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Sample records for a-induced hepatitis model

  1. The Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway involves in the homeostasis of hepatic Tregs in a mouse model of concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ju, Ying; Shang, Xuming; Liu, Zhanfeng; Zhang, Ji; Li, Yuantang; Shen, Yajuan; Liu, Yiqing; Liu, Chunmei; Liu, Bin; Xu, Liyun; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Zou, Jianwen

    2014-03-01

    T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator of interferon (IFN)-γ-secreting CD4(+) Th1 cells and plays a key role in autoimmune diseases. Here, we report that galectin-9 expression was increased in hepatic CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in a mouse model of concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis. Moreover, Tim-3 showed increased levels in CD4(+)CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Further analyses showed that blocking the Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway resulted in the suppression of Tregs in vitro, thereby significantly increasing interferon (IFN)-γ production from hepatic Teffs. Moreover, blockade of Tim-3 in vivo with an anti-Tim-3 antibody exacerbated the acute hepatitis, possibly by increased IFN-γ production. Furthermore, we found that in vitro activation of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells with the T cell receptor (TCR) plus interleukin 2 (IL-2) up-regulated Tim-3 expression. And the induced Tim-3 interacted with galectin-9 to induce CD4(+) T cell apoptosis which could be partly reversed by blocking Tim-3 signaling. Our results suggested that the Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic Tregs through the elimination induction in Teffs and the inhibition of IFN-γ release, which contributes to the pathogenesis of liver damage and constitutes at least part of the mechanism underlying the induction of hepatitis by Con A. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Animal models of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A; Majumdar, S

    2003-12-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with acute liver failure, chronic parenchymal liver disease, or portosystemic anastomosis. Many approaches have been used to develop suitable models of hepatic encephalopathy, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. The most commonly used models have been the surgical hepatectomy and liver devascularization procedures, and hepatotoxins such as galactosamine and acetaminophen. Drug-toxicity models may be clinically more relevant. The specific requirements of experiments to study a particular aspect of encephalopathy also influence the choice of animal model. Animal models will play a central role in future research into hepatic encephalopathy to better understand its pathophysiology and to develop newer therapeutic modalities for this condition.

  3. Modeling Hepatitis C treatment policy.

    SciTech Connect

    Kuypers, Marshall A.; Lambert, Gregory Joseph; Moore, Thomas W.

    2013-09-01

    Chronic infection with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in cirrhosis, liver cancer and death. As the nations largest provider of care for HCV, US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) invests extensive resources in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. This report documents modeling and analysis of HCV treatment dynamics performed for the VHA aimed at improving service delivery efficiency. System dynamics modeling of disease treatment demonstrated the benefits of early detection and the role of comorbidities in disease progress and patient mortality. Preliminary modeling showed that adherence to rigorous treatment protocols is a primary determinant of treatment success. In depthmore » meta-analysis revealed correlations of adherence and various psycho-social factors. This initial meta-analysis indicates areas where substantial improvement in patient outcomes can potentially result from VA programs which incorporate these factors into their design.« less

  4. SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Side, Syafruddin; Irwan, Mulbar, Usman; Sanusi, Wahidah

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation for Hepatitis B discuss in this paper. Population devided by four variables, namely: Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR). Several factors affect the population in this model is vaccination, immigration and emigration that occurred in the population. SEIR Model obtained Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) non-linear System 4-D which then reduces to 3-D. SEIR model simulation undertaken to predict the number of Hepatitis B cases. The results of the simulation indicates the number of Hepatitis B cases will increase and then decrease for several months. The result of simulation using the number of case in Makassar also found the basic reproduction number less than one, that means, Makassar city is not an endemic area of Hepatitis B. With approval from the proceedings editor article 020185 titled, "SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B," is retracted from the public record, as it is a duplication of article 020198 published in the same volume.

  5. [Primate models of human viral hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Poleshchuk, V F; Mikhaĭlov, M I; Zamiatina, N A

    2006-01-01

    The paper summarizes the updates available in the literature and the authors' own data on the etiology of hepatitis, its models, and experimental studies on susceptible simian types. A comparative analysis of the etiological agents--the causative agents of simian and human hepatitis will give a better insight into the evolution of its viruses.

  6. SEIR model simulation for Hepatitis B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Side, Syafruddin; Irwan, Mulbar, Usman; Sanusi, Wahidah

    2017-09-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation for Hepatitis B discuss in this paper. Population devided by four variables, namely: Susceptible, Exposed, Infected and Recovered (SEIR). Several factors affect the population in this model is vaccination, immigration and emigration that occurred in the population. SEIR Model obtained Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) non-linear System 4-D which then reduces to 3-D. SEIR model simulation undertaken to predict the number of Hepatitis B cases. The results of the simulation indicates the number of Hepatitis B cases will increase and then decrease for several months. The result of simulation using the number of case in Makassar also found the basic reproduction number less than one, that means, Makassar city is not an endemic area of Hepatitis B.

  7. Salidroside Attenuates Concanavalin A-Induced Hepatitis via Modulating Cytokines Secretion and Lymphocyte Migration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jiali; Li, Jinbao

    2014-01-01

    Salidroside, isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola, was reported to serve as an “adaptogen.” This study was designed to explore the protective effect of salidroside on concanavalin A- (Con A-) induced hepatitis in mice and investigate potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, Con A group, and salidroside group. Salidroside (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously followed by Con A administration. The levels of ALT, AST, inflammatory cytokines and CXCL-10 were examined. The pathological damage of livers was assessed, the amounts of phosphorylated IκBα and p65 were measured, and the numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the blood, spleen and infiltrated in the liver were calculated. Our results showed that salidroside pretreatment reduced the levels of ALT, AST dramatically and suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines through downregulating the activity of NF-κB partly. Salidroside altered the distribution of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte in the liver and spleen through regulating CXCL-10 and decreased the severity of liver injuries. In conclusion, these results confirm the efficacy of salidroside in the prevention of immune mediated hepatitis in mice. PMID:24808635

  8. [Animal models of fulminant hepatic failure].

    PubMed

    Tuñón, M J; Alvarez, M; Culebras, J M; González-Gallego, J

    2007-01-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a very serious clinical sindrome that, in spite of the important therapeutical advances that have taken place in the last years by means of bioartifical hepatic support devices and hepatic transplantation, is still associated to a high mortality. Knowledge and treatment of the FHF have been limited by the lack of satisfactory animal models. Among the attempts to develop a suitable model are surgical models, such as hepatectomy and total and/or partial devascularization, or the use of chemical substances with hepatic toxicity, such as acetaminophen, azoximethane, galactosamine or thioacetamide, among others. However, most of these models do not adequatly reflect the pattern of the human disease and all of them present important limitations. Although viral hepatitis is one of the most frequent causes of FHF, the use of viral agents to develop animal models has been little and unfortunate. Our group has recently developed a viral animal model of FHF by means of the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of the rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical, and histological characteristics, and clinical signs that ressemble those in human FHF. In the present article, the most widely used animal models of FHF, together with their main advantages and disadvantages, are presented.

  9. Protective effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract on concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Men, Ruoting; Hu, Mingxing; Fan, Xiaoli; Yang, Xiaoxue; Huang, Xiaojun; Ye, Tinghong; Yang, Li

    2018-04-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease of an unknown etiology, glucocorticoid therapy is currently recognized as an effective treatment for AIH, but conventional application and patient compliance are both hindered by its side effects. The exploration of the AIH pathogenesis and the searching for the new candidate drugs that exert potential activity and low toxicity are urgently needed. Pomegranate peel extract (PoPx) is a natural extract of Punica granatum and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of PoPx on the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis in a mouse model that is well established at 12h after tail vein injection with a dose of 20 mg/kg of ConA. C57BL/6 female mice were pretreated with PoPx (250 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) followed by a ConA challenge. Pretreatment with PoPx significantly alleviated ConA-induced liver injury by down-regulating the levels of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and cytokine, including TNF-α, interferon (IFN) -γ and interleukin (IL)-6. Moreover, liver hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining displayed a lighter inflammatory infiltration around the portal area in the PoPx-pretreated mice. In addition, the flow cytometry (FCM) data showed that the immune response in the liver was died down in the PoPx-pretreated condition. Specially, pretreatment with PoPx reduced the infiltration of activated CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in the liver. Taken together, these findings contributed to a better understanding of the actions of PoPx against acute AIH and indicated that PoPx might be a potential compound in treating T cell-mediated autoimmune liver injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... viruses (such as hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C), bacteria, or parasites Liver damage from alcohol or ... unclean food and water. Images Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C Liver anatomy References Czaja AJ. Autoimmune hepatitis. In: ...

  11. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of hepatitis is named for the virus that causes it; for example, hepatitis A, hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Drug or alcohol use can also cause hepatitis. In other cases, your body mistakenly attacks ...

  12. Forced expression of Hnf4a induces hepatic gene activation through directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yahoo, Neda; Pournasr, Behshad; Rostamzadeh, Jalal; Fathi, Fardin

    2016-08-05

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are capable of unlimited self-renewal and have a diverse differentiation potential. These unique features make ES cells as an attractive source for developmental biology studies. Having the mature hepatocyte in the lab with functional activities is valuable in drug discovery studies. Overexpression of hepatocyte lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) becomes a promising approach in pluripotent cell differentiation toward liver cells. Many studies generate transgenic ES cell lines to examine the effects of specific TFs overexpression in cell differentiation. In the present report, we have addressed whether a suspension or adherent model of differentiation is an appropriate way to study the role of Hnf4a overexpression. We generated ES cells that carried a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible Hnf4a using lentiviral vectors. The transduced cells were subjected to induced Hnf4a overexpression through both spontaneous and directed differentiation methods. Gene expression analysis showed substantially increased expression of hepatic gene markers, particularly Ttr and endogenous Hnf4a, in transduced cells differentiated by the directed approach. These results demonstrated that forced expression of TFs during directed differentiation would be an appropriate way to study relevant gene activation and the effects of overexpression in the context of hepatic differentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. γδ T cells are indispensable for interleukin-23-mediated protection against Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in hepatitis B virus transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ziyu; Wang, Jingya; Yuan, Yifang; Cao, Guangchao; Fan, Shuobing; Gao, Chao; Wang, Li; Li, Zheng; Wu, Xiaoli; Wu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Liqing; Yin, Zhinan

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers are highly susceptible to liver injury triggered by environmental biochemical stimulation. Previously, we have reported an inverse correlation between γδ T cells and liver damage in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV). However, whether γδ T cells play a role in regulating the hypersensitivity of HBsAg carriers to biochemical stimulation-induced hepatitis is unknown. In this study, using HBV transgenic (HBs-Tg) and HBs-Tg T-cell receptor-δ-deficient (TCR-δ -/- ) mice, we found that mice genetically deficient in γδ T cells exhibited more severe liver damage upon Concanavalin A (Con A) treatment, as indicated by substantially higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels, further elevated interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels and more extensive necrosis. γδ T-cell deficiency resulted in elevated IFN-γ in CD4 + T cells but not in natural killer or natural killer T cells. The depletion of CD4 + T cells and neutralization of IFN-γ reduced liver damage in HBs-Tg and HBs-Tg-TCR-δ -/- mice to a similar extent. Further investigation revealed that HBs-Tg mice showed an enhanced interleukin-17 (IL-17) signature. The administration of exogenous IL-23 enhanced IL-17A production from Vγ4 γδ T cells and ameliorated liver damage in HBs-Tg mice, but not in HBs-Tg-TCR-δ -/- mice. In summary, our results demonstrated that γδ T cells played a protective role in restraining Con A-induced hepatitis by inhibiting IFN-γ production from CD4 + T cells and are indispensable for IL-23-mediated protection against Con A-induced hepatitis in HBs-Tg mice. These results provided a potential therapeutic approach for treating the hypersensitivity of HBV carriers to biochemical stimulation-induced liver damage. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and water supply. What Are Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C? Although hep A is a short-term illness that goes away completely, hepatitis B and hepatitis C can turn into serious long-term illnesses for ...

  15. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. Read more about hepatitis B . What Is Hepatitis C? Like hepatitis B, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from person to person through ... as needles and straws. People also can get hepatitis C from unprotected sex with an infected partner. And ...

  16. Theoretical Modeling for Hepatic Microwave Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Punit

    2010-01-01

    Thermal tissue ablation is an interventional procedure increasingly being used for treatment of diverse medical conditions. Microwave ablation is emerging as an attractive modality for thermal therapy of large soft tissue targets in short periods of time, making it particularly suitable for ablation of hepatic and other tumors. Theoretical models of the ablation process are a powerful tool for predicting the temperature profile in tissue and resultant tissue damage created by ablation devices. These models play an important role in the design and optimization of devices for microwave tissue ablation. Furthermore, they are a useful tool for exploring and planning treatment delivery strategies. This review describes the status of theoretical models developed for microwave tissue ablation. It also reviews current challenges, research trends and progress towards development of accurate models for high temperature microwave tissue ablation. PMID:20309393

  17. Derangements of liver tissue bioenergetics in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A novel in vitro system was employed to investigate liver tissue respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption) in mice treated with concanavalin A (Con A). This study aimed to investigate hepatocyte bioenergetics in this well-studied hepatitis model. Methods C57Bl/6 and C57Bl/6 IFN-γ−/− mice were injected intravenously with 12 mg ConA/kg. Liver specimens were collected at various timepoints after injection and analyzed for cellular respiration and caspase activation. Serum was analyzed for interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and aminotransferases. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis was used to determine the phenotype of infiltrating cells, and light and electron microscopy were used to monitor morphological changes. Phosphorescence analyzer that measured dissolved O2 as function of time was used to evaluate respiration. Results In sealed vials, O2 concentrations in solutions containing liver specimen and glucose declined linearly with time, confirming zero-order kinetics of hepatocyte respiration. O2 consumption was inhibited by cyanide, confirming the oxidation occurred in the respiratory chain. Enhanced liver respiration (by ≈68%, p<0.02) was noted 3 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with limited cellular infiltrations around the blood vessels. Diminished respiration (by ≈30%, p=0.005) was noted 12 hr after ConA treatment, and occurred in conjunction with deranged mitochondria, areas of necrosis, and prominent infiltrations with immune cells, most significantly, CD3+NKT+ cells. Increases in intracellular caspase activity and serum IFN-γ and aminotransferase levels were noted 3 hr after ConA treatment and progressed with time. The above-noted changes were less pronounced in C57Bl/6 IFN-γ−/− mice treated with ConA. Conclusions Based on these results, liver tissue bioenergetics is increased 3 hr after ConA exposure. This effect is driven by the pathogenesis of the disease, in which IFN-γ and other cytokines contribute to

  18. Establishment of a hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; He, Fu-Liang; Liu, Fu-Quan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of establishing a porcine hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol. METHODS: Twenty-one healthy Guizhou miniature pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups and three control groups. The pigs in the three experimental groups were subjected to hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of 80% alcohol, respectively, while those in the three control groups underwent hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of saline, respectively. Hepatic arteriography and direct portal phlebography were performed on all animals before and after perfusion, and the portal venous pressure and diameter were measured before perfusion, immediately after perfusion, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after perfusion. The following procedures were performed at different time points: routine blood sampling, blood biochemistry, blood coagulation and blood ammonia tests before surgery, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after surgery; hepatic biopsy before surgery, within 6 h after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wk after surgery; abdominal enhanced computed tomography examination before surgery and at 6 wk after surgery; autopsy and multi-point sampling of various liver lobes for histological examination at 6 wk after surgery. RESULTS: In experimental group 1, different degrees of hepatic fibrosis were observed, and one pig developed hepatic cirrhosis. In experimental group 2, there were cases of hepatic cirrhosis, different degrees of increased portal venous pressure, and intrahepatic portal venous bypass, but neither extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation nor death occurred. In experimental group 3, two animals died and three animals developed hepatic cirrhosis, and different degrees of increased portal venous pressure and intrahepatic portal venous bypass were also observed, but there was no extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation. CONCLUSION: It is feasible to establish an

  19. National treatment programme of hepatitis C in Egypt: Hepatitis C virus model of care.

    PubMed

    El-Akel, W; El-Sayed, M H; El Kassas, M; El-Serafy, M; Khairy, M; Elsaeed, K; Kabil, K; Hassany, M; Shawky, A; Yosry, A; Shaker, M K; ElShazly, Y; Waked, I; Esmat, G; Doss, W

    2017-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health problem in Egypt as the nation bears the highest prevalence rate worldwide. This necessitated establishing a novel model of care (MOC) to contain the epidemic, deliver patient care and ensure global treatment access. In this review, we describe the process of development of the Egyptian model and future strategies for sustainability. Although the magnitude of the HCV problem was known for many years, the HCV MOC only came into being in 2006 with the establishment of the National Committee for Control of Viral Hepatitis (NCCVH) to set up and implement a national control strategy for the disease and other causes of viral hepatitis. The strategy outlines best practices for patient care delivery by applying a set of service principles through identified clinical streams and patient flow continuums. The Egyptian national viral hepatitis treatment programme is considered one of the most successful and effective public health programmes. To date, more than one million patients were evaluated and more than 850 000 received treatment under the umbrella of the programme since 2006. The NCCVH has been successful in establishing a strong infrastructure for controlling viral hepatitis in Egypt. It established a nationwide network of digitally connected viral hepatitis-specialized treatment centres covering the country map to enhance treatment access. Practice guidelines suiting local circumstances were issued and regularly updated and are applied in all affiliated centres. This review illustrates the model and the successful Egyptian experience. It sets an exemplar for states, organizations and policy-makers setting up programmes for care and management of people with hepatitis C. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Protective Effects of Astaxanthin on ConA-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis by the JNK/p-JNK Pathway-Mediated Inhibition of Autophagy and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Junshan; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Zhou, Zheng; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhu, Rong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Huawei; Yin, Qin; Wang, Chengfen; Zhou, Yuqing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, exhibits a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, atherosclerosis and antitumor activities. However, its effect on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of astaxanthin on ConA-induced hepatitis in mice, and to elucidate the mechanisms of regulation. Materials and Methods Autoimmune hepatitis was induced in in Balb/C mice using ConA (25 mg/kg), and astaxanthin was orally administered daily at two doses (20 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg) for 14 days before ConA injection. Levels of serum liver enzymes and the histopathology of inflammatory cytokines and other maker proteins were determined at three time points (2, 8 and 24 h). Primary hepatocytes were pretreated with astaxanthin (80 μM) in vitro 24 h before stimulation with TNF-α (10 ng/ml). The apoptosis rate and related protein expression were determined 24 h after the administration of TNF-α. Results Astaxanthin attenuated serum liver enzymes and pathological damage by reducing the release of inflammatory factors. It performed anti-apoptotic effects via the descending phosphorylation of Bcl-2 through the down-regulation of the JNK/p-JNK pathway. Conclusion This research firstly expounded that astaxanthin reduced immune liver injury in ConA-induced autoimmune hepatitis. The mode of action appears to be downregulation of JNK/p-JNK-mediated apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:25761053

  1. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... recovery. B Blood, needles, sexual 10% of older children develop chronic infection. 90% of newborns develop chronic infection. ... ability to manage the current dosages. If a child develops chronic hepatitis B or C, your pediatrician will ...

  2. Galectin-9 ameliorates Con A-induced hepatitis by inducing CD4(+)CD25(low/int) effector T-Cell apoptosis and increasing regulatory T cell number.

    PubMed

    Lv, Kun; Zhang, Yingying; Zhang, Mengying; Zhong, Min; Suo, Qifeng

    2012-01-01

    T cell-mediated liver damage is a key event in the pathogenesis of many chronic human liver diseases, such as liver transplant rejection, primary biliary cirrhosis, and sclerosing cholangitis. We and other groups have previously reported that galectin-9, one of the β-galactoside binding animal lectins, might be potentially useful in the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases. To evaluate the direct effect of galectin-9 on hepatitis induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration in mice and to clarify the mechanisms involved, we administered galectin-9 into mice, and evaluated its therapeutic effect on Con A-induced hepatitis. Galectin-9 was administrated i.v. to Balb/c mice 30 min before Con A injection. Compared with no treatment, galectin-9 pretreatment significantly reduced serum ALT and AST levels and improved liver histopathology, suggesting an ameliorated hepatitis. This therapeutic effect was not only attributable to a blunted Th1 immune response, but also to an increased number in regulatory T cells, as reflected in a significantly increased apoptosis of CD4(+)CD25(low/int) effector T cells and in reduced proinflammatory cytokine levels. Our findings constitute the first preclinical data indicating that interfering with TIM-3/galectin-9 signaling in vivo could ameliorate Con A-induced hepatitis. This strategy may represent a new therapeutic approach in treating human diseases involving T cell activation.

  3. Deterministic stability and random behavior of a Hepatitis C model

    PubMed Central

    Merdan, Mehmet; Bekiryazici, Zafer; Kesemen, Tulay; Khaniyev, Tahir

    2017-01-01

    The deterministic stability of a model of Hepatitis C which includes a term defining the effect of immune system is studied on both local and global scales. Random effect is added to the model to investigate the random behavior of the model. The numerical characteristics such as the expectation, variance and confidence interval are calculated for random effects with two different distributions from the results of numerical simulations. In addition, the compliance of the random behavior of the model and the deterministic stability results is examined. PMID:28742831

  4. Alpha-lipoic acid protects mice against concanavalin A-induced hepatitis by modulating cytokine secretion and reducing reactive oxygen species generation.

    PubMed

    Fei, Miaomiao; Xie, Qun; Zou, Yun; He, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jun; Bo, Lulong; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA), which exits in almost all types of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, is a key regulator of energy metabolism in mitochondria. This study was designed to explore the protective effect of α-LA against concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis in mice and explore the potential mechanism. Acute autoimmune hepatitis was induced by intravenous (IV) injection of Con A (15mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice. α-LA (100mg/kg) was administered four days before Con A injection. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and histopathological change of the liver tissue were measured. Serum cytokine TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10 were detected by ELISA. The mRNA levels of these inflammatory cytokines in the liver were detected by RT-PCR. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) in liver were determined using commercial kits. Phosphorylated NF-κB p65, IκBα and phosphorylated MAPK were measured by Western blot. Con A injection induced severe immune responses and extensive hepatocellular apoptosis within 12h. Pretreatment of α-LA markedly reduced the serum ALT and AST activity and the increase of plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-10. In addition, α-LA pretreatment decreased the tissue MPO activity and lipid peroxidation, but increased SOD and GSH levels. α-LA inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, IκBα and JNK. Pretreatment of α-LA markedly attenuated Con A-induced hepatitis by modulating cytokine secretion and reducing reactive oxygen species generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Observation of the promotion effect taurine on hepatic stellate cell's apoptosis in rat hepatic fibrosis model].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jian; Zhang, Xi-liu; Yang, Guang-ye; Pang, Yu-sheng; Yuan, Hai-feng; Liang, Jing-song; Huang, Ren-bin

    2005-05-01

    To observe the effect of taurine on hepatic stellate cell's apoptosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats and to study its protective mechanisms. CCl4-induced rat hepatic fibrosis was treated by taurine. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), plasma protein, hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen III (PC III), hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme and anti-transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) were determined. In addition, hepatic stellate cell's apoptosis and the pathological changes of liver tissue were observed under light microscope. The activity of serum ALT and the levels of serum HA, PC III were markedly reduced by taurine treatment. The hepatic cytochrome P450 (Cyt. P450) and cytochrome b5 (Cytb5) contents were increased by the same treatment. In addition, taurine could significantly inhibit the expression of TGF-beta1, promote the hepatic stellate cell's apoptosis, and relieve hepatic fibrosis. Taurine fulfills a role in promoting hepatic stellate cell's apoptosis in the case of hepatic fibrosis, it mitigates the liver injury, decreases the expression of TGF-beta1, and relieves hepatic fibrosis.

  6. A model to study intestinal and hepatic metabolism of propranolol in the dog.

    PubMed

    Mills, P C; Siebert, G A; Roberts, M S

    2004-02-01

    A model to investigate hepatic drug uptake and metabolism in the dog was developed for this study. Catheters were placed in the portal and hepatic veins during exploratory laparotomy to collect pre- and posthepatic blood samples at defined intervals. Drug concentrations in the portal vein were taken to reflect intestinal uptake and metabolism of an p.o. administered drug (propranolol), while differences in drug and metabolite concentrations between portal and hepatic veins reflected hepatic uptake and metabolism. A significant difference in propranolol concentration between hepatic and portal veins confirmed a high hepatic extraction of this therapeutic agent in the dog. This technically uncomplicated model may be used experimentally or clinically to determine hepatic function and metabolism of drugs that may be administered during anaesthesia and surgery.

  7. Gestational and lactational exposure to dichlorinated bisphenol A induces early alterations of hepatic lipid composition in mice.

    PubMed

    El Hamrani, Dounia; Chepied, Amandine; Même, William; Mesnil, Marc; Defamie, Norah; Même, Sandra

    2018-02-20

    Using non-invasive magnetic resonance (MR) techniques and a histological approach, we assessed the outcomes of perinatal exposure at a low dose of 3,3'-DCBPA (2-chloro-4-[1-(3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenol) and/or 3,5-DCBPA (2,6-dichloro-4-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]phenol) on mice livers. Fertilized female Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally during gestation and lactation with either vehicle control, 20 μg/kg/day of BPA, 3,5-DCBPA, 3,3'-DCBPA or a mixture (mix-DCBPA). Complementary methods were used to evaluate, in male and female pups, (1) liver structure by texture analysis of images obtained through MR imaging (MRI) and histology, (2) hepatic lipid composition through in vivo 1 H MR spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS). Principal component analysis of texture parameters showed no structural modification of the liver with BPA and DCBPA treatments. Accordingly, no hepatic microvesicular steatosis was observed through hematoxylin-eosin staining. Compared to control, MRS revealed no difference in lipid composition for BPA, 3,5-DCBPA or 3,3'-DCBPA groups. However, MRS detected a significant increase in the mix-DCBPA groups for the saturated component of fatty acids (FA), total unsaturated FA bond index and polyunsaturated FA bond index. Prior to any structural changes, polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly increased in young male and female mice exposed perinatally at a low dose to a mixture of dichlorinated BPA.

  8. 18F-FAC PET selectively images hepatic infiltrating CD4 and CD8 T cells in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Salas, Jessica R; Chen, Bao Ying; Wong, Alicia; Cheng, Donghui; Van Arnam, John S; Witte, Owen N; Clark, Peter M

    2018-04-26

    Immune cell-mediated attack on the liver is a defining feature of autoimmune hepatitis and hepatic allograft rejection. Despite an assortment of diagnostic tools, invasive biopsies remain the only method for identifying immune cells in the liver. We evaluated whether PET imaging with radiotracers that quantify immune activation ( 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC) and hepatocyte biology ( 18 F-DFA) can visualize and quantify hepatic infiltrating immune cells and hepatocyte inflammation, respectively, in a preclinical model of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods: Mice treated with Concanavalin A (ConA) to induce a model of autoimmune hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. Immunohistochemistry, digital autoradiography, and ex vivo accumulation assays were used to localize areas of altered radiotracer accumulation in the liver. For comparison, mice treated with an adenovirus to induce a viral hepatitis or vehicle were imaged with 18 F-FDG, 18 F-FAC, and 18 F-DFA PET. 18 F-FAC PET was performed on mice treated with ConA, and vehicle or dexamethasone. Biopsy samples of patients suffering from autoimmune hepatitis were immunostained for deoxycytidine kinase (dCK). Results: Hepatic accumulation of 18 F-FDG and 18 F-FAC was 173% and 61% higher, respectively, and hepatic accumulation of 18 F-DFA was 41% lower in a mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis compared to control mice. Increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation was localized to infiltrating leukocytes and inflamed sinusoidal endothelial cells, increased hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation was concentrated in infiltrating CD4 and CD8 cells, and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation was apparent in hepatocytes throughout the liver. In contrast, viral hepatitis increased hepatic 18 F-FDG accumulation by 109% and decreased hepatic 18 F-DFA accumulation by 20% but had no effect on hepatic 18 F-FAC accumulation (non-significant 2% decrease). 18 F-FAC PET provided a non-invasive biomarker of the efficacy of

  9. [Evaluation on Hepatitis B surveillance models at surveillance pilot points in China, 2013-2015].

    PubMed

    Miao, N; Wang, F Z; Zhang, L J; Zheng, H; Sun, X J; Wang, F; Zhang, G M

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To evaluate the effects on Hepatitis B surveillance models at the surveillance pilot points in China. Methods: Hepatitis B related records kept at the surveillance pilot points were downloaded from NNDRS. Data concerning proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases, consistency of additional records and the accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B cases were evaluated. Results: The proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases was decreasing year by year ( P <0.05), from 32.07% in 2012 to 4.26% in 2015, with Kappa as 0.768, 0.821 and 0.836 respectively in 2013-2015. The accuracy of reported acute Hepatitis B was improving ( P <0.05), from 55.77% in 2013 to 74.49% in 2015. Conclusions: Additional records and blood testings on acute Hepatitis B cases seemed to be effective in improving the accuracy of Hepatitis B reporting system and decreasing the proportion of unclassified Hepatitis B cases. We suggested that this model of surveillance could be applied elsewhere in the nation to improve the quality of report system on Hepatitis B.

  10. [Neovascularization aggravated hepatic fibrosis in combined hypoxia NASH rat model].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Wu, W; Gu, D H; Liu, C Y; Dong, Q; Yao, Y L; Wang, C S; Chen, X P; Yang, H X

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To optimize the construction of combined hypoxia NASH rat model on the basis of preliminary work, and to explore the role of neovascularization in the process of hepatic fibrosis. Methods: 32 rats were divided randomly to four groups that were null control group(A group ), hypoxia group(B group), high fat diet group(C group ) and high fat diet plus hypoxia group (D group ),treated with null , Intraperitoneal injection of NaNO(2), high fat diet and high fat diet plus Intraperitoneal injection of NaNO(2) respectively. Every group was observed for 16 weeks, B and D group was treated with Intraperitoneal injection of NaNO(2) 20 mg/kg.d at the laster 8 weeks. Liver histology NASH activity score(NAS) and Fibro score(FibroS), biochemical index were detected in this combined hypoxia NASH rat model(D group), meanwhile the changes of HIF1α, inflammatory factor and neovascularization were measured by ELISA, realtime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: Liver tissue NAS > 4 was seen in C and D group. D group showed NASH characteristics, including significantly steatosis at liver acinar 3 area(mostly a microvesicular type fat droplets mixed with macrovesicular type), hepatocyte balloon degeneration, obvious lobular inflammation, while fibrosis score increased significantly, including visible hepatic sinusoid fibrosis, fibrosis around portal vein, and bridging fibrosis in a considerable portion of the rats. Compared with C group, biochemical indicators of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), HIF1α, neovascularization-related VEGFA, VEGFR2 mRNA level increased obviously and the expression of immunohistochemistry VEGFR2, CD34 enhanced markedly in D group( p < 0.05). Conclusion: A combined hypoxia NASH rat model can be established throught feeding 16 weeks' high-fat diet then intraperitoneal injection of NaNO(2) 20 mg / kg.d at the laster 8 weeks, meanwhile chronic hypoxia can accelerate this combined hypoxia NASH model liver fibrosis process. In this process

  11. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Brazil and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Guignard, Adrienne; Marano, Cinzia; Rojas, Rosalba; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2017-08-03

    Many low- to middle-income countries have completed or are in the process of transitioning from high or intermediate to low endemicity for hepatitis A virus (HAV). Because the risk of severe hepatitis A disease increases with age at infection, decreased incidence that leaves older children and adults susceptible to HAV infection may actually increase the population-level burden of disease from HAV. Mathematical models can be helpful for projecting future epidemiological profiles for HAV. An age-specific deterministic, dynamic compartmental transmission model with stratification by setting (rural versus urban) was calibrated with country-specific data on demography, urbanization, and seroprevalence of anti-HAV antibodies. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of setting-specific access to safe water. The model was then used to project various HAV-related epidemiological outcomes in Brazil and in Mexico from 1950 to 2050. The projected epidemiological outcomes were qualitatively similar in the 2 countries. The age at the midpoint of population immunity (AMPI) increased considerably and the mean age of symptomatic HAV cases shifted from childhood to early adulthood. The projected overall incidence rate of HAV infections decreased by about two thirds as safe water access improved. However, the incidence rate of symptomatic HAV infections remained roughly the same over the projection period. The incidence rates of HAV infections (all and symptomatic alone) were projected to become similar in rural and urban settings in the next decades. This model featuring population age structure, urbanization and access to safe water as key contributors to the epidemiological transition for HAV was previously validated with data from Thailand and fits equally well with data from Latin American countries. Assuming no introduction of a vaccination program over the projection period, both Brazil and Mexico were projected to experience a continued decrease in HAV incidence rates

  12. [Effects of combined action of sapropel and magnetic field on hepatic function in modeling toxic hepatitis in various seasons].

    PubMed

    Levitskiĭ, E F; Glushakova, E S

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on 172 Wistar rats modeled CCl4 hepatitis in winter and summer. In winter, normalization of biochemical indices was slow while efficacy of physiotherapy with sapropel combined with magnetic field was high. In summer, normalization of biochemical indices was more active but the above combination was less effective.

  13. Modelling the hepatitis C virus epidemic in Australia.

    PubMed

    Razali, Karina; Thein, Hla Hla; Bell, Jane; Cooper-Stanbury, Mark; Dolan, Kate; Dore, Greg; George, Jacob; Kaldor, John; Karvelas, Maria; Li, Jiong; Maher, Lisa; McGregor, Sharyn; Hellard, Margaret; Poeder, Fiona; Quaine, Julianne; Stewart, Kim; Tyrrell, Helen; Weltman, Martin; Westcott, Owen; Wodak, Alex; Law, Matthew

    2007-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Australia is predominantly transmitted through injecting drug use. A reduction in the heroin supply in Australia in late 2000 and early 2001 may have impacted the number of injecting drug users (IDUs) and consequently the number of new hepatitis C infections in Australia. This paper updates estimates of HCV incidence and prevalence between 1960 and 2005. Simple mathematical models were used to estimate HCV incidence among IDUs, migrants to Australia from high HCV-prevalence countries, and other HCV exposure groups. Recent trends in numbers of IDUs were based on indicators of injecting drug use. A natural history of HCV model was applied to estimate the prevalence of HCV in the population. The modelled best estimate of past HCV incidence showed a consistent increasing rate of HCV infections to a peak of 14,000 new seroconversions in 1999, followed by a decline in 2001-2002 coincident with the decline in heroin availability. HCV incidence was estimated to be 9700 (lower and upper limits of 6600 and 13,200) in 2005. Of these, 88.7% were estimated to be through injecting drug use, 7.2% among migrants and 4.1% through other transmission routes. An estimated 264,000 (lower and upper limits of 206,000 and 318,000) people were HCV antibody positive in 2005. Mathematical models suggest that HCV incidence in Australia decreased from a peak of 14,000 new infections in 1999 to 9700 new infections in 2005, largely attributable to a reduction in injecting drug use. The numbers of people living with HCV in Australia is, however, estimated to continue to increase.

  14. Discrete virus infection model of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Min, Lequan; Pian, Jianwei

    2015-01-01

    In 1996 Nowak and his colleagues proposed a differential equation virus infection model, which has been widely applied in the study for the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Biological dynamics may be described more practically by discrete events rather than continuous ones. Using discrete systems to describe biological dynamics should be reasonable. Based on one revised Nowak et al's virus infection model, this study introduces a discrete virus infection model (DVIM). Two equilibriums of this model, E1 and E2, represents infection free and infection persistent, respectively. Similar to the case of the basic virus infection model, this study deduces a basic virus reproductive number R0 independing on the number of total cells of an infected target organ. A proposed theorem proves that if the basic virus reproductive number R0<1 then the virus free equilibrium E1 is locally stable. The DVIM is more reasonable than an abstract discrete susceptible-infected-recovered model (SIRS) whose basic virus reproductive number R0 is relevant to the number of total cells of the infected target organ. As an application, this study models the clinic HBV DNA data of a patient who was accepted via anti-HBV infection therapy with drug lamivudine. The results show that the numerical simulation is good in agreement with the clinic data.

  15. [Discussion of Chinese syndrome typing in acute hepatic failure model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-liang; Zeng, Hui; Wang, Xian-bo

    2011-05-01

    To study Chinese syndrome typing of acute hepatic failure (AHF) mice model by screening effective formulae. Lipoplysaccharides (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GaIN) was intraperitoneally injected to mice to establish the AHF mice model. Yinchenhao Decoction, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction, Buzhong Yiqi Decoction, and Xijiao Dihuang Decoction were administered to model mice respectively by gastrogavage. The behavior and the survival rate were monitored. The liver function and pathological changes of liver tissues were detected. In all the tested classic recipes, the survival rate was elevated from 10% to 60% by administration of Xijiao Dihuang Decoction. Five h after modeling, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level was (183.95 +/- 52.00) U/L, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (235.70 +/- 34.03) U/L in Xijiao Di-huang Decoction Group, lower than those of the model control group, but with insignificant difference (ALT: 213.32 +/- 71.93 U/L; AST: 299.48 +/- 70.56 U/L, both P > 0.05). Xijiao Dihuang Decoction could obviously alleviate the liver injury. Xijiao Dihuang Decoction was an effective formula for LPS/D-GaIN induced AHF model. According to syndrome typing through formula effect, heat toxin and blood stasis syndrome dominated in the LPS/D-GalN induced AHF mice model.

  16. The Chimpanzee Model of Viral Hepatitis: Advances in Understanding the Immune Response and Treatment of Viral Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lanford, Robert E; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have contributed to diverse fields of biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship to humans and in many instances due to the lack of any other animal model. This review focuses on the contributions of the chimpanzee model to research on hepatitis viruses where chimpanzees represented the only animal model (hepatitis B and C) or the most appropriate animal model (hepatitis A). Research with chimpanzees led to the development of vaccines for HAV and HBV that are used worldwide to protect hundreds of millions from these diseases and, where fully implemented, have provided immunity for entire generations. More recently, chimpanzee research was instrumental in the development of curative therapies for hepatitis C virus infections. Over a span of 40 years, this research would identify the causative agent of NonA,NonB hepatitis, validate the molecular tools for drug discovery, and provide safety and efficacy data on the therapies that now provide a rapid and complete cure of HCV chronic infections. Several cocktails of antivirals are FDA approved that eliminate the virus following 12 weeks of once-per-day oral therapy. This represents the first cure of a chronic viral disease and, once broadly implemented, will dramatically reduce the occurrence of cirrhosis and liver cancer. The recent contributions of chimpanzees to our current understanding of T cell immunity for HCV, development of novel therapeutics for HBV, and the biology of HAV are reviewed. Finally, a perspective is provided on the events leading to the cessation of the use of chimpanzees in research and the future of the chimpanzees previously used to bring about these amazing breakthroughs in human healthcare. PMID:29045731

  17. Transmission Model of Hepatitis B Virus with the Migration Effect

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Islam, Saeed; Arif, Muhammad; ul Haq, Zahoor

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a globally infectious disease. Mathematical modeling of HBV transmission is an interesting research area. In this paper, we present characteristics of HBV virus transmission in the form of a mathematical model. We analyzed the effect of immigrants in the model to study the effect of immigrants for the host population. We added the following flow parameters: “the transmission between migrated and exposed class” and “the transmission between migrated and acute class.” With these new features, we obtained a compartment model of six differential equations. First, we find the basic threshold quantity Ro and then find the local asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium. Furthermore, we find the global stability of the disease-free and endemic equilibria. Previous similar publications have not added the kind of information about the numerical results of the model. In our case, from numerical simulation, a detailed discussion of the parameters and their numerical results is presented. We claim that with these assumptions and by adding the migrated class, the model informs policy for governments, to be aware of the immigrants and subject them to tests about the disease status. Immigrants for short visits and students should be subjected to tests to reduce the number of immigrants with disease. PMID:23984318

  18. Empirical fitness models for hepatitis C virus immunogen design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gregory R.; Ferguson, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 170 million people worldwide, 2%-3% of the global population, and kills 350 000 each year. Prophylactic vaccination offers the most realistic and cost effective hope of controlling this epidemic in the developing world where expensive drug therapies are not available. Despite 20 years of research, the high mutability of the virus and lack of knowledge of what constitutes effective immune responses have impeded development of an effective vaccine. Coupling data mining of sequence databases with spin glass models from statistical physics, we have developed a computational approach to translate clinical sequence databases into empirical fitness landscapes quantifying the replicative capacity of the virus as a function of its amino acid sequence. These landscapes explicitly connect viral genotype to phenotypic fitness, and reveal vulnerable immunological targets within the viral proteome that can be exploited to rationally design vaccine immunogens. We have recovered the empirical fitness landscape for the HCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (protein NS5B) responsible for viral genome replication, and validated the predictions of our model by demonstrating excellent accord with experimental measurements and clinical observations. We have used our landscapes to perform exhaustive in silico screening of 16.8 million T-cell immunogen candidates to identify 86 optimal formulations. By reducing the search space of immunogen candidates by over five orders of magnitude, our approach can offer valuable savings in time, expense, and labor for experimental vaccine development and accelerate the search for a HCV vaccine. Abbreviations: HCV—hepatitis C virus, HLA—human leukocyte antigen, CTL—cytotoxic T lymphocyte, NS5B—nonstructural protein 5B, MSA—multiple sequence alignment, PEG-IFN—pegylated interferon.

  19. Soy Protein Isolate Suppresses Lipodystrophy-induced Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Koji; Matsumoto, Akiko; Kai, Shunichi; Kayashima, Tomoko; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Lipodystrophies are acquired and genetic disorders characterized by the complete or partial absence of body fat with a line of metabolic disorders, including hepatic steatosis. Because soy protein isolate (SPI) has been reported to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels in animals and humans, we explored the effect of SPI on the pathophysiology of hepatic lipid accumutaion in a diet-induced lipodystrophy model mice. Four weeks of the lipodystrophy model diet induced hepatic lipid accumulation concomitant with marked deficiencies of adipose tissue and serum adipocytokines in mice. However, supplementing the lipodystrophy model diet with SPI could alleviate the hepatic lipid acculation without affecting the lipoatrophic effect of the diet. Enhanced lipogenesis is the principal mechanism of hepatic steatosis in this model, but SPI supplementation significantly attenuated the increase in enzyme activity and/or mRNA expression. Additionally, SPI supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of an enzyme involved in cholesterol catabolism. In conclusion, our results indicate the possibility of dietary SPI to attenuate lipodystorophy-induced hepatic steatosis through the direct reduction of hepatic lipogenesis without affecting adipocytokine production.

  20. Novel Robust Hepatitis C Virus Mouse Efficacy Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Oei, Yoko; Mendel, Dirk B.; Garrett, Evelyn N.; Patawaran, Montesa B.; Hollenbach, Paul W.; Aukerman, Sharon L.; Weiner, Amy J.

    2006-01-01

    The lack of a robust small-animal model for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has hindered the discovery and development of novel drug treatments for HCV infections. We developed a reproducible and easily accessible xenograft mouse efficacy model in which HCV RNA replication is accurately monitored in vivo by real-time, noninvasive whole-body imaging of gamma-irradiated SCID mice implanted with a mouse-adapted luciferase replicon-containing Huh-7 cell line (T7-11). The model was validated by demonstrating that both a small-molecule NS3/4A protease inhibitor (BILN 2061) and human alpha interferon (IFN-α) decreased HCV RNA replication and that treatment withdrawal resulted in a rebound in replication, which paralleled clinical outcomes in humans. We further showed that protease inhibitor and IFN-α combination therapy was more effective in reducing HCV RNA replication than treatment with each compound alone and supports testing in humans. This robust mouse efficacy model provides a powerful tool for rapid evaluation of potential anti-HCV compounds in vivo as part of aggressive drug discovery efforts. PMID:17005803

  1. Restorative effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A on hepatic function in an experimental regression model of hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanuo; Shi, Yan; Sun, Yan; Liu, Luying; Bai, Xianyong; Wang, Dong; Li, Hongxing

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible pathological process, in which fibrotic tissue is excessively deposited in the liver during the repair process that follows hepatic injury. Early prevention or treatment of hepatic fibrosis has great significance on the treatment of chronic hepatic diseases. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a water-soluble monomer extracted from safflower, which serves numerous pharmacological roles. However, it remains to be elucidated how HSYA regulates hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of the present study was to reveal the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of HSYA on the prevention and treatment of hepatic fibrosis. A rat model of hepatic fibrosis was established in the present study, and the rats were administered various doses of HSYA. The effects of HSYA on pathological alterations of the liver tissue in rats with hepatic fibrosis were observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining and Masson staining. In order to explore the anti-hepatic fibrosis effects and underlying mechanisms of HSYA, serum levels, and hepatic function and hepatic fibrosis indices were evaluated. The results demonstrated that HSYA can improve the general condition of rats with hepatic fibrosis and relieve cellular swelling of the liver, fatty degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroplastic proliferation. Subsequent to administration of HSYA, globulin was increased during hepatic fibrosis caused by tetrachloromethane. However, total cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and levels of hyaluronic acid, laminin, procollagen III N-terminal peptide, collagen type IV and hydroxyproline were significantly reduced. The results additionally demonstrated that HSYA could enhance superoxide dismutase activity and reduce malondialdehyde levels, inhibiting lipid peroxidation caused by free radicals. PMID:27909717

  2. Experimental models of hepatitis B and C — new insights and progress

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Emmanuel; Liang, T. Jake

    2017-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Hepatitis-causing viruses initiate disease by establishing both acute and chronic infections, and several of these viruses are specifically associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Consequently, intense research efforts have been focusing on increasing our understanding of hepatitis virus biology and on improving antiviral therapy and vaccination strategies. Although valuable information on viral hepatitis emerged from careful epidemiological studies on sporadic outbreaks in humans, experimental models using cell culture, rodent and non-human primates were essential in advancing the field. Through the use of these experimental models, improvement in both the treatment and prevention of viral hepatitis has progressed rapidly; however, agents of viral hepatitis are still among the most common pathogens infecting humans. In this Review, we describe the important part that these experimental models have played in the study of viral hepatitis and led to monumental advances in our understanding and treatment of these pathogens. Ongoing developments in experimental models are also described. PMID:27075261

  3. Mathematical modelling of hepatitis C treatment for injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natasha K; Vickerman, Peter; Hickman, Matthew

    2011-04-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-borne infection that can lead to progressive liver failure, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. In developed countries, the majority of HCV infections are transmitted via injecting drug users (IDUs). Despite effective antiviral treatment for HCV, very few active IDUs are treated. Reluctance to treat is partially due to the risk of reinfection. We develop a mathematical model of HCV transmission amongst active IDUs, and examine the potential effect of antiviral treatment. As most mathematical models of interventions utilise a treatment function proportional to the infected population, but many policy implementations set fixed yearly targets for specific numbers treated, we study the effects of using two different treatment terms: annually treating a proportion of infecteds or a fixed number of infecteds. We examine the behaviour of the two treatment models and find different bifurcation behaviours in each case. We calculate analytical solutions for the treatment level needed for disease clearance or control, and observe that achievable levels of treatment can result in control or eradication across a wide range of prevalence levels. Finally, we calculate the sensitivity of the critical treatment threshold to the model parameters, and find that for a given observed prevalence, the injecting duration and infection risk play the most important role in determining the treatment level needed. By contrast, the sensitivity analysis indicates the presence (or absence) of immunity does not alter the treatment threshold. We conclude by discussing the public health implications of this work, and comment on the importance and feasibility of utilising treatment as prevention for HCV spread amongst IDUs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol induced hepatic degeneration in a hepatitis C virus core protein transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong-Hyung; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Min, Chang-Woo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sung, Soo-Eun; Hwang, Meeyul; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2014-03-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major public health issue. It is prevalent in most countries. HCV infection frequently begins without clinical symptoms, before progressing to persistent viremia, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the majority of patients (70% to 80%). Alcohol is an independent cofactor that accelerates the development of HCC in chronic hepatitis C patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate ethanol-induced hepatic changes in HCV core-Tg mice and mutant core Tg mice. Wild type (NTG), core wild-Tg mice (TG-K), mutant core 116-Tg mice (TG-116) and mutant core 99-Tg mice (TG-99) were used in this investigation. All groups were given drinking water with 10% ethanol and 5% sucrose for 13 weeks. To observe liver morphological changes, we performed histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Histopathologically, NTG, TG-K and TG-116 mice showed moderate centrilobular necrosis, while severe centrilobular necrosis and hepatocyte dissociation were observed in TG-99 mice with increasing lymphocyte infiltration and piecemeal necrosis. In all groups, a small amount of collagen fiber was found, principally in portal areas. None of the mice were found to have myofibroblasts based on immunohistochemical staining specific for α-SMA. CYP2E1-positive cells were clearly detected in the centrilobular area in all groups. In the TG-99 mice, we also observed cells positive for CK8/18, TGF-β1 and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2/3 and p21 around the necrotic hepatocytes in the centrilobular area (p < 0.01). Based on our data, alcohol intake induced piecemeal necrosis and hepatocyte dissociation in the TG-99 mice. These phenomena involved activation of the TGF-β1/p-Smad2/3/p21 signaling pathway in hepatocytes. Data from this study will be useful for elucidating the association between alcohol intake and HCV infection.

  5. Physiologically based modeling of hepatic and gastrointestinal biotransformation in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fish, as in mammals, the liver generally viewed as the principal site of chemical biotransformation. For waterborne exposures, such as those conducted in support of standardized BCF testing, the effects of hepatic metabolism on chemical accumulation can be simulated using rela...

  6. Natural history models for hepatitis C-related liver disease: different disease progression parameters for different settings.

    PubMed

    Dore, Gregory J; Freeman, Anthony J; Law, Matthew; Kaldor, John M

    2003-10-01

    An understanding of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has improved in recent years. Estimates of liver disease progression among people with chronic hepatitis C have been developed from various study populations, including liver clinics, post-transfusion hepatitis C cohorts and community-based cohorts. These estimates can be used in hepatitis C natural history models; however, they need to be matched to differing requirements. Estimation and projection of liver disease burden at the population level requires estimates of HCV prevalence and incidence, and disease progression among all people with chronic hepatitis C. Liver disease progression based on community cohorts would appear the most appropriate for a population level model. In contrast, models that examine the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for people with chronic hepatitis C require disease progression estimates from the treatment setting. Further models are required to determine individual prognosis and should be based on an assessment of cofactors for liver disease progression.

  7. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver. In the United States, viral hepatitis is usually caused by the hepatitis ... most common types of viral hepatitis in the United States are: Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Learn ...

  8. Modeling of HBV and HCV hepatitis with hepatocyte-like cells.

    PubMed

    Bengrine, Abderrahmane; Brochot, Etienne; Louchet, Marie; Herpe, Yves Edouard; Duverlie, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases caused by either hepatitis B or C viruses are a major health problem around the world. Despite major advances accomplished in recent years in understanding the physiology of both viruses using in vitro and/or in vivomodels, there is no vaccine for HCV available. Moreover, susceptibility to acute and chronic infection and the response to treatments are different between HBV or HCV infected patients. Crucial information can be collected using a robust cell model that permits the culture of clinical isolates along with the investigation of the virus-host interaction. The recent progress in the field of cell reprogramming and differentiation has opened new opportunities in viral hepatitis research raising the hopes of developing new improved therapeutics. In this review, we discuss current models for hepatitis B and C studies and their limitations, and also the iPSC model, and its relevance to the viral host cell interactions.

  9. An Evaluation of the Venous Equilibrium Model for Hepatic Clearance using Isolated Perfused Rainbow Trout Livers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The venous equilibrium model is widely used to describe hepatic clearance (CLH) of chemicals metabolized by the liver. If chemical delivery to the tissue does not limit CLH, this model predicts that CLH will approximately equal the product of intrinsic metabolic clearance and a t...

  10. Low Cardiac Output Leads Hepatic Fibrosis in Right Heart Failure Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Yoshitaka; Urashima, Takashi; Shimura, Daisuke; Ito, Reiji; Kawachi, Sadataka; Kajimura, Ichige; Akaike, Toru; Kusakari, Yoichiro; Fujiwara, Masako; Ogawa, Kiyoshi; Goda, Nobuhito; Ida, Hiroyuki; Minamisawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatic fibrosis progresses with right heart failure, and becomes cardiac cirrhosis in a severe case. Although its causal factor still remains unclear. Here we evaluated the progression of hepatic fibrosis using a pulmonary artery banding (PAB)-induced right heart failure model and investigated whether cardiac output (CO) is responsible for the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Methods and Results Five-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats divided into the PAB and sham-operated control groups. After 4 weeks from operation, we measured CO by echocardiography, and hepatic fibrosis ratio by pathological examination using a color analyzer. In the PAB group, CO was significantly lower by 48% than that in the control group (78.2±27.6 and 150.1±31.2 ml/min, P<0.01). Hepatic fibrosis ratio and serum hyaluronic acid, an index of hepatic fibrosis, were significantly increased in the PAB group than those in the control group (7.8±1.7 and 1.0±0.2%, P<0.01, 76.2±27.5 and 32.7±7.5 ng/ml, P<0.01). Notably, the degree of hepatic fibrosis significantly correlated a decrease in CO. Immunohistological analysis revealed that hepatic stellate cells were markedly activated in hypoxic areas, and HIF-1α positive hepatic cells were increased in the PAB group. Furthermore, by real-time PCR analyses, transcripts of profibrotic and fibrotic factors (TGF-β1, CTGF, procollargen I, procollargen III, MMP 2, MMP 9, TIMP 1, TIMP 2) were significantly increased in the PAB group. In addition, western blot analyses revealed that the protein level of HIF-1α was significantly increased in the PAB group than that in the control group (2.31±0.84 and 1.0±0.18 arbitrary units, P<0.05). Conclusions Our study demonstrated that low CO and tissue hypoxia were responsible for hepatic fibrosis in right failure heart model rats. PMID:26863419

  11. Recombinant covalently closed circular DNA of hepatitis B virus induces long-term viral persistence with chronic hepatitis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Gaiyun; Zhu, Yuanfei; Shao, Dianhui; Chang, Hao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Dongming; Gao, Yueqiu; Lan, Ke; Deng, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Covalently closed circular DNA of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is critical for viral persistence in vivo. We recently reported a technique involving recombinant covalently closed circular DNA (rcccDNA) of HBV by site-specific DNA recombination. Using hydrodynamic injection, rcccDNA induces a temporarily prolonged HBV antigenemia in immunocompetent mice, similar to acute resolving HBV infection. In this study, we simulated the pathophysiological impact of chronic hepatitis to reproduce rcccDNA persistence in mouse models. We showed that rcccDNA achieved long-lasting persistence in the presence of a compromised immune response or when transcriptional activity was repressed. To closely mimic chronic hepatitis, we used a replication-defective recombinant adenoviral vector to deliver rcccDNA to the liver, which led to prominent HBV persistence throughout the experiment duration (>62 weeks) in transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the albumin promoter. A sustained necroinflammatory response and fibrosis were identified in mouse livers, with dysplastic lesions commonly seen during the late stage of viral persistence, analogous to the progressive pathology of clinical chronic hepatitis. rcccDNA was intrinsically stable in vivo, enabling long-term persistence in the context of chronic hepatitis, and viral persistence, in turn, may promote progression of chronic liver disease; our study also presented a surrogate model of HBV cccDNA persistence in mice that could advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B. (Hepatology 2018;67:56-70). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Hepatic lipid composition analysis using 3.0-T MR spectroscopy in a steatotic rat model.

    PubMed

    van Werven, Jochem R; Marsman, Hendrik A; Nederveen, Aart J; ten Kate, Fiebo J; van Gulik, Thomas M; Stoker, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of in vivo assessment of hepatic lipid composition using 3.0-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in a steatotic rat model and compare it to histopathological and biochemical assessment. Hepatic steatosis was induced by feeding rats with a methionine/choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 1, 2, 3, 5 or 7 weeks (n=5 per group). At the end of the diet period, (1)H-MRS of the liver was performed, and rats were sacrificed for histopathological and biochemical assessment of the liver. Spectra were acquired in a single voxel (1.2 cc) using a point-resolved spectroscopic sequence with TE/TR=35/2000 ms and 64 signal acquisitions. From the MR spectra, peak area ratios were calculated to estimate hepatic lipid composition. During MCD diet periods, hepatic steatosis significantly increased on histopathology (P<.001). The (1)H-MRS measurements of total hepatic fat content [1.3/(1.3+4.65) ppm] correlated strongly with histological macrovesicular hepatic steatosis (r=0.93, P<.001) and with the biochemical total hepatic fatty acids (r=0.94, P<.001). Total unsaturated fatty acids [TUFA, 5.4/(1.3+4.65) ppm] estimated with (1)H-MRS strongly correlated with the biochemical unsaturated fatty acids (r=0.90, P<.001). Polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA, 2.8/(1.3+4.65) ppm] estimated with (1)H-MRS strongly correlated with biochemical PUFA (r=0.91, P<.001). The proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids relative to the amount of total fatty acids (rTUFA, 5.4/1.3 ppm) measured with (1)H-MRS strongly correlated with the biochemical amount of unsaturated relative to total hepatic fatty acids (r=0.81, P<.001). The proportion of PUFA relative to the amount of total fatty acids (rPUFA, 2.8/1.3 ppm) measured with (1)H-MRS correlated with the biochemical amount of PUFA relative to total fatty acids (r=0.59, P=0.005,) and with the biochemical amount of omega-6 PUFA relative to total fatty acids (r=0.73, P<.001). PUFA at (1)H-MRS correlated with the

  13. Prognostic factors for chronic severe hepatitis and construction of a prognostic model.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Yuan, Gui-Yu; Tang, Ke-Cheng; Liu, Guo-Wang; Wang, Rui; Cao, Wu-Kui

    2008-02-01

    Chronic severe hepatitis is a serious illness with a high mortality rate. Discussion of prognostic judgment criteria for chronic severe hepatitis is of great value in clinical guidance. This study was designed to investigate the clinical and laboratory indices affecting the prognosis of chronic severe hepatitis and construct a prognostic model. The clinical and laboratory indices of 213 patients with chronic severe hepatitis within 24 hours after diagnosis were analyzed retrospectively. Death or survival was limited to within 3 months after diagnosis. The mortality of all patients was 47.42%. Compared with the survival group, the age, basis of hepatocirrhosis, infection, degree of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and the levels of total bilirubin (TBil), total cholesterol (CHO), cholinesterase (CHE), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood creatinine (Cr), blood sodium ion (Na), peripheral blood leukocytes (WBC), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), international normalized ratio (INR) of blood coagulation and prothrombin time (PT) were significantly different in the group who died, but the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin (ALB) and hemoglobin (HGB) were not different between the two groups. At the same time, a regression model, Logit (P) =1.573XAge+1.338XHE-1.608XCHO+0.011XCr-0.109XNa+1.298XINR+11.057, was constructed by logistic regression analysis and the prognostic value of the model was higher than that of the MELD score. Multivariate analysis excels univariate analysis in the prognosis of chronic severe hepatitis, and the regression model is of significant value in the prognosis of this disease.

  14. Evaluation of concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury in rats using an empirical mathematical model and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging with Gd-EOB-DTPA.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Yuki; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Kobayashi, Shuichiro; Ogihara, Ryota; Koto, Daichi; Kitamura, Akihiro; Matsushita, Taro; Nishiura, Motoko; Murase, Kenya

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated concanavalin A (Con A)-induced acute hepatic injury in rats using an empirical mathematical model (EMM) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). We allocated 18 rats into 3 groups of six each and intravenously injected them with either 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of Con A (Con A [10] group), 20 mg/kg BW of Con A (Con A [20] group), or a single dose of of saline (4 mL/kg BW, normal control group). We performed the DCE-MRI studies using Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.025 mmol Gd/kg; 0.1 mL/kg BW) as the contrast agent 24 hours after injection of Con A or saline. We then sampled blood, measured serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and calculated the rate of contrast uptake (α), rate of contrast washout (β), area under the curve (AUC), time to maximum relative enhancement (RE) (T(max)), and elimination half-life of RE (T(1/2)) from the time-signal intensity curves using the EMM. β values were significantly smaller in the Con A (10) and Con A (20) groups than the control group, but α did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The AUC value was significantly greater in the Con A (10) group than controls, and the T(max) and T(1/2) values were significantly greater in the Con A (20) group than controls. The β, T(max), and T(1/2) values correlated significantly with AST and ALT. In conclusion, the EMM is useful for evaluating Con A-induced acute hepatic injury using DCE-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA.

  15. Hepatic venous occlusion causes more impairment after reperfusion compared with portal clamping in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sheng; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Qiyi; Li, Zhiwei; Shao, Yi; Chen, Hui; Zheng, Shusen

    2011-07-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR) has been extensively studied, but reperfusion after acute hepatic congestion caused by venous occlusion is poorly understood. Congestion/reperfusion (CR) is not uncommon with the development of partial liver transplantation and liver resection. The purpose of this study was to compare the impairments caused by acute hepatic CR or IR using a murine model. Mice were randomly divided into IR, CR, and a sham operation (SO) group. The portal vein and hepatic artery of the left anterior hepatic lobe (LAHL) were clamped in the IR group, while the hepatic vein of the LAHL was temporarily occluded in the CR Group. This occurred for 75 min followed by reperfusion. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 6, and 24h after reperfusion. Blood and liver samples were collected for hepatic function, histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), intravital microscopy, and real-time PCR analysis. Both IR and CR groups showed elevated liver function, histologic damage, cellular apoptosis, and microcirculatory dysfunction compared with the SO group. Compared with the IR group, the CR group revealed higher hepatic enzyme activities (ALT: 838.5 ± 155.6 versus 474.6 ± 123.8 P<0.05, AST: 792.5 ± 93.5 versus 574.8 ± 188.4 P<0.05), increased sinusoidal nonperfusion rate at 2h after reperfusion (27.4% ± 1.97% versus 23.8% ± 1.93%, P<0.05), and raised MPO level at 24h (0.34 ± 0.11 versus 0.15 ± 0.04, P<0.01). The mRNA levels of IL-1β at 6h and MCP-1 at 2 and 6h were markedly higher in the CR group than in the IR group. Hepatic reperfusion after acute congestion provokes an increased inflammatory response and causes more severe impairments in the liver compared with ischemia/reperfusion in a murine model. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of the ECHO® telementoring model for the treatment of patients with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Marciano, Sebastián; Haddad, Leila; Plazzotta, Fernando; Mauro, Ezequiel; Terraza, Sergio; Arora, Sanjeev; Thornton, Karla; Ríos, Beatriz; García Dans, Carlos; Ratusnu, Natalia; Calanni, Liliana; Allevato, José; Sirotinsky, María Ester; Pedrosa, Marcos; Gadano, Adrián

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to implement the Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) telementoring model for hepatitis C and to evaluate its outcomes in the health providers. Following the ECHO model, an hepatitis C teleECHO clinic was established at the Hospital Italiano in Argentina. The teleECHO clinic provides support and training to physicians from Patagonia who treat patients with hepatitis C. In order to evaluate the teleECHO clinic outcomes, physicians completed a survey focused on skills and competence in hepatitis C before and after 6 months of participating in the project. The survey consisted of 10 questions, which participants rated from 1 to 7 (1 no ability; 7 highest ability). To analyze the difference before and after participation in the project, Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. During the first 6 months of implementation of the model, a total of 14 physicians from 12 sites in Patagonia agreed to participate in the survey. The median age of the participants was 42 years. Participants' primary specialties were Hepatology (55%), Infectious Diseases (25%), General Practice (10%), and other (10%). A significant improvement was observed in all the evaluated fields after 6 month of the participation in the teleECHO clinic, namely fibrosis staging, determining appropriate candidates for treatment, and selecting appropriate HCV treatment. In addition, their general interest in hepatitis C increased. We successfully replicated and implemented the first teleECHO clinic in Argentina. Physicians improved their ability to provide best practice care for patients with Hepatitis C. J. Med. Virol. 89:660-664, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Transmission Dynamics and Optimal Control of Vaccination and Treatment for Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar; Heydari, Aghileh

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In this paper, we study the dynamics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which can be controlled by vaccination as well as treatment. Initially we consider constant controls for both vaccination and treatment. In the constant controls case, by determining the basic reproduction number, we study the existence and stability of the disease-free and endemic steady-state solutions of the model. Next, we take the controls as time and formulate the appropriate optimal control problem and obtain the optimal control strategy to minimize both the number of infectious humans and the associated costs. Finally at the end numerical simulation results show that optimal combination of vaccination and treatment is the most effective way to control hepatitis B virus infection. PMID:24812572

  18. Hepatic oxidative stress in an animal model of sleep apnoea: effects of different duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Darlan P; Martinez, Denis; Picada, Jaqueline N; Semedo, Juliane G; Marroni, Norma P

    2011-07-05

    Repeated apnoea events cause intermittent hypoxia (IH), which alters the function of various systems and produces free radicals and oxidative stress. We investigated hepatic oxidative stress in adult mice subjected to intermittent hypoxia, simulating sleep apnoea. Three groups were submitted to 21 days of IH (IH-21), 35 days of IH (IH-35), or 35 days of sham IH. We assessed the oxidative damage to lipids by TBARS and to DNA by comet assay; hepatic tissue inflammation was assessed in HE-stained slides. Antioxidants were gauged by catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase activity and by total glutathione. After IH-21, no significant change was observed in hepatic oxidative stress. After IH-35, significant oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and reduction of endogenous antioxidants were detected. In an animal model of sleep apnoea, intermittent hypoxia causes liver damage due to oxidative stress after 35 days, but not after 21 days.

