production in ten individual hepatic samples varied 7.3-, 3.4-, and 5.4-fold, respectively. CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 catalyzed benfuracarb sulphur oxidation. Carbofuran formation, representing from 79% to 98% of the total metabolism, was catalyzed predominantly by CYP3A4. The calculated relative contribution of CYP3A4 to carbofuran formation was 93%, while it was 4.4% for CYP2C9. The major contribution of CYP3A4 in benfuracarb metabolism was further substantiated by showing a strong correlation with CYP3A4-selective markers midazolam-1'-hydroxylation and omeprazole-sulfoxidation (r=0.885 and 0.772, respectively). Carbofuran formation was highly inhibited by the CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole. Moreover, CYP3A4 marker activities were relatively inhibited by benfuracarb. These results confirm that human CYP3A4 is the major enzyme involved in the in vitro activation of benfuracarb and that CYP3A4-catalyzed metabolism is the primary source of interindividual differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated Hepatic Iron Activates NF-E2–Related Factor 2–Regulated Pathway in a Dietary Iron Overload Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Harriet C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been associated classically with the genetic disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. More recently, it has become apparent that mild-to-moderate degrees of elevated hepatic iron stores observed in other liver diseases also have clinical relevance. The goal was to use a mouse model of dietary hepatic iron overload and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics to identify, at a global level, differentially expressed proteins in livers from mice fed a control or 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoyl-ferrocene (TMHF) supplemented diet for 4 weeks. The expression of 74 proteins was altered by ≥ ±1.5-fold, showing that the effects of iron on the liver proteome were extensive. The top canonical pathway altered by TMHF treatment was the NF-E2–related factor 2 (NRF2–)–mediated oxidative stress response. Because of the long-standing association of elevated hepatic iron with oxidative stress, the remainder of the study was focused on NRF2. TMHF treatment upregulated 25 phase I/II and antioxidant proteins previously categorized as NRF2 target gene products. Immunoblot analyses showed that TMHF treatment increased the levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTM4, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit, GCL modifier subunit, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, heme oxygenase 1, epoxide hydrolase 1, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1. Immunofluorescence, carried out to determine the cellular localization of NRF2, showed that NRF2 was detected in the nucleus of hepatocytes from TMHF-treated mice and not from control mice. We conclude that elevated hepatic iron in a mouse model activates NRF2, a key regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:22649188

  14. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Teneligliptin Attenuates Hepatic Lipogenesis via AMPK Activation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Takayasu; Shirakami, Yohei; Miyazaki, Tsuneyuki; Kochi, Takahiro; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito

    2015-12-08

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, is increasingly a major cause of hepatic disorder. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, anti-diabetic agents, are expected to be effective for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we established a novel NAFLD model mouse using monosodium glutamate (MSG) and a high-fat diet (HFD) and investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, on the progression of NAFLD. Male MSG/HFD-treated mice were divided into two groups, one of which received teneligliptin in drinking water. Administration of MSG and HFD caused mice to develop severe fatty changes in the liver, but teneligliptin treatment improved hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evaluated by the NAFLD activity score. Serum alanine aminotransferase and intrahepatic triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in teneligliptin-treated mice (p < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes involved in de novo lipogenesis were significantly downregulated by teneligliptin (p < 0.05). Moreover, teneligliptin increased hepatic expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein. These findings suggest that teneligliptin attenuates lipogenesis in the liver by activating AMPK and downregulating the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis. DPP-4 inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of NAFLD and may be able to prevent its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  15. Combination effects of alogliptin and pioglitazone on steatosis and hepatic fibrosis formation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yuichiro; Tsuchiya, Shuntarou; Imai, Mayumi; Tohyama, Kimio; Matsukawa, Jun; Isono, Osamu; Yasuno, Hironobu; Enya, Kazuaki; Koumura, Emiko; Nagabukuro, Hiroshi

    2018-02-26

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combination therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, alogliptin, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, pioglitazone, in a preclinical model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mice fed a modified choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined diet. Monotherapy with either alogliptin (10-200 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (6-20 mg/kg) significantly decreased hepatic triglyceride content and fibrosis. The concomitant treatment of alogliptin (30 mg/kg), pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) also decreased hepatic triglyceride and hepatic collagen-I mRNA at greater extent compared to monotherapy. Hepatic expression of CD11b mRNA and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were also reduced by the concomitant treatment. These results suggest that via an anti-inflammatory potential in addition to anti-metabolic effects, the combination therapy of alogliptin and pioglitazone may provide therapeutic benefits to type 2 diabetes patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which will be proven in controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatty acid composition and development of hepatic lipidosis during food deprivation--mustelids as a potential animal model for liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Kärjä, Vesa; Asikainen, Juha; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2009-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome characterized by asymptomatic hepatic steatosis. It is present in most cases of human obesity but also caused e.g., by rapid weight loss. The patients have decreased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportions with decreased percentages of 18:3(n-3), 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) and an increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in liver and/or white adipose tissue (WAT). The present study examined a new experimental model to study liver steatosis with possible future applications to NAFLD. Ten European polecats (Mustela putorius), the wild form of the domestic ferret, were food-deprived for 5 days with 10 fed animals as controls. The food-deprived animals showed micro- and macrovesicular hepatic steatosis, decreased proportions of 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and total n-3 PUFA and increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in liver and WAT. At the same time, the product/precursor ratios decreased in liver. The observed effects can be due to selective fatty acid mobilization preferring n-3 PUFA over n-6 PUFA, decreased Delta5 and Delta6 desaturase activities, oxidative stress, decreased arginine availability and activation of the endocannabinoid system. Hepatic lipidosis induced by food deprivation was manifested in the fatty acid composition of the polecat with similarities to human NAFLD despite the different principal etiologies.

  17. Evaluation of Delcath Systems' Generation 2 (GEN 2) melphalan hemofiltration system in a porcine model of percutaneous hepatic perfusion.

    PubMed

    Moeslein, Fred M; McAndrew, Elizabeth G; Appling, William M; Hryniewich, Nicole E; Jarvis, Kevin D; Markos, Steven M; Sheets, Timothy P; Uzgare, Rajneesh P; Johnston, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    A new melphalan hemoperfusion filter (GEN 2) was evaluated in a simulated-use porcine model of percutaneous hepatic perfusion (PHP). The current study evaluated melphalan filtration efficiency, the transfilter pressure gradient, and the removal of specific blood products. A porcine PHP procedure using the GEN 2 filter was performed under Good Laboratory Practice conditions to model the 60-min clinical PHP procedure. The mean filter efficiency for removing melphalan in six filters was 99.0 ± 0.4 %. The transfilter pressure gradient across the filter averaged 20.9 mmHg for the 60-min procedure. Many blood components, including albumin and platelets, decreased on average from 3.55 to 2.02 g/dL and from 342 to 177 × 10.e3/μL, respectively, during the procedure. The increased melphalan extraction efficiency of the new filter is expected to decrease systemic melphalan exposure. In addition, the low transfilter pressure gradient resulted in low resistance to blood flow in the GEN 2 filter, and the changes to blood components are expected to be clinically manageable.

  18. Cost-effectiveness model for hepatitis C screening and treatment: Implications for Egypt and other countries with high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David D.; Hutton, David W.; Raouf, Ahmed A.; Salama, Mohsen; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Soliman, Amr S.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, and many developing countries report intermediate-to-high prevalence. However, the economic impact of screening and treatment for HCV in high prevalence countries has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for HCV infection for asymptomatic, average-risk adults using a Markov decision analytic model. In our model, we collected age-specific prevalence, disease progression rates for Egyptians, and local cost estimates in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV infection (~15%) in the world. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how cost-effective HCV screening and treatment might be in other developing countries with high and intermediate prevalence. In Egypt, implementing a screening program using triple-therapy treatment (sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin) was dominant compared to no screening because it would have lower total costs and improve health outcomes. HCV screening and treatment would also be cost-effective in global settings with intermediate costs of drug treatment (~$8,000) and a higher sustained viral response rate (70–80%). PMID:25469976

  19. Relaxivity-iron calibration in hepatic iron overload: Probing underlying biophysical mechanisms using a Monte Carlo model

    PubMed Central

    Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron overload is a serious condition for patients with β-thalassemia, transfusion-dependent sickle cell anemia and inherited disorders of iron metabolism. MRI is becoming increasingly important in non-invasive quantification of tissue iron, overcoming the drawbacks of traditional techniques (liver biopsy). R2*(1/T2*) rises linearly with iron while R2(1/T2) has a curvilinear relationship in human liver. Although recent work has demonstrated clinically-valid estimates of human liver iron, the calibration varies with MRI sequence, field strength, iron chelation therapy and organ imaged, forcing recalibration in patients. To understand and correct these limitations, a thorough understanding of the underlying biophysics is of critical importance. Toward this end, a Monte Carlo based approach, using human liver as a ‘model’ tissue system, was employed to determine the contribution of particle size and distribution on MRI signal relaxation. Relaxivities were determined for hepatic iron concentrations (HIC) ranging from 0.5–40 mg iron/ g dry tissue weight. Model predictions captured the linear and curvilinear relationship of R2* and R2 with HIC respectively and were within in vivo confidence bounds; contact or chemical exchange mechanisms were not necessary. A validated and optimized model will aid understanding and quantification of iron-mediated relaxivity in tissues where biopsy is not feasible (heart, spleen). PMID:21337413

  20. A novel “humanized mouse” model for autoimmune hepatitis and the association of gut microbiota with liver inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Muhammed; Wang, Yipeng; Tai, Ningwen; Peng, Jian; Guo, Junhua; Beland, Kathie; Lapierre, Pascal; David, Chella; Alvarez, Fernando; Colle, Isabelle; Yan, Huiping; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego; Ma, Yun; Wen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in humans is a severe inflammatory liver disease, characterized by interface hepatitis, the presence of circulating autoantibodies and hyper-gammaglobulinemia. There are two types of AIH, type-1 (AIH-1) and type-2 (AIH-2) characterized by distinct autoimmune serology. Patients with AIH-1 are positive for anti-smooth muscle and/or anti-nuclear (SMA/ANA) autoantibodies whereas patients with AIH-2 have anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and/or anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) autoantibodies. Cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6) is the antigenic target of anti-LKM1 and formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD) is the antigenic target of anti-LC1. It is known that AIH, both type-1 and type-2, is strongly linked to the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles -DR3, -DR4 and -DR7. However, the direct evidence of the association of HLA with AIH is lacking. Methods We developed a novel mouse model of AIH using the HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse on the non-obese diabetic (NOD) background (HLA-DR3 NOD) by immunization of HLA-DR3− and HLA-DR3+ NOD mice with a DNA plasmid, coding for human CYP2D6/FTCD fusion protein. Results Immunization with CYP2D6/FTCD leads to a sustained elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), development of ANA and anti-LKM1/anti-LC1 autoantibodies, chronic immune cell infiltration and parenchymal fibrosis on liver histology in HLA-DR3+ mice. Immunized mice also showed an enhanced Th1 immune response and paucity of the frequency of regulatory T-cell (Treg) in the liver. Moreover, HLA-DR3+ mice with exacerbated AIH showed reduced diversity and total load of gut bacteria. Conclusion Our humanized animal model has provided a novel experimental tool to further elucidate the pathogenesis of AIH and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of immunoregulatory therapeutic interventions in vivo. PMID:26185095

  1. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic viral and autoimmune hepatitis. In: Goldman L, ... Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. ... Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The George ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically given in two shots. The first one is followed by a booster shot six months later. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a hepatitis A vaccine for the following people: All children at age 1, or older children who didn't receive the ...

  3. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editor & Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  4. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... will discuss other treatment options with you. For example, if 1 round of treatment did not decrease your viral ... Health, Men, Seniors, WomenTags: hepatitis, Infectious Disease September 1, ... ContentAllergy Shots: Could They Help Your Allergies?Read Article >>Allergy ...

  5. Hepatic rupture

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liang; Wan, DaLong; Zhang, LeLe; Xu, ShiGuo; Xie, HaiYang; Lin, ShengZhang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Currently, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is regarded as the first-line treatment modality of pyogenic liver abscess. Severe complications associated with PCD were uncommon. Hepatic rupture is an uncommon but life-threatening liver trauma with high mortality. Its management is challenging because a delay in the diagnosis may lead to fatal hemorrhagic shock. To our knowledge, PCD-associated hepatic rupture has never been reported. Patient concerns: We report herein a rare case of PCD-associated hepatic rupture. Its clinical courses and our therapeutic approaches are presented. Moreover, the clinical significance, underlying causes, and current views on severe liver trauma management will be discussed briefly. Diagnoses: A diabetic patient suffering from fever and malaise was diagnosed with a pyogenic liver abscess. PCD was performed because intravenous antibiotics were ineffective. The patient developed a liver rupture following PCD, with clinical and imaging confirmation but without further progression. Interventions: Surgical repair and vascular intervention were both inappropriate. As a result, medical treatments with supportive care were adopted and were found to be effective. Outcomes: The patient's condition improved gradually, with stabilized imaging and laboratory performance. He recovered uneventfully during follow-ups. Lessons: Hepatic rupture should be listed as an extremely rare but severe complication of PCD. Immediate suspicion and effective intervention may avoid an unfavorable consequence. PMID:29480839

  6. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    PubMed

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  7. Lymphotoxin-beta receptor signaling regulates hepatic stellate cell function and wound healing in a murine model of chronic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ruddell, Richard G; Knight, Belinda; Tirnitz-Parker, Janina E E; Akhurst, Barbara; Summerville, Lesa; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Olynyk, John K; Ramm, Grant A

    2009-01-01

    Lymphotoxin-beta (LTbeta) is a proinflammatory cytokine and a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily known for its role in mediating lymph node development and homeostasis. Our recent studies suggest a role for LTbeta in mediating the pathogenesis of human chronic liver disease. We hypothesize that LTbeta co-ordinates the wound healing response in liver injury via direct effects on hepatic stellate cells. This study used the choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) dietary model of chronic liver injury, which induces inflammation, liver progenitor cell proliferation, and portal fibrosis, to assess (1) the cellular expression of LTbeta, and (2) the role of LTbeta receptor (LTbetaR) in mediating wound healing, in LTbetaR(-/-) versus wild-type mice. In addition, primary isolates of hepatic stellate cells were treated with LTbetaR-ligands LTbeta and LTbeta-related inducible ligand competing for glycoprotein D binding to herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells (LIGHT), and mediators of hepatic stellate cell function and fibrogenesis were assessed. LTbeta was localized to progenitor cells immediately adjacent to activated hepatic stellate cells in the periportal region of the liver in wild-type mice fed the CDE diet. LTbetaR(-/-) mice fed the CDE diet showed significantly reduced fibrosis and a dysregulated immune response. LTbetaR was demonstrated on isolated hepatic stellate cells, which when stimulated by LTbeta and LIGHT, activated the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. Neither LTbeta nor LIGHT had any effect on alpha-smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, transforming growth factor beta, or procollagen alpha(1)(I) expression; however, leukocyte recruitment-associated factors intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and regulated upon activation T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were markedly up-regulated. RANTES caused the chemotaxis of a liver progenitor cell line expressing CCR5. This study suggests that

  8. Ω-3 fatty acids prevent hepatic steatosis, independent of PPAR-α activity, in a murine model of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease.

    PubMed

    Prince, Esther; Lazare, Farrah B; Treem, William R; Xu, Jiliu; Iqbal, Jahangir; Pan, Xiaoyue; Josekutty, Joby; Walsh, Meghan; Anderson, Virginia; Hussain, M Mahmood; Schwarz, Steven M

    2014-07-01

    ω-3 Fatty acids (FAs), natural ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α), attenuate parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). However, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of ω-3 FAs are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ω-3 FAs on hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in a murine model of PNALD and to investigate the role of PPAR-α and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in this experimental setting. 129S1/SvImJ wild-type or 129S4/SvJaePparatm/Gonz/J PPAR-α knockout mice were fed chow and water (controls); oral, fat-free PN solution only (PN-O); PN-O plus intraperitoneal (IP) ω-6 FA-predominant supplements (PN-ω-6); or PN-O plus IP ω-3 FA (PN-ω-3). Control and PN-O groups received sham IP injections of 0.9% NaCl. Hepatic histology, TG and cholesterol, MTP activity, and PPAR-α messenger RNA were assessed after 19 days. In all experimental groups, PN feeding increased hepatic TG and MTP activity compared with controls. Both PN-O and PN-ω-6 groups accumulated significantly greater amounts of TG when compared with PN-ω-3 mice. Studies in PPAR-α null animals showed that PN feeding increases hepatic TG as in wild-type mice. PPAR-α null mice in the PN-O and PN-ω-6 groups demonstrated variable degrees of hepatic steatosis, whereas no evidence of hepatic fat accumulation was found after 19 days of oral PN plus IP ω-3 FAs. PN induces TG accumulation (steatosis) in wild-type and PPAR-α null mice. In PN-fed wild-type and PPAR-α null mice given IP ω-3 FAs, reduced hepatic TG accumulation and absent steatosis are found. Prevention of steatosis by ω-3 FAs results from PPAR-α-independent pathways. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. ω-3 Fatty Acids Prevent Hepatic Steatosis, Independent of PPAR-α Activity, in a Murine Model of Parenteral Nutrition–Associated Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Esther; Lazare, Farrah B.; Treem, William R.; Xu, Jiliu; Iqbal, Jahangir; Pan, Xiaoyue; Josekutty, Joby; Walsh, Meghan; Anderson, Virginia; Hussain, M. Mahmood; Schwarz, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives ω-3 Fatty acids (FAs), natural ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor–α (PPAR-α), attenuate parenteral nutrition–associated liver disease (PNALD). However, the mechanisms underlying the protective role of ω-3 FAs are still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ω-3 FAs on hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in a murine model of PNALD and to investigate the role of PPAR-α and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) in this experimental setting. Methods 129S1/SvImJ wild-type or 129S4/SvJaePparatm/Gonz/J PPAR-α knockout mice were fed chow and water (controls); oral, fat-free PN solution only (PN-O); PN-O plus intraperitoneal (IP) ω-6 FA-predominant supplements (PN–ω-6); or PN-O plus IP ω-3 FA (PN–ω-3). Control and PN-O groups received sham IP injections of 0.9% NaCl. Hepatic histology, TG and cholesterol, MTP activity, and PPAR-α messenger RNA were assessed after 19 days. Results In all experimental groups, PN feeding increased hepatic TG and MTP activity compared with controls. Both PN-O and PN–ω-6 groups accumulated significantly greater amounts of TG when compared with PN–ω-3 mice. Studies in PPAR-α null animals showed that PN feeding increases hepatic TG as in wild-type mice. PPAR-α null mice in the PN-O and PN–ω-6 groups demonstrated variable degrees of hepatic steatosis, whereas no evidence of hepatic fat accumulation was found after 19 days of oral PN plus IP ω-3 FAs. Conclusions PN induces TG accumulation (steatosis) in wild-type and PPAR-α null mice. In PN-fed wild-type and PPAR-α null mice given IP ω-3 FAs, reduced hepatic TG accumulation and absent steatosis are found. Prevention of steatosis by ω-3 FAs results from PPAR-α–independent pathways. PMID:23757305

  10. Chronic proliferative hepatitis in A/JCr mice associated with persistent Helicobacter hepaticus infection: a model of helicobacter-induced carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, J G; Li, X; Yan, L; Cahill, R J; Hurley, R; Lewis, R; Murphy, J C

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter hepaticus causes hepatitis in selected strains of mice and in A/JCr mice is linked to liver cancer. To analyze whether H. hepaticus persists in specified ecological niches, to determine whether biomarkers of infection exist, and to analyze the influence of H. hepaticus on hepatocyte proliferation, a longitudinal study of H. hepaticus-infected A/JCr mice was undertaken. A/JCr mice were serially euthanatized from 3 through 18 months and surveyed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; bacterial culture of liver, colon, and cecum; histology; electron microscopy; hepatocyte proliferation indices determined by using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine; and measurement of the liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase. In infected animals throughout the 18-month study, H. hepaticus was consistently isolated from the lower bowel but only sporadically from the liver. By electron microscopy, H. hepaticus was noted infrequently and only in bile canaliculi. Infected mice, particularly males, showed chronic inflammation; oval cell, Kupffer cell, and Ito cell hyperplasia; hepatocytomegaly; and bile duct proliferation. The inflammatory and necrotizing lesion was progressive and involved the hepatic parenchyma, portal triads, and intralobular venules. Hepatic adenomas were noted only in male mice, whereas 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation indices were markedly increased in both sexes, but especially in males, compared to control A/J mice. Infected mice also developed sustained anti-H. hepaticus serum immunoglobulin G antibody responses and elevated alanine aminotransferase levels. H. hepaticus, which persists in the lower bowels and livers of A/JCr mice, is associated with a chronic proliferative hepatitis, and hepatomas in selected male mice indicate that this novel bacterium may cause an increased risk of hepatic cancer induction in susceptible strains of mice. This murine model should prove useful in dissecting the molecular events operable in the development of neoplasms

  11. Primary Seronegative but Molecularly Evident Hepadnaviral Infection Engages Liver and Induces Hepatocarcinoma in the Woodchuck Model of Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooney-Cousins, Patricia M.; Chauhan, Ranjit; Churchill, Norma D.; Michalak, Tomasz I.