  19. Dynamical modeling of liver Aquaporin-9 expression and glycerol permeability in hepatic glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gena, Patrizia; Buono, Nicoletta Del; D'Abbicco, Marcello; Mastrodonato, Maria; Berardi, Marco; Svelto, Maria; Lopez, Luciano; Calamita, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Liver is crucial in the homeostasis of glycerol, an important metabolic intermediate. Plasma glycerol is imported by hepatocytes mainly through Aquaporin-9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin channel negatively regulated by insulin in rodents. AQP9 is of critical importance in glycerol metabolism since hepatic glycerol utilization is rate-limited at the hepatocyte membrane permeation step. Glycerol kinase catalyzes the initial step for the conversion of the imported glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate, a major substrate for de novo synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and/or triacyglycerols (lipogenesis). A model addressing the glucose-insulin system to describe the hepatic glycerol import and metabolism and the correlation with the glucose homeostasis is lacking so far. Here we consider a system of first-order ordinary differential equations delineating the relevance of hepatocyte AQP9 in liver glycerol permeability. Assuming the hepatic glycerol permeability as depending on the protein levels of AQP9, a mathematical function is designed describing the time course of the involvement of AQP9 in mouse hepatic glycerol metabolism in different nutritional states. The resulting theoretical relationship is derived fitting experimental data obtained with murine models at the fed, fasted or re-fed condition. While providing useful insights into the dynamics of liver AQP9 involvement in male rodent glycerol homeostasis our model may be adapted to the human liver serving as an important module of a whole body-model of the glucose metabolism both in health and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. In Vivo MRI Assessment of Hepatic and Splenic Disease in a Murine Model of Schistosmiasis

    PubMed Central

    Laprie, Caroline; Dessein, Helia; Bernard, Monique; Dessein, Alain; Viola, Angèle

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis (or bilharzia), a major parasitic disease, affects more than 260 million people worldwide. In chronic cases of intestinal schistosomiasis caused by trematodes of the Schistosoma genus, hepatic fibrosis develops as a host immune response to the helminth eggs, followed by potentially lethal portal hypertension. In this study, we characterized hepatic and splenic features of a murine model of intestinal schistosomiasis using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated the transverse relaxation time T2 as a non-invasive imaging biomarker for monitoring hepatic fibrogenesis. Methodology/Principal Findings CBA/J mice were imaged at 11.75T two, six and ten weeks after percutaneous infection with Schistosoma mansoni. In vivo imaging studies were completed with histology at the last two time points. Anatomical MRI allowed detection of typical manifestations of the intestinal disease such as significant hepato- and splenomegaly, and dilation of the portal vein as early as six weeks, with further aggravation at 10 weeks after infection. Liver multifocal lesions observed by MRI in infected animals at 10 weeks post infection corresponded to granulomatous inflammation and intergranulomatous fibrosis with METAVIR scores up to A2F2. While most healthy hepatic tissue showed T2 values below 14 ms, these lesions were characterized by a T2 greater than 16 ms. The area fraction of increased T2 correlated (rS = 0.83) with the area fraction of Sirius Red stained collagen in histological sections. A continuous liver T2* decrease was also measured while brown pigments in macrophages were detected at histology. These findings suggest accumulation of hematin in infected livers. Conclusions/Significance Our multiparametric MRI approach confirms that this murine model replicates hepatic and splenic manifestations of human intestinal schistosomiasis. Quantitative T2 mapping proved sensitive to assess liver fibrogenesis non-invasively and may therefore

  1. Mir-338-3p Mediates Tnf-A-Induced Hepatic Insulin Resistance by Targeting PP4r1 to Regulate PP4 Expression.

    PubMed

    Dou, Lin; Wang, Shuyue; Sun, Libo; Huang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Tao; Guo, Jun; Man, Yong; Tang, Weiqing; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a critical factor contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases. Recent studies have indicated that miR-338-3p plays an important role in cancer. Here, we investigated whether miR-338-3p mediates tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced hepatic insulin resistance. The activation of the insulin signalling pathway and the level of glycogenesis were examined in the livers of the db/db and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in HEP1-6 cells transfected with miR-338-3p mimic or inhibitor. Computational prediction of microRNA target, luciferase assay and Western blot were used to assess the miR-338-3p target. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to determine the transcriptional regulator of miR-338-3p. miR-338-3p was down-regulated in the livers of the db/db, HFD-fed and TNF-α-treated C57BL/6J mice, as well as in mouse HEP1-6 hepatocytes treated with TNF-α. Importantly the down-regulation of miR-338-3p induced insulin resistance, as indicated by impaired glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Further research showed that the down-regulated miR-338-3p resulted in the impaired AKT/ glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSl·Gβ) signalling pathway and glycogen synthesis. In contrast, hepatic over-expression of miR-338-3p rescued the TNF-α-induced insulin resistance. Moreover, protein phosphatase 4 regulator subunit 1 (PP4R1) was identified as a direct target of miR-338-3p that mediated hepatic insulin signalling by regulating protein phosphatase 4 (PP4). Finally we identified hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4α) as the transcriptional regulator of miRNA-338-3p. Our studies provide novel insight into the critical role and molecular mechanism by which miR-338-3p is involved in TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance. miR-338-3p might mediate TNF-α-induced hepatic insulin resistance by targeting PP4R1 to regulate PP4 expression. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Grace L; Nguyen, Hannah H; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Fisher, Dennis G; Odell, Anne; Xandre, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Adult vaccination compliance rates vary according to sample and type of vaccine administered (influenza, pneumococcal). This study looked at vaccination of a community sample of low-income, minority adults. Nurses offered free vaccination for hepatitis A and B in the form of the combined Twinrix vaccine to adults on a walk-in basis. In addition to dosing information, participants completed the Risk Behavior Assessment, the Coping Strategies Indicator and the Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Skaff's extended Health Belief Model was used as the theoretical framework. Count regression was used to model receipt of one, two, or three doses. The majority of participants were male with a mean age of 40 years. The distribution of doses was: 173 individuals (27.6%) received one dose only, 261 (41.7%) received two doses, and 191 (30.5%) received three doses of vaccine. The multivariate count regression model including being male, having previously been told by a health care provider that one has syphilis, having severe negative emotions, and perceived social support were associated with participants' receiving fewer doses of hepatitis vaccine. A greater problem-solving score was associated with a higher number of vaccine doses received. Despite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quantitative proteomics identifies host factors modulated during acute hepatitis E virus infection in the swine model.

    PubMed

    Rogée, Sophie; Le Gall, Morgane; Chafey, Philippe; Bouquet, Jérôme; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Frederici, Christian; Pavio, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute enterically transmitted hepatitis. In industrialized countries, it is a zoonotic disease, with swine being the major reservoir of human HEV contamination. The occurrence and severity of the disease are variable, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute hepatitis, chronic infection, or fulminant hepatitis. In the absence of a robust cell culture system or small-animal models, the HEV life cycle and pathological process remain unclear. To characterize HEV pathogenesis and virulence mechanisms, a quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out to identify cellular factors and pathways modulated during acute infection of swine. Three groups of pigs were inoculated with three different strains of swine HEV to evaluate the possible role of viral determinants in pathogenesis. Liver samples were analyzed by a differential proteomic approach, two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, and 61 modulated proteins were identified by mass spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the three HEV strains replicate similarly in swine and that they modulate several cellular pathways, suggesting that HEV impairs several cellular processes, which can account for the various types of disease expression. Several proteins, such as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, apolipoprotein E, and prohibitin, known to be involved in other viral life cycles, were upregulated in HEV-infected livers. Some differences were observed between the three strains, suggesting that HEV's genetic variability may induce variations in pathogenesis. This comparative analysis of the liver proteome modulated during infection with three different strains of HEV genotype 3 provides an important basis for further investigations on the factors involved in HEV replication and the mechanism of HEV pathogenesis. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for acute hepatitis, with clinical symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to self

  4. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bình Dương Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Hepatitis C What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes ... can cure most cases of hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C Acute hepatitis C is a short-term infection. ...

  5. Nanovaccine for immunotherapy and reduced hepatitis-B virus in humanized model.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Hitesh Kumar; Pandey, Tarun; Singh, Sanjay

    2017-11-27

    Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infections are severe with weak antiviral immune responses. The lack of an appropriate small animal model for chronic hepatitis, a major hurdle for studying the immunotolerance and immunopathogenesis induced by hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection. In this study, for enhancing the antibody production efficiency the prepared polymeric HBsAg-loaded nanoparticles (nanovaccine) will be tested in immune-deficit mice, which suffer from chronic Hepatitis B virus. Vaccination of Balb/c mice by this prepared nanoparticles that were engrafted with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), which was already lethally irradiated and transplanted by the bone marrow of NOD (knockout mice) mice. In the present study, after the vaccination detected the high frequencies of immunoglobulin G (IgG)-secreting B cells and mitogen-responsive interferon-Y (IFN-Y) secreting T cells in serum, determined by specific ELISA technique. During the entire observation period, unvaccinated animals showed lower concentration of specific IgG secreting B cells and IFN-Y secreting T cells found in comparison to vaccinated mice group. Chronic HBV carrier PBMCs transplanted into the chimera failed to produce antigen and increased the antibodies production due to vaccination. Furthermore, another advantage was that the viral gene expression and viral DNA replication was no longer observed in vaccinated group. This prepared nanovaccine formulations is better for the cure of Hepatitis B viral infection carrier. Therefore, specific memory responses were elicited by vaccination with Hepatitis B virus surface (HBsAg) antigen of chimeric mice transplanted with PBMCs derived from HBV donors.

  6. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Kathleen M.; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd; Kreps, Meagan N.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Blossom, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+ mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+ mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. PMID:25026505

  7. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathleen M; Reisfeld, Brad; Zurlinden, Todd J; Kreps, Meagan N; Erickson, Stephen W; Blossom, Sarah J

    2014-09-15

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL+/+mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL+/+mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed. A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and replication.

    PubMed

    MacArthur, Kristin L; Wu, Catherine H; Wu, George Y

    2012-06-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) hepatitis, initially termed non-A, non-B hepatitis, has become one of the leading causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. With the help of animal models, our understanding of the virus has grown substantially from the time of initial discovery. There is a paucity of available animal models for the study of HCV, mainly because of the selective susceptibility limited to humans and primates. Recent work has focused modification of animals to permit HCV entry, replication and transmission. In this review, we highlight the currently available models for the study of HCV including chimpanzees, tupaia, mouse and rat models. Discussion will include methods of model design as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each model. Particular focus is dedicated to knowledge of pathophysiologic mechanisms of HCV infection that have been elucidated through animal studies. Research within animal models is critically important to establish a complete understanding of HCV infection, which will ultimately form the basis for future treatments and prevention of disease.

  9. A preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic guided microwave ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guo-Bao; Xiang, Zhan-Wang; Yang, Bin; Xue, Jing-Bing; Mo, Zhi-Qiang; Zhong, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Fu-Jun; Fan, Wei-Jun

    2016-05-03

    This study sought to prospectively evaluate the feasibility and safety of a preoperative mathematic model for computed tomographic(CT) guided microwave(MW) ablation treatment of hepatic dome tumors. This mathematic model was a regular cylinder quantifying appropriate puncture routes from the bottom up. A total of 103 patients with hepatic dome tumors were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups based on whether this model was used or not: Group A (using the model; n = 43) versus Group B (not using the model; n = 60). All tumors were treated by CT-guided MW ablation and follow-up contrast CT were reviewed. The average number of times for successful puncture, average ablation time, and incidence of right shoulder pain were less in Group A than Group B (1.4 vs. 2.5, P = 0.001; 8.8 vs. 11.1 minutes, P = 0.003; and 4.7% vs. 20%, P = 0.039). The technical success rate was higher in Group A than Group B (97.7% vs. 85.0%, P = 0.032). There were no significant differences between the two groups in primary and secondary technique efficacy rates (97.7% vs. 88.3%, P = 0.081; 90.0% vs. 72.7%, P = 0.314). No major complications occurred in both groups. The mathematic model of regular cylinder is feasible and safe for CT-guided MW ablation in treating hepatic dome tumors.

  10. Intracellular hepatitis C modeling predicts infection dynamics and viral protein mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aunins, Thomas R; Marsh, Katherine A; Subramanya, Gitanjali; Uprichard, Susan L; Perelson, Alan S; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2018-03-21

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem, with nearly 2 million new infections occurring every year and up to 85% of these becoming chronic infections that pose serious long-term health risks. To effectively reduce the prevalence of HCV infection and associated diseases, it is important to understand the intracellular dynamics of the viral lifecycle. Here, we present a detailed mathematical model that represents the full hepatitis C lifecycle. It is the first full HCV model to be fit to acute intracellular infection data and the first to explore the functions of distinct viral proteins, probing multiple hypotheses of cis - and trans -acting mechanisms to provide insights for drug targeting. Model parameters were derived from the literature, experiments, and fitting to experimental intracellular viral RNA, extracellular viral titer, and HCV core and NS3 protein kinetic data from viral inoculation to steady-state. Our model predicts faster rates for protein translation and polyprotein cleavage than previous replicon models and demonstrates that the processes of translation and synthesis of viral RNA have the most influence on the levels of the species we tracked in experiments. Overall, our experimental data and the resulting mathematical infection model reveal information about the regulation of core protein during infection, produce specific insights into the roles of the viral core, NS5A, and NS5B proteins, and demonstrate the sensitivities of viral proteins and RNA to distinct reactions within the lifecycle. IMPORTANCE We have designed a model for the full lifecycle of hepatitis C virus. Past efforts have largely focused on modeling hepatitis C replicon systems, in which transfected subgenomic HCV RNA maintains autonomous replication in the absence of virion production or spread. We started with the general structure of these previous replicon models and expanded to create a model that incorporates the full virus lifecycle as well as additional

  11. Immunopathogenic Mechanisms of Autoimmune Hepatitis: How Much Do We Know from Animal Models?

    PubMed Central

    Christen, Urs; Hintermann, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is characterized by a progressive destruction of the liver parenchyma and a chronic fibrosis. The current treatment of autoimmune hepatitis is still largely dependent on the administration of corticosteroids and cytostatic drugs. For a long time the development of novel therapeutic strategies has been hampered by a lack of understanding the basic immunopathogenic mechanisms of AIH and the absence of valid animal models. However, in the past decade, knowledge from clinical observations in AIH patients and the development of innovative animal models have led to a situation where critical factors driving the disease have been identified and alternative treatments are being evaluated. Here we will review the insight on the immunopathogenesis of AIH as gained from clinical observation and from animal models. PMID:27916939

  12. Increased hepatic ABCA1 transporter is associated with hypercholesterolemia in a cholestatic rat model and primary biliary cholangitis patients.

    PubMed

    Takeyama, Yasuaki; Uehara, Yuko; Anan, Akira; Morihara, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Keiji; Takata, Kazuhide; Tanaka, Takashi; Irie, Makoto; Iwata, Kaoru; Shakado, Satoshi; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro

    2017-12-01

    Hepatic ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transporter is the modulator of intrahepatic cholesterol levels via the efflux of cholesterol into plasma. This study aimed to determine the expression of hepatic ABCA1 levels in a cholestatic rat model and patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). A cholesterol efflux study was conducted with Abca1 knock down using siRNA in WIF9 cells. Cholesterol levels in the ABCA1 siRNA cells in the medium were significantly decreased compared with those in controls (P < 0.05). Hepatic ABCA1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in BDL rats than in control rats (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the protein expression level of hepatic ABCA1 was also significantly increased by 200% in BDL rats (P < 0.05). In PBC patients, expression of hepatic ABCA1 mRNA was 2.2-fold higher than that in controls (P < 0.05). The level of hepatic liver X receptor (LXR)β mRNA was correlated with ABCA1 mRNA levels in PBC patients. The expression of hepatic ABCA1 transporter was upregulated in both the cholestatic rat model and PBC patients. Upregulated hepatic ABCA1 may lead to efflux of cholesterol into plasma, thus explaining the mechanism of cholestasis leading to hypercholesterolemia.

  13. Concanavalin A-induced posterior subcapsular cataract: a new model of cataractogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gwon, A; Mantras, C; Gruber, L; Cunanan, C

    1993-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of Concanavalin A (Con A) on cataract formation in New Zealand Albino rabbits. Uveitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the eye involving the anterior and/or posterior segments. It may be acute or chronic and is associated with the development of posterior subscapular cataract over time. Con A is a nonspecific inflammatory agent and mitogen for T cells and some B cells. Used extensively in immunogenic studies Con A has been shown to induce uveitis after intravitreal injection in New Zealand Albino rabbits. In two separate studies, Con A was injected intracamerally or intravitreally into one eye of 12 New Zealand Albino rabbits and an equal volume of balanced salt solution was injected into the opposite eye as a control. In a third study, the effect of topical steroids after intravitreal injection of Con A was evaluated. In all studies, anterior and posterior inflammation and the development of cataract was monitored by slit lamp biomicroscopy and photography. Cataract formation was also studied histopathologically. Initially, all eyes treated with Con A demonstrated moderate anterior chamber inflammation while eyes treated with balanced salt solution showed no inflammation. Three months after treatment, posterior subcapsular cataracts were present in all rabbit eyes treated with intravitreal Con A. In the third study, topical steroid treatment of Con A-induced inflammation significantly reduced anterior chamber inflammation but had no effect on vitreous humor and posterior subcapsular cataract formation. This experimental model was the first to demonstrate the development of posterior subcapsular cataracts after Con-A induced inflammation. The cataract was clinically and histologically similar to human posterior subscapular cataracts.

  14. Modeling toxicodynamic effects of trichloroethylene on liver in mouse model of autoimmune hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Kathleen M., E-mail: gilbertkathleenm@uams.edu; Reisfeld, Brad, E-mail: brad.reisfeld@colostate.edu; Zurlinden, Todd J., E-mail: tjzurlin@rams.colostate.edu

    2014-09-15

    Chronic exposure to industrial solvent and water pollutant trichloroethylene (TCE) in female MRL +/+ mice generates disease similar to human autoimmune hepatitis. The current study was initiated to investigate why TCE-induced autoimmunity targeted the liver. Compared to other tissues the liver has an unusually robust capacity for repair and regeneration. This investigation examined both time-dependent and dose-dependent effects of TCE on hepatoprotective and pro-inflammatory events in liver and macrophages from female MRL +/+ mice. After a 12-week exposure to TCE in drinking water a dose-dependent decrease in macrophage production of IL-6 at both the transcriptional and protein level was observed.more » A longitudinal study similarly showed that TCE inhibited macrophage IL-6 production. In terms of the liver, TCE had little effect on expression of pro-inflammatory genes (Tnfa, Saa2 or Cscl1) until the end of the 40-week exposure. Instead, TCE suppressed hepatic expression of genes involved in IL-6 signaling (Il6r, gp130, and Egr1). Linear regression analysis confirmed liver histopathology in the TCE-treated mice correlated with decreased expression of Il6r. A toxicodynamic model was developed to estimate the effects of TCE on IL-6 signaling and liver pathology under different levels of exposure and rates of repair. This study underlined the importance of longitudinal studies in mechanistic evaluations of immuntoxicants. It showed that later-occurring liver pathology caused by TCE was associated with early suppression of hepatoprotection rather than an increase in conventional pro-inflammatory events. This information was used to create a novel toxicodynamic model of IL-6-mediated TCE-induced liver inflammation. - Highlights: • We developed a toxicodynamic model to study effects of trichloroethylene on liver. • We examined protective as well as pro-inflammatory events in the liver. • Trichloroethylene inhibits IL-6 production by macrophages.

  15. Polythiol-containing, recombinant mannosylated-albumin is a superior CD68+/CD206+ Kupffer cell-targeted nanoantioxidant for treatment of two acute hepatitis models.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hitoshi; Hirata, Kenshiro; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Inatsu, Akihito; Kinoshita, Manabu; Tanaka, Motohiko; Sasaki, Yutaka; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2015-02-01

    Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Kupffer cells (KC), especially CD68(+) KC, play a key role in the induction of hepatic oxidative stress and injuries, we developed a polythiolated- and mannosylated human serum albumin (SH-Man-HSA), which functions as a novel nanoantioxidant for delivering thiol to CD68(+) KC. In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance coupled with pharmacokinetics and immunohistochemical studies showed that SH-Man-HSA possessed powerful radical-scavenging activity and rapidly and selectively delivered thiols to the liver via mannose receptor (CD206) on CD68(+) cells. SH-Man-HSA significantly improved the survival rate of concanavalin-A (Con-A)-treated mice. Moreover, SH-Man-HSA exhibited excellent hepatoprotective functions, not by decreasing tumor necrosis factor or interferon-γ production that is closely associated with Con-A-induced hepatitis, but by suppressing ROS production. Interestingly, the protective effect of SH-Man-HSA was superior to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). This could be attributed to the difference in the inhibition of hepatic oxidative stress between the two antioxidants depending on their potential for thiol delivery to the liver. Similar results were also observed for acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatopathy models. Flow cytometric data further confirmed that an increase in F4/80(+)/ROS(+) cells was dramatically decreased by SH-Man-HSA. The administration of SH-Man-HSA at 4 hours following a Con-A or APAP injection also exhibited a profound hepatoprotective action against these hepatitis models, whereas this was not observed for NAC. It can be concluded therefore that SH-Man-HSA has great potential for use in a rescue therapy for hepatopathy as a nanoantioxidant because of its ability to efficiently and rapidly deliver thiols to CD68(+)/CD206(+) KC. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Animal models of fulminant hepatic failure: a critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Newsome, P N; Plevris, J N; Nelson, L J; Hayes, P C

    2000-01-01

    Few conditions in medicine are more dramatic or more devastating than acute liver failure. Our understanding and treatment of this condition have been limited by the lack of satisfactory animal models. The most widely used models consist of surgical anhepatic and devascularization procedures and hepatotoxins, such as galactosamine and acetaminophen. Potential disadvantages with surgical models are their inability to recreate the inflammatory milieu that exists in acute liver failure and their reliance on surgical expertise. Models using hepatotoxins are free of such constraints. Galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity is more predictable than acetaminophen, but its cost and lack of a human equivalent clinical syndrome has restricted its use. Acetaminophen-based models offer the greatest potential but have proven the most difficult to develop because of difficulties with reproducibility and refractory anemia. Although progress has been made, research must continue in this area to establish an animal model with minimal disadvantages that would accurately reflect the clinical syndrome seen in humans.

  17. Application of zero-inflated poisson mixed models in prognostic factors of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Pourhoseingholi, Asma; Zayeri, Farid; Jafari, Ali Akbar; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a major public health problem. Evaluation of risk factors is one of the solutions which help protect people from the infection. This study aims to employ zero-inflated Poisson mixed models to evaluate prognostic factors of hepatitis C. The data was collected from a longitudinal study during 2005-2010. First, mixed Poisson regression (PR) model was fitted to the data. Then, a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was fitted with compound Poisson random effects. For evaluating the performance of the proposed mixed model, standard errors of estimators were compared. The results obtained from mixed PR showed that genotype 3 and treatment protocol were statistically significant. Results of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model showed that age, sex, genotypes 2 and 3, the treatment protocol, and having risk factors had significant effects on viral load of HCV patients. Of these two models, the estimators of zero-inflated Poisson mixed model had the minimum standard errors. The results showed that a mixed zero-inflated Poisson model was the almost best fit. The proposed model can capture serial dependence, additional overdispersion, and excess zeros in the longitudinal count data.

  18. Costs of a public health model to increase receipt of hepatitis-related services for persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eric P; Rosenberg, Stanley; Dixon, Lisa B; Goldberg, Richard W; Wolford, George L; Himelhoch, Seth; Tapscott, Stephanie

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the costs and impact on receipt of hepatitis and HIV testing and hepatitis immunization services of a public health intervention model that was designed for use by persons with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Between 2006 and 2008, a random sample of 202 nonelderly, predominantly African-American males with a psychotic or major depressive disorder and a co-occurring substance use disorder was recruited at four community mental health outpatient programs in a large metropolitan area. Participants were randomly assigned at each site to enhanced treatment as usual (N=97), including education about blood-borne diseases and referrals for testing and vaccinations, or to an experimental intervention (N=105) that provided on-site infectious disease education, screening of risk level, pretest counseling, testing for HIV and hepatitis B and C, vaccination for hepatitis A and B, and personalized risk-reduction counseling. The authors compared the two study groups to assess the average costs of improving hepatitis and HIV testing and hepatitis A and B vaccination in this population. The average cost per participant was $423 for the intervention and $24 for the comparison condition (t=52.7, df=201, p<.001). The costs per additional person tested was $706 for hepatitis C, $776 for hepatitis B, and $3,630 for HIV, and the cost per additional person vaccinated for hepatitis was $561. Delivery of hepatitis and HIV public health services to persons with serious mental illness in outpatient mental health settings can be as cost-effective as similar interventions for other at-risk populations.

  19. Role of adipose triglyceride lipase (PNPLA2) in protection from hepatic inflammation in mouse models of steatohepatitis and endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pooja; Claudel, Thierry; Baghdasaryan, Anna; Mueller, Michaela; Halilbasic, Emina; Das, Suman K; Lass, Achim; Zimmermann, Robert; Zechner, Rudolf; Hoefler, Gerald; Trauner, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Hepatic inflammation is a key feature of progressive liver disease. Alterations of fatty acid (FA) metabolism and signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Moreover, FAs activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) as a key transcriptional regulator of hepatic FA metabolism and inflammation. Since adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2) is the key enzyme for intracellular hydrolysis of stored triglycerides and determines FA signaling through PPARα, we explored the role of ATGL in hepatic inflammation in mouse models of NASH and endotoxemia. Mice lacking ATGL or hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were challenged with a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet as a nutritional model of NASH or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a model of acute hepatic inflammation. We further tested whether a PPARα agonist (fenofibrate) treatment improves the hepatic phenotype in MCD- or LPS-challenged ATGL-knockout (KO) mice. MCD-fed ATGL-KO mice, although partially protected from peripheral lipolysis, showed exacerbated hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Moreover, ATGL-KO mice challenged by LPS showed enhanced hepatic inflammation, increased mortality, and torpor, findings which were attributed to impaired PPARα DNA binding activity due to reduced FABP1 protein levels, resulting in impaired nuclear FA import. Notably, liganding PPARα through fenofibrate attenuated hepatic inflammation in both MCD-fed and LPS-treated ATGL-KO mice. In contrast, mice lacking HSL had a phenotype similar to the WT mice on MCD and LPS challenge. These findings unravel a novel protective role of ATGL against hepatic inflammation which could have important implications for metabolic and inflammatory liver diseases. © 2014 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  20. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Presentation of a modified dispersion model (MDM) for hepatic drug extraction and a new methodology for the prediction of the rate-limiting step in hepatic metabolic clearance.

    PubMed

    Fagerholm, U

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives were to investigate the roles of and interplay between determinants of hepatic clearance (CL(H)) in humans, to develop a methodology and reference system for the evaluation and prediction of the rate-limiting step in CL(H), and to update the dispersion model and compare it with traditionally used liver extraction models. The new methodology enables predictions of the hepatic uptake and CL(H), dissociation, and rate-limiting step. In general, absorption, dissociation and diffusion are comparably rapid processes, and metabolism is rate-limiting. The liver appears to have a high passive uptake capacity. The Modified Dispersion Model (MDM) has a dispersion number of 0.5 and a distribution factor (df = 0.87) for the correction of a longer hepatic transit time of unbound molecules and the exclusion of the hidden unbound fraction within erythrocytes. Liver models are functionally equivalent at low CL(H), but differ for highly extracted compounds. Well-stirred and parallel-tube models demonstrate the greatest difference in performance, for example, 6- and 800,000-fold differences in the estimated in vivo intrinsic CL(H) and predicted oral bioavailability of the high CL(H) drug naloxone, respectively. The roles of and interplay between determinants of CL(H) have been further clarified and can now be better predicted. Apparent advantages with the MDM include its scientific rationale and intermediate/ balanced performance.

  2. Modeling Inborn Errors of Hepatic Metabolism Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pournasr, Behshad; Duncan, Stephen A

    2017-11-01

    Inborn errors of hepatic metabolism are because of deficiencies commonly within a single enzyme as a consequence of heritable mutations in the genome. Individually such diseases are rare, but collectively they are common. Advances in genome-wide association studies and DNA sequencing have helped researchers identify the underlying genetic basis of such diseases. Unfortunately, cellular and animal models that accurately recapitulate these inborn errors of hepatic metabolism in the laboratory have been lacking. Recently, investigators have exploited molecular techniques to generate induced pluripotent stem cells from patients' somatic cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into a wide variety of cell types, including hepatocytes, thereby offering an innovative approach to unravel the mechanisms underlying inborn errors of hepatic metabolism. Moreover, such cell models could potentially provide a platform for the discovery of therapeutics. In this mini-review, we present a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in using pluripotent stem cells for such studies. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Hepatitis C virus evasion of adaptive immune responses: a model for viral persistence.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kelly P; Cox, Andrea L

    2010-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 170 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 20% [corrected] of those acutely infected clear the infection, whereas the remaining 80% [corrected] progress to chronic infection. Hepatitis C thus provides a model in which successful and unsuccessful responses can be compared to better understand the human response to viral infection. Our laboratory studies the strategies by which HCV evades the adaptive immune response. This review describes the impact of viral mutation on T cell recognition, the role of cell surface inhibitory receptors in recognition of HCV, and the development of antibodies that neutralize HCV infection. Understanding what constitutes an effective immune response in the control of HCV may enable the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HCV and other chronic viral infections.

  4. Quantifying the Contribution of the Liver to Glucose Homeostasis: A Detailed Kinetic Model of Human Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    König, Matthias; Bulik, Sascha; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of the liver in glucose homeostasis, a detailed mathematical model of human hepatic glucose metabolism is lacking so far. Here we present a detailed kinetic model of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in human hepatocytes integrated with the hormonal control of these pathways by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. Model simulations are in good agreement with experimental data on (i) the quantitative contributions of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism to hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization under varying physiological states. (ii) the time courses of postprandial glycogen storage as well as glycogen depletion in overnight fasting and short term fasting (iii) the switch from net hepatic glucose production under hypoglycemia to net hepatic glucose utilization under hyperglycemia essential for glucose homeostasis (iv) hormone perturbations of hepatic glucose metabolism. Response analysis reveals an extra high capacity of the liver to counteract changes of plasma glucose level below 5 mM (hypoglycemia) and above 7.5 mM (hyperglycemia). Our model may serve as an important module of a whole-body model of human glucose metabolism and as a valuable tool for understanding the role of the liver in glucose homeostasis under normal conditions and in diseases like diabetes or glycogen storage diseases. PMID:22761565

  5. Fulminant liver failure model with hepatic encephalopathy in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Tomohide; Chen, Feng; Baine, Ann-Marie T.; Gardner, Lindsay B.; Nguyen, Justin H.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To develop a reliable murine model for fulminant liver failure (FLF). Material and Methods We treated three groups of male C57BL/6 mice:as controls, with azoxymethane (AOM), and with galactosamine (Gal) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). Effects of body temperature (BT) control on survival, in all three groups were investigated. Using BT control, survival, histopathological findings and biochemical/coagulation profiles were compared between the experimental groups. Effects of hydration on international normalized ratios of prothrombin time (PT-INR) were also checked. Dose-dependent survival curves were made for both experimental groups. Neurological behaviors were assessed using a coma scale. Results No unexpected BT effects were seen in the control group. The AOM group, but not the Gal+TNFα group, showed significant differences in survival curves between those with and without BT care. Histopathological assessment showed consistent FLF findings in both experimental groups with BT care. Between the experimental groups, there were significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase levels and PT-INR; and significant differences in PT-INRs between sufficiently- and insufficiently-hydrated groups. There were significant differences between FLF models, in the duration of each coma stage, with significant differences in stages 1 and 3 as percentages of the diseased state (stages 1-4). The two FLF models with BT care showed different survival curves in the dose-dependent survival study. Conclusion Azoxymethane can provide a good FLF model, but requires a specialized environment and careful BT control. Other FLF models may also be useful, depending on research purpose. Thoughtful attention to caregiving and close observation are indispensable for successful FLF models. PMID:24713795

  6. Extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. inhibits hepatitis B virus replication and expression in hepatitis B virus transfection model in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Lu, Ying; Li, Shu-yu; Song, Yue-han; Hao, Yu; Wang, Qian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effects of the extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression in HBV transient transfection model in vitro. The eukaryotic expression plasmid pHBV1.1, which contains 1.1-fold-overlength genome of HBV, was transfected into the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, to establish and assess the HBV transient transfection model. The extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. was prepared in different concentrations and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium was used to detect the maximum nontoxic concentration of the drug. The extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. were added into the transfected cell, at the concentrations of 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 g/L, respectively. Four days after drug application, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect the concentration of HBsAg in the supernatants, Southern blot was applied to analyze HBV DNA level, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of HBcAg in cells. After the transfection of plasmid pHBV1.1 into HepG2 cells, the concentration of HBsAg in supernatants was increased obviously as compared with that of the normal cells (P<0.05), and all expected HBV replicative intermediates were confirmed by Southern blot analysis, which ensured the successful establishment of the HBV transient transfection model. After the application of drugs at the concentrations of 0.8 and 0.2 g/L, the level of HBsAg was obviously decreased in the supernatants, as compared with that of the virus group (P<0.05); Southern blot showed that the level of HBV rc DNA, ds DNA, ss DNA was obviously reduced compared with that of the virus group (P<0.01); Western blot revealed that the expression of HBcAg in the drug group was obviously inhibited, as compared with that of the virus group (P<0.01). The extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. obviously inhibited replication and expression of HBV in HBV transfected cell lines in vitro, thus exerting distinctive anti-HBV effects.

  7. An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Tuñón, María-Jesús; Alvarez, Marcelino; Culebras, Jesús-M; González-Gallego, Javier

    2009-07-07

    Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy which causes multiorgan failure with an extremely high mortality rate, even if intensive care is provided. Management of severe AHF continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. Liver transplantation has been shown to be the most effective therapy, but the procedure is limited by shortage of donor organs. Although a number of clinical trials testing different liver assist devices are under way, these systems alone have no significant effect on patient survival and are only regarded as a useful approach to bridge patients with AHF to liver transplantation. As a result, reproducible experimental animal models resembling the clinical conditions are still needed. The three main approaches used to create an animal model for AHF are: surgical procedures, toxic liver injury and infective procedures. Most common models are based on surgical techniques (total/partial hepatectomy, complete/transient devascularization) or the use of hepatotoxic drugs (acetaminophen, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and others), and very few satisfactory viral models are available. We have recently developed a viral model of AHF by means of the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical and histological characteristics, and clinical features that resemble those in human AHF. In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed.

  8. An overview of animal models for investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in acute hepatic failure

    PubMed Central

    Tuñón, María Jesús; Alvarez, Marcelino; Culebras, Jesús M; González-Gallego, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Acute hepatic failure (AHF) is a severe liver injury accompanied by hepatic encephalopathy which causes multiorgan failure with an extremely high mortality rate, even if intensive care is provided. Management of severe AHF continues to be one of the most challenging problems in clinical medicine. Liver transplantation has been shown to be the most effective therapy, but the procedure is limited by shortage of donor organs. Although a number of clinical trials testing different liver assist devices are under way, these systems alone have no significant effect on patient survival and are only regarded as a useful approach to bridge patients with AHF to liver transplantation. As a result, reproducible experimental animal models resembling the clinical conditions are still needed. The three main approaches used to create an animal model for AHF are: surgical procedures, toxic liver injury and infective procedures. Most common models are based on surgical techniques (total/partial hepatectomy, complete/transient devascularization) or the use of hepatotoxic drugs (acetaminophen, galactosamine, thioacetamide, and others), and very few satisfactory viral models are available. We have recently developed a viral model of AHF by means of the inoculation of rabbits with the virus of rabbit hemorrhagic disease. This model displays biochemical and histological characteristics, and clinical features that resemble those in human AHF. In the present article an overview is given of the most widely used animal models of AHF, and their main advantages and disadvantages are reviewed. PMID:19575487

  9. Modelling hepatitis C therapy—predicting effects of treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Perelson, Alan S.; Guedj, Jeremie

    2015-06-30

    Mathematically modelling changes in HCV RNA levels measured in patients who receive antiviral therapy has yielded many insights into the pathogenesis and effects of treatment on the virus. By determining how rapidly HCV is cleared when viral replication is interrupted by a therapy, one can deduce how rapidly the virus is produced in patients before treatment. This knowledge, coupled with estimates of the HCV mutation rate, enables one to estimate the frequency with which drug resistant variants arise. Modelling HCV also permits the deduction of the effectiveness of an antiviral agent at blocking HCV replication from the magnitude of themore » initial viral decline. One can also estimate the lifespan of an HCV-infected cell from the slope of the subsequent viral decline and determine the duration of therapy needed to cure infection. The original understanding of HCV RNA decline under interferon-based therapies obtained by modelling needed to be revised in order to interpret the HCV RNA decline kinetics seen when using direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In addition, there also exist unresolved issues involving understanding therapies with combinations of DAAs, such as the presence of detectable HCV RNA at the end of therapy in patients who nonetheless have a sustained virologic response.« less

  10. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Chirehwa, Maxwell T.; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mthiyane, Thuli; Onyebujoh, Philip; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Rifampin is a key sterilizing drug in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It induces its own metabolism, but neither the onset nor the extent of autoinduction has been adequately described. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends a rifampin dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight, which is believed to be suboptimal, and higher doses may potentially improve treatment outcomes. However, a nonlinear increase in exposure may be observed because of saturation of hepatic extraction and hence this should be taken into consideration when a dose increase is implemented. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 61 HIV-TB-coinfected patients in South Africa were collected at four visits, on days 1, 8, 15, and 29, after initiation of treatment. Data were analyzed by population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Rifampin PKs were best described by using a transit compartment absorption and a well-stirred liver model with saturation of hepatic extraction, including a first-pass effect. Autoinduction was characterized by using an exponential-maturation model: hepatic clearance almost doubled from the baseline to steady state, with a half-life of around 4.5 days. The model predicts that increases in the dose of rifampin result in more-than-linear drug exposure increases as measured by the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve. Simulations with doses of up to 35 mg/kg produced results closely in line with those of clinical trials. PMID:26552972

  11. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction.

    PubMed

    Chirehwa, Maxwell T; Rustomjee, Roxana; Mthiyane, Thuli; Onyebujoh, Philip; Smith, Peter; McIlleron, Helen; Denti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Rifampin is a key sterilizing drug in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). It induces its own metabolism, but neither the onset nor the extent of autoinduction has been adequately described. Currently, the World Health Organization recommends a rifampin dose of 8 to 12 mg/kg of body weight, which is believed to be suboptimal, and higher doses may potentially improve treatment outcomes. However, a nonlinear increase in exposure may be observed because of saturation of hepatic extraction and hence this should be taken into consideration when a dose increase is implemented. Intensive pharmacokinetic (PK) data from 61 HIV-TB-coinfected patients in South Africa were collected at four visits, on days 1, 8, 15, and 29, after initiation of treatment. Data were analyzed by population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Rifampin PKs were best described by using a transit compartment absorption and a well-stirred liver model with saturation of hepatic extraction, including a first-pass effect. Autoinduction was characterized by using an exponential-maturation model: hepatic clearance almost doubled from the baseline to steady state, with a half-life of around 4.5 days. The model predicts that increases in the dose of rifampin result in more-than-linear drug exposure increases as measured by the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve. Simulations with doses of up to 35 mg/kg produced results closely in line with those of clinical trials. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Modeling hepatitis C virus kinetics under therapy using pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic information

    SciTech Connect

    Perelson, Alan S; Shudo, Emi; Ribeiro, Ruy M

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical models have proven helpful in analyzing the virological response to antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCY) infected subjects. Objective: To summarize the uses and limitations of different models for analyzing HCY kinetic data under pegylated interferon therapy. Methods: We formulate mathematical models and fit them by nonlinear least square regression to patient data in order estimate model parameters. We compare the goodness of fit and parameter values estimated by different models statistically. Results/Conclusion: The best model for parameter estimation depends on the availability and the quality of data as well as the therapy used. We also discuss themore » mathematical models that will be needed to analyze HCV kinetic data from clinical trials with new antiviral drugs.« less

  13. Hepatic vitamin A preloading reduces colorectal cancer metastatic multiplicity in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Pinali, Daniel; Lindley, Krista; Lane, Michelle A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research in our laboratory showed that retinol inhibited all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-resistant human colon cancer cell invasion via a retinoic acid receptor-independent mechanism in vitro. The objective of the current study was to determine if dietary vitamin A supplementation inhibited metastasis of ATRA-resistant colon cancer cells in a nude mouse xenograft model. Female nude mice (BALB/cAnNCr-nu/nu, n = 14 per group) consumed a control diet (2,400 IU retinyl palmitate/kg diet) or a vitamin A supplemented diet (200,000 IU retinyl palmitate/kg diet) for 1 mo prior to tumor cell injection to preload the liver with vitamin A. HCT-116, ATRA-resistant, human colon cancer cells were intrasplenically injected. Mice continued to consume their respective diets for 5 wk following surgery. Consumption of supplemental vitamin A decreased hepatic metastatic multiplicity to 17% of control. Hepatic and splenic retinol and retinyl ester concentrations were significantly higher in the mice supplemented with vitamin A when compared to mice consuming the control diet. Supplemental vitamin A did not decrease body weight, feed intake, or cause toxicity. Thus, supplemental dietary vitamin A may decrease the overall number of hepatic metastasis resulting from colon cancer.

  14. Intracellular hepatitis C modeling predicts infection dynamics and viral protein mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Aunins, Thomas R.; Marsh, Katherine M.; Subramanya, Gitanjali

    2018-03-21

    Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem, with nearly 2 million new infections occurring every year and up to 85% of these becoming chronic infections that pose serious long-term health risks. To effectively reduce the prevalence of HCV infection and associated diseases, it is important to understand the intracellular dynamics of the viral lifecycle. Here, we present a detailed mathematical model that represents the full hepatitis C lifecycle. It is the first full HCV model to be fit to acute intracellular infection data and the first to explore the functions of distinct viral proteins, probing multiple hypotheses ofmore » cis- and trans-acting mechanisms to provide insights for drug targeting. Model parameters were derived from the literature, experiments, and fitting to experimental intracellular viral RNA, extracellular viral titer, and HCV core and NS3 protein kinetic data from viral inoculation to steady-state. Our model predicts faster rates for protein translation and polyprotein cleavage than previous replicon models and demonstrates that the processes of translation and synthesis of viral RNA have the most influence on the levels of the species we tracked in experiments. Overall, our experimental data and the resulting mathematical infection model reveal information about the regulation of core protein during infection, produce specific insights into the roles of the viral core, NS5A, and NS5B proteins, and demonstrate the sensitivities of viral proteins and RNA to distinct reactions within the lifecycle.« less

  15. A minimal model of insulin secretion and kinetics to assess hepatic insulin extraction.

    PubMed

    Toffolo, Gianna; Campioni, Marco; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A; Cobelli, Claudio

    2006-01-01

    The liver is the principal site of insulin degradation, and assessing its ability to extract insulin is important to understand several pathological states. Noninvasive quantification of hepatic extraction (HE) in an individual requires comparing the profiles of insulin secretion (ISR) and posthepatic insulin delivery rate (IDR). To do this, we propose here the combined use of the classical C-peptide minimal model with a new minimal model of insulin delivery and kinetics. The models were identified on insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IM-IVGTT) data of 20 healthy subjects. C-peptide kinetics were fixed to standard population values, whereas insulin kinetics were assessed in each individual, along with IDR parameters, thanks to the presence of insulin decay data observed after exogenous insulin administration. From the two models, profiles of ISR and IDR were predicted, and ISR and IDR indexes of beta-cell responsivity to glucose in the basal state, as well as during first- and second-phase secretion, were estimated. HE profile, obtained by comparing ISR and IDR profiles, showed a rapid suppression immediately after the glucose administration. HE indexes, obtained by comparing ISR and IDR indexes, indicated that the liver is able to extract 70 +/- 9% of insulin passing through it in the basal state and 54 +/- 14% during IM-IVGTT. In conclusion, insulin secretion, kinetics, and hepatic extraction can be reliably assessed during an IM-IVGTT by using insulin and C-peptide minimal models.

  16. Optimization,Modeling, and Control: Applications to Klystron Designing and Hepatitis C Virus Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankford, George Bernard

    In this dissertation, we address applying mathematical and numerical techniques in the fields of high energy physics and biomedical sciences. The first portion of this thesis presents a method for optimizing the design of klystron circuits. A klystron is an electron beam tube lined with cavities that emit resonant frequencies to velocity modulate electrons that pass through the tube. Radio frequencies (RF) inserted in the klystron are amplified due to the velocity modulation of the electrons. The routine described in this work automates the selection of cavity positions, resonant frequencies, quality factors, and other circuit parameters to maximize the efficiency with required gain. The method is based on deterministic sampling methods. We will describe the procedure and give several examples for both narrow and wide band klystrons, using the klystron codes AJDISK (Java) and TESLA (Python). The rest of the dissertation is dedicated to developing, calibrating and using a mathematical model for hepatitis C dynamics with triple drug combination therapy. Groundbreaking new drugs, called direct acting antivirals, have been introduced recently to fight off chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The model we introduce is for hepatitis C dynamics treated with the direct acting antiviral drug, telaprevir, along with traditional interferon and ribavirin treatments to understand how this therapy affects the viral load of patients exhibiting different types of response. We use sensitivity and identifiability techniques to determine which parameters can be best estimated from viral load data. We use these estimations to give patient-specific fits of the model to partial viral response, end-of-treatment response, and breakthrough patients. We will then revise the model to incorporate an immune response dynamic to more accurately describe the dynamics. Finally, we will implement a suboptimal control to acquire a drug treatment regimen that will alleviate the systemic cost

  17. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis (Viral) What Is Viral Hepatitis? Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Liver Transplant ... and E viruses typically cause acute infections. The hepatitis B, C, and D viruses can cause acute and ...

  18. Pathological mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatic portal hypertension in early stage fibrosis rat model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Niu, Jian-Zhao; Wang, Ji-Feng; Li, Yu; Tao, Xiao-Hua

    2005-11-07

    To study the role of hepatic sinusoidal capillarization and perisinusoidal fibrosis in rats with alcohol-induced portal hypertension and to discuss the pathological mechanisms of alcohol-induced hepatic portal hypertension. Fifty SD rats were divided into control group (n=20) and model group (n=30). Alcoholic liver fibrosis rat model was induced by intragastric infusion of a mixture containing alcohol, corn oil and pyrazole (1 000:250:3). Fifteen rats in each group were killed at wk 16. The diameter and pressure of portal vein were measured. Plasma hyaluronic acid (HA), type IV collagen (CoIV) and laminin (LN) were determined by radioimmunoassay. Liver tissue was fixed in formalin (10%) and 6-mum thick sections were routinely stained with Mallory and Sirius Red. Liver tissue was treated with rabbit polyclonal antibody against LN and ColIV. Hepatic non-parenchymal cells were isolated, total protein was extracted and separated by SDS-PAGE. MMP-2 and TIMP-1 protein expression was estimated by Western blotting. The diameter (2.207+/-0.096 vs 1.528+/-0.054 mm, P<0.01) and pressure (11.014+/-0.395 vs 8.533+/-0.274 mmHg, P<0.01) of portal vein were significantly higher in model group than those in the control group. Plasma HA (129.97+/-16.10 vs 73.09+/-2.38 ng/mL, P<0.01), ColIV (210.49+/-4.36 vs 89.65+/-4.42 ng/mL, P<0.01) and LN (105.00+/-7.29 vs 55.70+/-4.32 ng/mL, P<0.01) were upregulated in model group. Abundant collagen deposited around the central vein of lobules, hepatic sinusoids and hepatocytes in model group. ColI and ColIII increased remarkably and perisinusoids were almost surrounded by ColIII. Immunohistochemical staining showed that ColIV protein level (0.130+/-0.007 vs 0.032+/-0.004, P<0.01) and LN protein level (0.152+/-0.005 vs 0.029+/-0.005, P<0.01) were up-regulated remarkably in model group. MMP-2 protein expression (2.306+/-1.089 vs 0.612+/-0.081, P<0.01) and TIMP-1 protein expression (3.015+/-1.364 vs 0.446+/-0.009, P<0.01) in freshly isolated

  19. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine against antiviral drug-resistant hepatitis B virus mutants in the chimpanzee model.

    PubMed

    Kamili, Saleem; Sozzi, Vitini; Thompson, Geoff; Campbell, Katie; Walker, Christopher M; Locarnini, Stephen; Krawczynski, Krzysztof

    2009-05-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutants resistant to treatment with nucleoside or nucleotide analogs and those with the ability to escape from HBV-neutralizing antibody have the potential to infect HBV-vaccinated individuals. To address this potential serious public health challenge, we tested the efficacy of immunity induced by a commercial hepatitis B vaccine against a tissue culture-derived, clonal HBV polymerase mutant in HBV seronegative chimpanzees. The polymerase gene mutant contained a combination of three mutations (rtV173L, rtL180M, rtM204V), two of which resulted in changes to the overlapping viral envelope of the hepatitis B surface antigen (sE164D, sI195M). Prior to the HBV mutant challenge of vaccinated chimpanzees, we established virologic, serologic, and pathologic characteristics of infections resulting from intravenous inoculation of the HBV polymerase gene mutant and the sG145R vaccine-escape surface gene mutant. Cloning and sequencing experiments determined that the three mutations in the polymerase gene mutant remained stable and that the single mutation in the surface gene mutant reverted to the wild-type sequence. Immunological evidence of HBV replication was observed in the vaccinated chimpanzees after challenge with the polymerase gene mutant as well as after rechallenge with serum-derived wild-type HBV (5,000 chimpanzee infectious doses administered intravenously), despite robust humoral and cellular anti-HBV immune responses after hepatitis B vaccination. Our data showing successful experimental infection by HBV mutants despite the presence of high anti-HBs levels considered protective in the vaccinated host are consistent with clinical reports on breakthrough infection in anti-HBs-positive patients infected with HBV mutants. In the absence of a protective humoral immunity, adaptive cellular immune responses elicited by infection may limit HBV replication and persistence.

  20. Effect of Green Tea Extract Encapsulated Into Chitosan Nanoparticles on Hepatic Fibrosis Collagen Fibers Assessed by Atomic Force Microscopy in Rat Hepatic Fibrosis Model.

    PubMed

    Safer, Abdel-Majeed A; Hanafy, Nomany A; Bharali, Dhruba J; Cui, Huadong; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of Green Tea Extract (GTE) encapsulated into Chitosan Nanoparticles (CS-NPs) on hepatic fibrosis in rat model as determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The bioactive compounds in GTE encapsulated into CS-NPs were determined using LC-MS/MS method. Additionally, the uptake of GTE-CS NPs in HepG2 cells showed enhanced uptake. In experimental fibrosis model, AFM was used as a high resolution microscopic tool to investigate collagen fibers as an indicator of hepatic fibrosis induced by treatment with CCl4. Paraffin sections of fibrotic liver tissues caused by CC4 treatment of rats and the effect of GTE-CS NPs treatment with or without CCl4 on hepatic fibrosis were examined. Liver tissues from the different groups of animals were de-waxed and processed as for normal H/E staining and Masson's trichrome staining to locate the proper area of ECM collagen in the CCl4 group versus collagen in liver tissues treated with the GTE-CS NPs with or without CCl4. Selected areas of paraffin sections were trimmed off and fixed flat on top of mica and inserted in the AFM stage. H/E staining, Masson's trichrome stained slides, and AFM images revealed that collagen fibers of 250 to 300 nm widths were abundant in the fibrotic liver samples while those of GTE-CS NPs were clear as in the control group. Data confirmed the hypothesis that GTE-CS NPs are effective in removing all the extracellular collagen caused by CCl4 in the hepatic fibrosis rat liver.

  1. Transposon mutagenesis identifies genes driving hepatocellular carcinoma in a chronic hepatitis B mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bard-Chapeau, Emilie A.; Nguyen, Anh-Tuan; Rust, Alistair G.; Sayadi, Ahmed; Lee, Philip; Chua, Belinda Q; New, Lee-Sun; de Jong, Johann; Ward, Jerrold M.; Chin, Christopher KY.; Chew, Valerie; Toh, Han Chong; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie; Bard, Frederic A.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Johnson, Randy L.; Radda, George K.; Chan, Eric CY.; Wessels, Lodewyk FA.; Adams, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The most common risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). To better understand the evolutionary forces driving HCC we performed a near saturating transposon mutagenesis screen in a mouse HBV model of HCC. This screen identified 21 candidate early stage drivers, and a bewildering number (2860) of candidate later stage drivers, that were enriched for genes mutated, deregulated, or that function in signaling pathways important for human HCC, with a striking 1199 genes linked to cellular metabolic processes. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic landscape of HCC. PMID:24316982

  2. Public health impact and cost effectiveness of routine childhood vaccination for hepatitis a in Jordan: a dynamic model approach.

    PubMed

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Daniels, Vincent J; James, Cerise K; Kanıbir, Muhammet Nabi; Pilsbury, Matthew; Marks, Morgan; Goveia, Michelle G; Elbasha, Elamin H; Dasbach, Erik; Acosta, Camilo J

    2018-03-07

    As the socioeconomic conditions in Jordan have improved over recent decades the disease and economic burden of Hepatitis A has increased. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential health and economic impact of a two-dose hepatitis A vaccine program covering one-year old children in Jordan. We adapted an age-structured population model of hepatitis A transmission dynamics to project the epidemiologic and economic impact of vaccinating one-year old children for 50 years in Jordan. The epidemiologic model was calibrated using local data on hepatitis A in Jordan. These data included seroprevalence and incidence data from the Jordan Ministry of Health as well as hospitalization data from King Abdullah University Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. We assumed 90% of all children would be vaccinated with the two-dose regimen by two years of age. The economic evaluation adopted a societal perspective and measured benefits using the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The modeled vaccination program reduced the incidence of hepatitis A in Jordan by 99%, 50 years after its introduction. The model projected 4.26 million avoided hepatitis A infections, 1.42 million outpatient visits, 22,475 hospitalizations, 508 fulminant cases, 95 liver transplants, and 76 deaths over a 50 year time horizon. In addition, we found, over a 50 year time horizon, the vaccination program would gain 37,502 QALYs and save over $42.6 million in total costs. The vaccination program became cost-saving within 6 years of its introduction and was highly cost-effective during the first 5 years. A vaccination program covering one-year old children is projected to be a cost-saving intervention that will significantly reduce the public health and economic burden of hepatitis A in Jordan.

  3. Dynamic analysis and optimal control for a model of hepatitis C with treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suxia; Xu, Xiaxia

    2017-05-01

    A model for hepatitis C is formulated to study the effects of treatment and public concern on HCV transmission dynamics. The stability of equilibria and persistence of the model are analyzed, and an optimal control measure is performed to prevent the spread of HCV with minimal infected individuals and cost. The dynamical analysis reveals that the disease-free equilibrium of the model is asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number R0 is less than unity. On the other hand, if R0 > 1 , the disease is uniformly persistent. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of different vital parameters on R0. For the corresponding optimality system, the optimal solution is discussed by Pontryagin Maximum Principle, and the comparisons of model-predicted consequences with control or not are presented.

  4. Large animal models of fulminant hepatic failure in artificial and bioartificial liver support research.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhove, M-P; Hoekstra, R; van Gulik, T M; Chamuleau, R A F M

    2004-04-01

    Among the large range of organs involved in the field of tissue engineering (skin, blood vessels, cartilage, etc.) the liver has been given broad attention in the last decade. Liver support systems encompassing artificial and bioartificial systems are applied to treat patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) as a bridge to orthotopic liver transplantation or to liver regeneration. To test safety, technical applicability and therapeutic effect of liver support systems, reliable animal models are needed. Due to the complexity of FHF many diverse attempts have been made to develop an adequate animal model to study liver failure, liver regeneration and liver support systems. In this paper an overview is given of the different models and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Suggestions are made for the most suitable large animal model to test liver support systems.

  5. Modeling hepatitis C virus transmission among people who inject drugs: Assumptions, limitations and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nick; Hellard, Margaret; McBryde, Emma Sue

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of highly effective hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatments has led to discussion of elimination and intensified interest in models of HCV transmission. In developed settings, HCV disproportionally affects people who inject drugs (PWID), and models are typically used to provide an evidence base for the effectiveness of interventions such as needle and syringe programs, opioid substitution therapy and more recently treating PWID with new generation therapies to achieve specified reductions in prevalence and / or incidence. This manuscript reviews deterministic compartmental S-I, deterministic compartmental S-I-S and network-based transmission models of HCV among PWID. We detail typical assumptions made when modeling injecting risk behavior, virus transmission, treatment and re-infection and how they correspond with available evidence and empirical data.

  6. Dynamics of a delay differential equation model of hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gourley, Stephen A; Kuang, Yang; Nagy, John D

    2008-04-01

    We formulate and systematically study the global dynamics of a simple model of hepatitis B virus in terms of delay differential equations. This model has two important and novel features compared to the well-known basic virus model in the literature. Specifically, it makes use of the more realistic standard incidence function and explicitly incorporates a time delay in virus production. As a result, the infection reproduction number is no longer dependent on the patient liver size (number of initial healthy liver cells). For this model, the existence and the component values of the endemic steady state are explicitly dependent on the time delay. In certain biologically interesting limiting scenarios, a globally attractive endemic equilibrium can exist regardless of the time delay length.

  7. Determinants of [13N]ammonia kinetics in hepatic PET experiments: a minimal recirculatory model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Roelsgaard, Klaus; Bender, Dirk; Keiding, Susanne

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a modelling approach for the analysis of the systemic kinetics of the tracer nitrogen-13 ammonia administered for dynamic liver scanning. The radioactive half-life of this tracer is 9.8 min, which limits the time span in which data are available in a positron emission tomography experimental setting. A circulatory pharmacokinetic model was applied to the metabolism of ammonia in anaesthetised pigs, which incorporated data from serial measurements of [(13)N]ammonia and [(13)N]metabolite activity in arterial and portal venous blood together with blood flow rates through the portal vein and through the hepatic artery obtained over 20 min after intravenous injection of [(13)N]ammonia. Model analysis showed that up to 20 min after injection the time course of [(13)N]ammonia concentration in arterial blood is primarily determined by distribution kinetics (steady-state volume of distribution 1,856+/-531 ml kg(-1)). Simultaneous fitting of arterial ammonia and metabolite blood concentrations allowed for estimation of the hepatic [(13)N]ammonia clearance (10.25+/-1.84 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), which accounted for the formation of the circulating metabolites.

  8. A model of bi-mode transmission dynamics of hepatitis C with optimal control.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mudassar; Rafique, Hassan; Khan, Adnan; Malik, Tufail

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we present a rigorous mathematical analysis of a deterministic model for the transmission dynamics of hepatitis C. The model is suitable for populations where two frequent modes of transmission of hepatitis C virus, namely unsafe blood transfusions and intravenous drug use, are dominant. The susceptible population is divided into two distinct compartments, the intravenous drug users and individuals undergoing unsafe blood transfusions. Individuals belonging to each compartment may develop acute and then possibly chronic infections. Chronically infected individuals may be quarantined. The analysis indicates that the eradication and persistence of the disease is completely determined by the magnitude of basic reproduction number R(c). It is shown that for the basic reproduction number R(c) < 1, the disease-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable. For R(c) > 1, an endemic equilibrium exists and the disease is uniformly persistent. In addition, we present the uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to investigate the influence of different important model parameters on the disease prevalence. When the infected population persists, we have designed a time-dependent optimal quarantine strategy to minimize it. The Pontryagin's Maximum Principle is used to characterize the optimal control in terms of an optimality system which is solved numerically. Numerical results for the optimal control are compared against the constant controls and their efficiency is discussed.

  9. Validation and comparison of seventeen noninvasive models for evaluating liver fibrosis in Chinese hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Dong, Minhui; Wu, Jingwen; Yu, Xueping; Li, Jing; Yang, Sisi; Qi, Xun; Mao, Richeng; Zhang, Yongmei; Yu, Jie; Zhu, Haoxiang; Yang, Feifei; Qin, Yanli; Zhang, Jiming

    2018-01-03

    To avoid liver biopsy, many noninvasive models comprised of serum markers for liver fibrosis assessment have been developed. Given that most of them were developed in hepatitis C cohorts and few of them have been validated in Chinese hepatitis B patients, we aim to conduct this validation and compare their diagnostic accuracies in such a population. A total of 937 HBV-infected patients who underwent liver biopsy were included in this single-centre retrospective study. The diagnostic accuracies of the 17 noninvasive models were assessed by areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROCs), using histologically evaluated fibrotic stages of the biopsy specimens as standards. To compare efficiencies of the models, a grading system based on AUROC levels was developed. For discriminating significant fibrosis in all patients, the best three noninvasive models were King's score (AUROC = 0.756), Virahep-C model (AUROC = 0.756) and GPR (AUROC = 0.744); and for diagnosing cirrhosis, Lok index (AUROC = 0.832), FI (AUROC = 0.820) and FIB-4 (AUROC = 0.818) got the first three places. AUROCs in HBeAg-positive group were generally higher than those in HBeAg-negative group. In addition, based on the grading system, Virahep-C and GPR outstood others in evaluating liver fibrosis in all patients. In Chinese HBV-infected patients, Virahep-C models and GPR had high accuracies in diagnosing liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, while the most discussed models like APRI and FIB-4 did not outstand. Assessment should take into account the HBeAg sero-status, since these noninvasive models were more appropriate for HBeAg-positive patients than HBeAg-negative ones. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. New models of hepatitis E virus replication in human and porcine hepatocyte cell lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute, enterically-transmitted hepatitis. It is associated with large epidemics in tropical and subtropical regions where it is endemic or with sporadic cases in non-endemic regions. Unlike other hepatitis viruses, HEV has several animal reservoirs. Phylogenetic studie...

  11. Cell Culture Models for the Investigation of Hepatitis B and D Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Eloi R; Colpitts, Che C; Schuster, Catherine; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Baumert, Thomas F

    2016-09-20

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) infections are major causes of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Despite the presence of an efficient preventive vaccine, more than 250 million patients are chronically infected with HBV. Current antivirals effectively control but only rarely cure chronic infection. While the molecular biology of the two viruses has been characterized in great detail, the absence of robust cell culture models for HBV and/or HDV infection has limited the investigation of virus-host interactions. Native hepatoma cell lines do not allow viral infection, and the culture of primary hepatocytes, the natural host cell for the viruses, implies a series of constraints restricting the possibilities of analyzing virus-host interactions. Recently, the discovery of the sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) as a key HBV/HDV cell entry factor has opened the door to a new era of investigation, as NTCP-overexpressing hepatoma cells acquire susceptibility to HBV and HDV infections. In this review, we summarize the major cell culture models for HBV and HDV infection, discuss their advantages and limitations and highlight perspectives for future developments.

  12. Noninvasive models for assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Da-Wu; Dong, Jing; Liu, Yu-Rui; Jiang, Jia-Ji; Zhu, Yue-Yong

    2016-01-01

    There are approximately 240 million patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Up to 40% of HBV-infected patients can progress to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or chronic end-stage liver disease during their lifetime. This, in turn, is responsible for around 650000 deaths annually worldwide. Repeated hepatitis flares may increase the progression of liver fibrosis, making the accurate diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis critical in order to make antiviral therapeutic decisions for HBV-infected patients. Liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosing liver fibrosis. However, this technique has recently been challenged by the development of several novel noninvasive tests to evaluate liver fibrosis, including serum markers, combined models and imaging techniques. In addition, the cost and accessibility of imaging techniques have been suggested as additional limitations for invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in developing countries. Therefore, a noninvasive assessment model has been suggested to evaluate liver fibrosis, specifically in HBV-infected patients, owing to its high applicability, inter-laboratory reproducibility, wide availability for repeated assays and reasonable cost. The current review aims to present the status of knowledge in this new and exciting field, and to highlight the key points in HBV-infected patients for clinicians. PMID:27547009

  13. Dynamic analysis of a hepatitis B model with three-age-classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Suxia; Zhou, Yicang

    2014-07-01

    Based on the fact that the likelihood of becoming chronically infected is dependent on age at primary infection Kane (1995) [2], Edmunds et al. (1993) [3], Medley et al. (2001) [4], and Ganem and Prince (2004) [6], we formulate a hepatitis B transmission model with three age classes. The reproduction number, R0 is defined and the dynamical behavior of the model is analyzed. It is proved that the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable if R0<1, and there exists at least one endemic equilibrium and that the disease is uniformly persistent if R0>1. The unique endemic equilibrium and its global stability is obtained in a special case. Simulations are also conducted to compare the dynamical behavior of the model with and without age classes.

  14. Modelling the Impact of Cell-To-Cell Transmission in Hepatitis B Virus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free virus is a well-recognized and efficient mechanism for the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the liver. Cell-to-cell transmission (CCT) can be a more efficient means of virus propagation. Despite experimental evidence implying CCT occurs in HBV, its relative impact is uncertain. We develop a 3-D agent-based model where each hepatocyte changes its viral state according to a dynamical process driven by cell-free virus infection, CCT and intracellular replication. We determine the relative importance of CCT in the development and resolution of acute HBV infection in the presence of cytolytic (CTL) and non-CTL mechanisms. T cell clearance number is defined as the minimum number of infected cells needed to be killed by each T cell at peak infection that results in infection clearance within 12 weeks with hepatocyte turnover (HT, number of equivalent livers) ≤3. We find that CCT has very little impact on the establishment of infection as the mean cccDNA copies/cell remains between 15 to 20 at the peak of the infection regardless of CCT strength. In contrast, CCT inhibit immune-mediated clearance of acute HBV infection as higher CCT strength requires higher T cell clearance number and increases the probability of T cell exhaustion. An effective non-CTL inhibition can counter these negative effects of higher strengths of CCT by supporting rapid, efficient viral clearance and with little liver destruction. This is evident as the T cell clearance number drops by approximately 50% when non-CTL inhibition is increased from 10% to 80%. Higher CCT strength also increases the probability of the incidence of fulminant hepatitis with this phenomenon being unlikely to arise for no CCT. In conclusion, we report the possibility of CCT impacting HBV clearance and its contribution to fulminant hepatitis. PMID:27560827

  15. Morphological and biomechanical remodeling of the hepatic portal vein in a swine model of portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    He, Xi-Ju; Huang, Tie-Zhu; Wang, Pei-Jun; Peng, Xing-Chun; Li, Wen-Chun; Wang, Jun; Tang, Jie; Feng, Na; Yu, Ming-Hua

    2012-02-01

    To obtain the morphological and biomechanical remodeling of portal veins in swine with portal hypertension (PHT), so as to provide some mechanical references and theoretical basis for clinical practice about PHT. Twenty white pigs were used in this study, 14 of them were subjected to both carbon tetrachloride- and pentobarbital-containing diet to induce experimental liver cirrhosis and PHT, and the remaining animals served as the normal controls. The morphological remodeling of portal veins was observed. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression profile in the vessel wall was assessed at both mRNA and protein level. The biomechanical changes of the hepatic portal veins were evaluated through assessing the following indicators: the incremental elastic modulus, pressure-strain elastic modulus, volume elastic modulus, and the incremental compliance. The swine PHT model was successfully established. The percentages for the microstructural components and the histological data significantly changed in the experimental group. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression was significantly downregulated in the portal veins of the experimental group. Three incremental elastic moduli (the incremental elastic modulus, pressure-strain elastic modulus, and volume elastic modulus) of the portal veins from PHT animals were significantly larger than those of the controls (P < 0.05), whereas the incremental compliance of hepatic portal vein decreased. Our study suggests that the morphological and biomechanical properties of swine hepatic portal veins change significantly during the PHT process, which may play a critical role in the development of PHT and serve as potential therapeutic targets during clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling the Impact of Cell-To-Cell Transmission in Hepatitis B Virus.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ashish; Murray, John M

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free virus is a well-recognized and efficient mechanism for the spread of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the liver. Cell-to-cell transmission (CCT) can be a more efficient means of virus propagation. Despite experimental evidence implying CCT occurs in HBV, its relative impact is uncertain. We develop a 3-D agent-based model where each hepatocyte changes its viral state according to a dynamical process driven by cell-free virus infection, CCT and intracellular replication. We determine the relative importance of CCT in the development and resolution of acute HBV infection in the presence of cytolytic (CTL) and non-CTL mechanisms. T cell clearance number is defined as the minimum number of infected cells needed to be killed by each T cell at peak infection that results in infection clearance within 12 weeks with hepatocyte turnover (HT, number of equivalent livers) ≤3. We find that CCT has very little impact on the establishment of infection as the mean cccDNA copies/cell remains between 15 to 20 at the peak of the infection regardless of CCT strength. In contrast, CCT inhibit immune-mediated clearance of acute HBV infection as higher CCT strength requires higher T cell clearance number and increases the probability of T cell exhaustion. An effective non-CTL inhibition can counter these negative effects of higher strengths of CCT by supporting rapid, efficient viral clearance and with little liver destruction. This is evident as the T cell clearance number drops by approximately 50% when non-CTL inhibition is increased from 10% to 80%. Higher CCT strength also increases the probability of the incidence of fulminant hepatitis with this phenomenon being unlikely to arise for no CCT. In conclusion, we report the possibility of CCT impacting HBV clearance and its contribution to fulminant hepatitis.

  17. 3D haptic modelling for preoperative planning of hepatic resection: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Soon, David S C; Chae, Michael P; Pilgrim, Charles H C; Rozen, Warren Matthew; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2016-09-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing has gained popularity in the medical field because of increased research in the field of haptic 3D modeling. We review the role of 3D printing with specific reference to liver directed applications. A literature search was performed using the scientific databases Medline and PubMed. We performed this in-line with the PRISMA [20] statement. We only included articles in English, available in full text, published about adults, about liver surgery and published between 2005 and 2015. The 3D model of a patient's liver venous vasculature and metastasis was prepared from a CT scan using Osirix software (Pixmeo, Gineva, Switzerland) and printed using our 3D printer (MakerBot Replicator Z18, US). To validate the model, measurements from the inferior vena cava (IVC) were compared between the CT scan and the 3D printed model. A total of six studies were retrieved on 3D printing directly related to a liver application. While stereolithography (STL) remains the gold standard in medical additive manufacturing, Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), is cheaper and may be more applicable. We found our liver 3D model made by FFF had a 0.1 ± 0.06 mm margin of error (mean ± standard deviation) compared with the CT scans. 3D printing in general surgery is yet to be thoroughly exploited. The most relevant feature of interest with regard to liver surgery is the ability to view the 3D dimensional relationship of the various hepatic and portal veins with respect to tumor deposits when planning hepatic resection. Systematic review registration number: researchregistry1348.

  18. Modelling Hepatitis B Virus Antiviral Therapy and Drug Resistant Mutant Strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Julie; Dix, Trevor; Allison, Lloyd; Bartholomeusz, Angeline; Yuen, Lilly

    Despite the existence of vaccines, the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a serious global health concern. HBV targets liver cells. It has an unusual replication process involving an RNA pre-genome that the reverse transcriptase domain of the viral polymerase protein translates into viral DNA. The reverse transcription process is error prone and together with the high replication rates of the virus, allows the virus to exist as a heterogeneous population of mutants, known as a quasispecies, that can adapt and become resistant to antiviral therapy. This study presents an individual-based model of HBV inside an artificial liver, and associated blood serum, undergoing antiviral therapy. This model aims to provide insights into the evolution of the HBV quasispecies and the individual contribution of HBV mutations in the outcome of therapy.

  19. A model for treating HCV hepatitis in patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy.

    PubMed

    Malnick, Stephen; Sheidvasser, Victoria; Basevitz, Alon; Levit, Shabtai

    2014-01-01

    Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with substance abuse, treatment of addicts is problematic. We report the results of a pilot scheme for treatment of HCV - infected substance abusers in a methadone maintenance center (MMC). The treatment program was carried out at a single MMC. Patients were not using illicit drugs or alcohol and received regular treatment with methadone. The program consisted of 5 stages: 1. An explanatory lecture concerning HCV (50/114 attended). 2. 25 of the 50 presented for examination including HCV RNA, genotype and viral load. 3. HCV treatment with pegylated alfa-interferon-1b and ribavarin. 4. The MMC physician and staff aided the clients' medical compliance. 5. A hepatologist (SM) volunteered his services on the basis of one 3 hourly session every 4-6 weeks, in addition to open access telephone consultation with the MMC staff physician. 50 of 114 HCV seropositive clients attended the initial meeting , 25 (50%) were candidates for treatment, of whom 20 were treated. 10 had genotype 3 infection, 9 genotype 1 and 1 genotype 2. The sustained virological response (SVR) on an intention-to-treat basis was 8/20 (40%). We present a model for the successful treatment of chronic HCV hepatitis in patients receiving methadone.

  20. Decreasing mitochondrial fission alleviates hepatic steatosis in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Brookes, Paul S; Yoon, Yisang

    2014-09-15

    Mitochondria produce the majority of cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, and their capacity to do so is influenced by many factors. Mitochondrial morphology is recently suggested as an important contributor in controlling mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondria divide and fuse continuously, which is affected by environmental factors, including metabolic alterations. Underscoring its bioenergetic influence, altered mitochondrial morphology is reported in tissues of patients and in animal models of metabolic dysfunction. In this study, we found that mitochondrial fission plays a vital role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The development of hepatic steatosis, oxidative/nitrative stress, and hepatic tissue damage, induced by a high-fat diet, were alleviated in genetically manipulated mice suppressing mitochondrial fission. The alleviation of steatosis was recapitulated in primary hepatocytes with the inhibition of mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, our study indicates that fission inhibition enhances proton leak under conditions of free fatty acid incubation, implicating bioenergetic change through manipulating mitochondrial fission. Taken together, our results suggest a mechanistic role for mitochondrial fission in the etiology of NAFLD. The efficacy of decreasing mitochondrial fission in the suppression of NAFLD suggests that mitochondrial fission represents a novel target for therapeutic treatment of NAFLD. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. MRI-based assessment of liver perfusion and hepatocyte injury in the murine model of acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Byk, Katarzyna; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Bartel, Zaneta; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Sitek, Barbara; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Chlopicki, Stefan; Skorka, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    To assess alterations in perfusion and liver function in the concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse model of acute liver failure (ALF) using two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based methods: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with Gd-EOB-DTPA contrast agent and arterial spin labelling (ASL). BALB/c mice were studied using a 9.4 T MRI system. The IntraGateFLASH TM and FAIR-EPI pulse sequences were used for optimum mouse abdomen imaging. The average perfusion values for the liver of the control and ConA group were equal to 245 ± 20 and 200 ± 32 ml/min/100 g (p = 0.008, respectively). DCE-MRI showed that the time to the peak of the image enhancement was 6.14 ± 1.07 min and 9.72 ± 1.69 min in the control and ConA group (p < 0.001, respectively), while the rate of the contrast wash-out in the control and ConA group was 0.037 ± 0.008 and 0.021 ± 0.008 min -1 (p = 0.004, respectively). These results were consistent with hepatocyte injury in the ConA-treated mice as confirmed by histopathological staining. Both the ASL and DCE-MRI techniques represent a reliable methodology to assess alterations in liver perfusion and hepatocyte integrity in murine hepatitis.

  2. Glutathione protects against hepatic injury in a murine model of primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuhua; Hu, Liwei; Ping, Lifeng; Sun, Fengyan; Wang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) is a systemic autoimmune disease which may cause complications such as hepatic dysfunction and injury. As an important antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH) has been reported protecting against hepatic injury induced by some diseases, but the role of GSH in pSS is poorly understood. This study aims at investigating the role of GSH in hepatic injury during pSS. A murine model of pSS, non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, was used for GSH administration via tail intravenous injection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed to detect serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), as well as the levels of GSH, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL) 10, integrin alpha M, IL1B, malondialdehyde, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4, and superoxide dismutases in hepatocyte homogenates. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe hepatic histology. The results showed that serum AST and ALT levels were up-regulated in the NOD mice (p = 0.0021 and 0.0048), but were significantly recovered after the GSH administration (p = 0.0081 and 0.0263). The NOD mice exhibited disturbed hepatic tissue structure, which was attenuated by GSH. The GSH administration could also promote the production of GSH in the hepatocytes (p = 0.0264), and control the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress-related factors. These results indicate that GSH has significant effects on protecting against the hepatic injury during pSS, which may be associated with its regulation of the inflammatory factors and oxidative stress-related factors. This study suggests that GSH is a promising therapeutic strategy for controlling hepatic injury during pSS and offers valuable information for further research. PMID:27186973

  3. Costs of a Public Health Model to Increase Receipt of Hepatitis-Related Services for Persons with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Eric P.; Rosenberg, Stanley D.; Dixon, Lisa B.; Goldberg, Richard W.; Wolford, George; Himelhoch, Seth; Tapscott, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to contextualize the costs associated with implementation of a specialized HIV/hepatitis preventive services model designed to reach persons with serious mental illness and co-occurring disorders, an underserved population. Methods Between 2006 and 2008, a random sample of 236 non-elderly, predominantly African American, male participants with serious mental illness and a co-occurring substance use disorder were recruited at four community mental health outpatient programs in a large metropolitan area. All participants had been diagnosed with a psychotic or major depressive disorder. Participants were randomized within site to receive either the experimental intervention Screen, Test, Immunize, Reduce risk, and Refer (STIRR) or enhanced treatment as usual, which consisted of education and referral to medical testing. We estimated STIRR’s standardized costs, the costs of STIRR per person who received hepatitis testing, HIV testing, and/or hepatitis A/B vaccination during the 6-months post-randomization. Results The average cost of delivering the STIRR intervention was $423 (SD±$90) per participant (in 2008 dollars) and the average cost of delivering the eTAU intervention was $24 (SD±$22) per participant (test of difference t=52.9, P<.001). The standardized costs per person who received hepatitis C testing, hepatitis B testing, HIV testing, and hepatitis A/B vaccination were $706 (SD±$165), $776 (SD±$181), $3,630 (SD±$846), and $561 (SD±131). Conclusions The STIRR model’s standardized costs suggest that hepatitis and HIV prevention services delivered in outpatient mental health settings to persons with serious mental illness can be at least as cost-effective as similar interventions designed for other at-risk populations. PMID:23475451

  4. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery suppresses hepatic de novo lipogenesis and alleviates liver fat accumulation in a diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Han, Haifeng; Hu, Chunxiao; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Guangyong; Liu, Shaozhuang; Li, Feng; Sun, Dong; Hu, Sanyuan

    2014-12-01

    Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery can induce rapid and durable remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the intrinsic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent studies indicated that improved hepatic insulin resistance and insulin signaling transduction might contribute to the diabetic control after DJB. Given the important role of liver adiposity in hepatic insulin resistance, this study was aimed at investigating the effects of DJB on glucose homeostasis and liver fat accumulation in a T2DM rat model induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and small dose of streptozotocin (STZ). Forty adult male diabetic rats induced by HFD and small dose of STZ were randomly assigned to sham and DJB groups. Body weight, calorie intake, hormone levels, glucose, and lipid parameters were measured at indicated time points. Subsequently, hepatic triglycerides (TG) content and the protein levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were evaluated at 2 and 8 weeks postoperatively. Compared with sham group, DJB induced rapid and significant improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity independently of weight loss and calorie restriction. The DJB-operated rats exhibited lower liver TG content and decreased hepatic SREBP-1, ChREBP, ACC, and FAS at 8 weeks postoperatively. DJB alleviated hepatic fat accumulation and downregulated the key transcriptional regulators and enzymes involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which might contribute to improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis after DJB.

  5. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis B Entire Lesson What is hepatitis B? The term "hepatitis" means inflammation of the liver. When the liver is inflamed, it can ... lifetime Hepatitis B core antibody ( Anti-HBc ) If the test is positive, it means that you have been exposed to hepatitis B ...

  6. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) potentiates autoimmune hepatitis in the CYP2D6 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Müller, Peter; Messmer, Marie; Bayer, Monika; Pfeilschifter, Josef M; Hintermann, Edith; Christen, Urs

    2016-05-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its more severe development non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are increasing worldwide. In particular NASH, which is characterized by an active hepatic inflammation, has often severe consequences including progressive fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we investigated how metabolic liver injury is influencing the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We used the CYP2D6 mouse model in which wild type C57BL/6 mice are infected with an Adenovirus expressing the major liver autoantigen cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). Such mice display several features of human AIH, including interface hepatitis, formation of LKM-1 antibodies and CYP2D6-specific T cells, as well as hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD was induced with a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that pre-existing NAFLD potentiates the severity of AIH. Mice fed for 12 weeks with a HFD displayed increased cellular infiltration of the liver, enhanced hepatic fibrosis and elevated numbers of liver autoantigen-specific T cells. Our data suggest that a pre-existing metabolic liver injury constitutes an additional risk for the severity of an autoimmune condition of the liver, such as AIH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. From whole body to cellular models of hepatic triglyceride metabolism: man has got to know his limitations.

    PubMed

    Green, Charlotte J; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morten, Karl J; Hodson, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a main metabolic organ in the human body and carries out a vital role in lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of conditions from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) through to cirrhosis. Although obesity is a known risk factor for hepatic steatosis, it remains unclear what factor(s) is/are responsible for the primary event leading to retention of intrahepatocellular fat. Studying hepatic processes and the etiology and progression of disease in vivo in humans is challenging, not least as NAFLD may take years to develop. We present here a review of experimental models and approaches that have been used to assess liver triglyceride metabolism and discuss their usefulness in helping to understand the aetiology and development of NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. From whole body to cellular models of hepatic triglyceride metabolism: man has got to know his limitations

    PubMed Central

    Green, Charlotte J.; Pramfalk, Camilla; Morten, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a main metabolic organ in the human body and carries out a vital role in lipid metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases, encompassing a spectrum of conditions from simple fatty liver (hepatic steatosis) through to cirrhosis. Although obesity is a known risk factor for hepatic steatosis, it remains unclear what factor(s) is/are responsible for the primary event leading to retention of intrahepatocellular fat. Studying hepatic processes and the etiology and progression of disease in vivo in humans is challenging, not least as NAFLD may take years to develop. We present here a review of experimental models and approaches that have been used to assess liver triglyceride metabolism and discuss their usefulness in helping to understand the aetiology and development of NAFLD. PMID:25352434

  9. Use of labeled oral minimal model to measure hepatic insulin sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Man, Chiara Dalla; Toffolo, Gianna; Basu, Rita; Rizza, Robert A.; Cobelli, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The ability to accurately quantify indexes of the individual role of glucose (GEL) and insulin (SIL) in the suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) would improve the understanding of liver metabolism. Measuring these indexes during an IVGTT by minimal modeling of tracer labeled and unlabeled glucose data is often unreliable, possibly due to an inadequate description of EGP included in the Minimal Model. Moreover, a validation of the assumptions of the Minimal Model on EGP data has never been done. Recently, Krudys et al. (Krudys KM, Dodds MG, Nissen SM, Vicini P. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288: E1038–E1046, 2005) have proposed a PK/PD (pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic) model of the EGP profile that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT); however, this model has also not been validated. The aim of this study was thus to test the Minimal Model, the PK/PD model, and six alternative EGP descriptions on recent model-independent EGP data of 20 subjects obtained with a triple-tracer meal protocol. Model performance was compared in terms of data fit, precision of the estimated parameters, and physiological plausibility. Neither the PK/PD nor the traditional Minimal Model were able to accurately describe EGP data or provide reliable estimates of the indexes. In contrast, one of the new models performed best by showing a good fit and providing accurate and precise estimates of hepatic sensitivity indexes: GEL = 0.013 ± 0.001 dl·kg−1·min−1; SIL = 5.34 ± 0.47 10−4 dl·kg−1·min−1 per μU/ml (42 and 34%, respectively, of total sensitivity indexes GETOT and SITOT). Although this model requires further validation, it has the potential to improve our understanding of the role of the liver in pathophysiological states. PMID:18765681

  10. Metabolic transformations of dietary polyphenols: comparison between in vitro colonic and hepatic models and in vivo urinary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vetrani, Claudia; Rivellese, Angela A; Annuzzi, Giovanni; Adiels, Martin; Borén, Jan; Mattila, Ismo; Orešič, Matej; Aura, Anna-Marja

    2016-07-01

    Studies on metabolism of polyphenols have revealed extensive transformations in the carbon backbone by colonic microbiota; however, the influence of microbial and hepatic transformations on human urinary metabolites has not been explored. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to compare the in vitro microbial phenolic metabolite profile of foods and beverages with that excreted in urine of subjects consuming the same foodstuff and (2) to explore the role of liver on postcolonic metabolism of polyphenols by using in vitro hepatic models. A 24-h urinary phenolic metabolite profile was evaluated in 72 subjects participating in an 8-week clinical trial during which they were randomly assigned to diets differing for polyphenol content. Polyphenol-rich foods and beverages used in the clinical trial were subjected to human fecal microbiota in the in vitro colon model. Metabolites from green tea, one of the main components of the polyphenol-rich diet, were incubated with primary hepatocytes to highlight hepatic conversion of polyphenols. The analyses were performed using targeted gas chromatography with mass spectrometer (GCxGC-TOFMS:colon model; GC-MS: urine and hepatocytes). A significant correlation was found between urinary and colonic metabolites with C1-C3 side chain (P=.040). However, considerably higher amounts of hippuric acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and ferulic acid were detected in urine than in the colon model. The hepatic conversion showed additional amounts of these metabolites complementing the gap between in vitro colon model and the in vivo urinary excretion. Therefore, combining in vitro colon and hepatic models may better elucidate the metabolism of polyphenols from dietary exposure to urinary metabolites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Logistic regression model of noninvasive prediction for portal hypertensive gastropathy in patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingliang; Li, Xiaojie; Hu, Kunpeng; Zhao, Kun; Yang, Peisheng; Liu, Bo

    2015-05-12

    To explore the risk factors of portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) in patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis and establish a Logistic regression model of noninvasive prediction. The clinical data of 234 hospitalized patients with hepatitis B associated cirrhosis from March 2012 to March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The dependent variable was the occurrence of PHG while the independent variables were screened by binary Logistic analysis. Multivariate Logistic regression was used for further analysis of significant noninvasive independent variables. Logistic regression model was established and odds ratio was calculated for each factor. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of model were evaluated by the curve of receiver operating characteristic (ROC). According to univariate Logistic regression, the risk factors included hepatic dysfunction, albumin (ALB), bilirubin (TB), prothrombin time (PT), platelet (PLT), white blood cell (WBC), portal vein diameter, spleen index, splenic vein diameter, diameter ratio, PLT to spleen volume ratio, esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). Multivariate analysis showed that hepatic dysfunction (X1), TB (X2), PLT (X3) and splenic vein diameter (X4) were the major occurring factors for PHG. The established regression model was Logit P=-2.667+2.186X1-2.167X2+0.725X3+0.976X4. The accuracy of model for PHG was 79.1% with a sensitivity of 77.2% and a specificity of 80.8%. Hepatic dysfunction, TB, PLT and splenic vein diameter are risk factors for PHG and the noninvasive predicted Logistic regression model was Logit P=-2.667+2.186X1-2.167X2+0.725X3+0.976X4.

  12. A network model for the propagation of Hepatitis C with HIV co-infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nucit, Arnaud; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2017-05-01

    We define and examine a model of epidemic propagation for a virus such as Hepatitis C (with HIV co-infection) on a network of networks, namely the network of French urban areas. One network level is that of the individual interactions inside each urban area. The second level is that of the areas themselves, linked by individuals travelling between these areas and potentially helping the epidemic spread from one city to another. We choose to encode the second level of the network as extra, special nodes in the first level. We observe that such an encoding leads to sensible results in terms of the extent and speed of propagation of an epidemic, depending on its source point.

  13. Hepatic differentiation of human amniotic epithelial cells and in vivo therapeutic effect on animal model of cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Zhou, Lei; Sagayaraj, Antony; Jumat, Nur Halisah Bte; Choolani, Mahesh; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen; Biswas, Arijit; Wong, Peng Cheang; Lim, Seng Gee; Dan, Yock Young

    2015-11-01

    Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) have been touted as an ideal stem cell candidate, being ethically neutral, immunologically naïve, plentiful in origin, and retaining plasticity in its fetal stage. We hypothesized that by applying natural physiological signals of the developing liver, hAECs can be coaxed into becoming functional immunopermissive hepatocyte-like cells. These cells would have tremendous potential for allogenic cellular transplantation in the treatment of chronic liver insufficiency. hAECs were obtained from term placentas and subjected to hepatic trans-differentiation. Hepatic differentiated cells were analyzed with immunophenotyping, electron microscopy, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as well as characterized for hepatic metabolic function. In vivo efficacy was tested using intrasplenic transplantation into non-obese diabetic (NOD) Scid Gamma mice with thioacetamide-induced chronic liver failure and analyzed for engraftment and improvement in liver indices. With hepatic differentiation, hAECs assumed a hepatocytic polygonal morphology with upregulation of transcription factors responsible for liver specification. These hepatic differentiated-hAECs (HD-AECs) demonstrated bile canaliculi formation, secreted albumin, eliminated indo-cyanine green, uptook low-density lipoprotein, and inducible CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 enzymatic activities. Transplantation of HD-AECs and de novo hAECs in mice model of cirrhosis showed successful in vivo engraftment and differentiation into functional hepatocytes positive for human-specific albumin. HD-AEC cells that had undergone hepatic differentiation showed the greatest improvement in albumin function while preserving human leukocyte antigen-G expression postdifferentiation. hAECs were able to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells both in vivo and in vitro. They showed therapeutic efficacy after transplantation in mice model of cirrhosis, offering an exciting source of cells for

  14. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C Overview Hepatitis C is a viral infection that causes liver inflammation, sometimes leading to serious liver damage. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads through contaminated blood. Until recently, ...

  15. Structures of Hepatitis B Virus Cores Presenting a Model Epitope and Their Complexes with Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, A.M.; Borschukova, O.; Berriman, J.A.; Wynne, S.A.; Pumpens, P.; Crowther, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The core shell of hepatitis B virus is a potent immune stimulator, giving a strong neutralizing immune response to foreign epitopes inserted at the immunodominant region, located at the tips of spikes on the exterior of the shell. Here, we analyze structures of core shells with a model epitope inserted at two alternative positions in the immunodominant region. Recombinantly expressed core protein assembles into T = 3 and T = 4 icosahedral shells, and atomic coordinates are available for the T = 4 shell. Since the modified protein assembles predominantly into T = 3 shells, a quasi-atomic model of the native T = 3 shell was made. The spikes in this T = 3 structure resemble those in T = 4 shells crystallized from expressed protein. However, the spikes in the modified shells exhibit an altered conformation, similar to the DNA containing shells in virions. Both constructs allow full access of antibodies to the foreign epitope, DPAFR from the preS1 region of hepatitis B virus surface antigen. However, one induces a 10-fold weaker immune response when injected into mice. In this construct, the epitope is less constrained by the flanking linker regions and is positioned so that the symmetry of the shell causes pairs of epitopes to come close enough to interfere with one another. In the other construct, the epitope mimics the native epitope conformation and position. The interaction of native core shells with an antibody specific to the immunodominant epitope is compared to the constructs with an antibody against the foreign epitope. Our findings have implications for the design of vaccines based on virus-like particles. PMID:22750730

  16. Clinical applications of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) in hepatic medicine.

    PubMed

    Lau, Tsang; Ahmad, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score incorporates serum bilirubin, creatinine, and the international normalized ratio (INR) into a formula that provides a continuous variable that is a very accurate predictor of 90-day mortality in patients with cirrhosis. It is currently utilized in the United States to prioritize deceased donor organ allocation for patients listed for liver transplantation. The MELD score is superior to other prognostic models in patients with end-stage liver disease, such as the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, since it uses only objective criteria, and its implementation in 2002 led to a sharp reduction in the number of people waiting for liver transplant and reduced mortality on the waiting list without affecting posttransplant survival. Although mainly adopted for use in patients waiting for liver transplant, the MELD score has also proved to be an effective predictor of outcome in other situations, such as patients with cirrhosis going for surgery and patients with fulminant hepatic failure or alcoholic hepatitis. Several variations of the original MELD score, involving the addition of serum sodium or looking at the change in MELD over time, have been examined, and these may slightly improve its accuracy. The MELD score does have limitations in situations where the INR or creatinine may be elevated due to reasons other than liver disease, and its implementation for organ allocation purposes does not take into consideration several conditions that benefit from liver transplantation. The application of the MELD score in prioritizing patients for liver transplantation has been successful, but further studies and legislation are required to ensure a fair and equitable system.

  17. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  18. Public Health Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of Hepatitis A Vaccination in the United States: A Disease Transmission Dynamic Modeling Approach.

    PubMed

    Dhankhar, Praveen; Nwankwo, Chizoba; Pillsbury, Matthew; Lauschke, Andreas; Goveia, Michelle G; Acosta, Camilo J; Elbasha, Elamin H

    2015-06-01

    To assess the population-level impact and cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination programs in the United States. We developed an age-structured population model of hepatitis A transmission dynamics to evaluate two policies of administering a two-dose hepatitis A vaccine to children aged 12 to 18 months: 1) universal routine vaccination as recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices in 2006 and 2) Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices's previous regional policy of routine vaccination of children living in states with high hepatitis A incidence. Inputs were obtained from the published literature, public sources, and clinical trial data. The model was fitted to hepatitis A seroprevalence (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II and III) and reported incidence from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (1980-1995). We used a societal perspective and projected costs (in 2013 US $), quality-adjusted life-years, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, and other outcomes over the period 2006 to 2106. On average, universal routine hepatitis A vaccination prevented 259,776 additional infections, 167,094 outpatient visits, 4781 hospitalizations, and 228 deaths annually. Compared with the regional vaccination policy, universal routine hepatitis A vaccination was cost saving. In scenario analysis, universal vaccination prevented 94,957 infections, 46,179 outpatient visits, 1286 hospitalizations, and 15 deaths annually and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $21,223/quality-adjusted life-year when herd protection was ignored. Our model predicted that universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination led to significant reductions in hepatitis A mortality and morbidity. Consequently, universal vaccination was cost saving compared with a regional vaccination policy. Herd protection effects of hepatitis A vaccination programs had a significant impact on hepatitis A mortality, morbidity, and cost-effectiveness ratios

  19. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong, E-mail: jwu@engr.ucr.edu

    2014-06-21

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energiesmore » of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.« less

  20. 3D Spatially Resolved Models of the Intracellular Dynamics of the Hepatitis C Genome Replication Cycle.

    PubMed

    Knodel, Markus M; Reiter, Sebastian; Targett-Adams, Paul; Grillo, Alfio; Herrmann, Eva; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-09-30

    Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors. The NSPs are responsible for the replication of the vRNA and their movement is restricted to the ER surface. Therefore, in this study we developed fully spatio-temporal resolved models of the vRNA replication cycle of HCV. Our simulations are performed upon realistic reconstructed cell structures-namely the ER surface and the membranous webs-based on data derived from immunostained cells replicating HCV vRNA. We visualized 3D simulations that reproduced dynamics resulting from interplay of the different components of our models (vRNA, NSPs, and a host factor), and we present an evaluation of the concentrations for the components within different regions of the cell. Thus far, our model is restricted to an internal portion of a hepatocyte and is qualitative more than quantitative. For a quantitative adaption to complete cells, various additional parameters will have to be determined through further in vitro cell biology experiments, which can be stimulated by the results deccribed in the present study.

  1. A molecular thermodynamic model for the stability of hepatitis B capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jehoon; Wu, Jianzhong

    2014-06-01

    Self-assembly of capsid proteins and genome encapsidation are two critical steps in the life cycle of most plant and animal viruses. A theoretical description of such processes from a physiochemical perspective may help better understand viral replication and morphogenesis thus provide fresh insights into the experimental studies of antiviral strategies. In this work, we propose a molecular thermodynamic model for predicting the stability of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids either with or without loading nucleic materials. With the key components represented by coarse-grained thermodynamic models, the theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with experimental data for the formation free energies of empty T4 capsids over a broad range of temperature and ion concentrations. The theoretical model predicts T3/T4 dimorphism also in good agreement with the capsid formation at in vivo and in vitro conditions. In addition, we have studied the stability of the viral particles in response to physiological cellular conditions with the explicit consideration of the hydrophobic association of capsid subunits, electrostatic interactions, molecular excluded volume effects, entropy of mixing, and conformational changes of the biomolecular species. The course-grained model captures the essential features of the HBV nucleocapsid stability revealed by recent experiments.

  2. Numerical schemes for solving and optimizing multiscale models with age of hepatitis C virus dynamics.

    PubMed

    Reinharz, Vladimir; Dahari, Harel; Barash, Danny

    2018-03-15

    Age-structured PDE models have been developed to study viral infection and treatment. However, they are notoriously difficult to solve. Here, we investigate the numerical solutions of an age-based multiscale model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics during antiviral therapy and compare them with an analytical approximation, namely its long-term approximation. First, starting from a simple yet flexible numerical solution that also considers an integral approximated over previous iterations, we show that the long-term approximation is an underestimate of the PDE model solution as expected since some infection events are being ignored. We then argue for the importance of having a numerical solution that takes into account previous iterations for the associated integral, making problematic the use of canned solvers. Second, we demonstrate that the governing differential equations are stiff and the stability of the numerical scheme should be considered. Third, we show that considerable gain in efficiency can be achieved by using adaptive stepsize methods over fixed stepsize methods for simulating realistic scenarios when solving multiscale models numerically. Finally, we compare between several numerical schemes for the solution of the equations and demonstrate the use of a numerical optimization scheme for the parameter estimation performed directly from the equations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 3D Spatially Resolved Models of the Intracellular Dynamics of the Hepatitis C Genome Replication Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Sebastian; Grillo, Alfio; Herrmann, Eva; Wittum, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models of virus dynamics have not previously acknowledged spatial resolution at the intracellular level despite substantial arguments that favor the consideration of intracellular spatial dependence. The replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral RNA (vRNA) occurs within special replication complexes formed from membranes derived from endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). These regions, termed membranous webs, are generated primarily through specific interactions between nonstructural virus-encoded proteins (NSPs) and host cellular factors. The NSPs are responsible for the replication of the vRNA and their movement is restricted to the ER surface. Therefore, in this study we developed fully spatio-temporal resolved models of the vRNA replication cycle of HCV. Our simulations are performed upon realistic reconstructed cell structures—namely the ER surface and the membranous webs—based on data derived from immunostained cells replicating HCV vRNA. We visualized 3D simulations that reproduced dynamics resulting from interplay of the different components of our models (vRNA, NSPs, and a host factor), and we present an evaluation of the concentrations for the components within different regions of the cell. Thus far, our model is restricted to an internal portion of a hepatocyte and is qualitative more than quantitative. For a quantitative adaption to complete cells, various additional parameters will have to be determined through further in vitro cell biology experiments, which can be stimulated by the results described in the present study. PMID:28973992

  4. Hepatic 3D spheroid models for the detection and study of compounds with cholestatic liability

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, Delilah F. G.; Fredriksson Puigvert, Lisa; Messner, Simon; Mortiz, Wolfgang; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced cholestasis (DIC) is poorly understood and its preclinical prediction is mainly limited to assessing the compound’s potential to inhibit the bile salt export pump (BSEP). Here, we evaluated two 3D spheroid models, one from primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and one from HepaRG cells, for the detection of compounds with cholestatic liability. By repeatedly co-exposing both models to a set of compounds with different mechanisms of hepatotoxicity and a non-toxic concentrated bile acid (BA) mixture for 8 days we observed a selective synergistic toxicity of compounds known to cause cholestatic or mixed cholestatic/hepatocellular toxicity and the BA mixture compared to exposure to the compounds alone, a phenomenon that was more pronounced after extending the exposure time to 14 days. In contrast, no such synergism was observed after both 8 and 14 days of exposure to the BA mixture for compounds that cause non-cholestatic hepatotoxicity. Mechanisms behind the toxicity of the cholestatic compound chlorpromazine were accurately detected in both spheroid models, including intracellular BA accumulation, inhibition of ABCB11 expression and disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton. Furthermore, the observed synergistic toxicity of chlorpromazine and BA was associated with increased oxidative stress and modulation of death receptor signalling. Combined, our results demonstrate that the hepatic spheroid models presented here can be used to detect and study compounds with cholestatic liability. PMID:27759057

  5. ELEVATED COPPER REMODELS HEPATIC RNA PROCESSING MACHINERY IN THE MOUSE MODEL OF WILSON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Burkhead, Jason L.; Ralle, Martina; Wilmarth, Phillip; David, Larry; Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Copper is essential to mammalian physiology and its homeostasis is tightly regulated. In humans, genetic defects in copper excretion result in copper overload and Wilson's disease (WD). Previous studies in the mouse model for WD (Atp7b-/-) revealed copper accumulation in hepatic nuclei and specific changes in the mRNA profile prior to pathology onset. To find a molecular link between nuclear copper elevation and changes in hepatic transcriptome we utilized quantitative ionomic and proteomic approaches. X-ray fluorescence and ICP-MS analysis indicate that copper in Atp7b-/- nucleus, while highly elevated, does not markedly alter nuclear ion content. Widespread protein oxidation is also not observed, although glutathione reductase SelH is upregulated, likely to maintain redox balance. We further demonstrate that accumulating copper affects abundance and/or modification of a distinct subset of nuclear proteins. These proteins populate pathways most significantly associated with RNA processing. An alteration in the splicing pattern was observed for hnRNP A2/B1, itself the RNA shuttling factor and spliceosome component. Analysis of hnRNP A2/B1 mRNA and protein revealed an increased retention of exon 2 and a selective 2-fold upregulation of a corresponding protein spliced variant. Mass-spectrometry measurements suggest that the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of RNA binding proteins, including A2/B1, is altered in the Atp7b-/- liver. We conclude that remodeling of RNA processing machinery is an important component in cells’ response to elevated copper that may guide pathology development in early stages of WD. PMID:21146535

  6. Ethyl pyruvate reduces hepatic mitochondrial swelling and dysfunction in a rat model of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhiyi; Li, Xiaoyue; Lin, Zongqin; Chen, Juan; Guan, Xiangdong; Chen, Minying

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis causes mitochondrial oxidative injury and swelling. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a cytoprotective agent, while aquaporin-8 (AQP8) is a mitochondrial water channel that can induce mitochondrial swelling. We assessed whether EP protects mitochondria during sepsis, and whether AQP8 contributes to the underlying mechanisms. A cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, randomized to 3 groups: sham (n=20), CLP (n=59) and CLP+EP (n=51). All rats received postoperative intraperitoneal fluid resuscitation (30 ml/kg); the CLP+EP group also received intraperitoneal EP (100 mg/kg). Survival was assessed at 24 hours. Hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure was characterized by electron microscopy. The membrane potential of isolated hepatic mitochondria was determined using JC-1 and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial AQP8 expression and cytochrome C (Cyt C) release were measured by Western blotting (values normalized to ß-actin). Survival in the sham, CLP and CLP+EP groups was 100%, 21% and 41%, respectively. Mitochondrial cross-sectional area was smaller in the CLP+EP group than in the CLP group (0.231±0.110 vs. 0.641±0.460 µm(2); P<0.001), with a tendency for a lower form factor (a measure of contour irregularity) in the CLP+EP group. Mitochondrial depolarization by CLP was inhibited by EP. Mitochondrial Cyt C release was higher in the CLP group than in the sham (1.211±0.24 vs. 0.48±0.03) or CLP+EP (0.35±0.39) groups. AQP8 expression was similar between groups, with a trend for lower expression in the CLP+EP group compared with the CLP group. EP improves sepsis outcome by targeting the mitochondrion, possibly through modulation of AQP8 expression.

  7. Ethyl pyruvate reduces hepatic mitochondrial swelling and dysfunction in a rat model of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhiyi; Li, Xiaoyue; Lin, Zongqin; Chen, Juan; Guan, Xiangdong; Chen, Minying

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis causes mitochondrial oxidative injury and swelling. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a cytoprotective agent, while aquaporin-8 (AQP8) is a mitochondrial water channel that can induce mitochondrial swelling. We assessed whether EP protects mitochondria during sepsis, and whether AQP8 contributes to the underlying mechanisms. A cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, randomized to 3 groups: sham (n=20), CLP (n=59) and CLP+EP (n=51). All rats received postoperative intraperitoneal fluid resuscitation (30 ml/kg); the CLP+EP group also received intraperitoneal EP (100 mg/kg). Survival was assessed at 24 hours. Hepatic mitochondrial ultrastructure was characterized by electron microscopy. The membrane potential of isolated hepatic mitochondria was determined using JC-1 and flow cytometry. Mitochondrial AQP8 expression and cytochrome C (Cyt C) release were measured by Western blotting (values normalized to ß-actin). Survival in the sham, CLP and CLP+EP groups was 100%, 21% and 41%, respectively. Mitochondrial cross-sectional area was smaller in the CLP+EP group than in the CLP group (0.231±0.110 vs. 0.641±0.460 µm2; P<0.001), with a tendency for a lower form factor (a measure of contour irregularity) in the CLP+EP group. Mitochondrial depolarization by CLP was inhibited by EP. Mitochondrial Cyt C release was higher in the CLP group than in the sham (1.211±0.24 vs. 0.48±0.03) or CLP+EP (0.35±0.39) groups. AQP8 expression was similar between groups, with a trend for lower expression in the CLP+EP group compared with the CLP group. EP improves sepsis outcome by targeting the mitochondrion, possibly through modulation of AQP8 expression. PMID:26339342

  8. High Intrinsic Aerobic Capacity Protects against Ethanol-Induced Hepatic Injury and Metabolic Dysfunction: Study Using High Capacity Runner Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Szary, Nicholas; Rector, R. Scott; Uptergrove, Grace M.; Ridenhour, Suzanne E.; Shukla, Shivendra D.; Thyfault, John P.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2015-01-01

    Rats artificially selected over several generations for high intrinsic endurance/aerobic capacity resulting in high capacity runners (HCR) has been developed to study the links between high aerobic fitness and protection from metabolic diseases (Wisloff et al., Science, 2005). We have previously shown that the HCR strain have elevated hepatic mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity. In this study, we tested if the elevated hepatic mitochondrial content in the HCR rat would provide “metabolic protection” from chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis and injury. The Leiber-Decarli liquid diet with ethanol (7% v/v; HCR-E) and without (HCR-C) was given to HCR rats (n = 8 per group) from 14 to 20 weeks of age that were weight matched and pair-fed to assure isocaloric intake. Hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and macro- and microvesicular steatosis were significantly greater in HCR-E compared with HCR-C (p < 0.05). In addition, hepatic superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the HCR-E rats. This hepatic phenotype also was associated with reduced total hepatic fatty acid oxidation (p = 0.03) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity (p = 0.01), and reductions in microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and apoB-100 protein content (p = 0.01) in HCR-E animals. However, despite these documented hepatic alterations, ethanol ingestion failed to induce significant hepatic liver injury, including no changes in hepatic inflammation, or serum alanine amino transferase (ALTs), free fatty acids (FFAs), triglycerides (TGs), insulin, or glucose. High intrinsic aerobic fitness did not reduce ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis, but protected against ethanol-induced hepatic injury and systemic metabolic dysfunction in a high aerobic capacity rat model. PMID:26610588

  9. A hepatitis C virus infection model with time-varying drug effectiveness: solution and analysis.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jessica M; Perelson, Alan S

    2014-08-01

    Simple models of therapy for viral diseases such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus assume that, once therapy is started, the drug has a constant effectiveness. More realistic models have assumed either that the drug effectiveness depends on the drug concentration or that the effectiveness varies over time. Here a previously introduced varying-effectiveness (VE) model is studied mathematically in the context of HCV infection. We show that while the model is linear, it has no closed-form solution due to the time-varying nature of the effectiveness. We then show that the model can be transformed into a Bessel equation and derive an analytic solution in terms of modified Bessel functions, which are defined as infinite series, with time-varying arguments. Fitting the solution to data from HCV infected patients under therapy has yielded values for the parameters in the model. We show that for biologically realistic parameters, the predicted viral decay on therapy is generally biphasic and resembles that predicted by constant-effectiveness (CE) models. We introduce a general method for determining the time at which the transition between decay phases occurs based on calculating the point of maximum curvature of the viral decay curve. For the parameter regimes of interest, we also find approximate solutions for the VE model and establish the asymptotic behavior of the system. We show that the rate of second phase decay is determined by the death rate of infected cells multiplied by the maximum effectiveness of therapy, whereas the rate of first phase decline depends on multiple parameters including the rate of increase of drug effectiveness with time.

  10. Geometric modeling of hepatic arteries in 3D ultrasound with unsupervised MRA fusion during liver interventions.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Maxime; Michaud, François; Bigot, Alexandre; Tang, An; Soulez, Gilles; Kadoury, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    Modulating the chemotherapy injection rate with regard to blood flow velocities in the tumor-feeding arteries during intra-arterial therapies may help improve liver tumor targeting while decreasing systemic exposure. These velocities can be obtained noninvasively using Doppler ultrasound (US). However, small vessels situated in the liver are difficult to identify and follow in US. We propose a multimodal fusion approach that non-rigidly registers a 3D geometric mesh model of the hepatic arteries obtained from preoperative MR angiography (MRA) acquisitions with intra-operative 3D US imaging. The proposed fusion tool integrates 3 imaging modalities: an arterial MRA, a portal phase MRA and an intra-operative 3D US. Preoperatively, the arterial phase MRA is used to generate a 3D model of the hepatic arteries, which is then non-rigidly co-registered with the portal phase MRA. Once the intra-operative 3D US is acquired, we register it with the portal MRA using a vessel-based rigid initialization followed by a non-rigid registration using an image-based metric based on linear correlation of linear combination. Using the combined non-rigid transformation matrices, the 3D mesh model is fused with the 3D US. 3D US and multi-phase MRA images acquired from 10 porcine models were used to test the performance of the proposed fusion tool. Unimodal registration of the MRA phases yielded a target registration error (TRE) of [Formula: see text] mm. Initial rigid alignment of the portal MRA and 3D US yielded a mean TRE of [Formula: see text] mm, which was significantly reduced to [Formula: see text] mm ([Formula: see text]) after affine image-based registration. The following deformable registration step allowed for further decrease of the mean TRE to [Formula: see text] mm. The proposed tool could facilitate visualization and localization of these vessels when using 3D US intra-operatively for either intravascular or percutaneous interventions to avoid vessel perforation.

  11. Peromyscus as a model system for human hepatitis C: An opportunity to advance our understanding of a complex host parasite system.

    PubMed

    Vandegrift, Kurt J; Critchlow, Justin T; Kapoor, Amit; Friedman, David A; Hudson, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, there are 185 million people infected with hepatitis C virus and approximately 350,000 people die each year from hepatitis C associated liver diseases. Human hepatitis C research has been hampered by the lack of an appropriate in vivo model system. Most of the in vivo research has been conducted on chimpanzees, which is complicated by ethical concerns, small sample sizes, high costs, and genetic heterogeneity. The house mouse system has led to greater understanding of a wide variety of human pathogens, but it is unreasonable to expect Mus musculus to be a good model system for every human pathogen. Alternative animal models can be developed in these cases. Ferrets (influenza), cotton rats (human respiratory virus), and woodchucks (hepatitis B) are all alternative models that have led to a greater understanding of human pathogens. Rodent models are tractable, genetically amenable and inbred and outbred strains can provide homogeneity in results. Recently, a rodent homolog of hepatitis C was discovered and isolated from the liver of a Peromyscus maniculatus. This represents the first small mammal (mouse) model system for human hepatitis C and it offers great potential to contribute to our understanding and ultimately aid in our efforts to combat this serious public health concern. Peromyscus are available commercially and can be used to inform questions about the origin, transmission, persistence, pathology, and rational treatment of hepatitis C. Here, we provide a disease ecologist's overview of this new virus and some suggestions for useful future experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Computational design of hepatitis C vaccines using maximum entropy models and population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gregory; Ferguson, Andrew

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) afflicts 170 million people and kills 350,000 annually. Vaccination offers the most realistic and cost effective hope of controlling this epidemic. Despite 20 years of research, no vaccine is available. A major obstacle is the virus' extreme genetic variability and rapid mutational escape from immune pressure. Improvements in the vaccine design process are urgently needed. Coupling data mining with spin glass models and maximum entropy inference, we have developed a computational approach to translate sequence databases into empirical fitness landscapes. These landscapes explicitly connect viral genotype to phenotypic fitness and reveal vulnerable targets that can be exploited to rationally design immunogens. Viewing these landscapes as the mutational ''playing field'' over which the virus is constrained to evolve, we have integrated them with agent-based models of the viral mutational and host immune response dynamics, establishing a data-driven immune simulator of HCV infection. We have employed this simulator to perform in silico screening of HCV immunogens. By systematically identifying a small number of promising vaccine candidates, these models can accelerate the search for a vaccine by massively reducing the experimental search space.

  13. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, William B.; Bogle, I. David L.

    2016-01-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR) and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes meant that the

  14. A Computational Model of Hepatic Energy Metabolism: Understanding Zonated Damage and Steatosis in NAFLD.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, William B; Davies, Nathan A; Bogle, I David L

    2016-09-01

    In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), lipid build-up and the resulting damage is known to occur more severely in pericentral cells. Due to the complexity of studying individual regions of the sinusoid, the causes of this zone specificity and its implications on treatment are largely ignored. In this study, a computational model of liver glucose and lipid metabolism is presented which treats the sinusoid as the repeating unit of the liver rather than the single hepatocyte. This allows for inclusion of zonated enzyme expression by splitting the sinusoid into periportal to pericentral compartments. By simulating insulin resistance (IR) and high intake diets leading to the development of steatosis in the model, we identify key differences between periportal and pericentral cells accounting for higher susceptibility to pericentral steatosis. Secondly, variation between individuals is seen in both susceptibility to steatosis and in its development across the sinusoid. Around 25% of obese individuals do not show excess liver fat, whilst 16% of lean individuals develop NAFLD. Furthermore, whilst pericentral cells tend to show higher lipid levels, variation is seen in the predominant location of steatosis from pericentral to pan-sinusoidal or azonal. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the processes which have the largest effect on both total hepatic triglyceride levels and on the sinusoidal location of steatosis. As is seen in vivo, steatosis occurs when simulating IR in the model, predominantly due to increased uptake, along with an increase in de novo lipogenesis. Additionally, concentrations of glucose intermediates including glycerol-3-phosphate increased when simulating IR due to inhibited glycogen synthesis. Several differences between zones contributed to a higher susceptibility to steatosis in pericentral cells in the model simulations. Firstly, the periportal zonation of both glycogen synthase and the oxidative phosphorylation enzymes meant that the

  15. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through exposure to ... 2016-2021 Fact sheets Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis D Hepatitis E Guidelines & manuals Hepatitis C ...

  16. Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... русский español Highlight Report Global hepatitis report, 2017 World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice ... viral hepatitis plans About us Overview Director-General World Health Assembly Executive Board Member states Constitution and ...

  17. Protective Effects of White Button Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) against Hepatic Steatosis in Ovariectomized Mice as a Model of Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Noriko; Kubo, Makoto; Liu, Zheng; Chu, Peiguo; Wang, Charles; Chen, Yate-Ching Yuan, Shiuan

    2011-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes various hepatic pathologies ranging from hepatic steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Estrogen provides a protective effect on the development of NAFLD in women. Therefore, postmenopausal women have a higher risk of developing NAFLD. Hepatic steatosis is an early stage of fatty liver disease. Steatosis can develop to the aggressive stages (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis). Currently, there is no specific drug to prevent/treat these liver diseases. In this study, we found that white button mushroom (WBM), Agaricus Bisporus, has protective effects against liver steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice (a model of postmenopausal women). OVX mice were fed a high fat diet supplemented with WBM powder. We found that dietary WBM intake significantly lowered liver weight and hepatic injury markers in OVX mice. Pathological examination of liver tissue showed less fat accumulation in the livers of mice on WBM diet; moreover, these animals had improved glucose clearance ability. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, particularly the genes for fatty acid synthetase (Fas) and fatty acid elongase 6 (Elovl6), were down-regulated in the liver of mushroom-fed mice. In vitro mechanistic studies using the HepG2 cell line showed that down-regulation of the expression of FAS and ELOVL6 by WBM extract was through inhibition of Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling and its downstream transcriptional factor SREBP1c. These results suggest that WBM is protective against hepatic steatosis and NAFLD in OVX mice as a model for postmenopausal women. PMID:22046322

  18. Micro-CT measurements of tumoral vessels supplied by portal circulation in hepatic colorectal metastasis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hong Young; Lee, Young Hwan; Juhng, Seon Kwan; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the micro CT findings of tumoral vessels supplied by portal circulation during establishment of hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer in a mouse model. Hepatic metastases were induced in 15 BALB/c mice through the injection of murine colonic adenocarcinoma tumor cells into the mesenteric vein. Micro-CT imaging of the tumoral vessels was obtained to clarify the microvascular architecture. We evaluated the sinusoidal structure, diameter of the tumoral vessels (DTV) and blood vessel density (BVD) according to tumor sizes ranging from 201 to 3,000 µm in diameter. A total of 116 tumors were observed on day 15 after cell injection. The mean diameter of a normal hepatic sinusoid was 11.7 ± 2.0 µm on micro CT. The DTV supplied by the portal vein of tumors measuring 1,001-1,500 µm in diameter was greater than that of tumors 200-1,000 µm in diameter. The mean BVD from the portal vein gradually decrease according to size of tumor from 201 to 3,000 µm in diameter (r(2)  = -0.584, P < 0.01). The characteristics of tumoral vessels supplied by portal circulation during establishment of hepatic colorectal metastases were well visualized with micro-CT imaging. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032; Zhu, Bo

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid andmore » glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.« less

  20. Modelling hepatitis C virus incidence, prevalence and long-term sequelae in Australia, 2001.

    PubMed

    Law, Matthew G; Dore, Gregory J; Bath, Nicky; Thompson, Sandra; Crofts, Nick; Dolan, Kate; Giles, Wendy; Gow, Paul; Kaldor, John; Loveday, Stuart; Powell, Elizabeth; Spencer, Jenean; Wodak, Alex

    2003-10-01

    To plan an appropriate public health response to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemic requires that estimates of HCV incidence and prevalence, and projections of the long-term sequelae of infection, are as accurate as possible. In this paper, mathematical models are used to synthesize data on the epidemiology and natural history of HCV in Australia to estimate HCV incidence and prevalence in Australia to end 2001, and project future trends in the long-term sequelae of HCV infection. Mathematical models of the HCV epidemic in Australia were developed based on estimates of the pattern of injecting drug use. Estimates of HCV infections due to injecting drug use were then adjusted to allow for HCV infections resulting from other transmission routes. Projections of the long-term sequelae of HCV infection were obtained by combining modelled HCV incidence with estimates of the progression rates to these outcomes. It was estimated that there were 210 000 (lower and upper limits of 157 000 and 252 000) people in Australia living with HCV antibodies at the end of 2001, with HCV incidence in 2001 estimated to be 16 000 (11 000-19 000). It was estimated that 6500 (5000-8000) people were living with HCV-related cirrhosis in 2001, that 175 (130-210) people developed HCV-associated liver failure, and that there were 50 (40-60) incident cases of HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It was estimated that in 2001 22 500 quality adjusted life years were lost to chronic HCV infection, the majority (77%) in people with early (stage 0/1) liver disease. Model-based estimates were broadly consistent with other sources of information on the HCV epidemic in Australia. These models suggest that the prevalence of HCV-related cirrhosis and the incidence of HCV-related liver failure and HCC will more than triple in Australia by 2020.

  1. Rabbit as a Novel Animal Model for Hepatitis E Virus Infection and Vaccine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xianfeng; Wang, Song; Dai, Xing; Shi, Chengbo; Wen, Yufeng; Zhu, Ming; Zhan, Shenwei; Meng, Jihong

    2012-01-01

    Background The identification of hepatitis E virus (HEV) from rabbits motivated us to assess the possibility of using rabbits as a non-human primate animal model for HEV infection and vaccine evaluation. Methodology/Principal Findings First, 75 rabbits were inoculated with seven strains of genotypes 1, 3, 4, and rabbit HEV, to determine the appropriate strain, administrative route and viral dosage. Second, 15 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups and vaccinated with 0 µg (placebo), 10 µg and 20 µg of HEV candidate vaccine, HEV p179, respectively. After three doses of the vaccination, the rabbits were challenged with 3.3×105 genome equivalents of genotype 4 HEV strain H4-NJ703. The strain of genotype 1 HEV was not found to be infectious for rabbits. However, approximately 80% of the animals were infected by two rabbit HEV strains. All rabbits inoculated with a genotype 3 strain were seroconverted but did not show viremia or fecal viral shedding. Although two genotype 4 strains, H4-NJ153 and H4-NJ112, only resulted in part of rabbits infected, another strain of genotype 4, H4-NJ703, had an infection rate of 100% (five out of five) when administrated intravenously. However, only two out of fifteen rabbits showed virus excretion and seroconversion when inoculated orally with H4-NJ703 of three different dosages. In the vaccine evaluation study, rabbits vaccinated with 20 µg of the HEV p179 produced anti-HEV with titers of 1∶104–1∶105 and were completely protected from infection. Rabbits vaccinated with 10 µg produced anti-HEV with titers of 1∶103–1∶104 and were protected from hepatitis, but two out of the five rabbits showed virus shedding. Conclusions/Significance Rabbits may be served as an alternative to the non-human primate models for HEV infection and vaccine evaluation when certain virus strains, appropriate viral dosages, and the intravenous route of inoculation are selected. PMID:23272124

  2. Oral N-acetylcysteine rescues lethality of hepatocyte-specific Gclc knockout mice providing a model for hepatic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Johansson, Elisabet; Yang, Yi; Miller, Marian L.; Shen, Dongxiao; Orlicky, David J.; Shertzer, Howard G.; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Nebert, Daniel W.; Dalton, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Certain liver diseases have been associated with depletion of glutathione (GSH), the major antioxidant in liver. A recent report about Gclch/h mice having a hepatocyte-specific ablation of Gclc (the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) has shown an essential role of GSH in hepatic function. Gclch/h mice develop severe steatosis and die of liver failure within one month, due to ~95% depletion of hepatic GSH; mitochondria are the major affected organelles, displaying abnormal ultrastructure and impaired function. Methods Gclch/h mice were fed with L-N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 10 g/L) in drinking water starting at postnatal day 18. Results Gclch/h mice were rescued by NAC supplementation to adulthood. NAC replenished the mitochondrial GSH pool and attenuated mitochondrial damage, accompanied with diminished hepatic steatosis; however, abnormal liver biochemical tests, hepatocytes death and hepatic oxidative stress persisted in the rescued mice. At age 50 days, the liver from rescued Gclch/h mice started to display characteristics of fibrosis, and at age 120 days, macronodular cirrhosis was observed. Immunohistostaining for liver-specific markers and the expression profile of hepatic cytokines indicated that the repopulation of hepatocytes in the cirrhotic nodules involves the expansion of oval cells. Conclusions Replenishment of mitochondrial GSH and restoration of mitochondrial function by NAC prevent mortality caused by loss of hepatocyte GSH de novo synthesis, allowing the progression of steatosis to a chronic stage. Thus, with NAC supplementation, Gclch/h mice provide a model for the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. PMID:20810184

  3. Tim-3/Galectin-9 Regulate the Homeostasis of Hepatic NKT Cells in a Murine Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shuwen; Potter, James; Jiang, Xuan; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2013-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)-3 is well known to interact with its natural ligand, Galectin-9 (Gal-9), to regulate T cell function. However, little is known about the function of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mediated by hepatic NKT cells that also express Tim-3. In the current study, we define the role and the mechanism of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in hepatic NKT cell regulation in a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Adult male wild-type or CD1d knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce steatosis. Some of the mice also received one or a combination of Gal-9, anti–IL-15R/IL-15 mAb, rIL-15, α-galactosylceramide, and multilamellar liposomes containing Cl2MDP. The expression of Tim-3 and various markers reflecting cell proliferation, activation, cytokine production, and apoptosis was analyzed. Liver histology, steatosis grade, and hepatic triglyceride content were also evaluated. In the liver, Tim-3+ NKT cells are in an activated state, and Gal-9 directly induces Tim-3+ NKT cell apoptosis and contributes to the depletion of NKT cells in diet-induced steatosis. However, Gal-9 also interacts with Tim-3–expressing Kupffer cells to induce secretion of IL-15, thus promoting NKT cell proliferation. Exogenous administration of Gal-9 significantly ameliorates diet-induced steatosis by modulating hepatic NKT cell function. In summary, the Tim-3/Gal-9–signaling pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells through activation-induced apoptosis and secondary proliferation and, thus, contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:23296703

  4. Tim-3/galectin-9 regulate the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhao-Hui; Liang, Shuwen; Potter, James; Jiang, Xuan; Mao, Hai-Quan; Li, Zhiping

    2013-02-15

    T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)-3 is well known to interact with its natural ligand, Galectin-9 (Gal-9), to regulate T cell function. However, little is known about the function of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mediated by hepatic NKT cells that also express Tim-3. In the current study, we define the role and the mechanism of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in hepatic NKT cell regulation in a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Adult male wild-type or CD1d knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce steatosis. Some of the mice also received one or a combination of Gal-9, anti-IL-15R/IL-15 mAb, rIL-15, α-galactosylceramide, and multilamellar liposomes containing Cl(2)MDP. The expression of Tim-3 and various markers reflecting cell proliferation, activation, cytokine production, and apoptosis was analyzed. Liver histology, steatosis grade, and hepatic triglyceride content were also evaluated. In the liver, Tim-3(+) NKT cells are in an activated state, and Gal-9 directly induces Tim-3(+) NKT cell apoptosis and contributes to the depletion of NKT cells in diet-induced steatosis. However, Gal-9 also interacts with Tim-3-expressing Kupffer cells to induce secretion of IL-15, thus promoting NKT cell proliferation. Exogenous administration of Gal-9 significantly ameliorates diet-induced steatosis by modulating hepatic NKT cell function. In summary, the Tim-3/Gal-9-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells through activation-induced apoptosis and secondary proliferation and, thus, contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  5. [The effect of portal blood stasis on lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion in a rabbit model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Yang, Jia-mei; Hou, Yuan-kai; Li, Dian-qi; Hu, Ming-hua; Liu, Peng

    2008-04-15

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of portal blood stasis on lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion. A rabbit hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury model was established by hepatic portal occlusion and in situ hypothermic irrigation for 30 min. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were employed and randomly divided into 3 groups equally by different dosage of portal blood stasis removal: group A5 (5 ml blood removal), group A10 (10 ml blood removal),and group B (no blood removal). Eight rabbits were served as controls with no hepatic portal occlusion and hypothermic irrigation. After reperfusion 4 h serum endotoxin content, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (Cr) were examined respectively, meantime lung and kidney tissues were sampled to determine the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), the pathology, and wet to dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content in lung tissues. Removing portal blood stasis ameliorated lung and renal injury as shown by decreasing the level of serum endotoxin, TNF-alpha, BUN, Cr, wet to dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content, MDA, SOD. TNF-alpha, Cr, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid protein content in lung tissues and MDA in kidney tissue in group A5 were significantly reduced compared with those in group B (P < 0.05), while in lung tissue in group A10 were also markedly reduced (P < 0.05). The activation of SOD in group A5 were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Removal of portal blood stasis before the resume of splanchnic circulation may ameliorate the lung and renal injury induced by hepatic ischemia reperfusion. The possible mechanism may be that portal blood stasis removal reduces endotoxin absorption, and further decreases production of serum TNF-alpha.