    2014-01-01

    Hepadnavirus at very low doses establishes in woodchucks asymptomatic, serologically undetectable but molecularly evident persistent infection. This primary occult infection (POI) preferentially engages the immune system and initiates virus-specific T cell response in the absence of antiviral antibody induction. The current study aimed to determine whether POI with time may culminate in serologically identifiable infection and hepatitis, and what are, if any, its pathological consequences. Juvenile woodchucks were intravenously injected with inocula containing 10 or 100 virions of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) to induce POI and followed for life or up to 5.5 years thereafter. All 10 animals established molecularly detectable infection with virus DNA in serum (<100–200 copies/mL) and in circulating lymphoid cells, but serum WHV surface antigen and antibodies to WHV core antigen remained undetectable for life. By approximately 2.5–3.5 years post-infection, circulating virus transiently increased to 103 copies/mL and virus replication became detectable in the livers, but serological markers of infection and biochemical or histological evidence of hepatitis remained undetectable. Nonetheless, typical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) developed in 2/10 animals. WHV DNA integration into hepatic and lymphatic system genomes was identified in 9/10 animals. Virus recovered from the liver virus-negative or virus-positive phases of POI displayed the wild-type sequence and transmitted infection to healthy woodchucks causing hepatitis and HCC. In summary, for the first time, our data demonstrate that an asymptomatic hepadnaviral persistence initiated by very small amounts of otherwise pathogenic virus, advancing in the absence of traditional serological markers of infection and hepatitis, coincides with virus DNA integration into the host's hepatic and immune system genomes, retains liver pro-oncogenic potency and is capable of transmitting liver pathogenic infection. This

  12. Modeling the impact of early antiretroviral therapy for adults coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B or C in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natasha K; Devine, Angela; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Miners, Alec; Hallett, Timothy B; Foster, Graham R; Dore, Gregory J; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Legood, Rosa; Vickerman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There has been discussion about whether individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) (∼30% of all people living with HIV) should be prioritized for early HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assess the relative benefits of providing ART at CD4 count below 500  cells/μl or immediate ART to HCV/HIV or HBV/HIV-coinfected adults compared with HIV-monoinfected adults. We evaluate individual outcomes (HIV/liver disease progression) and preventive benefits in a generalized HIV epidemic setting. We modeled disease progression for HIV-monoinfected, HBV/HIV-coinfected, and HCV/HIV-coinfected adults for differing ART eligibility thresholds (CD4 <350  cells/μl, CD4 <500  cells/μl, immediate ART eligibility upon infection). We report disability-adjusted life-years averted per 100 person-years on ART (DALYaverted/100PYonART) as a measure of the health benefits generated from incremental changes in ART eligibility. Sensitivity analyses explored impact on sexual HIV and vertical HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission. For HBV/HIV-coinfected adults, a switch to ART initiation at CD4 count below 500  cells/μl from CD4 below 350  cells/μl generates 9% greater health benefits per year on ART (48 DALYaverted/100PYonART) than for HIV-monoinfected adults (44 DALYaverted/100PYonART). Additionally, ART at CD4 below 500  cells/μl could prevent 25% and 32% of vertical transmissions of HIV and HBV, respectively. For HCV/HIV-coinfected adults, ART at CD4 below 500  cells/μl generates 10% fewer health benefits (40 DALYaverted/100PYonART) than for HIV monoinfection, unless ART reduces progression to cirrhosis by more than 70% (33% in base-case). The additional therapeutic benefits of ART for HBV-related liver disease results in ART generating more health benefits among HBV/HIV-coinfected adults than HIV-monoinfected individuals, whereas less health benefits are generated amongst HCV/HIV coinfection in a generalized HIV epidemic

  13. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  14. Origanum Majoranum Extract Modulates Gene Expression, Hepatic and Renal Changes in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Mohamed Mohamed; Abdo Nassan, Mohamed; Ismail, Tamer Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to test the effect of Origanum Majoranum Extract (OME) of leaves on alterations induced in a model of type 2 diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed high fat diet for 3 weeks and injected a single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) intraperitoneally to induce type 2 diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were given aqueous extract of OME in a dose of 20 mg/kg orally for 3 weeks. Changes in lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, expression of some genes related to glucose metabolism and histopathological changes in liver and kidney were examined. Administration of OME improved and normalized dyslipidemia recorded in type 2 diabetic rats together with reduction in glucose and insulin levels. OME induced up-regulation in gene expression of glucose [adiponectin and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2)] and lipid metabolism [lipoprotein lipase (LPL)]. Moreover, OME normalized histopathological changes occurred in liver and kidney of diabetic rats. OME decreased lipids accumulation in liver and kidney and increased regeneration of hepatic parenchyma and restored normal renal architecture with disappearance of fat droplets. In conclusion, OME improved dyslipidemia associated with type 2 diabetes through regulation of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:28228803

  15. Lipid changes in hepatic microsomes and its relationship to P-nitrophenol glucuronidation in an experimental model of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, C; Ghisolfi, C; Marabotto, L; Ouviña, G; Rubio, M; Perazzo, J; Lemberg, A; Bengochea, L

    1997-10-01

    The liver is responsible for the most important metabolic pathway of non polar compounds. The aim of the present work was to study the p-nitrophenol glucuronidation and its relationship with lipidic composition of microsomal membrane in a model of hepatic portal hypertension and hepatocellular damage induced by monocrotaline. A global increment in liver microsomal phospholipids as well as changes in the phospholipid pattern (phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin increased up to 156 +/- 13 and 195 +/- 14% respectively) were detected in monocrotaline intoxicated rats when it were compared to control rats. The microsomal cholesterol content showed a decrease in monocrotaline intoxicated rats. (4.1 +/- 0.7 against 6.6 +/- 1.5 micrograms/mg of microsomal protein, in control rats). When p-nitrophenol activity was measured, Km from monocrotaline intoxicated rats was 0.137 mM, and Vmax was 2.9 nmol of p-nitrophenol/mg microsomal protein since in control group Km was 0.322 mM, and Vmax was 4.5 nmol of p-nitrophenol/mg microsomal protein. It is concluded that monocrotaline intoxicated rats showed a different behavior in the kinetics of p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyltransferase, as well as a different microsomal lipidic profile, when compared to control group.

  16. The effects of resveratrol on hepatic oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome model induced by high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz Demirtas, C; Bircan, F S; Pasaoglu, O T; Turkozkan, N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate probable protective effects of resveratrol treatment on hepatic oxidative events in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thirty-two male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, fructose, resveratrol, and fructose plus resveratrol. To induce MetS, fructose solution (20 % in drinking water) was used. Resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage. All treatments were given for 8 weeks. Serum lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels, liver total oxidant status (TOS) levels and paraoxonase (PON), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were analyzed. Fructose-fed rats displayed statistically significant increases in TOS levels, and decreases in PON activity compared to the control group. Resveratrol treatment moderately prevented the decrease in liver PON activity caused by fructose. On the other hand, resveratrol, alone or in combination with fructose, did not change the TOS levels when compared to the fructose group. The SOD and CAT activities in all groups did not change. In this experimental design, high-fructose consumption led to elevated TOS levels and low PON activities. The resveratrol therapy shown beneficial effects on PON activity. However, it was found to behave like a prooxidant when administered together with fructose and alone in some parameters. Our results can inspire the development of new clinical therapy in patients with MetS (Tab. 2, Ref. 34).

  17. The usage of a three-compartment model to investigate the metabolic differences between hepatic reductase null and wild-type mice.

    PubMed

    Hill, Lydia; Chaplain, Mark A J; Wolf, Roland; Kapelyukh, Yury

    2017-03-01

    The Cytochrome P450 (CYP) system is involved in 90% of the human body's interactions with xenobiotics and due to this, it has become an area of avid research including the creation of transgenic mice. This paper proposes a three-compartment model which is used to explain the drug metabolism in the Hepatic Reductase Null (HRN) mouse developed by the University of Dundee (Henderson, C. J., Otto, D. M. E., Carrie, D., Magnuson, M. A., McLaren, A. W., Rosewell, I. and Wolf, C. R. (2003) Inactivation of the hepatic cytochrome p450 system by conditional deletion of hepatic cytochrome p450 reductase. J. Biol. Chem. , 13480-13486). The model is compared with a two-compartment model using experimental data from studies using wild-type and HRN mice. This comparison allowed for metabolic differences between the two types of mice to be isolated. The three sets of drug data (Gefitinib, Midazolam and Thalidomide) showed that the transgenic mouse has a decreased rate of metabolism. © The authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell death, perfusion and electrical parameters are critical in models of hepatic radiofrequency ablation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sheldon K.; Ooi, Ean H.; Payne, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: A sensitivity analysis has been performed on a mathematical model of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the liver. The purpose of this is to identify the most important parameters in the model, defined as those that produce the largest changes in the prediction. This is important in understanding the role of uncertainty and when comparing the model predictions to experimental data. Materials and methods: The Morris method was chosen to perform the sensitivity analysis because it is ideal for models with many parameters or that take a significant length of time to obtain solutions. A comprehensive literature review was performed to obtain ranges over which the model parameters are expected to vary, crucial input information. Results: The most important parameters in predicting the ablation zone size in our model of RFA are those representing the blood perfusion, electrical conductivity and the cell death model. The size of the 50 °C isotherm is sensitive to the electrical properties of tissue while the heat source is active, and to the thermal parameters during cooling. Conclusions: The parameter ranges chosen for the sensitivity analysis are believed to represent all that is currently known about their values in combination. The Morris method is able to compute global parameter sensitivities taking into account the interaction of all parameters, something that has not been done before. Research is needed to better understand the uncertainties in the cell death, electrical conductivity and perfusion models, but the other parameters are only of second order, providing a significant simplification. PMID:26000972

  19. Chronic hepatitis B infection and HBV DNA-containing capsids: Modeling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kalyan; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of chronic HBV infection taking into account both uninfected and infected hepatocytes along with the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids and the virions. While previous HBV models have included either the uninfected hepatocytes or the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids, our model accounts for both these two populations. We prove the conditions for local and global stability of both the uninfected and infected steady states in terms of the basic reproduction number. Further, we incorporate a time lag in the model to encompass the intracellular delay in the production of the infected hepatocytes and find that this delay does not affect the overall dynamics of the system. The results for the model and the delay model are finally numerically illustrated.

  20. Modelling the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health threat in Iceland: A goal attainable by 2020.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nick; Ólafsson, Sigurður; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Rúnarsdóttir, Valgerdur; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Hernandez, Ubaldo Benitez; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Hellard, Margaret

    2018-05-01

    In Iceland a nationwide program has been launched offering direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for everyone living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We estimate (i) the time and treatment scale-up required to achieve the World Health Organization's HCV elimination target of an 80% reduction in incidence; and (ii) the ongoing frequency of HCV testing and harm reduction coverage among people who inject drugs (PWID) required to minimize the likelihood of future HCV outbreaks occurring. We used a dynamic compartmental model of HCV transmission, liver disease progression and the HCV cascade of care, calibrated to reproduce the epidemic of HCV in Iceland. The model was stratified according to injecting drug use status, age and stage of engagement. Four scenarios were considered for the projections. The model estimated that an 80% reduction in domestic HCV incidence was achievable by 2030, 2025 or 2020 if a minimum of 55/1,000, 75/1,000 and 188/1,000 PWID were treated per year, respectively (a total of 22, 30 and 75 of the estimated 400 PWID in Iceland per year, respectively). Regardless of time frame, this required an increased number of PWID to be diagnosed to generate enough treatment demand, or a 20% scale-up of harm reduction services to complement treatment-as-prevention incidence reductions. When DAA scale-up was combined with annual antibody testing of PWID, the incidence reduction target was reached by 2024. Treatment scale-up with no other changes to current testing and harm reduction services reduced the basic reproduction number of HCV from 1.08 to 0.59, indicating that future outbreaks would be unlikely. HCV elimination in Iceland is achievable by 2020 with some additional screening of PWID. Maintaining current monitoring and harm reduction services while providing ongoing access to DAA therapy for people diagnosed with HCV would ensure that outbreaks are unlikely to occur once elimination targets have been reached. In Iceland, a nationwide program has been

  1. Hepatic insulin sensitivity in healthy and prediabetic subjects: from a dual- to a single-tracer oral minimal model.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Roberto; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio

    2015-07-15

    Recently, a model was proposed to assess hepatic insulin sensitivity during a meal, i.e., the ability of insulin to suppress glucose production (EGP), SI (P). The model was developed on EGP data obtained from a triple-tracer meal and the tracer-to-tracee clamp technique and validated against the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The aim of this study was to assess whether SI (P) can be obtained from plasma concentrations measured after a single-tracer meal by incorporating the above EGP model into the oral glucose minimal model by describing both glucose production and disposal (OMM(PD)). Triple-tracer meal data of two databases (20 healthy and 60 healthy and prediabetic subjects) were used. Virtually model-independent EGP estimates were calculated. OMM(PD) was identified on exogenous and endogenous glucose concentrations, providing indices of SI (P), disposal insulin sensitivity (SI (D)), and EGP. The model fitted the data well, and SI (P) and SI (D) were estimated with precision in both databases (SI (P) = 5.48 ± 0.54 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 9.93 ± 2.18 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml in healthy; SI (P) = 5.41 ± 3.55 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml and SI (D) = 5.34 ± 6.17 10(-4) dl·kg(-1)·min(-1) per μU/ml, in healthy and prediabetic subjects). Estimated SI (P) and that derived from the triple-tracer EGP model were very similar on average. Moreover, the time course of EGP normalized to basal EGP (EGPb), and EGP/EGPb agreed with the results obtained using the triple-tracer method. In this study, we have demonstrated that SI (P), SI (D), and EGP/EGPb time course can be estimated reliably from a single-tracer meal protocol in both healthy and prediabetic subjects. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Silymarin suppresses hepatic stellate cell activation in a dietary rat model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Analysis of isolated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, MINA; YANG, SU-GEUN; KIM, JOON MI; LEE, JIN-WOO; KIM, YOUNG SOO; LEE, JUNG IL

    2012-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatocellular injury and initial fibrosis severity has been suggested as an important prognostic factor of NASH. Silymarin was reported to improve carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis and reduce the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). We investigated whether silymarin could suppress the activation of HSCs in NASH induced by methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet fed to insulin-resistant rats. NASH was induced by feeding MCD diet to obese diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were fed with standard chow and served as the control. OLETF rats were fed on either standard laboratory chow, or MCD diet or MCD diet mixed with silymarin. Histological analysis of the liver showed improved non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score in silymarin-fed MCD-induced NASH. Silymarin reduced the activation of HSCs, evaluated by counting α-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells and measuring α-SMA mRNA expression in the liver lysates as well as in HSCs isolated from the experimental animals. Although silymarin decreased α1-procollagen mRNA expression in isolated HSCs, the anti-fibrogenic effect of silymarin was not prominent so as to show significant difference under histological analysis. Silymarin increased the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA expression in the liver. Our study suggested that the possible protective effect of silymarin in diet induced NASH by suppressing the activation of HSCs and disturbing the role of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. PMID:22710359

  3. Therapeutic role of niacin in the prevention and regression of hepatic steatosis in rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Shobha H; Kukes, Gary D; Lambrecht, Nils; Kashyap, Moti L; Kamanna, Vaijinath S

    2014-02-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a leading cause of liver damage, comprises a spectrum of liver abnormalities including the early fat deposition in the liver (hepatic steatosis) and advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Niacin decreases plasma triglycerides, but its effect on hepatic steatosis is elusive. To examine the effect of niacin on steatosis, rats were fed either a rodent normal chow, chow containing high fat (HF), or HF containing 0.5% or 1.0% niacin in the diet for 4 wk. For regression studies, rats were first fed the HF diet for 6 wk to induce hepatic steatosis and were then treated with niacin (0.5% in the diet) while on the HF diet for 6 wk. The findings indicated that inclusion of niacin at 0.5% and 1.0% doses in the HF diet significantly decreased liver fat content, liver weight, hepatic oxidative products, and prevented hepatic steatosis. Niacin treatment to rats with preexisting hepatic steatosis induced by the HF diet significantly regressed steatosis. Niacin had no effect on the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes (including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) but significantly inhibited mRNA levels, protein expression, and activity of diacylglycerol acyltrasferase 2, a key enzyme in triglyceride synthesis. These novel findings suggest that niacin effectively prevents and causes the regression of experimental hepatic steatosis. Approved niacin formulation(s) for other indications or niacin analogs may offer a very cost-effective opportunity for the clinical development of niacin for treating NAFLD and fatty liver disease.

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Vergani, D; Mieli-Vergani, G

    2004-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterised histologically by interface hepatitis, and serologically by the presence of non-organ and liver specific autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. Its onset is often ill-defined, frequently mimicing acute hepatitis. AIH usually responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is made. Two types of AIH are recognized according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1 AIH) or liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody (LKM1, type 2 AIH). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age and commonly have immunoglobulin A deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment and long-term prognosis are similar in the 2 groups. Susceptibility to AIH type 1 is conferred by possession of HLA DR3 and DR4, while to AIH type 2 by possession of HLA DR7. Liver damage is likely to derive from an immune reaction to liver cell antigens, possibly triggered by a mechanism of molecular mimicry, where immune responses to external pathogens, e.g. viruses, become directed towards structurally similar self-components. In AIH this process would be perpetuated by impairment in immune regulation.

  5. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  6. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. Are you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed ...

  7. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  8. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  9. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, ameliorates the development of hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Aguilera-Lizarraga, Javier; Rubio-Mediavilla, Susana; Narro, Judit; Recio, Emma; Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Oteo, José-Antonio; Blanco, José-Ramón

    2014-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the general population. The NAFLD spectrum ranges from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The chemokine CCL5/RANTES plays an important role in the progression of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, on liver pathology in a NAFLD mouse model. A total of 32 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) control group (chow diet plus tap water); (ii) maraviroc group (chow diet plus maraviroc in drinking water); (iii) high-fat diet (HFD) group (HFD plus tap water); and (iv) maraviroc/HFD group (HFD plus maraviroc). All mice were sacrificed 16 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Biochemical analyses and liver examinations were performed. Mice in the HFD group showed a tendency towards increased body mass gain and liver damage compared with the maraviroc/HFD group. Moreover, liver weight in the HFD group was significantly higher than in the maraviroc/HFD group. Hepatic triglyceride concentration in the maraviroc/HFD group was significantly lower than in the HFD group. Interestingly, the maraviroc/HFD group exhibited a lower degree of steatosis. Furthermore, hepatic CCL5/RANTES expression was significantly lower in the maraviroc/HFD group than in the HFD group. Overall, no differences were observed between the control group and the maraviroc group. Maraviroc ameliorates hepatic steatosis in an experimental model of NAFLD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved in the mechanisms of chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, Shaoshan

    We previously confirmed that rats overloaded with aluminum exhibited hepatic function damage and increased susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. However, the mechanism of liver toxicity by chronic aluminum overload is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) signaling pathway and its effect on liver injury in aluminum-overloaded rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established via the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al{sup 3+} 200 mg/kg per day, 5 days a week for 20 weeks). The 5-LO inhibitor, caffeic acid (10 and 30 mg/kg), was intragastrically administered 1 h after aluminum administration.more » Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. Immunochemistry and RT-PCR methods were used to detect 5-LO protein and mRNA expression in the liver, respectively. Caffeic acid administration protected livers against histopathological injury, decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and LTs levels, increased the reactive oxygen species content, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-LO in aluminum overloaded rats. Our results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is mechanistically involved in chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure and that the 5-LO signaling pathway, which associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potential therapeutic target for chronic non-infection liver diseases. - Highlights: • 5-LO signaling contributes to mechanisms of hepatotoxicity of aluminum overload. • Oxidative and inflammatory reaction involve in chonic aluminum hepatotoxicity. • 5-LO inhibitor has a protective effect on aluminum-overload liver injury. • 5-LO signaling is a potential therapeutic target for non-infection liver diseases.« less

  11. Mouse and Rat Models of Induction of Hepatic Fibrosis and Assessment of Portal Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Klein, Sabine; Schierwagen, Robert; Uschner, Frank Erhard; Trebicka, Jonel

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension either develops due to progressive liver fibrosis or is the consequence of vascular liver diseases such as portal vein thrombosis or non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. This chapter focuses on different rodent models of liver fibrosis with portal hypertension and also in few non-cirrhotic portal hypertension models. Importantly, after the development of portal hypertension, the proper assessment of drug effects in the portal and systemic circulation should be discussed. The last part of the chapter is dedicated in these techniques to assess the in vivo hemodynamics and the ex vivo techniques of the isolated liver perfusion and vascular contractility.

  12. Changes in Hepatic TRβ Protein Expression, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Levels During Chronic Hyperthyroidism and Triiodothyronine Withdrawal in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Kenji; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Iannucci, Liliana Felicia; Zhou, Jin; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Yen, Paul Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic metabolism. It was previously reported that most hepatic genes activated by a single triiodothyronine (T3) injection became desensitized after multiple injections, and that approximately 10% of target genes did not return to basal expression levels after T3 withdrawal, despite normalization of serum TH and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. To determine the possible mechanism(s) for desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target gene transcription and their effects on metabolism, mRNA and/or protein expression levels of key regulators of TH action were measured, as well as metabolomic changes after chronic T3 treatment and withdrawal. Methods: Adult male mice were treated with daily injections of T3 (20 μg/100 g body weight) for 14 days followed by the cessation of T3 for 10 days. Livers were harvested at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days after the first T3 injection, and at 10 days after withdrawal, and then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and metabolomics. Results: Although TH receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNAs decreased slightly after chronic T3 treatment, only TRβ protein decreased before returning to basal expression level after withdrawal. The expression of other regulators of TH action was unchanged. TRβ protein expression was also decreased in adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 (Mct8)-knockout mice, an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism. Previously, increased hepatic long-chain acylcarnitine levels were found after acute TH treatment. However, in this study, long-chain acylcarnitine levels were unchanged after chronic T3, and paradoxically increased after T3 withdrawal. Pathway analyses of the previous microarray results showed upregulation of lipogenic genes after acute T3 treatment and withdrawal. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase also decreased after T3 withdrawal. Conclusions: Decreased

  13. Changes in Hepatic TRβ Protein Expression, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Levels During Chronic Hyperthyroidism and Triiodothyronine Withdrawal in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Kenji; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Iannucci, Liliana Felicia; Zhou, Jin; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Yen, Paul Michael

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic metabolism. It was previously reported that most hepatic genes activated by a single triiodothyronine (T3) injection became desensitized after multiple injections, and that approximately 10% of target genes did not return to basal expression levels after T3 withdrawal, despite normalization of serum TH and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. To determine the possible mechanism(s) for desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target gene transcription and their effects on metabolism, mRNA and/or protein expression levels of key regulators of TH action were measured, as well as metabolomic changes after chronic T3 treatment and withdrawal. Adult male mice were treated with daily injections of T3 (20 μg/100 g body weight) for 14 days followed by the cessation of T3 for 10 days. Livers were harvested at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days after the first T3 injection, and at 10 days after withdrawal, and then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and metabolomics. Although TH receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNAs decreased slightly after chronic T3 treatment, only TRβ protein decreased before returning to basal expression level after withdrawal. The expression of other regulators of TH action was unchanged. TRβ protein expression was also decreased in adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 (Mct8)-knockout mice, an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism. Previously, increased hepatic long-chain acylcarnitine levels were found after acute TH treatment. However, in this study, long-chain acylcarnitine levels were unchanged after chronic T3, and paradoxically increased after T3 withdrawal. Pathway analyses of the previous microarray results showed upregulation of lipogenic genes after acute T3 treatment and withdrawal. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase also decreased after T3 withdrawal. Decreased hepatic TRβ protein expression occurred

  14. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  15. Structural identifiability analyses of candidate models for in vitro Pitavastatin hepatic uptake.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Thomas R B; Chappell, Michael J; Yates, James W T; Evans, Neil D

    2014-05-01

    In this paper a review of the application of four different techniques (a version of the similarity transformation approach for autonomous uncontrolled systems, a non-differential input/output observable normal form approach, the characteristic set differential algebra and a recent algebraic input/output relationship approach) to determine the structural identifiability of certain in vitro nonlinear pharmacokinetic models is provided. The Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) substrate, Pitavastatin, is used as a probe on freshly isolated animal and human hepatocytes. Candidate pharmacokinetic non-linear compartmental models have been derived to characterise the uptake process of Pitavastatin. As a prerequisite to parameter estimation, structural identifiability analyses are performed to establish that all unknown parameters can be identified from the experimental observations available. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. A Predictive Model for Toxicity Effects Assessment of Biotransformed Hepatic Drugs Using Iterative Sampling Method.