  6. Dietary Iron Supplementation Alters Hepatic Inflammation in a Rat Model of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Atarashi, Machi; Izawa, Takeshi; Miyagi, Rena; Ohji, Shoko; Hashimoto, Ai; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Yamate, Jyoji

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most common liver disease in the world. NAFLD can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and eventually hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired hepatic iron overload is seen in a number of patients with NAFLD; however, its significance in the pathology of NAFLD is still debated. Here, we investigated the role of dietary iron supplementation in experimental steatohepatitis in rats. Rats were fed a control, high-fat (HF), high-fat high-iron (HFHI) and high-iron (HI) diet for 30 weeks. Blood biochemical, histopathological and gut microbiota analyses were performed. Rats in HF and HFHI groups showed an ALT-dominant elevation of serum transaminases, hepatic steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. The number of large inflammatory foci, corresponding to lobular inflammation in NASH patients, was significantly higher in HFHI than in HF group; within the lesion, macrophages with intense iron staining were observed. Hepatic expression of TNFα was higher in HFHI than that in HF group. There was no significant change in hepatic oxidative stress, gut microbiota or serum endotoxin levels between HF and HFHI groups. These results suggested that dietary iron supplementation enhances experimental steatohepatitis induced by long-term high-fat diet feeding in rats. Iron-laden macrophages can play an important role in the enhancement of hepatic inflammation. PMID:29401710

  7. A Comprehensive Screening And Treatment Model For Reducing Disparities In Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Henry; Wang, Su; Wyatt, Laura; Peng, Chia-hui; Wan, Kejia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Chun, Kay; Kwon, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B affects Asian Americans at a much higher rate than the general US population. Appropriate care can limit morbidity and mortality from hepatitis B. However, access to care for many Asian Americans and other immigrant groups is limited by their lack of knowledge about the disease, as well as cultural, linguistic, and financial challenges. This article describes the results of BfreeNYC, a New York City pilot program that, from 2004 to 2008, provided hepatitis B community education and awareness, free screening and vaccinations, and free or low-cost treatment primarily to immigrants from Asia, but also to residents from other racial and ethnic minority groups. The program was the largest citywide screening program in the United States, reaching nearly 9,000 people, and the only one providing comprehensive care to those who were infected. During the program, new hepatitis B cases reported annually from predominantly Asian neighborhoods in the city increased 34 percent. More than two thousand people were vaccinated; 57 percent of the 1,162 patients who tested positive for hepatitis B and were evaluated by program clinical services were still in care at the end of the program. Our analysis found that the program was effective in reaching the target population and providing care. Although follow-up care data will be needed to demonstrate long-term costeffectiveness, the program may serve as a useful prototype for addressing hepatitis B disparities in communities across the United States. PMID:21976342

  8. Hepatic Differentiation of Murine Disease-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Allows Disease Modelling In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Eggenschwiler, Reto; Loya, Komal; Sgodda, Malte; André, Francoise; Cantz, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Direct reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent cells by retrovirus-mediated expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and C-MYC is a promising approach to derive disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). In this study, we focused on three murine models for metabolic liver disorders: the copper storage disorder Wilson's disease (toxic-milk mice), tyrosinemia type 1 (fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase deficiency, FAH−/− mice), and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZ mice). Colonies of iPSCs emerged 2-3 weeks after transduction of fibroblasts, prepared from each mouse strain, and were maintained as individual iPSC lines. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence analyses demonstrated the expression of endogenous pluripotency markers. Hepatic precursor cells could be derived from these disease-specific iPSCs applying an in vitro differentiation protocol and could be visualized after transduction of a lentiviral albumin-GFP reporter construct. Functional characterization of these cells allowed the recapitulation of the disease phenotype for further studies of underlying molecular mechanisms of the respective disease. PMID:21977043

  9. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy to detect hepatic necrosis after normothermic ischemia: animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Renan A.; Vollet-Filho, Jose D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Fernandez, Jorge L.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Sankarankutty, Ajith K.

    2015-06-01

    Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for liver failure. However, the success of the transplantation procedure depends on liver graft conditions. The tissue function evaluation during the several transplantation stages is relevant, in particular during the organ harvesting, when a decision is made concerning the viability of the graft. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy is a good option because it is a noninvasive and fast technique. A partial normothermic hepatic ischemia was performed in rat livers, with a vascular occlusion of both median and left lateral lobes, allowing circulation only for the right lateral lobe and the caudate lobe. Fluorescence spectra under excitation at 532 nm (doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser) were collected using a portable spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA). The fluorescence emission was collected before vascular occlusion, after ischemia, and 24 hours after reperfusion. A morphometric histology analysis was performed as the gold standard evaluation - liver samples were analyzed, and the percentage of necrotic tissue was obtained. The results showed that changes in the fluorescence emission after ischemia can be correlated with the amount of necrosis evaluated by a morphometric analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the generated model was 0.90 and the root mean square error was around 20%. In this context, the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique after normothermic ischemia showed to be a fast and efficient method to differentiate ischemic injury from viable tissues.

  10. A Model for Interprofessional Health Disparities Education: Student-Led Curriculum on Chronic Hepatitis B Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toy, Brian C.; Kwahk, Emanuel; Yu, Albert; Adler, Joshua; Lai, Cindy J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although health disparities are commonly addressed in preclinical didactic curricula, direct patient care activities with affected communities are more limited. PURPOSE To address this problem, health professional students designed a preclinical service-learning curriculum on hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection, a major health disparity affecting the Asian/Pacific Islander (API) population, integrating lectures, skills training, and direct patient care at student-run clinics. SETTING An urban health professions campus. METHODS Medical and other health professional students at University of California, San Francisco, organized a preclinical didactic and experiential elective, and established two monthly clinics offering HBV screening, vaccination, and education to the community. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2009, 477 students enrolled in the student-led HBV curriculum. Since the clinics’ inception in 2007, 804 patients have been screened for chronic HBV; 87% were API immigrants, 63% had limited English proficiency, and 46% were uninsured. Serologically, 10% were found to be chronic HBV carriers, 44% were susceptible to HBV, and 46% were immune. DISCUSSION Our student-led didactic and experiential elective can serve as an interprofessional curricular model for learning about specific health disparities while providing important services to the local community. PMID:20352509

  11. Effect of bovine lactoferrin in a therapeutic hamster model of hepatic amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; de la Garza, Mireya

    2012-06-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebiasis, a disease that produces dysentery as a result of the perforation of the large intestine. This parasite often invades other organs, primarily the liver, leading to an amoebic liver abscess (ALA), which can cause death. Metronidazole is the drug of choice for the treatment of ALA; however, it produces toxic side effects in patients. Lactoferrin (Lf) is a glycoprotein of the innate immune response that sequesters iron in the mucosae. Lf possesses immune-regulatory properties, such as antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the microbicidal activity of apoLf, which lacks bound iron, has been shown. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of bovine Lf (bLf) against ALA in a model of hepatic amoebiasis in hamsters. Interestingly, hamsters treated intragastrically with Lf (2.5 mg/100 g mass) over a period of 8 days showed no clinical signs of disease and ALA was effectively decreased, with only 0.63% detectable lesion, compared with 63% in untreated animals. Furthermore, liver function and blood cells approached normal levels among those receiving bLf treatment. These results suggest that bLf may aid in the therapy of amoebiasis, likely without producing undesirable effects in patients.

  12. A critical role for the chimpanzee model in the study of hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Bukh, Jens

    2004-06-01

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees. Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate the infectivity of infectious clones of HCV without chimpanzees. Chimpanzees became infected when RNA transcripts from molecular clones were inoculated directly into the liver. The infection generated by such transfection did not differ significantly from that observed in animals infected intravenously with wild-type HCV. The RNA inoculated into chimpanzees originated from a single sequence, and the animals therefore had a monoclonal HCV infection. Monoclonal infection simplifies studies of HCV, because virus interaction with the host is not confounded by the quasispecies invariably present in a natural infection. It furthermore permits true homologous challenge in studies of protective immunity and in testing the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Finally, this in vivo transfection system has made it possible to test for the first time the importance of genetic elements for HCV infectivity.

  13. Molecular models of NS3 protease variants of the Hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Nelson JF; Arcuri, Helen A; Bonalumi, Carlos E; de Souza, Fátima P; Mello, Isabel MVGC; Rahal, Paula; Pinho, João RR; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2005-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately three percent of the world population. In view of the lack of vaccines against HCV, there is an urgent need for an efficient treatment of the disease by an effective antiviral drug. Rational drug design has not been the primary way for discovering major therapeutics. Nevertheless, there are reports of success in the development of inhibitor using a structure-based approach. One of the possible targets for drug development against HCV is the NS3 protease variants. Based on the three-dimensional structure of these variants we expect to identify new NS3 protease inhibitors. In order to speed up the modeling process all NS3 protease variant models were generated in a Beowulf cluster. The potential of the structural bioinformatics for development of new antiviral drugs is discussed. Results The atomic coordinates of crystallographic structure 1CU1 and 1DY9 were used as starting model for modeling of the NS3 protease variant structures. The NS3 protease variant structures are composed of six subdomains, which occur in sequence along the polypeptide chain. The protease domain exhibits the dual beta-barrel fold that is common among members of the chymotrypsin serine protease family. The helicase domain contains two structurally related beta-alpha-beta subdomains and a third subdomain of seven helices and three short beta strands. The latter domain is usually referred to as the helicase alpha-helical subdomain. The rmsd value of bond lengths and bond angles, the average G-factor and Verify 3D values are presented for NS3 protease variant structures. Conclusions This project increases the certainty that homology modeling is an useful tool in structural biology and that it can be very valuable in annotating genome sequence information and contributing to structural and functional genomics from virus. The structural models will be used to guide future efforts in the structure-based drug design of a new

  14. Molecular models of NS3 protease variants of the Hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Nelson J F; Arcuri, Helen A; Bonalumi, Carlos E; de Souza, Fátima P; Mello, Isabel M V G C; Rahal, Paula; Pinho, João R R; de Azevedo, Walter F

    2005-01-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) currently infects approximately three percent of the world population. In view of the lack of vaccines against HCV, there is an urgent need for an efficient treatment of the disease by an effective antiviral drug. Rational drug design has not been the primary way for discovering major therapeutics. Nevertheless, there are reports of success in the development of inhibitor using a structure-based approach. One of the possible targets for drug development against HCV is the NS3 protease variants. Based on the three-dimensional structure of these variants we expect to identify new NS3 protease inhibitors. In order to speed up the modeling process all NS3 protease variant models were generated in a Beowulf cluster. The potential of the structural bioinformatics for development of new antiviral drugs is discussed. The atomic coordinates of crystallographic structure 1CU1 and 1DY9 were used as starting model for modeling of the NS3 protease variant structures. The NS3 protease variant structures are composed of six subdomains, which occur in sequence along the polypeptide chain. The protease domain exhibits the dual beta-barrel fold that is common among members of the chymotrypsin serine protease family. The helicase domain contains two structurally related beta-alpha-beta subdomains and a third subdomain of seven helices and three short beta strands. The latter domain is usually referred to as the helicase alpha-helical subdomain. The rmsd value of bond lengths and bond angles, the average G-factor and Verify 3D values are presented for NS3 protease variant structures. This project increases the certainty that homology modeling is an useful tool in structural biology and that it can be very valuable in annotating genome sequence information and contributing to structural and functional genomics from virus. The structural models will be used to guide future efforts in the structure-based drug design of a new generation of NS3 protease variants

  15. [Development of Markov models for economics evaluation of strategies on hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China].

    PubMed

    Yang, P C; Zhang, S X; Sun, P P; Cai, Y L; Lin, Y; Zou, Y H

    2017-07-10

    Objective: To construct the Markov models to reflect the reality of prevention and treatment interventions against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, simulate the natural history of HBV infection in different age groups and provide evidence for the economics evaluations of hepatitis B vaccination and population-based antiviral treatment in China. Methods: According to the theory and techniques of Markov chain, the Markov models of Chinese HBV epidemic were developed based on the national data and related literature both at home and abroad, including the settings of Markov model states, allowable transitions and initial and transition probabilities. The model construction, operation and verification were conducted by using software TreeAge Pro 2015. Results: Several types of Markov models were constructed to describe the disease progression of HBV infection in neonatal period, perinatal period or adulthood, the progression of chronic hepatitis B after antiviral therapy, hepatitis B prevention and control in adults, chronic hepatitis B antiviral treatment and the natural progression of chronic hepatitis B in general population. The model for the newborn was fundamental which included ten states, i.e . susceptiblity to HBV, HBsAg clearance, immune tolerance, immune clearance, low replication, HBeAg negative CHB, compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and death. The susceptible state to HBV was excluded in the perinatal period model, and the immune tolerance state was excluded in the adulthood model. The model for general population only included two states, survive and death. Among the 5 types of models, there were 9 initial states assigned with initial probabilities, and 27 states for transition probabilities. The results of model verifications showed that the probability curves were basically consistent with the situation of HBV epidemic in China. Conclusion: The Markov models developed can be used in economics evaluation of

  16. Model-based projections of the population-level impact of hepatitis A vaccination in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; De Antonio-Suarez, Rodrigo; Cassidy, Adrian; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Marano, Cinzia

    2012-01-01

    There are indications of a shift in the pattern of hepatitis A (HAV) in Mexico from high to intermediate endemicity, progressively increasing the mean age of infection and the proportion of cases which are symptomatic. This study estimated the potential impact of universal infant HAV vaccination in Mexico with two doses of Havrix™ at 12 and 18 mo of age on all HAV infections and symptomatic HAV infections. We developed a dynamic transmission model that accounts for changes in demography and HAV epidemiology. It was calibrated using Mexican age-specific seroprevalence and symptomatic HAV incidence data. With 70% first-dose coverage and 85% second-dose coverage, the calibrated model projected that HAV vaccination would reduce the incidence of all HAV infections (symptomatic and asymptomatic) after the first 25 y of vaccination by 71–76% (minimum and maximum for different transmission scenarios). The projected reduction in cumulative incidence of symptomatic HAV infections over the first 25 y of vaccination was 45–51%. With 90% first-dose coverage and 85% second-dose coverage, the projected reduction in incidence of all HAV infections was 85–93%, and the projected reduction in the cumulative incidence of symptomatic HAV infections was 61–67%, over a 25-y time frame. Sensitivity analyses indicated that second-dose coverage is important under the conservative base-case assumptions made about the duration of vaccine protection. The model indicated that universal infant HAV vaccination could substantially reduce the burden of HAV disease in Mexico. PMID:22854667

  17. Global prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus infection in 2015: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, which can become a reality with the recent launch of direct acting antiviral therapies. Reliable disease burden estimates are required for national strategies. This analysis estimates the global prevalence of viraemic HCV at the end of 2015, an update of-and expansion on-the 2014 analysis, which reported 80 million (95% CI 64-103) viraemic infections in 2013. We developed country-level disease burden models following a systematic review of HCV prevalence (number of studies, n=6754) and genotype (n=11 342) studies published after 2013. A Delphi process was used to gain country expert consensus and validate inputs. Published estimates alone were used for countries where expert panel meetings could not be scheduled. Global prevalence was estimated using regional averages for countries without data. Models were built for 100 countries, 59 of which were approved by country experts, with the remaining 41 estimated using published data alone. The remaining countries had insufficient data to create a model. The global prevalence of viraemic HCV is estimated to be 1·0% (95% uncertainty interval 0·8-1·1) in 2015, corresponding to 71·1 million (62·5-79·4) viraemic infections. Genotypes 1 and 3 were the most common cause of infections (44% and 25%, respectively). The global estimate of viraemic infections is lower than previous estimates, largely due to more recent (lower) prevalence estimates in Africa. Additionally, increased mortality due to liver-related causes and an ageing population may have contributed to a reduction in infections. John C Martin Foundation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cure model survival analysis after hepatic resection for colorectal liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Cucchetti, Alessando; Ferrero, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Donadon, Matteo; Russolillo, Nadia; Ercolani, Giorgio; Stacchini, Giacomo; Mazzotti, Federico; Torzilli, Guido; Pinna, Antonio Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Statistical cure is achieved when a patient population has the same mortality as cancer-free individuals; however, data regarding the probability of cure after hepatectomy of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) have never been provided. We aimed to assess the probability of being statistically cured from CLM by hepatic resection. Data from 1,012 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for CLM (2001-2012) were used to fit a nonmixture cure model to compare mortality after surgery to that expected for the general population matched by sex and age. The 5- and 10-year disease-free survival was 18.9 and 15.8 %; the corresponding overall survival was 44.3 and 32.7 %. In the entire study population, the probability of being cured from CLM was 20 % (95 % confidence interval 16.5-23.5). After the first year, the mortality excess of resected patients, in comparison to the general population, starts to decline until it approaches zero 6 years after surgery. After 6.48 years, patients alive without tumor recurrence can be considered cured with 99 % certainty. Multivariate analysis showed that cure probabilities range from 40.9 % in patients with node-negative primary tumors and metachronous presentation of a single lesion <3 cm, to 1.5 % in patients with node positivity, and synchronous presentation of multiple, large CLMs. A model for the calculation of a cure fraction for each possible clinical scenario is provided. Using a cure model, the present results indicate that statistical cure of CLM is possible after hepatectomy; providing this information can help clinicians give more precise answer to patients' questions.

  19. Modeling chronic hepatitis B or C virus infection during antiviral therapy using an analogy to enzyme kinetics: long-term viral dynamics without rebound and oscillation.

    PubMed

    Takayanagi, Toshiaki

    2013-12-01

    The basic model for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection during therapy enables us to analyze short-term viral kinetics. However, the model is not useful for analyzing long-term viral kinetics. Here, I suggest a new model that was obtained by introducing Michaelis-Menten kinetics into the basic model. The new model can exhibit long-term viral kinetics without rebound and oscillation, unlike the basic model. The value of the parameter K in the new model is analogous to the Michaelis constant Km and is predicted to be approximately less than 10(10)/ml. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid tin-mediated access to a lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) library: Application to positional LC/MS analysis for hepatic LPEs in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model mice.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Takayuki; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Watanabe, Chinatsu; Chiba, Hitoshi; Hui, Shu-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Even though lysophospholipids have attracted much interest in recent years on account of their unique bioactivity, research related to lysophospholipids is usually hampered by problems associated with standard sample preparation and discrimination of regioisomers. Herein, we demonstrate a quick tin-chemistry-based synthetic route to lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs) and its application in the positional analysis of hepatic LPEs in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. We found that the preference of hepatic LPE regioisomer largely depends on the unsaturation of acyl chain in both control and NASH model mice. In addition, hepatic C18:2-LPE and C20:5-LPE levels were significantly lower in the NASH model mice than those in the control. The LC/MS technique based on the library of LPE regioisomers allows an accurate observation of hepatic LPE metabolism and might provide useful information to elucidate yet ambiguous pathogenesis of NASH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improvement of predictive models of risk of disease progression in chronic hepatitis C by incorporating longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Konerman, Monica A; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhu, Ji; Higgins, Peter D R; Lok, Anna S F; Waljee, Akbar K

    2015-06-01

    Existing predictive models of risk of disease progression in chronic hepatitis C have limited accuracy. The aim of this study was to improve upon existing models by applying novel statistical methods that incorporate longitudinal data. Patients in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment Against Cirrhosis trial were analyzed. Outcomes of interest were (1) fibrosis progression (increase of two or more Ishak stages) and (2) liver-related clinical outcomes (liver-related death, hepatic decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplant, or increase in Child-Turcotte-Pugh score to ≥7). Predictors included longitudinal clinical, laboratory, and histologic data. Models were constructed using logistic regression and two machine learning methods (random forest and boosting) to predict an outcome in the next 12 months. The control arm was used as the training data set (n = 349 clinical, n = 184 fibrosis) and the interferon arm, for internal validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for longitudinal models of fibrosis progression was 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.83) using logistic regression, 0.79 (95% CI 0.77-0.81) using random forest, and 0.79 (95% CI 0.77-0.82) using boosting. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for longitudinal models of clinical progression was 0.79 (95% CI 0.77-0.82) using logistic regression, 0.86 (95% CI 0.85-0.87) using random forest, and 0.84 (95% CI 0.82-0.86) using boosting. Longitudinal models outperformed baseline models for both outcomes (P < 0.0001). Longitudinal machine learning models had negative predictive values of 94% for both outcomes. Prediction models that incorporate longitudinal data can capture nonlinear disease progression in chronic hepatitis C and thus outperform baseline models. Machine learning methods can capture complex relationships between predictors and outcomes, yielding more accurate predictions; our models can help target

  2. Binding dynamics of hepatitis C virus' NS5A amphipathic peptide to cell and model membranes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Cheong, Kwang Ho; Lee, ChoongHo; Frank, Curtis W; Glenn, Jeffrey S

    2007-06-01

    Membrane association of the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is required for viral replication. This association is dependent on an N-terminal amphipathic helix (AH) within NS5A and is restricted to a subset of host cell intracellular membranes. The mechanism underlying this specificity is not known, but it may suggest a novel strategy for developing specific antiviral therapy. Here we have probed the mechanistic details of NS5A AH-mediated binding to both cell-derived and model membranes by use of biochemical membrane flotation and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with dissipation. With both assays, we observed AH-mediated binding to model lipid bilayers. When cell-derived membranes were coated on the quartz nanosensor, however, significantly more binding was detected, and the QCM-derived kinetic measurements suggested the existence of an interacting receptor in the target membranes. Biochemical flotation assays performed with trypsin-treated cell-derived membranes exhibited reduced AH-mediated membrane binding, while membrane binding of control cytochrome b5 remained unaffected. Similarly, trypsin treatment of the nanosensor coated with cellular membranes abolished AH peptide binding to the cellular membranes but did not affect the binding of a control lipid-binding peptide. These results therefore suggest that a protein plays a critical role in mediating and stabilizing the binding of NS5A's AH to its target membrane. These results also demonstrate the successful development of a new nanosensor technology ideal both for studying the interaction between a protein and its target membrane and for developing inhibitors of that interaction.

  3. A descriptive model of patient readiness, motivators, and hepatitis C treatment uptake among Australian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%-3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for peer-based education to address lack of

  4. A Descriptive Model of Patient Readiness, Motivators, and Hepatitis C Treatment Uptake among Australian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Carruthers, Susan; Thompson, Sandra; Cheng, Wendy; Jones, Jocelyn; Simpson, Paul; Richards, Alun; Thein, Hla-Hla; Haber, Paul; Lloyd, Andrew; Butler, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) has a significant global health burden with an estimated 2%–3% of the world's population infected, and more than 350,000 dying annually from HCV-related conditions including liver failure and liver cancer. Prisons potentially offer a relatively stable environment in which to commence treatment as they usually provide good access to health care providers, and are organised around routine and structure. Uptake of treatment of HCV, however, remains low in the community and in prisons. In this study, we explored factors affecting treatment uptake inside prisons and hypothesised that prisoners have unique issues influencing HCV treatment uptake as a consequence of their incarceration which are not experienced in other populations. Method and Findings We undertook a qualitative study exploring prisoners' accounts of why they refused, deferred, delayed or discontinued HCV treatment in prison. Between 2010 and 2013, 116 Australian inmates were interviewed from prisons in New South Wales, Queensland, and Western Australia. Prisoners experienced many factors similar to those which influence treatment uptake of those living with HCV infection in the community. Incarceration, however, provides different circumstances of how these factors are experienced which need to be better understood if the number of prisoners receiving treatment is to be increased. We developed a descriptive model of patient readiness and motivators for HCV treatment inside prisons and discussed how we can improve treatment uptake among prisoners. Conclusion This study identified a broad and unique range of challenges to treatment of HCV in prison. Some of these are likely to be diminished by improving treatment options and improved models of health care delivery. Other barriers relate to inmate understanding of their illness and stigmatisation by other inmates and custodial staff and generally appear less amenable to change although there is potential for

  5. Binding Dynamics of Hepatitis C Virus' NS5A Amphipathic Peptide to Cell and Model Membranes▿

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Cheong, Kwang Ho; Lee, ChoongHo; Frank, Curtis W.; Glenn, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Membrane association of the hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is required for viral replication. This association is dependent on an N-terminal amphipathic helix (AH) within NS5A and is restricted to a subset of host cell intracellular membranes. The mechanism underlying this specificity is not known, but it may suggest a novel strategy for developing specific antiviral therapy. Here we have probed the mechanistic details of NS5A AH-mediated binding to both cell-derived and model membranes by use of biochemical membrane flotation and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) with dissipation. With both assays, we observed AH-mediated binding to model lipid bilayers. When cell-derived membranes were coated on the quartz nanosensor, however, significantly more binding was detected, and the QCM-derived kinetic measurements suggested the existence of an interacting receptor in the target membranes. Biochemical flotation assays performed with trypsin-treated cell-derived membranes exhibited reduced AH-mediated membrane binding, while membrane binding of control cytochrome b5 remained unaffected. Similarly, trypsin treatment of the nanosensor coated with cellular membranes abolished AH peptide binding to the cellular membranes but did not affect the binding of a control lipid-binding peptide. These results therefore suggest that a protein plays a critical role in mediating and stabilizing the binding of NS5A's AH to its target membrane. These results also demonstrate the successful development of a new nanosensor technology ideal both for studying the interaction between a protein and its target membrane and for developing inhibitors of that interaction. PMID:17428867

  6. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme; Bonamin, Leoni Villano

    2010-06-01

    Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the 'resistant hepatocyte model' (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1-2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann-Whitney and χ(2)) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model.

  7. A mathematical model to study the effect of hepatitis B virus vaccine and antivirus treatment among the Canadian Inuit population.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, C; Hong, Z; Zhang, F; Dawood, M; Smart, G; Kaita, K; Wu, J

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B among the Canadian Inuit population is 4%. This study will use a mathematical model to compare the roles of vaccination and therapy to predict future prevalence and incidence among the Canadian Inuit population for the next 50 years. We applied a mathematical model developed by Medley et al. (Nat Med 7(5):619-624, 2001), combined with data on hepatitis B incidence, prevalence, and vaccination coverage, to predict trends of hepatitis B virus (HBV) among the Inuit population over the next 50 years. The current estimated prevalence of HBV is 6.04% and the incidence is 3.4/100,000 persons among Canadian Inuit. If HBV vaccination coverage levels of 47.2% remain unchanged, the prevalence of HBV will decrease to 1.91% and the incidence will decrease to 0.81/100,000 persons by 2058. If vaccination coverage levels are increased to 57.2%, the prevalence and incidence of HBV will decrease to 1.74% and 0.63/100,000 persons, respectively. If we increase both immunization and therapy by 10%, this will produce the greatest reduction in prevalence and incidence, to 1.56% and 0.54/100,000 persons, respectively. The combination of immunization and treatment programs seems to have the best result in decreasing the prevalence and incidence of HBV among the Inuit population.

  8. Hepatitis B in a high prevalence New Zealand population: a mathematical model applied to infection control policy.

    PubMed

    Thornley, Simon; Bullen, Chris; Roberts, Mick

    2008-10-07

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a vaccine preventable disease of global public health importance. The prevalence of CHB in New Zealand's Tongan population is over 10%, a level consistent with endemic infection, which contrasts to the low overall New Zealand prevalence (<0.5%). Despite the introduction of infant vaccination in 1988, coverage among Tongan children is estimated to be only 53%. To estimate the population benefit of additional public health control measures besides 'business as usual' infant vaccination for hepatitis B in high prevalence populations. A mathematical model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission was used to predict future CHB prevalence in the New Zealand Tongan population under different infection control strategies. Prevalence of CHB is predicted to plateau at 2% in the New Zealand Tongan population if coverage remains at current levels, which are therefore insufficient to achieve long-term elimination of HBV. The critical proportion of immunisation coverage for elimination of the virus is estimated to be 73%. The effect of screening for HBV carriage and early disease management was unable to be quantified, but is likely to reduce the population burden of HBV infection and thus contribute to accelerating elimination. Mathematical models are a useful tool to forecast the future burden of CHB under a range of control strategy scenarios in high prevalence populations. Serosurveillance and targeted vaccination has similarly arrested HBV transmission in time-series prevalence studies from Taiwan and Alaska. Such a policy may demonstrate similar efficacy in New Zealand ethnic groups with endemic HBV infection.

  9. Reversibility of hepatic histological damage after surgical temporary obstruction of the common bile duct in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Olguín, H Juárez; Hernández, J L Figueroa; Guzman, D Calderón; Medina, R Alemón

    2011-03-01

    The reversibility of hepatic histological damage after restoring bile flow in a murine model was assessed. 25 male Balb C mice (25-35 g, age 6 weeks) were divided into 5 groups and their common bile duct (CBD) fastened to obstruct the release of gall bladder and liver contents. Group I, CBD untied at day 10, group II at day 15, and groups III and IV at days 20 and 30, respectively. Hematoxilin-eosin stained liver slices were analysed 0, 5, 10 and 20 days after restoring bile flow. Group I showed slight histological lesions (second stage), as cholangiolar bile pigment concretion, pericholangiolar and portal collagen accumulation; group II, mild lesions (third stage), as cholangiolar hamartomatous proliferation and bile duct portal fibrosis; group III showed severe lesions (fourth stage), as loss of functional parenchyma, and also the second and first stage lesions. Group IV died before 30 days. First stage corresponds to absent lesions (control group). Group I recovered totally, group II recovered only from slight lesions and group III had irreversible damage. Severity of lesions increased gradually and accumulatively, irreversible hepatic damage was achieved at 20 days and is deadly at 30 days. Our model of temporary CBD obstruction was suitable to assess reversibility of hepatic histological damage.

  10. Cutthroat trout virus as a surrogate in vitro infection model for testing inhibitors of hepatitis E virus replication

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Debing, Yannick; Winton, James; Neyts, Johan; Dallmeier, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the most important causes of acute hepatitis worldwide. Although most infections are self-limiting, mortality is particularly high in pregnant women. Chronic infections can occur in transplant and other immune-compromised patients. Successful treatment of chronic hepatitis E has been reported with ribavirin and pegylated interferon-alpha, however severe side effects were observed. We employed the cutthroat trout virus (CTV), a non-pathogenic fish virus with remarkable similarities to HEV, as a potential surrogate for HEV and established an antiviral assay against this virus using the Chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line. Ribavirin and the respective trout interferon were found to efficiently inhibit CTV replication. Other known broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA virus replication such as the nucleoside analog 2′-C-methylcytidine resulted only in a moderate antiviral activity. In its natural fish host, CTV levels largely fluctuate during the reproductive cycle with the virus detected mainly during spawning. We wondered whether this aspect of CTV infection may serve as a surrogate model for the peculiar pathogenesis of HEV in pregnant women. To that end the effect of three sex steroids on in vitro CTV replication was evaluated. Whereas progesterone resulted in marked inhibition of virus replication, testosterone and 17β-estradiol stimulated viral growth. Our data thus indicate that CTV may serve as a surrogate model for HEV, both for antiviral experiments and studies on the replication biology of the Hepeviridae.

  11. Simple models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and platelets for predicting survival in hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Qing; Bi, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xin-Sen; Qu, Kai; Miao, Run-Chen; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yan-Yan; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several hepatic cirrhosis-derived noninvasive models have been developed to predict the incidence and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the two novel established cirrhosis-associated models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and platelets in hepatitis B-associated HCC. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 182 HCC patients with positive hepatitis B surface antigen who received radical therapy at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Laboratory data prior to operation were collected to calculate the GGT to platelets ratio (GPR) and the S-index. Predictive factors associated with overall survival and recurrence-free survival were assessed using log-rank test and multivariate Cox analysis. Additional analyses were performed after patients were stratified based on cirrhosis status, tumor size, therapy methods, and so forth, to investigate the prognostic significance in different subgroups. Results During a median follow-up time of 45.0 months, a total of 88 (48.4%) patients died and 79 (43.4%) patients recurred. The cut-off points for GPR and S-index in predicting death were determined to be 0.76 and 0.56, respectively. Compared with patients with a lower GPR, those with GPR ≥0.76 had a higher probability of cirrhosis and a larger tumor (both P<0.05). GPR and S-index were both found to be significantly associated with survival by univariate log-rank test. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size ≥5 and high level of GPR, but not high Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage or S-index, as independent factors for predicting poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival. Conclusion The GPR is an effective preoperative predictor for outcomes in hepatitis B-associated HCC. PMID:27110127

  12. Simple models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and platelets for predicting survival in hepatitis B-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pang, Qing; Bi, Jian-Bin; Wang, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xin-Sen; Qu, Kai; Miao, Run-Chen; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yan-Yan; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Several hepatic cirrhosis-derived noninvasive models have been developed to predict the incidence and outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of the two novel established cirrhosis-associated models based on gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and platelets in hepatitis B-associated HCC. We retrospectively evaluated 182 HCC patients with positive hepatitis B surface antigen who received radical therapy at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Laboratory data prior to operation were collected to calculate the GGT to platelets ratio (GPR) and the S-index. Predictive factors associated with overall survival and recurrence-free survival were assessed using log-rank test and multivariate Cox analysis. Additional analyses were performed after patients were stratified based on cirrhosis status, tumor size, therapy methods, and so forth, to investigate the prognostic significance in different subgroups. During a median follow-up time of 45.0 months, a total of 88 (48.4%) patients died and 79 (43.4%) patients recurred. The cut-off points for GPR and S-index in predicting death were determined to be 0.76 and 0.56, respectively. Compared with patients with a lower GPR, those with GPR ≥0.76 had a higher probability of cirrhosis and a larger tumor (both P<0.05). GPR and S-index were both found to be significantly associated with survival by univariate log-rank test. Multivariate analysis identified tumor size ≥5 and high level of GPR, but not high Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage or S-index, as independent factors for predicting poor overall survival and recurrence-free survival. The GPR is an effective preoperative predictor for outcomes in hepatitis B-associated HCC.

  13. Hepatic Arterial Embolization with Doxorubicin-Loaded Superabsorbent Polymer Microspheres in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay, E-mail: sgupta@mdanderson.org; Wright, Kenneth C.; Ensor, Joe

    2011-10-15

    Objectives: The pharmacokinetic profile after hepatic arterial embolization with superabsorbent microspheres (QuadraSpheres) loaded with doxorubicin was studied. Methods: Rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were treated with intra-arterial administration of QuadraSpheres loaded with doxorubicin, or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using doxorubicin, Lipiodol and Embospheres, or hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of doxorubicin. Tumor specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, and plasma and tumor concentrations of doxorubicin were measured. Results: The peak plasma concentration of doxorubicin was lower in the QuadraSphere group (309.9 ng/ml) than in the HAI (673.4 ng/ml) or TACE (360.5 ng/ml) groups, suggesting higher tumor retention in the QuadraSphere group. Intratumoralmore » doxorubicin levels declined to negligible levels at 1 and 3 days after treatment, respectively, in the HAI and TACE groups. In the QuadraSphere groups, intratumoral doxorubicin level declined after day 1, but was still detectable at 14 days after treatment and was higher than that in the other groups at 1, 3, and 7 days. Intratumoral doxorubicin fluorescence was detected at all time points in the QuadraSphere group, but only at 1 day after treatment in the TACE group. Conclusions: Hepatic arterial administration of doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSpheres enables the sustained release of doxorubicin to hepatic tumors.« less

  14. Hepatitis E

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests include reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the hepatitis E virus RNA in ... tests include reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the hepatitis E virus RNA in ...

  15. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seconds National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID) Hepatitis Risk Assessment Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Take this 5 minute hepatitis risk assessment and get a personalized report HIV and Viral ...

  16. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  17. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000279.htm Hepatitis B To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B is irritation and swelling (inflammation) of the liver ...

  18. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an ... of viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  19. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... during childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  20. Mechanistic characterization and molecular modeling of hepatitis B virus polymerase resistance to entecavir.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Ann W; Langley, David R; Colonno, Richard J; Tenney, Daniel J

    2010-02-12

    Entecavir (ETV) is a deoxyguanosine analog competitive inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) polymerase that exhibits delayed chain termination of HBV DNA. A high barrier to entecavir-resistance (ETVr) is observed clinically, likely due to its potency and a requirement for multiple resistance changes to overcome suppression. Changes in the HBV polymerase reverse-transcriptase (RT) domain involve lamivudine-resistance (LVDr) substitutions in the conserved YMDD motif (M204V/I +/- L180M), plus an additional ETV-specific change at residues T184, S202 or M250. These substitutions surround the putative dNTP binding site or primer grip regions of the HBV RT. To determine the mechanistic basis for ETVr, wildtype, lamivudine-resistant (M204V, L180M) and ETVr HBVs were studied using in vitro RT enzyme and cell culture assays, as well as molecular modeling. Resistance substitutions significantly reduced ETV incorporation and chain termination in HBV DNA and increased the ETV-TP inhibition constant (K(i)) for HBV RT. Resistant HBVs exhibited impaired replication in culture and reduced enzyme activity (k(cat)) in vitro. Molecular modeling of the HBV RT suggested that ETVr residue T184 was adjacent to and stabilized S202 within the LVDr YMDD loop. ETVr arose through steric changes at T184 or S202 or by disruption of hydrogen-bonding between the two, both of which repositioned the loop and reduced the ETV-triphosphate (ETV-TP) binding pocket. In contrast to T184 and S202 changes, ETVr at primer grip residue M250 was observed during RNA-directed DNA synthesis only. Experimentally, M250 changes also impacted the dNTP-binding site. Modeling suggested a novel mechanism for M250 resistance, whereby repositioning of the primer-template component of the dNTP-binding site shifted the ETV-TP binding pocket. No structural data are available to confirm the HBV RT modeling, however, results were consistent with phenotypic analysis of comprehensive substitutions of each ETVr position

  1. Comfrey (Symphytum Officinale. l.) and Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: A Short-term Carcinogenesis Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maria Fernanda Pereira Lavieri; de Oliveira Massoco, Cristina; Xavier, José Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Comfrey or Symphytum officinale (L.) (Boraginaceae) is a very popular plant used for therapeutic purposes. Since the 1980s, its effects have been studied in long-term carcinogenesis studies, in which Comfrey extract is administered at high doses during several months and the neoplastic hepatic lesions are evaluated. However, the literature on this topic is very poor considering the studies performed under short-term carcinogenesis protocols, such as the ‘resistant hepatocyte model’ (RHM). In these studies, it is possible to observe easily the phenomena related to the early phases of tumor development, since pre-neoplastic lesions (PNLs) rise in about 1–2 months of chemical induction. Herein, the effects of chronic oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey ethanolic extract were evaluated in a RHM. Wistar rats were sequentially treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (ip) and 2-acetilaminofluorene (po), and submitted to hepatectomy to induce carcinogenesis promotion. Macroscopic/microscopic quantitative analysis of PNL was performed. Non-parametric statistical tests (Mann–Whitney and χ2) were used, and the level of significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Comfrey treatment reduced the number of pre-neoplastic macroscopic lesions up to 1 mm (P ≤ 0.05), the percentage of oval cells (P = 0.0001) and mitotic figures (P = 0.007), as well as the number of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) positive cells (P = 0.0001) and acidophilic pre-neoplastic nodules (P = 0.05). On the other hand, the percentage of cells presenting megalocytosis (P = 0.0001) and vacuolar degeneration (P = 0.0001) was increased. Scores of fibrosis, glycogen stores and the number of nucleolus organizing regions were not altered. The study indicated that oral treatment of rats with 10% Comfrey alcoholic extract reduced cell proliferation in this model. PMID:18955295

  2. Probiotics Supplemented with Omega-3 Fatty Acids are More Effective for Hepatic Steatosis Reduction in an Animal Model of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kobyliak, Nazarii; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana; Bodnar, Petro; Beregova, Tetyana

    2017-06-01

    Today probiotics have been suggested as a treatment for the prevention of NAFLD. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may have beneficial effects in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism, adipose tissue function and inflammation. The present study was designed to determine whether probiotics plus omega-3 are superior to probiotics alone on the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced NAFLD model in rats. We included 60 rats divided into four groups, 15 animals in each. Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-IV were injected with MSG. The III (Symbiter) group received 2.5 ml/kg of multiprobiotic "Symbiter" containing concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera. The IV (Symbiter-Omega) groups received "Symbiter-Omega" combination of probiotic biomass supplemented with flax and wheat germ oil (250 mg of each, concentration of omega-3 fatty acids 1-5 %). In both interventional groups reduction in total NAS score was observed. Supplementation of alive probiotic mixture with omega-3 fatty acids lead to 20 % higher decrease in steatosis score (0.73 ± 0.11 vs 0.93 ± 0.22, p = 0.848) and reduction by 16.6 % of triglycerides content in liver as compared to probiotic alone. Our study demonstrated more pronounced reduction in hepatic steatosis and hepatic lipid accumulation after treatment with combination of alive probiotics and omega-3 as compared to probiotics alone.

  3. The pathology of halothane hepatotoxicity in a guinea-pig model: a comparison with human halothane hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Lunam, C. A.; Hall, P. M.; Cousins, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    The pathology of halothane hepatotoxicity is described in detail in a guinea-pig model. Twenty-two of 40 guinea-pigs developed liver damage after exposure to 1% halothane in 21% O2 for 4 h. The other 18 animals showed no evidence of hepatic injury. Two distinct patterns of damage were identified: mild damage, in which livers had focal areas of necrosis, and severe damage, where necrosis was confluent around the terminal hepatic venules, often extending to the portal tracts. Serum alanine aminotransferase activity was significantly elevated in guinea-pigs with severe liver damage. Hepatocytes in the damaged areas showed degenerative changes ranging from vacuolization to ballooning degeneration and necrosis. Inflammatory cells, predominantly lymphocytes, were often present in the areas of necrosis. The pathology of mild and severe liver injury in the guinea-pig closely resembles the spectrum of injury observed in non-fatal halothane hepatitis in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2818932

  4. Modeling the long-term persistence of hepatitis A antibody after a two-dose vaccination schedule in Argentinean children.

    PubMed

    López, Eduardo L; Contrini, María Marta; Mistchenko, Alicia; Kieffer, Alexia; Baggaley, Rebecca F; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Desai, Kamal; Rasuli, Anvar; Armoni, Judith

    2015-04-01

    Long-term seroprotection data are essential for decision-making on the need and timing of vaccine boosters. Based on data from longitudinal serological studies, modeling can provide estimates on long-term antibody persistence and inform such decision-making. We examined long-term anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody persistence in Argentinean children ≤15 years after the initial study where they completed a 2-dose course of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Avaxim 80U Pediatric, Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France). Blood serum samples were taken at baseline, 2 weeks (post first dose), 6 months (pre-booster), 6.5 months (post-booster), 10 years and 14-15 years after first vaccine dose. We fitted 8 statistical model types, predominantly mixed effects models, to anti-HAV persistence data, to identify the most appropriate and best fitting models for our data set and to predict individuals' anti-HAV levels and seroprotection rates up to 30 years post vaccination. Fifty-four children (mean age at enrollment 30.4 months) were enrolled up to 15 years post first vaccine dose. There were 3 distinct periods of antibody concentration: rapid rise up to peak concentration post-booster, rapid decay from post-booster to 10 years, followed by slower decay. A 3-segmented linear mixed effects model was the most appropriate for the data set. Extrapolating based on the available 14-15-year follow-up, the analysis predicted that 88% of individuals anti-HAV seronegative prior to vaccination would remain seroprotected at 30 years post vaccination and lifelong seroprotection for vaccinees seropositive prior to vaccination. Currently available data demonstrate that Avaxim 80U Pediatric confers to most vaccinees a high level of seroprotection against hepatitis A infection for at least 20-30 years.

  5. Lipid-lowering agents inhibit hepatic steatosis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-derived hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model.

    PubMed

    Orime, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Jun; Togashi, Yu; Tajima, Kazuki; Inoue, Hideaki; Nagashima, Yoji; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2016-02-05

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with various metabolic disorders, and the therapeutic strategies for treating NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have not been fully established. In the present study, we examined whether lipid-lowering agents inhibited the progression of NAFLD and tumorigenesis in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-derived hepatocellular carcinoma model mouse (STAM mice) generated by streptozotocin injection and a high-fat diet. Seven-week-old STAM mice were divided into groups fed a high-fat diet (Ctl) or a high-fat diet supplemented with ezetimibe (Ez), fenofibrate (Ff), rosuvastatin (Rs), ezetimibe plus fenofibrate (EF), or ezetimibe plus rosuvastatin (ER) for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiments, an oral glucose tolerance test, an insulin tolerance test, biochemical analyses using serum and liver, and a histological analysis of liver were performed in 11-week-old STAM mice. The lipid-lowering agents did not affect the body weight or the casual blood glucose levels in any of the groups. The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased by Ff, Rs, and EF. Glucose tolerance was improved by Ez and Ff, but none of these agents improved insulin sensitivity. A histochemical analysis revealed that the lipid-lowering agents, with the exception of Rs, significantly inhibited the progression of hepatic steatosis. Nonetheless, no significant changes in the incidence of hepatic tumors were observed in any of the groups. Lipid-lowering agents inhibited the progression of hepatic steatosis without suppressing tumorigenesis in STAM mice. Our data has implications for the mechanism underlying steatosis-independent hepatic tumorigenesis in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Decline during Treatment with the Protease Inhibitor Danoprevir Using a Multiscale Model

    DOE PAGES

    Rong, Libin; Guedj, Jeremie; Dahari, Harel; ...

    2013-03-14

    The current paradigm for studying hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics in patients utilizes a standard viral dynamic model that keeps track of uninfected (target) cells, infected cells, and virus. The model does not account for the dynamics of intracellular viral replication, which is the major target of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). In this paper, we describe and study a recently developed multiscale age-structured model that explicitly considers the potential effects of DAAs on intracellular viral RNA production, degradation, and secretion as virus into the circulation. We show that when therapy significantly blocks both intracellular viral RNA production and virus secretion,more » the serum viral load decline has three phases, with slopes reflecting the rate of serum viral clearance, the rate of loss of intracellular viral RNA, and the rate of loss of intracellular replication templates and infected cells, respectively. We also derive analytical approximations of the multiscale model and use one of them to analyze data from patients treated for 14 days with the HCV protease inhibitor danoprevir. Analysis suggests that danoprevir significantly blocks intracellular viral production (with mean effectiveness 99.2%), enhances intracellular viral RNA degradation about 5-fold, and moderately inhibits viral secretion (with mean effectiveness 56%). Finally, the multiscale model can be used to study viral dynamics in patients treated with other DAAs and explore their mechanisms of action in treatment of hepatitis C.« less

  7. OVERVIEW OF AN INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATION ON EVALUATING THE EFFECTS OF MODEL HEPATOTOXICANTS ON HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the Effects of Methapyrilene and Clofibrate on Hepatic Gene Expression: A Collaboration Between Laboratories and a Comparison of Platform and Analytical Approaches

    Roger G. Ulrich1, John C. Rockett2, G. Gordon Gibson3 and Syril Pettit4

    1 Rosetta Inpharmat...

  8. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  9. Photooxidation of parenteral multivitamins induces hepatic steatosis in a neonatal guinea pig model of intravenous nutrition.

    PubMed

    Chessex, Philippe; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Rouleau, Thérèse; Brochu, Pierre; St-Louis, Patrick; Lévy, Emile; Alvarez, Fernando

    2002-12-01

    Photooxidation of multivitamin solutions results in the generation of peroxides. Because peroxides are associated with hepatic steatosis and fibrosis as well as cholestasis, we questioned whether multivitamins are implicated in hepatic complications of parenteral nutrition. Guinea pig pups were assigned to groups receiving intravenously either total parenteral nutrition, photo-protected or not, or a control solution (5% dextrose + 0.45% NaCl) supplemented with either a) multivitamins; b) photo-protected multivitamins; c) multivitamins without riboflavin; or d) peroxides (H(2)O(2), tert-butylhydroperoxide). After 4 d, liver was sampled for histology and isoprostane-F(2alpha) levels, a marker of radical attack. Multivitamins as well as total parenteral nutrition were associated with steatosis (scored 0-4), the severity of which was reduced (p < 0.05) by photo protection. Although H(2)O(2) is the major peroxide contaminating multivitamins, it did not induce steatosis scores different than the controls. Compared with controls, hepatic isoprostane-F(2alpha) content increased in animals infused with H(2)O(2) (p < 0.05), but not in those infused with Multi-12 pediatric multivitamins or total parenteral nutrition. Results suggest that peroxides and/or free radicals are not mediators of the induction of steatosis observed with infusion of photo-exposed multivitamins, as there was no correspondence between histologic findings and hepatic levels of isoprostanes. It is suspected that a component of the multivitamin solution becomes hepato-toxic after photo-exposure, as indicated by the protective effect observed when withdrawing riboflavin. Photo-oxidation of multivitamins might be the common link between reports involving amino acids, lipids, and light exposure in the ethiology of hepatic complications of parenteral nutrition.

  10. Hepatic gluconeogenesis and Krebs cycle fluxes in a CCl4 model of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rui A; Jones, John G; McGuirk, Chris; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2002-02-01

    Acute liver failure was induced in rats by CCl4 administration and its effects on the hepatic Krebs cycle and gluconeogenic fluxes were evaluated in situ by 13C NMR isotopomer analysis of hepatic glucose following infusion of [U-13C]propionate. In fed animals, CCl4 injury caused a significant increase in relative gluconeogenic flux from 0.80+/-0.10 to 1.34 +/-0.24 times the flux through citrate synthase (p<0.01). In 24-h fasted animals, CCl4-injury also significantly increased relative gluconeogenic flux from 1.36+/-0.16 to 1.80+/-0.22 times the flux through citrate synthase (p<0.01). Recycling of PEP via pyruvate and oxaloacetate was extensive under all conditions and was not significantly altered by CCl4 injury. CCl4 injury significantly reduced hepatic glucose output by 26% (42.8+/-7.3 vs 58.1+/-2.4 micromol/kg/min, p=0.005), which was attributed to a 26% decrease in absolute gluconeogenic flux from PEP (85.6+/-14.6 vs 116+/-4.8 micromol/kg/min, p<0.01). These changes were accompanied by a 47% reduction in absolute citrate synthase flux (90.6+/-8.0 to 47.6+/-8.0 micromol/kg/min, p<0.005), indicating that oxidative Krebs cycle flux was more susceptible to CCl4 injury. The reduction in absolute fluxes indicate a significant loss of hepatic metabolic capacity, while the significant increases in relative gluconeogenic fluxes suggest a reorganization of metabolic activity towards preserving hepatic glucose output. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. [Use the Markov-decision tree model to optimize vaccination strategies of hepatitis E among women aged 15 to 49].

    PubMed

    Chen, Z M; Ji, S B; Shi, X L; Zhao, Y Y; Zhang, X F; Jin, H

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility of different hepatitis E vaccination strategies in women aged 15 to 49. Methods: The Markov-decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the cost-utility of three hepatitis E virus vaccination strategies. Parameters of the models were estimated on the basis of published studies and experience of experts. Both methods on sensitivity and threshold analysis were used to evaluate the uncertainties of the model. Results: Compared with non-vaccination group, strategy on post-screening vaccination with rate as 100%, could save 0.10 quality-adjusted life years per capital in the women from the societal perspectives. After implementation of screening program and with the vaccination rate reaching 100%, the incremental cost utility ratio (ICUR) of vaccination appeared as 5 651.89 and 6 385.33 Yuan/QALY, respectively. Vaccination post to the implementation of a screening program, the result showed better benefit than the vaccination rate of 100%. Results from the sensitivity analysis showed that both the cost of hepatitis E vaccine and the inoculation compliance rate presented significant effects. If the cost were lower than 191.56 Yuan (RMB) or the inoculation compliance rate lower than 0.23, the vaccination rate of 100% strategy was better than the post-screening vaccination strategy, otherwise the post-screening vaccination strategy appeared the optimal strategy. Conclusion: Post-screening vaccination for women aged 15 to 49 from social perspectives seemed the optimal one but it had to depend on the change of vaccine cost and the rate of inoculation compliance.

  12. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-03-11

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  14. Application of a Combined Model with Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Generalized Regression Neural Network (GRNN) in Forecasting Hepatitis Incidence in Heng County, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wudi; Jiang, Junjun; Liang, Hao; Gao, Lian; Liang, Bingyu; Huang, Jiegang; Zang, Ning; Liao, Yanyan; Yu, Jun; Lai, Jingzhen; Qin, Fengxiang; Su, Jinming; Ye, Li; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis is a serious public health problem with increasing cases and property damage in Heng County. It is necessary to develop a model to predict the hepatitis epidemic that could be useful for preventing this disease. The autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and the generalized regression neural network (GRNN) model were used to fit the incidence data from the Heng County CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) from January 2005 to December 2012. Then, the ARIMA-GRNN hybrid model was developed. The incidence data from January 2013 to December 2013 were used to validate the models. Several parameters, including mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and mean square error (MSE), were used to compare the performance among the three models. The morbidity of hepatitis from Jan 2005 to Dec 2012 has seasonal variation and slightly rising trend. The ARIMA(0,1,2)(1,1,1)12 model was the most appropriate one with the residual test showing a white noise sequence. The smoothing factor of the basic GRNN model and the combined model was 1.8 and 0.07, respectively. The four parameters of the hybrid model were lower than those of the two single models in the validation. The parameters values of the GRNN model were the lowest in the fitting of the three models. The hybrid ARIMA-GRNN model showed better hepatitis incidence forecasting in Heng County than the single ARIMA model and the basic GRNN model. It is a potential decision-supportive tool for controlling hepatitis in Heng County.

  15. Inactivation of Viruses and Bacteriophages as Models for Swine Hepatitis E Virus in Food Matrices.

    PubMed

    Emmoth, Eva; Rovira, Jordi; Rajkovic, Andreja; Corcuera, Elena; Wilches Pérez, Diego; Dergel, Irene; Ottoson, Jakob R; Widén, Frederik

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus has been recognised as a food-borne virus hazard in pork products, due to its zoonotic properties. This risk can be reduced by adequate treatment of the food to inactivate food-borne viruses. We used a spectrum of viruses and bacteriophages to evaluate the effect of three food treatments: high pressure processing (HPP), lactic acid (LA) and intense light pulse (ILP) treatments. On swine liver at 400 MPa for 10 min, HPP gave log 10 reductions of ≥4.2, ≥5.0 and 3.4 for feline calicivirus (FCV) 2280, FCV wildtype (wt) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV 1), respectively. Escherichia coli coliphage ϕX174 displayed a lower reduction of 1.1, while Escherichia coli coliphage MS2 was unaffected. For ham at 600 MPa, the corresponding reductions were 4.1, 4.4, 2.9, 1.7 and 1.3 log 10 . LA treatment at 2.2 M gave log 10 reductions in the viral spectrum of 0.29-2.1 for swine liver and 0.87-3.1 for ham, with ϕX174 and MNV 1, respectively, as the most stable microorganisms. The ILP treatment gave log 10 reductions of 1.6-2.8 for swine liver, 0.97-2.2 for ham and 1.3-2.3 for sausage, at 15-60 J cm -2 , with MS2 as the most stable microorganism. The HPP treatment gave significantly (p < 0.05) greater virus reduction on swine liver than ham for the viruses at equivalent pressure/time combinations. For ILP treatment, reductions on swine liver were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than on ham for all microorganisms. The results presented here could be used in assessments of different strategies to protect consumers against virus contamination and in advice to food producers. Conservative model indicators for the pathogenic viruses could be suggested.

  16. Impact of input parameters on the prediction of hepatic plasma clearance using the well-stirred model.

    PubMed

    Wan, Hong; Bold, Peter; Larsson, Lars-Olof; Ulander, Johan; Peters, Sheila; Löfberg, Boel; Ungell, Anna-Lena; Någård, Mats; Llinàs, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    The in vitro metabolic stability assays are indispensable for screening the metabolic liability of new chemical entities (NCEs) in drug discovery. Intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) values from liver microsomes and/or hepatocytes are frequently used to assess metabolic stability as well as to quantitatively predict in vivo hepatic plasma clearance (CL(H)). An often used approximation is the so called well-stirred model which has gained widespread use. The applications of the well-stirred model are typically dependent on several measured parameters and hence with potential for error-propagation. Despite widespread use, it was recently suggested that the well-stirred model in some circumstances has been misused for in vitro in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). In this work, we follow up that discussion and present a retrospective analysis of IVIVE for hepatic clearance prediction from in vitro metabolic stability data. We focus on the impact of input parameters on the well stirred model; in particular comparing "reference model" (with all experimentally determined values as input parameters) versus simplified models (with incomplete input parameters in the models). Based on a systematic comparative analysis and model comparison using datasets of diverse drug-like compounds and NCEs from rat and human, we conclude that simplified models, disregarding binding data, may be sufficiently good for IVIVE evaluation and compound ranking at early stage for cost-effective screening. Factors that can influence prediction accuracy are discussed, including in vitro intrinsic clearance (CL(int)) and in vivo CL(int) scaling factor used, non-specific binding to microsomes (fu(m)), blood to plasma ratio (C(B)/C(P)) and in particular fraction unbound in plasma (fu). In particular, the fu discrepancies between literature data and in-house values and between two different compound concentrations 1 and 10 µM are exemplified and its potential impact on prediction performance is demonstrated using a

  17. Illness perceptions and explanatory models of viral hepatitis B & C among immigrants and refugees: a narrative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owiti, John A; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Sweeney, Lorna; Foster, Graham R; Bhui, Kamaldeep S

    2015-02-15

    Hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV) infections are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Many countries with traditionally low prevalence (such as UK) are now planning interventions (screening, vaccination, and treatment) of high-risk immigrants from countries with high prevalence. This review aimed to synthesise the evidence on immigrants' knowledge of HBV and HCV that might influence the uptake of clinical interventions. The review was also used to inform the design and successful delivery of a randomised controlled trial of targeted screening and treatment. Five databases (PubMed, CINHAL, SOCIOFILE, PsycINFO & Web of Science) were systematically searched, supplemented by reference tracking, searches of selected journals, and of relevant websites. We aimed to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated knowledge of HBV and HCV among immigrants from high endemic areas to low endemic areas. Evidence, extracted according to a conceptual framework of Kleinman's explanatory model, was subjected to narrative synthesis. We adapted the PEN-3 model to categorise and analyse themes, and recommend strategies for interventions to influence help-seeking behaviour. We identified 51 publications including quantitative (n = 39), qualitative (n = 11), and mixed methods (n = 1) designs. Most of the quantitative studies included small samples and had heterogeneous methods and outcomes. The studies mainly concentrated on hepatitis B and ethnic groups of South East Asian immigrants residing in USA, Canada, and Australia. Many immigrants lacked adequate knowledge of aetiology, symptoms, transmission risk factors, prevention strategies, and treatment, of hepatitis HBV and HCV. Ethnicity, gender, better education, higher income, and English proficiency influenced variations in levels and forms of knowledge. Immigrants are vulnerable to HBV and HCV, and risk life-threatening complications from these infections because of poor knowledge and help

  18. [Travelers' hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Marbet, U A

    1986-05-17

    The growth of international tourism has increased the risk of diseases imported from abroad. Travel in developing countries involves a not inconsiderable risk, particularly of contracting hepatitis A. The risk of B or non A non B hepatitis is less marked, but the prognostic significance is more serious. The incidence, diagnosis and significance of the various types of "traveller's hepatitis", and the possibility of prevention, are discussed.

  19. Hepatitis A

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, James E.

    1976-01-01

    Hepatitis A is a disease of worldwide distribution which occurs in endemic and epidemic form and is transmitted primarily by person-to-person contact through the fecal-oral route. Common source epidemics due to contamination of food are relatively common, and water-borne epidemics have been described less frequently. The presumed etiologic agent of hepatitis A has now been visualized by immune electron microscopic (IEM) techniques in early acute-illness-phase stools of humans with hepatitis A as well as in chimpanzees experimentally infected with material known to contain hepatitis A virus. In addition, several new serologic tests for the detection of antibody against hepatitis A virus have been described. These include complement fixation and immune adherence techniques. Current data suggest that hepatitis A is caused by a single viral agent lacking the morphologic heterogeneity of hepatitis B viral components and that there may be relative antigenic homogeneity between strains of virus recovered from various parts of the world. Serologic studies to date also indicate that hepatitis A virus is not a major contributing cause in post-transfusion hepatitis. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:183390

  20. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... sexual contact or by sharing needles Antibodies to hepatitis C can most often be detected 4 to 10 ...

  1. A unifying mathematical model of lipid droplet metabolism reveals key molecular players in the development of hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wallstab, Christin; Eleftheriadou, Dimitra; Schulz, Theresa; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Borlak, Jürgen; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Berndt, Nikolaus

    2017-10-01

    The liver responds to elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs) with an enhanced uptake of FFAs and their esterification to triacylglycerol (TAG). On the long term, this may result in massive hepatic TAG accumulation called steatosis hepatitis. In hepatocytes, the poor water-soluble TAG is packed in specialized organelles: Lipid droplets (LDs) serving as transient cellular deposit and lipoproteins (LPs) transporting TAG and cholesterol esters to extra-hepatic tissues. The dynamics of these organelles is controlled by a variety of regulatory surface proteins (RSPs). Assembly and export of VLDLs are mainly regulated by the microsomal transfer protein (MTP) and apoprotein B100. Formation and lipolysis of LDs are regulated by several RSPs. The best studied regulators belong to the PAT (Perilipin/Adipophilin/TIP47) and CIDE families. Knockdown or overexpression of SRPs may significantly affect the total number and size distribution of LDs. Intriguingly, a large cell-to-cell heterogeneity with respect to the number and size of LDs has been found in various cell types including hepatocytes. These findings suggest that the extent of cellular lipid accumulation is determined not only by the imbalance between lipid supply and utilization but also by variations in the expression of RSPs and metabolic enzymes. To better understand the relative regulatory impact of individual processes involved in the cellular TAG turnover, we developed a comprehensive kinetic model encompassing the pathways of the fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism and the main molecular processes governing the dynamics of LDs. The model was parametrized such that a large number of experimental in vitro and in vivo findings are correctly recapitulated. A control analysis of the model revealed that variations in the activity of FFA uptake, diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 2, and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) have the strongest influence on the cellular TAG level. We used the model

  2. Zeaxanthin Dipalmitate Therapeutically Improves Hepatic Functions in an Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model through Modulating MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Feiyue; Han, Tao; Jiao, Rui; Liong, Emily C.; Fung, Man-Lung; So, Kwok-Fai; Tipoe, George L.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, the therapeutic effects of zeaxanthin dipalmitate (ZD) on a rat alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD) model were evaluated. After-treatment with ZD from the 5th week to the 10th week in a 10-week ethanol intragastric administration in rats significantly alleviated the typical AFLD symptoms, including reduction in rat body weight, accumulation of hepatic fat droplets, occurrence of oxidative stress, inflammation, chemoattractive responses and hepatic apoptosis in the liver. The reduction of liver function abnormalities by ZD was partly through lower expression level of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), diminished activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) through the restoration of its inhibitor kappa B alpha (IκBα), and the modulation of MAPK pathways including p38 MAPK, JNK and ERK. ZD treatment alone did not pose obvious adverse effect on the healthy rat. In the cellular AFLD model, we also confirmed the inhibition of p38 MAPK and ERK abolished the beneficial effects of ZD. These results provide a scientific rationale for the use of zeaxanthin and its derivatives as new complementary agents for the prevention and treatment of alcoholic liver diseases. PMID:24740309

  3. Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on PUFA levels and inflammation in an animal and cell model of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Aslan, M; Kıraç, E; Yılmaz, Ö; Ünal, B; Konuk, E K; Özcan, F; Tuzcu, H

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammatory response in an animal and cell model of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Rats were divided into control, tunicamycin (TM)-treated, and TM + tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)-treated groups. Hepatic ER stress was induced by TM and the ER stress inhibitor TUDCA was injected 30 min before induction of ER stress. Liver THLE-3 cells were treated with TM and TUDCA was administered in advance to decrease cytotoxic effects. Necroinflammation was evaluated in liver sections, while cell viability was determined using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay kit. ER stress was confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of C/EBP-homologous protein and 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein. Arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) in liver tissue and THLE-3 cells were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase (COX), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured in tissue and cell samples. Hepatic ER stress was accomplished by TM and was alleviated by TUDCA. TM treatment significantly decreased PUFAs in both liver and THLE-3 cells compared to controls. PLA2, COX, and PGE2 levels were significantly increased in TM-treated rats and THLE-3 cells compared to controls. TUDCA leads to a partial restoration of liver PUFA levels and decreased PLA2, COX, and PGE2. This study reports decreased PUFA levels in ER stress and supports the use of omega-3 fatty acids in liver diseases demonstrating ER stress.

  4. Modeling the fiscal costs and benefits of alternative treatment strategies in the United Kingdom for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Mark P; Kotsopoulos, Nikos; Ustianowski, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis C (HCV) infection causes substantial direct health costs, but also impacts broader societal and governmental costs, such as tax revenue and social protection benefits. This study investigated the broader fiscal costs and benefits of curative interventions for chronic Hepatitis C (CHC) that allow individuals to avoid long-term HCV attributed health conditions. A prospective cohort model, assessing the long-term fiscal consequences of policy decisions, was developed for HCV infected individuals, following the generational accounting analytic framework that combines age-specific lifetime gross taxes paid and governmental transfers received (i.e. healthcare and social support costs). The analysis assessed the burden of a theoretical cohort of untreated HCV infected patients with the alternative of treating these patients with a highly efficacious curative intervention (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir [LDV/SOF]). It also compared treating patients at all fibrosis stages (Stages F0-F4) compared to late treatment (Stage F4). Based on projected lifetime work activity and taxes paid, the treated cohort paid an additional £5,900 per patient compared to the untreated cohort. Lifetime government disability costs of £97,555 and £125,359 per patient for treated cohort vs no treatment cohort were estimated, respectively. Lifetime direct healthcare costs in the treated cohort were £32,235, compared to non-treated cohort of £26,424, with an incremental healthcare costs increase of £5,901 per patient. The benefit cost ratio (BCR) of total government benefits and savings relative to government treatment costs (including LDV/SOF) ranged from 1.8-5.6. Treating patients early resulted in 77% less disability costs, 43% lower healthcare costs, and 33% higher tax revenue. The ability to cure Hepatitis C offers considerable fiscal benefits beyond direct medical costs and savings attributed to reduced disability costs, public allowances, and improved tax revenue. Changes in parameters

  5. A Bayesian Approach for Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Pegylated Interferon α-2a in Hepatitis C Patients.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammad I

    2017-11-01

    Pegylated interferon α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) is an antiviral drug used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This study describes the population pharmacokinetics of PEG-IFN-α-2a in hepatitis C patients using a Bayesian approach. A possible association between patient characteristics and pharmacokinetic parameters is also explored. A Bayesian population pharmacokinetic modeling approach, using WinBUGS version 1.4.3, was applied to a cohort of patients (n = 292) with chronic HCV infection. Data were obtained from two phase III studies sponsored by Hoffmann-La Roche. Demographic and clinical information were evaluated as possible predictors of pharmacokinetic parameters during model development. A one-compartment model with an additive error best fitted the data, and a total of 2271 PEG-IFN-α-2a measurements from 292 subjects were analyzed using the proposed population pharmacokinetic model. Sex was identified as a predictor of PEG-IFN-α-2a clearance, and hemoglobin baseline level was identified as a predictor of PEG-IFN-α-2a volume of distribution. A population pharmacokinetic model of PEG-IFN-α-2a in patients with chronic HCV infection was presented in this study. The proposed model can be used to optimize PEG-IFN-α-2a dosing in patients with chronic HCV infection. Optimal PEG-IFN-α-2a selection is important to maximize response and/or to avoid potential side effects such as thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. NV15942 and NV15801.

  6. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... fruits and vegetables. When traveling in a developing country, drink bottled water. Prevent infection after contact with the virus If you think you have come in contact with the hepatitis A virus, see your doctor right away. A dose of the hepatitis A vaccine ...

  7. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... that person has no signs or symptoms Having sex with someone who has the virus Risk factors You're at increased risk of hepatitis A ... in contact with hepatitis A Men who have sex with men People with other risk factors who work or travel in parts of the ...

  8. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J.; Cooper, Andrew J. R.; Holland, Celia V.; Carolan, James C.

    2016-01-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode’s ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  9. A Proteomic Investigation of Hepatic Resistance to Ascaris in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Deslyper, Gwendoline; Colgan, Thomas J; Cooper, Andrew J R; Holland, Celia V; Carolan, James C

    2016-08-01

    The helminth Ascaris causes ascariasis in both humans and pigs. Humans, especially children, experience significant morbidity including respiratory complications, growth deficits and intestinal obstruction. Given that 800 million people worldwide are infected by Ascaris, this represents a significant global public health concern. The severity of the symptoms and associated morbidity are related to the parasite burden and not all hosts are infected equally. While the pathology of the disease has been extensively examined, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and susceptibility to this nematode infection is poor. In order to investigate host differences associated with heavy and light parasite burden, an experimental murine model was developed utilising Ascaris-susceptible and -resistant mice strains, C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca, respectively, which experience differential burdens of migratory Ascaris larvae in the host lungs. Previous studies identified the liver as the site where this difference in susceptibility occurs. Using a label free quantitative proteomic approach, we analysed the hepatic proteomes of day four post infection C57BL/6J and CBA/Ca mice with and without Ascaris infection to identify proteins changes potentially linked to both resistance and susceptibility amongst the two strains, respectively. Over 3000 proteins were identified in total and clear intrinsic differences were elucidated between the two strains. These included a higher abundance of mitochondrial proteins, particularly those associated with the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the relatively resistant CBA/Ca mice. We hypothesise that the increased ROS levels associated with higher levels of mitochondrial activity results in a highly oxidative cellular environment that has a dramatic effect on the nematode's ability to successfully sustain a parasitic association with its resistant host. Under infection, both

  10. Lycopene isomerisation and storage in an in vitro model of murine hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, Anderson J; Perrone, Daniel; Martucci, Renata B; Borojevic, Radovan

    2009-08-01

    Lycopene is a carotenoid whose biological activities and protective effect on prostate and breast cancer have been described, but little is known on its extra-intestinal metabolism and storage. While most alimentary lycopene is in all-trans configuration, in animal and human tissues approximately half of the lycopene is in cis isoforms. Our object was to monitor the capacity of storage, isomerisation, and intracellular localization of all-trans and cis lycopene in hepatic stellate cells, which are the major sites of metabolism and storage of retinoids and carotenoids in the body. We used the GRX cell line representative of murine hepatic stellate cells, incubated with 1-30 muM lycopene in culture medium. Analysis was done by high-performance liquid chromatography. Lycopene was able to induce expression of the lipocyte phenotype and it was internalized into GRX cells. Its cellular release only occurred in presence of albumin with a rapid initial decrease of intracellular lycopene. A corresponding increase in the culture medium was observed at 24 h. All-trans, 13-cis and 9-cis lycopene isoforms were identified in all the cell compartments. The membrane fraction contained the major part of lycopene, followed by the cytoplasmic fraction, lipid droplets and nuclei. The ratio between all-trans and cis isomers was approximately 2/1 in the majority parts of cell compartments. This study identified a novel hepatic cell type able to store and isomerise lycopene. Liver can contribute to the serum and tissue equilibrium of cis/trans isomers of lycopene, and to participate in storage of lycopene under high extracellular concentration such as observed after the alimentary input.

  11. Persistence of the Recombinant Genomes of Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus in the Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Danzhen; Lin, Yong; Wu, Weimin; Song, Jingjiao; Zhang, Ejuan; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Xinwen; Hu, Kanghong; Yang, Dongliang; Xu, Yang; Lu, Mengji

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamic injection (HI) with a replication competent hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome may lead to transient or prolonged HBV replication in mice. However, the prolonged HBV persistence after HI depends on the specific backbone of the vector carrying HBV genome and the genetic background of the mouse strain. We asked whether a genetically closely related hepadnavirus, woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), may maintain the gene expression and replication in the mouse liver after HI. Interestingly, we found that HI of pBS-WHV1.3 containing a 1.3 fold overlength WHV genome in BALB/c mouse led to the long presence of WHV DNA and WHV proteins expression in the mouse liver. Thus, we asked whether WHV genome carrying foreign DNA sequences could maintain the long term gene expression and persistence. For this purpose, the coding region of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was inserted into the WHV genome to replace the corresponding region. Three recombinant WHV-HBV genomes were constructed with the replacement with HBsAg a-determinant, major HBsAg, and middle HBsAg. Serum HBsAg, viral DNA, hepatic WHV protein expression, and viral replication intermediates were detected in mice after HI with recombinant genomes. Similarly, the recombinant genomes could persist for a prolonged period of time up to 45 weeks in mice. WHV and recombinant WHV-HBV genomes did not trigger effective antibody and T-cell responses to viral proteins. The ability of recombinant WHV constructs to persist in mice is an interesting aspect for the future investigation and may be explored for in vivo gene transfer. PMID:25942393

  12. The pathogenesis of diclofenac induced immunoallergic hepatitis in a canine model of liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, Saravanakumar; Oh, Jung-Hwa; Spanel, Reinhard; Länger, Florian; Han, Hyoung-Yun; Lee, Eun-Hee; Yoon, Seokjoo; Borlak, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is a common adverse drug reaction and may result in serious inflammatory reactions of the liver. To investigate mechanism of immunoallergic hepatitis beagle dogs were given 1 or 3 mg/kg/day (HD) oral diclofenac for 28 days. HD diclofenac treatment caused liver function test abnormalities, reduced haematocrit and haemoglobin but induced reticulocyte, WBC, platelet, neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Histopathology evidenced hepatic steatosis and glycogen depletion, apoptosis, acute lobular hepatitis, granulomas and mastocytosis. Whole genome scans revealed 663 significantly regulated genes of which 82, 47 and 25 code for stress, immune response and inflammation. Immunopathology confirmed strong induction of IgM, the complement factors C3&B, SAA, SERPING1 and others of the classical and alternate pathway. Alike, marked expression of CD205 and CD74 in Kupffer cells and lymphocytes facilitate antigen presentation and B-cell differentiation. The highly induced HIF1A and KLF6 protein expression in mast cells and macrophages sustain inflammation. Furthermore, immunogenomics discovered 24, 17, 6 and 11 significantly regulated marker genes to hallmark M1/M2 polarized macrophages, lymphocytic and granulocytic infiltrates; note, the latter was confirmed by CAE staining. Other highly regulated genes included alpha-2-macroglobulin, CRP, hepcidin, IL1R1, S100A8 and CCL20. Diclofenac treatment caused unprecedented induction of myeloperoxidase in macrophages and oxidative stress as shown by SOD1/SOD2 immunohistochemistry. Lastly, bioinformatics defined molecular circuits of inflammation and consisted of 161 regulated genes. Altogether, the mechanism of diclofenac induced liver hypersensitivity reactions involved oxidative stress, macrophage polarization, mastocytosis, complement activation and an erroneous programming of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:29296203

  13. Shear Wave Elastography for Assessment of Steatohepatitis and Hepatic Fibrosis in Rat Models of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo-Kyeong; Lee, Seung Soo; Cheong, Hyunhee; Hong, Seung Mo; Jang, Kiseok; Lee, Moon-Gyu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate shear wave elastography (SWE) as a method for determining the severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the stage of hepatic fibrosis, as well as the major determinants of liver elasticity among the various histologic and biomolecular changes associated with NAFLD. Rat NAFLD models with various degrees of NAFLD severity were created and imaged using SWE. The explanted livers were subjected to histopathologic evaluation and RNA expression analysis. Among the histologic and biomolecular findings, the fibrosis stage and the collagen RNA level were significant independent factors associated with liver elasticity (p < 0.001). Liver elasticity was effective in detecting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and in determining fibrosis stage, and the corresponding areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.963 and 0.927-0.997, respectively. In conclusion, SWE is a potential non-invasive method for the detection of NASH and staging of hepatic fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral administered particulate yeast-derived glucan promotes hepatitis B virus clearance in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Dandan; Shi, Bisheng; Ren, Guangxu; Peng, Xiuhua; Fang, Zhong; Kozlowski, Maya; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiaonan; Wu, Min; Wang, Cong; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistent infection is associated with ineffective immune response for the clearance of virus. Immunomodulators represent an important class of therapeutics, which potentially could be beneficial for the treatment of HBV infection. The particulate yeast-derived glucan (PYDG) has been shown to enhance the innate and adaptive immune responses. We therefore, assessed the efficacy of PYDG in enhancing HBV specific immune responses by employing the hydrodynamic injection-based (HDI) HBV transfection mouse model. Mice were intragatric administered PYDG daily for 9 weeks post pAAV/HBV1.2 hydrodynamic injection. PYDG treatment significantly promoted HBV DNA clearance and production of HBsAb compared to control mice. PYDG treatment resulted in recruitment of macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and effector T cells to the liver microenvironment, accompanied by a significantly augmented DCs maturation and HBV-specific IFN-γ and TNF-α production by T cell. In addition, enhanced production of Th1 cytokines in liver tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) was associated with PYDG administration. Live imaging showed the accumulation of PYDG in the mouse liver. Our results demonstrate that PYDG treatment significantly enhances HBV-specific Th1 immune responses, accompanied by clearance of HBV DNA, and therefore holds promise for further development of therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B.

  15. Protective effect of Baccharis trimera extract on acute hepatic injury in a model of inflammation induced by acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Bruno da Cruz; Rossoni Júnior, Joamyr Victor; Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes de Brito; Chaves, Míriam Martins; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Pedrosa, Maria Lucia; de Souza, Gustavo Henrique Bianco; Brandão, Geraldo Célio; Rodrigues, Ivanildes Vasconcelos; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo; Costa, Daniela Caldeira

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  16. Validation of Ten Noninvasive Diagnostic Models for Prediction of Liver Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jieyao; Hou, Jinlin; Ding, Huiguo; Chen, Guofeng; Xie, Qing; Wang, Yuming; Zeng, Minde; Ou, Xiaojuan; Ma, Hong; Jia, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Noninvasive models have been developed for fibrosis assessment in patients with chronic hepatitis B. However, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy in evaluating liver fibrosis of these methods have not been validated and compared in the same group of patients. The aim of this study was to verify the diagnostic performance and reproducibility of ten reported noninvasive models in a large cohort of Asian CHB patients. Methods The diagnostic performance of ten noninvasive models (HALF index, FibroScan, S index, Zeng model, Youyi model, Hui model, APAG, APRI, FIB-4 and FibroTest) was assessed against the liver histology by ROC curve analysis in CHB patients. The reproducibility of the ten models were evaluated by recalculating the diagnostic values at the given cut-off values defined by the original studies. Results Six models (HALF index, FibroScan, Zeng model, Youyi model, S index and FibroTest) had AUROCs higher than 0.70 in predicting any fibrosis stage and 2 of them had best diagnostic performance with AUROCs to predict F≥2, F≥3 and F4 being 0.83, 0.89 and 0.89 for HALF index, 0.82, 0.87 and 0.87 for FibroScan, respectively. Four models (HALF index, FibroScan, Zeng model and Youyi model) showed good diagnostic values at given cut-offs. Conclusions HALF index, FibroScan, Zeng model, Youyi model, S index and FibroTest show a good diagnostic performance and all of them, except S index and FibroTest, have good reproducibility for evaluating liver fibrosis in CHB patients. Registration Number ChiCTR-DCS-07000039. PMID:26709706

  17. Airway oxidative stress causes vascular and hepatic inflammation via upregulation of IL-17A in a murine model of allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Ansari, Mushtaq A; AlSharari, Shakir D; Bahashwan, Saleh A; Attia, Sabry M; Al-Hosaini, Khaled A; Al Hoshani, Ali R; Ahmad, Sheikh F

    2016-05-01

    Oxidants are generated in asthmatic airways due to infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes and resident cells in the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical may leak into systemic circulation when generated in uncontrolled manner and may impact vasculature. Our previous studies have shown an association between airway inflammation and systemic inflammation; however so far none has investigated the impact of airway oxidative inflammation on hepatic oxidative stress and Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine markers in liver/vasculature in a murine model of asthma. Therefore, this study investigated the contribution of oxidative stress encountered in asthmatic airways in modulation of systemic/hepatic Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines balance and hepatic oxidative stress. Mice were sensitized intraperitoneally with cockroach extract (CE) in the presence of aluminum hydroxide followed by several intranasal (i.n.) challenges with CE. Mice were then assessed for systemic/hepatic inflammation through assessment of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines and oxidative stress (iNOS, protein nitrotyrosine, lipid peroxides and myeloperoxidase activity). Challenge with CE led to increased Th2/Th17 cytokines in blood/liver and hepatic oxidative stress. However, only Th17 related pro-inflammatory markers were upregulated by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhalation in vasculature and liver, whereas antioxidant treatment, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) downregulated them. Hepatic oxidative stress was also upregulated by H2O2 inhalation, whereas NAC attenuated it. Therefore, our study shows that airway oxidative inflammation may contribute to systemic inflammation through upregulation of Th17 immune responses in blood/liver and hepatic oxidative stress. This might predispose these patients to increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Human Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Predicts Higher Risk of Hypoglycemic Events in Rigorous Insulin Therapy*

    PubMed Central

    König, Matthias; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg

    2012-01-01

    A major problem in the insulin therapy of patients with diabetes type 2 (T2DM) is the increased occurrence of hypoglycemic events which, if left untreated, may cause confusion or fainting and in severe cases seizures, coma, and even death. To elucidate the potential contribution of the liver to hypoglycemia in T2DM we applied a detailed kinetic model of human hepatic glucose metabolism to simulate changes in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism induced by deviations of the hormones insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine from their normal plasma profiles. Our simulations reveal in line with experimental and clinical data from a multitude of studies in T2DM, (i) significant changes in the relative contribution of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism to hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization; (ii) decreased postprandial glycogen storage as well as increased glycogen depletion in overnight fasting and short term fasting; and (iii) a shift of the set point defining the switch between hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization to elevated plasma glucose levels, respectively, in T2DM relative to normal, healthy subjects. Intriguingly, our model simulations predict a restricted gluconeogenic response of the liver under impaired hormonal signals observed in T2DM, resulting in an increased risk of hypoglycemia. The inability of hepatic glucose metabolism to effectively counterbalance a decline of the blood glucose level becomes even more pronounced in case of tightly controlled insulin treatment. Given this Janus face mode of action of insulin, our model simulations underline the great potential that normalization of the plasma glucagon profile may have for the treatment of T2DM. PMID:22977253

  19. Hepatic Overexpression of Steroid Sulfatase Ameliorates Mouse Models of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes through Sex-specific Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengxi; He, Jinhan; Kucera, Heidi; Gaikwad, Nilesh W.; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Meishu; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Selcer, Kyle W.; Xie, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The steroid sulfatase (STS)-mediated desulfation is a critical metabolic mechanism that regulates the chemical and functional homeostasis of endogenous and exogenous molecules. In this report, we first showed that the liver expression of Sts was induced in both the high fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes and during the fed to fasting transition. In defining the functional relevance of STS induction in metabolic disease, we showed that overexpression of STS in the liver of transgenic mice alleviated HFD and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including reduced body weight, improved insulin sensitivity, and decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Interestingly, STS exerted its metabolic benefit through sex-specific mechanisms. In female mice, STS may have increased hepatic estrogen activity by converting biologically inactive estrogen sulfates to active estrogens and consequently improved the metabolic functions, whereas ovariectomy abolished this protective effect. In contrast, the metabolic benefit of STS in males may have been accounted for by the male-specific decrease of inflammation in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as well as a pattern of skeletal muscle gene expression that favors energy expenditure. The metabolic benefit in male STS transgenic mice was retained after castration. Treatment with the STS substrate estrone sulfate also improved metabolic functions in both the HFD and ob/ob models. Our results have uncovered a novel function of STS in energy metabolism and type 2 diabetes. Liver-specific STS induction or estrogen/estrogen sulfate delivery may represent a novel approach to manage metabolic syndrome. PMID:24497646

  20. Extracts of black and brown rice powders improve hepatic lipid accumulation via the activation of PPARα in obese and diabetic model mice.

    PubMed

    Felix, Angelina Dr; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Mami; Katsumata-Tsuboi, Rie; Satoh, Ryo; Soon Hui, Teoh; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Nakae, Dai; Inoue, Hirofumi; Uehara, Mariko

    2017-11-01

    Rice powder extract (RPE) from black and brown rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) improves hepatic lipid accumulation in obese and diabetic model mice via peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation. RPE showed PPARα agonistic activity which did not differ between black and brown RPE despite a higher anthocyanin content in black RPE.

  1. Application of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Assess Propofol Hepatic and Renal Glucuronidation in Isolation: Utility of In Vitro and In Vivo Data

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Katherine L.; Gertz, Michael; Houston, J. Brian

    2013-01-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach was used to assess the prediction accuracy of propofol hepatic and extrahepatic metabolic clearance and to address previously reported underprediction of in vivo clearance based on static in vitro–in vivo extrapolation methods. The predictive capacity of propofol intrinsic clearance data (CLint) obtained in human hepatocytes and liver and kidney microsomes was assessed using the PBPK model developed in MATLAB software. Microsomal data obtained by both substrate depletion and metabolite formation methods and in the presence of 2% bovine serum albumin were considered in the analysis. Incorporation of hepatic and renal in vitro metabolic clearance in the PBPK model resulted in underprediction of propofol clearance regardless of the source of in vitro data; the predicted value did not exceed 35% of the observed clearance. Subsequently, propofol clinical data from three dose levels in intact patients and anhepatic subjects were used for the optimization of hepatic and renal CLint in a simultaneous fitting routine. Optimization process highlighted that renal glucuronidation clearance was underpredicted to a greater extent than liver clearance, requiring empirical scaling factors of 17 and 9, respectively. The use of optimized clearance parameters predicted hepatic and renal extraction ratios within 20% of the observed values, reported in an additional independent clinical study. This study highlights the complexity involved in assessing the contribution of extrahepatic clearance mechanisms and illustrates the application of PBPK modeling, in conjunction with clinical data, to assess prediction of clearance from in vitro data for each tissue individually. PMID:23303442

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Hepatitis C Prevalence Reduction with Antiviral Treatment Scale-Up in Persons Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago

    DOE PAGES

    Echevarria, Desarae; Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; ...

    2015-08-21

    New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) provide an opportunity to combat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in persons who inject drugs (PWID). In our paper, we use a mathematical model to predict the impact of a DAA-treatment scale-up on HCV prevalence among PWID and the estimated cost in metropolitan Chicago.

  3. The Efficacy of Social Role Models to Increase Motivation to Obtain Vaccination against Hepatitis B among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vet, R.; de Wit, J. B. F.; Das, E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of role models in persuasive messages about risk and social norms to increase motivation to obtain hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination in men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM at risk for HBV in The Netherlands (N = 168) were recruited online via a range of websites and were randomly assigned to one of four…

  4. [Joint application of mathematic models in assessing the residual risk of hepatitis C virus transmitted through blood transfusion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Jia, Yao; Xie, Yun-zheng; Li, Xiu-mei; Liu, Xiao-ying; Wu, Xiao-fei

    2011-09-01

    The practicable and effective methods for residual risk assessment on transfusion-transmitted disease was to establish the mathematic models. Based on the characteristics of the repeat donors which donated their blood on a regular base, a model of sero-conversion during the interval of donations was established to assess the incidence of the repeat donors. Based on the characteristics of the prevalence in the population, a model of 'prevalence increased with the age of the donor' was established to assess the incidence of those first-time donors. And based on the impact of the windows period through blood screening program, a model of residual risk associated with the incidence and the length of the windows period was established to assess the residual risk of blood transfusion. In this paper, above said 3 kinds of mathematic models were jointly applied to assess the residual risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) which was transmitted through blood transfusion in Shanghai, based on data from the routine blood collection and screening program. All the anti-HCV unqualified blood donations were confirmed before assessment. Results showed that the residual risk of HCV transmitted through blood transfusion during Jan. 1(st), 2007 to Dec. 31(st), 2008 in Shanghai was 1:101 000. Data showed that the results of residual risk assessment with mathematic models was valuable. The residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HCV in Shanghai was at a safe level, according to the results in this paper.

  5. Weight loss enhances hepatic antioxidant status in a NAFLD model induced by high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Iara Karise Santos; Matsuura, Cristiane; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Martins, Marcela Anjos; Mury, Wanda Vianna; Brunini, Tatiana Marlowe Cunha

    2018-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a benign condition that can progress to more severe liver damage in a process mediated, in part, by disturbances in redox balance. Additionally, some argue that it is set to become the main cause of end-stage liver disease in the near future. Here, we investigated whether diet-induced weight loss is able to reverse hepatic lipid accumulation and reduce oxidative stress in liver from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into 4 groups: standard chow (SC; 10% energy from fat, 16 weeks); HF (50% energy from fat, 16 weeks); SC-HF (SC for 8 weeks followed by HF for 8 weeks); and HF-SC (HF for 8 weeks followed by SC for 8 weeks). The HF diet during 8 (SC-HF) and 16 weeks (HF) downregulated messenger RNA levels and protein expression of Nrf2 and endogenous antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in the liver; caused liver steatosis; affected liver function markers; increased intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue; and induced glucose intolerance and hypercholesterolemia compared with controls (SC). Diet-induced weight loss significantly reduced the intrahepatic lipid accumulation, improved glucose tolerance, and restored both gene and protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes. Our findings suggest that a dietary intervention aimed to induce weight loss may exert protective effects in NAFLD as it can reduce hepatic oxidative stress and intrahepatic lipid accumulation, which can hinder the progression of this condition to more severe states.

  6. An Ex Vivo Model for Studying Hepatic Schistosomiasis and the Effect of Released Protein from Dying Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Nawaratna, Sujeevi K.; Harvie, Marina; Ramm, Grant A.; McManus, Donald P.

    2015-01-01

    Background We report the use of an ex vivo precision cut liver slice (PCLS) mouse model for studying hepatic schistosomiasis. In this system, liver tissue is unfixed, unfrozen, and alive for maintenance in culture and subsequent molecular analysis. Methods and Findings Using thick naive mouse liver tissue and sterile culture conditions, the addition of soluble egg antigen (SEA) derived from Schistosoma japonicum eggs, followed 4, 24 and 48hrs time points. Tissue was collected for transcriptional analysis and supernatants collected to quantitate liver enzymes, cytokines and chemokines. No significant hepatotoxicity was demonstrated by supernatant liver enzymes due to the presence of SEA. A proinflammatory response was observed both at the transcriptional level and at the protein level by cytokine and chemokine bead assay. Key genes observed elevated transcription in response to the addition of SEA included: IL1-α and IL1-β, IL6, all associated with inflammation. The recruitment of antigen presenting cells was reflected in increases in transcription of CD40, CCL4 and CSF1. Indications of tissue remodeling were seen in elevated gene expression of various Matrix MetalloProteinases (MMP3, 9, 10, 13) and delayed increases in TIMP1. Collagen deposition was significantly reduced in the presence of SEA as shown in COL1A1 expression by qPCR after 24hrs culture. Cytokine and chemokine analysis of the culture supernatants confirmed the elevation of proteins including IL6, CCL3, CCL4 and CXCL5. Conclusions This ex vivo model system for the synchronised delivery of parasite antigen to liver tissue provides an insight into the early phase of hepatic schistosomiasis, corresponding with the release of soluble proteins from dying schistosome eggs. PMID:25965781

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis of roadmap models in chronic hepatitis B using tenofovir as the rescue therapy.

    PubMed

    Lui, Yanni Yan-Ni; Tsoi, Kelvin Kam-Fai; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Kao, Jia-Horng; Hou, Jin-Lin; Teo, Eng-Kiong; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Piratvisuth, Teerha; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Mihm, Ulrike; Wong, Grace Lai-Hung; Chan, Henry Lik-Yuen

    2010-01-01

    The roadmap approach is recommended to guide chronic hepatitis B treatment. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of various treatment strategies in the global market. Lamivudine and telbivudine were tested in roadmap models with switch-to tenofovir if HBV was detectable at week 24 or add-on tenofovir if resistance developed at year 1. Tenofovir and entecavir were tested as continuous monotherapy. In the reference arm, lamivudine was used with add-on tenofovir if resistance developed at year 1. The primary measure of effectiveness was undetectable HBV DNA at year 2. Cost-effectiveness was measured by incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in US dollars against the reference arm. In the US and Germany, costs of the reference arms were US $14,486 and US $9,998 for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and US $11,398 and US $7,531 for HBeAg-negative patients, respectively. In HBeAg-positive patients, the lamivudine roadmap was most cost-effective (ICER US $15,260 in the US and US $29,113 in Germany) with comparable effectiveness (75.1%) to other strategies. In HBeAg-negative patients, tenofovir and entecavir monotherapies were most effective (91-96%) and cost-effective (ICER US $31,297-43,387 in the US and US $53,976-59,822 in Germany). In Asia, where telbivudine cost was lower, both telbivudine and lamivudine roadmaps were cost-effective in HBeAg-positive patients. Tenofovir would be most cost-effective in HBeAg-negative patients if its cost equaled that of telbivudine in Asia. In HBeAg-positive patients, lamivudine roadmap was most cost-effective; in Asia, telbivudine roadmap had comparable cost-effectiveness to lamivudine roadmap because of the relatively low price of telbivudine. In HBeAg-negative patients, entecavir and tenofovir monotherapies were more cost-effective than the roadmap models.

  8. Monitoring of abdominal Staphylococcus aureus infection using magnetic resonance imaging: a murine animal model for hepatic and renal abscesses.

    PubMed

    Kromrey, M L; Göhler, A; Friedrich, N; Kindermann, K; Hadlich, S; Puls, D; Steinmetz, I; Kühn, J P

    2017-02-01

    To establish a routine workflow for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of mice infected with bacterial biosafety level 2 pathogens and to generate a mouse model for systemic infection with Staphylococcus aureus suitable for monitoring by MRI. A self-contained acrylic glass animal bed complying with biosafety level 2 requirements was constructed. After intravenous infection with 10 5 colony-forming units (CFU) (n = 3), 10 6  CFU (n = 11) or 10 7  CFU (n = 6) of S. aureus strain Newman, female Balb/c mice were whole-body scanned by 7T MRI. Abdominal infections such as abscesses were visualized using a standard T2-weighted scan. Infection monitoring was performed for each animal by measurements at 1, 3, and 7 days after infection. Intravenous pathogen application led to a dose-dependent decrease in survival probability (p = 0.03). In the group with the highest infectious dose the 7-day survival rate was 33 %. An intermediate S. aureus dose showed a survival rate of 80 %, whereas at the lowest infection dose, none of the animals died. All animals with the highest infection dose exhibited hepatic abscesses 4 days after inoculation, 80 % developed renal abscesses on the 3rd day. Mice obtaining the intermediate S. aureus load reached a plateau at day 4 with 72 % liver and 60 % renal abscess probability. No abscesses were observed in other abdominal organs at any time point. The implemented experimental setup provides a suitable and reliable in vivo MRI method to study murine abdominal infection models using BSL-2 pathogen. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection leads to a dose-dependent development of hepatic and renal abscesses.

  9. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... available. Chronic hepatitis B is more common in Africa, Asia, and parts of the Middle East, Eastern ... some parts of the world, including sub-Saharan Africa, parts of Asia, and the Pacific Islands. 5, ...

  10. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Alagille Syndrome Autoimmune Hepatitis Biliary Atresia Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cirrhosis Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition ...

  11. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is a combination of glecaprevir and pibrentasvir (brand name: Mavyret). It has one of the shortest ... of hepatitis C. these include: Elbasvir and grazoprevir (brand name: Zepatier) Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (brand name: Harvoni) ...

  12. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... a mother who had hepatitis C Received a tattoo or acupuncture with needles that were not disinfected ... is very low with practitioners who have a tattoo license or permit or an acupuncture license) Received ...

  13. Hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Samuel C; Kingery, Joe E

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis A is a common viral illness worldwide, although the incidence in the United States has diminished in recent years as a result of extended immunization practices. Hepatitis A virus is transmitted through fecal-oral contamination, and there are occasional outbreaks through food sources. Young children are usually asymptomatic, although the likelihood of symptoms tends to increase with age. Most patients recover within two months of infection, although 10 to 15 percent of patients will experience a relapse in the first six months. Hepatitis A virus does not usually result in chronic infection or chronic liver disease. Supportive care is the mainstay of treatment. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend routine vaccination of all children 12 to 23 months of age, as well as certain vulnerable populations. Hepatitis A vaccine is also recommended for most cases of postexposure prophylaxis, although immunoglobulin is an acceptable alternative in some situations.

  14. Effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in obstructive jaundice: an experimental study in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Yol, Sinan; Teke, Zafer; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Sakaogullari, Zisan; Ozel Turkcu, Ummuhani; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akoglu, Musa

    2010-08-01

    The physiology of the patient during laparoscopy differs from that of open surgery. Both pneumoperitoneum and obstructive jaundice impair the hepatic function, but the combined insult has not been previously examined. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum on hepatic function in a rat model of obstructive jaundice. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 10), sham-operated group; group 2 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice group; group 3 (n = 10), CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group; and group 4 (n = 12), obstructive jaundice and CO(2) pneumoperitoneum group. Common bile duct was ligated and divided in the obstructive jaundice groups. After 6 days, a 12-mmHg pneumoperitoneum was induced, maintained for 60 min, and released for 120 min. Blood samples were drawn for the measurement of white blood cell and platelet counts, serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], total bilirubin). Tissue samples were obtained for analyses of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels. We evaluated the degree of liver injury on a grading scale from 0 to 4, histopathologically. Pneumoperitoneum after biliary obstruction resulted in an increase in AST and ALT levels and a decrease in white blood cell and platelet counts. However, changes in liver tissue MDA, GSH, and SOD levels did not correlate with the changes in AST and ALT levels and white blood cell and platelet counts. After sham operation with pneumoperitoneum, the GSH levels in liver homogenate were significantly decreased in the group 3 when compared to the group 2. On the other hand, obstructive jaundice itself caused significant reduction in the SOD activity of liver homogenate in comparison to the group 3. Histopathologically, sinusoidal congestion and vacuolization were more severe in the group 3. Alterations in hepatic function occur in pneumoperitoneum applied

  15. Long-term natural history of liver disease in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection: an analysis using the Markov chain model.

    PubMed

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Ohisa, Masayuki; Akita, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Junko

    2018-04-19

    The relationship between the hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion and the long-term natural history of liver disease has not been sufficiently investigated. A total of 408 [4352 person-year (PY) units] patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) without antiviral therapy were enrolled. The study patients were divided into three groups, as follows: Group A (2666 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age < 40; Group B (413 PY units), seroconverted of HBeAg at age ≥ 40; Group C (1273 PY units), persistently HBeAg positive. Yearly transition probabilities from each liver state [chronic HBV infection, chronic hepatitis B, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negativity] were calculated using the Markov chain model. In the analysis of 1 year liver disease state transition probabilities, the liver states remained almost the same in Group A. In Groups B and C, each liver state tended to progress to a worse state. Assuming a chronic hepatitis B state at age 40 as the starting condition for simulation over the next 40 years, the chronic hepatitis B state accounted for approximately 60% of males aged ≥ 50 and approximately 40% of females aged ≥ 60 in Group A, and the HBsAg-negative state accounted for approximately 30-40% of males and females aged ≥ 60. In Groups B and C, the probabilities of patients with cirrhosis and HCC gradually increased with age. Not only patients with persistent HBeAg positive, but also patients with delayed HBeAg seroconversion showed poor prognosis of liver-related natural history.

  16. Alpha-1 antitrypsin Z protein (PiZ) increases hepatic fibrosis in a murine model of cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Mencin, Ali; Seki, Ekihiro; Osawa, Yosuke; Kodama, Yuzo; De Minicis, Samuele; Knowles, Michael; Brenner, David A

    2007-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) deficiency is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in children. The homozygous alpha1-ATZ mutation (PiZZ) results in significant liver disease in 10% of all affected patients. The alpha1-ATZ mutation also may lead to worse liver injury in the setting of other liver diseases such as cystic fibrosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatitis C. Although cholestatic injury is common to many forms of liver disease, its effect on the PiZZ phenotype is unknown. To elucidate the interplay of cholestasis and the PiZZ phenotype, we performed bile duct ligation (BDL) on C57BL/6 mice possessing a transgenic alpha1-ATZ mutation and littermate controls. PiZ transgenic mice undergoing BDL developed more liver fibrosis by quantification of Sirius red staining (P = 0.0003) and hydroxyproline (P = 0.007) than wild-type mice after BDL. More activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and apoptotic cells also were observed in the PiZ BDL model. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP and GRP78 were 4-fold and 2-fold more up-regulated, respectively, in PiZ BDL mice when compared with wild-type BDL mice (P = 0.02, P = 0.02). Increased apoptosis was also noted in PiZ BDL mice by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and cleaved caspase-3 histological staining. PiZ transgenic mice are more susceptible to liver fibrosis induced by cholestasis from BDL. Cholestasis therefore may lead to increased fibrosis in alpha1-AT deficiency, and the alpha1-ATZ mutation may act as a modifier gene in patients with concurrent cholestatic liver diseases such as cystic fibrosis.

  17. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... with drugs, such as lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil. Hepatitis C is treated with a combination of peginterferon and ... at some point during their lifetime. Hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, is a chief cause of liver diseases. Questions ...

  18. Simplified technique for 75% and 90% hepatic resection with hemodynamic monitoring in a large white swine model.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Petru; Bekheit, Mohamed; Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Vibert, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Accurate measuring of the hepatic hemodynamic parameters in humans is inconvenient. Swine has been a favorite surgical model for the study of liver conditions due to many similarities with human livers. However, pigs cannot tolerate pedicle clamping and to reduce bleeding during resection a simplified technique is required. The aim of this study is to present a simplified technique for different percentages of hepatic resection in a porcine model. Twenty-two consecutive large white pigs were operated with 75% and 90% liver resection. Computarized tomography liver volumetry is performed before and after surgery. In both types of surgery, hemodynamic monitoring was performed using a specialized apparatus. Resections were performed in both groups successfully. The residual volume in the planned 75% was 235 ± 77 mL and 118 ± 119 mL in the planned 90% resection. For 75% resection, the portal flow was reduced after resection by 8.13 ± 28%, which might be part of systemic circulatory depression. However, the portal pressure increased by 20.1 ± 51%. The hepatic artery flow decreased by 63.86 ± 26.3% as well as the pressure by 5 ± 28%. The central venous pressure at the start of surgery was 3.34 ± 1.9 mm Hg and 2.8 ± 2.2 mm Hg at the end of surgery. The portacaval pressure gradient was 4.4 ± 2.9 mm Hg at the beginning of surgery and was 5.9 ± 2.8 mm Hg at the end of surgery. For 90% resection, the portal flow decreased by 33.6 ± 12.6% and the pressure increased by 104 ± 58%. The hepatic artery flow decreased by 88 ± 7%, and the pressure decreased by 5 ± 14.8%. The central venous pressure was 3.5 ± 1.7 mm Hg before resection and 3 ± 2.5 mm Hg after resection. The portacaval pressure gradient was 3.8 ± 1.1 mm Hg before resection and 8 ± 3.7 mm Hg after resection. The mean anesthesia time was 6.6 ± 1.05 h and 6.9 ± 0.5 h for 75% and 90% resection, respectively. The mean operative time was 4.6 ± 0.9

  19. The relative importance of kinetic mechanisms and variable enzyme abundances for the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism--insights from mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Sascha; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Berndt, Nikolaus

    2016-03-02

    Adaptation of the cellular metabolism to varying external conditions is brought about by regulated changes in the activity of enzymes and transporters. Hormone-dependent reversible enzyme phosphorylation and concentration changes of reactants and allosteric effectors are the major types of rapid kinetic enzyme regulation, whereas on longer time scales changes in protein abundance may also become operative. Here, we used a comprehensive mathematical model of the hepatic glucose metabolism of rat hepatocytes to decipher the relative importance of different regulatory modes and their mutual interdependencies in the hepatic control of plasma glucose homeostasis. Model simulations reveal significant differences in the capability of liver metabolism to counteract variations of plasma glucose in different physiological settings (starvation, ad libitum nutrient supply, diabetes). Changes in enzyme abundances adjust the metabolic output to the anticipated physiological demand but may turn into a regulatory disadvantage if sudden unexpected changes of the external conditions occur. Allosteric and hormonal control of enzyme activities allow the liver to assume a broad range of metabolic states and may even fully reverse flux changes resulting from changes of enzyme abundances alone. Metabolic control analysis reveals that control of the hepatic glucose metabolism is mainly exerted by enzymes alone, which are differently controlled by alterations in enzyme abundance, reversible phosphorylation, and allosteric effects. In hepatic glucose metabolism, regulation of enzyme activities by changes of reactants, allosteric effects, and reversible phosphorylation is equally important as changes in protein abundance of key regulatory enzymes.

  20. Dihydroceramide is a key metabolite that regulates autophagy and promotes fibrosis in hepatic steatosis model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah Young; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, Ji-Eun; Mock, Hyuck Jun; Park, Sungjin; Kim, Sanghwa; Hong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Eun-Jung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2017-12-16

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly common chronic liver disease worldwide. Sphingolipids are a family of lipids that play essential roles as critical regulators in metabolic disorders. Some sphingolipids are known key factors in metabolic dysfunction. However, the precise effect of dihydroceramide on NAFLD remains unknown. Here, we report how dihydroceramide in autophagosome accumulation activates fibrogenesis in human liver Chang cells treated with free fatty acids (FFA). According to LC/MS lipid profiling, FFA increased the levels of sphingolipids and triacylglycerol (TG). To demonstrate the potential role of dihydroceramide metabolism in autophagy, several sphingolipid synthesis inhibitors were used. Increased dihydroceramide led to impairment of autophagic flux, resulting in increased TG storage in lipid droplets (LD) and upregulated expression of fibrosis markers. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs, LX-2 cells) were co-cultured with Chang cells to assess the potential fibrogenic response to dihydroceramide, Treatment with rapamycin recovered autophagic flux in Chang cells and fibrogenesis in the co-culture system. Our results identified a critical function of dihydroceramide metabolism in autophagy. It could play an important role in the progression of NAFLD associated with lipid over-accumulation. Therefore, preventing autophagic flux by regulating dihydroceramide could be a potential strategic approach for providing therapy for NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Hepatitis B and C Infection on Health Services Utilization in Homeless Adults: A Test of the Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Judith A.; Andersen, Ronald M.; Robertson, Marjorie; Gelberg, Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Objective Homeless people have disproportionately high rates of viral hepatitis. The Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations (predisposing, enabling, and need variables) was expanded to predict prevalence and awareness of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) infection as well as health services utilization (HSU) among homeless adults using structural equation modeling. Design A population-based sample of 534 homeless adults in Los Angeles’ “Skid Row” was interviewed and tested for HBV and HCV. Main outcome measures HBV/HCV seropositivity, awareness of seropositivity, and HSU in the previous 12 months. Results Seropositivity (43%), usually unknown (72% of seropositives), was predicted by injection drug use, alcohol use, older age, and risky sexual behavior. No regular source of care, risky sexual behavior, less case management, and greater age predicted not knowing one’s positive status. Health insurance, younger age, alcohol use, perceived bad health and more medical conditions predicted emergency room (ER) use; ER use was less likely among seropositives. Hospitalizations were predicted by more medical conditions and greater percentage of life homeless and were less frequent among African-Americans and males. Ambulatory visits were predicted by a regular source of care, case management, more education and perceived bad health; they were less likely among seropositives. Conclusion The Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model provided a useful guide for predicting HBV/HCV positivity as well as HSU in homeless adults. Most hepatitis-positives did not know their status and used health services less often than other homeless adults. More aggressive detection of hepatitis B and C among homeless adults is needed. PMID:21574705

  2. Quantitative imaging: quantification of liver shape on CT using the statistical shape model to evaluate hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masatoshi; Okada, Toshiyuki; Higashiura, Keisuke; Sato, Yoshinobu; Chen, Yen-Wei; Kim, Tonsok; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Umeshita, Koji; Wakasa, Kenichi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the statistical shape model (SSM) for the quantification of liver shape to evaluate hepatic fibrosis. Ninety-one subjects (45 men and 46 women; age range, 20-75 years) were included in this retrospective study: 54 potential liver donors and 37 patients with chronic liver disease. The subjects were classified histopathologically according to the fibrosis stage as follows: F0 (n = 55); F1 (n = 6); F2 (3); F3 (n = 1); and F4 (n = 26). Each subject underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) using a 64-channel scanner (0.625-mm slice thickness). An abdominal radiologist manually traced the liver boundaries on every CT section using an image workstation; the boundaries were used for subsequent analyses. An SSM was constructed by the principal component analysis of the subject data set, which defined a parametric model of the liver shapes. The shape parameters were calculated by fitting SSM to the segmented liver shape of each subject and were used for the training of a linear support vector regression (SVR), which classifies the liver fibrosis stage to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). SSM/SVR models were constructed and were validated in a leave-one-out manner. The performance of our technique was compared to those of two previously reported types of caudate-right lobe ratios (C/RL-m and C/RL-r). In our SSM/SVR models, the AUC values for the classification of liver fibrosis were 0.96 (F0 vs. F1-4), 0.95 (F0-1 vs. F2-4), 0.96 (F0-2 vs. F3-4), and 0.95 (F0-3 vs. F4). These values were significantly superior to AUC values using the C/RL-m or C/RL-r ratios (P < .005). SSM was useful for estimating the stage of hepatic fibrosis by quantifying liver shape. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Modelling of Sofosbuvir-Containing Regimens for Chronic Genotype 5 Hepatitis C Virus Infection in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ilanca; Burger, Johanita; Lubbe, Martie; Dranitsaris, George; Sonderup, Mark; Stander, Tienie

    2016-04-01

    The recently launched nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir represents a significant turn in the treatment paradigm of chronic hepatitis C. While effective, sofosbuvir is also associated with a considerable cost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of sofosbuvir-containing regimens in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 5 (HCV-G5) mono-infection in South Africa (SA). We constructed a lifetime horizon decision-analytic Markov model of the natural history of HCV infection to evaluate the cost effectiveness of sofosbuvir-ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) monotherapy against sofosbuvir triple therapy (SOF-TT) (sofosbuvir + pegylated interferon and ribavirin [peg-INF/RBV]) and the current standard of care (SOC) (peg-INF/RBV) for patients with chronic HCV-G5 in the South African context. The model was populated with data from published literature, expert opinion and South African private sector cost data. The price modelled for sofosbuvir was the predicted South African private sector price of 82,129.32 South African rand (R) (US$7000) for 12 weeks. The analysis was conducted from a third-party payer perspective. The outcome measures were discounted and undiscounted costs (in 2015 South African rand and US dollars) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Outcomes from the cost-effectiveness model show that SOF/LDV yields the most favourable future health economic outcomes compared with SOF-TT and the current SOC in SA. Findings relating to the lifetime incremental cost per QALY gained for patients infected with HCV-G5 indicate that SOF/LDV dominated both SOF-TT and SOC, i.e. SOF/LDV is less costly and more effective. Outcomes from this analysis suggest that at a price of R123,190 ($US10,500) for 12 weeks of SOF/LDV might be cost effective for South African patients infected with HCV-G5.

  4. Multi-state Markov models for disease progression in the presence of informative examination times: an application to hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, M J; Farewell, V T; De Angelis, D

    2010-05-20

    In many chronic diseases it is important to understand the rate at which patients progress from infection through a series of defined disease states to a clinical outcome, e.g. cirrhosis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals or AIDS in HIV-infected individuals. Typically data are obtained from longitudinal studies, which often are observational in nature, and where disease state is observed only at selected examinations throughout follow-up. Transition times between disease states are therefore interval censored. Multi-state Markov models are commonly used to analyze such data, but rely on the assumption that the examination times are non-informative, and hence the examination process is ignorable in a likelihood-based analysis. In this paper we develop a Markov model that relaxes this assumption through the premise that the examination process is ignorable only after conditioning on a more regularly observed auxiliary variable. This situation arises in a study of HCV disease progression, where liver biopsies (the examinations) are sparse, irregular, and potentially informative with respect to the transition times. We use additional information on liver function tests (LFTs), commonly collected throughout follow-up, to inform current disease state and to assume an ignorable examination process. The model developed has a similar structure to a hidden Markov model and accommodates both the series of LFT measurements and the partially latent series of disease states. We show through simulation how this model compares with the commonly used ignorable Markov model, and a Markov model that assumes the examination process is non-ignorable. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Model based estimates of long-term persistence of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine-induced antibodies in adults.

    PubMed

    Hens, Niel; Habteab Ghebretinsae, Aklilu; Hardt, Karin; Van Damme, Pierre; Van Herck, Koen

    2014-03-14

    In this paper, we review the results of existing statistical models of the long-term persistence of hepatitis A vaccine-induced antibodies in light of recently available immunogenicity data from 2 clinical trials (up to 17 years of follow-up). Healthy adult volunteers monitored annually for 17 years after the administration of the first vaccine dose in 2 double-blind, randomized clinical trials were included in this analysis. Vaccination in these studies was administered according to a 2-dose vaccination schedule: 0, 12 months in study A and 0, 6 months in study B (NCT00289757/NCT00291876). Antibodies were measured using an in-house ELISA during the first 11 years of follow-up; a commercially available ELISA was then used up to Year 17 of follow-up. Long-term antibody persistence from studies A and B was estimated using statistical models for longitudinal data. Data from studies A and B were modeled separately. A total of 173 participants in study A and 108 participants in study B were included in the analysis. A linear mixed model with 2 changepoints allowed all available results to be accounted for. Predictions based on this model indicated that 98% (95%CI: 94-100%) of participants in study A and 97% (95%CI: 94-100%) of participants in study B will remain seropositive 25 years after receiving the first vaccine dose. Other models using part of the data provided consistent results: ≥95% of the participants was projected to remain seropositive for ≥25 years. This analysis, using previously used and newly selected model structures, was consistent with former estimates of seropositivity rates ≥95% for at least 25 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Applying a system approach to forecast the total hepatitis C virus-infected population size: model validation using US data.

    PubMed

    Kershenobich, David; Razavi, Homie A; Cooper, Curtis L; Alberti, Alfredo; Dusheiko, Geoffrey M; Pol, Stanislas; Zuckerman, Eli; Koike, Kazuhiko; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Wallace, Carolyn M; Zeuzem, Stefan; Negro, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with chronic progressive liver disease. Its global epidemiology is still not well ascertained and its impact will be confronted with a higher burden in the next decade. The goal of this study was to develop a tool that can be used to predict the future prevalence of the disease in different countries and, more importantly, to understand the cause and effect relationship between the key assumptions and future trends. A system approach was used to build a simulation model where each population was modeled with the appropriate inflows and outflows. Sensitivity analysis was used to identify the key drivers of future prevalence. The total HCV-infected population in the US was estimated to decline 24% from 3.15 million in 2005 to 2.47 million in 2021, while disease burden will increase as the remaining infected population ages. During the same period, the mortality rate was forecasted to increase from 2.1 to 3.1%. The diagnosed population was 50% of the total infections, while less than 2% of the total infections were treated. We have created a framework to evaluate the HCV-infected populations in countries around the world. This model may help assess the impact of policies to meet the challenges predicted by the evolution of HCV infection and disease. This prediction tool may help to target new public health strategies. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Current topics in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Luigi; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Giorgios; Cassani, Fabio; Lenzi, Marco

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology characterized by interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinaemia and circulating autoantibodies. In the last decade a number of advancements have been made in the field of clinical and basic research: the simplified diagnostic criteria, the complete response defined as normalization of transaminase levels, the molecular identification of the antigenic targets of anti-liver cytosol antibody type 1 and anti-soluble liver antigen, the detection of anti-actin antibodies, the description of de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation for non-autoimmune liver diseases, the characterization of autoimmune hepatitis with overlapping features of primary biliary cirrhosis or primary sclerosing cholangitis, the preliminary experience with novel treatment strategies based on cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and budesonide, the role played by "impaired" regulatory T cells and the development of novel animal models of autoimmune hepatitis. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The induction of autoimmune hepatitis in the human leucocyte antigen-DR4 non-obese diabetic mice autoimmune hepatitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, M; Xiao, X; Tai, N; Vijay, G M; Gülden, E; Beland, K; Lapierre, P; Alvarez, F; Hu, Z; Colle, I; Ma, Y; Wen, L

    2016-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic liver disease characterized by progressive inflammation, female preponderance and seropositivity for autoantibodies such as anti-smooth muscle actin and/or anti-nuclear, anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 (anti-LKM1) and anti-liver cytosol type 1 (anti-LC1) in more than 80% of cases. AIH is linked strongly to several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3, -DR7 and -DR13. HLA-DR4 has the second strongest association with adult AIH, after HLA-DR3. We investigated the role of HLA-DR4 in the development of AIH by immunization of HLA-DR4 (DR4) transgenic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with DNA coding for human CYP2D6/FTCD fusion autoantigen. Immunization of DR4 mice leads to sustained mild liver injury, as assessed biochemically by elevated alanine aminotransferase, histologically by interface hepatitis, plasma cell infiltration and mild fibrosis and immunologically by the development of anti-LKM1/anti-LC1 antibodies. In addition, livers from DR4 mice had fewer regulatory T cells (T regs ), which had decreased programmed death (PD)-1 expression. Splenic T regs from these mice also showed impaired inhibitory capacity. Furthermore, DR4 expression enhanced the activation status of CD8 + T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells in naive DR4 mice compared to naive wild-type (WT) NOD mice. Our results demonstrate that HLA-DR4 is a susceptibility factor for the development of AIH. Impaired suppressive function of T regs and reduced PD-1 expression may result in spontaneous activation of key immune cell subsets, such as antigen-presenting cells and CD8 + T effectors, facilitating the induction of AIH and persistent liver damage. © 2016 British Society for Immunology.

  9. A unified model for predicting human hepatic, metabolic clearance from in vitro intrinsic clearance data in hepatocytes and microsomes.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert J; McGinnity, D F; Austin, R P

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a unified method for predicting human in vivo intrinsic clearance (CL(int, in vivo)) and hepatic clearance (CL(h)) from in vitro data in hepatocytes and microsomes by applying the unbound fraction in blood (fu(b)) and in vitro incubations (fu(inc)). Human CL(int, in vivo) was projected using in vitro data together with biological scaling factors and compared with the unbound intrinsic clearance (CL(int, ub, in vivo)) estimated from clinical data using liver models with and without the various fu terms. For incubations conducted with fetal calf serum (n=14), the observed CL(int, in vivo) was modeled well assuming fu(inc) and fu(b) were equivalent. CL(int, ub, in vivo) was predicted best using both fu(b) and fu(inc) for other hepatocyte data (n=56; r(2)=0.78, p=3.3 x 10(-19), average fold error=5.2). A similar model for CL(int, ub, in vivo) was established for microsomal data (n=37; r(2)=0.77, p=1.2 x 10(-12), average fold error=6.1). Using the model for CL(int, ub, in vivo) (including a further empirical scaling factor), the CL(h) in humans was also calculated according to the well stirred liver model for the most extensive dataset. CL(int, in vivo) and CL(h) were both predicted well using in vitro human data from several laboratories for acidic, basic, and neutral drugs. The direct use of this model using only in vitro human data to predict the metabolic component of CL(h) is attractive, as it does not require extra information from preclinical studies in animals.

  10. Activity of a potent hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor in the chimpanzee model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Ming; He, Yupeng; Lu, Liangjun; Lim, Hock Ben; Tripathi, Rakesh L; Middleton, Tim; Hernandez, Lisa E; Beno, David W A; Long, Michelle A; Kati, Warren M; Bosse, Todd D; Larson, Daniel P; Wagner, Rolf; Lanford, Robert E; Kohlbrenner, William E; Kempf, Dale J; Pilot-Matias, Tami J; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2007-12-01

    A-837093 is a potent and specific nonnucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It possesses nanomolar potencies in both enzymatic and replicon-based cell culture assays. In rats and dogs this compound demonstrated an oral plasma half-life of greater than 7 h, and its bioavailability was >60%. In monkeys it had a half-life of 1.9 h and 15% bioavailability. Its antiviral efficacy was evaluated in two chimpanzees infected with HCV in a proof-of-concept study. The design included oral dosing of 30 mg per kg of body weight twice a day for 14 days, followed by a 14-day posttreatment observation. Maximum viral load reductions of 1.4 and 2.5 log(10) copies RNA/ml for genotype 1a- and 1b-infected chimpanzees, respectively, were observed within 2 days after the initiation of treatment. After this initial drop in the viral load, a rebound of plasma HCV RNA was observed in the genotype 1b-infected chimpanzee, while the genotype 1a-infected chimpanzee experienced a partial rebound that lasted throughout the treatment period. Clonal analysis of NS5B gene sequences derived from the plasma of A-837093-treated chimpanzees revealed the presence of several mutations associated with resistance to A-837093, including Y448H, G554D, and D559G in the genotype 1a-infected chimpanzee and C316Y and G554D in the genotype 1b-infected chimpanzee. The identification of resistance-associated mutations in both chimpanzees is consistent with the findings of in vitro selection studies, in which many of the same mutations were selected. These findings validate the antiviral efficacy and resistance development of benzothiadiazine HCV polymerase inhibitors in vivo.

  11. The effects of Tao-Hong-Si-Wu on hepatic necroinflammatory activity and fibrosis in a murine model of chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Xi, Shengyan; Shi, Mengmeng; Jiang, Xueqiang; Minuk, Gerald Y; Cheng, Yao; Peng, Ying; Gong, Yuewen; Xu, Yangxinzi; Wang, Xinrong; Yang, Jiaqi; Yue, Lifeng; Wang, Yanhui

    2016-03-02

    Tao-Hong-Si-Wu decoction (THSWD) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been used for centuries in the treatment of Chinese patients with chronic liver disease. Recently, THSWD has been reported to alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced angiogenesis, raising the possibility that in addition to its anti-inflammatory properties; THSWD might also inhibit hepatic blood flow associated fibrosis. To document the effects of THSWD on hepatic necroinflammatory disease activity, fibrosis and VEGF signaling in a murine model of chronic liver disease. Sixty adult mice were equally divided into six study groups. Five groups were exposed to subcutaneous carbon tetrachloride (0.1 ml/10 g BW) for six weeks. Three of the five groups were treated with different concentrations of THSWD (4.25, 8.50, 17.00 g/kg), one with 0.1mg/kg of Colchicine (positive control), and one with physiologic saline (negative control). Mice in the sixth group were not exposed to CCl4 and remained untreated (healthy controls). Liver enzymes/function tests, hyaluronic acid and laminin levels were measured in serum, and hepatic histology, VEGF, Flt-1 and kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR), Akt and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) expression were documented in liver tissue at the end of treatment. Hepatic necroinflammatory disease activity and fibrosis were significantly attenuated in THSWD treated mice in a dose dependent manner. These beneficial results were similar and often exceeded those achieved with Colchicine. In addition, VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, Akt and pAkt mRNA and protein expression were reduced in TSHWD treated mice. In this animal model of chronic liver disease, THSWD decreased hepatic necroinflammatory disease and fibrosis. Inhibition of VEGF expression and downstream signaling were associated with these findings. Further studies with this and other TCMs as treatment for chronic liver disease are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Partial Portal Vein Arterialization Attenuates Acute Bile Duct Injury Induced by Hepatic Dearterialization in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun; Wei, Jishu; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic infarcts or abscesses occur after hepatic artery interruption. We explored the mechanisms of hepatic deprivation-induced acute liver injury and determine whether partial portal vein arterialization attenuated this injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either complete hepatic arterial deprivation or partial portal vein arterialization, or both. Hepatic ischemia was evaluated using biochemical analysis, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Hepatic ATP levels, the expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and the expression of bile transporter genes were assessed. Complete dearterialization of the liver induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the histological changes, significantly increased serum biochemical markers, decreased ATP content, increased expression of hypoxia- and inflammation-associated genes and proteins, and decreased expression of bile transporter genes. These detrimental changes were extenuated but not fully reversed by partial portal vein arterialization, which also attenuated ductular reaction and fibrosis in completely dearterialized rat livers. Collectively, complete hepatic deprivation causes severe liver injury, including bile infarcts and biloma formation. Partial portal vein arterialization seems to protect against acute ischemia-hypoxia-induced liver injury.