    PubMed

    Tharwat, Alaa; Moemen, Yasmine S; Hassanien, Aboul Ella

    2016-12-09

    Measuring toxicity is one of the main steps in drug development. Hence, there is a high demand for computational models to predict the toxicity effects of the potential drugs. In this study, we used a dataset, which consists of four toxicity effects:mutagenic, tumorigenic, irritant and reproductive effects. The proposed model consists of three phases. In the first phase, rough set-based methods are used to select the most discriminative features for reducing the classification time and improving the classification performance. Due to the imbalanced class distribution, in the second phase, different sampling methods such as Random Under-Sampling, Random Over-Sampling and Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique are used to solve the problem of imbalanced datasets. ITerative Sampling (ITS) method is proposed to avoid the limitations of those methods. ITS method has two steps. The first step (sampling step) iteratively modifies the prior distribution of the minority and majority classes. In the second step, a data cleaning method is used to remove the overlapping that is produced from the first step. In the third phase, Bagging classifier is used to classify an unknown drug into toxic or non-toxic. The experimental results proved that the proposed model performed well in classifying the unknown samples according to all toxic effects in the imbalanced datasets.

  17. Diabetes-induced hepatic pathogenic damage, inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance was exacerbated in zinc deficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian; Tan, Yi; Li, Bing; Miao, Xiao; Jin, Litai; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Xiang; Miao, Lining; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency often occurs in the patients with diabetes. Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic injury were investigated. Type 1 diabetes was induced in FVB mice with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without Zn chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylemethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), at 5 mg/kg body-weight daily for 4 months. Hepatic injury was examined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and liver histopathological and biochemical changes. Hepatic Zn deficiency (lower than control level, p<0.05) was seen in the mice with either diabetes or TPEN treatment and more evident in the mice with both diabetes and TPEN. Zn deficiency exacerbated hepatic injuries, shown by further increased serum ALT, hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative damage, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related cell death in Diabetes/TPEN group compared to Diabetes alone. Diabetes/TPEN group also showed a significant decrease in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription action along with significant increases in Akt negative regulators, decrease in Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, and increase in nuclear accumulation of Fyn (a Nrf2 negative regulator). In vitro study with HepG2 cells showed that apoptotic effect of TPEN at 0.5-1.0 µM could be completely prevented by simultaneous Zn supplementation at the dose range of 30-50 µM. Zn is required for maintaining Akt activation by inhibiting the expression of Akt negative regulators; Akt activation can inhibit Fyn nuclear translocation to export nuclear Nrf2 to cytoplasm for degradation. Zn deficiency significantly enhanced diabetes-induced hepatic injury likely through down-regulation of Nrf2 function.

  18. A Parallel Sliding Region Algorithm to Make Agent-Based Modeling Possible for a Large-Scale Simulation: Modeling Hepatitis C Epidemics in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wong, William W L; Feng, Zeny Z; Thein, Hla-Hla

    2016-11-01

    Agent-based models (ABMs) are computer simulation models that define interactions among agents and simulate emergent behaviors that arise from the ensemble of local decisions. ABMs have been increasingly used to examine trends in infectious disease epidemiology. However, the main limitation of ABMs is the high computational cost for a large-scale simulation. To improve the computational efficiency for large-scale ABM simulations, we built a parallelizable sliding region algorithm (SRA) for ABM and compared it to a nonparallelizable ABM. We developed a complex agent network and performed two simulations to model hepatitis C epidemics based on the real demographic data from Saskatchewan, Canada. The first simulation used the SRA that processed on each postal code subregion subsequently. The second simulation processed the entire population simultaneously. It was concluded that the parallelizable SRA showed computational time saving with comparable results in a province-wide simulation. Using the same method, SRA can be generalized for performing a country-wide simulation. Thus, this parallel algorithm enables the possibility of using ABM for large-scale simulation with limited computational resources.

  19. Time-restricted feeding improves insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Heekyung; Chou, Winjet; Sears, Dorothy D; Patterson, Ruth E; Webster, Nicholas J G; Ellies, Lesley G

    2016-12-01

    Menopause is associated with significant hormonal changes that result in increased total body fat and abdominal fat, amplifying the risk for metabolic syndrome and diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer in postmenopausal women. Intermittent fasting regimens hold significant health benefit promise for obese humans, however, regimens that include extreme daytime calorie restriction or daytime fasting are generally associated with hunger and irritability, hampering long-term compliance and adoption in the clinical setting. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a regimen allowing eating only during a specific period in the normal circadian feeding cycle, without calorie restriction, may increase compliance and provide a more clinically viable method for reducing the detrimental metabolic consequences associated with obesity. We tested TRF as an intervention in a mouse model of postmenopausal obesity. Metabolic parameters were measured using Clinical Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS) and we carried out glucose tolerance tests. We also stained liver sections with oil red O to examine steatosis and measured gene expression related to gluconeogenesis. Preexisting metabolic disease was significantly attenuated during 7 weeks of TRF. Despite having access to the same high fat diet (HFD) as ad libitum fed (ALF) mice, TRF mice experienced rapid weight loss followed by a delayed improvement in insulin resistance and a reduced severity of hepatic steatosis by having access to the HFD for only 8h during their normal nocturnal feeding period. The lower respiratory exchange ratio in the TRF group compared with the ALF group early in the dark phase suggested that fat was the predominant fuel source in the TRF group and correlated with gene expression analyses that suggested a switch from gluconeogenesis to ketogenesis. In addition, TRF mice were more physically active than ALF fed mice. Our data support further analysis of TRF as a clinically viable form of

  20. A critical review of histopathological findings associated with endocrine and non-endocrine hepatic toxicity in fish models.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jeffrey C; Wheeler, James R

    2018-04-01

    Although frequently examined as a target organ for non-endocrine toxicity, histopathological evaluation of the liver is becoming a routine component of endocrine disruption studies that utilize various fish species as test subjects. However, the interpretation of microscopic liver findings can be challenging, especially when attempting to distinguish adverse changes associated with endocrine disrupting substances from those caused by systemic or direct hepatic toxicity. The purpose of this project was to conduct a critical assessment of the available peer-reviewed and grey literature concerning the histopathologic effects of reproductive endocrine active substances (EAS) and non-endocrine acting substances in the livers of fish models, and to determine if liver histopathology can be used to reliably distinguish endocrine from non-endocrine etiologies. The results of this review suggest that few compound-specific histopathologic liver effects have been identified, among which are estrogen agonist-induced increases in hepatocyte basophilia and proteinaceous intravascular fluid in adult male teleosts, and potentially, decreased hepatocyte basophilia in female fish exposed to substances that possess androgenic, anti-estrogenic, or aromatase inhibitory activity. This review also used published standardized methodology to assess the credibility of the histopathology data in each of the 117 articles that reported liver effects of treatment, and consequently it was determined that in only 37% of those papers were the data considered either highly credible or credible. The outcome of this work highlights the value of histopathologic liver evaluation as an investigative tool for EAS studies, and provides information that may have implications for EAS hazard assessment. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An optimized Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model based on particle swarm optimization and its application in prediction for the incidence of Hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zheng, Yanling; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xueliang; Zheng, Yujian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the optimal parameter estimation problem, an improved Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model termed PSO-NNGBM(1,1) is proposed. To test the forecasting performance, the optimized model is applied for forecasting the incidence of hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China. Four models, traditional GM(1,1), grey Verhulst model (GVM), original nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM(1,1)) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method, are also established for comparison with the proposed model under the criteria of mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percent error. The prediction results show that the optimized NNGBM(1,1) model is more accurate and performs better than the traditional GM(1,1), GVM, NGBM(1,1) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Soy isoflavones (Glycine max) ameliorate hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in high fat-fed ovariectomized Wistar rats (an experimental model of postmenopausal obesity).

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Sankar; Packirisamy, Rajaa Muthu; Bobby, Zachariah; Elizabeth Jacob, Sajini; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Obesity emerged as the major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Postmenopausal women are more prone to develop obesity than premenopausal women. The absence of safe and effective conventional treatments for postmenopausal obesity has changed the focus to natural products as alternative remedy. We investigated the molecular basis of the effect of soy isoflavones (SIFs) on hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in an animal model of postmenopausal obesity. Ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) and normal diet for 8 weeks with and without SIF extract (150mg/kg body weight/day). Both OVX and HFD per se and when combined caused hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia and atherogenic lipid profile. Proteomic studies revealed that both OVX and HFD caused overexpression of hepatic lipogenic proteins, such as LXR, SREBP1, PPARγ, ACC and FAS, in association with reduced expression of lipolytic proteins, such as FXR, PPARα, insig2 and SHP. Histological analysis showed fat accumulation and morphological abnormalities in the liver of OVX and HFD rats. All these metabolic derangements were further augmented when OVX was followed by HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that there was a synergism in the development of deranged lipid metabolism with the coexistence of postmenopausal state and the intake of fat-rich diet. SIF extract markedly alleviated the derangement of lipid metabolism suggesting the use of this natural phytoestrogen as a strategy for relieving dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis associated with the postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Using the direct-injection model of early uveal melanoma hepatic metastasis to identify TPS as a potentially useful serum biomarker.

    PubMed

    Barak, Vivian; Frenkel, Shahar; Valyi-Nagy, Klara; Leach, Lu; Apushkin, Marsha A; Lin, Amy Y; Kalickman, Inna; Baumann, Nikola A; Pe'er, Jacob; Maniotis, Andrew J; Folberg, Robert

    2007-10-01

    To develop a method to screen for serum biomarkers of early hepatic metastasis from uveal melanoma. Cytokeratin 18 (TPS) was identified from gene expression profiles as protein generated by highly invasive uveal melanoma cells. Sera were collected from two groups of 15 SCID mice 2 weeks after injection of either tissue culture medium or MUM2B human metastatic uveal melanoma cells into the mouse liver. Serum TPS levels were assayed in 53 healthy human controls, 64 uveal melanoma patients who were disease free for at least 10 years, and 37 patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. After 2 weeks, small hepatic nodules (0.1-2.8 mm; mean, 0.80 mm) developed in 11 of 15 mice injected with MUM2B cells. Serum TPS levels in media-injected mice (84.7 U/L) were substantially lower than levels in MUM2B-injected mice (601 mug/L). TPS levels were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma (139.63 +/- 22.20) than in healthy controls (54.23 +/- 0.01) or in patients free of disease (69.29 +/- 9.76). Significant differences were found between TPS levels before and after the development of hepatic metastases (P < 0.01), and serum TPS levels became elevated in four patients at least 6 months before the detection of hepatic metastases by abdominal ultrasonography. The direct-injection model of uveal melanoma in the mouse liver may be used to screen for potential serum biomarkers of metastatic uveal melanoma.

  4. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S.; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC. PMID:28212548

  5. Orally ingested (13)C(2)-retinol is incorporated into hepatic retinyl esters in a nonhuman primate (Macaca mulatta) model of hypervitaminosis A.

    PubMed

    Escaron, Anne L; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-02-01

    The mechanism responsible for the metabolism of vitamin A during hypervitaminosis is largely unknown. This study investigated hepatic (13)C-retinol uptake in hypervitaminotic A rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that individual retinyl esters would be enriched in (13)C after a physiologic dose of (13)C(2)-retinyl acetate, thus suggesting de novo in vivo hepatic retinol esterification. Male rhesus macaques (n = 16; 11.8 +/- 2.9 y) each received 3.5 micromol 14, 15-(13)C(2)-retinyl acetate. Blood was drawn at baseline and 5 h and 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after administration. Liver biopsies were collected 7 d before and 2 d after dose administration (n = 4) and at 7, 14, and 28 d after dose administration (n = 4 per time point). (13)C enrichments of retinol and retinyl esters HPLC-purified from liver samples were measured by using gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. (13)C enrichment of total vitamin A and individual retinyl esters were significantly greater 2 d after dose administration compared with baseline levels. In contrast, the concentration of isolated retinyl esters did not always increase 2 d after treatment. Given that the liver biopsy site differed between monkeys, these data suggest that the accumulation of hepatic retinyl esters is a dynamic process that is better represented by combining analytical techniques. This sensitive methodology can be used to characterize vitamin A trafficking after physiologic doses of (13)C-retinol. In this nonhuman primate model of hypervitaminosis A, hepatic retinyl esters continued to accumulate with high liver stores.

  6. Orally Ingested 13C2-Retinol is Incorporated into Hepatic Retinyl Esters in a Nonhuman Primate (Macaca mulatta) Model of Hypervitaminosis A

    PubMed Central

    Escaron, Anne L; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the metabolism of vitamin A during hypervitaminosis is largely unknown. This study investigated hepatic 13C-retinol uptake in hypervitaminotic A rhesus monkeys. We hypothesized that individual retinyl esters would be enriched in 13C after a physiologic dose of 13C2-retinyl acetate, thus suggesting de novo in vivo hepatic retinol esterification. Male rhesus macaques (n = 16; 11.8 ± 2.9 y) each received 3.5 µmol 14, 15-13C2-retinyl acetate. Blood was drawn at baseline and 5 h and 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d after administration. Liver biopsies were collected 7 d before and 2 d after dose administration (n = 4) and at 7, 14, and 28 d after dose administration (n = 4 per time point). 13C enrichments of retinol and retinyl esters HPLC-purified from liver samples were measured by using gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry. 13C enrichment of total vitamin A and individual retinyl esters were significantly greater 2 d after dose administration compared with baseline levels. In contrast, the concentration of isolated retinyl esters did not always increase 2 d after treatment. Given that the liver biopsy site differed between monkeys, these data suggest that the accumulation of hepatic retinyl esters is a dynamic process that is better represented by combining analytical techniques. This sensitive methodology can be used to characterize vitamin A trafficking after physiologic doses of 13C-retinol. In this nonhuman primate model of hypervitaminosis A, hepatic retinyl esters continued to accumulate with high liver stores. PMID:20158952

  7. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis. PMID:26714035

  8. Effectiveness of Losartan-Loaded Hyaluronic Acid (HA) Micelles for the Reduction of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in C3H/HeN Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Reju George; Moon, Myeong Ju; Kim, Jo Heon; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Advanced hepatic fibrosis therapy using drug-delivering nanoparticles is a relatively unexplored area. Angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers such as losartan can be delivered to hepatic stellate cells (HSC), blocking their activation and thereby reducing fibrosis progression in the liver. In our study, we analyzed the possibility of utilizing drug-loaded vehicles such as hyaluronic acid (HA) micelles carrying losartan to attenuate HSC activation. Losartan, which exhibits inherent lipophilicity, was loaded into the hydrophobic core of HA micelles with a 19.5% drug loading efficiency. An advanced liver fibrosis model was developed using C3H/HeN mice subjected to 20 weeks of prolonged TAA/ethanol weight-adapted treatment. The cytocompatibility and cell uptake profile of losartan-HA micelles were studied in murine fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) and FL83B cells (hepatocyte cell line). The ability of these nanoparticles to attenuate HSC activation was studied in activated HSC cells based on alpha smooth muscle actin (α-sma) expression. Mice treated with oral losartan or losartan-HA micelles were analyzed for serum enzyme levels (ALT/AST, CK and LDH) and collagen deposition (hydroxyproline levels) in the liver. The accumulation of HA micelles was observed in fibrotic livers, which suggests increased delivery of losartan compared to normal livers and specific uptake by HSC. Active reduction of α-sma was observed in hHSC and the liver sections of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice. The serum enzyme levels and collagen deposition of losartan-HA micelle-treated mice was reduced significantly compared to the oral losartan group. Losartan-HA micelles demonstrated significant attenuation of hepatic fibrosis via an HSC-targeting mechanism in our in vitro and in vivo studies. These nanoparticles can be considered as an alternative therapy for liver fibrosis.

  9. Branched-chain amino acids prevent hepatic fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Takegoshi, Kai; Honda, Masao; Okada, Hikari; Takabatake, Riuta; Matsuzawa-Nagata, Naoto; Campbell, Jean S; Nishikawa, Masashi; Shimakami, Tetsuro; Shirasaki, Takayoshi; Sakai, Yoshio; Yamashita, Taro; Takamura, Toshinari; Tanaka, Takuji; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-03-14

    Oral supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA; leucine, isoleucine, and valine) in patients with liver cirrhosis potentially suppresses the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and improves event-free survival. However, the detailed mechanisms of BCAA action have not been fully elucidated. BCAA were administered to atherogenic and high-fat (Ath+HF) diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. Liver histology, tumor incidence, and gene expression profiles were evaluated. Ath+HF diet mice developed hepatic tumors at a high frequency at 68 weeks. BCAA supplementation significantly improved hepatic steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, and tumors in Ath+HF mice at 68 weeks. GeneChip analysis demonstrated the significant resolution of pro-fibrotic gene expression by BCAA supplementation. The anti-fibrotic effect of BCAA was confirmed further using platelet-derived growth factor C transgenic mice, which develop hepatic fibrosis and tumors. In vitro, BCAA restored the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-stimulated expression of pro-fibrotic genes in hepatic stellate cells (HSC). In hepatocytes, BCAA restored TGF-β1-induced apoptosis, lipogenesis, and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling, and inhibited the transformation of WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stem-like cells. BCAA repressed the promoter activity of TGFβ1R1 by inhibiting the expression of the transcription factor NFY and histone acetyltransferase p300. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of BCAA on TGF-β1 signaling was mTORC1 activity-dependent, suggesting the presence of negative feedback regulation from mTORC1 to TGF-β1 signaling. Thus, BCAA induce an anti-fibrotic effect in HSC, prevent apoptosis in hepatocytes, and decrease the incidence of HCC; therefore, BCAA supplementation would be beneficial for patients with advanced liver fibrosis with a high risk of HCC.

  10. Oral aversion to dietary sugar, ethanol and glycerol correlates with alterations in specific hepatic metabolites in a mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Fujimoto, Yuki; Furuie, Sumie; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Sinasac, David S; Yamamoto, Takashi; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2017-04-01

    Mice carrying simultaneous homozygous mutations in the genes encoding citrin, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier 2 (AGC2) protein, and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), are a phenotypically representative model of human citrin (a.k.a., AGC2) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the voluntary oral intake and preference for sucrose, glycerol or ethanol solutions by wild-type, citrin (Ctrn)-knockout (KO), mGPD-KO, and Ctrn/mGPD double-KO mice; all substances that are known or suspected precipitating factors in the pathogenesis of human citrin deficiency. The double-KO mice showed clear suppressed intake of sucrose, consuming less with progressively higher concentrations compared to the other mice. Similar observations were made when glycerol or ethanol were given. The preference of Ctrn-KO and mGPD-KO mice varied with the different treatments; essentially no differences were observed for sucrose, while an intermediate intake or similar to that of the double-KO mice was observed for glycerol and ethanol. We next examined the hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate, citrate, citrulline, lysine, glutamate and adenine nucleotide levels following forced enteral administration of these solutions. A strong correlation between the simultaneous increased hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and decreased ATP or total adenine nucleotide content and observed aversion of the mice during evaluation of their voluntary preferences was found. Overall, our results suggest that the aversion observed in the double-KO mice to these solutions is initiated and/or mediated by hepatic metabolic perturbations, resulting in a behavioral response to increased hepatic cytosolic NADH and a decreased cellular adenine nucleotide pool. These findings may underlie the dietary predilections observed in human citrin deficient patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatic immunohistochemical localization of the tight junction protein ZO-1 in rat models of cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, J. M.; Glade, J. L.; Stevenson, B. R.; Boyer, J. L.; Mooseker, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Structural alterations in hepatocyte tight junctions accompanying cholestasis were investigated using immunolocalization of ZO-1, the first known protein component of the tight junction. Disruption in the paracellular barrier function of the tight junction has been proposed to allow reflux of bile into the blood. Cholestasis was induced in 210 to 235 g male Sprague-Dawley rats either by five consecutive daily subcutaneous injections of 17-alpha-ethinyl estradiol (0.5 mg/kg/d in propylene glycol) or ligation of the common bile duct for 72 hours. The structural organization of the tight junction was assessed in each model by indirect immunofluorescent and immunoperoxidase staining for ZO-1 on frozen sections of liver and compared with controls. In control, sham-operated, and estradiol-injected animals, ZO-1 localizes in a uniform continuous manner along the margins of the canaliculi. In contrast, bile duct ligation results in the appearance of numerous discontinuities in ZO-1 staining accompanied by dilation or collapse of the lumenal space. Tissue content of the ZO-1 protein, as determined by quantitative immunoblotting, was unaffected in either cholestatic model compared with controls. These findings indicate that the molecular organization of the tight junction can be assessed from immunostaining patterns of ZO-1 in frozen sections of cholestatic livers. Under these experimental conditions, the organization of the tight junction at the level of the ZO-1 protein is altered by bile duct obstruction but not by ethinyl estradiol. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2719075

  12. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens for chronic hepatitis C infection: Insights from a work productivity economic model from the United States.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Jiang, Yushan; Smith, Nathaniel J; Stepanova, Maria; Beckerman, Rachel

    2015-05-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) exhibit reduced work productivity owing to their disease. Historically, most regimens indicated for CHC genotype 1 (GT1) patients were administered with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and/or ribavirin (RBV), which further compromised work productivity during treatment. The aim of this study was to model the impact of LDV/SOF (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir), the first Peg-IFN- and RBV-free regimen for CHC GT1 patients, on work productivity from an economic perspective, compared to receiving no treatment. The WPAI-SHP (Work Productivity and Activity Index-Specific Health Problem) questionnaire was administered to patients across the ION clinical trials (N = 1,923 U.S. patients). Before initiation of treatment, patients with CHC GT1 in the ION trials exhibited absenteeism and presenteeism impairments of 2.57% and 7.58%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis exhibited greater work productivity impairment than patients without cirrhosis. In total, 93.21% of U.S. patients in the ION trials achieved SVR; these patients exhibited absenteeism and presenteeism impairments of 2.62% (P = 0.76, when compared to baseline) and 3.53% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Monetizing these data to the entire U.S. population, our model projects an annual societal cost of $7.1 billion owing to productivity loss in untreated GT1 CHC patients. Our model projects that, when compared to no treatment, treating all CHC GT1 patients with a regimen with very high viral eradication rates (LDV/SOF) would translate to annual productivity loss savings of $2.7 billion over a 1-year time horizon. Patients with untreated HCV impose a substantial societal burden owing to reduced work productivity. As a result of improvements in work productivity, treatment of CHC GT1 patients with LDV/SOF-based regimens is likely to result in significant cost savings from a societal perspective, relative to no treatment. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  13. Patient-Specific Biomechanical Modeling for Guidance During Minimally-Invasive Hepatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Plantefève, Rosalie; Peterlik, Igor; Haouchine, Nazim; Cotin, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    During the minimally-invasive liver surgery, only the partial surface view of the liver is usually provided to the surgeon via the laparoscopic camera. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the actual position of the internal structures such as tumors and vessels from the pre-operative images. Nevertheless, such task can be highly challenging since during the intervention, the abdominal organs undergo important deformations due to the pneumoperitoneum, respiratory and cardiac motion and the interaction with the surgical tools. Therefore, a reliable automatic system for intra-operative guidance requires fast and reliable registration of the pre- and intra-operative data. In this paper we present a complete pipeline for the registration of pre-operative patient-specific image data to the sparse and incomplete intra-operative data. While the intra-operative data is represented by a point cloud extracted from the stereo-endoscopic images, the pre-operative data is used to reconstruct a biomechanical model which is necessary for accurate estimation of the position of the internal structures, considering the actual deformations. This model takes into account the patient-specific liver anatomy composed of parenchyma, vascularization and capsule, and is enriched with anatomical boundary conditions transferred from an atlas. The registration process employs the iterative closest point technique together with a penalty-based method. We perform a quantitative assessment based on the evaluation of the target registration error on synthetic data as well as a qualitative assessment on real patient data. We demonstrate that the proposed registration method provides good results in terms of both accuracy and robustness w.r.t. the quality of the intra-operative data.