  13. Characterization of Timed Changes in Hepatic Copper Concentrations, Methionine Metabolism, Gene Expression, and Global DNA Methylation in the Jackson Toxic Milk Mouse Model of Wilson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M.; French, Samuel W.; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Islam, Mohammad S.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Halsted, Charles H.; Keen, Carl L.; Medici, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Methods Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Results Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Conclusion Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation. PMID:24810691

  14. Characterization of timed changes in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, gene expression, and global DNA methylation in the Jackson toxic milk mouse model of Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Le, Anh; Shibata, Noreene M; French, Samuel W; Kim, Kyoungmi; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Islam, Mohammad S; LaSalle, Janine M; Halsted, Charles H; Keen, Carl L; Medici, Valentina

    2014-05-07

    Wilson disease (WD) is characterized by hepatic copper accumulation with progressive liver damage to cirrhosis. This study aimed to characterize the toxic milk mouse from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (tx-j) mouse model of WD according to changes over time in hepatic copper concentrations, methionine metabolism, global DNA methylation, and gene expression from gestational day 17 (fetal) to adulthood (28 weeks). Included liver histology and relevant biochemical analyses including hepatic copper quantification, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) liver levels, qPCR for transcript levels of genes relevant to methionine metabolism and liver damage, and DNA dot blot for global DNA methylation. Hepatic copper was lower in tx-j fetuses but higher in weanling (three weeks) and adult tx-j mice compared to controls. S-adenosylhomocysteinase transcript levels were significantly lower at all time points, except at three weeks, correlating negatively with copper levels and with consequent changes in the SAM:SAH methylation ratio and global DNA methylation. Compared to controls, methionine metabolism including S-adenosylhomocysteinase gene expression is persistently different in the tx-j mice with consequent alterations in global DNA methylation in more advanced stages of liver disease. The inhibitory effect of copper accumulation on S-adenosylhomocysteinase expression is associated with progressively abnormal methionine metabolism and decreased methylation capacity and DNA global methylation.

  15. Functional hepatic recovery after xenotransplantation of cryopreserved fetal liver cells or soluble cell-factor administration in a cirrhotic rat model: are viable cells necessary?

    PubMed

    Ochenashko, Olga V; Nikitchenko, Yurii V; Volkova, Nataliya A; Mazur, Svetlana P; Somov, Alexander Y; Fuller, Barry J; Petrenko, Alexander Y

    2008-07-01

    Chronic liver failure results in the decrease of the number of functioning hepatocytes. It dictates the necessity of using exogenous viable cells or/and agents that can stimulate hepatic regenerative processes. Fetal liver contains both hepatic and hematopoietic stem cells with high proliferative potential, which may replace damaged cells. Also, immature cells produce fetal-specific factors which may support the injured liver. Our aim was to test the ability of human fetal liver cells and cell-free fetal-specific factors of non-hepatic origin to stimulate recovery processes in an experimental model of carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis in rats. Cirrhotic rats were intrasplenically injected with fetal liver cells (1 x 10(7) cells/0.3 mL medium) or cell-free fetal-specific factors (0.3 mL/1 mg protein). Control groups received medium alone. Serum indexes, hepatic functions, and morphology were evaluated for 15 days. Human fetal liver cell transplantation was shown to abrogate the mortality of cirrhotic animals, to improve serum markers, and to restore liver mitochondrial function and detoxification. Morphological patterns of liver recovery were observed by histology. In comparison, an injection of fetal-specific factors produced similar functional recovery, whilst a more limited liver regeneration was observed by histology. The positive effects of fetal liver cell and cell-free fetal-specific factors in experimental cirrhosis may result from the presence of stage-specific factors activating hepatocellular repair.

  16. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Teneligliptin Attenuates Hepatic Lipogenesis via AMPK Activation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ideta, Takayasu; Shirakami, Yohei; Miyazaki, Tsuneyuki; Kochi, Takahiro; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, is increasingly a major cause of hepatic disorder. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, anti-diabetic agents, are expected to be effective for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we established a novel NAFLD model mouse using monosodium glutamate (MSG) and a high-fat diet (HFD) and investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, on the progression of NAFLD. Male MSG/HFD-treated mice were divided into two groups, one of which received teneligliptin in drinking water. Administration of MSG and HFD caused mice to develop severe fatty changes in the liver, but teneligliptin treatment improved hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evaluated by the NAFLD activity score. Serum alanine aminotransferase and intrahepatic triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in teneligliptin-treated mice (p < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes involved in de novo lipogenesis were significantly downregulated by teneligliptin (p < 0.05). Moreover, teneligliptin increased hepatic expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein. These findings suggest that teneligliptin attenuates lipogenesis in the liver by activating AMPK and downregulating the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis. DPP-4 inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of NAFLD and may be able to prevent its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:26670228

  17. The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Teneligliptin Attenuates Hepatic Lipogenesis via AMPK Activation in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Ideta, Takayasu; Shirakami, Yohei; Miyazaki, Tsuneyuki; Kochi, Takahiro; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Shimizu, Masahito

    2015-12-08

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, is increasingly a major cause of hepatic disorder. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors, anti-diabetic agents, are expected to be effective for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we established a novel NAFLD model mouse using monosodium glutamate (MSG) and a high-fat diet (HFD) and investigated the effects of a DPP-4 inhibitor, teneligliptin, on the progression of NAFLD. Male MSG/HFD-treated mice were divided into two groups, one of which received teneligliptin in drinking water. Administration of MSG and HFD caused mice to develop severe fatty changes in the liver, but teneligliptin treatment improved hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as evaluated by the NAFLD activity score. Serum alanine aminotransferase and intrahepatic triglyceride levels were significantly decreased in teneligliptin-treated mice (p < 0.05). Hepatic mRNA levels of the genes involved in de novo lipogenesis were significantly downregulated by teneligliptin (p < 0.05). Moreover, teneligliptin increased hepatic expression levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein. These findings suggest that teneligliptin attenuates lipogenesis in the liver by activating AMPK and downregulating the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis. DPP-4 inhibitors may be effective for the treatment of NAFLD and may be able to prevent its progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

  18. Fatty acid composition and development of hepatic lipidosis during food deprivation--mustelids as a potential animal model for liver steatosis.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Kärjä, Vesa; Asikainen, Juha; Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti

    2009-03-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome characterized by asymptomatic hepatic steatosis. It is present in most cases of human obesity but also caused e.g., by rapid weight loss. The patients have decreased n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) proportions with decreased percentages of 18:3(n-3), 20:5(n-3) and 22:6(n-3) and an increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in liver and/or white adipose tissue (WAT). The present study examined a new experimental model to study liver steatosis with possible future applications to NAFLD. Ten European polecats (Mustela putorius), the wild form of the domestic ferret, were food-deprived for 5 days with 10 fed animals as controls. The food-deprived animals showed micro- and macrovesicular hepatic steatosis, decreased proportions of 20:5(n-3), 22:6(n-3) and total n-3 PUFA and increased n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios in liver and WAT. At the same time, the product/precursor ratios decreased in liver. The observed effects can be due to selective fatty acid mobilization preferring n-3 PUFA over n-6 PUFA, decreased Delta5 and Delta6 desaturase activities, oxidative stress, decreased arginine availability and activation of the endocannabinoid system. Hepatic lipidosis induced by food deprivation was manifested in the fatty acid composition of the polecat with similarities to human NAFLD despite the different principal etiologies.

  19. Relaxivity-iron calibration in hepatic iron overload: Probing underlying biophysical mechanisms using a Monte Carlo model

    PubMed Central

    Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Wood, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Iron overload is a serious condition for patients with β-thalassemia, transfusion-dependent sickle cell anemia and inherited disorders of iron metabolism. MRI is becoming increasingly important in non-invasive quantification of tissue iron, overcoming the drawbacks of traditional techniques (liver biopsy). R2*(1/T2*) rises linearly with iron while R2(1/T2) has a curvilinear relationship in human liver. Although recent work has demonstrated clinically-valid estimates of human liver iron, the calibration varies with MRI sequence, field strength, iron chelation therapy and organ imaged, forcing recalibration in patients. To understand and correct these limitations, a thorough understanding of the underlying biophysics is of critical importance. Toward this end, a Monte Carlo based approach, using human liver as a ‘model’ tissue system, was employed to determine the contribution of particle size and distribution on MRI signal relaxation. Relaxivities were determined for hepatic iron concentrations (HIC) ranging from 0.5–40 mg iron/ g dry tissue weight. Model predictions captured the linear and curvilinear relationship of R2* and R2 with HIC respectively and were within in vivo confidence bounds; contact or chemical exchange mechanisms were not necessary. A validated and optimized model will aid understanding and quantification of iron-mediated relaxivity in tissues where biopsy is not feasible (heart, spleen). PMID:21337413

  20. A methionine-choline-deficient diet elicits NASH in the immunodeficient mouse featuring a model for hepatic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pelz, Sandra; Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Christ, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    Non-alcoholic staetohepatitis (NASH) is associated with fat deposition in the liver favoring inflammatory processes and development of fibrosis, cirrhosis and finally hepatocellular cancer. In Western lifestyle countries, NASH has reached a 20% prevalence in the obese population with escalating tendency in the future. Very often, liver transplantation is the only therapeutic option. Recently, transplantation of hepatocyte-like cells differentiated from mesenchymal stem cells was suggested a feasible alternative to whole organ transplantation to ameliorate donor organ shortage. Hence, in the present work an animal model of NASH was established in immunodeficient mice to investigate the feasibility of human stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cell transplantation. NASH was induced by feeding a methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD-diet) for up to 5 weeks. Animals developed a fatty liver featuring fibrosis and elevation of the proinflammatory markers serum amyloid A (SAA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα). Hepatic triglycerides were significantly increased as well as alanine aminotransferase demonstrating inflammation-linked hepatocyte damage. Elevation of αSMA mRNA and collagen I as well as liver architecture deterioation indicated massive fibrosis. Both short- and long-term post-transplantation human hepatocyte-like cells resided in the mouse host liver indicating parenchymal penetration and most likely functional engraftment. Hence, the NASH model in the immunodeficient mouse is the first to allow for the assessment of the therapeutic impact of human stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cost-effectiveness model for hepatitis C screening and treatment: Implications for Egypt and other countries with high prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Kim, David D.; Hutton, David W.; Raouf, Ahmed A.; Salama, Mohsen; Hablas, Ahmed; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Soliman, Amr S.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, and many developing countries report intermediate-to-high prevalence. However, the economic impact of screening and treatment for HCV in high prevalence countries has not been well studied. Thus, we examined the cost-effectiveness of screening and treatment for HCV infection for asymptomatic, average-risk adults using a Markov decision analytic model. In our model, we collected age-specific prevalence, disease progression rates for Egyptians, and local cost estimates in Egypt, which has the highest prevalence of HCV infection (~15%) in the world. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and conducted sensitivity analyses to determine how cost-effective HCV screening and treatment might be in other developing countries with high and intermediate prevalence. In Egypt, implementing a screening program using triple-therapy treatment (sofosbuvir with pegylated interferon and ribavirin) was dominant compared to no screening because it would have lower total costs and improve health outcomes. HCV screening and treatment would also be cost-effective in global settings with intermediate costs of drug treatment (~$8,000) and a higher sustained viral response rate (70–80%). PMID:25469976

  2. Studies on hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems of high-producing dairy cows using the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". A review.

    PubMed

    Geelen, M J H; Wensing, T

    2006-09-01

    Fatty liver or hepatic lipidosis is a major metabolic disorder of high-producing dairy cows that occurs rather frequently in early lactation and is associated with decreased health, production and fertility. A background section of the review explores reasons why high-producing dairy cows are prone to develop fatty liver post partum. Hepatic lipidosis and coinciding health and fertility problems seriously endanger profitability and longevity of the dairy cow. Results from a great number of earlier epidemiological and clinical studies made it clear that a different approach was needed for elucidation of pathogenesis and etiology of this complex of health problems. There was a need for an adequate animal model in which hepatic lipidosis and production, health and fertility problems could be provoked under controlled conditions. It was hypothesized that overconditioning ante partum and feed restriction post partum might induce lipolysis in adipose tissue and triacylglycerol accumulation in the liver following calving. This consideration formed the basis for the experiments, which resulted in the "Utrecht fatty liver model of dairy cows". In this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems are induced under well-controlled conditions. The experimental protocol based on this hypothesis produced in all cases (10 feeding trials with over 150 dairy cattle) the intended result, i.e. all experimental cows developed post partum higher hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations than did control cows. The model was evaluated in biochemical, clinical pathology, immunological, clinical and fertility terms. It turned out that in this model, post partum triacylglycerol-lipidosis as well as the whole complex of health and fertility problems were induced under well-controlled conditions.

  3. A new model to produce infectious hepatitis C virus without the replication requirement.

    PubMed

    Triyatni, Miriam; Berger, Edward A; Saunier, Bertrand

    2011-04-01

    Numerous constraints significantly hamper the experimental study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Robust replication in cell culture occurs with only a few strains, and is invariably accompanied by adaptive mutations that impair in vivo infectivity/replication. This problem complicates the production and study of authentic HCV, including the most prevalent and clinically important genotype 1 (subtypes 1a and 1b). Here we describe a novel cell culture approach to generate infectious HCV virions without the HCV replication requirement and the associated cell-adaptive mutations. The system is based on our finding that the intracellular environment generated by a West-Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon rendered a mammalian cell line permissive for assembly and release of infectious HCV particles, wherein the HCV RNA with correct 5' and 3' termini was produced in the cytoplasm by a plasmid-driven dual bacteriophage RNA polymerase-based transcription/amplification system. The released particles preferentially contained the HCV-based RNA compared to the WNV subgenomic RNA. Several variations of this system are described with different HCV-based RNAs: (i) HCV bicistronic particles (HCVbp) containing RNA encoding the HCV structural genes upstream of a cell-adapted subgenomic replicon, (ii) HCV reporter particles (HCVrp) containing RNA encoding the bacteriophage SP6 RNA polymerase in place of HCV nonstructural genes, and (iii) HCV wild-type particles (HCVwt) containing unmodified RNA genomes of diverse genotypes (1a, strain H77; 1b, strain Con1; 2a, strain JFH-1). Infectivity was assessed based on the signals generated by the HCV RNA molecules introduced into the cytoplasm of target cells upon virus entry, i.e. HCV RNA replication and protein production for HCVbp in Huh-7.5 cells as well as for HCVwt in HepG2-CD81 cells and human liver slices, and SP6 RNA polymerase-driven firefly luciferase for HCVrp in target cells displaying candidate HCV surface receptors. HCV infectivity

  4. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic wedge hepatic resection with a water-jet hybrid knife in a non-survival porcine model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Fu, Deng-Ke; Xin, Pei; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2011-02-21

    To explore the feasibility of a water-jet hybrid knife to facilitate wedge hepatic resection using a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach in a non-survival porcine model. The Erbe Jet2 water-jet system allows a needleless, tissue-selective hydro-dissection with a pre-selected pressure. Using this system, wedge hepatic resection was performed through three natural routes (trans-anal, trans-vaginal and trans-umbilical) in three female pigs weighing 35 kg under general anesthesia. Entry into the peritoneal cavity was via a 15-mm incision using a hook knife. The targeted liver segment was marked by an APC probe, followed by wedge hepatic resection performed using a water-jet hybrid knife with the aid of a 4-mm transparent distance soft cap mounted onto the tip of the endoscope for holding up the desired plane. The exposed vascular and ductal structures were clipped with Endoclips. Hemostasis was applied to the bleeding cut edges of the liver parenchyma by electrocautery. After the procedure, the incision site was left open, and the animal was euthanized followed by necropsy. Using the Erbe Jet2 water-jet system, trans-anal and trans-vaginal wedge hepatic resection was successfully performed in two pigs without laparoscopic assistance. Trans-umbilical attempt failed due to an unstable operating platform. The incision for peritoneal entry took 1 min, and about 2 h was spent on excision of the liver tissue. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 100 to 250 mL. Microscopically, the hydro-dissections were relatively precise and gentle, preserving most vessels. The Erbe Jet2 water-jet system can safely accomplish non-anatomic wedge hepatic resection in NOTES, which deserves further studies to shorten the dissection time.

  5. Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic wedge hepatic resection with a water-jet hybrid knife in a non-survival porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hong; Jiang, Sheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Fu, Deng-Ke; Xin, Pei; Wang, Yong-Guang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of a water-jet hybrid knife to facilitate wedge hepatic resection using a natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) approach in a non-survival porcine model. METHODS: The Erbe Jet2 water-jet system allows a needleless, tissue-selective hydro-dissection with a pre-selected pressure. Using this system, wedge hepatic resection was performed through three natural routes (trans-anal, trans-vaginal and trans-umbilical) in three female pigs weighing 35 kg under general anesthesia. Entry into the peritoneal cavity was via a 15-mm incision using a hook knife. The targeted liver segment was marked by an APC probe, followed by wedge hepatic resection performed using a water-jet hybrid knife with the aid of a 4-mm transparent distance soft cap mounted onto the tip of the endoscope for holding up the desired plane. The exposed vascular and ductal structures were clipped with Endoclips. Hemostasis was applied to the bleeding cut edges of the liver parenchyma by electrocautery. After the procedure, the incision site was left open, and the animal was euthanized followed by necropsy. RESULTS: Using the Erbe Jet2 water-jet system, trans-anal and trans-vaginal wedge hepatic resection was successfully performed in two pigs without laparoscopic assistance. Trans-umbilical attempt failed due to an unstable operating platform. The incision for peritoneal entry took 1 min, and about 2 h was spent on excision of the liver tissue. The intra-operative blood loss ranged from 100 to 250 mL. Microscopically, the hydro-dissections were relatively precise and gentle, preserving most vessels. CONCLUSION: The Erbe Jet2 water-jet system can safely accomplish non-anatomic wedge hepatic resection in NOTES, which deserves further studies to shorten the dissection time. PMID:21412502

  6. Alcoholic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver can't remove the residue of old red blood cells (bilirubin) from your blood. Bilirubin builds up and is deposited in your skin and the whites of your eyes, causing a yellow color. Confusion, drowsiness and slurred speech (hepatic encephalopathy). A ...

  7. Modeling the impact of early antiretroviral therapy for adults coinfected with HIV and hepatitis B or C in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Martin, Natasha K; Devine, Angela; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Miners, Alec; Hallett, Timothy B; Foster, Graham R; Dore, Gregory J; Easterbrook, Philippa J; Legood, Rosa; Vickerman, Peter

    2014-01-01

    There has been discussion about whether individuals coinfected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) (∼30% of all people living with HIV) should be prioritized for early HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assess the relative benefits of providing ART at CD4 count below 500  cells/μl or immediate ART to HCV/HIV or HBV/HIV-coinfected adults compared with HIV-monoinfected adults. We evaluate individual outcomes (HIV/liver disease progression) and preventive benefits in a generalized HIV epidemic setting. We modeled disease progression for HIV-monoinfected, HBV/HIV-coinfected, and HCV/HIV-coinfected adults for differing ART eligibility thresholds (CD4 <350  cells/μl, CD4 <500  cells/μl, immediate ART eligibility upon infection). We report disability-adjusted life-years averted per 100 person-years on ART (DALYaverted/100PYonART) as a measure of the health benefits generated from incremental changes in ART eligibility. Sensitivity analyses explored impact on sexual HIV and vertical HIV, HCV, and HBV transmission. For HBV/HIV-coinfected adults, a switch to ART initiation at CD4 count below 500  cells/μl from CD4 below 350  cells/μl generates 9% greater health benefits per year on ART (48 DALYaverted/100PYonART) than for HIV-monoinfected adults (44 DALYaverted/100PYonART). Additionally, ART at CD4 below 500  cells/μl could prevent 25% and 32% of vertical transmissions of HIV and HBV, respectively. For HCV/HIV-coinfected adults, ART at CD4 below 500  cells/μl generates 10% fewer health benefits (40 DALYaverted/100PYonART) than for HIV monoinfection, unless ART reduces progression to cirrhosis by more than 70% (33% in base-case). The additional therapeutic benefits of ART for HBV-related liver disease results in ART generating more health benefits among HBV/HIV-coinfected adults than HIV-monoinfected individuals, whereas less health benefits are generated amongst HCV/HIV coinfection in a generalized HIV epidemic

  8. Safe, long-term hepatic expression of anti-HCV shRNA in a nonhuman primate model.

    PubMed

    Suhy, David A; Kao, Shih-Chu; Mao, Tin; Whiteley, Laurence; Denise, Hubert; Souberbielle, Bernard; Burdick, Andrew D; Hayes, Kyle; Wright, J Fraser; Lavender, Helen; Roelvink, Peter; Kolykhalov, Alexander; Brady, Kevin; Moschos, Sterghios A; Hauck, Bernd; Zelenaia, Olga; Zhou, Shangzhen; Scribner, Curt; High, Katherine A; Renison, Sara H; Corbau, Romu

    2012-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects 2% of the world population and effective treatment is limited by long duration and significant side-effects. Here, we describe a novel drug, intended as a "single-shot " therapy, which expresses three short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that simultaneously target multiple conserved regions of the HCV genome as confirmed in vitro by knockdown of an HCV replicon system. Using a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 8 vector for delivery, comprehensive transduction of hepatocytes was achieved in vivo in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model following a single intravenous injection. However, dose ranging studies performed in 13 NHP resulted in high-expression levels of shRNA from wild-type (wt) Pol III promoters and dose-dependent hepatocellular toxicity, the first demonstration of shRNA-related toxicity in primates, establishing that the hepatotoxicity arises from highly conserved features of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. In the second generation drug, each promoter was re-engineered to reduce shRNA transcription to levels that circumvent toxicity but still inhibit replicon activity. In vivo testing of this modified construct in 18 NHPs showed conservation of hepatocyte transduction but complete elimination of hepatotoxicity, even with sustained shRNA expression for 50 days. These data support progression to a clinical study for treatment of HCV infection.

  9. Hepatic and Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Are Differentially Regulated: Results From a Novel Model-Based Analysis of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Data

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin clearance is a highly variable and important factor that affects circulating insulin concentrations. We developed a novel model-based method to estimate both hepatic and extrahepatic insulin clearance using plasma insulin and C-peptide profiles obtained from the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Data from 100 African immigrants without diabetes (mean age 38 years, body weight 81.7 kg, fasting plasma glucose concentration 83 mg/dL, and fasting insulin concentration 37 pmol/L) were used. Endogenous insulin secretion (calculated by C-peptide deconvolution) and insulin infusion rates were used as inputs to a new two-compartment model of insulin kinetics and hepatic and extrahepatic clearance parameters were estimated. Good agreement between modeled and measured plasma insulin profiles was observed (mean normalized root mean square error 6.8%), and considerable intersubject variability in parameters of insulin clearance among individuals was identified (the mean [interquartile range] for hepatic extraction was 25.8% [32.7%], and for extrahepatic insulin clearance was 20.7 mL/kg/min [11.7 mL/kg/min]). Parameters of insulin clearance were correlated with measures of insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response to glucose. The method described appears promising for future research aimed at characterizing variability in insulin clearance and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of insulin clearance. PMID:26993071

  10. Neoboutonia melleri var velutina Prain: in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous stem bark extract on acute hepatitis models.

    PubMed

    Endougou Effa, Anne Marie; Gantier, Emilie; Hennebelle, Thierry; Roumy, Vincent; Rivière, Céline; Dimo, Théophile; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Desreumaux, Pierre; Dubuquoy, Laurent

    2018-01-22

    Hepatitis is a liver inflammation caused by different agents and remains a public health problem worldwide. Medicinal plants are an important source of new molecules being considered for treatment of this disease. Our work aims at evaluating the hepatoprotective properties of Neoboutonia velutina, a Cameroonian medicinal plant. The aqueous extract has been prepared using phytochemical methods. HepG2 cells were used to assess anti-inflammatory properties of the extract at different concentrations. Acute hepatitis models (Carbon tetrachloride and Concanavalin A) were performed in mice receiving or not receiving, different extract doses by gavage. Liver injury was assessed using histology, transaminases and pro-inflammatory markers. Extract antioxidant and radical scavenging capacities were evaluated. The extract led to a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vitro and to a remarkable protection of mice from carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury, as shown by a significant decrease in dose-dependent transaminases level. Upon extract treatment, inflammatory markers were significantly decreased and liver injuries were limited as well. In the Concanavalin A model, the extract displayed weak effects. Taking into account underlying mechanisms in both hepatitis models, we demonstrate the extract's radical scavenging capacity. Neoboutonia velutina displays a potent hepatoprotective effect mediated through radical scavenging properties.

  11. A mathematical model of hepatitis C virus dynamics in patients with high baseline viral loads or advanced liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dahari, Harel; Layden-Almer, Jennifer E; Kallwitz, Eric; Ribeiro, Ruy M; Cotler, Scott J; Layden, Thomas J; Perelson, Alan S

    2009-04-01

    Patients with baseline hepatitis C virus-RNA levels (bHCV-RNA)>6 log IU/mL or cirrhosis have a reduced probability of a sustained-virologic response (SVR). We examined the relation between bHCV-RNA, cirrhosis, and SVR with a mathematical model that includes the critical-drug efficacy (epsilonc; the efficacy required for a drug to clear HCV), the infection-rate constant (beta), and the percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes (pi). The relation between baseline factors and SVR was evaluated in 1000 in silico HCV-infected patients, generated by random assignment of realistic host and viral kinetic parameters. Model predictions were compared with clinical data from 170 noncirrhotic and 75 cirrhotic patients. The ranges chosen for beta and the viral production rate (p) resulted in bHCV-RNA levels that were in agreement with the distribution observed in US patients. With these beta and p values, higher bHCV-RNA levels led to higher epsilonc, resulting in lower SVR rates. However, higher beta values resulted in lower bHCV-RNA levels but higher pi and (epsilonc), predicting lower rates of SVR. Cirrhotic patients had lower bHCV-RNA levels than noncirrhotic patients (P=.013), and more had bHCV-RNA levels<6 log IU/mL (P<.001). Even cirrhotic patients with lower bHCV-RNA levels had lower SVR rates. An increase in beta could explain the results observed in cirrhotic patients. Our model predicts that higher bHCV-RNA levels lead to higher epsilonc, reducing the chance of achieving SVR; cirrhotic patients have lower SVR rates because of large pi values, caused by increased rates of hepatocyte infection.

  12. Chronic hepatitis B infection and HBV DNA-containing capsids: Modeling and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kalyan; Chakrabarty, Siddhartha P.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the dynamics of chronic HBV infection taking into account both uninfected and infected hepatocytes along with the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids and the virions. While previous HBV models have included either the uninfected hepatocytes or the intracellular HBV DNA-containing capsids, our model accounts for both these two populations. We prove the conditions for local and global stability of both the uninfected and infected steady states in terms of the basic reproduction number. Further, we incorporate a time lag in the model to encompass the intracellular delay in the production of the infected hepatocytes and find that this delay does not affect the overall dynamics of the system. The results for the model and the delay model are finally numerically illustrated.

  13. Modelling the elimination of hepatitis C as a public health threat in Iceland: A goal attainable by 2020.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nick; Ólafsson, Sigurður; Gottfreðsson, Magnús; Tyrfingsson, Thorarinn; Rúnarsdóttir, Valgerdur; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Hernandez, Ubaldo Benitez; Sigmundsdóttir, Guðrún; Hellard, Margaret

    2018-05-01

    In Iceland a nationwide program has been launched offering direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment for everyone living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We estimate (i) the time and treatment scale-up required to achieve the World Health Organization's HCV elimination target of an 80% reduction in incidence; and (ii) the ongoing frequency of HCV testing and harm reduction coverage among people who inject drugs (PWID) required to minimize the likelihood of future HCV outbreaks occurring. We used a dynamic compartmental model of HCV transmission, liver disease progression and the HCV cascade of care, calibrated to reproduce the epidemic of HCV in Iceland. The model was stratified according to injecting drug use status, age and stage of engagement. Four scenarios were considered for the projections. The model estimated that an 80% reduction in domestic HCV incidence was achievable by 2030, 2025 or 2020 if a minimum of 55/1,000, 75/1,000 and 188/1,000 PWID were treated per year, respectively (a total of 22, 30 and 75 of the estimated 400 PWID in Iceland per year, respectively). Regardless of time frame, this required an increased number of PWID to be diagnosed to generate enough treatment demand, or a 20% scale-up of harm reduction services to complement treatment-as-prevention incidence reductions. When DAA scale-up was combined with annual antibody testing of PWID, the incidence reduction target was reached by 2024. Treatment scale-up with no other changes to current testing and harm reduction services reduced the basic reproduction number of HCV from 1.08 to 0.59, indicating that future outbreaks would be unlikely. HCV elimination in Iceland is achievable by 2020 with some additional screening of PWID. Maintaining current monitoring and harm reduction services while providing ongoing access to DAA therapy for people diagnosed with HCV would ensure that outbreaks are unlikely to occur once elimination targets have been reached. In Iceland, a nationwide program has been

  14. Identification of hepatic phospholipidosis inducers in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes, a physiologically relevant model, reveals altered basolateral uptake and biliary excretion of anionic probe substrates.

    PubMed

    Ferslew, Brian C; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2014-05-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is characterized by phospholipid accumulation within the lysosomes of affected tissues, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and laminar body inclusions. Numerous adverse effects and toxicities have been linked to PLD-inducing drugs, but it remains unknown whether drug-induced PLD represents a distinct toxicity or cellular adaptation. In silico and immortalized cellular models have been used to evaluate the PLD potential of new drugs, but these systems have some limitations. The aims of this study were to determine whether primary sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) can serve as a sensitive and selective model to evaluate hepatic drug-induced PLD, and to evaluate the impact of PLD on the uptake and biliary excretion of probe substrates, taurocholate (TC) and rosuvastatin (RSV). Rat SCH were cultured for 48 h with prototypic hepatic PLD-inducing drugs, amiodarone (AMD), chloroquine (CHQ), desipramine (DES), and azithromycin (AZI), as well as the renal PLD inducer gentamicin (GTM). LysoTracker Red localization and transmission electron microscopy indicated enlarged lysosomal compartments and laminar body inclusions in SCH treated with AMD, CHQ, DES, and AZI, but not GTM, relative to control. PLD resulted in a 51-92% decrease in the in vitro biliary clearance of both TC and RSV; the biliary excretion index significantly decreased for TC from 88 to 35-73%. These data suggested that PLD significantly reduced both organic anion transporting polypeptide-mediated uptake, and bile salt export pump-mediated biliary transport processes. The current study demonstrates that the rat SCH system is a promising model to study hepatic PLD in vitro. Altered hepatic transport of anionic substrates secondary to drug-induced PLD is a novel finding.

  15. Identification of Hepatic Phospholipidosis Inducers in Sandwich-Cultured Rat Hepatocytes, a Physiologically Relevant Model, Reveals Altered Basolateral Uptake and Biliary Excretion of Anionic Probe Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Ferslew, Brian C.; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD) is characterized by phospholipid accumulation within the lysosomes of affected tissues, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and laminar body inclusions. Numerous adverse effects and toxicities have been linked to PLD-inducing drugs, but it remains unknown whether drug-induced PLD represents a distinct toxicity or cellular adaptation. In silico and immortalized cellular models have been used to evaluate the PLD potential of new drugs, but these systems have some limitations. The aims of this study were to determine whether primary sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) can serve as a sensitive and selective model to evaluate hepatic drug-induced PLD, and to evaluate the impact of PLD on the uptake and biliary excretion of probe substrates, taurocholate (TC) and rosuvastatin (RSV). Rat SCH were cultured for 48 h with prototypic hepatic PLD-inducing drugs, amiodarone (AMD), chloroquine (CHQ), desipramine (DES), and azithromycin (AZI), as well as the renal PLD inducer gentamicin (GTM). LysoTracker Red localization and transmission electron microscopy indicated enlarged lysosomal compartments and laminar body inclusions in SCH treated with AMD, CHQ, DES, and AZI, but not GTM, relative to control. PLD resulted in a 51–92% decrease in the in vitro biliary clearance of both TC and RSV; the biliary excretion index significantly decreased for TC from 88 to 35–73%. These data suggested that PLD significantly reduced both organic anion transporting polypeptide-mediated uptake, and bile salt export pump-mediated biliary transport processes. The current study demonstrates that the rat SCH system is a promising model to study hepatic PLD in vitro. Altered hepatic transport of anionic substrates secondary to drug-induced PLD is a novel finding. PMID:24563379

  16. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. Read more about hepatitis B . What Is Hepatitis C? Like hepatitis B, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) spreads from person to person through ... as needles and straws. People also can get hepatitis C from unprotected sex with an infected partner. And ...

  17. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). HBV and HCV are common among people who are ... hepatitis; about one-third are coinfected with either HBV or HCV, which can cause long-term illness ...

  18. Role of hemostatic factors in hepatic injury and disease: Animal models de-liver

    PubMed Central

    Kopec, Anna K.; Joshi, Nikita; Luyendyk, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Chronic liver damage is associated with unique changes in the hemostatic system. Patients with liver disease often exhibit a precariously rebalanced hemostatic system, easily tipped towards bleeding or thrombotic complications by otherwise benign stimuli. In addition, some clinical studies have shown that hemostatic system components contribute to the progression of liver disease. There is a strong basic science foundation for clinical studies with this particular focus. Chronic and acute liver disease can be modeled in rodents and large animals utilizing a variety of approaches that span chronic exposure to toxic xenobiotics, diet-induced obesity, and surgical intervention. Utilizing these experimental approaches, there is now strong evidence that in addition to perturbations in hemostasis caused by liver disease, elements of the hemostatic system have powerful effects on the progression of experimental liver toxicity and disease. In this review we cover the basis of animal models most often utilized to assess the impact of hemostatic system on liver disease, and highlight the role that coagulation proteases and their targets play in experimental liver toxicity and disease, emphasizing key similarities and differences between models. The need to characterize hemostatic changes in existing animal models and to develop novel animal models recapitulating the coagulopathy of chronic liver disease is highlighted. Finally, we emphasize the continued need to translate knowledge derived from highly applicable animal models to improve our understanding of the reciprocal interaction of liver disease and hemostatic system in patients. PMID:27060337

  19. Role of hemostatic factors in hepatic injury and disease: animal models de-liver.

    PubMed

    Kopec, A K; Joshi, N; Luyendyk, J P

    2016-07-01

    Chronic liver damage is associated with unique changes in the hemostatic system. Patients with liver disease often show a precariously rebalanced hemostatic system, which is easily tipped towards bleeding or thrombotic complications by otherwise benign stimuli. In addition, some clinical studies have shown that hemostatic system components contribute to the progression of liver disease. There is a strong basic science foundation for clinical studies with this particular focus. Chronic and acute liver disease can be modeled in rodents and large animals with a variety of approaches, which span chronic exposure to toxic xenobiotics, diet-induced obesity, and surgical intervention. These experimental approaches have now provided strong evidence that, in addition to perturbations in hemostasis caused by liver disease, elements of the hemostatic system have powerful effects on the progression of experimental liver toxicity and disease. In this review, we cover the basis of the animal models that are most often utilized to assess the impact of the hemostatic system on liver disease, and highlight the role that coagulation proteases and their targets play in experimental liver toxicity and disease, emphasizing key similarities and differences between models. The need to characterize hemostatic changes in existing animal models and to develop novel animal models recapitulating the coagulopathy of chronic liver disease is highlighted. Finally, we emphasize the continued need to translate knowledge derived from highly applicable animal models to improve our understanding of the reciprocal interaction between liver disease and the hemostatic system in patients. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  20. Therapeutic role of niacin in the prevention and regression of hepatic steatosis in rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Shobha H; Kukes, Gary D; Lambrecht, Nils; Kashyap, Moti L; Kamanna, Vaijinath S

    2014-02-15

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a leading cause of liver damage, comprises a spectrum of liver abnormalities including the early fat deposition in the liver (hepatic steatosis) and advanced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Niacin decreases plasma triglycerides, but its effect on hepatic steatosis is elusive. To examine the effect of niacin on steatosis, rats were fed either a rodent normal chow, chow containing high fat (HF), or HF containing 0.5% or 1.0% niacin in the diet for 4 wk. For regression studies, rats were first fed the HF diet for 6 wk to induce hepatic steatosis and were then treated with niacin (0.5% in the diet) while on the HF diet for 6 wk. The findings indicated that inclusion of niacin at 0.5% and 1.0% doses in the HF diet significantly decreased liver fat content, liver weight, hepatic oxidative products, and prevented hepatic steatosis. Niacin treatment to rats with preexisting hepatic steatosis induced by the HF diet significantly regressed steatosis. Niacin had no effect on the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthesis or oxidation genes (including sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1, fatty acid synthase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) but significantly inhibited mRNA levels, protein expression, and activity of diacylglycerol acyltrasferase 2, a key enzyme in triglyceride synthesis. These novel findings suggest that niacin effectively prevents and causes the regression of experimental hepatic steatosis. Approved niacin formulation(s) for other indications or niacin analogs may offer a very cost-effective opportunity for the clinical development of niacin for treating NAFLD and fatty liver disease.

  1. Water Extract of Dolichos lablab Attenuates Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in a Cellular Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Yun Hee; Lee, Hye Won; Song, Kwang Hoon

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide. Therapeutic strategies for patients with NAFLD are limited by a lack of effective drugs. In this report, we show that Dolichos lablab water extract (DLL-Ex) protects against free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and attenuates expression of genes involved in lipid droplet accumulation in cellular NAFLD models. The hepatoprotective effects and underlying mechanism of DLL-Ex were assessed using an in vitro cellular model in which NAFLD was simulated by inducing excessive FFA influx into hepatocytes. HepG2 cells were treated with DLL-Ex and FFAs for 24 h, after which intracellular lipid content was observed by using Nile Red and Oil Red O staining. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure expression levels of genes related to FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion. Western blotting was used to measure protein levels of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1 alpha. In HepG2 cells, DLL-Ex inhibited expression of CD36, which regulates fatty acid uptake, as well as BODIPY-labeled fatty acid uptake. Additionally, DLL-Ex significantly attenuated FFA-mediated cellular energy depletion and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Furthermore, DLL-Ex enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK, indicating that AMPK is a critical regulator of DLL-Ex-mediated inhibition of hepatic lipid accumulation, possibly through its antioxidative effect. These results demonstrate that DLL-Ex exerts potent anti-NAFLD activity, suggesting that it could be a potential adjuvant treatment for patients with NAFLD.

  2. RNA- and DNA-binding activities in hepatitis B virus capsid protein: a model for their roles in viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, T; Zhou, S; Standring, D N

    1992-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus capsid or core protein (p21.5) binds nucleic acid through a carboxy-terminal protamine region that contains nucleic acid-binding motifs organized into four repeats (I to IV). Using carboxy-terminally truncated proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, we detected both RNA- and DNA-binding activities within the repeats. RNA-binding and packaging activity, assessed by resolving purified E. coli capsids on agarose gels and disclosing their RNA content with ethidium bromide, required only the proximal repeat I (RRRDRGRS). Strikingly, a mutant in which four Arg residues replaced repeat I was competent to package RNA, demonstrating that Arg residues drive RNA binding. In contrast, probing immobilized core proteins with 32P-nucleic acid revealed an activity which (i) required more of the protamine region (repeats I and II), (ii) appeared to bind DNA better than RNA, and (iii) was apparently modulated by phosphorylation in p21.5 derived from Xenopus oocytes. Deletion analysis suggested that this activity may depend on an SPXX-type DNA-binding motif in repeat II. Similar motifs found in repeats III and IV may also function to bind DNA. On the basis of these observations, together with a reinterpretation of recent studies showing that capsid protein mutants cause defects in viral genome replication, we propose a model suggesting that hepadnavirus capsid proteins participate directly in the intracapsid reverse transcription of RNA into DNA. In this model, repeat I binds RNA whereas the distal repeats are progressively recruited to bind elongating DNA strands. The latter motifs may be required for replication to be energetically feasible. Images PMID:1501273

  3. Analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in a murine model of tolerance to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (autoprotection).

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Meeghan A; Koza-Taylor, Petra; Campion, Sarah N; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Gu, Xinsheng; Enayetallah, Ahmed E; Lawton, Michael P; Manautou, José E

    2014-01-01

    Pretreatment of mice with a low hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (APAP) results in resistance to a subsequent, higher dose of APAP. This mouse model, termed APAP autoprotection was used here to identify differentially expressed genes and cellular pathways that could contribute to this development of resistance to hepatotoxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with APAP (400mg/kg) and then challenged 48h later with 600mg APAP/kg. Livers were obtained 4 or 24h later and total hepatic RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MU430_2 GeneChip. Statistically significant genes were determined and gene expression changes were also interrogated using the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE). Extensive literature review narrowed our focus to methionine adenosyl transferase-1 alpha (MAT1A), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (Fmo3) and galectin-3 (Lgals3). Down-regulation of MAT1A could lead to decreases in S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is known to protect against APAP toxicity. Nrf2 activation is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. Up-regulation of Lgals3, one of the genes supporting the Nrf2 hypothesis, can lead to suppression of apoptosis and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Fmo3 induction suggests the involvement of an enzyme not known to metabolize APAP in the development of tolerance to APAP toxicity. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR and immunochemical analysis confirmed the differential expression of some of these genes in the APAP autoprotection model. In conclusion, our genomics strategy identified cellular pathways that might further explain the molecular basis for APAP autoprotection. © 2013.

  4. Limited Link between Oxidative Stress and Ochratoxin A-Induced Renal Injury in an Acute Toxicity Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liye; Yu, Tao; Qi, Xiaozhe; Gao, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Haoshu; Xu, Wentao

    2016-12-14

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) displays nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. However, in the acute toxicity rat model, there is no evidence on the relationship between OTA and nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Based on this, the integrated analysis of physiological status, damage biomarkers, oxidative stress, and DNA damage were performed. After OTA treatment, the body weight decreased and AST, ALP, TP, and BUN levels in serum increased. Hydropic degeneration, swelling, vacuolization, and partial drop occurred in proximal tubule epithelial cells. PCNA and Kim-1 were dose-dependently increased in the kidney, but Cox-2 expression and proliferation were not found in the liver. In OTA-treated kidneys, the mRNA expressions of Kim-1 , Cox-2 , Lcn2 , and Clu were dose-dependently increased. The mRNA expressions of Vim and Cox-2 were decreased in OTA-treated livers. Some oxidative stress indicators were altered in the kidneys (ROS and SOD) and livers (SOD and GSH). DNA damage and oxidative DNA damage were not found. In conclusion, there is a limited link between oxidative stress and OTA-induced renal injury in an acute toxicity rat model.

  5. Maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, ameliorates the development of hepatic steatosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Pérez-Matute, Patricia; Aguilera-Lizarraga, Javier; Rubio-Mediavilla, Susana; Narro, Judit; Recio, Emma; Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Oteo, José-Antonio; Blanco, José-Ramón

    2014-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the general population. The NAFLD spectrum ranges from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The chemokine CCL5/RANTES plays an important role in the progression of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maraviroc, a CCR5 antagonist, on liver pathology in a NAFLD mouse model. A total of 32 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (i) control group (chow diet plus tap water); (ii) maraviroc group (chow diet plus maraviroc in drinking water); (iii) high-fat diet (HFD) group (HFD plus tap water); and (iv) maraviroc/HFD group (HFD plus maraviroc). All mice were sacrificed 16 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Biochemical analyses and liver examinations were performed. Mice in the HFD group showed a tendency towards increased body mass gain and liver damage compared with the maraviroc/HFD group. Moreover, liver weight in the HFD group was significantly higher than in the maraviroc/HFD group. Hepatic triglyceride concentration in the maraviroc/HFD group was significantly lower than in the HFD group. Interestingly, the maraviroc/HFD group exhibited a lower degree of steatosis. Furthermore, hepatic CCL5/RANTES expression was significantly lower in the maraviroc/HFD group than in the HFD group. Overall, no differences were observed between the control group and the maraviroc group. Maraviroc ameliorates hepatic steatosis in an experimental model of NAFLD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 5-lipoxygenase activation is involved in the mechanisms of chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure.

    PubMed

    Mai, Shaoshan; He, Qin; Wang, Hong; Hu, Xinyue; Luo, Ying; Yang, Yang; Kuang, Shengnan; Tian, Xiaoyan; Ma, Jie; Yang, Junqing

    2016-08-15

    We previously confirmed that rats overloaded with aluminum exhibited hepatic function damage and increased susceptibility to hepatic inflammation. However, the mechanism of liver toxicity by chronic aluminum overload is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) signaling pathway and its effect on liver injury in aluminum-overloaded rats. A rat hepatic injury model of chronic aluminum injury was established via the intragastric administration of aluminum gluconate (Al(3+) 200mg/kg per day, 5days a week for 20weeks). The 5-LO inhibitor, caffeic acid (10 and 30mg/kg), was intragastrically administered 1h after aluminum administration. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used to visualize pathological changes in rat liver tissue. A series of biochemical indicators were measured with biochemistry assay or ELISAs. Immunochemistry and RT-PCR methods were used to detect 5-LO protein and mRNA expression in the liver, respectively. Caffeic acid administration protected livers against histopathological injury, decreased plasma ALT, AST, and ALP levels, decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and LTs levels, increased the reactive oxygen species content, and down-regulated the mRNA and protein expressions of 5-LO in aluminum overloaded rats. Our results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activation is mechanistically involved in chronic hepatic injury in a rat model of chronic aluminum overload exposure and that the 5-LO signaling pathway, which associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, is a potential therapeutic target for chronic non-infection liver diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatic and systemic metabolic responses to aerobic and anaerobic intra-abdominal abscesses in a highly reproducible chronic rat model.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, T; Sato, T; Marzella, L; Hirai, F; Trump, B F; Siegel, J H

    1984-01-01

    A single, uniform abscess was formed in 100% of the animals inoculated with a fecal pellet made of sterile rat feces, agar, and a known number and strain of bacteria. The effects of monoclonal Escherichia coli abscess (83 rats) were compared to those of sterile abscess (34 rats) and sham operation (35 rats without abscess). Bacteroides fragilis was added to the sterile pellet to study the effect of an anaerobic monoclonal abscess (16 rats) or of a biclonal abscess containing both aerobes and anaerobes (32 rats). After inoculation, a peritonitis stage with leucopenia, hypoglycemia, body weight loss, and slight fever was followed by the abscess stage with leucocytosis and a slight hyperglycemia. Mild hepatic energy charge deficiency and hepatic lactic acidosis were observed in sterile abscess rats, and slightly enhanced energy charge was seen in monoclonal E. coli abscess rats. The addition of B. fragilis to the sterile pellet, alone or together with E. coli, produced hepatic energy charge deficiency and hepatic lactic acidosis, which were significantly enhanced compared with the monoclonal E. coli abscess rats. The greatest effect was seen in the biclonal E. coli plus B. fragilis abscess, suggesting that anaerobic or combined aerobe and anaerobe abscesses may produce a greater hepatic injury than an aerobic organism abscess alone. This may account for the apparent synergic interaction between aerobic and anaerobic organisms.

  8. Evaluation of rhesus monkey and guinea pig hepatic cytosol fractions as models for human aldehyde oxidase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Barr, John T; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2013-10-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a cytosolic enzyme expressed across a wide range of species, including guinea pig and rhesus monkey. These species are believed to be the best preclinical models for studying human AOX-mediated metabolism. We compared AOX activity in rhesus monkeys, guinea pigs, and humans using phthalazine and N-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]acridone-4-carboxamide (DACA) as substrates and raloxifene as an inhibitor. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed for phthalazine oxidation in rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human liver cytosol, whereas substrate inhibition was seen with DACA oxidase activity in all three livers. Raloxifene inhibited phthalazine and DACA oxidase activity uncompetitively in guinea pig, whereas mixed-mode inhibition was seen in rhesus monkey. Our analysis of the primary sequence alignment of rhesus monkey, guinea pig, and human aldehyde oxidase isoform 1 (AOX1) along with homology modeling has led to the identification of several amino acid residue differences within the active site and substrate entrance channel of AOX1. We speculate that some of these residues might be responsible for the differences observed in activity. Overall, our data indicate that rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs would overestimate intrinsic clearance in humans and would be unsuitable to use as animal models. Our study also showed that AOX metabolism in species is substrate-dependent and no single animal model can be reliably used to predict every drug response in humans.

  9. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    MedlinePlus

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... you at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  10. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  11. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the virus and do not practice good hygiene. Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B ... where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  12. Hepatitis B -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... months. This is called acute hepatitis B. Acute hepatitis B does not cause any lasting problems. Exams and Tests Your child's health care provider will perform blood tests called the hepatitis viral panel . These tests can help diagnose: A ...

  13. Drug-induced hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Viral hepatitis Alcoholic hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis Iron overload Fatty liver Causes The liver helps the body ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A. ...

  14. Hepatitis C Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Hepatitis C United States Department of Veterans Affairs: Hepatitis C World Health ... 16). Hepatitis C: For Patients and the Public. United States Department of Veterans Affairs [On-line information]. Available ...

  15. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  16. WE-FG-206-12: Enhanced Laws Textures: A Potential MRI Surrogate Marker of Hepatic Fibrosis in a Murine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B; Yu, H; Jara, H

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare enhanced Laws texture derived from parametric proton density (PD) maps to other MRI-based surrogate markers (T2, PD, ADC) in assessing degrees of liver fibrosis in a murine model of hepatic fibrosis using 11.7T scanner. Methods: This animal study was IACUC approved. Fourteen mice were divided into control (n=1) and experimental (n=13). The latter were fed a DDC-supplemented diet to induce hepatic fibrosis. Liver specimens were imaged using an 11.7T scanner; the parametric PD, T2, and ADC maps were generated from spin-echo pulsed field gradient and multi-echo spin-echo acquisitions. Enhanced Laws texture analysis was applied to the PDmore » maps: first, hepatic blood vessels and liver margins were segmented/removed using an automated dual-clustering algorithm; secondly, an optimal thresholding algorithm was applied to reduce the partial volume artifact; next, mean and stdev were corrected to minimize grayscale variation across images; finally, Laws texture was extracted. Degrees of fibrosis was assessed by an experienced pathologist and digital image analysis (%Area Fibrosis). Scatterplots comparing enhanced Laws texture, T2, PD, and ADC values to degrees of fibrosis were generated and correlation coefficients were calculated. Unenhanced Laws texture was also compared to assess the effectiveness of the proposed enhancements. Results: Hepatic fibrosis and the enhanced Laws texture were strongly correlated with higher %Area Fibrosis associated with higher Laws texture (r=0.89). Only a moderate correlation was detected between %Area Fibrosis and unenhanced Laws texture (r=0.70). Strong correlation also existed between ADC and %Area Fibrosis (r=0.86). Moderate correlations were seen between %Area Fibrosis and PD (r=0.65) and T2 (r=0.66). Conclusions: Higher degrees of hepatic fibrosis are associated with increased Laws texture. The proposed enhancements improve the accuracy of Laws texture. Enhanced Laws texture features are more accurate than PD

  17. Red wine and green tea reduce H pylori- or VacA-induced gastritis in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Paolo; Rossi, Giacomo; Tombola, Francesco; Pancotto, Laura; Lauretti, Laura; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Zoratti, Mario

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether red wine and green tea could exert anti-H pylori or anti-VacA activity in vivo in a mouse model of experimental infection. METHODS: Ethanol-free red wine and green tea concentrates were administered orally as a mixture of the two beverages to H pylori infected mice, or separately to VacA-treated mice. Gastric colonization and gastric inflammation were quantified by microbiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: In H pylori-infected mice, the red wine and green tea mixture significantly prevented gastritis and limited the localization of bacteria and VacA to the surface of the gastric epithelium. Similarly, both beverages significantly prevented gastric epithelium damage in VacA-treated mice; green tea, but not red wine, also altered the VacA localization in the gastric epithelium. CONCLUSION: Red wine and green tea are able to prevent H pylori-induced gastric epithelium damage, possibly involving VacA inhibition. This observation supports the possible relevance of diet on the pathological outcome of H pylori infection. PMID:17230601

  18. Diabetes-Induced Hepatic Pathogenic Damage, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Insulin Resistance Was Exacerbated in Zinc Deficient Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian; Tan, Yi; Li, Bing; Miao, Xiao; Jin, Litai; Shi, Xue; Zhang, Xiang; Miao, Lining; Li, Xiaokun; Cai, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Zinc (Zn) deficiency often occurs in the patients with diabetes. Effects of Zn deficiency on diabetes-induced hepatic injury were investigated. Methods Type 1 diabetes was induced in FVB mice with multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Hyperglycemic and age-matched control mice were treated with and without Zn chelator, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylemethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), at 5 mg/kg body-weight daily for 4 months. Hepatic injury was examined by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level and liver histopathological and biochemical changes. Results Hepatic Zn deficiency (lower than control level, p<0.05) was seen in the mice with either diabetes or TPEN treatment and more evident in the mice with both diabetes and TPEN. Zn deficiency exacerbated hepatic injuries, shown by further increased serum ALT, hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, oxidative damage, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related cell death in Diabetes/TPEN group compared to Diabetes alone. Diabetes/TPEN group also showed a significant decrease in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and transcription action along with significant increases in Akt negative regulators, decrease in Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation, and increase in nuclear accumulation of Fyn (a Nrf2 negative regulator). In vitro study with HepG2 cells showed that apoptotic effect of TPEN at 0.5–1.0 µM could be completely prevented by simultaneous Zn supplementation at the dose range of 30–50 µM. Conclusions Zn is required for maintaining Akt activation by inhibiting the expression of Akt negative regulators; Akt activation can inhibit Fyn nuclear translocation to export nuclear Nrf2 to cytoplasm for degradation. Zn deficiency significantly enhanced diabetes-induced hepatic injury likely through down-regulation of Nrf2 function. PMID:23251339

  19. An evaluation of hepatitis C knowledge and correlations with health belief model constructs among African American "baby boomers".

    PubMed

    Rashrash, Mohamed E; Maneno, Mary K; Wutoh, Anthony K; Ettienne, Earl B; Daftary, Monika N

    2016-01-01

    Baby boomers (people born between 1945 and 1965) are responsible for three-quarters of Hepatitis C (HCV) infections in the US; however, HCV testing is distinctly underused by them. To assess the status, predictors, and correlates of HCV knowledge among African-American baby boomers (AABBs) in Washington, DC. A cross-sectional survey among persons aged 46-69 was conducted using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI). Data on HCV knowledge, socio-demographics, prior history of HCV testing, health-related characteristics, HCV vulnerability and HCV treatment perceptions were collected. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the study population. Pearson correlations were used to examine linear associations between HCV knowledge and Health Belief Model constructs related to HCV. Linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the predictors of knowledge. Out of the 137 participants, about sixty percent (60.6%) were females, mean age 59±6.40; 44.8% had at least a college education. The average knowledge score was low (48.7%). HCV knowledge was significantly correlated with constructs of perceived severity and perceived benefits. Age (β=-0.10; p=0.003), and level of education (β=0.93, p=0.027) were significant predictors. Overall, respondents have a low level of knowledge. The lower level of education and older age were significant predictors of inadequate HCV knowledge. Thus, HCV education among these people may be a vital component in reducing the gaps in HCV knowledge. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  2. In vivo hepatic lipid quantification using MRS at 7 Tesla in a mouse model of glycogen storage disease type 1a

    PubMed Central

    Ramamonjisoa, Nirilanto; Ratiney, Helene; Mutel, Elodie; Guillou, Herve; Mithieux, Gilles; Pilleul, Frank; Rajas, Fabienne; Beuf, Olivier; Cavassila, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of liver lipid content and composition is needed in preclinical research to investigate steatosis and steatosis-related disorders. The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo hepatic fatty acid content and composition using a method based on short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7 Tesla. A mouse model of glycogen storage disease type 1a with inducible liver-specific deletion of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene (L-G6pc−/−) mice and control mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 9 months. In control mice, hepatic lipid content was found significantly higher with the HF/HS diet than with the standard diet. As expected, hepatic lipid content was already elevated in L-G6pc−/− mice fed a standard diet compared with control mice. L-G6pc−/− mice rapidly developed steatosis which was not modified by the HF/HS diet. On the standard diet, estimated amplitudes from olefinic protons were found significantly higher in L-G6pc−/− mice compared with that in control mice. L-G6pc−/− mice showed no noticeable polyunsaturation from diallylic protons. Total unsaturated fatty acid indexes measured by gas chromatography were in agreement with MRS measurements. These results showed the great potential of high magnetic field MRS to follow the diet impact and lipid alterations in mouse liver. PMID:23596325

  3. In vivo hepatic lipid quantification using MRS at 7 Tesla in a mouse model of glycogen storage disease type 1a.

    PubMed

    Ramamonjisoa, Nirilanto; Ratiney, Helene; Mutel, Elodie; Guillou, Herve; Mithieux, Gilles; Pilleul, Frank; Rajas, Fabienne; Beuf, Olivier; Cavassila, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    The assessment of liver lipid content and composition is needed in preclinical research to investigate steatosis and steatosis-related disorders. The purpose of this study was to quantify in vivo hepatic fatty acid content and composition using a method based on short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7 Tesla. A mouse model of glycogen storage disease type 1a with inducible liver-specific deletion of the glucose-6-phosphatase gene (L-G6pc(-/-)) mice and control mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet for 9 months. In control mice, hepatic lipid content was found significantly higher with the HF/HS diet than with the standard diet. As expected, hepatic lipid content was already elevated in L-G6pc(-/-) mice fed a standard diet compared with control mice. L-G6pc(-/-) mice rapidly developed steatosis which was not modified by the HF/HS diet. On the standard diet, estimated amplitudes from olefinic protons were found significantly higher in L-G6pc(-/-) mice compared with that in control mice. L-G6pc(-/-) mice showed no noticeable polyunsaturation from diallylic protons. Total unsaturated fatty acid indexes measured by gas chromatography were in agreement with MRS measurements. These results showed the great potential of high magnetic field MRS to follow the diet impact and lipid alterations in mouse liver.

  4. Iron overload and diabetes risk: a shift from glucose to Fatty Acid oxidation and increased hepatic glucose production in a mouse model of hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingyu; Jones, Deborah; Luo, Bai; Sanderson, Michael; Soto, Jamie; Abel, E Dale; Cooksey, Robert C; McClain, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Excess tissue iron levels are a risk factor for diabetes, but the mechanisms underlying the association are incompletely understood. We previously published that mice and humans with a form of hereditary iron overload, hemochromatosis, exhibit loss of β-cell mass. This effect by itself is not sufficient, however, to fully explain the diabetes risk phenotype associated with all forms of iron overload. We therefore examined glucose and fatty acid metabolism and hepatic glucose production in vivo and in vitro in a mouse model of hemochromatosis in which the gene most often mutated in the human disease, HFE, has been deleted (Hfe⁻(/)⁻). Although Hfe⁻(/)⁻ mice exhibit increased glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, glucose oxidation is decreased and the ratio of fatty acid to glucose oxidation is increased. On a high-fat diet, the Hfe⁻(/)⁻ mice exhibit increased fatty acid oxidation and are hypermetabolic. The decreased glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is due to decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) enzyme activity related, in turn, to increased expression of PDH kinase 4 (pdk4). Increased substrate recycling to liver contributes to elevated hepatic glucose production in the Hfe⁻(/)⁻ mice. Increased hepatic glucose production and metabolic inflexibility, both of which are characteristics of type 2 diabetes, may contribute to the risk of diabetes with excessive tissue iron.

  5. Transplantation of hepatocytes in nonhuman primates: a preclinical model for the treatment of hepatic metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vons, C; Loux, N; Simon, L; Mahieu-Caputo, D; Dagher, I; Andreoletti, M; Borgnon, J; Di Rico, V; Bargy, F; Capron, F; Weber, A; Franco, D

    2001-09-15

    The transplantation of isolated hepatocytes in large animals, including nonhuman primates, must be evaluated before clinical trials are performed. However, in the absence of large transgenic animals and large-animal (as opposed to small-animal) models of genetic deficiencies, it is difficult to evaluate the fate of transplanted hepatocytes, their localization, survival, and function within the parenchyma of the host liver. In this work, we aimed to develop a technique for delivering hepatocytes to the liver of a nonhuman primate and to evaluate their localization and functionality in the short term. A 20% hepatectomy was performed in 34 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and hepatocytes were isolated. Hepatocytes were labeled in vitro with a recombinant retrovirus expressing the beta-galactosidase gene and returned to the liver by infusion through a portal catheter left in place. Liver biopsies were performed 4 and 7 d after transplantation. Twenty-four monkeys underwent surgery to define the necessary technical adjustments and to optimize conditions. Six monkeys died. The whole protocol, including the transplantation of genetically marked hepatocytes and procurement of liver biopsies, was performed in the remaining 10 monkeys. In eight monkeys, transplanted hepatocytes expressing the beta-galactosidase gene were widely distributed in the portal tracts, sinusoids, and hepatocyte plates of the host liver 4 and 7 d after transplantation. We have developed an experimental nonhuman primate model for the evaluation of hepatocyte transplantation. We demonstrated the engraftment and functioning of transplanted hepatocytes in the host liver 4 and 7 d after transplantation.

  6. Efficacy and safety of ferric chloride in controlling hepatic bleeding; an animal model study.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Saeed; Sharif, Mohammad Reza

    2014-06-01

    Controlling parenchymal hemorrhage especially in liver parenchyma, despite all the progress in surgical science, is still one of the challenges surgeons face saving patients' lives and there is a research challenge among researchers in this field to introduce a more effective method. This study attempts to determine the haemostatic effect of ferric chloride and compare it with that of the standard method (suturing technique) in controlling bleeding from liver parenchymal tissue. In this animal model study 60 male Wistar rats were used. An incision, two centimeters (cm) long and half a cm deep, was made on each rat's liver and the hemostasis time was measured once using ferric chloride with different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50%) and then using the control method (i.e. controlling bleeding by suturing). The liver tissue was examined for pathological changes. The hemostasis time of ferric chloride concentration groups was significantly less than that of the control group (P value < 0.001). The pathologic examination showed the highest frequency of low grade inflammation based on the defined pathological grading. Ferric chloride is an effective haemostatic agent in controlling liver parenchymal tissue hemorrhage in an animal model.

  7. The modulation of hepatic adenosine triphosphate and inflammation by eicosapentaenoic acid during severe fibrotic progression in the SHRSP5/Dmcr rat model.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaofang; Naito, Hisao; Yetti, Husna; Tamada, Hazuki; Kitamori, Kazuya; Hayashi, Yumi; Yamagishi, Nozomi; Wang, Dong; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ito, Yuki; Wang, Juncai; Tanaka, Naoki; Ikeda, Katsumi; Yamori, Yukio; Nakajima, Tamie

    2012-06-14

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) can ameliorate certain liver lesions involved in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). A previous study has found that stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr (SHRSP5/Dmcr) rats fed a high fat-cholesterol (HFC) diet developed fibrotic steatohepatitis with histological similarities to NASH. This study evaluated the potential effects and mechanisms of action of EPA supplementation using this rodent model. Male rats were randomly assigned to groups that were fed with either the stroke-prone (SP) diet or HFC diet with or without EPA for 2, 8 and 14 weeks, respectively. The liver histopathology, biochemical features, mRNA and protein levels, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity were determined. The SP diet-fed rats presented normal livers. Conversely, the HFC diet-fed rats developed microvesicular/macrovesicular steatosis, inflammation, ballooning degeneration and severe fibrosis. At 2 weeks, the administration of EPA inhibited hepatic inflammatory recruitment by blocking the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB-α (IκBα), which antagonizes the NF-κB activation pathway. The dietary supplementation of EPA for 8 weeks ameliorated hepatic triglyceride accumulation and macrovesicular steatosis by inhibiting the HFC diet-induced decrease in the protein levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation including carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and peroxisomal bifunctional protein. Although the administration of EPA elicited no histologically detectable effects on severe fibrosis at 14 weeks, it restored an HFC diet-induced decline in hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and suppressed ballooning degeneration, suggesting that EPA may inhibit HFC diet-induced ATP loss and cell death. Initial amelioration of the inflammation and steatosis in the rats after EPA supplementation indicates a possibility to treat steatohepatitis. Additionally, this study provides new insights into

  8. Oral aversion to dietary sugar, ethanol and glycerol correlates with alterations in specific hepatic metabolites in a mouse model of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Inoue, Kanako; Ono, Hiromi; Fujimoto, Yuki; Furuie, Sumie; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Kuroda, Eishi; Ushikai, Miharu; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Sinasac, David S; Yamamoto, Takashi; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Kobayashi, Keiko

    2017-04-01

    Mice carrying simultaneous homozygous mutations in the genes encoding citrin, the mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier 2 (AGC2) protein, and mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPD), are a phenotypically representative model of human citrin (a.k.a., AGC2) deficiency. In this study, we investigated the voluntary oral intake and preference for sucrose, glycerol or ethanol solutions by wild-type, citrin (Ctrn)-knockout (KO), mGPD-KO, and Ctrn/mGPD double-KO mice; all substances that are known or suspected precipitating factors in the pathogenesis of human citrin deficiency. The double-KO mice showed clear suppressed intake of sucrose, consuming less with progressively higher concentrations compared to the other mice. Similar observations were made when glycerol or ethanol were given. The preference of Ctrn-KO and mGPD-KO mice varied with the different treatments; essentially no differences were observed for sucrose, while an intermediate intake or similar to that of the double-KO mice was observed for glycerol and ethanol. We next examined the hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate, citrate, citrulline, lysine, glutamate and adenine nucleotide levels following forced enteral administration of these solutions. A strong correlation between the simultaneous increased hepatic glycerol 3-phosphate and decreased ATP or total adenine nucleotide content and observed aversion of the mice during evaluation of their voluntary preferences was found. Overall, our results suggest that the aversion observed in the double-KO mice to these solutions is initiated and/or mediated by hepatic metabolic perturbations, resulting in a behavioral response to increased hepatic cytosolic NADH and a decreased cellular adenine nucleotide pool. These findings may underlie the dietary predilections observed in human citrin deficient patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of Hepatitis C Virus-Specific CD8 Effector T-Cell Function with Antiviral Effect in Infectious Hepatitis C Virus Coculture Model

    PubMed Central

    Ojiro, Keisuke; Qu, Xiaowang; Cho, Hyosun; Park, Jang-June; Vuidepot, Annelise; Lissin, Nikolai; Molloy, Peter E.; Bennett, Alan; Jakobsen, Bent K.; Kaplan, David E.; Riley, James L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antiviral effects of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific CD8 T cells have been shown in an HCV replicon system but not in an authentic infectious HCV cell culture (HCVcc) system. Here, we developed tools to examine the antigenicity of HCV-infected HLA-A2-positive Huh7.5 hepatoma cells (Huh7.5A2 cells) in activating HCV-specific CD8 T cells and the downstream antiviral effects. Infectious HCV epitope mutants encoding the well-defined genotype 1a-derived HLA-A2-restricted HCV NS3-1073 or NS5-2594 epitope were generated from a genotype 2a-derived HCV clone (Jc1Gluc2A) by site-directed mutagenesis. CD8 T-cell lines specific for NS3-1073 and NS5-2594 were expanded from HCV-seropositive persons by peptide stimulation in vitro or engineered from HCV-seronegative donor T cells by transduction of a lentiviral vector expressing HCV-specific T-cell receptors. HCV-specific CD8 T cells were cocultured with Huh7.5 cells that were pulsed with titrating doses of HCV epitope peptides or infected with HCV epitope mutants. HCV-specific CD8 T-cell activation (CD107a, gamma interferon, macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha) was dependent on the peptide concentrations and the relative percentages of HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells. HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells activated HCV-specific CD8 T cells at levels comparable to those achieved with 0.1 to 2 μM pulsed peptides, providing a novel estimate of the level at which endogenously processed HCV epitopes are presented on HCV-infected cells. While HCV-specific CD8 T-cell activation with cytolytic and antiviral effects was blunted by PD-L1 expression on HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells, resulting in the improved viability of Huh7.5A2 cells, PD-1 blockade reversed this effect, producing enhanced cytolytic elimination of HCV-infected Huh7.5A2 cells. Our findings, obtained using an infectious HCVcc system, show that the HCV-specific CD8 T-cell function is modulated by antigen expression levels, the percentage of HCV

  10. Quantification of liver viscoelasticity with acoustic radiation force: a study of hepatic fibrosis in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Shen, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Yi; Lin, Haoming; Guo, Yanrong; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Tianfu; Chen, Siping

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound elastography, based on shear wave propagation, enables the quantitative and non-invasive assessment of liver mechanical properties such as stiffness and has been found to be feasible for and useful in the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis. Most ultrasound elastographic methods use a purely elastic model to describe liver mechanical properties. However, to describe tissue that is dispersive and to obtain an accurate measure of tissue elasticity, the viscoelasticity of the tissue should be examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the shear viscoelastic characteristics, as measured by ultrasound elastography, of liver fibrosis in a rat model and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of viscoelasticity for staging liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced in 37 rats using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4); 6 rats served as controls. Liver viscoelasticity was measured in vitro using shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force. The measured mean values of liver elasticity and viscosity ranged from 0.84 to 3.45 kPa and from 1.12 to 2.06 Pa·s for fibrosis stages F0-F4, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients indicated that stage of fibrosis was well correlated with elasticity (0.88) and moderately correlated with viscosity (0.66). The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.97 (≥F2), 0.91 (≥F3) and 1.00 (F4) for elasticity and 0.91 (≥F2), 0.79 (≥F3) and 0.74 (F4) for viscosity, respectively. The results confirmed that shear wave velocity was dispersive in frequency, suggesting a viscoelastic model to describe liver fibrosis. The study finds that although viscosity is not as good as elasticity for staging fibrosis, it is important to consider viscosity to make an accurate estimation of elasticity; it may also provide other mechanical insights into liver tissues. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  11. Ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens for chronic hepatitis C infection: Insights from a work productivity economic model from the United States.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Jiang, Yushan; Smith, Nathaniel J; Stepanova, Maria; Beckerman, Rachel

    2015-05-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) exhibit reduced work productivity owing to their disease. Historically, most regimens indicated for CHC genotype 1 (GT1) patients were administered with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and/or ribavirin (RBV), which further compromised work productivity during treatment. The aim of this study was to model the impact of LDV/SOF (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir), the first Peg-IFN- and RBV-free regimen for CHC GT1 patients, on work productivity from an economic perspective, compared to receiving no treatment. The WPAI-SHP (Work Productivity and Activity Index-Specific Health Problem) questionnaire was administered to patients across the ION clinical trials (N = 1,923 U.S. patients). Before initiation of treatment, patients with CHC GT1 in the ION trials exhibited absenteeism and presenteeism impairments of 2.57% and 7.58%, respectively. Patients with cirrhosis exhibited greater work productivity impairment than patients without cirrhosis. In total, 93.21% of U.S. patients in the ION trials achieved SVR; these patients exhibited absenteeism and presenteeism impairments of 2.62% (P = 0.76, when compared to baseline) and 3.53% (P < 0.0001), respectively. Monetizing these data to the entire U.S. population, our model projects an annual societal cost of $7.1 billion owing to productivity loss in untreated GT1 CHC patients. Our model projects that, when compared to no treatment, treating all CHC GT1 patients with a regimen with very high viral eradication rates (LDV/SOF) would translate to annual productivity loss savings of $2.7 billion over a 1-year time horizon. Patients with untreated HCV impose a substantial societal burden owing to reduced work productivity. As a result of improvements in work productivity, treatment of CHC GT1 patients with LDV/SOF-based regimens is likely to result in significant cost savings from a societal perspective, relative to no treatment. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  12. Effect of Hepatic Perfusion on Microwave Ablation Zones in an Ex Vivo Porcine Liver Model.

    PubMed

    Siriwardana, Pulathis N; Singh, Saurabh; Johnston, Edward W; Watkins, Jennifer; Bandula, Steve; Illing, Rowland O; Davidson, Brian R

    2017-05-01

    To compare the size of ablation zones derived from nonperfused ex vivo livers with ablation zones created using an ex vivo perfused porcine liver model. Six fresh porcine livers were used to evaluate microwave ablation (MWA). Perfused (n = 3) and nonperfused (n = 3) livers were warmed to 37°C by oxygenated, O-positive human blood reconstituted with Ringer solution, using an organ perfusion circuit. During MWA, perfusion was discontinued in the nonperfused group and maintained in the perfused group. After MWA (140 watts × 2 min at 2.45 GHz) with the Acculis MTA System (AngioDynamics, Latham, New York), ablation zones were bisected sagittally. Sections were stained with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and hematoxylin-eosin to assess viability of cells in ablation and marginal zones. Comparison of 22 MWA zones (9 in perfused group, 13 in nonperfused group) was performed. Ablation zones demonstrated a central "white" and peripheral "red" zone. Cells in the white zone were nonviable with no NADH staining. The red zone showed progressive NADH staining toward the periphery, suggesting incomplete cell death. White and red zones of the perfused group were significantly smaller compared with the nonperfused group (short axis, 17.8 mm ± 2.7 vs 21.1 mm ± 3.2, P = .003; long axis, 40.69 mm ± 3.9 vs 39.63 mm ± 5.2, P = .44; intermediate zone,1.33 mm ± 0.04 vs 2.7 mm ± 0.14, P < .0001; mean ± SD). MWA algorithms provided by this manufacturer are based on nonperfused organ data, which overestimate ablation zone size. Data from perfused liver models may be required for more accurate dosimetry guidelines. Copyright © 2016 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Age-Structured Multiscale Model of the Hepatitis C Virus Life-Cycle During Infection and Therapy With Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Quintela, Barbara de M.; Conway, Jessica M.; Hyman, James M.

    2018-04-04

    Here, the dynamics of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA during translation and replication within infected cells were added to a previous age-structured multiscale mathematical model of HCV infection and treatment. The model allows the study of the dynamics of HCV RNA inside infected cells as well as the release of virus from infected cells and the dynamics of subsequent new cell infections. The model was used to fit in vitro data and estimate parameters characterizing HCV replication. This is the first model to our knowledge to consider both positive and negative strands of HCV RNA with an age-structured multiscale modelingmore » approach. Using this model we also studied the effects of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in blocking HCV RNA intracellular replication and the release of new virions and fit the model to in vivo data obtained from HCV-infected subjects under therapy.« less

  14. Correction of metabolic abnormalities in a rodent model of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by inhibitors of hepatic protein kinase C-ι

    PubMed Central

    Sajan, Mini P.; Nimal, Sonali; Mastorides, Stephen; Acevedo-Duncan, Mildred; Kahn, C. Ronald; Fields, Alan P.; Braun, Ursula; Leitges, Michael; Farese, Robert V.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive activity of hepatic atypical protein kinase (aPKC) is proposed to play a critical role in mediating lipid and carbohydrate abnormalities in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In previous studies of rodent models of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, adenoviral-mediated expression of kinase-inactive aPKC rapidly reversed or markedly improved most if not all metabolic abnormalities. Here, we examined effects of 2 newly developed small-molecule PKC-ι/λ inhibitors. We used the mouse model of heterozygous muscle-specific knockout of PKC-λ, in which partial deficiency of muscle PKC-λ impairs glucose transport in muscle and thereby causes glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, which, via hepatic aPKC activation, leads to abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. One inhibitor, 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)], binds to the substrate-binding site of PKC-λ/ι, but not other PKCs. The other inhibitor, aurothiomalate, binds to cysteine residues in the PBl-binding domains of aPKC-λ/ι/ζ and inhibits scaffolding. Treatment with either inhibitor for 7 days inhibited aPKC, but not Akt, in liver and concomitantly improved insulin signaling to Akt and aPKC in muscle and adipocytes. Moreover, both inhibitors diminished excessive expression of hepatic, aPKC-dependent lipogenic, proinflammatory, and gluconeogenic factors; and this was accompanied by reversal or marked improvements in hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, abdominal obesity, hepatosteatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Our findings highlight the pathogenetic importance of insulin signaling to hepatic PKC-ι in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus and suggest that 1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, 5-amino-1-[2,3-dihydroxy-4-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]cyclopentyl-[1R-(1a,2b,3b,4a)] and aurothiomalate or similar agents that

  15. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Decreases the Magnitude of Hepatic Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury on a Swine Model of Supraceliac Aortic Cross-Clamping.

    PubMed

    Martikos, Georgios; Kapelouzou, Alkistis; Peroulis, Michael; Paspala, Anna; Athanasiadis, Dimitris; Machairas, Anastasios; Liakakos, Theodoros; Moulakakis, Konstantinos; Vasdekis, Spyros; Lazaris, Andreas M

    2018-04-01

    Temporary hepatic ischemia is inevitable during open aortic surgery when supraceliac clamping is necessary, as in thoracoabdominal or pararenal aneurysms. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been described as a potential protective means against ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in various tissues including the liver. The aim of this experimental study was to detect the effect of RIPC on liver IRI in a model of supraceliac aortic cross-clamping. An animal study was performed. Four groups of 6 swines each were examined: the control (sham) group, the ischemia-reperfusion (IR) group, and 2 remote ischemic preconditioning groups (RIPC I and RIPC II group). In the IR group, the animals underwent a complete cessation of the splanchnic arterial circulation for 30 min by a concomitant occlusion of the supraceliac and the infrarenal aorta. In the RIPC groups, a remote preconditioning was applied before the splanchnic ischemia. This consisted of a temporary occlusion of the infrarenal aorta for 15 min followed by 15 min of reperfusion (RIPC I group), and 3 cycles of 5 min similar ischemia, followed by 5 min of reperfusion each (RIPC II group). All animals were followed for 24 hr after the ischemia (reperfusion period). The liver ischemia-reperfusion injury was assessed by examining specific serum biomarkers indicating the magnitude of metabolic injury from selective blood samples of the hepatic circulation. In particular, the following parameters were examined: C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor a, ferritin, and L-arginine. All parameters were affected in the IR group as compared to the sham group. Both RIPC groups developed a less serious change as compared to the IR group, in all examined parameters. In an animal study of splanchnic ischemia produced in a way to this produced during a supraceliac aortic aneurysm open repair, the remote ischemic preconditioning seemed to attenuate the effect of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Remote

  16. Genetic and Environmental Models of Circadian Disruption Link SRC-2 Function to Hepatic Pathology.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Tiffany; Stashi, Erin; Zhu, Bokai; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Marcelo, Kathrina L; Kettner, Nicole M; Gorman, Blythe K; Coarfa, Cristian; Fu, Loning; O'Malley, Bert W; York, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Circadian rhythmicity is a fundamental process that synchronizes behavioral cues with metabolic homeostasis. Disruption of daily cycles due to jet lag or shift work results in severe physiological consequences including advanced aging, metabolic syndrome, and even cancer. Our understanding of the molecular clock, which is regulated by intricate positive feedforward and negative feedback loops, has expanded to include an important metabolic transcriptional coregulator, Steroid Receptor Coactivator-2 (SRC-2), that regulates both the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral clocks including the liver. We hypothesized that an environmental uncoupling of the light-dark phases, termed chronic circadian disruption (CCD), would lead to pathology similar to the genetic circadian disruption observed with loss of SRC-2 We found that CCD and ablation of SRC-2 in mice led to a common comorbidity of metabolic syndrome also found in humans with circadian disruption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The combination of SRC-2(-/-) and CCD results in a more robust phenotype that correlates with human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene signatures. Either CCD or SRC-2 ablation produces an advanced aging phenotype leading to increased mortality consistent with other circadian mutant mouse models. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that SRC-2 provides an essential link between the behavioral activities influenced by light cues and the metabolic homeostasis maintained by the liver. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Genetic and Environmental Models of Circadian Disruption Link SRC-2 Function to Hepatic Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Tiffany; Stashi, Erin; Zhu, Bokai; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Marcelo, Kathrina L.; Kettner, Nicole M.; Gorman, Blythe K.; Coarfa, Cristian; Fu, Loning; O’Malley, Bert W.; York, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity is a fundamental process that synchronizes behavioral cues with metabolic homeostasis. Disruption of daily cycles due to jet lag or shift work results in severe physiological consequences including advanced aging, metabolic syndrome, and even cancer. Our understanding of the molecular clock, which is regulated by intricate positive feedforward and negative feedback loops, has expanded to include an important metabolic transcriptional coregulator, Steroid Receptor Coactivator-2 (SRC-2), that regulates both the central clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and peripheral clocks including the liver. We hypothesized that an environmental uncoupling of the light-dark phases, termed chronic circadian disruption (CCD), would lead to pathology similar to the genetic circadian disruption observed with loss of SRC-2. We found that CCD and ablation of SRC-2 in mice led to a common comorbidity of metabolic syndrome also found in humans with circadian disruption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The combination of SRC-2−/− and CCD results in a more robust phenotype that correlates with human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) gene signatures. Either CCD or SRC-2 ablation produces an advanced aging phenotype leading to increased mortality consistent with other circadian mutant mouse models. Collectively, our studies demonstrate that SRC-2 provides an essential link between the behavioral activities influenced by light cues and the metabolic homeostasis maintained by the liver. PMID:27432117

  18. Modeling and simulation of hepatic drug disposition using a physiologically based, multi-agent in silico liver.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Ropella, Glen E P; Park, Sunwoo; Roberts, Michael S; Hunt, C Anthony

    2008-05-01

    Validate a physiologically based, mechanistic, in silico liver (ISL) for studying the hepatic disposition and metabolism of antipyrine, atenolol, labetalol, diltiazem, and sucrose administered alone or in combination. Autonomous software objects representing hepatic components such as metabolic enzymes, cells, and microarchitectural details were plugged together to form a functioning liver analogue. Microarchitecture features were represented separately from drug metabolizing functions. Each ISL component interacts uniquely with mobile objects. Outflow profiles were recorded and compared to wet-lab data. A single ISL structure was selected, parameterized, and held constant for all compounds. Parameters sensitive to drug-specific physicochemical properties were tuned so that ISL outflow profiles matched in situ outflow profiles. ISL simulations were validated separately and together against in situ data and prior physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) predictions. The consequences of ISL parameter changes on outflow profiles were explored. Selected changes altered outflow profiles in ways consistent with knowledge of hepatic anatomy and physiology and drug physicochemical properties. A synthetic, agent-oriented in silico liver has been developed and successfully validated, enabling us to posit that static and dynamic ISL mechanistic details, although abstract, map realistically to hepatic mechanistic details in PBPK simulations.

  19. Pre-existing liver cirrhosis reduced the toxic effect of diethylene glycol in a rat model due to the impaired hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Ming Xing Huang; Xiao Mou Peng; Lin Gu; Gui Hua Chen

    2011-09-01

    Hepatic metabolizing enzymes of diethylene glycol (DEG) are impaired in liver diseases. Thus, the purpose of this study was to increase our understandings in metabolism and toxicology of DEG by clarifying the influences of pre-existing liver disease. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced liver cirrhosis and 20 control rats were intraperitoneally administered a single dose of DEG, and randomly killed 1, 2, 5 or 8 days following exposure. Compared with control rats, the model rats had significantly higher blood CO(2)-combining power, lower blood urine nitrogen, serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase levels on the second day and a lower mortality rate on the eighth day following DEG exposure. Enlargements of liver and kidneys and degeneration and necrosis of hepatocytes and renal tubules in the model rats was also less serious than in the control rats. Urine DEG levels were significantly higher on the first day in the model rats than the control rats (46.65 ± 8.79 mg vs 18.88 ± 6.18 mg, p < 0.01), but DEG concentrations in the blood, liver and kidneys were lower. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in the model rats was significantly lower than that in the control rats, which was positively related to renal damage. The toxic effects of DEG in rats with pre-existing liver cirrhosis are significantly reduced, which may be due to the decreased hepatic ADH activity. It suggests that the metabolite of ADH is responsible for DEG poisoning, and this toxic metabolite may mainly originate in the liver.

  20. Woodchuck hepatitis virus core gene deletions and proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by an immunodominant epitope: a viral immune escape in the woodchuck model of chronic hepatitis B?

    PubMed

    Taffon, Stefania; Kondili, Loreta A; Giuseppetti, Roberto; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita; Pulimanti, Barbara; Attili, Adolfo F; Rapicetta, Maria; D'Ugo, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    Marmota monax and its natural infection by woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) could be used as a predictive model for evaluating mechanisms of viral persistence during chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of viral variants in the core gene of chronically WHV-infected woodchucks that showed two different patterns of peripheral blood mononuclear cells' (PBMCs') responses after stimulation with a specific WHV core peptide. Sequences' analysis of the WHV core region from eight WHV chronically infected woodchucks have been performed after in vitro stimulation with an immunodominant epitope of the WHV core protein (amino acids [aa] 96-110). Following this stimulation, positive PBMC responses at each point of follow-up were observed for four animals (group A), and weak immune responses at one or a few points of follow-up were observed for the remaining four animals (group B). The WHV core gene sequences contained amino acid deletions (aa 84-126, aa 84-113) in three of four group A animals and in none of group B animals. In the group A animals, the same deletions were observed in liver specimens and in two of four tumor specimens. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was diagnosed in all group A animals and in one group B animal. In conclusion, internal deletions in the core region correlated with a sustained PBMC response to the immunogenic peptide (96-110) of the core protein. A possible role of this relationship in hepatocarcinogenesis could be hypothesized; however, this needs to be investigated in patients with chronic HBV infection. The evaluation of virus-specific T-cell responses and T-cell epitopes that are possibly related to the mechanisms of viral evasion should be further investigated in order to design combined antiviral and immune approaches to control chronic HBV infection.

  1. Analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in a murine model of tolerance to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity (autoprotection)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Meeghan A., E-mail: meeghan.oconnor@boehringer-ingelheim.com; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, CT 06877-0368; Koza-Taylor, Petra, E-mail: petra.h.koza-taylor@pfizer.com

    2014-01-01

    Pretreatment of mice with a low hepatotoxic dose of acetaminophen (APAP) results in resistance to a subsequent, higher dose of APAP. This mouse model, termed APAP autoprotection was used here to identify differentially expressed genes and cellular pathways that could contribute to this development of resistance to hepatotoxicity. Male C57BL/6J mice were pretreated with APAP (400 mg/kg) and then challenged 48 h later with 600 mg APAP/kg. Livers were obtained 4 or 24 h later and total hepatic RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix Mouse Genome MU430{sub 2} GeneChip. Statistically significant genes were determined and gene expression changes weremore » also interrogated using the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE). Extensive literature review narrowed our focus to methionine adenosyl transferase-1 alpha (MAT1A), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (Fmo3) and galectin-3 (Lgals3). Down-regulation of MAT1A could lead to decreases in S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), which is known to protect against APAP toxicity. Nrf2 activation is expected to play a role in protective adaptation. Up-regulation of Lgals3, one of the genes supporting the Nrf2 hypothesis, can lead to suppression of apoptosis and reduced mitochondrial dysfunction. Fmo3 induction suggests the involvement of an enzyme not known to metabolize APAP in the development of tolerance to APAP toxicity. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR and immunochemical analysis confirmed the differential expression of some of these genes in the APAP autoprotection model. In conclusion, our genomics strategy identified cellular pathways that might further explain the molecular basis for APAP autoprotection. - Highlights: • Differential expression of genes in mice resistant to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. • Increased gene expression of Flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 and Galectin-3. • Decrease in MAT1A expression and compensatory hepatocellular regeneration. • Two distinct

  2. VAP score as a novel non-invasive liver fibrosis model in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Hassan, Elham; Sharaf El-Din Abd El-Rehim, Abeer; Ahmed Sayed, Zain El-Abdeen; Farah Mohamed Kholef, Emad; Sabry, Abeer; Abd El-Rehim Abo Elhagag, Noha

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients is necessary before antiviral treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of eight non-invasive models (aspartate aminotransferase [AST]/alanine transaminase ratio [AAR], AST/platelet ratio index [APRI], fibrosis-cirrhosis index [FCI], fibrosis index [FI], fibrosis-4 [FIB-4] score, fibrosis quotient [FibroQ], King, and von Willebrand factor antigen (vWF-Ag)/thrombocyte ratio [VITRO] scores) for predicting fibrosis compared with liver biopsy and to create a new score for predicting different fibrosis stages with increased accuracy. We prospectively studied 127 treatment-naive CHC patients who underwent liver biopsy. The AAR, APRI, FCI, FI, FIB-4, FibroQ, King and VITRO scores were calculated and correlated with fibrosis stages. A new score (VAP) was derived from vWF-Ag, AST, and platelets: [VAP = (AST (U/L) × vWF-Ag)/platelets (10 9 /L)]. Apart from AAR, readily available scores were correlated with liver fibrosis stages. VITRO (r = 0.62) and APRI (r = 0.46) showed the closest correlation. Our new (VAP) score significantly correlated with fibrosis stages (r = 0.702, P < 0.001). Compared to other scores, VAP had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, with 0.854, 0.921, 0.849, and 0.861 for mild (F1), significant (≥F2), advanced (≥F3) fibrosis, and cirrhosis (F4) respectively. At a cut-off value >1, VAP had 75.2% sensitivity and 100% positive predictive value for predicting mild fibrosis. At a cut-off value >2.3 for predicting cirrhosis, VAP had 73% sensitivity and 81.7% positive predictive value. The VAP score is a novel model that had higher diagnostic performance to predict different fibrosis stages and subclinical cirrhosis among CHC patients compared to the other studied scores and hence may offer a useful strategy to stratify patients who would benefit from direct-acting antivirals. © 2017 The Japan Society of Hepatology.

  3. A new adaptive L1-norm for optimal descriptor selection of high-dimensional QSAR classification model for anti-hepatitis C virus activity of thiourea derivatives.

    PubMed

    Algamal, Z Y; Lee, M H

    2017-01-01

    A high-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) classification model typically contains a large number of irrelevant and redundant descriptors. In this paper, a new design of descriptor selection for the QSAR classification model estimation method is proposed by adding a new weight inside L1-norm. The experimental results of classifying the anti-hepatitis C virus activity of thiourea derivatives demonstrate that the proposed descriptor selection method in the QSAR classification model performs effectively and competitively compared with other existing penalized methods in terms of classification performance on both the training and the testing datasets. Moreover, it is noteworthy that the results obtained in terms of stability test and applicability domain provide a robust QSAR classification model. It is evident from the results that the developed QSAR classification model could conceivably be employed for further high-dimensional QSAR classification studies.

  4. A silk peptide fraction restores cognitive function in AF64A-induced Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing expression of choline acetyltransferase gene.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yeseul; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Su Kil; Guo, Haiyu; Ban, Young-Hwan; Park, Dongsun; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Yeon, Sungho; Lee, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Joo, Seong Soo; Jeong, Heon-Sang; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a silk peptide fraction obtained by incubating silk proteins with Protease N and Neutrase (SP-NN) on cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer disease model rats. In order to elucidate underlying mechanisms, the effect of SP-NN on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) mRNA was assessed in F3.ChAT neural stem cells and Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells; active amino acid sequence was identified using HPLC-MS. The expression of ChAT mRNA in F3.ChAT cells increased by 3.79-fold of the control level by treatment with SP-NN fraction. The active peptide in SP-NN was identified as tyrosine-glycine with 238.1 of molecular weight. Male rats were orally administered with SP-NN (50 or 300mg/kg) and challenged with a cholinotoxin AF64A. As a result of brain injury and decreased brain acetylcholine level, AF64A induced astrocytic activation, resulting in impairment of learning and memory function. Treatment with SP-NN exerted recovering activities on acetylcholine depletion and brain injury, as well as cognitive deficit induced by AF64A. The results indicate that, in addition to a neuroprotective activity, the SP-NN preparation restores cognitive function of Alzheimer disease model rats by increasing the release of acetylcholine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Coenzyme Q10 prevents hepatic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a male rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth1

    PubMed Central

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Hargreaves, Iain P; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; McConnell, Josie M; Ozanne, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well established that low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth increase the risk of liver dysfunction in later life. However, molecular mechanisms underlying such developmental programming are not well characterized, and potential intervention strategies are poorly defined. Objectives: We tested the hypotheses that poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth would lead to increased hepatic fibrosis (a pathological marker of liver dysfunction) and that postnatal supplementation with the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) would prevent this programmed phenotype. Design: A rat model of maternal protein restriction was used to generate low-birth-weight offspring that underwent accelerated postnatal growth (termed “recuperated”). These were compared with control rats. Offspring were weaned onto standard feed pellets with or without dietary CoQ10 (1 mg/kg body weight per day) supplementation. At 12 mo, hepatic fibrosis, indexes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin signaling were measured by histology, Western blot, ELISA, and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction. Results: Hepatic collagen deposition (diameter of deposit) was greater in recuperated offspring (mean ± SEM: 12 ± 2 μm) than in controls (5 ± 0.5 μm) (P < 0.001). This was associated with greater inflammation (interleukin 6: 38% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05; tumor necrosis factor α: 64% ± 24% increase; P < 0.05), lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal, measured by ELISA: 0.30 ± 0.02 compared with 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/mL per μg protein; P < 0.05), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.05). CoQ10 supplementation increased (P < 0.01) hepatic CoQ10 concentrations and ameliorated liver fibrosis (P < 0.001), inflammation (P < 0.001), some measures of oxidative stress (P < 0.001), and hyperinsulinemia (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Suboptimal in utero nutrition combined with accelerated postnatal catch-up growth caused more hepatic fibrosis in adulthood, which was

  6. Hepatitis Testing: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    MedlinePlus

    ... viruses. They include hepatitis A , hepatitis B , and hepatitis C . To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ... Hepatitis B Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Hepatitis C Test (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Hepatitis C: ...

  7. The terminology of hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that the diseases formerly known as “infectious hepatitis” and “serum hepatitis” be referred to as viral hepatitis type A and viral hepatitis type B, respectively. It is further recommended that the “Australia” antigen be referred to as hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) and the corresponding antibody as hepatitis B antibody (HB Ab). PMID:4544683

  8. Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu; Feng, Mary; Frey, Kirk A.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF)more » images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose–response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=−0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment

  9. Estimating the impact of test-and-treat strategies on hepatitis B virus infection in China by using an age-structured mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Zu, Jian; Li, Miaolei; Zhuang, Guihua; Liang, Peifeng; Cui, Fuqiang; Wang, Fuzhen; Zheng, Hui; Liang, Xiaofeng

    2018-04-01

    The potential impact of increasing test-and-treat coverage on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains unclear in China. The objective of this study was to develop a dynamic compartmental model at a population level to estimate the long-term effect of this strategy.Based on the natural history of HBV infection and 3 serosurvey data of hepatitis B in China, we proposed an age- and time-dependent discrete model to predict the number of new HBV infection, the number of chronic HBV infection, and the number of HBV-related deaths for the time from 2018 to 2050 under 5 different test-and-treat coverage and compared them with current intervention policy.Compared with current policy, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 100% since 2018, the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 26.60%, 24.88%, 26.55%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 44.93%, 43.29%, 43.67%, respectively. In contrast, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased by 10% every year since 2018, then the numbers of chronic HBV infection, new HBV infection, and HBV-related deaths in 2035 would be reduced by 21.81%, 20.10%, 21.40%, respectively, and in 2050 it would be reduced by 41.53%, 39.89%, 40.32%, respectively. In particular, if the test-and-treat coverage was increased to 75% since 2018, then the annual number of HBV-related deaths would begin to decrease from 2018. If the test-and-treat coverage was increased to above 25% since 2018, then the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence for population aged 1 to 59 years in China would be reduced to below 2% in 2035. Our model also showed that in 2035, the numbers of chronic HBV infection and HBV-related deaths in 65 to 69 age group would be reduced the most (about 1.6 million and 13 thousand, respectively).Increasing test-and-treat coverage would significantly reduce HBV infection in China, especially in the middle-aged people and older people. The earlier the

  10. The Cost Effectiveness of Hepatitis Immunization for US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, R. Jake; Saab, Sammy; Meyerhoff, Allen S.

    2003-01-01

    Hepatitis B immunization is recommended for all American children, and hepatitis A immunization is recommended for children who live in areas with elevated disease rates. Because hepatitis A and B occur most commonly in young adults, the authors examined the cost effectiveness of college-based vaccination. They developed epidemiologic models to…

  11. Low-Dose Lipopolysaccharide Causes Biliary Injury by Blood Biliary Barrier Impairment in a Rat Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Model.

    PubMed

    Reiling, Janske; Bridle, Kim R; Gijbels, Marion; Schaap, Frank G; Jaskowski, Lesley; Santrampurwala, Nishreen; Britton, Laurence J; Campbell, Catherine M; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Crawford, Darrell H G; Dejong, Cornelius H C; Fawcett, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    This study explored whether bacterial endotoxins, in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), could have an injurious effect on the biliary tract in conjunction with ischemia. A total of 64 rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: sham operation (sham group), 1 mg/kg LPS intraperitoneal (LPS group), hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (IR; IR group), and IR combined with LPS (IR+LPS group). Following 1 or 6 hours of reperfusion, serum liver tests, bile duct histology, immunofluorescence microscopy (zonula occludens-1 [ZO-1]), bile composition (bile salts, phospholipids, lactate dehydrogenase), hepatic gene expression (bile salt transporters and inflammatory mediators), as well as serum and biliary cytokine concentrations were quantified and compared between the study groups. In addition, the integrity of the blood biliary barrier (BBB) was assayed in vivo using horseradish peroxidase (HRP). LPS administration induced severe small bile duct injury following 6 hours of reperfusion. Furthermore, total bile salts and bilirubin concentrations in serum were increased in the LPS groups compared with sham controls (LPS, + 3.3-fold and +1.9-fold; IR+LPS, + 3.8-fold and +1.7-fold, respectively). The BBB was impaired in the LPS groups as evidenced by elevated levels of HRP in bile (+4.9-fold), and decreased expression of claudin 1 (-6.7-fold) and claudin 3 (-3.6-fold). LPS was found to be a potent inducer of small bile duct injury following hepatic ischemia and 6 hours of reperfusion. This injury was associated with increased permeability of the BBB and impaired hepatic bile salt clearance. Liver Transplantation 23 194-206 2017 AASLD. © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. miR-494 up-regulates the PI3K/Akt pathway via targetting PTEN and attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Su, Song; Luo, De; Liu, Xiangdong; Liu, Jiang; Peng, Fangyi; Fang, Cheng; Li, Bo

    2017-10-31

    A rat HIRI model was constructed and treated with an intraperitoneal injection of agomir- miR-494 or agomir-NC (negative control) for 7 days after the surgery. The pathophysiological changes in sham-operated rats, HIRI, HIRI + agomir- miR-494 , and HIRI + agomir-NC were compared. The effect of miR-494 was also assessed in an H 2 O 2 -induced apoptosis model. Hepatic AML12 cells were transfected with mimics NC or miR-494 mimics, followed by 6-h H 2 O 2 treatment. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected by CCK8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Further, the miR-494 target gene was identified by luciferase reporter assay, and verified both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The activity of AKT pathway was further analyzed in vivo by Western blot. HIRI + agomir- miR-494 rats exhibited significantly higher miR-494 expression, lower serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) level, lower hepatic MDA, TOA, and OSI, alleviated hepatic necrosis, reduced hepatocyte apoptosis, and decreased expression of apoptosis-related proteins, when compared with HIRI + agomir-NC rats ( P <0.05 or 0.01). After H 2 O 2 treatment, AML-12 cells transfected with miR-494 mimics had significantly higher proliferation and lower apoptosis rate compared with mimics NC group ( P <0.01). PTEN was identified as an miR-494 target gene. PTEN expression was significantly down-regulated in AML12 cells transfected with miR-494 mimics, and was up-regulated by treatment of miR-494 inhibitor ( P <0.01). Moreover, HIRI + agomir- miR-494 rats exhibited significantly lower PTEN expression, and higher p-AKT, p-mTOR, and p-p70S6K levels compared with HIRI + agomir-NC rats. Therefore, miR-494 protected rats against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury through down-regulating its downstream target gene PTEN , leading to the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Genomic Methylation Inhibits Expression of Hepatitis B Virus Envelope Protein in Transgenic Mice: A Non-Infectious Mouse Model to Study Silencing of HBV Surface Antigen Genes.

    PubMed

    Graumann, Franziska; Churin, Yuri; Tschuschner, Annette; Reifenberg, Kurt; Glebe, Dieter; Roderfeld, Martin; Roeb, Elke

    2015-01-01

    The Hepatitis B virus genome persists in the nucleus of virus infected hepatocytes where it serves as template for viral mRNA synthesis. Epigenetic modifications, including methylation of the CpG islands contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression. The present study investigates the effects of spontaneous age dependent loss of hepatitis B surface protein- (HBs) expression due to HBV-genome specific methylation as well as its proximate positive effects in HBs transgenic mice. Liver and serum of HBs transgenic mice aged 5-33 weeks were analyzed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, serum analysis, PCR, and qRT-PCR. From the third month of age hepatic loss of HBs was observed in 20% of transgenic mice. The size of HBs-free area and the relative number of animals with these effects increased with age and struck about 55% of animals aged 33 weeks. Loss of HBs-expression was strongly correlated with amelioration of serum parameters ALT and AST. In addition lower HBs-expression went on with decreased ER-stress. The loss of surface protein expression started on transcriptional level and appeared to be regulated epigenetically by DNA methylation. The amount of the HBs-expression correlated negatively with methylation of HBV DNA in the mouse genome. Our data suggest that methylation of specific CpG sites controls gene expression even in HBs-transgenic mice with truncated HBV genome. More important, the loss of HBs expression and intracellular aggregation ameliorated cell stress and liver integrity. Thus, targeted modulation of HBs expression may offer new therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, HBs-transgenic mice depict a non-infectious mouse model to study one possible mechanism of HBs gene silencing by hypermethylation.

  14. A model of the health and economic impact of posttransfusion hepatitis C: application to cost-effectiveness analysis of further expansion of HCV screening protocols.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A; Sanz, C

    2000-10-01

    Cost-effectiveness analyses are needed to decide the value of further expansion of the screening protocols for HCV in blood donors. However, such analyses are hampered by imperfect knowledge of the health and economic repercussions of posttransfusion hepatitis C (PTHC). A Monte Carlo simulation of a Markov model representing the outcomes of patients transfused with HCV-infective blood was used to estimate the health and economic impact of PTHC and to calculate the cost-effectiveness ratio of various HCV screening methods. Median survival for hypothetical patients with PTHC and for controls without hepatitis was 11.25 and 11.75 years, respectively. Overall, 12.3 percent of patients receiving HCV-infective blood will develop chronic hepatitis, 9.3 percent will progress to liver failure, and 9. 25 percent will eventually die of liver disease after a median time of 20.75 years (range, 6-70). Ninety-one percent of the infected blood recipients had no reduction in life expectancy due to PTHC, and the average loss per patient was 0.754 years. The present value of the lifetime health costs incurred by patients with PTHC is $6330 per case. HCV antibody testing increases the patients' life expectancy by 20.4 hours per blood collection tested, and it results in net savings by decreasing the number of patients that will require treatment for liver disease in the future. Adding HCV NAT increases the patients' life expectancy by 0.08 hours per blood collection tested, at a cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,829,611 per QALY gained. PTHC has low health benefits because of the advanced age of many blood recipients. Testing donors for HCV antibodies results in net savings for the health care system, despite low health benefits. Adding HCV NAT would produce little additional gain at a very high cost.

  15. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Prevention of Hepatitis C Virus Among Illicit Drug Users: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Javanbakht, Mehdi; Mirahmadizadeh, Alireza; Mashayekhi, Atefeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is increasingly recognized as a major global health problem. Illicit injection drug use is an important risk factor for the rising hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in IR Iran. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the long-term effectiveness (total quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained) of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT program) in prevention of HCV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs). Materials and Methods: A number of Markov models were developed to model morbidity and mortality among IDUs. The input data used in modeling were collected by a self-reported method from 259 IDUs before registration and one year after MMT and also from previous studies. One way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were done to show the effects of uncertainty in parameters on number of life years and QALYs saved. The expected consequences were estimated using a life-time time horizon for the two strategies including implementation and not implementation of the MMT program. Results: Our model estimated that total number of discounted life years lived per IDU with and without the MMT program would be 5.15 (5.05 - 5.25) and 4.63 (4.42 - 4.81), respectively. The model also estimated that total number of discounted QALYs lived per IDU with and without the MMT program would be 4.11 (3.86 - 4.41) and 2.45 (2.17 - 2.84). Simulation results indicated that all differences in life years and QALYs lived between the two strategies were statistically significant (p < 0.001). Based on our model, total discounted life years and QALYs saved in a cohort of 1000 IDUs were 1790 (1520 - 2090) and 1590 (1090- 2090), respectively. Conclusions: Considering the high prevalence of illicit injecting drug use in Iran and MMT effectiveness in prevention of HCV infection, it is necessary to develop MMT centers at regional and national levels. PMID:24719731

  16. Hepatic lipid accumulation: cause and consequence of dysregulated glucoregulatory hormones.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Caroline E; Renquist, Benjamin J

    2017-07-01

    Fatty liver can be diet, endocrine, drug, virus or genetically induced. Independent of cause, hepatic lipid accumulation promotes systemic metabolic dysfunction. By acting as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands, hepatic non-esterified fatty acids upregulate expression of gluconeogenic, beta-oxidative, lipogenic and ketogenic genes, promoting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and ketosis. The typical hormonal environment in fatty liver disease consists of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone deficiency and elevated sympathetic tone. These endocrine and metabolic changes further encourage hepatic steatosis by regulating adipose tissue lipolysis, liver lipid uptake, de novo lipogenesis (DNL), beta-oxidation, ketogenesis and lipid export. Hepatic lipid accumulation may be induced by 4 separate mechanisms: (1) increased hepatic uptake of circulating fatty acids, (2) increased hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis, (3) decreased hepatic beta-oxidation and (4) decreased hepatic lipid export. This review will discuss the hormonal regulation of each mechanism comparing multiple physiological models of hepatic lipid accumulation. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is typified by increased hepatic lipid uptake, synthesis, oxidation and export. Chronic hepatic lipid signaling through PPARgamma results in gene expression changes that allow concurrent activity of DNL and beta-oxidation. The importance of hepatic steatosis in driving systemic metabolic dysfunction is highlighted by the common endocrine and metabolic disturbances across many conditions that result in fatty liver. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the metabolic dysfunction that develops as a consequence of hepatic lipid accumulation is critical to identifying points of intervention in this increasingly prevalent disease state. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  18. Use of an integrated modelling and simulation approach to develop a simplified peginterferon alfa-2a dosing regimen for children with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Barbara J; Lemenuel-Diot, Annabelle; Snoeck, Eric; McKenna, Michael; Solsky, Jonathan; Wat, Cynthia; Mallalieu, Navita L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to simplify the dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using PK data from 14 children aged 2-8 years and 402 adults. Simulations were produced to identify a simplified dosing regimen that would provide exposures similar to those observed in the paediatric clinical trials and in the range known to be safe/efficacious in adults. Model predictions were evaluated against observed adult and paediatric data to reinforce confidence of the proposed dosing regimen. The final model was a two compartment model with a zero order resorption process. Covariates included a linear influence of body surface area (BSA) on apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and a linear influence of body weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 /F). A simplified dosing regimen was developed which is expected to provide exposures in children aged ≥5 years similar to the dosing formula used in the paediatric clinical trial and within the range that is safe/efficacious in adults. This simplified regimen is approved in the EU and in other countries for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naive children/adolescents aged ≥5 years in combination with ribavirin. Pre-existing adult PK data were combined with relatively limited paediatric PK data to develop a PK model able to predict exposure in both populations adequately. This provided increased confidence in characterizing PK in children and helped in the development of a simplified dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  19. Simultaneous Assessment of Clearance, Metabolism, Induction, and Drug-Drug Interaction Potential Using a Long-Term In Vitro Liver Model for a Novel Hepatitis B Virus Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kratochwil, Nicole A; Triyatni, Miriam; Mueller, Martina B; Klammers, Florian; Leonard, Brian; Turley, Dan; Schmaler, Josephine; Ekiciler, Aynur; Molitor, Birgit; Walter, Isabelle; Gonsard, Pierre-Alexis; Tournillac, Charles A; Durrwell, Alexandre; Marschmann, Michaela; Jones, Russell; Ullah, Mohammed; Boess, Franziska; Ottaviani, Giorgio; Jin, Yuyan; Parrott, Neil J; Fowler, Stephen

    2018-05-01

    Long-term in vitro liver models are now widely explored for human hepatic metabolic clearance prediction, enzyme phenotyping, cross-species metabolism, comparison of low clearance drugs, and induction studies. Here, we present studies using a long-term liver model, which show how metabolism and active transport, drug-drug interactions, and enzyme induction in healthy and diseased states, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, may be assessed in a single test system to enable effective data integration for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. The approach is exemplified in the case of (3S)-4-[[(4R)-4-(2-Chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-2-thiazol-2-yl-1,4-dihydropyrimidin-6-yl]methyl]morpholine-3-carboxylic acid RO6889678, a novel inhibitor of HBV with a complex absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile. RO6889678 showed an intracellular enrichment of 78-fold in hepatocytes, with an apparent intrinsic clearance of 5.2 µ l/min per mg protein and uptake and biliary clearances of 2.6 and 1.6 µ l/min per mg protein, respectively. When apparent intrinsic clearance was incorporated into a PBPK model, the simulated oral human profiles were in good agreement with observed data at low doses but were underestimated at high doses due to unexpected overproportional increases in exposure with dose. In addition, the induction potential of RO6889678 on cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes and transporters at steady state was assessed and cotreatment with ritonavir revealed a complex drug-drug interaction with concurrent P450 inhibition and moderate UDP-glucuronosyltransferase induction. Furthermore, we report on the first evaluation of in vitro pharmacokinetics studies using HBV-infected HepatoPac cocultures. Thus, long-term liver models have great potential as translational research tools exploring pharmacokinetics of novel drugs in vitro in health and disease. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Development of a Simple Noninvasive Model to Predict Significant Fibrosis in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B: Combination of Ultrasound Elastography, Serum Biomarkers, and Individual Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin; Wen, Huiying; Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Changfeng; Lin, Haoming; Guo, Yanrong; Shan, Lingbo; Yao, Simin; Yang, Min; Le, Xiaohua; Liu, Yingxia

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The accurate assessment of liver fibrosis is clinically important in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Blood tests and elastography are now widely used for the noninvasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHB patients. The aim of this study was to develop a new and more accurate predictive model, which combines elastography data, serum biomarkers, and individual characteristics, to discriminate between CHB patients with and without significant liver fibrosis. Methods: Two noninvasive methods, specifically, an ultrasound elastography technique termed acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI) and a blood test, were used to assess a cohort of 345 patients (estimation group, 218 patients; validation group, 127 patients) with CHB. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ARFI, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio, and age were significantly associated with fibrosis. Based on these results, we constructed and validated a model for the diagnosis of significant hepatic fibrosis. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.921 for the estimation group and 0.929 for the validation group, significantly higher than those for ARFI (0.887, 0.893) and for the AST-to-platelet ratio index (APRI; 0.811, 0.859). Using an optimal cutoff of 3.05 in the validation group, all the indices of the proposed model, including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic odds ratio, were better than those for ARFI or APRI. Conclusions: We developed a simple noninvasive model that used ultrasound elastography, routine serum biomarkers, and individual characteristics to accurately differentiate significant fibrosis in patients with CHB. Compared with elastography or the biomarker index alone, this model was significantly more accurate and robust. PMID:28383564

  1. Nicotinamide Riboside Ameliorates Hepatic Metaflammation by Modulating NLRP3 Inflammasome in a Rodent Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Jae; Hong, Young-Shick; Jun, Woojin; Yang, Soo Jin

    2015-11-01

    Low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation) is a major contributing factor for the onset and development of metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is present in milk and beer, is a functional vitamin B3 having advantageous effects on metabolic regulation. However, the anti-inflammatory capacity of NR is unknown. This study evaluated whether NR modulates hepatic nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Male, 8-week-old KK/HlJ mice were allocated to the control or NR group. NR (100 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline) was administrated by an osmotic pump for 7 days. Glucose control, lipid profiles, NLRP3 inflammasome, and inflammation markers were analyzed, and structural and histological analyses were conducted. NR treatment did not affect body weight gain, food intake, and liver function. Glucose control based on the oral glucose tolerance test and levels of serum insulin and adiponectin was improved by NR treatment. Among tested lipid profiles, NR lowered the total cholesterol concentration in the liver. Histological and structural analysis by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively, showed that NR rescued the disrupted cellular integrity of the mitochondria and nucleus in the livers of obese and diabetic KK mice. In addition, NR treatment significantly improved hepatic proinflammatory markers, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1. These ameliorations were accompanied by significant shifts of NLRP3 inflammasome components (NLRP3, ASC, and caspase1). These results demonstrate that NR attenuates hepatic metaflammation by modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  2. Significance testing of clinical data using virus dynamics models with a Markov chain Monte Carlo method: application to emergence of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, N J; Pillay, D; Mutimer, D

    1999-01-01

    Bayesian analysis using a virus dynamics model is demonstrated to facilitate hypothesis testing of patterns in clinical time-series. Our Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation demonstrates that the viraemia time-series observed in two sets of hepatitis B patients on antiviral (lamivudine) therapy, chronic carriers and liver transplant patients, are significantly different, overcoming clinical trial design differences that question the validity of non-parametric tests. We show that lamivudine-resistant mutants grow faster in transplant patients than in chronic carriers, which probably explains the differences in emergence times and failure rates between these two sets of patients. Incorporation of dynamic models into Bayesian parameter analysis is of general applicability in medical statistics. PMID:10643081

  3. [STUDY OF HUMORAL IMMUNE RESPONSE FEATURES BASED ON MODELLING OF ANTIGEN DETERMINANTS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS BY SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES AND GENETICALLY ENGINEERED POLYPEPTIDES].

    PubMed

    Kruglov, I V

    2015-01-01

    Study of humoral immune response features in patients with acute hepatitis C (AHC) with various disease outcomes based on modelling of antigen determinants of hepatitis C virus (HCV) by synthetic peptides and genetically engineered polypeptides. 20 patients with icteric form of AHC based on clinical-biochemical presentation and HCV RNA detection by PCR in blood sera during 12 months from the disease onset were included into the study. Antibody seroconversion study was carried out by EIA. Genetically engineered proteins and synthetic peptides were used as antigens. Similarity and differences of humoral immune response against the HCV antigens used in this study depending on the disease outcome (convalescence or chronicity) were shown. Significant difference of the humoral immune response to both HCV core protein and various fragments of the immune dominant region of this protein were detected, that indicates on a link of these features of immune response with perspectives of a more or less favorable disease development. The regularities of seroconversion detected allow to consider anti-NS5 IgG as a prognostic marker of the disease chronicity. Such marker, as anti-NS3 IgG, is important for diagnostics, but not for disease outcome prognosis.

  4. Dietary tomato powder inhibits alcohol-induced hepatic injury by suppressing cytochrome p450 2E1 induction in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Stice, Camilla P; Liu, Chun; Aizawa, Koichi; Greenberg, Andrew S; Ausman, Lynne M; Wang, Xiang-Dong

    2015-04-15

    Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption leads to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and greatly increases the risk of liver cancer. Induction of the cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme by chronic and excessive alcohol intake is known to play a role in the pathogenesis of ALD. High intake of tomatoes, rich in the carotenoid lycopene, is associated with a decreased risk of chronic disease. We investigated the effects of whole tomato (tomato powder, TP), partial tomato (tomato extract, TE), and purified lycopene (LYC) against ALD development in rats. Of the three supplements, only TP reduced the severity of alcohol-induced steatosis, hepatic inflammatory foci, and CYP2E1 protein levels. TE had no effect on these outcomes and LYC greatly increased inflammatory foci in alcohol-fed rats. To further support the protective effect of TP against ALD, TP was supplemented in a carcinogen (diethylnitrosamine, DEN)-initiated alcohol-promoted mouse model. In addition to reduced steatosis and inflammatory foci, TP abolished the presence of preneoplastic foci of altered hepatocytes in DEN-injected mice fed alcohol. These reductions were associated with decreased hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels, restored levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and downstream gene expression, decreased inflammatory gene expression, and reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress markers. These data provide strong evidence for TP as an effective whole food prevention strategy against ALD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Recombinant Human Hepatitis B Vaccine Initiating Alopecia Areata: Testing the Hypothesis Using the C3H/HeJ Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, John P.; Silva, Kathleen A.; Zhang, Weidong; Sundberg, Beth A.; Edwards, Kathryn; King, Lloyd E.; Davis, Robert L.; Black, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Untoward effects of human vaccines suggest that recombinant hepatitis B vaccine may induce alopecia areata (AA) in some patients. Similar untoward immunological effects may also account for AA-like diseases in domestic species. In this study the C3H/HeJ spontaneous adult onset AA mouse model was used to test the role, if any, of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine on the initiation or activation of AA. Initial experiments demonstrated no effect on induction of AA in young adult female C3H/HeJ mice (p =0.5689). By contrast, older females, those at the age when AA first begins to appear in this strain, had a significant increase (p = 0.0264) in the time of onset of AA suggesting that the vaccine may initiate disease in mice predisposed to AA. However, larger vaccine trials, which included diphtheria and tetanus toxoids as additional controls, did not support these initial result findings and suggest that AA associated with vaccination may be within the normal background levels of the given population. PMID:19175564

  6. Hepatitis C (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis C is a virus-caused liver inflammation which may cause jaundice, fever and cirrhosis. Persons who are most at risk for contracting and spreading hepatitis C are those who share needles for injecting drugs ...

  7. Hepatitis B Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Count Celiac Disease Antibody Tests Cell-Free Fetal DNA Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis Ceruloplasmin Chemistry Panels Chickenpox ... IgM anti-HBe Hepatitis B e Antibody HBV DNA Formal Name Hepatitis B Virus Testing This article ...

  8. Ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate for quantifying liver fat content.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Ding, Fang; Chen, Tian; Xia, Liang-Hua; Qian, Juan; Lv, Guo-Yi

    2014-12-21

    To establish and validate a simple quantitative assessment method for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) based on a combination of the ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic attenuation rate. A total of 170 subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects were examined by ultrasound and (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) on the same day. The ultrasound hepatic/renal echo-intensity ratio and ultrasound hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate were obtained from ordinary ultrasound images using the MATLAB program. Correlation analysis revealed that the ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate were significantly correlated with (1)H-MRS liver fat content (ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio: r = 0.952, P = 0.000; hepatic echo-intensity attenuation r = 0.850, P = 0.000). The equation for predicting liver fat content by ultrasound (quantitative ultrasound model) is: liver fat content (%) = 61.519 × ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio + 167.701 × hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate -26.736. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the liver fat content ratio of the quantitative ultrasound model was positively correlated with serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and triglyceride, but negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the optimal point for diagnosing fatty liver was 9.15% in the quantitative ultrasound model. Furthermore, in the quantitative ultrasound model, fatty liver diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 94.7% and 100.0%, respectively, showing that the quantitative ultrasound model was better than conventional ultrasound methods or the combined ultrasound hepatic/renal ratio and hepatic echo-intensity attenuation rate. If the (1)H-MRS liver fat content had a value < 15%, the sensitivity and specificity of the ultrasound quantitative model would be 81.4% and 100%, which still shows that using

  9. Hepatitis - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/hepatitis.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ List of All Topics All Hepatitis - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  10. SU-F-T-103: Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using the Lyman NTCP Model

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z; Li, B; Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in analyzing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving conformal radiotherapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Between June 2009 and June 2012, 108 HBV-related HCC patients (90 were specifically selected and 18 patients were excluded) treated with conformal RT at three centers were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were all diagnosed as HCC by pathology or cytology. All 90 patients were followed up to September 2013 with a median follow-up time of 25.2 months. The parametersmore » (TD50 (1), n, and m) of the modified LKB NTCP model were derived using maximum likelihood estimation. Bootstrap and leave-one-out were employed to test the generalizability of the results for use in a general population. Results: The incidences of complications in the study population were as follows: radiation-induced liver diseases (RILD) were 17.6%, HBV reactivation was 24.8%, and HBV reactivation-induced hepatitis was 22.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the NTCP (p<0.001), and V20 were associated with HBV reactivation. TD50 (1), m and n were 42.9Gy (95% CI) (38.2–46.8), 0.14 (0.12–0.15) and 0.30 (0.2–0.33), respectively, for HBV reactivation. Bootstrap and leave-one-out results showed that the HBV parameter fits were extremely robust. Conclusion: A modified LKB NTCP model has been established to predict HBV reactivation for patients with HCC receiving conformal RT. The finding derives parameters set to predict potential endpoints of HBV reactivation.« less

  11. Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Immunopathogenesis in a Humanized Mouse Model: Induction of Human-Specific Liver Fibrosis and M2-Like Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bility, Moses T.; Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Luan, Yan; Li, Feng; Chi, Liqun; Zhang, Liguo; Tu, Zhengkun; Gao, Yanhang; Fu, Yangxin; Niu, Junqi; Wang, Fusheng; Su, Lishan

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of chronic HBV infection and immunopathogenesis are poorly understood due to a lack of a robust small animal model. Here we report the development of a humanized mouse model with both human immune system and human liver cells by reconstituting the immunodeficient A2/NSG (NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice with human HLA-A2 transgene) with human hematopoietic stem cells and liver progenitor cells (A2/NSG-hu HSC/Hep mice). The A2/NSG-hu HSC/Hep mouse supported HBV infection and approximately 75% of HBV infected mice established persistent infection for at least 4 months. We detected human immune responses, albeit impaired in the liver, chronic liver inflammation and liver fibrosis in infected animals. An HBV neutralizing antibody efficiently inhibited HBV infection and associated liver diseases in humanized mice. In addition, we found that the HBV mediated liver disease was associated with high level of infiltrated human macrophages with M2-like activation phenotype. Importantly, similar M2-like macrophage accumulation was confirmed in chronic hepatitis B patients with liver diseases. Furthermore, gene expression analysis showed that induction of M2-like macrophage in the liver is associated with accelerated liver fibrosis and necrosis in patients with acute HBV-induced liver failure. Lastly, we demonstrate that HBV promotes M2-like activation in both M1 and M2 macrophages in cell culture studies. Our study demonstrates that the A2/NSG-hu HSC/Hep mouse model is valuable in studying HBV infection, human immune responses and associated liver diseases. Furthermore, results from this study suggest a critical role for macrophage polarization in hepatitis B virus-induced immune impairment and liver pathology. PMID:24651854

  12. Carbohydrate-response-element-binding protein (ChREBP) and not the liver X receptor α (LXRα) mediates elevated hepatic lipogenic gene expression in a mouse model of glycogen storage disease type 1.

    PubMed

    Grefhorst, Aldo; Schreurs, Marijke; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Cortés, Victor A; Havinga, Rick; Herling, Andreas W; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Groen, Albert K; Kuipers, Folkert

    2010-12-01

    GSD-1 (glycogen storage disease type 1) is caused by an inherited defect in glucose-6-phosphatase activity, resulting in a massive accumulation of hepatic glycogen content and an induction of de novo lipogenesis. The chlorogenic acid derivative S4048 is a pharmacological inhibitor of the glucose 6-phosphate transporter, which is part of glucose-6-phosphatase, and allows for mechanistic studies concerning metabolic defects in GSD-1. Treatment of mice with S4048 resulted in an ~60% reduction in blood glucose, increased hepatic glycogen and triacylglycerol (triglyceride) content, and a markedly enhanced hepatic lipogenic gene expression. In mammals, hepatic expression of lipogenic genes is regulated by the co-ordinated action of the transcription factors SREBP (sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein)-1c, LXRα (liver X receptor α) and ChREBP (carbohydrate-response-element-binding protein). Treatment of Lxra-/- mice and Chrebp-/- mice with S4048 demonstrated that ChREBP, but not LXRα, mediates the induction of hepatic lipogenic gene expression in this murine model of GSD-1. Thus ChREBP is an attractive target to alleviate derangements in lipid metabolism observed in patients with GSD-1.

  13. INFLUENCE OF TYPE II DIABETES, OBESITY, AND EXPOSURE TO 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN (TCDD) EXPOSURE ON THE EXPRESSION OF HEPATIC CYP1A2 IN A MURIN MODEL OF TYPE II DIABETES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of type II diabetes, obesity and exposure 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on the expression of hepatic CYPIA2 in a murine model of type II diabetes. SJ Godin', VM Richardson2, JJ Diliberto2, LS Birnbaum', MJ DeVito2; 'Curriculum In Toxicology, UNC-CH...

  14. Protective efficacy of hepatitis E virus DNA vaccine administered by gene gun in the cynomolgus macaque model of infection.

    PubMed

    Kamili, Saleem; Spelbring, John; Carson, Dorrie; Krawczynski, Krzysztof

    2004-01-15

    The protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine against hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was tested in cynomolgus macaques (cynos) vaccinated with a plasmid containing a full-length HEV open-reading frame 2 (ORF2) sequence (Burmese strain) and subsequently challenged with a heterologous strain of HEV (Mexican strain). Cynos administered vaccine by gene gun developed antibodies to HEV (anti-HEV), whereas cynos administered vaccine by intradermal injections and cynos administered a mock DNA construct did not develop anti-HEV. Anti-HEV-positive cynos were protected from HEV infection after challenge with an inoculum that produced infection in the anti-HEV-negative cynos. These results indicate that DNA vaccine with HEV ORF2 administered by gene gun is protective against a heterologous viral challenge.