  14. Correction of metabolic abnormalities in a rodent model of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibitors of hepatic protein kinase C-ι.

    PubMed

    Sajan, Mini P; Nimal, Sonali; Mastorides, Stephen; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Kahn, C Ronald; Fields, Alan P; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Farese, Robert V

    2012-04-01

    Excessive activity of hepatic atypical protein kinase (aPKC) is proposed to play a critical role in mediating lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous studies of rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, adenoviral-mediated expression of kinase-inactive aPKC rapidly reversed or markedly improved most if not all metabolic abnormalities. Here, we examined effects of 2 newly developed small-molecule PKC-ι/λ inhibitors. We used the mouse model of heterozygous muscle-specific knockout of PKC-λ, in which partial deficiency of muscle PKC-λ impairs glucose transport in muscle and thereby causes glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which, via hepatic aPKC activation, leads to abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. One inhibitor, 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)], binds to the substrate-binding site of PKC-λ/ι, but not other PKCs. The other inhibitor, aurothiomalate, binds to cysteine residues in the PB1-binding domains of aPKC-λ/ι/ζ and inhibits scaffolding. Treatment with either inhibitor for 7 days inhibited aPKC, but not Akt, in liver and concomitantly improved insulin signaling to Akt and aPKC in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, both inhibitors diminished excessive expression of hepatic, aPKC-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory, and gluconeogenic factors; and this was accompanied by reversal or marked improvements in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Our findings highlight the pathogenetic importance of insulin signaling to hepatic PKC-ι in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggest that 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)] and aurothiomalate or similar agents that

  15. A New Age-Structured Multiscale Model of the Hepatitis C Virus Life-Cycle During Infection and Therapy With Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quintela, Barbara de M.; Conway, Jessica M.; Hyman, James M.

    Here, the dynamics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA during translation and replication within infected cells were added to a previous age-structured multiscale mathematical model of HCV infection and treatment. The model allows the study of the dynamics of HCV RNA inside infected cells as well as the release of virus from infected cells and the dynamics of subsequent new cell infections. The model was used to fit in vitro data and estimate parameters characterizing HCV replication. This is the first model to our knowledge to consider both positive and negative strands of HCV RNA with an age-structured multiscale modelingmore » approach. Using this model we also studied the effects of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in blocking HCV RNA intracellular replication and the release of new virions and fit the model to in vivo data obtained from HCV-infected subjects under therapy.« less

  16. A New Age-Structured Multiscale Model of the Hepatitis C Virus Life-Cycle During Infection and Therapy With Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    DOE PAGES

    Quintela, Barbara de M.; Conway, Jessica M.; Hyman, James M.; ...

    2018-04-04

    Here, the dynamics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA during translation and replication within infected cells were added to a previous age-structured multiscale mathematical model of HCV infection and treatment. The model allows the study of the dynamics of HCV RNA inside infected cells as well as the release of virus from infected cells and the dynamics of subsequent new cell infections. The model was used to fit in vitro data and estimate parameters characterizing HCV replication. This is the first model to our knowledge to consider both positive and negative strands of HCV RNA with an age-structured multiscale modelingmore » approach. Using this model we also studied the effects of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in blocking HCV RNA intracellular replication and the release of new virions and fit the model to in vivo data obtained from HCV-infected subjects under therapy.« less

  17. Antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus tomentosus in a model of acute hepatic damage induced by thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Galisteo, M; Suárez, A; del Pilar Montilla, M; del Pilar Utrilla, M; Jiménez, J; Gil, A; Faus, M J; Navarro, M

    2000-11-01

    R. tomentosus is a vegetal species closely related to the culinary rosemary (R. officinalis), a plant reported to contain antihepatotoxic agents. A dried ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus tomentosus (Lamiaceae) and its major fraction separated by column chromatography (fraction F19) were evaluated for antihepatotoxic activity in rats with acute liver damage induced by a single oral dose of thioacetamide. Silymarin was used as a reference antihepatotoxic substance. Pre-treatment with R. tomentosus ethanol extract, fraction F19 or silymarin significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide toxicity on plasma protein and urea levels as well as on plasma aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities compared with thioacetamide-treated animals (group T). Pre-treatment with R. tomentosus ethanol extract significantly reduced the impact of thioacetamide damage on alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities compared with group T. Silymarin administration significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities compared with group T. Fraction F19 administration reduced only alkaline phosphatase activity compared with group T. According to these data, R. tomentosus extract shows promising antihepatotoxic activity, suggesting the need to isolate the chemical principles responsible for this activity and to study this activity in a model of thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Models of Circadian Disruption Link SRC-2 Function to Hepatic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Tiffany; Stashi, Erin; Zhu, Bokai; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Marcelo, Kathrina L.; Kettner, Nicole M.; Gorman, Blythe K.; Coarfa, Cristian; Fu, Loning; O’Malley, Bert W.; York, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity is a fundamental process that synchronizes behavioral cues with metabolic homeostasis. Disruption of daily cycles due to jet lag or shift work results in severe physiological consequences including advanced aging, metabolic syndrome, and even cancer. Our understanding of the molecular clock, which is regulated by intricate positive feedforward and negative feedback loops, has expanded to include an important metabolic transcriptional coregulator, Steroid Receptor Coactivator-2 (SRC-2), that regulates both the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral clocks including the liver. We hypothesized that an environmental uncoupling of the light-dark phases, termed chronic circadian disruption (CCD), would lead to pathology similar to the genetic circadian disruption observed with loss of SRC-2. We found that CCD and ablation of SRC-2 in mice led to a common comorbidity of metabolic syndrome also found in humans with circadian disruption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The combination of SRC-2−/− and CCD results in a more robust phenotype that correlates with human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene signatures. Either CCD or SRC-2 ablation produces an advanced aging phenotype leading to increased mortality consistent with other circadian mutant mouse models. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that SRC-2 provides an essential link between the behavioral activities influenced by light cues and the metabolic homeostasis maintained by the liver. PMID:27432117

  19. Inactivating hepatic follistatin alleviates hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rongya; Wang, Caixia; Stöhr, Oliver; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Yue; Miao, Ji; Dong, X Charlie; Leng, Sining; Stefater, Margaret; Stylopoulos, Nicholas; Lin, Lin; Copps, Kyle D; White, Morris F

    2018-06-04

    Unsuppressed hepatic glucose production (HGP) contributes substantially to glucose intolerance and diabetes, which can be modeled by the genetic inactivation of hepatic insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) and Irs2 (LDKO mice). We previously showed that glucose intolerance in LDKO mice is resolved by hepatic inactivation of the transcription factor FoxO1 (that is, LTKO mice)-even though the liver remains insensitive to insulin. Here, we report that insulin sensitivity in the white adipose tissue of LDKO mice is also impaired but is restored in LTKO mice in conjunction with normal suppression of HGP by insulin. To establish the mechanism by which white adipose tissue insulin signaling and HGP was regulated by hepatic FoxO1, we identified putative hepatokines-including excess follistatin (Fst)-that were dysregulated in LDKO mice but normalized in LTKO mice. Knockdown of hepatic Fst in the LDKO mouse liver restored glucose tolerance, white adipose tissue insulin signaling and the suppression of HGP by insulin; however, the expression of Fst in the liver of healthy LTKO mice had the opposite effect. Of potential clinical significance, knockdown of Fst also improved glucose tolerance in high-fat-fed obese mice, and the level of serum Fst was reduced in parallel with glycated hemoglobin in obese individuals with diabetes who underwent therapeutic gastric bypass surgery. We conclude that Fst is a pathological hepatokine that might be targeted for diabetes therapy during hepatic insulin resistance.

  20. Analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in a murine model of tolerance to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (autoprotection)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Meeghan A., E-mail: meeghan.oconnor@boehringer-ingelheim.com; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, CT 06877-0368; Koza-Taylor, Petra, E-mail: petra.h.koza-taylor@pfizer.com

    Pretreatment of mice with a low hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (APAP) results in resistance to a subsequent, higher dose of APAP. This mouse model, termed APAP autoprotection was used here to identify differentially expressed genes and cellular pathways that could contribute to this development of resistance to hepatotoxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with APAP (400 mg/kg) and then challenged 48 h later with 600 mg APAP/kg. Livers were obtained 4 or 24 h later and total hepatic RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MU430{sub 2} GeneChip. Statistically significant genes were determined and gene expression changes weremore » also interrogated using the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE). Extensive literature review narrowed our focus to methionine adenosyl transferase-1 alpha (MAT1A), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (Fmo3) and galectin-3 (Lgals3). Down-regulation of MAT1A could lead to decreases in S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is known to protect against APAP toxicity. Nrf2 activation is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. Up-regulation of Lgals3, one of the genes supporting the Nrf2 hypothesis, can lead to suppression of apoptosis and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Fmo3 induction suggests the involvement of an enzyme not known to metabolize APAP in the development of tolerance to APAP toxicity. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR and immunochemical analysis confirmed the differential expression of some of these genes in the APAP autoprotection model. In conclusion, our genomics strategy identified cellular pathways that might further explain the molecular basis for APAP autoprotection. - Highlights: • Differential expression of genes in mice resistant to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. • Increased gene expression of Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 and Galectin-3. • Decrease in MAT1A expression and compensatory hepatocellular regeneration. • Two distinct

  1. Modeling interchild differences in pharmacokinetics on the basis of subject-specific data on physiology and hepatic CYP2E1 levels: A case study with toluene

    SciTech Connect

    Nong, A.; McCarver, D.G.; Hines, R.N.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the magnitude of interindividual variability in the internal dose of toluene in children of various age groups, on the basis of subject-specific hepatic CYP2E1 content and physiology. The methodology involved the use of a previously validated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, in which the intrinsic clearance for hepatic metabolism (CL{sub int}) was expressed in terms of the CYP2E1 content. The adult toluene PBPK model, with enzyme content-normalized CL{sub int}, facilitated the calculation of child-specific CL{sub int} based on knowledge of hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels. The child-specific physiological parameters, except liver volume,more » were computed with knowledge of age and body weight, whereas physicochemical parameters for toluene were kept age-invariant based on available data. The actual individual-specific liver volume (autopsy data) was also included in the model. The resulting model was used to simulate the blood concentration profiles in children exposed by inhalation, to 1 ppm toluene for 24 h. For this exposure scenario, the area under the venous blood concentration vs. time curve (AUC) ranged from 0.30 to 1.01 {mu}g/ml x h in neonates with low CYP2E1 concentration (<3.69 pmol/mg protein). The simulations indicated that neonates with higher levels of CYP2E1 (4.33 to 55.93 pmol/mg protein) as well as older children would have lower AUC (0.16 to 0.43 {mu}g/ml x h). The latter values were closer to those simulated for adults. Similar results were also obtained for 7 h exposure to 17 ppm toluene, a scenario previously evaluated in human volunteers. The interindividual variability factor for each subgroup of children and adults, calculated as the ratio of the 95th and 50th percentile values of AUC, was within a factor of 2. The 95th percentile value of the low metabolizing neonate group, however, was greater than the mean adult AUC by a factor of 3.9. This study demonstrates the

  2. Hepatitis Virus Infections in Poultry.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Hauck, Ruediger; Shivaprasad, H L; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis. Avian HEV is an Orthohepevirus B in the family Hepeviridae that naturally infects chickens and consists of three distinct genotypes worldwide. Avian HEV is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome or big liver and spleen disease in chickens, although the majority of the infected birds are subclinical. Avihepadnaviruses in the family of Hepadnaviridae have been isolated from ducks, snow geese, white storks, grey herons, cranes, and parrots. DHBV evolved with the host as a noncytopathic form without clinical signs and rarely progressed to chronicity. The outcome for DHBV infection varies by the host's ability to elicit an immune response and is dose and age dependent in ducks, thus mimicking the pathogenesis of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and providing an excellent animal model for human HBV. DHAV is a picornavirus that causes a highly contagious virus infection in ducks with up to 100% flock mortality in ducklings under 6 wk of age, while older birds remain unaffected. The high morbidity and mortality has an economic impact on intensive duck production farming. Duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3 are astroviruses in the family of Astroviridae with similarity phylogenetically to turkey astroviruses, implicating the potential for cross-species infections between strains. Duck astrovirus (DAstV) causes

  3. A new adaptive L1-norm for optimal descriptor selection of high-dimensional QSAR classification model for anti-hepatitis C virus activity of thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Algamal, Z Y; Lee, M H

    2017-01-01

    A high-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification model typically contains a large number of irrelevant and redundant descriptors. In this paper, a new design of descriptor selection for the QSAR classification model estimation method is proposed by adding a new weight inside L1-norm. The experimental results of classifying the anti-hepatitis C virus activity of thiourea derivatives demonstrate that the proposed descriptor selection method in the QSAR classification model performs effectively and competitively compared with other existing penalized methods in terms of classification performance on both the training and the testing datasets. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the results obtained in terms of stability test and applicability domain provide a robust QSAR classification model. It is evident from the results that the developed QSAR classification model could conceivably be employed for further high-dimensional QSAR classification studies.

  4. Benznidazole, the trypanocidal drug used for Chagas disease, induces hepatic NRF2 activation and attenuates the inflammatory response in a murine model of sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertucci, Flavia

    Molecular mechanisms on sepsis progression are linked to the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular antioxidant capacity. Previous studies demonstrated that benznidazole (BZL), known for its antiparasitic action on Trypanosoma cruzi, has immunomodulatory effects, increasing survival in C57BL/6 mice in a model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The mechanism by which BZL inhibits inflammatory response in sepsis is poorly understood. Also, our group recently reported that BZL is able to activate the nuclear factor erytroide-derived 2-Like 2 (NRF2) in vitro. The aim of the present work was to delineate the beneficial rolemore » of BZL during sepsis, analyzing its effects on the cellular redox status and the possible link to the innate immunity receptor TLR4. Specifically, we analyzed the effect of BZL on Nrf2 regulation and TLR4 expression in liver of mice 24 hours post-CLP. BZL was able to induce NRF2 nuclear protein localization in CLP mice. Also, we found that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the NRF2 nuclear accumulation and induction of its target genes. In addition, BZL prompted a reduction in hepatic CLP-induced TLR4 protein membrane localization, evidencing its immunomodulatory effects. Together, our results demonstrate that BZL induces hepatic NRF2 activation with the concomitant increase in the antioxidant defenses, and the attenuation of inflammatory response, in part, by inhibiting TLR4 expression in a murine model of sepsis. - Highlights: • BZL improves survival rate after polymicrobial sepsis • BZL enhances hepatic NRF2 nuclear accumulation in a model of sepsis, in part, by a mechanism dependent on PKC activation • BZL-enhanced NRF2 induction regulates antioxidant enzymes and increases antioxidant cellular defenses in sepsis • BZL blocks liver ROS production and ROS-induced TLR4 plasma membrane expression in septic mice.« less

  5. Epigenetic Alterations of IL-6/STAT3 Signaling by Placental Stem Cells Promote Hepatic Regeneration in a Rat Model with CCl4-induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jieun; Moon, Ji Wook; Choi, Jong-Ho; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Gi Jin

    2015-05-01

    Human chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) isolated from the placenta have been reported to demonstrate therapeutic effects in animal models of liver injury; however, the underlying epigenetic mechanism of this effect has not been elucidated. Thus, we investigated whether CP-MSCs influence epigenetic processes during regeneration of the injured liver. CP-MSCs were engrafted into a carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-injured rat model through direct transplantation into the liver (DTX), intrasplenic transplantation (STX), and intravenous transplantation via the tail vein (TTX). Non-transplanted (NTX) rats were maintained as sham controls. Liver tissues were analyzed after transplantation using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Proliferation and human interleukin-6 (hIL-6) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed using CCl4-treated hepatic cells that were co-cultured with CP-MSCs. The Ki67 labeling index, cell cyclins, albumin, IL-6, and gp130 levels were elevated in the CP-MSC transplantation groups. The concentration of hIL-6 in supernatants and the proliferation of CCl4-treated rat hepatic cells were enhanced by co-culturing with CP-MSCs (p<0.05), while the methylation of IL-6/IL-6R and STAT3 by CP-MSC transplantation decreased. These results suggest that administration of CP-MSCs promotes IL-6/STAT3 signaling by decreasing the methylation of the IL-6/SATA3 promoters and thus inducing the proliferation of hepatic cells in a CCl4-injured liver rat model. These data advance our understanding of the therapeutic mechanisms in injured livers, and can facilitate the development of cell-based therapies using placenta-derived stem cells.

  6. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was

  7. Evaluation of Hepatic Steatosis by Using Acoustic Structure Quantification US in a Rat Model: Comparison with Pathologic Examination and MR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Kyung Bun; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To determine factors that significantly affect the focal disturbance (FD) ratio calculated with an acoustic structure quantification (ASQ) technique in a dietary-induced fatty liver disease rat model and to assess the diagnostic performance of the FD ratio in the assessment of hepatic steatosis by using histopathologic examination as a standard of reference. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight male F344 rats were fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet with a variable duration (3.5 days [half week] or 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 weeks; four rats in each group). A control group of four rats was maintained on a standard diet. At the end of each diet period, ASQ ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy were performed. Then, the rat was sacrificed and histopathologic examination of the liver was performed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of the FD ratio in the evaluation of the degree of hepatic steatosis. The Spearman correlation coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between the ordinal values, and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to identify significant determinant factors for the FD ratio. Results The diagnostic performance of the FD ratio in the assessment of the degree of hepatic steatosis (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve: 1.000 for 5%-33% steatosis, 0.981 for >33% to 66% steatosis, and 0.965 for >66% steatosis) was excellent and was comparable to that of MR spectroscopy. There was a strong negative linear correlation between the FD ratio and the estimated fat fraction at MR spectroscopy (Spearman ρ, -0.903; P < .001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that the degree of hepatic steatosis (P < .001) and fibrosis stage (P = .022) were significant factors affecting the FD ratio. Conclusion The FD ratio may potentially provide good diagnostic performance in the assessment of the degree of hepatic steatosis, with a

  8. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yeseul; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Su Kil; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Park, Dongsun; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Yeon, Sungho; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Joo, Seong Soo; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight. Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus: Emerging and Re-Emerging Enterically Transmitted Hepatitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Stanley M; Walker, Christopher M

    2018-05-07

    Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, economically advanced countries it is now recognized as a cause of chronic, progressive liver disease in individuals with compromised immunity. The goal of this collection of articles is to review recent progress and to shine a bright light on gaps in our understanding of how these viruses replicate, cause disease, interact with the liver and host immune system, and are transmitted, along with prospects for improved control in human populations. Renewed efforts to study and compare HAV and HEV biology in humans and animal models have high potential to enhance our understanding of host-pathogen balance in the liver, and may contribute ultimately to the control of other infectious diseases of the liver. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu; Feng, Mary; Frey, Kirk A.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF)more » images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose–response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=−0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment

  11. Predictive models for regional hepatic function based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and local radiation dose for physiologic adaptive radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hesheng; Feng, Mary; Frey, Kirk A; Ten Haken, Randall K; Lawrence, Theodore S; Cao, Yue

    2013-08-01

    High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose-response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=-0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of liver

  12. Differential expression profiling of the hepatic proteome in a rat model of dioxin resistance: correlation with genomic and transcriptomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Pastorelli, Roberta; Carpi, Donatella; Campagna, Roberta; Airoldi, Luisa; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Viluksela, Matti; Hakansson, Helen; Boutros, Paul C; Moffat, Ivy D; Okey, Allan B; Fanelli, Roberto

    2006-05-01

    One characteristic feature of acute 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity is dramatic interspecies and interstrain variability in sensitivity. This complicates dioxin risk assessment for humans. However, this variability also provides a means of characterizing mechanisms of dioxin toxicity. Long-Evans (Turku/AB) rats are orders of magnitude more susceptible to TCDD lethality than Han/Wistar (Kuopio) rats, and this difference constitutes a very useful model for identifying mechanisms of dioxin toxicity. We adopted a proteomic approach to identify the differential effects of TCDD exposure on liver protein expression in Han/Wistar rats as compared with Long-Evans rats. This allows determination of which, if any, protein markers are indicative of differences in dioxin susceptibility and/or responsible for conferring resistance. Differential protein expression in total liver protein was assessed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, computerized gel image analysis, in-gel digestion, and mass spectrometry. We observed significant changes in the abundance of several proteins, which fall into three general classes: (i) TCDD-independent and exclusively strain-specific (e.g. isoforms of the protein-disulfide isomerase A3, regucalcin, and agmatine ureohydrolase); (ii) strain-independent and only dependent on TCDD exposure (e.g. aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 and rat selenium-binding protein 2); (iii) dependent on both TCDD exposure and strain (e.g. oxidative stress-related proteins, apoptosis-inducing factor, and MAWD-binding protein). By integrating transcriptomic (microarray) data and genomic data (computational search of regulatory elements), we found that protein expression levels were mainly controlled at the level of transcription. These results reveal, for the first time, a subset of hepatic proteins that are differentially regulated in response to TCDD in a strain-specific manner. Some of these differential responses may play a role in establishing the

  13. Hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome of impaired brain function occurring in patients with advanced liver diseases. The precise pathophysiology of HE is still under discussion; the leading hypothesis focus on the role of neurotoxins, impaired neurotransmission due to metabolic changes in liver failure, changes in brain energy metabolism, systemic inflammatory response and alterations of the blood brain barrier. HE produces a wide spectrum of nonspecific neurological and psychiatric manifestations. Minimal HE is diagnosed by abnormal psychometric tests. Clinically overt HE includes personality changes, alterations in consciousness progressive disorientation in time and space, somnolence, stupor and, finally, coma. Except for clinical studies, no specific tests are required for diagnosis. HE is classified according to the underlying disease, the severity of manifestations, its time course and the existence of precipitating factors. Treatment of overt HE includes supportive therapies, treatment of precipitating factors, lactulose and/or rifaximin. Routine treatment for minimal HE is only recommended for selected patients. PMID:28533911

  14. The Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis Immunization for US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, R. Jake; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization is recommended for all American children, and hepatitis A immunization is recommended for children who live in areas with elevated disease rates. Because hepatitis A and B occur most commonly in young adults, the authors examined the cost effectiveness of college-based vaccination. They developed epidemiologic models to…

  15. A key role for Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor in experimental hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Moschen, Alexander R; Gerner, Romana; Schroll, Andrea; Fritz, Teresa; Kaser, Arthur; Tilg, Herbert

    2011-08-01

    Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF), also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase or visfatin, plays an important role in metabolic, inflammatory, and malignant diseases. Recent evidence suggests that blocking its enzymatic activity using a specific small-molecule inhibitor (FK866) might be beneficial in acute experimental inflammation. We investigated the role of PBEF in human liver disease and experimental hepatitis. PBEF serum levels and hepatic expression were determined in patients with chronic liver diseases. These studies were followed by in vivo experiments using concanavalin A (ConA) and D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) models of experimental hepatitis. PBEF was either overexpressed by hydrodynamic perfusion or inhibited by FK866. In vivo findings were corroborated studying inflammatory responses of lentivirally PBEF-silenced or control FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Here, we demonstrate that PBEF serum levels were increased in patients with chronic liver diseases irrespective of disease stage and etiology. In particular, we observed enhanced PBEF expression in hepatocytes. Liver-targeted overexpression of PBEF rendered mice more susceptible to ConA- and D-galactosamine/LPS-induced hepatitis compared with control animals. In contrast, inhibition of PBEF using FK866 protected mice from ConA-induced liver damage and apoptosis. Administration of FK866 resulted in depletion of liver nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ levels and reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression. Additionally, FK866 protected mice in the D-galactosamine/LPS model of acute hepatitis. In vitro, PBEF-silenced mouse hepatocytes showed decreased responses after stimulation with LPS, lipoteichoic acid, and tumor necrosis factor α. In primary murine Kupffer cells, FK866 suppressed LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production, whereas incubation with recombinant PBEF resulted in increased IL-6 release. Our data suggest that PBEF is of key importance in experimental hepatitis

  16. Testosterone supplementation improves glucose homeostasis despite increasing hepatic insulin resistance in male mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pal, M; Gupta, S

    2016-12-12

    Clinical studies have revealed that testosterone supplementation had a positive effect on glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but did not address how testosterone supplementation affected insulin responsiveness in the liver, a key glucose homeostatic organ. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of testosterone supplementation on hepatic insulin responsiveness and glucose homeostasis through liver in male high-fat diet-induced T2DM mice. Testosterone treatment to T2DM animals showed reduced hepatic glucose output. Testosterone inhibited the insulin signaling in liver, thus increased insulin resistance. However, testosterone treatment inactivated GSK3α independent of PI3K/AKT pathway and inhibited FOXO1 By interaction of androgen receptor to FOXO1 and downregulated PEPCK, causing repression of gluconeogenic pathway, which is otherwise upregulated in T2DM, resulted in better glucose homeostasis.

  17. Estimating the impact of test-and-treat strategies on hepatitis B virus infection in China by using an age-structured mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Zu, Jian; Li, Miaolei; Zhuang, Guihua; Liang, Peifeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Zheng, Hui; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2018-04-01

    The potential impact of increasing test-and-treat coverage on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear in China. The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic compartmental model at a population level to estimate the long-term effect of this strategy.Based on the natural history of HBV infection and 3 serosurvey data of hepatitis B in China, we proposed an age- and time-dependent discrete model to predict the number of new HBV infection, the number of chronic HBV infection, and the number of HBV-related deaths for the time from 2018 to 2050 under 5 different test-and-treat coverage and compared them with current intervention policy.Compared with current policy, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 100% since 2018, the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 26.60%, 24.88%, 26.55%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 44.93%, 43.29%, 43.67%, respectively. In contrast, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased by 10% every year since 2018, then the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 21.81%, 20.10%, 21.40%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 41.53%, 39.89%, 40.32%, respectively. In particular, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 75% since 2018, then the annual number of HBV-related deaths would begin to decrease from 2018. If the test-and-treat coverage was increased to above 25% since 2018, then the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence for population aged 1 to 59 years in China would be reduced to below 2% in 2035. Our model also showed that in 2035, the numbers of chronic HBV infection and HBV-related deaths in 65 to 69 age group would be reduced the most (about 1.6 million and 13 thousand, respectively).Increasing test-and-treat coverage would significantly reduce HBV infection in China, especially in the middle-aged people and older people. The earlier the

  18. Estimating the impact of test-and-treat strategies on hepatitis B virus infection in China by using an age-structured mathematical model

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Jian; Li, Miaolei; Zhuang, Guihua; Liang, Peifeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Zheng, Hui; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The potential impact of increasing test-and-treat coverage on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear in China. The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic compartmental model at a population level to estimate the long-term effect of this strategy. Based on the natural history of HBV infection and 3 serosurvey data of hepatitis B in China, we proposed an age- and time-dependent discrete model to predict the number of new HBV infection, the number of chronic HBV infection, and the number of HBV-related deaths for the time from 2018 to 2050 under 5 different test-and-treat coverage and compared them with current intervention policy. Compared with current policy, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 100% since 2018, the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 26.60%, 24.88%, 26.55%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 44.93%, 43.29%, 43.67%, respectively. In contrast, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased by 10% every year since 2018, then the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 21.81%, 20.10%, 21.40%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 41.53%, 39.89%, 40.32%, respectively. In particular, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 75% since 2018, then the annual number of HBV-related deaths would begin to decrease from 2018. If the test-and-treat coverage was increased to above 25% since 2018, then the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence for population aged 1 to 59 years in China would be reduced to below 2% in 2035. Our model also showed that in 2035, the numbers of chronic HBV infection and HBV-related deaths in 65 to 69 age group would be reduced the most (about 1.6 million and 13 thousand, respectively). Increasing test-and-treat coverage would significantly reduce HBV infection in China, especially in the middle-aged people and older people. The

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection does not promote hepatocellular cancer in a transgenic mouse model of hepatitis C virus pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexis; Feng, Yan; Parry, Nicola MA; McCabe, Amanda; Mobley, Melissa W; Lertpiriyapong, Kvin; Whary, Mark T; Fox, James G

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect millions of people and can induce cancer. We investigated if H. pylori infection promoted HCV-associated liver cancer. Helicobacter-free C3B6F1 wild-type (WT) and C3B6F1-Tg(Alb1-HCVN)35Sml (HT) male and female mice were orally inoculated with H. pylori SS1 or sterile media. Mice were euthanized at ~12 mo postinoculation and samples were collected for analyses. There were no significant differences in hepatocellular tumor promotion between WT and HT mice; however, HT female mice developed significantly larger livers with more hepatic steatosis than WT female mice. H. pylori did not colonize the liver nor promote hepatocellular tumors in WT or HT mice. In the stomach, H. pylori induced more corpus lesions in WT and HT female mice than in WT and HT male mice, respectively. The increased corpus pathology in WT and HT female mice was associated with decreased gastric H. pylori colonization, increased gastric and hepatic interferon gamma expression, and increased serum Th1 immune responses against H. pylori. HT male mice appeared to be protected from H. pylori-induced corpus lesions. Furthermore, during gastric H. pylori infection, HT male mice were protected from gastric antral lesions and hepatic steatosis relative to WT male mice and these effects were associated with increased serum TNF-α. Our findings indicate that H. pylori is a gastric pathogen that does not promote hepatocellular cancer and suggest that the HCV transgene is associated with amelioration of specific liver and gastric lesions observed during concurrent H. pylori infection in mice. PMID:23929035

  20. Selective inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin/CBP signaling ameliorates hepatitis C virus-induced liver fibrosis in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Yuko; Osawa, Yosuke; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Hayashi, Yukiko; Yamaji, Kenzaburo; Yamane, Daisuke; Hara, Mitsuko; Munekata, Keisuke; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kojima, Soichi; Kimura, Kiminori; Kohara, Michinori

    2017-03-23

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of serious liver diseases, including liver cirrhosis. There are no anti-fibrotic drugs with efficacy against liver cirrhosis. Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a β-catenin/CBP (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) inhibitor on liver fibrosis. The anti-fibrotic activity of PRI-724, a selective inhibitor of β-catenin/CBP, was assessed in HCV GT1b transgenic mice at 18 months after HCV genome expression. PRI-724 was injected intraperitoneally or subcutaneously in these mice for 6 weeks. PRI-724 reduced liver fibrosis, which was indicated by silver stain, Sirius Red staining, and hepatic hydroxyproline levels, in HCV mice while attenuating αSMA induction. PRI-724 led to increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 mRNA in the liver, along with elevated levels of intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes. The induced intrahepatic neutrophils and macrophages/monocytes were identified as the source of MMP-8. In conclusion, PRI-724 ameliorated HCV-induced liver fibrosis in mice. We hypothesize that inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation and induction of fibrolytic cells expressing MMP-8 contribute to the anti-fibrotic effects of PRI-724. PRI-724 is a drug candidate which possesses anti-fibrotic effect.

  1. Capybara Oil Improves Hepatic Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Steatosis, and Inflammation in a Murine Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Polyana C; Vieira, Aline B; Pereira, Priscila G; Rabelo, Kíssila; Ciambarella, Bianca T; Nascimento, Ana L R; Cortez, Erika; Moura, Aníbal S; Guimarães, Fernanda V; Martins, Marco A; Barquero, Gonzalo; Ferreira, Rodrigo N; de Carvalho, Jorge J

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is recognized as the most common cause of liver dysfunction worldwide and is commonly associated with obesity. Evidences suggest that NAFLD might be a mitochondrial disease, which contributes to the hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, cytokine release, and cell death. Capybara oil (CO) is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which is known to improve inflammation and oxidative stress. In order to determine the effects of CO on NAFLD, C57Bl/6 mice were divided into 3 groups and fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (NAFLD group and NAFLD + CO group) or a control diet (CG group) during 16 weeks. The CO (1.5 g/kg/daily) was administered by gavage during the last 4 weeks of the diet protocol. We evaluated plasma liver enzymes, hepatic steatosis, and cytokine expression in liver as well as hepatocyte ultrastructural morphology and mitochondrial function. CO treatment suppressed hepatic steatosis, attenuated inflammatory response, and decreased plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in mice with NAFLD. CO was also capable of restoring mitochondrial ultrastructure and function as well as balance superoxide dismutase and catalase levels. Our findings indicate that CO treatment has positive effects on NAFLD improving mitochondrial dysfunction, steatosis, acute inflammation, and oxidative stress.

  2. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Data mining model using simple and readily available factors could identify patients at high risk for hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Kurosaki, Masayuki; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Sakamoto, Minoru; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Manabu; Tamori, Akihiro; Matsuura, Kentaro; Kakinuma, Sei; Sugauchi, Fuminaka; Sakamoto, Naoya; Nakagawa, Mina; Izumi, Namiki

    2012-03-01

    Assessment of the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is essential for formulating personalized surveillance or antiviral treatment plan for chronic hepatitis C. We aimed to build a simple model for the identification of patients at high risk of developing HCC. Chronic hepatitis C patients followed for at least 5 years (n=1003) were analyzed by data mining to build a predictive model for HCC development. The model was externally validated using a cohort of 1072 patients (472 with sustained virological response (SVR) and 600 with nonSVR to PEG-interferon plus ribavirin therapy). On the basis of factors such as age, platelet, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferase, the HCC risk prediction model identified subgroups with high-, intermediate-, and low-risk of HCC with a 5-year HCC development rate of 20.9%, 6.3-7.3%, and 0-1.5%, respectively. The reproducibility of the model was confirmed through external validation (r(2)=0.981). The 10-year HCC development rate was also significantly higher in the high-and intermediate-risk group than in the low-risk group (24.5% vs. 4.8%; p<0.0001). In the high-and intermediate-risk group, the incidence of HCC development was significantly reduced in patients with SVR compared to those with nonSVR (5-year rate, 9.5% vs. 4.5%; p=0.040). The HCC risk prediction model uses simple and readily available factors and identifies patients at a high risk of HCC development. The model allows physicians to identify patients requiring HCC surveillance and those who benefit from IFN therapy to prevent HCC. Copyright © 2011 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Delivery of the bioactive gas hydrogen sulfide during cold preservation of rat liver: effects on hepatic function in an ex vivo model.

    PubMed

    Balaban, Cecilia L; Rodriguez, Joaquín V; Guibert, Edgardo E

    2011-05-01

    The insults sustained by transplanted livers (hepatectomy, hypothermic preservation, and normothermic reperfusion) could compromise hepatic function. Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a physiologic gaseous signaling molecule, like nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). We examined the effect of diallyl disulfide as a H₂S donor during hypothermic preservation and reperfusion on intrahepatic resistance (IVR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, bile production, oxygen consumption, bromosulfophthalein (BSP) depuration and histology in an isolated perfused rat liver model (IPRL), after 48 h of hypothermic storage (4 °C) in University of Wisconsin solution (UW, Viaspan). Livers were retrieved from male Wistar rats. Three experimental groups were analyzed: Control group (CON): IPRL was performed after surgery; UW: IPRL was performed in livers preserved (48 h-4 °C) in UW; and UWS: IPRL was performed in livers preserved (48 h-4 °C) in UW in the presence of 3.4 mM diallyl disulfide. Hypothermic preservation injuries were manifested at reperfusion by a slight increment in IHR and LDH release compared with the control group. Also, bile production for the control group (1.32 µL/min/g of liver) seemed to be diminished after preservation by 73% in UW and 69% in UW H₂S group at the end of normothermic reperfusion. Liver samples analyzed by hematoxylin/eosin clearly showed the deleterious effect of cold storage process, partially reversed (dilated sinusoids and vacuolization attenuation) by the addition of a H₂S delivery compound to the preservation solution. Hepatic clearance (HC) of BSP was affected by cold storage of livers, but there were no noticeable differences between livers preserved with or without diallyl disulfide. Meanwhile, livers preserved in the presence of H₂S donor showed an enhanced capacity for BSP uptake (k(A) CON = 0.29 min⁻¹; k(A) UW = 0.29 min⁻¹ ; k(A) UWS = 0.36 min ⁻¹). In summary, our animal model suggests that hepatic hypothermic

  5. miR-494 up-regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway via targetting PTEN and attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Su, Song; Luo, De; Liu, Xiangdong; Liu, Jiang; Peng, Fangyi; Fang, Cheng; Li, Bo

    2017-10-31

    A rat HIRI model was constructed and treated with an intraperitoneal injection of agomir- miR-494 or agomir-NC (negative control) for 7 days after the surgery. The pathophysiological changes in sham-operated rats, HIRI, HIRI + agomir- miR-494 , and HIRI + agomir-NC were compared. The effect of miR-494 was also assessed in an H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis model. Hepatic AML12 cells were transfected with mimics NC or miR-494 mimics, followed by 6-h H 2 O 2 treatment. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Further, the miR-494 target gene was identified by luciferase reporter assay, and verified both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The activity of AKT pathway was further analyzed in vivo by Western blot. HIRI + agomir- miR-494 rats exhibited significantly higher miR-494 expression, lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) level, lower hepatic MDA, TOA, and OSI, alleviated hepatic necrosis, reduced hepatocyte apoptosis, and decreased expression of apoptosis-related proteins, when compared with HIRI + agomir-NC rats ( P <0.05 or 0.01). After H 2 O 2 treatment, AML-12 cells transfected with miR-494 mimics had significantly higher proliferation and lower apoptosis rate compared with mimics NC group ( P <0.01). PTEN was identified as an miR-494 target gene. PTEN expression was significantly down-regulated in AML12 cells transfected with miR-494 mimics, and was up-regulated by treatment of miR-494 inhibitor ( P <0.01). Moreover, HIRI + agomir- miR-494 rats exhibited significantly lower PTEN expression, and higher p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K levels compared with HIRI + agomir-NC rats. Therefore, miR-494 protected rats against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through down-regulating its downstream target gene PTEN , leading to the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  7. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis Contact Us Anonymous Feedback Quick Links to Hepatitis … A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Local Partners & Grantees Policy and Programs Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  8. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Yeseul

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight.more » Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300 mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. - Highlights: • Cognition-enhancing effects of SP-NN, a silk peptide preparation, were investigated. • SP-NN enhanced ChAT mRNA expression in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. • Active molecule was identified as a dipeptide composed of tyrosine-glycine. • SP-NN reversed cognitive dysfunction elicited by AF64A. • Neuroprotection followed by increased acetylcholine level was achieved with SP-NN.« less

  9. Hepatic Intra-arterial Delivery of a "Trojan-horses" Gene Therapy: A Pilot Study on Rabbit VX2 Hepatic Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, Olivier; Amara, Ikram; Sapoval, Marc; Méachi, Tchao; Déan, Carole; Beaune, Philippe; de Waziers, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a "Trojan-horses" suicide gene therapy that consists of tumor-targeted gene delivery (vectorized by mesenchymal stem cells MSCs) encoding an enzyme that converts a harmless prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites in situ. Then, cytotoxic metabolites passively diffuse in the neighboring tumor cells and kill them (bystander effect). The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of intra-arterial administration of MSCs transduced with an optimized gene (MSC-CYP2B6TM-RED) followed by intravenous administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA) into the VX2 rabbit liver tumor. Nine rabbits with a VX2 liver tumor were randomly assigned into three groups: Control group A (one rabbit) free of any treatment; Control group B (two rabbits) receiving intravenous injection of cyclophosphamide at day 3 and CPA at day 14; and Group C (six rabbits) receiving the GDEPT treatment, consisting of successive intra-arterial injection of transduced-MSCs at days 0 (n = 6) and 11 (n = 3), followed by injection of CPA at days 3 (n = 6) and 14 (n = 3). The tumor response was assessed by ultrasound scan every 7 days and histopathological analysis at sacrifice (D25). There was a significant difference in the tumor volume between control groups (A + B) and group C at D7: 38/19 cm 3 (p = 0.024); D11: 51/20 cm 3 (p = 0.024), and D25: 121/37 cm 3 (p = 0.048). Tumor necrosis was significantly greater and metastatic spread was lower for rabbits who received GDEPT (78% of total tumor surface) than for control animals (A + B) (22% of total tumor surface (p = 0.006). Intra-arterial delivery of transduced-MSCs is feasible and, after CPA injection, resulted in 78% tumor necrosis (p = 0.006) and less metastasis in a VX2 liver tumor model.

  10. Genomic Methylation Inhibits Expression of Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein in Transgenic Mice: A Non-Infectious Mouse Model to Study Silencing of HBV Surface Antigen Genes.

    PubMed

    Graumann, Franziska; Churin, Yuri; Tschuschner, Annette; Reifenberg, Kurt; Glebe, Dieter; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The Hepatitis B virus genome persists in the nucleus of virus infected hepatocytes where it serves as template for viral mRNA synthesis. Epigenetic modifications, including methylation of the CpG islands contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression. The present study investigates the effects of spontaneous age dependent loss of hepatitis B surface protein- (HBs) expression due to HBV-genome specific methylation as well as its proximate positive effects in HBs transgenic mice. Liver and serum of HBs transgenic mice aged 5-33 weeks were analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, serum analysis, PCR, and qRT-PCR. From the third month of age hepatic loss of HBs was observed in 20% of transgenic mice. The size of HBs-free area and the relative number of animals with these effects increased with age and struck about 55% of animals aged 33 weeks. Loss of HBs-expression was strongly correlated with amelioration of serum parameters ALT and AST. In addition lower HBs-expression went on with decreased ER-stress. The loss of surface protein expression started on transcriptional level and appeared to be regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The amount of the HBs-expression correlated negatively with methylation of HBV DNA in the mouse genome. Our data suggest that methylation of specific CpG sites controls gene expression even in HBs-transgenic mice with truncated HBV genome. More important, the loss of HBs expression and intracellular aggregation ameliorated cell stress and liver integrity. Thus, targeted modulation of HBs expression may offer new therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, HBs-transgenic mice depict a non-infectious mouse model to study one possible mechanism of HBs gene silencing by hypermethylation.

  11. A model of the health and economic impact of posttransfusion hepatitis C: application to cost-effectiveness analysis of further expansion of HCV screening protocols.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Sanz, C

    2000-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to decide the value of further expansion of the screening protocols for HCV in blood donors. However, such analyses are hampered by imperfect knowledge of the health and economic repercussions of posttransfusion hepatitis C (PTHC). A Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov model representing the outcomes of patients transfused with HCV-infective blood was used to estimate the health and economic impact of PTHC and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of various HCV screening methods. Median survival for hypothetical patients with PTHC and for controls without hepatitis was 11.25 and 11.75 years, respectively. Overall, 12.3 percent of patients receiving HCV-infective blood will develop chronic hepatitis, 9.3 percent will progress to liver failure, and 9. 25 percent will eventually die of liver disease after a median time of 20.75 years (range, 6-70). Ninety-one percent of the infected blood recipients had no reduction in life expectancy due to PTHC, and the average loss per patient was 0.754 years. The present value of the lifetime health costs incurred by patients with PTHC is $6330 per case. HCV antibody testing increases the patients' life expectancy by 20.4 hours per blood collection tested, and it results in net savings by decreasing the number of patients that will require treatment for liver disease in the future. Adding HCV NAT increases the patients' life expectancy by 0.08 hours per blood collection tested, at a cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,829,611 per QALY gained. PTHC has low health benefits because of the advanced age of many blood recipients. Testing donors for HCV antibodies results in net savings for the health care system, despite low health benefits. Adding HCV NAT would produce little additional gain at a very high cost.

  12. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    PubMed

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  13. Simultaneous Assessment of Clearance, Metabolism, Induction, and Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Using a Long-Term In Vitro Liver Model for a Novel Hepatitis B Virus Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Nicole A; Triyatni, Miriam; Mueller, Martina B; Klammers, Florian; Leonard, Brian; Turley, Dan; Schmaler, Josephine; Ekiciler, Aynur; Molitor, Birgit; Walter, Isabelle; Gonsard, Pierre-Alexis; Tournillac, Charles A; Durrwell, Alexandre; Marschmann, Michaela; Jones, Russell; Ullah, Mohammed; Boess, Franziska; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Jin, Yuyan; Parrott, Neil J; Fowler, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Long-term in vitro liver models are now widely explored for human hepatic metabolic clearance prediction, enzyme phenotyping, cross-species metabolism, comparison of low clearance drugs, and induction studies. Here, we present studies using a long-term liver model, which show how metabolism and active transport, drug-drug interactions, and enzyme induction in healthy and diseased states, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, may be assessed in a single test system to enable effective data integration for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The approach is exemplified in the case of (3S)-4-[[(4R)-4-(2-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-2-thiazol-2-yl-1,4-dihydropyrimidin-6-yl]methyl]morpholine-3-carboxylic acid RO6889678, a novel inhibitor of HBV with a complex absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile. RO6889678 showed an intracellular enrichment of 78-fold in hepatocytes, with an apparent intrinsic clearance of 5.2 µ l/min per mg protein and uptake and biliary clearances of 2.6 and 1.6 µ l/min per mg protein, respectively. When apparent intrinsic clearance was incorporated into a PBPK model, the simulated oral human profiles were in good agreement with observed data at low doses but were underestimated at high doses due to unexpected overproportional increases in exposure with dose. In addition, the induction potential of RO6889678 on cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and transporters at steady state was assessed and cotreatment with ritonavir revealed a complex drug-drug interaction with concurrent P450 inhibition and moderate UDP-glucuronosyltransferase induction. Furthermore, we report on the first evaluation of in vitro pharmacokinetics studies using HBV-infected HepatoPac cocultures. Thus, long-term liver models have great potential as translational research tools exploring pharmacokinetics of novel drugs in vitro in health and disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).

  14. Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jae; Hong, Young-Shick; Jun, Woojin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation) is a major contributing factor for the onset and development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is present in milk and beer, is a functional vitamin B3 having advantageous effects on metabolic regulation. However, the anti-inflammatory capacity of NR is unknown. This study evaluated whether NR modulates hepatic nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Male, 8-week-old KK/HlJ mice were allocated to the control or NR group. NR (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) was administrated by an osmotic pump for 7 days. Glucose control, lipid profiles, NLRP3 inflammasome, and inflammation markers were analyzed, and structural and histological analyses were conducted. NR treatment did not affect body weight gain, food intake, and liver function. Glucose control based on the oral glucose tolerance test and levels of serum insulin and adiponectin was improved by NR treatment. Among tested lipid profiles, NR lowered the total cholesterol concentration in the liver. Histological and structural analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively, showed that NR rescued the disrupted cellular integrity of the mitochondria and nucleus in the livers of obese and diabetic KK mice. In addition, NR treatment significantly improved hepatic proinflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1. These ameliorations were accompanied by significant shifts of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase1). These results demonstrate that NR attenuates hepatic metaflammation by modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  15. Microwave liver ablation: influence of hepatic vein size on heat-sink effect in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nam C; Raman, Steven S; Kim, Young Jun; Lassman, Charles; Chang, Xinlian; Lu, David S K

    2008-07-01

    To determine influence of hepatic vein size on perfusion-mediated attenuation in adjacent microwave thermal ablation. With approval of the institutional animal research committee, seven Yorkshire pigs underwent percutaneous (n = 2) or open (n = 5) microwave liver ablation under general anesthesia. In each, multiple ultrasound-guided, nonoverlapping thermal lesions were created within 1 cm of hepatic veins in a 5-10-minute ablation at 45 W. After euthanasia, the liver was harvested and sectioned at 0.5-cm intervals and the degree of perivascular coagulation attenuation was graded on histopathologic analysis. Correlation between venous size (small, < or =3 mm; medium, 3-6 mm; and large, >6 mm) and attenuation grade was performed with use of the Spearman rank test. In 63 of 103 sections (61%)--29 of 37 (78%) small, 27 of 48 (56%) medium, and seven of 18 (39%) large veins--the thermal injury extended to the vein wall around the entire circumference of the coagulation front without distortion of the ablation margin. In 40 of 103 sections (38.9%), varying degrees of concave distortion of perivenous ablation margins were noted, with significant correlation between vein size and heat-sink extent (P < .01). However, thermal injury extended to the vascular wall in all sections without complete circumferential sparing of liver tissue. Around two thrombosed veins, thermal lesions encased the vessels, producing paradoxically convex ablation margins. Although the heat-sink effect was significantly dependent on hepatic vein size, the majority of pathologic sections exhibited no or minimal effect. Further study is required to assess clinical implications.

  16. 24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid ameliorates inflammatory response and liver fibrosis in a murine model of hepatic schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Sombetzki, Martina; Fuchs, Claudia D; Fickert, Peter; Österreicher, Christoph H; Mueller, Michaela; Claudel, Thierry; Loebermann, Micha; Engelmann, Robby; Langner, Cord; Sahin, Emine; Schwinge, Dorothee; Guenther, Nina D; Schramm, Christoph; Mueller-Hilke, Brigitte; Reisinger, Emil C; Trauner, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Intrahepatic granuloma formation and fibrosis characterize the pathological features of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Based on previously observed substantial anti-fibrotic effects of 24-nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) in Abcb4/Mdr2(-/-) mice with cholestatic liver injury and biliary fibrosis, we hypothesized that norUDCA improves inflammation-driven liver fibrosis in S. mansoni infection. Adult NMRI mice were infected with 50 S. mansoni cercariae and after 12 weeks received either norUDCA- or ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-enriched diet (0.5% wt/wt) for 4 weeks. Bile acid effects on liver histology, serum biochemistry, key regulatory cytokines, hepatic hydroxyproline content as well as granuloma formation were compared to naive mice and infected controls. In addition, effects of norUDCA on primary T-cell activation/proliferation and maturation of the antigen-presenting-cells (dendritic cells, macrophages) were determined in vitro. UDCA as well as norUDCA attenuated the inflammatory response in livers of S. mansoni infected mice, but exclusively norUDCA changed cellular composition and reduced size of hepatic granulomas as well as TH2-mediated hepatic fibrosis in vivo. Moreover, norUDCA affected surface expression level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II of macrophages and dendritic cells as well as activation/proliferation of T-lymphocytes in vitro, whereas UDCA had no effect. This study demonstrates pronounced anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of norUDCA compared to UDCA in S. mansoni induced liver injury, and indicates that norUDCA directly represses antigen presentation of antigen presenting cells and subsequent T-cell activation in vitro. Therefore, norUDCA represents a promising drug for the treatment of this important cause of liver fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  18. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Hepatitis D (Delta agent) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis D is a viral infection caused by the ...

  19. Elicitation of strong immune responses by a DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 in murine and porcine animal models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-Ping; Kang, Hye Na; Babiuk, Lorne A; Liu, Qiang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the immunogenicity of a hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 DNA vaccine alone or with a protein vaccine boost in murine and porcine animal models. METHODS: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein was constructed and used to vaccinate mice and piglets with or without boosting with a recombinant E2 protein vaccine formulated with CpG ODN and 10% Emulsigen. The immunogenicity of HCV E2 vaccines was analyzed by ELISA for antibody responses, MTT assay for lymphocyte proliferation, ELISPOT for the number of interferon-γ secreting cells, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays. RESULTS: Intradermal injection of E2 DNA vaccine induced strong Th1-like immune responses in mice. In piglets, E2 DNA vaccine elicited moderate and more balanced immune responses. A DNA vaccine prime and protein boost vaccination strategy induced significantly higher E2-specific antibody levels and shifted the immune response towards Th2-like ones in piglets. CONCLUSION: A DNA vaccine expressing a secreted form of HCV E2 protein elicited E2-specific immune responses in mice and piglets. Recombinant E2 protein vaccination following DNA immunization significantly increased the antibody response in piglets. These HCV E2 vaccines may represent promising hepatitis C vaccine candidates for further investigations. PMID:17131474

  20. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Is Exacerbated in Experimental Model of Hepatic Encephalopathy via MMP-9 Activation and Downregulation of Tight Junction Proteins.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2018-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the mechanisms involved in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in bile duct ligation (BDL) model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Four weeks after BDL surgery, a significant increase was observed in serum bilirubin levels. Masson trichrome staining revealed severe hepatic fibrosis in the BDL rats. 99m Tc-mebrofenin retention was increased in the liver of BDL rats suggesting impaired hepatobiliary transport. An increase in permeability to sodium fluorescein, Evans blue, and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran along with increase in water and electrolyte content was observed in brain regions of BDL rats suggesting disrupted BBB. Increased brain water content can be attributed to increase in aquaporin-4 mRNA and protein expression in BDL rats. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA and protein expression was increased in brain regions of BDL rats. Additionally, mRNA and protein expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) was also increased in different regions of brain. A significant decrease in mRNA expression and protein levels of tight junction proteins, viz., occludin, claudin-5, and zona occluden-1 (ZO-1) was observed in different brain regions of BDL rats. VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression was also found to be significantly upregulated in different brain regions of BDL animals. The findings from the study suggest that increased BBB permeability in HE involves activation of MMP-9 and loss of tight junction proteins.

  1. Challenge Pools of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes 1–6 Prototype Strains: Replication Fitness and Pathogenicity in Chimpanzees and Human Liver–Chimeric Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond; Engle, Ronald E.; Feinstone, Stephen M.; Eder, Gerald; Satterfield, William C.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Krawczynski, Krzysztof; Miller, Roger H.; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Purcell, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1–6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional animals. The courses of first- and second-passage infections were similar, with early appearance of viremia, HCV RNA titers of >104.7 IU/mL, and development of acute hepatitis; the chronicity rate was 56%. The challenge pools had titers of 103–105 chimpanzee infectious doses/mL. Human liver–chimeric mice developed high-titer infections after inoculation with the challenge viruses of genotypes 1–6. Inoculation studies with different doses of the genotype 1b pool suggested that a relatively high virus dose is required to consistently infect chimeric mice. The challenge pools represent a unique resource for studies of HCV molecular virology and for studies of pathogenesis, protective immunity, and vaccine efficacy in vivo. PMID:20353362

  2. Significance testing of clinical data using virus dynamics models with a Markov chain Monte Carlo method: application to emergence of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, N J; Pillay, D; Mutimer, D

    1999-01-01

    Bayesian analysis using a virus dynamics model is demonstrated to facilitate hypothesis testing of patterns in clinical time-series. Our Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation demonstrates that the viraemia time-series observed in two sets of hepatitis B patients on antiviral (lamivudine) therapy, chronic carriers and liver transplant patients, are significantly different, overcoming clinical trial design differences that question the validity of non-parametric tests. We show that lamivudine-resistant mutants grow faster in transplant patients than in chronic carriers, which probably explains the differences in emergence times and failure rates between these two sets of patients. Incorporation of dynamic models into Bayesian parameter analysis is of general applicability in medical statistics. PMID:10643081

  3. Quantitative farm-to-fork risk assessment model for norovirus and hepatitis A virus in European leafy green vegetable and berry fruit supply chains.

    PubMed

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Verhaelen, Katharina; Rzeżutka, Artur; Kozyra, Iwona; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Vantarakis, Apostolos; Kokkinos, Petros; Petrovic, Tamas; Lazic, Sava; Pavlik, Ivo; Vasickova, Petra; Willems, Kris A; Havelaar, Arie H; Rutjes, Saskia A; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-04-02

    Fresh produce that is contaminated with viruses may lead to infection and viral gastroenteritis or hepatitis when consumed raw. It is thus important to reduce virus numbers on these foods. Prevention of virus contamination in fresh produce production and processing may be more effective than treatment, as sufficient virus removal or inactivation by post-harvest treatment requires high doses that may adversely affect food quality. To date knowledge of the contribution of various potential contamination routes is lacking. A risk assessment model was developed for human norovirus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in raspberry and salad vegetable supply chains to quantify contributions of potential contamination sources to the contamination of produce at retail. These models were used to estimate public health risks. Model parameterization was based on monitoring data from European supply chains and literature data. No human pathogenic viruses were found in the soft fruit supply chains; human adenovirus (hAdV) was detected, which was additionally monitored as an indicator of fecal pollution to assess the contribution of potential contamination points. Estimated risks per serving of lettuce based on the models were 3×10(-4) (6×10(-6)-5×10(-3)) for NoV infection and 3×10(-8) (7×10(-10)-3×10(-6)) for hepatitis A jaundice. The contribution to virus contamination of hand-contact was larger as compared with the contribution of irrigation, the conveyor belt or the water used for produce rinsing. In conclusion, viral contamination in the lettuce and soft fruit supply chains occurred and estimated health risks were generally low. Nevertheless, the 97.5% upper limit for the estimated NoV contamination of lettuce suggested that infection risks up to 50% per serving might occur. Our study suggests that attention to full compliance for hand hygiene will improve fresh produce safety related to virus risks most as compared to the other examined sources, given the

  4. Ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate for quantifying liver fat content.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Chen, Tian; Xia, Liang-Hua; Qian, Juan; Lv, Guo-Yi

    2014-12-21

    To establish and validate a simple quantitative assessment method for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on a combination of the ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate. A total of 170 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects were examined by ultrasound and (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) on the same day. The ultrasound hepatic/renal echo-intensity ratio and ultrasound hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate were obtained from ordinary ultrasound images using the MATLAB program. Correlation analysis revealed that the ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate were significantly correlated with (1)H-MRS liver fat content (ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio: r = 0.952, P = 0.000; hepatic echo-intensity attenuation r = 0.850, P = 0.000). The equation for predicting liver fat content by ultrasound (quantitative ultrasound model) is: liver fat content (%) = 61.519 × ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio + 167.701 × hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate -26.736. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the liver fat content ratio of the quantitative ultrasound model was positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and triglyceride, but negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal point for diagnosing fatty liver was 9.15% in the quantitative ultrasound model. Furthermore, in the quantitative ultrasound model, fatty liver diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 94.7% and 100.0%, respectively, showing that the quantitative ultrasound model was better than conventional ultrasound methods or the combined ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate. If the (1)H-MRS liver fat content had a value < 15%, the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound quantitative model would be 81.4% and 100%, which still shows that using

  5. Osthole ameliorates hepatic fibrosis and inhibits hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya-Wei; Chiu, Yung-Tsung; Fu, Shu-Ling; Huang, Yi-Tsau

    2015-08-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a dynamic process which ultimately leads to cirrhosis in almost patients with chronic hepatic injury. However, progressive fibrosis is a reversible scarring response. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is the prevailing process during hepatic fibrosis. Osthole is an active component majorly contained in the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson. This present study investigated the therapeutic effects of osthole on rat liver fibrosis and HSC activation. We established the thioacetamide (TAA)-model of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce hepatic fibrosis. Rats were divided into three groups: control, TAA, and TAA + osthole (10 mg/kg). In vivo, osthole significantly reduced liver injury by diminishing levels of plasma AST and ALT, improving histological architecture, decreasing collagen and α-SMA accumulation, and improving hepatic fibrosis scores. Additionally, osthole reduced the expression of fibrosis-related genes significantly. Osthole also suppressed the production of fibrosis-related cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly suppressed in osthole-treated liver. Osthole also ameliorated TAA-induced injury through reducing cellular oxidation. Osthole showed inhibitory effects in inflammation-related genes and chemokines production as well. In vitro, we assessed osthole effects in activated HSCs (HSC-T6 and LX-2). Osthole attenuated TGF-β1-induced migration and invasion in HSCs. Furthermore, osthole decreased TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activities significantly. Besides, osthole alleviated TGF-β1- or ET-1-induced HSCs contractility. Our study demonstrated that osthole improved TAA-caused liver injury, fibrogenesis and inflammation in rats. In addition, osthole suppressed HSCs activation in vitro significantly.

  6. [Epidemiology of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Cavlek, Tatjana; Filipović, Sanja Kurecić; Nemeth-Blazić, Tatjana; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Vucina, Vesna Visekruna; Simunović, Aleksandar; Zajec, Martina; Radić, Ivan; Pavlić, Jasmina; Glamocanin, Marica; Gjenero-Margan, Ira

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the country-specific epidemiology of disease, which may vary greatly among countries, is crucial for identifying the most appropriate preventive and control measures. An overview of the local epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Croatia is given in this paper. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B in Croatia is low (less than 2% HBsAg carriers in the general population). Hepatitis B incidence and prevalence began to decline significantly following the introduction of universal hepatitis B vaccination in 1999. Information on HBsAg seroprevalence is derived from routine testing of certain subpopulations (pregnant women, blood donors) and seroprevalence studies mostly targeted at high-risk populations. Universal childhood vaccination against hepatitis B remains the main preventive measure. We recommend testing for immunity one to two months after the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine for health-care workers. The incidence and prevalence of hepatitis C have also been declining in the general population. The main preventive measures are ensuring safety of blood products, prevention of drug abuse, and harm reduction programs for intravenous drug users. Hepatitis A incidence has declined dramatically since fifty years ago, when thousands of cases were reported annually. In the last five years, an average of twenty cases have been reported per year. The reduction of hepatitis A is a consequence of improved personal and community hygiene and sanitation. Hepatitis D has not been reported in Croatia. The risk of hepatitis D will get to be even smaller as the proportion of population vaccinated against hepatitis B builds up. Hepatitis E is reported only sporadically in Croatia, mostly in persons occupationally in contact with pigs and in travelers to endemic countries. In conclusion, Croatia is a low prevalence country for hepatitides A, B and C. Hepatitis D has not been reported to occur in Croatia and there are only sporadic cases of hepatitis E. Since hepatitis

  7. Chronic CCl4 intoxication causes liver and bone damage similar to the human pathology of hepatic osteodystrophy: a mouse model to analyse the liver-bone axis.

    PubMed

    Nussler, Andreas K; Wildemann, Britt; Freude, Thomas; Litzka, Christian; Soldo, Petra; Friess, Helmut; Hammad, Seddik; Hengstler, Jan G; Braun, Karl F; Trak-Smayra, Viviane; Godoy, Patricio; Ehnert, Sabrina

    2014-04-01

    Patients with chronic liver diseases frequently exhibit decreased bone mineral densities (BMD), which is defined as hepatic osteodystrophy (HOD). HOD is a multifactorial disease whose regulatory mechanisms are barely understood. Thus, an early diagnosis and therapy is hardly possible. Therefore, the aim of our study consisted in characterizing a mouse model reflecting the human pathomechanism. Serum samples were collected from patients with chronic liver diseases and 12-week old C57Bl6/N mice after 6-week treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Repetitive injections of CCl4 induced liver damage in mice, resembling liver fibrosis in patients, as assessed by serum analysis and histological staining. Although CCl4 did not affect primary osteoblast cultures, μCT analysis revealed significantly decreased BMD, bone volume, trabecular number and thickness in CCl4-treated mice. In both HOD patients and CCl4-treated mice, an altered vitamin D metabolism with decreased CYP27A1, CYP2R1, vitamin D-binding protein GC and increased 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase hepatic gene expression, results in decreased 25-OH vitamin D serum levels. Moreover, both groups exhibit excessively high active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) serum levels, inhibiting osteoblast function in vitro. Summarizing, our mouse model presents possible mediators of HOD, e.g. altered vitamin D metabolism and increased active TGF-β. Liver damage and significant changes in bone structure and mineralization are already visible by μCT analysis after 6 weeks of CCl4 treatment. This fast response and easy transferability makes it an ideal model to investigate specific gene functions in HOD.

  8. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  9. INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES, OBESITY, AND EXPOSURE TO 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) EXPOSURE ON THE EXPRESSION OF HEPATIC CYP1A2 IN A MURIN MODEL OF TYPE II DIABETES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of type II diabetes, obesity and exposure 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on the expression of hepatic CYPIA2 in a murine model of type II diabetes. SJ Godin', VM Richardson2, JJ Diliberto2, LS Birnbaum', MJ DeVito2; 'Curriculum In Toxicology, UNC-CH...

  10. Effect of rosuvastatin on hepatic production of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins in an animal model of insulin resistance and metabolic dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Taryne; Naples, Mark; Federico, Lisa; Taylor, Denise; Smith, Graham J; Cheung, Raphael C; Adeli, Khosrow

    2006-03-01

    A novel animal model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed Syrian golden hamster, was employed to investigate the efficacy and mechanisms of action of rosuvastatin, a HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, in ameliorating metabolic dyslipidemia in insulin-resistant states. Fructose feeding for a 2-week period induced insulin resistance and a significant increase in hepatic secretion of VLDL. This was followed by a fructose-enriched diet with or without 10 mg/kg rosuvastatin for 14 days. Fructose feeding in the first 2 weeks caused a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride in both groups (n=6, p<0.001). However, there was a significant decline (30%, n=8, p<0.05) in plasma triglyceride levels following rosuvastatin feeding (10 mg/kg). A significant decrease (n=6, p<0.05) was also observed in VLDL-apoB production in hepatocytes isolated from drug-treated hamsters, together with an increased apoB degradation (n=6, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained in parallel cell culture experiments in which primary hepatocytes were first isolated from chow-fed hamsters, and then treated in vitro with 15 microM rosuvastatin for 18 h. Rosuvastatin at 5 microM caused a substantial reduction in synthesis of unesterified cholesterol and cholesterol ester (98 and 25%, n=9, p<0.01 or p<0.05) and secretion of newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol, cholesterol ester, and triglyceride (95, 42, and 60% reduction, respectively, n=9, p<0.01 or p<0.05). This concentration of rosuvastatin also caused a significant reduction (75% decrease, n=4, p<0.01) in the extracellular secretion of VLDL-apoB100, accompanied by a significant increase in the intracellular degradation of apoB100. There was a 12% reduction (not significant, p>0.05) in hepatic MTP and no changes in ER-60 (a chaperone involved in apoB degradation) protein levels. Taken together, these data suggest that the assembly and secretion of VLDL particles in hamster hepatocytes can be acutely inhibited by

  11. [Differential chronic hepatitis diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Hinterberger, W

    2000-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis comprises a group of disorders of the liver exhibiting a chronic necroinflammatory process that differs in etiology, clinical course and treatment strategies. A diagnosis of chronic hepatitis is usually made when inflammation and liver cell necrosis persist for longer than 6 months. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic patients to those with advanced hepatic failure. Both sexes and all age groups are affected. Chronic hepatitis may emerge as a sequelae of hepatitis C and less often after hepatitis B. Both diseases are treatable and require rapid and exact diagnosis. The differential diagnosis must exclude autoimmune hepatitis, chronic steatohepatitis, congenital metabolic hepatopathies and drug-induced hepatopathies. Laboratory tests, histologic investigations and clinical differential diagnosis must exclude other causes of chronic liver disease.

  12. Models of care for the management of hepatitis C virus among people who inject drugs: one size does not fit all.

    PubMed

    Bruggmann, Philip; Litwin, Alain H

    2013-08-01

    One of the major obstacles to hepatitis C virus (HCV) care in people who inject drugs (PWID) is the lack of treatment settings that are suitably adapted for the needs of this vulnerable population. Nevertheless, HCV treatment has been delivered successfully to PWID through various multidisciplinary models such as community-based clinics, substance abuse treatment clinics, and specialized hospital-based clinics. Models may be integrated in primary care--all under one roof in either addiction care units or general practitioner-based models--or can occur in secondary or tertiary care settings. Additional innovative models include directly observed therapy and peer-based models. A high level of acceptance of the individual life circumstances of PWID rather than rigid exclusion criteria will determine the level of success of any model of HCV management. The impact of highly potent and well-tolerated interferon-free HCV treatment regimens will remain negligible as long as access to therapy cannot be expanded to the most affected risk groups.

  13. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Cardiac and Hepatic Injury in Doxorubicin Rat Model by Inhibiting Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) remains the most effective anticancer agent which is widely used in several adult and pediatric cancers, but its application is limited for its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for many diseases. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline (H2 saline) ameliorated the mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and histopathological changes caused by DOX in rats. Meanwhile, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also attenuated after H2 saline treatment. What is more, we further demonstrated that H2 saline treatment could inhibit cardiac and hepatic inflammation and apoptosis relative proteins expressions by western blotting test. In conclusion, our results revealed a protective effect of H2 saline on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:28104928

  14. Protective mechanism of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on carbofuran-induced hematological and hepatic toxicities in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Sakib; Tanvir, E M; Prince, Maruf Billah; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Ali, Md Yousuf; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Karim, Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe 2+ ) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.

  15. [Value of non-invasive models of liver fibrosis in judgment of treatment timing in chronic hepatitis B patients with ALT < 2×upper limit of normal].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q Q; Hu, Y B; Zhou, K; Zhang, W W; Li, M H; Dong, P; Di, J G; Hong, L; Du, Q W; Xie, Y; Sun, Q F

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To investigate the value of non-invasive liver fibrosis models, FIB-4, S index, aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index(APRI), globulin-platelet(GP)model, aspartate aminotransferase/platelet/gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase/alpha-fetoprotein(APGA), and platelet/age/phosphatase/alpha-fetoprotein/aspartate aminotransferase(PAPAS), in the diagnosis of marked liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B(CHB)patients with ALT < 2×upper limit of normal(ULN), as well as treatment timing for this population. Methods: A total of 389 CHB patients with ALT < 2×ULN who were admitted to Beijing Ditan Hospital and whose treatment timing was difficult to judge were enrolled. Transdermal liver biopsy was performed to obtain pathological results, and routine serological tests were performed, including routine blood test, serum biochemical parameters, hepatitis B virus(HBV)markers, and HBV DNA. According to liver pathology, the patients were divided into non-marked liver fibrosis group(S < 2)with 324 patients and marked liver fibrosis group(S≥2)with 65 patients. The non-invasive models for predicting liver fibrosis was established with reference to original articles. SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analysis, and the receiver operating characteristic(ROC)curve was used to compare the value of different non-invasive models in predicting marked liver fibrosis in this population. Results: All the non-invasive models had a certain diagnostic value for liver fibrosis degree in these patients, and the areas under the ROC curve for APRI, FIB-4, APGA, S index, PAPAS, and GP model were 0.718, 0.691, 0.758, 0.729, 0.673, and 0.691, respectively. APGA had the largest area under the ROC curve(0.758, 95% CI 0.673-0.844), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase was significantly positively correlated with liver fibrosis degree. Conclusion: The non-invasive models of liver fibrosis can identify marked liver fibrosis in CHB patients with ALT < 2×ULN in whom it is difficult to

  16. Hepatic drug clearance following traumatic injury.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, R L; Hassett, J M

    1985-11-01

    Trauma is a complex disease state associated with physiologic changes that have the potential to alter hepatic drug clearance mechanisms. These responses include alterations in hepatic blood flow, reduction in hepatic microsomal activity, reduction in hepatic excretion processes, and changes in protein binding. Hepatic blood flow is influenced by sympathomimetic activity. Both animal and human studies demonstrate an initial reduction and subsequent increase in hepatic blood flow, which coincides with an observed increase and subsequent return to normal in serum catecholamine concentrations. Unfortunately, there are no human studies that address the importance these findings may have to the clearance processes of high intrinsic clearance compounds. Animal studies of trauma indicate that hepatic microsomal activity is depressed during the post-traumatic period. Reduction in the hepatic clearance of antipyrine, a model low intrinsic compound, has also been demonstrated in animal models of trauma. In addition to these effects, hepatic excretion of substances such as indocyanine green and bilirubin have been demonstrated to be impaired in both traumatized animals and humans. Finally, substantial increases in the serum concentration of the binding protein alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occur in trauma patients. This has been reported to be associated with subsequent decreases in the free fraction of lidocaine and quinidine. In addition to changing serum drug concentration/response relationships, the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein should also change. Preliminary observations in our laboratory in a dog model of surgically-induced trauma have shown a reduction in the total clearance of lidocaine and reduction in free lidocaine concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shu-Fan; Sun, Kai; Chen, Xiao-Jing; Zhao, Xue; Cai, Ning; Liu, Yan-Jun; Xu, Long-Mei; Kong, Xian-Ming; Wei, Li-Xin

    2014-01-08

    Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci.

  18. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha reduces the outgrowth of hepatic micrometastasis of colorectal tumors in a mouse model of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop liver metastases, in which case surgery is considered the only potentially curative treatment option. However, liver surgery is associated with a risk of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, which is thought to promote the growth of colorectal liver metastases. The influence of IR-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation in the process still is unknown. To investigate the role of TNF-α in the growth of pre-existing micrometastases in the liver following IR, we used a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases. In this model, mice received IR treatment seven days after intrasplenic injections of colorectal CT26 cells. Prior to IR treatment, either TNF-α blocker Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α, which could inhibit IR-induced TNF-α elevation, was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Results Hepatic IR treatment significantly promoted CT26 tumor growth in the liver, but either Enbrel or low-dose TNF-α pretreatment reversed this trend. Further studies showed that the CT26 + IR group prominently increased the levels of ALT and AST, liver necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and the expressions of hepatic IL-6, MMP9 and E-selectin compared to those of CT26 group. Inhibition of TNF-α elevation remarkably attenuated the increases of these liver inflammatory damage indicators and tumor-promoting factors. Conclusion These findings suggested that inhibition of TNF-α elevation delayed the IR-enhanced outgrowth of colorectal liver metastases by reducing IR-induced inflammatory damage and the formation of tumor-promoting microenvironments. Both Enbrel and low-dose TNF-α represented the potential therapeutic approaches for the protection of colorectal liver metastatic patients against IR injury-induced growth of liver micrometastases foci. PMID:24397824

  19. Logistic regression model can reduce unnecessary artificial liver support in hepatitis B virus-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure: decision curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Gang; Bian, Zhao-Lian; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Yan-Mei; Shao, Jian-Guo

    2016-06-04

    Several models have been proposed to predict the short-term outcome of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) after treatment. We aimed to determine whether better decisions for artificial liver support system (ALSS) treatment could be made with a model than without, through decision curve analysis (DCA). The medical profiles of a cohort of 232 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated ACLF were retrospectively analyzed to explore the role of plasma prothrombin activity (PTA), model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and logistic regression model (LRM) in identifying patients who could benefit from ALSS. The accuracy and reliability of PTA, MELD and LRM were evaluated with previously reported cutoffs. DCA was performed to evaluate the clinical role of these models in predicting the treatment outcome. With the cut-off value of 0.2, LRM had sensitivity of 92.6 %, specificity of 42.3 % and an area under the receiving operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.68, which showed superior discrimination over PTA and MELD. DCA revealed that the LRM-guided ALSS treatment was superior over other strategies including "treating all" and MELD-guided therapy, for the midrange threshold probabilities of 16 to 64 %. The use of LRM-guided ALSS treatment could increase both the accuracy and efficiency of this procedure, allowing the avoidance of unnecessary ALSS.

  20. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Philippa J.; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV–HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016–2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Recent findings Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Summary Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for

  1. Modeling cost-effectiveness and health gains of a "universal" versus "prioritized" hepatitis C virus treatment policy in a real-life cohort.

    PubMed

    Kondili, Loreta A; Romano, Federica; Rolli, Francesca Romana; Ruggeri, Matteo; Rosato, Stefano; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana; Zignego, Anna Linda; Ciancio, Alessia; Di Leo, Alfredo; Raimondo, Giovanni; Ferrari, Carlo; Taliani, Gloria; Borgia, Guglielmo; Santantonio, Teresa Antonia; Blanc, Pierluigi; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Chessa, Luchino; Erne, Elke Maria; Villa, Erica; Ieluzzi, Donatella; Russo, Francesco Paolo; Andreone, Pietro; Vinci, Maria; Coppola, Carmine; Chemello, Liliana; Madonia, Salvatore; Verucchi, Gabriella; Persico, Marcello; Zuin, Massimo; Puoti, Massimo; Alberti, Alfredo; Nardone, Gerardo; Massari, Marco; Montalto, Giuseppe; Foti, Giuseppe; Rumi, Maria Grazia; Quaranta, Maria Giovanna; Cicchetti, Americo; Craxì, Antonio; Vella, Stefano

    2017-12-01

    We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of two alternative direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment policies in a real-life cohort of hepatitis C virus-infected patients: policy 1, "universal," treat all patients, regardless of fibrosis stage; policy 2, treat only "prioritized" patients, delay treatment of the remaining patients until reaching stage F3. A liver disease progression Markov model, which used a lifetime horizon and health care system perspective, was applied to the PITER cohort (representative of Italian hepatitis C virus-infected patients in care). Specifically, 8,125 patients naive to DAA treatment, without clinical, sociodemographic, or insurance restrictions, were used to evaluate the policies' cost-effectiveness. The patients' age and fibrosis stage, assumed DAA treatment cost of €15,000/patient, and the Italian liver disease costs were used to evaluate quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of policy 1 versus policy 2. To generalize the results, a European scenario analysis was performed, resampling the study population, using the mean European country-specific health states costs and mean treatment cost of €30,000. For the Italian base-case analysis, the cost-effective ICER obtained using policy 1 was €8,775/QALY. ICERs remained cost-effective in 94%-97% of the 10,000 probabilistic simulations. For the European treatment scenario the ICER obtained using policy 1 was €19,541.75/QALY. ICER was sensitive to variations in DAA costs, in the utility value of patients in fibrosis stages F0-F3 post-sustained virological response, and in the transition probabilities from F0 to F3. The ICERs decrease with decreasing DAA prices, becoming cost-saving for the base price (€15,000) discounts of at least 75% applied in patients with F0-F2 fibrosis. Extending hepatitis C virus treatment to patients in any fibrosis stage improves health outcomes and is cost-effective; cost-effectiveness significantly increases

  2. LPSF/GQ-02 inhibits the development of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Soares e Silva, Amanda Karolina; de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dilênia; dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Lima Ribeiro, Edlene; Costa Oliveira, Amanda; dos Santos, Laise Aline Martins; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extends from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains undefined, it is recognized that insulin resistance is present in almost all patients who develop this disease. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act as an insulin sensitizer and have been used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions, including NAFLD. Hence, therapy of NAFLD with insulin-sensitizing drugs should ideally improve the key hepatic histological changes, while also reducing cardiometabolic and cancer risks. Controversially, TZDs are associated with the development of cardiovascular events and liver problems. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to improve liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on the liver of LDLR-/- mice after a high-fat diet. Eighty male mice were divided into 4 groups and two different experiments: 1-received a standard diet; 2-fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); 3-HFD+pioglitazone; 4-HFD+LPSF/GQ-02. The experiments were conducted for 10 or 12 weeks and in the last two or four weeks respectively, the drugs were administered daily by gavage. The results obtained with an NAFLD murine model indicated that LPSF/GQ-02 was effective in improving the hepatic architecture, decreasing fat accumulation, reducing the amount of collagen, decreasing inflammation by reducing IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and F4 / 80, and increasing the protein expression of IκBα, cytoplasmic NFκB-65, eNOS and IRS-1 in mice LDLR -/-. These results suggest a direct action by LPSF/GQ-02 on the factors that affect inflammation, insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver of these animals. Further studies are being conducted in our laboratory to investigate the possible mechanism of action of LPSF/GQ-02 on

  3. Does artificial ascites induce the heat-sink phenomenon during percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area?: an in vivo experimental study using a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the "W" group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups "W" and "R" throughout the procedures (39.2+/-0.4 degrees C in group W and 33.4+/-4.3 degrees C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4+/-237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0+/-468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6+/-665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group "C" rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region.

  4. Models of Community-Based Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Screening Programs in the U.S. and Their Estimated Outcomes and Costs

    PubMed Central

    Rein, David B.; Lesesne, Sarah B.; Smith, Bryce D.; Weinbaum, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Information on the process and method of service delivery is sparse for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing, and no systematic study has evaluated the relative effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of different HBsAg screening models. To address this need, we compared five specific community-based screening programs. Methods We funded five HBsAg screening programs to collect information on their design, costs, and outcomes of participants during a six-month observation period. We categorized programs into four types of models. For each model, we calculated the number screened, the number screened as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, and the cost per screening. Results The models varied by cost per person screened and total number of people screened, but they did not differ meaningfully in the proportion of people screened following CDC recommendations, the proportion of those screened who tested positive, or the proportion of those who newly tested positive. Conclusions Integrating screening into outpatient service settings is the most cost-effective method but may not reach all people needing to be screened. Future research should examine cost-effective methods that expand the reach of screening into communities in outpatient settings. PMID:21800750

  5. Radiation dose reduction in abdominal computed tomography during the late hepatic arterial phase using a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm: how low can we go?

    PubMed

    Husarik, Daniela B; Marin, Daniele; Samei, Ehsan; Richard, Samuel; Chen, Baiyu; Jaffe, Tracy A; Bashir, Mustafa R; Nelson, Rendon C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of abdominal computed tomography scans in an anthropomorphic phantom acquired at different radiation dose levels where each raw data set is reconstructed with both a standard convolution filtered back projection (FBP) and a full model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) algorithm. An anthropomorphic phantom in 3 sizes was used with a custom-built liver insert simulating late hepatic arterial enhancement and containing hypervascular liver lesions of various sizes. Imaging was performed on a 64-section multidetector-row computed tomography scanner (Discovery CT750 HD; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI) at 3 different tube voltages for each patient size and 5 incrementally decreasing tube current-time products for each tube voltage. Quantitative analysis consisted of contrast-to-noise ratio calculations and image noise assessment. Qualitative image analysis was performed by 3 independent radiologists rating subjective image quality and lesion conspicuity. Contrast-to-noise ratio was significantly higher and mean image noise was significantly lower on MBIR images than on FBP images in all patient sizes, at all tube voltage settings, and all radiation dose levels (P < 0.05). Overall image quality and lesion conspicuity were rated higher for MBIR images compared with FBP images at all radiation dose levels. Image quality and lesion conspicuity on 25% to 50% dose MBIR images were rated equal to full-dose FBP images. This phantom study suggests that depending on patient size, clinically acceptable image quality of the liver in the late hepatic arterial phase can be achieved with MBIR at approximately 50% lower radiation dose compared with FBP.

  6. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    PubMed

    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum urea, glucose, and albumin concentrations, and RBC mass. Fasting for 5 to 7 weeks was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P < 0.05) changes in serum alkaline phosphatase developed as early as 3 weeks before the onset of hyperbilirubinemia. Except for development of hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  7. Assessment of non-invasive models for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus related liver disease patients in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rakesh; Sen, Sourav; Banerji, Debabrata; Praharaj, Ashok K; Chopra, Gurvinder Singh; Gill, Satyajit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A total of 350 million individuals are affected by chronic hepatitis B virus infection world-wide. Historically, liver biopsy has been instrumental in adequately assessing patients with chronic liver disease. A number of non-invasive models have been studied world-wide. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of non-invasive mathematical models of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Indian patients in a resource limited setting using routinely performed non-invasive laboratory investigations. A cross-sectional study carried out at a tertiary care center. A total of 52 consecutive chronic liver disease patients who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Routine laboratory investigations included serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Gama glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol, prothrombin time and platelet count. Three non-invasive models for namely aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), Fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) and Forn's index were calculated. Outcomes were compared for the assessment of best predictor of fibrosis by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of each index. Medcalc online software and by Microsoft Excel Worksheet. Chi-square test was used for significance. P value < 0.05 was taken as significant. While the serum levels of AST, ALT and GGT were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the healthy controls (P < 0.01), the platelet counts were significantly lower in patient group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Mean value of all 3 indices were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the controls (P < 0.01). Out of the three indices, APRI index with a NPV of 95% appeared to be a better model for excluding significant liver fibrosis while FIB-4 with a PPV of 61% showed fair correlation with significant

  8. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Tujioka, Hiroto; Ueda, Hiroki; Hamagami, Hiroko; Kida, Youhei; Ichinose, Masakazu

    2005-10-14

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003. Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (X320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized, so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy, levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized. The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  9. Hepatitis A vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nothdurft, Hans Dieter

    2008-07-01

    The global disease burden associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) is expected to increase in the coming years due to a shift in the epidemiological pattern of the disease. A decrease in the prevalence of natural immunity is leading to an increased number of adolescents and adults susceptible to a disease that is associated with greater morbidity, mortality and treatment costs in older-age groups. Current HAV vaccines have been shown to be safe, highly immunogenic and confer long-lasting protection against HAV disease. Vaccine-induced antibodies persist for more than 12 years in vaccinated adults and mathematical modeling predicts antibody persistence for more than 25 years in over 95% of vaccine recipients. However, the cost of HAV vaccines has been prohibitive for some countries. Recent studies in countries with transitioning HAV endemicity indicate that the cost-benefit ratio of mass vaccination against HAV would be similar to other routine childhood vaccinations.

  10. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  11. Single-Genome Sequencing of Hepatitis C Virus in Donor-Recipient Pairs Distinguishes Modes and Models of Virus Transmission and Early Diversification.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Stoddard, Mark B; Wang, Shuyi; Giorgi, Elena E; Blair, Lily M; Learn, Gerald H; Hahn, Beatrice H; Alter, Harvey J; Busch, Michael P; Fierer, Daniel S; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Perelson, Alan S; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Shaw, George M

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent development of highly effective anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the global burden of this pathogen remains immense. Control or eradication of HCV will likely require the broad application of antiviral drugs and development of an effective vaccine. A precise molecular identification of transmitted/founder (T/F) HCV genomes that lead to productive clinical infection could play a critical role in vaccine research, as it has for HIV-1. However, the replication schema of these two RNA viruses differ substantially, as do viral responses to innate and adaptive host defenses. These differences raise questions as to the certainty of T/F HCV genome inferences, particularly in cases where multiple closely related sequence lineages have been observed. To clarify these issues and distinguish between competing models of early HCV diversification, we examined seven cases of acute HCV infection in humans and chimpanzees, including three examples of virus transmission between linked donors and recipients. Using single-genome sequencing (SGS) of plasma vRNA, we found that inferred T/F sequences in recipients were identical to viral sequences in their respective donors. Early in infection, HCV genomes generally evolved according to a simple model of random evolution where the coalescent corresponded to the T/F sequence. Closely related sequence lineages could be explained by high multiplicity infection from a donor whose viral sequences had undergone a pretransmission bottleneck due to treatment, immune selection, or recent infection. These findings validate SGS, together with mathematical modeling and phylogenetic analysis, as a novel strategy to infer T/F HCV genome sequences. Despite the recent development of highly effective, interferon-sparing anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the global burden of this pathogen remains immense. Control or eradication of HCV will likely require the broad application of antiviral drugs and the development of an effective

  12. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  13. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con-A Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Stephanie H.; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R.; Nagaraj, Savitha V.; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E.; Katz, Steven C.; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Concanavalin-A (Con-A) hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi, but does not have a well-defined role in pre-clinical models of non-pathogen mediated inflammation. Since Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con-A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con-A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle−/−, and Dectin-1−/− mice. The role of C/EBPβ and HIF-1α signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con-A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con-A hepatitis whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other CLRs did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ related signaling intermediates, C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con-A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF1-α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con-A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. PMID:27559045

  14. Mincle Signaling Promotes Con A Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Greco, Stephanie H; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Kalabin, Aleksandr; Whiteman, Clint; Rokosh, Rae; Ravirala, Sushma; Ochi, Atsuo; Gutierrez, Johana; Salyana, Muhammad Atif; Mani, Vishnu R; Nagaraj, Savitha V; Deutsch, Michael; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Hundeyin, Mautin; Nikifrov, Yuriy; Tejada, Karla; Gelb, Bruce E; Katz, Steven C; Miller, George

    2016-10-01

    Con A hepatitis is regarded as a T cell-mediated model of acute liver injury. Mincle is a C-type lectin receptor that is critical in the immune response to mycobacteria and fungi but does not have a well-defined role in preclinical models of non-pathogen-mediated inflammation. Because Mincle can ligate the cell death ligand SAP130, we postulated that Mincle signaling drives intrahepatic inflammation and liver injury in Con A hepatitis. Acute liver injury was assessed in the murine Con A hepatitis model using C57BL/6, Mincle(-/-), and Dectin-1(-/-) mice. The role of C/EBPβ and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) signaling was assessed using selective inhibitors. We found that Mincle was highly expressed in hepatic innate inflammatory cells and endothelial cells in both mice and humans. Furthermore, sterile Mincle ligands and Mincle signaling intermediates were increased in the murine liver in Con A hepatitis. Most significantly, Mincle deletion or blockade protected against Con A hepatitis, whereas Mincle ligation exacerbated disease. Bone marrow chimeric and adoptive transfer experiments suggested that Mincle signaling in infiltrating myeloid cells dictates disease phenotype. Conversely, signaling via other C-type lectin receptors did not alter disease course. Mechanistically, we found that Mincle blockade decreased the NF-κβ-related signaling intermediates C/EBPβ and HIF-1α, both of which are necessary in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. Accordingly, Mincle deletion lowered production of nitrites in Con A hepatitis and inhibition of both C/EBPβ and HIF-1α reduced the severity of liver disease. Our work implicates a novel innate immune driver of Con A hepatitis and, more broadly, suggests a potential role for Mincle in diseases governed by sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  16. Hepatitis B virus DNA integration occurs early in the viral life cycle in an in vitro infection model via NTCP-dependent uptake of enveloped virus particles.

    PubMed

    Tu, Thomas; Budzinska, Magdalena A; Vondran, Florian W R; Shackel, Nicholas A; Urban, Stephan

    2018-02-07

    Chronic infection by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is the major contributor to liver disease worldwide. Though HBV replicates via a nuclear episomal DNA (cccDNA), integration of HBV DNA into the host cell genome is regularly observed in the liver of infected patients. While reported as a pro-oncogenic alteration, the mechanism(s) and timing of HBV DNA integration are not well-understood, chiefly due to the lack of in vitro infection models that have detectable integration events. Here, we have established an in vitro system in which integration can be reliably detected following HBV infection. We measured HBV DNA integration using inverse nested PCR in primary human hepatocytes, HepaRG-NTCP, HepG2-NTCP, and Huh7-NTCP cells after HBV infection. Integration was detected in all cell types at a rate of >1 per 10000 cells, with the most consistent detection in Huh7-NTCP cells. Integration rate remained stable between 3 and 9 days post-infection. HBV DNA integration was efficiently blocked by treatment with 200nM of the HBV entry inhibitor Myrcludex B, but not with 10μM Tenofovir, 100U Interferon alpha, or 1μM of the capsid assembly inhibitor GLS4. This suggests integration of HBV DNA occurs immediately after infection of hepatocytes and is likely independent of de novo HBV replication in this model. Site analysis revealed that HBV DNA integrations were distributed over the entire human genome. Further, integrated HBV DNA sequences were consistent with double-stranded linear HBV DNA being the major precursor. Thus, we have established an in vitro system to interrogate the mechanisms of HBV DNA integration. Importance Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a common blood-borne pathogen and, following a chronic infection, can cause liver cancer and liver cirrhosis. Integration of HBV DNA into the host genome occurs in all known members of the hepadnaviridae family, despite this form not being necessary for viral replication. HBV DNA integration has been reported to drive liver cancer

  17. [Valuation of APRI and Forns models for non-invasive diagnosis of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C in coinfected and non-coinfected with HIV].

    PubMed

    Ramos Paesa, C; Marcilla, F; López, G; Hueso, E; Pascual, A; Aguirre, J M

    2007-08-01

    APRI and Forns (IF) index are noninvasive models consisting of routine laboratory data for the prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The aim of our study was to confirm the value of these models to predict significant fibrosis in these patients and if they may decrease the need for performing liver biopsy specimens in coinfected and HIVnon-coinfected. We included 60 patients with chronic hepatitis C and histologic data, 33 were coinfected with HIV. Mild fibrosis (F0-F1) was found in 73% patients, severe fibrosis (F3-F4) in 23% and cirrhosis in 18.3%. We calculated and compared APRI and IF with the stage of liver fibrosis. The APRI score < 0.5 or > 1.5 and IF < 4.2 or > 6.9, as predictors of mild or severe fibrosis, were only available in 53% and 49%. Neither laboratory nor APRI and IF were associated with liver fibrosis in non-coinfected patients. We only found association in HIV coinfected patients: severe fibrosis (F3-4) whit higher gammaglobulins [24.5% vs. 30% (p < 0.05)] and Gamma-GT levels [77 (46.5) vs. 32 (48.5) (p < 0.05)], and lower prothrombin time [72% vs. 91% (p < 0.05) ] and platelets.109 count [129 (40) vs. 170 (78) (p < 0.05)]; APRI was lower than 0.5 in 41.6% patients with mild fibrosis (F0-1) against none with severe (F3-4) (p < 0.05); specifity (E) of APRI < 0.5 for predicting mild fibrosis was 100%, but sensivity (S) was very low (41%), with a positive preditive value (VPP) of 100%, but a negative predictive value (VPN) also very low ( 36.3%). Our study showed that these models don t avoid the need for liver biopsies. More than a half of patients are not appropriately classified according to findings on liver biopsy and S and VPN are very low. The combination of these index with gammaglobulins, Gamma-GT, AST, ALT and platelet levels and protrombine time, only may be an approach to degree of fibrosis or inflammation liver in HIV co-infected patients.

  18. An autoregressive integrated moving average model for short-term prediction of hepatitis C virus seropositivity among male volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saeed; Rozi, Shafquat

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the stochastic autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for short term forecasting of hepatitis C virus (HCV) seropositivity among volunteer blood donors in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: Ninety-six months (1998-2005) data on HCV seropositive cases (1000-1 × month-1) among male volunteer blood donors tested at four major blood banks in Karachi, Pakistan were subjected to ARIMA modeling. Subsequently, a fitted ARIMA model was used to forecast HCV seropositive donors for 91-96 mo to contrast with observed series of the same months. To assess the forecast accuracy, the mean absolute error rate (%) between the observed and predicted HCV seroprevalence was calculated. Finally, a fitted ARIMA model was used for short-term forecasts beyond the observed series. RESULTS: The goodness-of-fit test of the optimum ARIMA (2,1,7) model showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. The forecasts by ARIMA for 91-96 mo closely followed the pattern of observed series for the same months, with mean monthly absolute forecast errors (%) over 6 mo of 6.5%. The short-term forecasts beyond the observed series adequately captured the pattern in the data and showed increasing tendency of HCV seropositivity with a mean ± SD HCV seroprevalence (1000-1 × month-1) of 24.3 ± 1.4 over the forecast interval. CONCLUSION: To curtail HCV spread, public health authorities need to educate communities and health care providers about HCV transmission routes based on known HCV epidemiology in Pakistan and its neighboring countries. Future research may focus on factors associated with hyperendemic levels of HCV infection. PMID:19340903

  19. In vivo evidence for a functional role of both tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and transmembrane TNF in experimental hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Küsters, S; Tiegs, G; Alexopoulou, L; Pasparakis, M; Douni, E; Künstle, G; Bluethmann, H; Wendel, A; Pfizenmaier, K; Kollias, G; Grell, M

    1997-11-01

    The significance of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) for TNF function in vivo is well documented, whereas the role of TNFR2 so far remains obscure. In a model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced, CD4+ T cell-dependent experimental hepatitis in mice, in which TNF is a central mediator of apoptotic and necrotic liver damage, we now provide evidence for an essential in vivo function of TNFR2 in this pathophysiological process. We demonstrate that a cooperation of TNFR1 and TNFR2 is required for hepatotoxicity as mice deficient of either receptor were resistant against Con A. A significant role of TNFR2 for Con A-induced hepatitis is also shown by the enhanced sensitivity of transgenic mice overexpressing the human TNFR2. The ligand for cytotoxic signaling via both TNF receptors is the precursor of soluble TNF, i.e. transmembrane TNF. Indeed, transmembrane TNF is sufficient to mediate hepatic damage, as transgenic mice deficient in wild-type soluble TNF but expressing a mutated nonsecretable form of TNF developed inflammatory liver disease.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of vaccinating chronic hepatitis C patients against hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, R Jake; Koff, Raymond S; Meyerhoff, Allen S

    2002-02-01

    Although hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for persons with chronic liver disease, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating patients with chronic hepatitis C virus has not been extensively studied. We evaluated its costs and benefits. A Markov model was used to assess cost-effectiveness from the health system and societal perspectives. Costs of hepatitis A screening and vaccination were compared with savings from reduced hepatitis A treatment and work loss to determine net costs of a "screen and vaccinate" strategy. Net costs were compared with longevity gains to assess cost-effectiveness. Based on hypothetical cohorts of 100,000 patients, vaccination would reduce the number of hepatitis A cases 63-72%, depending on patient age. Screening and vaccination costs of $5.2 million would be partially offset by $1.5-$2.8 million reductions in hepatitis A treatment costs and $0.2-$1.0 million reductions in work loss costs. From the health system perspective, vaccination would cost $22,256, $50,391, and $102,064 per life-year saved for patients vaccinated at ages 30, 45, and 60 yr, respectively. Cost-effectiveness ratios improve when work loss prevention is considered. Results are most sensitive to hepatitis A infection and hospitalization rates, and the rate used to discount future benefits to their present values. Hepatitis A vaccination of chronic hepatitis C patients would substantially reduce morbidity and mortality in all age groups examined. Consistent with other medical interventions for chronic hepatitis C patients, cost-effectiveness is most favorable for younger patients.

  1. Hepatitis B -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... kissing, coughing, or sneezing. Breast-feeding by a mother with hepatitis B is safe if the child is treated properly at the time of birth. Teenagers who are not vaccinated can get HBV during unprotected sex or drug use. Symptoms Most children with hepatitis ...

  2. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of immune globulin instead of the vaccine for post-exposure protection. Although hepatitis A IgM antibodies are considered diagnostic for acute infection with hepatitis A, there has been increasing use of the test in people who do not have signs and ...

  3. The hepatic bridge.

    PubMed

    Sugarbaker, Paul H

    2018-07-01

    The hepatic bridge forms a tunnel of liver parenchyma that may obscure peritoneal metastases associated with the round ligament. Visualization and then resection of nodules associated with this structure is necessary. The incidence of a hepatic bridge and the extent that it covered the round ligament was determined in consecutive patients. Extent of coverage of the round ligament by the hepatic bridge was determined: Class 1 indicates up to one-third of the round ligament obscured, Class 2 up to two-thirds and Class 3 more than two-thirds. In 102 patients in whom the round ligament of the liver could be completely visualized, 50 had a hepatic bridge. Class 1 was 22 (44%) of the bridges, Class 2 was 16 (32%) and Class 3 was 12 (24%). A hepatic bridge was more frequently present in 28 of 45 male patients (62%) vs. 22 of 57 female patients (38%). Approximately one-half of our patients having cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases were observed to have a hepatic bridge. Up to 56% of these patients have Class 2 or 3 hepatic bridge and may require division of the hepatic bridge to completely visualize the contents of the tunnel created by this structure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  4. [History of viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, José Carlos Ferraz da

    2010-01-01

    The history of viral hepatitis goes back thousands of years and is a fascinating one. When humans were first infected by such agents, a natural repetitive cycle began, with the capacity to infect billions of humans, thus decimating the population and causing sequelae in thousands of lives. This article reviews the available scientific information on the history of viral hepatitis. All the information was obtained through extensive bibliographic review, including original and review articles and consultations on the internet. There are reports on outbreaks of jaundice epidemics in China 5,000 years ago and in Babylon more than 2,500 years ago. The catastrophic history of great jaundice epidemics and pandemics is well known and generally associated with major wars. In the American Civil War, 40,000 cases occurred among Union troops. In 1885, an outbreak of catarrhal jaundice affected 191 workers at the Bremen shipyard (Germany) after vaccination against smallpox. In 1942, 28,585 soldiers became infected with hepatitis after inoculation with the yellow fever vaccine. The number of cases of hepatitis during the Second World War was estimated to be 16 million. Only in the twentieth century were the main agents causing viral hepatitis identified. The hepatitis B virus was the first to be discovered. In this paper, through reviewing the history of major epidemics caused by hepatitis viruses and the history of discovery of these agents, singular peculiarities were revealed. Examples of this include the accidental or chance discovery of the hepatitis B and D viruses.

  5. Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison‐based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Natasha K.; Hickman, Matthew; Hutchinson, Sharon J.; Aspinall, Esther; Taylor, Avril; Munro, Alison; Dunleavy, Karen; Peters, Erica; Bramley, Peter; Hayes, Peter C.; Goldberg, David J.; Vickerman, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person‐years), but a 2.3‐fold elevated transmission risk among recently released (< 6 months) PWID. We evaluated the contribution of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID and the impact of prison‐related prevention interventions, including scaling‐up direct‐acting antivirals (DAAs) in prison. Design Dynamic mathematical modelling of incarceration and HCV transmission, using approximate Bayesian computation for model calibration. Setting Scotland, UK. Participants A simulated population of PWID. Measurements Population‐attributable fraction (PAF) of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID. Decrease in HCV incidence and chronic prevalence due to current levels of prison opiate substitution therapy (OST; 57% coverage) and HCV treatment, as well as scaling‐up DAAs in prison and/or preventing the elevated risk associated with prison release. Findings Incarceration contributes 27.7% [PAF; 95% credible interval (CrI) –3.1 to 51.1%] of HCV transmission among PWID in Scotland. During the next 15 years, current HCV treatment rates (10.4/6.8 per 1000 incarcerated/community PWID annually), with existing prison OST, could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence among all PWID by a relative 10.7% (95% CrI = 8.4–13.3%) and 9.7% (95% CrI = 7.7–12.1%), respectively. Conversely, without prison OST, HCV incidence and chronic prevalence would decrease by 3.1% (95% CrI = –28.5 to 18.0%) and 4.7% (95% CrI = –11.3 to 14.5%). Additionally, preventing the heightened risk among recently released PWID could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence by 45.0% (95% CrI = 19.7–57.5%) and 33.3% (95% CrI = 15.6–43.6%) or scaling‐up prison

  6. Feline hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Dimski, D S

    1997-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis occurs when lipid mobilized to the liver exceeds lipid leaving the liver via formation of very-low-density lipoproteins or by oxidation. Hepatic lipidosis in cats is associated with overt liver dysfunction. In affected cats, excess lipid is mobilized to the liver because of starvation. Removal of hepatic lipid may be impaired because of protein malnutrition, a relative carnitine deficiency, or oxidative damage to peroxisomes and other hepatic organelles. Hepatic lipidosis occurs in adult cats, and is manifest by signs of weight loss, depression, vomiting, and icterus. Diagnosis is achieved by evaluating laboratory and diagnostic imaging data, in conjunction with a liver biopsy. Aggressive tube feeding is the treatment of choice. With this treatment, survival rates are 60% to 80%.

  7. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Modeling how reversal of immune exhaustion elicits cure of chronic hepatitis C after the end of treatment with direct-acting antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Baral, Subhasish; Roy, Rahul; Dixit, Narendra M

    2018-05-09

    A fraction of chronic hepatitis C patients treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) achieved sustained virological responses (SVR), or cure, despite having detectable viremia at the end of treatment (EOT). This observation, termed EOT + /SVR, remains puzzling and precludes rational optimization of treatment durations. One hypothesis to explain EOT + /SVR, the immunologic hypothesis, argues that the viral decline induced by DAAs during treatment reverses the exhaustion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which then clear the infection after treatment. Whether the hypothesis is consistent with data of viral load changes in patients who experienced EOT + /SVR is unknown. Here, we constructed a mathematical model of viral kinetics incorporating the immunologic hypothesis and compared its predictions with patient data. We found the predictions to be in quantitative agreement with patient data. Using the model, we unraveled an underlying bistability that gives rise to EOT + /SVR and presents a new avenue to optimize treatment durations. Infected cells trigger both activation and exhaustion of CTLs. CTLs in turn kill infected cells. Due to these competing interactions, two stable steady states, chronic infection and viral clearance, emerge, separated by an unstable steady state with intermediate viremia. When treatment during chronic infection drives viremia sufficiently below the unstable state, spontaneous viral clearance results post-treatment, marking EOT + /SVR. The duration to achieve this desired reduction in viremia defines the minimum treatment duration required for ensuring SVR, which our model can quantify. Estimating parameters defining the CTL response of individuals to HCV infection would enable the application of our model to personalize treatment durations. © 2018 The Authors Immunology & Cell Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.

  9. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic sinusoidal obstructive syndrome using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography imaging: A proof-of-concept study in rat models.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Sung, Ji-Youn; Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, So Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Byun, Jae Ho

    2018-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the evaluation of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rat models. Rat SOS models of various severities were created by monocrotaline gavage (n = 40) or by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) (n = 16). Liver shear-wave velocity (SWV) was measured using ARFI elastography. Liver samples were analysed for the SOS score, steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. The liver SWV was significantly elevated in the SOS models (1.29-2.24 m/s) compared with that of the matched control rats (1.01-1.09; p≤.09; veFor seven FOLFOX-treated rats which were longitudinally followed-up, the liver SWV significantly increased at 7 weeks (1.32±0.13 m/s) compared with the baseline (1.08±0.1 m/s, p=.015) and then significantly declined after a 2-week, treatment-free period (1.15±0.13 m/s; p=.048). Multivariate analysis revealed that the SOS score (p<.001) and lobular inflammation (p=.044) were independently correlated with the liver SWV. Liver SWV is elevated in SOS in proportion to the degree of sinusoidal injury and lobular inflammation in rat SOS models. ARFI elastography has potential as an examination for diagnosis, severity assessment and follow-up of SOS. • Liver SWV using ARFI elastography was significantly elevated in SOS rat. • Sinusoidal injury and lobular inflammation grades had correlation with liver SWV. • ARFI elastography has potential for diagnosis, severity assessment, and follow-up of SOS.

  10. Effect of disease progression on liver apparent diffusion coefficient and T2 values in a murine model of hepatic fibrosis at 11.7 Tesla MRI.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stephan W; Jara, Hernan; Ozonoff, Al; O'Brien, Michael; Hamilton, James A; Soto, Jorge A

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of hepatic fibrosis on ADC and T(2) values of ex vivo murine liver specimens imaged using 11.7 Tesla (T) MRI. This animal study was IACUC approved. Seventeen male, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control (n = 2) and experimental groups (n = 15), the latter fed a 3, 5-dicarbethoxy-1, 4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) supplemented diet, inducing hepatic fibrosis. Ex vivo liver specimens were imaged using an 11.7T MRI scanner. Spin-echo pulsed field gradient and multi-echo spin-echo acquisitions were used to generate parametric ADC and T(2) maps, respectively. Degrees of fibrosis were determined by the evaluation of a pathologist as well as digital image analysis. Scatterplot graphs comparing ADC and T(2) to degrees of fibrosis were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated. Strong correlation was found between degrees of hepatic fibrosis and ADC with higher degrees of fibrosis associated with lower hepatic ADC values. Moderate correlation between hepatic fibrosis and T(2) values was seen with higher degrees of fibrosis associated with lower T(2) values. Inverse relationships between degrees of fibrosis and both ADC and T(2) are seen, highlighting the utility of these parameters in the ongoing development of an MRI methodology to quantify hepatic fibrosis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Growth Hormone Control of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongbo; Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Kineman, Rhonda D.; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Muzumdar, Radhika; Gong, Zhenwei; Werner, Haim

    2016-01-01

    In humans, low levels of growth hormone (GH) and its mediator, IGF-1, associate with hepatic lipid accumulation. In mice, congenital liver-specific ablation of the GH receptor (GHR) results in reductions in circulating IGF-1 and hepatic steatosis, associated with systemic insulin resistance. Due to the intricate relationship between GH and IGF-1, the relative contribution of each hormone to the development of hepatic steatosis is unclear. Our goal was to dissect the mechanisms by which hepatic GH resistance leads to steatosis and overall insulin resistance, independent of IGF-1. We have generated a combined mouse model with liver-specific ablation of GHR in which we restored liver IGF-1 expression via the hepatic IGF-1 transgene. We found that liver GHR ablation leads to increases in lipid uptake, de novo lipogenesis, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia accompanied with severe insulin resistance and increased body adiposity and serum lipids. Restoration of IGF-1 improved overall insulin sensitivity and lipid profile in serum and reduced body adiposity, but was insufficient to protect against steatosis-induced hepatic inflammation or oxidative stress. We conclude that the impaired metabolism in states of GH resistance results from direct actions of GH on lipid uptake and de novo lipogenesis, whereas its actions on extrahepatic tissues are mediated by IGF-1. PMID:27679560

  12. A decision analytic model for prevention of hepatitis B virus infection in Sub-Saharan Africa using birth-dose vaccination.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah; Harper, Lorie M; Dionne-Odom, Jodie; Halle-Ekane, Gregory; Tita, Alan T N

    2018-04-01

    To compare prenatal maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and infant vaccination strategies to inform policy on HBV prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa. A decision analytic model was created using previously published data to assess the ability of three intervention strategies to prevent HBV infection by age 10 years. Strategy 1 comprised of universal vaccination with a pentavalent vaccine (HBV, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and Haemophilus influenzae) at age 6 weeks. Strategy 2 comprised of universal HBV vaccine at birth plus pentavalent vaccine. Strategy 3 comprised of maternal prenatal HBV screening and targeted HBV vaccine at birth for all exposed infants plus pentavalent vaccine. The reference strategy provided neither maternal screening nor infant vaccination. Rates of HBV infection and costs were compared. The reference strategy had an HBV infection rate of 2360 per 10 000 children. The HBV infection rate for strategy 1 was 813 per 10 000 children vaccinated (1547 cases prevented). Strategies 2 and 3 prevented an additional 384 cases and 362 cases, respectively. Inclusion of HBV vaccination at birth was the preferred approach at a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$150. Including a birth-dose HBV vaccine in the standard schedule was both cost-effective and prevented additional infections. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  13. The IL-1R/TLR signaling pathway is essential for efficient CD8+ T-cell responses against hepatitis B virus in the hydrodynamic injection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhiyong; Liu, Jia; Wu, Weimin; Zhang, Ejuan; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Li, Qian; Zelinskyy, Gennadiy; Buer, Jan; Dittmer, Ulf; Kirschning, Carsten J; Lu, Mengji

    2017-12-01

    The outcome of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is determined by the complex interactions between replicating HBV and the immune system. While the role of the adaptive immune system in the resolution of HBV infection has been studied extensively, the contribution of innate immune mechanisms remains to be defined. Here we examined the role of the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) signaling pathway in adaptive immune responses and viral clearance by exploring the HBV mouse model. Hydrodynamic injection with a replication-competent HBV genome was performed in wild-type mice (WT) and a panel of mouse strains lacking specific innate immunity component expression. We found higher levels of HBV protein production and replication in Tlr2 -/- , Tlr23479 -/- , 3d/Tlr24 -/- , Myd88/Trif -/- and Irak4 -/- mice, which was associated with reduced HBV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses in these mice. Importantly, HBV clearance was delayed for more than 2 weeks in 3d/Tlr24 -/- , Myd88/Trif -/- and Irak4 -/- mice compared to WT mice. HBV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses were functionally impaired for producing the cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 in TLR signaling-deficient mice compared to WT mice. In conclusion, the IL-1R/TLR signaling pathway might contribute to controlling HBV infection by augmenting HBV-specific CD8 + T-cell responses.

  14. Teledermatologist expert skin advice: A unique model of care for managing skin disorders and adverse drug reactions in hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Charlston, Samuel; Siller, Gregory

    2018-03-23

    To conduct an audit of teledermatologist expert skin advice, a store and forward tele-dermatological service, to determine its effectiveness and user satisfaction in managing cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients with hepatitis C, and to demonstrate a unique collaborative model of care for patients receiving specialised drug therapy. A retrospective analysis of data on teledermatologist expert skin advice referrals from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. The primary outcomes assessed included number of referrals, referral locations, diagnoses, response times, quality of clinical information provided and user satisfaction ratings. Altogether 43 consultations from 29 referring sites were received from Australian metropolitan and rural settings. Of the patients, 43 were diagnosed with an adverse drug reaction related to the use of either telaprevir or simeprevir. The average time taken for the dermatologist to reply electronically with a final diagnosis and management plan was 1 h 57 min. As many as 26% of referrals required additional photos to establish a diagnosis due to poor-quality images or insufficient detail. Altogether 18 clinicians completed the customer satisfaction survey, all of whom rated teledermatologist expert skin advice nine or above on a scale of one to 10. Teledermatologist expert skin advice was regarded by clinicians as a valuable patient care service. The platform is a novel modality that supports patients undergoing specialised treatments at risk of cutaneous adverse drug reaction. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. The Effects of Diet Composition on Body Fat and Hepatic Steatosis in an Animal (Peromyscus californicus) Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Caldwell, Stephen; Coyle, Kathryn; Bush, Eugene; Atkinson, Richard; Joers, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine body composition, total fat content, fat distribution, and serum leptin concentration in hyperlipidemic (high responder, HR) and normolipidemic (low responder, LR) California mice (Peromyscus californicus). In our initial experiments, we sought to determine whether differences in regional fat storage were associated with hyperlipidemia in this species. To further characterize the hepatic steatosis in the mice, we performed 2 additional experiments by using a diet containing 45% of energy as fat. The body fat content of mice fed a low fat-diet (12.3% energy as fat) was higher than that of mice fed a moderate-fat diet (25.8% energy as fat). Total body fat did not differ between HR and LR mice. There was no significant difference between intraabdominal, gonadal, or inguinal fat pad weights. Liver weights of HR mice fed the moderate-fat diet were higher than those of LR mice fed the same diet, and the moderate-fat diet was associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Mice fed the 45% diet had higher histologic score for steatosis but very little inflammatory response. Chemical analysis indicated increased lipid in the livers of mice fed the high-fat diet compared with those fed the low-fat diet. HR and LR mice had similar serum leptin concentrations. California mice develop NAFL without excess fat accumulation elsewhere. NAFL was influenced by genetic and dietary factors. These mice may be a naturally occuring model of partial lipodystrophy. PMID:21819679

  16. [Immunomodulation by herbal agents. A double-blind study in a medical university hospital involving a hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant model].

    PubMed

    Bostelmann, H C; Bödeker, R H; Dames, W; Henneicke-von Zepelin, H H; Siegers, C P; Stammwitz, U

    2002-12-05

    Using the hepatitis B vaccination as a model, to investigate the extent to which the herbal immunomodulator, Esberitox N, supports seroconversion. 346 medical students participated in the placebo-controlled, randomized double-blind study. They took 3 x 2 tablets of the test substances daily, beginning 3 days prior to the injection and ending two weeks after it. The target outcomes were seroconversion and the level of the anti-HBs titer. The data of 157 volunteers treated with the test substance, and 161 treated with placebo were analysed. After the first injection, the seroconversion rate was 22% in both test substance and placebo groups, and showed no advantage for the volunteers receiving the test substance. After the second injection, 89% of all members of each group revealed seroconversion. After the first injection, anti-HBs titers were appreciably higher in the test substance group (n = 34) than in the placebo group (n = 36; PWilcoxon = 0.003). The respective median values were 37.0 IU/L (95% CI: 18-68) and 15.5 IU/L (9