  15. Protective mechanism of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on carbofuran-induced hematological and hepatic toxicities in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Hossen, Md Sakib; Tanvir, E M; Prince, Maruf Billah; Paul, Sudip; Saha, Moumoni; Ali, Md Yousuf; Gan, Siew Hua; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Karim, Nurul

    2017-12-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. [Zingiberaceae]) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including pesticide-induced toxicity. The study reports the antioxidant properties and the protective effects of turmeric against carbofuran (CF)-induced toxicity in rats. The antioxidant potential was determined by using free radicals scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power values. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, designated as control, turmeric (100 mg/kg/day), CF (1 mg/kg/day) and turmeric (100 mg/kg/day) + CF (1 mg/kg/day) treatments. All of the doses were administered orally for 28 consecutive days. The biological activity of the turmeric and CF was determined by using several standard biochemical methods. Turmeric contains high concentrations of polyphenols (8.97 ± 0.15 g GAEs), flavonoids (5.46 ± 0.29 g CEs), ascorbic acid (0.06 ± 0.00 mg AEs) and FRAP value (1972.66 ± 104.78 μM Fe 2+ ) per 100 g of sample. Oral administration of CF caused significant changes in some of the blood indices, such as, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet distribution width and induced severe hepatic injuries associated with oxidative stress, as observed by the significantly higher lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels when compared to control, while the activities of cellular antioxidant enzymes (including superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) were significantly suppressed in the liver tissue. Turmeric supplementation could protect against CF-induced hematological perturbations and hepatic injuries in rats, plausibly by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of LPO to confer the protective effect.

  16. Liver steatosis replaced with non-invasive viral and host parametars can serve as negative predictive model in patients with chronic hepatitis-C.

    PubMed

    Višnjić, Ana; Ostojić, Zvonimir; Hrstić, Irena; Corić, Marijana; Premuzić, Marina

    2014-09-01

    Almost 70% of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients will have concomitant hepatic steatosis (HS) usually determined with invasive method. HS serve as negative predictive factor for lower sustained viral response (SVR) in CHC patients treated with standard of care (SOC) (PEG-IFN and Rib). Retrospective analysis of biochemical, virological and histological data in CHC patients treated with PEG-IFN and Ribavarin. Statistical analysis was carried out by Biometriha Healthcare Research. Level of significance was set to 95% (p < 0.05). 72 patients (43 M; 29 F; median age 41 y) with CHC (60 G1; 12 G3) with no concomitant metabolic syndrome were analyzed. HS ranged from 5 to 30% (median 15%). Overall accuracy of prediction of SVR based on the levels of HS was AUC=0.71 (95% CI=0.58-0.84; p=0.005). When HS was split regarding cut-off value of 5% significant difference was found between responders and non-responders to treatment (chi2 = 10.025; df = 1; p = 0.002). Overall sensitivity was 48% and specificity 91%. Conventional predictive variables (gender, age, fibrosis and genotype) where combined with HS (>5%) and all together achieved Nagelherke R squared of 34.0% in prediction of SVR, with accuracy rate of 75.0%. Further, invasive variables (fibrosis and HS) where replaced with vire mia and body mass index (BMI). All noninvasive variables together achieved Nagelkerke R squared of 26.5% in prediction of SVR with 74% accuracy rate of the logistic regression model. Very low HS (<5%) is negative predictor of SVR and can be replaced with noninvasive variables (gender, age, viremia and BMI) with same accuracy rate of the logistic regres- sion model.

  17. Nicotinamide improves glucose metabolism and affects the hepatic NAD-sirtuin pathway in a rodent model of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Soo Jin; Choi, Jung Mook; Kim, Lisa; Park, Se Eun; Rhee, Eun Jung; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Cheol-Young

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) and nicotinamide (NAM) are major forms of niacin and exert their physiological functions as precursors of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Sirtuins, which are NAD-dependent deacetylases, regulate glucose and lipid metabolism and are implicated in the pathophysiology of aging, diabetes, and hepatic steatosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two NAD donors, NA and NAM, on glucose metabolism and the hepatic NAD-sirtuin pathway. The effects were investigated in OLETF rats, a rodent model of obesity and type 2 diabetes. OLETF rats were divided into five groups: (1) high fat (HF) diet, (2) HF diet and 10 mg NA/kg body weight (BW)/day (NA 10), (3) HF diet and 100 mg NA/kg BW/day (NA 100), (4) HF diet and 10 mg NAM/kg BW/day (NAM 10), and (5) HF diet and 100 mg NAM/kg BW/day (NAM 100). NA and NAM were delivered via drinking water for four weeks. NAM 100 treatment affected glucose control significantly, as shown by lower levels of accumulative area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test, serum fasting glucose, serum fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and higher levels of serum adiponectin. With regard to NAD-sirtuin pathway, intracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, NAD, the NAD/NADH ratio, Sirt1, 2, 3, and 6 mRNA expressions, and Sirt1 activity all increased in livers of NAM 100-treated rats. These alterations were accompanied by the increased levels of proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha and mitochondrial DNA. The effect of NA treatment was less evident than that of NAM 100. These results demonstrate that NAM is more effective than NA on the regulation of glucose metabolism and the NAD-sirtuin pathway, which may relate to the altered mitochondrial biogenesis. © 2014.

  18. LPSF/GQ-02 inhibits the development of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    PubMed

    Soares e Silva, Amanda Karolina; de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dilênia; dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Lima Ribeiro, Edlene; Costa Oliveira, Amanda; dos Santos, Laise Aline Martins; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extends from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains undefined, it is recognized that insulin resistance is present in almost all patients who develop this disease. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act as an insulin sensitizer and have been used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions, including NAFLD. Hence, therapy of NAFLD with insulin-sensitizing drugs should ideally improve the key hepatic histological changes, while also reducing cardiometabolic and cancer risks. Controversially, TZDs are associated with the development of cardiovascular events and liver problems. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to improve liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on the liver of LDLR-/- mice after a high-fat diet. Eighty male mice were divided into 4 groups and two different experiments: 1-received a standard diet; 2-fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); 3-HFD+pioglitazone; 4-HFD+LPSF/GQ-02. The experiments were conducted for 10 or 12 weeks and in the last two or four weeks respectively, the drugs were administered daily by gavage. The results obtained with an NAFLD murine model indicated that LPSF/GQ-02 was effective in improving the hepatic architecture, decreasing fat accumulation, reducing the amount of collagen, decreasing inflammation by reducing IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and F4 / 80, and increasing the protein expression of IκBα, cytoplasmic NFκB-65, eNOS and IRS-1 in mice LDLR -/-. These results suggest a direct action by LPSF/GQ-02 on the factors that affect inflammation, insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver of these animals. Further studies are being conducted in our laboratory to investigate the possible mechanism of action of LPSF/GQ-02 on

  19. LPSF/GQ-02 Inhibits the Development of Hepatic Steatosis and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Soares e Silva, Amanda Karolina; de Oliveira Cipriano Torres, Dilênia; dos Santos Gomes, Fabiana Oliveira; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Lima Ribeiro, Edlene; Costa Oliveira, Amanda; dos Santos, Laise Aline Martins; de Lima, Maria do Carmo Alves; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Peixoto, Christina Alves

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) defines a wide spectrum of liver diseases that extends from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains undefined, it is recognized that insulin resistance is present in almost all patients who develop this disease. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act as an insulin sensitizer and have been used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes and other insulin-resistant conditions, including NAFLD. Hence, therapy of NAFLD with insulin-sensitizing drugs should ideally improve the key hepatic histological changes, while also reducing cardiometabolic and cancer risks. Controversially, TZDs are associated with the development of cardiovascular events and liver problems. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new therapeutic strategies to improve liver function in patients with chronic liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to assess the therapeutic effects of LPSF/GQ-02 on the liver of LDLR-/- mice after a high-fat diet. Eighty male mice were divided into 4 groups and two different experiments: 1-received a standard diet; 2-fed with a high-fat diet (HFD); 3–HFD+pioglitazone; 4–HFD+LPSF/GQ-02. The experiments were conducted for 10 or 12 weeks and in the last two or four weeks respectively, the drugs were administered daily by gavage. The results obtained with an NAFLD murine model indicated that LPSF/GQ-02 was effective in improving the hepatic architecture, decreasing fat accumulation, reducing the amount of collagen, decreasing inflammation by reducing IL-6, iNOS, COX-2 and F4 / 80, and increasing the protein expression of IκBα, cytoplasmic NFκB-65, eNOS and IRS-1 in mice LDLR -/-. These results suggest a direct action by LPSF/GQ-02 on the factors that affect inflammation, insulin resistance and fat accumulation in the liver of these animals. Further studies are being conducted in our laboratory to investigate the possible mechanism of action of LPSF

  20. The Anti-TNF-α Antibody Infliximab Inhibits the Expression of Fat-Transporter-Protein FAT/CD36 in a Selective Hepatic-Radiation Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Martius, Gesa; Cameron, Silke; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Hess, Clemens F.; Wolff, Hendrik A.; Malik, Ihtzaz A.

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we reported a radiation-induced inflammation triggering fat-accumulation through fatty-acid-translocase/cluster of differentiation protein 36 (FAT/CD36) in rat liver. Furthermore, inhibition of radiation-induced FAT/CD36-expression by anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) (infliximab) was shown in vitro. The current study investigates fat-accumulation in a mouse-model of single-dose liver-irradiation (25-Gray) and the effect of anti-TNF-α-therapy on FAT/CD36 gene-expression. Mice livers were selectively irradiated in vivo in presence or absence of infliximab. Serum- and hepatic-triglycerides, mRNA, and protein were analyzed by colorimetric assays, RT-PCR, Immunofluorescence and Western-Blot, respectively. Sudan-staining was used demonstrating fat-accumulation in tissue. In mice livers, early (1–3 h) induction of TNF-α-expression, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was observed. It was followed by elevated hepatic-triglyceride level (6–12 h), compared to sham-irradiated controls. In contrast, serum-triglyceride level was decreased at these time points. Similar to triglyceride level in mice livers, Sudan staining of liver cryosections showed a quick (6–12 h) increase of fat-droplets after irradiation. Furthermore, expression of fat-transporter-protein FAT/CD36 was increased at protein level caused by radiation or TNF-α. TNF-α-blockage by anti-TNF-α showed an early inhibition of radiation-induced FAT/CD36 expression in mice livers. Immunohistochemistry showed basolateral and cytoplasmic expression of FAT/CD36 in hepatocytes. Moreover, co-localization of FAT/CD36 was detected with α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA+) cells and F4/80+ macrophages. In summary, hepatic-radiation triggers fat-accumulation in mice livers, involving acute-phase-processes. Accordingly, anti-TNF-α-therapy prevented early radiation-induced expression of FAT/CD36 in vivo. PMID:25739082

  1. Therapeutic response assessment using 3D ultrasound for hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer: Application of a personalized, 3D-printed tumor model using CT images

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ye Ra; Park, Sang Joon; Hur, Bo Yun; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims To evaluate accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) for response evaluation of hepatic metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRC) using a personalized 3D-printed tumor model. Methods Twenty patients with liver metastasis from CRC who underwent baseline and after chemotherapy CT, were retrospectively included. Personalized 3D-printed tumor models using CT were fabricated. Two radiologists measured volume of each 3D printing model using 3D US. With CT as a reference, we compared difference between CT and US tumor volume. The response evaluation was based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Results 3D US tumor volume showed no significant difference from CT volume (7.18 ± 5.44 mL, 8.31 ± 6.32 mL vs 7.42 ± 5.76 mL in CT, p>0.05). 3D US provided a high correlation coefficient with CT (r = 0.953, r = 0.97) as well as a high inter-observer intraclass correlation (0.978; 0.958–0.988). Regarding response, 3D US was in agreement with CT in 17 and 18 out of 20 patients for observer 1 and 2 with excellent agreement (κ = 0.961). Conclusions 3D US tumor volume using a personalized 3D-printed model is an accurate and reliable method for the response evaluation in comparison with CT tumor volume. PMID:28797089

  2. Models of community-based hepatitis B surface antigen screening programs in the U.S. and their estimated outcomes and costs.

    PubMed

    Rein, David B; Lesesne, Sarah B; Smith, Bryce D; Weinbaum, Cindy M

    2011-01-01

    Information on the process and method of service delivery is sparse for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) testing, and no systematic study has evaluated the relative effectiveness or cost-effectiveness of different HBsAg screening models. To address this need, we compared five specific community-based screening programs. We funded five HBsAg screening programs to collect information on their design, costs, and outcomes of participants during a six-month observation period. We categorized programs into four types of models. For each model, we calculated the number screened, the number screened as per Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations, and the cost per screening. The models varied by cost per person screened and total number of people screened, but they did not differ meaningfully in the proportion of people screened following CDC recommendations, the proportion of those screened who tested positive, or the proportion of those who newly tested positive. Integrating screening into outpatient service settings is the most cost-effective method but may not reach all people needing to be screened. Future research should examine cost-effective methods that expand the reach of screening into communities in outpatient settings.

  3. Diagnosis of viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Easterbrook, Philippa J; Roberts, Teri; Sands, Anita; Peeling, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and HIV-HBV and HCV coinfection are major causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. Testing and diagnosis is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, but there remains a large burden of undiagnosed infection globally. We review the global epidemiology, key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, new tools to support the hepatitis global response (2016-2020 Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy, and 2017 WHO guidelines on hepatitis testing) and future directions and innovations in hepatitis diagnostics. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response include lack of quality-assured serological and low-cost virological in-vitro diagnostics, limited facilities for testing, inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches, stigmatization of those with or at risk of viral hepatitis and lack of guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings. The new Global Hepatitis Health Sector strategy sets out goals for elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat by 2030 and gives outcome targets for reductions in new infections and mortality, as well as service delivery targets that include testing, diagnosis and treatment. The 2017 WHO hepatitis testing guidelines for adults, adolescents and children in low-income and middle-income countries outline the public health approach to strengthen and expand current testing practices for viral hepatitis and addresses who to test (testing approaches), which serological and virological assays to use (testing strategies) as well as interventions to promote linkage to prevention and care. Future directions and innovations in hepatitis testing include strategies to improve access such as through use of existing facility and community-based testing opportunities for hepatitis testing, near-patient or point-of-care assays for virological markers (nucleic acid testing and HCV

  4. Comparison of new and conventional versions of model-based iterative reconstruction in reduced-dose computed tomography for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Yasaka, Koichiro; Katsura, Masaki; Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Matsuda, Izuru; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2016-05-01

    To compare new and conventional versions of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in reduced-dose computed tomography (CT) in terms of diagnostic performance for hepatic steatosis. Images were reconstructed from standard-dose and aggressively reduced-dose (the dose-length product was reduced by 91 %) unenhanced abdominopelvic CT scans of 86 patients using filtered back projection (SD-FBP) and new and conventional versions of MBIR (RD-MBIRn and RD-MBIRc), respectively. The mean CT attenuation of the liver (CT[L]) and the spleen as well as the ratio of these parameters (CT[L/S]) were calculated. CT[L] <48 Hounsfield units (HU) and CT[L/S] <1.1 were applied to SD-FBP (used as the reference standard; the number of positive patients was 12 and 14, respectively), RD-MBIRn, and RD-MBIRc. CT[L]s in SD-FBP/RD-MBIRn/RD-MBIRc were 56.9/55.9/52.8 HU. The difference in CT[L] between RD-MBIRn and SD-FBP was within ±5.0 HU in most cases. The sensitivity/specificity/accuracy of CT[L] <48 HU in RD-MBIRn and RD-MBIRc were 1.00/0.97/0.98 and 1.00/0.92/0.93, respectively, showing that RD-MBIRn permits significant improvements in specificity and accuracy (P < 0.05, McNemar test). For CT[L/S] <1.1, these values were 0.79/0.97/0.94 and 0.79/0.97/0.94 in RD-MBIRn and RD-MBIRc, respectively. When CT[L] <48 HU was applied, RD-MBIRn presented a significantly improved hepatic steatosis diagnostic performance compared with RD-MBIRc; indeed, it was almost equivalent to that afforded by SD-FBP.

  5. Assessment of non-invasive models for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B virus related liver disease patients in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Rakesh; Sen, Sourav; Banerji, Debabrata; Praharaj, Ashok K; Chopra, Gurvinder Singh; Gill, Satyajit Singh

    2013-01-01

    A total of 350 million individuals are affected by chronic hepatitis B virus infection world-wide. Historically, liver biopsy has been instrumental in adequately assessing patients with chronic liver disease. A number of non-invasive models have been studied world-wide. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of non-invasive mathematical models of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Indian patients in a resource limited setting using routinely performed non-invasive laboratory investigations. A cross-sectional study carried out at a tertiary care center. A total of 52 consecutive chronic liver disease patients who underwent percutaneous liver biopsy and 25 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Routine laboratory investigations included serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Gama glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), total bilirubin, total cholesterol, prothrombin time and platelet count. Three non-invasive models for namely aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), Fibrosis 4 (FIB-4) and Forn's index were calculated. Outcomes were compared for the assessment of best predictor of fibrosis by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of each index. Medcalc online software and by Microsoft Excel Worksheet. Chi-square test was used for significance. P value < 0.05 was taken as significant. While the serum levels of AST, ALT and GGT were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the healthy controls (P < 0.01), the platelet counts were significantly lower in patient group as compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Mean value of all 3 indices were significantly higher in patients group as compare with the controls (P < 0.01). Out of the three indices, APRI index with a NPV of 95% appeared to be a better model for excluding significant liver fibrosis while FIB-4 with a PPV of 61% showed fair correlation with significant

  6. Hepatitis C virus prevalence and level of intervention required to achieve the WHO targets for elimination in the European Union by 2030: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    2017-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the European Union (EU), treatment and cure of HCV with direct-acting antiviral therapies began in 2014. WHO targets are to achieve a 65% reduction in liver-related deaths, a 90% reduction of new viral hepatitis infections, and 90% of patients with viral hepatitis infections being diagnosed by 2030. This study assessed the prevalence of HCV in the EU and the level of intervention required to achieve WHO targets for HCV elimination. We populated country Markov models for the 28 EU countries through a literature search of PubMed and Embase between Jan 1, 2000, and March 31, 2016, and a Delphi process to gain expert consensus and validate inputs. We aggregated country models to create a regional EU model. We used the EU model to forecast HCV disease progression (considering the effect of immigration) and developed a strategy to acehive WHO targets. We used weighted average sustained viral response rates and fibrosis restrictions to model the effect of current therapeutic guidelines. We used the EU model to forecast HCV disease progression (considering the effect of immigration) under current screening and therapeutic guidelines. Additionally, we back-calculated the total number of patients needing to be screened and treated to achieve WHO targets. We estimated the number of viraemic HCV infections in 2015 to be 3 238 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2 106 000-3 795 000) of a total population of 509 868 000 in the EU, equating to a prevalence of viraemic HCV of 0·64% (95% UI 0·41-0·74). We estimated that 1 180 000 (95% UI 1 003 000-1 357 000) people were diagnosed with viraemia (36·4%), 150 000 (12 000-180 000) were treated (4·6% of the total infected population or 12·7% of the diagnosed population), 133 000 (106 000-160 000) were cured (4·1%), and 57 900 (43 900-67 300) were newly infected (1·8%) in 2015

  7. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. From Hollywood's "Walk of Stars" to Main Street, USA, people from all walks ... that includes many well-known names: Legendary television star Larry Hagman was diagnosed with advanced hepatitis C ...

  8. Silencing of TLR4 decreases liver tumor burden in a murine model of colorectal metastasis and hepatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Earl, T M; Nicoud, I B; Pierce, J M; Wright, J P; Majoras, N E; Rubin, J E; Pierre, K P; Gorden, D L; Chari, R S

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between obesity and cancer has become of particular interest due to the rapidly growing prevalence of overweight individuals. Obesity predisposes individuals to the development of hepatic steatosis and is an independent risk factor for several neoplasms. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is the innate receptor for endotoxin, and steatotic livers are known to be sensitive to endotoxin. TLR4 signaling has been shown to have proneoplastic effects in vitro due to its effect on immune surveillance. Thus far, studies have predominantly focused on the effect of tumor-cell-derived TLR4 without regard to host TLR4 signaling. In the present study we show that steatotic livers have increased expression of TLR4. Obese animals developed higher metastatic tumor burden in the liver than lean controls regardless of the presence or absence of intact host TLR4. After silencing TLR4 expression using RNAi in the mouse colon cancer cell line MC38, there was a significant decrease in metastatic tumor burden within the liver of obese animals. These findings demonstrate that steatotic livers have increased susceptibility to metastatic tumor growth and that silencing tumor cell TLR4 reduces metastatic tumor burden in steatotic liver.

  9. Interaction of antivirals with a heptameric bundle model of the p7 protein of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Sophie L; Kalita, Monoj Mon; Fischer, Wolfgang B

    2018-04-01

    A series of ligands are known experimentally to affect the infectivity cycle of the hepatitis C virus. The target protein for the ligands is proposed to be p7, a 63 amino acid polytopic channel-forming protein, with possibly two transmembrane domains. Protein p7 is found to assemble into functional oligomers of various sizes, depending on the genotype (GT). Nine ligands are docked to various sites of a computationally derived heptameric bundle of p7 of GT1a. The energy of interaction, here binding energy, is calculated using three different docking programs (Autodock, MOE, LeadIT). Three protein regions are defined to which the ligands are placed, the loop region and the site with the termini as well as the mid-region which is supposed to track poses inside the putative pore. A common feature is that the loop sites and poses either within the pore or at the intermonomer space of the bundle are preferred for all ligands with proposed binding energies smaller than -10 kJ/mol. BIT225, benzamine, amantadine, and NN-DNJ show good overall scoring. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Ezetimibe markedly attenuates hepatic cholesterol accumulation and improves liver function in the lysosomal acid lipase-deficient mouse, a model for cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Lopez, Adam M; Posey, Kenneth S; Turley, Stephen D

    2014-01-17

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) plays a critical role in the intracellular handling of lipids by hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters (CE) and triacylglycerols (TAG) contained in newly internalized lipoproteins. In humans, mutations in the LAL gene result in cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), or in Wolman disease (WD) when the mutations cause complete loss of LAL activity. A rat model for WD and a mouse model for CESD have been described. In these studies we used LAL-deficient mice to investigate how modulating the amount of intestinally-derived cholesterol reaching the liver might impact its mass, cholesterol content, and function in this model. The main experiment tested if ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor, had any effect on CE accumulation in mice lacking LAL. In male Lal(-/-) mice given ezetimibe in their diet (20 mg/day/kg bw) for 4 weeks starting at 21 days of age, both liver mass and hepatic cholesterol concentration (mg/g) were reduced to the extent that whole-liver cholesterol content (mg/organ) in the treated mice (74.3±3.4) was only 56% of that in those not given ezetimibe (133.5±6.7). There was also a marked improvement in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity. Thus, minimizing cholesterol absorption has a favorable impact on the liver in CESD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in endo-lysosomal function induce similar hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of drug-induced phospholipidosis and Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Baker, David; Cox, Timothy M; Nicholls, Andrew W; Griffin, Julian L

    2017-07-01

    Drug-induced phospholipidosis (DIPL) is characterized by an increase in the phospholipid content of the cell and the accumulation of drugs and lipids inside the lysosomes of affected tissues, including in the liver. Although of uncertain pathological significance for patients, the condition remains a major impediment for the clinical development of new drugs. Human Sandhoff disease (SD) is caused by inherited defects of the β subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidases (Hex) A and B, leading to a large array of symptoms, including neurodegeneration and ultimately death by the age of 4 in its most common form. The substrates of Hex A and B, gangliosides GM2 and GA2, accumulate inside the lysosomes of the CNS and in peripheral organs. Given that both DIPL and SD are associated with lysosomes and lipid metabolism in general, we measured the hepatic lipid profiles in rodent models of these two conditions using untargeted LC/MS to examine potential commonalities. Both model systems shared a number of perturbed lipid pathways, notably those involving metabolism of cholesteryl esters, lysophosphatidylcholines, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphates, and ceramides. We report here profound alterations in lipid metabolism in the SD liver. In addition, DIPL induced a wide range of lipid changes not previously observed in the liver, highlighting similarities with those detected in the model of SD and raising concerns that these lipid changes may be associated with underlying pathology associated with lysosomal storage disorders. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... acute and chronic episodes of the illness. Chronic hepatitis B and C are especially serious. Types of Hepatitis ... human waste. Hepatitis A is rarely life-threatening. Hepatitis B: Also called "serum hepatitis," hepatitis B spreads from ...

  13. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  14. Hepatitis B immunization for indigenous adults, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, J Kevin; Beard, Frank; Wesselingh, Steve; Cowie, Benjamin; Ward, James; Macartney, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To quantify the disparity in incidence of hepatitis B between indigenous and non-indigenous people in Australia, and to estimate the potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults. Methods Using national data on persons with newly acquired hepatitis B disease notified between 2005 and 2012, we estimated incident infection rates and rate ratios comparing indigenous and non-indigenous people, with adjustments for underreporting. The potential impact of a hepatitis B immunization programme targeting non-immune indigenous adults was projected using a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation model. Findings Of the 54 522 persons with hepatitis B disease notified between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2012, 1953  infections were newly acquired. Acute hepatitis B infection notification rates were significantly higher for indigenous than non-indigenous Australians. The rates per 100 000 population for all ages were 3.6 (156/4 368 511) and 1.1 (1797/168 449 302) for indigenous and non-indigenous people respectively. The rate ratio of age-standardized notifications was 4.0 (95% confidence interval: 3.7–4.3). If 50% of non-immune indigenous adults (20% of all indigenous adults) were vaccinated over a 10-year programme a projected 527–549 new cases of acute hepatitis B would be prevented. Conclusion There continues to be significant health inequity between indigenous and non-indigenous Australians in relation to vaccine-preventable hepatitis B disease. An immunization programme targeting indigenous Australian adults could have considerable impact in terms of cases of acute hepatitis B prevented, with a relatively low number needed to vaccinate to prevent each case. PMID:27821885

  15. Boceprevir for previously untreated patients with chronic hepatitis C Genotype 1 infection: a US-based cost-effectiveness modeling study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background SPRINT-2 demonstrated that boceprevir (BOC), an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural 3 (NS3) protease inhibitor, added to peginterferon alfa-2b (P) and ribavirin (R) significantly increased sustained virologic response rates over PR alone in previously untreated adult patients with chronic HCV genotype 1. We estimated the long-term impact of triple therapy vs. dual therapy on the clinical burden of HCV and performed a cost-effectiveness evaluation. Methods A Markov model was used to estimate the incidence of liver complications, discounted costs (2010 US$), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of three treatment strategies for treatment-naïve patients with chronic HCV genotype 1. The model simulates the treatment regimens studied in SPRINT-2 in which PR was administered for 4 weeks followed by: 1) placebo plus PR for 44 weeks (PR48); 2) BOC plus PR using response guided therapy (BOC/RGT); and 3) BOC plus PR for 44 weeks (BOC/PR48) and makes projections within and beyond the trial. HCV-related state-transition probabilities, costs, and utilities were obtained from previously published studies. All costs and QALYs were discounted at 3%. Results The model projected approximately 38% and 43% relative reductions in the lifetime incidence of liver complications in the BOC/RGT and BOC/PR48 regimens compared with PR48, respectively. Treatment with BOC/RGT is associated with an incremental cost of $10,348 and an increase of 0.62 QALYs compared to treatment with PR48. Treatment with BOC/PR48 is associated with an incremental cost of $35,727 and an increase of 0.65 QALYs compared to treatment with PR48. The ICERs were $16,792/QALY and $55,162/QALY for the boceprevir-based treatment groups compared with PR48, respectively. The ICER for BOC/PR48 compared with BOC/RGT was $807,804. Conclusion The boceprevir-based regimens used in the SPRINT-2 trial were projected to substantially reduce the lifetime incidence

  16. Hepatitis B virus DNA integration occurs early in the viral life cycle in an in vitro infection model via NTCP-dependent uptake of enveloped virus particles.

    PubMed

    Tu, Thomas; Budzinska, Magdalena A; Vondran, Florian W R; Shackel, Nicholas A; Urban, Stephan

    2018-02-07

    Chronic infection by the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is the major contributor to liver disease worldwide. Though HBV replicates via a nuclear episomal DNA (cccDNA), integration of HBV DNA into the host cell genome is regularly observed in the liver of infected patients. While reported as a pro-oncogenic alteration, the mechanism(s) and timing of HBV DNA integration are not well-understood, chiefly due to the lack of in vitro infection models that have detectable integration events. Here, we have established an in vitro system in which integration can be reliably detected following HBV infection. We measured HBV DNA integration using inverse nested PCR in primary human hepatocytes, HepaRG-NTCP, HepG2-NTCP, and Huh7-NTCP cells after HBV infection. Integration was detected in all cell types at a rate of >1 per 10000 cells, with the most consistent detection in Huh7-NTCP cells. Integration rate remained stable between 3 and 9 days post-infection. HBV DNA integration was efficiently blocked by treatment with 200nM of the HBV entry inhibitor Myrcludex B, but not with 10μM Tenofovir, 100U Interferon alpha, or 1μM of the capsid assembly inhibitor GLS4. This suggests integration of HBV DNA occurs immediately after infection of hepatocytes and is likely independent of de novo HBV replication in this model. Site analysis revealed that HBV DNA integrations were distributed over the entire human genome. Further, integrated HBV DNA sequences were consistent with double-stranded linear HBV DNA being the major precursor. Thus, we have established an in vitro system to interrogate the mechanisms of HBV DNA integration. Importance Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) is a common blood-borne pathogen and, following a chronic infection, can cause liver cancer and liver cirrhosis. Integration of HBV DNA into the host genome occurs in all known members of the hepadnaviridae family, despite this form not being necessary for viral replication. HBV DNA integration has been reported to drive liver cancer

  17. [Valuation of APRI and Forns models for non-invasive diagnosis of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C in coinfected and non-coinfected with HIV].

    PubMed

    Ramos Paesa, C; Marcilla, F; López, G; Hueso, E; Pascual, A; Aguirre, J M

    2007-08-01

    APRI and Forns (IF) index are noninvasive models consisting of routine laboratory data for the prediction of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The aim of our study was to confirm the value of these models to predict significant fibrosis in these patients and if they may decrease the need for performing liver biopsy specimens in coinfected and HIVnon-coinfected. We included 60 patients with chronic hepatitis C and histologic data, 33 were coinfected with HIV. Mild fibrosis (F0-F1) was found in 73% patients, severe fibrosis (F3-F4) in 23% and cirrhosis in 18.3%. We calculated and compared APRI and IF with the stage of liver fibrosis. The APRI score < 0.5 or > 1.5 and IF < 4.2 or > 6.9, as predictors of mild or severe fibrosis, were only available in 53% and 49%. Neither laboratory nor APRI and IF were associated with liver fibrosis in non-coinfected patients. We only found association in HIV coinfected patients: severe fibrosis (F3-4) whit higher gammaglobulins [24.5% vs. 30% (p < 0.05)] and Gamma-GT levels [77 (46.5) vs. 32 (48.5) (p < 0.05)], and lower prothrombin time [72% vs. 91% (p < 0.05) ] and platelets.109 count [129 (40) vs. 170 (78) (p < 0.05)]; APRI was lower than 0.5 in 41.6% patients with mild fibrosis (F0-1) against none with severe (F3-4) (p < 0.05); specifity (E) of APRI < 0.5 for predicting mild fibrosis was 100%, but sensivity (S) was very low (41%), with a positive preditive value (VPP) of 100%, but a negative predictive value (VPN) also very low ( 36.3%). Our study showed that these models don t avoid the need for liver biopsies. More than a half of patients are not appropriately classified according to findings on liver biopsy and S and VPN are very low. The combination of these index with gammaglobulins, Gamma-GT, AST, ALT and platelet levels and protrombine time, only may be an approach to degree of fibrosis or inflammation liver in HIV co-infected patients.

  18. Systemic inflammation without gliosis mediates cognitive deficits through impaired BDNF expression in bile duct ligation model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Gupta, Smriti; Halder, Avishek; Sunkaria, Aditya; Sandhir, Rajat

    2018-03-05

    Chronic liver disease per se induces neuroinflammation that contributes to cognitive deficits in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the processes by which pro-inflammatory molecules result in cognitive impairment still remains unclear. In the present study, a significant increase in the activity of liver function enzymes viz. alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was observed along with increase in plasma ammonia levels after four weeks of bile duct ligation (BDL) in rats suggesting hepatocellular damage. A significant increase was observed in mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in brain regions and liver of BDL rats. Concomitantly, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 protein levels were also increased in brain regions, liver and serum of BDL rats suggesting the involvement of blood-brain-axis in inflammatory response. However, a significant decrease was observed in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1) expression at transcriptional and translation level in brain of BDL rats. Immunohistochemical and flowcytometric analysis revealed reduced number of GFAP-immunopositive astrocytes and Iba1-immunopositive microglia in the brain regions of BDL rats. Further, a significant decline was observed in cognitive functions in BDL rats assessed using Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests. Expression of pro and mature form of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its upstream transcription element showed significant reduction in brain of BDL rats. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that systemic inflammation and reduced expression of BDNF and its upstream transcription factor plays a key role in cognitive decline in HE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new hepatitis B virus e antigen-negative strain gene used as a reference sequence in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Cao, Min; Zhao, Zhonghua; Tang, Yuwei; Wei, Qinglv; Wang, Lei; Xiang, Qin; Zhang, Yunmei; Zhang, Huatang; Lai, Guoqi

    2018-02-05

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) e-antigen (HBeAg)-negative strains is increasingly prevalent. Currently, detailed information of the obtained natural HBV strain is not available except for the B genotype and HBeAg-negative. The aim of the present study was to characterize the natural genetic variation of the HBeAg-negative strain and investigate its function. The genic sequence was determined using Sanger sequencing, and compared to related sequences using alignment and phylogenetic analysis. In vivo, virus-specific serum markers were investigated in CBA/CaJ mice. The sequence had a full genome length of 3215 nucleotides. Sites 122, 125, 127, and 160 in S regions were identified as lysine, threonine, proline, and lysine respectively. The main four point variants including A1762T, G1764A, G1896A, and G1899A were detected in the full-length genome. The genotype of the sequence was B, with sub-genotype B2 and serological subtype adw2. The characterize of the natural genetic variation strain showed no reported drug-resistant variant in P region and no reported immune escape site in S region. The strain will increase viral replication and infection for mutations A1762T and G1764A in the basal core promoter region, and mutations G1896A and G1899A in the pre-core region. The G1896A variant resulted in a premature stop codon and abolished HBeAg expression. HBsAg persisted for 26 weeks and HBeAg was still negative in CBA/CaJ mice. The present sequence is representative of the HBeAg-negative genome and may serve as a valuable reference for studying HBeAg-negative strains. The present findings were successfully verified in CBA/CaJ mice, demonstrating good applicability of the sequence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  1. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhanced Viral Hepatitis Surveillance Sites Mortality/Death Certificates Investigation of Healthcare-Associated Outbreak Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis ... of Viral Hepatitis and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Email Recommend ...

  2. Improving access to hepatitis C care for urban, underserved patients using a primary care-based hepatitis C clinic.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lesley; Fluker, Shelly-Ann; Osborn, Melissa; Liu, Xiaoxia; Strawder, Akilah

    2012-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C affects 200 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of death from liver disease. Effective treatment is available but can be difficult to access for uninsured, urban patients. National organizations have called for improving access to hepatitis C care in these groups. We present an innovative model for expanding access to hepatitis C care for urban, underserved patients (The Grady Liver Clinic, Grady Memorial Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia). The liver clinic provides hepatitis C care by general internists in the primary care setting. We performed a retrospective chart review of all liver clinic patients (n=807) who presented in the first 5 years of the clinic's operation. Measures included patients' demographic and hepatitis C-related characteristics; prevalence of medical, psychiatric, and substance abuse comorbidities; and treatment status. The liver clinic population is primarily black (76%) and uninsured (59%). Patients had difficult-to-treat characteristics, including genotype 1 hepatitis C (90%), advanced liver fibrosis (28%), and high viral loads. Sixty-seven percent had comorbid medical conditions, and 40% had psychiatric disease. Fourteen percent of patients were treated for hepatitis C during the study period. The liver clinic has proven to be a successful model for improving access to hepatitis C care for urban, underserved patients. Despite having significant hepatic disease and medical and psychiatric comorbidities, patients in the liver clinic can be successfully maintained in care and initiated on hepatitis C treatment by general internists in a primary care setting.

  3. Hypervitaminosis A induced teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Geelen, J A

    1979-11-01

    In the past decade, the toxicology of reproduction has become increasingly important. This branch of toxicology focuses on mutagenic and embryotoxic effects. The study of embryotoxicity requires an extensive knowledge of the interaction of drugs and embryonic tissues, normal and abnormal developmental processes, and the susceptible stages during prenatal development. Hypervitaminosis A is one of the most extensively studied teratogens. It produces defects in almost all organ systems. Therefore, this article will first of all review the vitamin A-induced malformations in several organ systems. Moreover, it will discuss their morphogenesis and the susceptible developmental stages. Thus, the first ten chapters will cover the following subjects: malformations of the nervous system, ocular malformations, malformations of the ear, craniofacial malformations, cleft palate, defects of the circulatory system, defects of the respiratory systems, defects of the digestive tract, urogenital defects, skeletal malformations, and abnormal postnatal development. Since in general little is known about the mechanisms involved in the induction of congenital defects, we think it is of great value to review the knowledge and experience that have been gathered by the experimental work with hypervitaminosis A. Therefore, the next chapters will discuss the following subjects: teratogenic effects in different species, minimum effective dose, interaction with other agents, influence of chemical form, solvent, and route of administration, pathophysiology of vitamin A embryotoxicity, and hypervitaminosis A and human pregnancy.

  4. Metabolic and hepatic effects of liraglutide, obeticholic acid and elafibranor in diet-induced obese mouse models of biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Tølbøl, Kirstine S; Kristiansen, Maria NB; Hansen, Henrik H; Veidal, Sanne S; Rigbolt, Kristoffer TG; Gillum, Matthew P; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels; Feigh, Michael

    2018-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the pharmacodynamics of compounds in clinical development for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in obese mouse models of biopsy-confirmed NASH. METHODS Male wild-type C57BL/6J mice (DIO-NASH) and Lepob/ob (ob/ob-NASH) mice were fed a diet high in trans-fat (40%), fructose (20%) and cholesterol (2%) for 30 and 21 wk, respectively. Prior to treatment, all mice underwent liver biopsy for confirmation and stratification of liver steatosis and fibrosis, using the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS) and fibrosis staging system. The mice were kept on the diet and received vehicle, liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, SC, BID), obeticholic acid (OCA, 30 mg/kg PO, QD), or elafibranor (30 mg/kg PO, QD) for eight weeks. Within-subject comparisons were performed on changes in steatosis, inflammation, ballooning degeneration, and fibrosis scores. In addition, compound effects were evaluated by quantitative liver histology, including percent fractional area of liver fat, galectin-3, and collagen 1a1. RESULTS Liraglutide and elafibranor, but not OCA, reduced body weight in both models. Liraglutide improved steatosis scores in DIO-NASH mice only. Elafibranor and OCA reduced histopathological scores of hepatic steatosis and inflammation in both models, but only elafibranor reduced fibrosis severity. Liraglutide and OCA reduced total liver fat, collagen 1a1, and galectin-3 content, driven by significant reductions in liver weight. The individual drug effects on NASH histological endpoints were supported by global gene expression (RNA sequencing) and liver lipid biochemistry. CONCLUSION DIO-NASH and ob/ob-NASH mouse models show distinct treatment effects of liraglutide, OCA, and elafibranor, being in general agreement with corresponding findings in clinical trials for NASH. The present data therefore further supports the clinical translatability and utility of DIO-NASH and ob/ob-NASH mouse models of NASH for probing the therapeutic efficacy of compounds in

  5. Modelling the impact of incarceration and prison-based hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment on HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jack; Martin, Natasha K; Hickman, Matthew; Hutchinson, Sharon J; Aspinall, Esther; Taylor, Avril; Munro, Alison; Dunleavy, Karen; Peters, Erica; Bramley, Peter; Hayes, Peter C; Goldberg, David J; Vickerman, Peter

    2017-07-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) experience high incarceration rates, and previous incarceration is associated with elevated hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission risk. In Scotland, national survey data indicate lower HCV incidence in prison than the community (4.3 versus 7.3 per 100 person-years), but a 2.3-fold elevated transmission risk among recently released (< 6 months) PWID. We evaluated the contribution of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID and the impact of prison-related prevention interventions, including scaling-up direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in prison. Dynamic mathematical modelling of incarceration and HCV transmission, using approximate Bayesian computation for model calibration. Scotland, UK. A simulated population of PWID. Population-attributable fraction (PAF) of incarceration to HCV transmission among PWID. Decrease in HCV incidence and chronic prevalence due to current levels of prison opiate substitution therapy (OST; 57% coverage) and HCV treatment, as well as scaling-up DAAs in prison and/or preventing the elevated risk associated with prison release. Incarceration contributes 27.7% [PAF; 95% credible interval (CrI) -3.1 to 51.1%] of HCV transmission among PWID in Scotland. During the next 15 years, current HCV treatment rates (10.4/6.8 per 1000 incarcerated/community PWID annually), with existing prison OST, could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence among all PWID by a relative 10.7% (95% CrI = 8.4-13.3%) and 9.7% (95% CrI = 7.7-12.1%), respectively. Conversely, without prison OST, HCV incidence and chronic prevalence would decrease by 3.1% (95% CrI = -28.5 to 18.0%) and 4.7% (95% CrI = -11.3 to 14.5%). Additionally, preventing the heightened risk among recently released PWID could reduce incidence and chronic prevalence by 45.0% (95% CrI = 19.7-57.5%) and 33.3% (95% CrI = 15.6-43.6%) or scaling-up prison HCV treatments to 80% of chronic PWID prison entrants with sufficient sentences (>16 weeks) could reduce

  6. Prediction of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis C by non-invasive liver fibrosis models.

    PubMed

    Chinnaratha, Mohamed A; Jeffrey, Gary P; MacQuillan, Gerry; Rossi, Enrico; de Boer, Bastiaan W; Speers, David J; Adams, Leon A

    2014-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is prognostic of outcomes among patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). We evaluated the accuracy of non-invasive markers and liver biopsy in predicting morbidity and mortality in CHC patients. Compensated CHC patients were evaluated over a 10-year period. Non-invasive markers including Hepascore, FIB-4, APRI and liver biopsy results were retrospectively collated. Follow-up morbidity and mortality data were obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System. The prognostic significance of baseline non-invasive markers and biopsy were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. A total of 406 subjects (64% male, mean age 48 ± 11 years) were followed up for 2385 person-years, during which there were 22 (5.4%) deaths including 14 (3.4%) who died from liver disease or required liver transplantation. Sixteen (3.9%) subjects developed liver decompensation. Hepascore and liver biopsy (P < 0.005) but not APRI or FIB-4 were predictive of overall and liver-related mortality as well as liver decompensation. A Hepascore>0.5 was associated with increased overall mortality [Hazard Ratio (95%CI) 6.7 (2.6-17), P < 0.001], liver-related mortality [32.8 (4.3-250), P = 0.001] and risk of future decompensation [11.8 (3.3-41), P < 0.001], whereas a Hepascore ≤0.5 was associated with a 99% probability of not dying from liver-related causes over 10 years. Hepascore had comparable accuracy with liver biopsy in predicting liver-related mortality with AUROC of 0.86 (95%CI 0.80-0.90) and 0.87 (0.79-0.96), respectively. Hepascore is predictive of overall and liver-related mortality and morbidity in CHC patients with comparable accuracy to liver biopsy. Hepascore may be a useful prognostic marker in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Measurement of Serum and Hepatic Eicosanoids by Liquid Chromatography Tandem-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a Mouse Model of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) with Delivery of c-Met and Activated β-Catenin by Hepatocyte Hydrodynamic Injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjie; Lin, Nan; Xu, Jianliang; Lu, Yi; Chen, Shuxian; Pan, Chuzhi; Wang, Chusi; Xu, Mingxing; Zhou, Boxuan; Xu, Ruiyun; Xu, Yong-Jiang

    2018-03-21

    BACKGROUND Most forms of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are associated with varying degrees of chronic inflammation. The association between the expression of eicosanoids, which are bioactive lipid mediators of inflammation, and HCC remains unknown. The aim of this study was to measure serum and hepatic eicosanoids in a mouse model of HCC with the delivery of c-Met and activated b-catenin by hepatocyte hydrodynamic injection. MATERIAL AND METHODS The HCC mouse model, and normal control mice, were used in this study with co-delivery of human c-Met combined with activated β-catenin into hepatocytes through hydrodynamic injection. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was used to measure serum and hepatic eicosanoid levels. RESULTS The combined activation of c-Met and β-catenin was induced in the HCC mouse model. LC-MS/MS showed that a total of 13 eicosanoids in serum and 12 eicosanoids in liver tissue were significantly increased in the HCC mice, when compared with control mice. CONCLUSIONS In a mouse model of HCC, co-activation of the c-Met and β-catenin signaling pathway resulted in increased levels of serum and hepatic eicosanoids.

  8. Noninvasive assessment of hepatic sinusoidal obstructive syndrome using acoustic radiation force impulse elastography imaging: A proof-of-concept study in rat models.

    PubMed

    Park, So Hyun; Lee, Seung Soo; Sung, Ji-Youn; Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Kim, So Yeon; Park, Beom Jin; Byun, Jae Ho

    2018-05-01

    To determine the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the evaluation of hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) in rat models. Rat SOS models of various severities were created by monocrotaline gavage (n = 40) or by intraperitoneal injection of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) (n = 16). Liver shear-wave velocity (SWV) was measured using ARFI elastography. Liver samples were analysed for the SOS score, steatosis, lobular inflammation and fibrosis. The liver SWV was significantly elevated in the SOS models (1.29-2.24 m/s) compared with that of the matched control rats (1.01-1.09; p≤.09; veFor seven FOLFOX-treated rats which were longitudinally followed-up, the liver SWV significantly increased at 7 weeks (1.32±0.13 m/s) compared with the baseline (1.08±0.1 m/s, p=.015) and then significantly declined after a 2-week, treatment-free period (1.15±0.13 m/s; p=.048). Multivariate analysis revealed that the SOS score (p<.001) and lobular inflammation (p=.044) were independently correlated with the liver SWV. Liver SWV is elevated in SOS in proportion to the degree of sinusoidal injury and lobular inflammation in rat SOS models. ARFI elastography has potential as an examination for diagnosis, severity assessment and follow-up of SOS. • Liver SWV using ARFI elastography was significantly elevated in SOS rat. • Sinusoidal injury and lobular inflammation grades had correlation with liver SWV. • ARFI elastography has potential for diagnosis, severity assessment, and follow-up of SOS.

  9. Hepatitis C -- children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis C infection. Most children with hepatitis C (acute or chronic) do not show any symptoms until more advanced liver damage is present. If symptoms do occur, they may include: Pain in the right upper abdomen Clay-colored or pale stools Dark urine Tiredness ...

  10. Validation of the AFP model as a predictor of HCC recurrence in patients with viral hepatitis-related cirrhosis who had received a liver transplant for HCC.

    PubMed

    Notarpaolo, Andrea; Layese, Richard; Magistri, Paolo; Gambato, Maria; Colledan, Michele; Magini, Giulia; Miglioresi, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandro; Vennarecci, Giovanni; Ambrosio, Cecilia D; Burra, Patrizia; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Colasanti, Marco; Maria Ettorre, Giuseppe; Andreoli, Arnoldo; Cillo, Umberto; Laurent, Alexis; Katsahian, Sandrine; Audureau, Etienne; Roudot-Thoraval, Françoise; Duvoux, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    The AFP model was shown to be superior to the Milan criteria for predicting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence after liver transplantation in a French population. Our aim was to test the AFP model in a non-French, post-hepatitic cirrhosis-based population of HCC candidates. 574 patients transplanted for HCC in four Italian centers were studied. AFP score was assessed at the last evaluation before liver transplantation (LT). Probabilities of recurrence and survival were estimated by the log-rank test or competing risk analysis and compared according to the AFP model. 24.7% patients were beyond Milan criteria. HCC complicated hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis in 58.7% and 24% of the cases, respectively. Five-year probabilities of recurrence differed according to AFP score ⩽2 vs. >2 in the whole population (13.2±1.8% vs. 49.8±8.7%, p<0.001, HR=4.98), in patients within Milan criteria (12.8±2.0% vs. 32.4±12.1%, p=0.009, HR=3.51), beyond Milan criteria (14.9±4.2% vs. 58.9±11.5%, p<0.001, HR=4.26), HCV patients (14.9±2.5% vs. 67.6±14.7%, p<0.001, HR=6.56) and HBV patients (11.6±3.4% vs. 34.3±12.5%, p=0.012, HR=3.49). By net reclassification improvement analysis AFP score significantly improved prediction of non-recurrence compared to Milan criteria. Overall five-year survival rates according to AFP score ⩽2 or >2 were 71.7±2.2% vs. 42.2±8.3% (p<0.001, HR=2.14). The AFP model identifies HCC candidates at low risk of recurrence, otherwise excluded by Milan criteria in a population with a predominance of post-hepatitic-related HCC. The AFP score can be proposed for selection of HCC candidates in programs with a high proportion of viral/HCV-related cirrhosis. Selection criteria for liver transplantation of patients affected with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are based on the Milan criteria, which have been shown to be too restrictive, precluding access to liver transplantation for some patients who might be cured by this

  11. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-03-23

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Hepatitis A vaccine recommendations.

    PubMed

    2007-07-01

    Since licensure in 1995 of a hepatitis A vaccine, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Pediatrics have been implementing an incremental hepatitis A immunization strategy for children. In 1996, children living in populations with the highest rates of disease were targeted for immunization, and in 1999 the program was expanded to immunization of children 2 years and older living in states and counties with rates of hepatitis A that historically have been higher than the national average. The 1999 program has been successful; the current rate of hepatitis A is the lowest ever reported in the United States. Regional, ethnic, and racial differences in the incidence of hepatitis A have been eliminated. The incidence of hepatitis A in adults in immunizing states has decreased significantly, suggesting a strong herd-immunity effect associated with immunization. In 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration changed the youngest approved age of administration of hepatitis A vaccine from 24 to 12 months of age, which facilitated incorporation of the vaccine into the recommended childhood immunization schedule. As the next step in the implementation of the incremental vaccine immunization strategy, the American Academy of Pediatrics now recommends routine administration of a Food and Drug Administration-licensed hepatitis A vaccine to all children 12 to 23 months of age in all states according to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-approved immunization schedule. Available data suggest that hepatitis A vaccine can be coadministered with other childhood vaccines without decreasing immunogenicity. Hepatitis A vaccines have proven to be extremely safe. In prelicensure clinical trials of both Havrix (GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium) and Vaqta (Merck & Co Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ), adverse events were uncommon and mild when they occurred, with resolution typically in less than 1 day. Hepatitis A vaccine is contraindicated in

  13. [Treatment of hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Telegdy, László

    2004-11-07

    Treatment of hepatitis B. Treatment of acute icteric hepatitis B is similar to the principles of treatment of acute hepatitis syndrome. Special care must be given to the possibility of fulminant outcome and to the trend to chronicity. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic hepatitis B serves prevention of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as well as elimination of the sources of further infections. Interferon-alpha treatment results in sustained clinical and virological response in about half of the patients. Nucleoside analogues as lamivudine, entecavir, adenovir dipivoxil are the alternatives. They are effective also in endstage liver cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B virus and able to prevent reinfection and graft loss after liver transplantation. Evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of the antiviral agents help to determine the individual, patient-tailored treatment.

  14. Feline hepatic lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Dimski, D S

    1997-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis occurs when lipid mobilized to the liver exceeds lipid leaving the liver via formation of very-low-density lipoproteins or by oxidation. Hepatic lipidosis in cats is associated with overt liver dysfunction. In affected cats, excess lipid is mobilized to the liver because of starvation. Removal of hepatic lipid may be impaired because of protein malnutrition, a relative carnitine deficiency, or oxidative damage to peroxisomes and other hepatic organelles. Hepatic lipidosis occurs in adult cats, and is manifest by signs of weight loss, depression, vomiting, and icterus. Diagnosis is achieved by evaluating laboratory and diagnostic imaging data, in conjunction with a liver biopsy. Aggressive tube feeding is the treatment of choice. With this treatment, survival rates are 60% to 80%.

  15. [Effect of thermo-sensitive Matrigel on minimization of thermal injury to the nearby structures in radiofrequency ablation of subcapsular hepatic tumors in a rat model].

    PubMed

    Fu, J J; Wang, S; Guan, R H; Yang, W; Yan, K; Chen, M H

    2016-01-05

    To evaluate the effect and safety of using thermo-sensitive Matrigel as artificial ascites on minimizing thermal injury to the nearby structures in a rat model of radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the liver. In this research, the morphological characterization of Matrigel was observed at different temperatures in vitro. In vivo study was conducted by using 42 SD rats in Matrigel, Saline and control groups of 14 rats each. Artificial ascites with 10 ml of Matrigel or saline was produced under ultrasound guidance before RF in the experimental groups. Using a 0.7 cm exposed 17 G RF electrode for 5 minutes (90 ± 2) ℃, 41 hepatic ablations was performed abutting the diaphragm, abdominal wall and stomach. The 41 rats were sacrificed at 24 h, and necropsy was performed.Gross and histopathologic examinations were performed to compare the frequency and extent of thermal injury to the nearby organs.The animal status was followed up to achieve long term safety evaluation of Matrigel. Matrigel was in liquid formation at 0-4 ℃, but was not moving in vials at temperature 37 ℃ in 1 min, presenting gel formation.In vivo experiment, the artificial fluid thickness of Matrigel in site was significant larger than that of saline group, especially at 5 min of ablation ((8.1 ± 1.1) mm vs (2.4 ± 0.8)mm, P<0.01). Thermal injury to the nearby structures was found in 12 of 13 cases in control group, 8 of 14 cases (P=0.037) in saline group, and 1 of 14 cases (P<0.01) in Matrigel group. The sizes of the ablation zone of the liver did not differ among the three groups. There was no difference in the incidence of operation related complications among the three groups. There was no significant difference in body weight and health related parameters between Matrigel and saline group during 60 days of follow up. Using thermo-sensitive Matrigel as artificial ascites may be a safe and useful technique and help to further reduce the frequency and severity of collateral thermal injury to the

  16. Asymmetric Modification of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Genomes by an Endogenous Cytidine Deaminase inside HBV Cores Informs a Model of Reverse Transcription.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smita; Zlotnick, Adam

    2018-05-15

    Cytidine deaminases inhibit replication of a broad range of DNA viruses by deaminating cytidines on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) to generate uracil. While several lines of evidence have revealed hepatitis B virus (HBV) genome editing by deamination, it is still unclear which nucleic acid intermediate of HBV is modified. Hepatitis B virus has a relaxed circular double-stranded DNA (rcDNA) genome that is reverse transcribed within virus cores from a RNA template. The HBV genome also persists as covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the nucleus of an infected cell. In the present study, we found that in HBV-producing HepAD38 and HepG2.2.15 cell lines, endogenous cytidine deaminases edited 10 to 25% of HBV rcDNA genomes, asymmetrically with almost all mutations on the 5' half of the minus strand. This region corresponds to the last half of the minus strand to be protected by plus-strand synthesis. Within this half of the genome, the number of mutations peaks in the middle. Overexpressed APOBEC3A and APOBEC3G could be packaged in HBV capsids but did not change the amount or distribution of mutations. We found no deamination on pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), indicating that an intact genome is encapsidated and deaminated during or after reverse transcription. The deamination pattern suggests a model of rcDNA synthesis in which pgRNA and then newly synthesized minus-sense single-stranded DNA are protected from deaminase by interaction with the virus capsid; during plus-strand synthesis, when enough dsDNA has been synthesized to displace the remaining minus strand from the capsid surface, the single-stranded DNA becomes deaminase sensitive. IMPORTANCE Host-induced mutation of the HBV genome by APOBEC proteins may be a path to clearing the virus. We examined cytidine-to-thymidine mutations in the genomes of HBV particles grown in the presence or absence of overexpressed APOBEC proteins. We found that genomes were subjected to deamination activity during reverse transcription

  17. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-01

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications. PMID:23724364

  18. ASS and SULT2A1 are Novel and Sensitive Biomarkers of Acute Hepatic Injury-A Comparative Study in Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Prima, Victor; Cao, Mengde; Svetlov, Stanislav I

    2013-01-10

    Liver and kidney damage associated with polytrauma, endotoxic shock/sepsis, and organ transplantation, are among the leading causes of the multiple organ failure. Development of novel sensitive biomarkers that detect early stages of liver and kidney injury is vital for the effective diagnostics and treatment of these life-threatening conditions. Previously, we identified several hepatic proteins, including Argininosuccinate Synthase (ASS) and sulfotransferases which were degraded in the liver and rapidly released into circulation during Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we compared sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed sandwich ELISA assays for ASS and the sulfotransferase isoform SULT2A1 with the standard clinical liver and kidney tests Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Transaminase (AST) in various pre-clinical models of acute injury. Our data suggest that ASS and SULT2A1 have superior characteristics for liver and kidney health assessment in endotoxemia, Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R), chemical and drug-induced liver injury and may be of high potential value for clinical applications.

  19. MATLAB-implemented estimation procedure for model-based assessment of hepatic insulin degradation from standard intravenous glucose tolerance test data.

    PubMed

    Di Nardo, Francesco; Mengoni, Michele; Morettini, Micaela

    2013-05-01

    Present study provides a novel MATLAB-based parameter estimation procedure for individual assessment of hepatic insulin degradation (HID) process from standard frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) data. Direct access to the source code, offered by MATLAB, enabled us to design an optimization procedure based on the alternating use of Gauss-Newton's and Levenberg-Marquardt's algorithms, which assures the full convergence of the process and the containment of computational time. Reliability was tested by direct comparison with the application, in eighteen non-diabetic subjects, of well-known kinetic analysis software package SAAM II, and by application on different data. Agreement between MATLAB and SAAM II was warranted by intraclass correlation coefficients ≥0.73; no significant differences between corresponding mean parameter estimates and prediction of HID rate; and consistent residual analysis. Moreover, MATLAB optimization procedure resulted in a significant 51% reduction of CV% for the worst-estimated parameter by SAAM II and in maintaining all model-parameter CV% <20%. In conclusion, our MATLAB-based procedure was suggested as a suitable tool for the individual assessment of HID process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teledermatologist expert skin advice: A unique model of care for managing skin disorders and adverse drug reactions in hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Charlston, Samuel; Siller, Gregory

    2018-03-23

    To conduct an audit of teledermatologist expert skin advice, a store and forward tele-dermatological service, to determine its effectiveness and user satisfaction in managing cutaneous adverse drug reactions in patients with hepatitis C, and to demonstrate a unique collaborative model of care for patients receiving specialised drug therapy. A retrospective analysis of data on teledermatologist expert skin advice referrals from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. The primary outcomes assessed included number of referrals, referral locations, diagnoses, response times, quality of clinical information provided and user satisfaction ratings. Altogether 43 consultations from 29 referring sites were received from Australian metropolitan and rural settings. Of the patients, 43 were diagnosed with an adverse drug reaction related to the use of either telaprevir or simeprevir. The average time taken for the dermatologist to reply electronically with a final diagnosis and management plan was 1 h 57 min. As many as 26% of referrals required additional photos to establish a diagnosis due to poor-quality images or insufficient detail. Altogether 18 clinicians completed the customer satisfaction survey, all of whom rated teledermatologist expert skin advice nine or above on a scale of one to 10. Teledermatologist expert skin advice was regarded by clinicians as a valuable patient care service. The platform is a novel modality that supports patients undergoing specialised treatments at risk of cutaneous adverse drug reaction. © 2018 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  1. Matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, and inflammation in cyclosporine A-induced gingival enlargement: a pilot in vitro study using a three-dimensional model of the human oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Johanson, Matthew; Zhao, Xiang R; Huynh-Ba, Guy; Villar, Cristina C

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that cyclosporine A (CsA) induces gingival enlargement by promoting an increase in the gingival extracellular matrix (ECM). Nonetheless, the variable occurrence of CsA-induced gingival enlargement in patients receiving this medication indicates a multifactorial pathogenesis. Clinical observations suggest that local inflammation is associated with the development and severity of CsA-induced gingival enlargement. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of CsA and inflammation on the production of ECM homeostatic mediators. The effects of CsA and inflammation (as assessed using interleukin [IL]-1β) on the secretion of mediators involved in ECM homeostasis were determined using fibroblast monolayers and three-dimensional (3D) models of the human oral mucosa. Fibroblast monolayers and 3D cultures were treated with CsA alone or in combination with IL-1β for up to 72 hours, and the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, and 13 and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) 1, 2, and 4 into the culture medium was assessed using enzyme-linked immunoassay-based antibody arrays. Fibroblast monolayers responded to CsA with no changes in the secretion of ECM mediators. Conversely, 3D cultures responded to CsA treatment with a reduction in MMP-10 secretion. IL-1β alone triggered higher secretory levels of MMPs in both fibroblast monolayers (MMP-3 and MMP-10) and 3D cultures (MMP-9 and MMP-10). Importantly, fibroblast monolayers and 3D cultures treated with a combination of IL-1β and CsA showed a decrease in the MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio. These data support the hypothesis that inflammation may alter the pathogenesis of CsA-induced gingival enlargement by promoting a synergistic decrease in the MMP-1/TIMP-1 ratio.

  2. PDGF signaling pathway in hepatic fibrosis pathogenesis and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Qin; Zhang, Wen-You; Zhang, Huan-Huan; Ma, Yue; Zhang, Song-Zhao; Fang, Jie; Yu, Chen-Huan

    2017-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDFG) signaling pathway exerts persistent activation in response to a variety of stimuli and facilitates the progression of hepatic fibrosis. Since this pathway modulates a broad spectrum of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, inflammation and carcinogenesis, it has emerged as a therapeutic target for hepatic fibrosis and liver-associated disorders. The present review exhibits the current knowledge of the role of the PDGF signaling pathway and its pathological profiles in hepatic fibrosis, and assesses the potential of inhibitors which have been investigated in the experimental hepatic fibrosis model, in addition to the clinical challenges associated with these inhibitors. PMID:28983598

  3. Agent-Based Model Forecasts Aging of the Population of People Who Inject Drugs in Metropolitan Chicago and Changing Prevalence of Hepatitis C Infections.

    PubMed

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E

    2015-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010-2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(± 2)% to 36(± 5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(± 5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(± 1) to 40(± 2) with a corresponding increase from 59(± 2)% to 80(± 6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our studies highlight the importance of analyzing subpopulations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  4. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... she also can pass the viruses to her baby. Many pregnant women may not even know that they are infected ... that I will pass the virus to my baby? About 90% of pregnant women with acute hepatitis B virus infection will pass ...

  5. 1H and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy in a rat model of chronic hepatic encephalopathy: in vivo longitudinal measurements of brain energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rackayova, Veronika; Braissant, Olivier; McLin, Valérie A; Berset, Corina; Lanz, Bernard; Cudalbu, Cristina

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease (CLD) leads to a spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders named hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Even though brain energy metabolism is believed to be altered in chronic HE, few studies have explored energy metabolism in CLD-induced HE, and their findings were inconsistent. The aim of this study was to characterize for the first time in vivo and longitudinally brain metabolic changes in a rat model of CLD-induced HE with a focus on energy metabolism, using the methodological advantages of high field proton and phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H- and 31 P-MRS). Wistar rats were bile duct ligated (BDL) and studied before BDL and at post-operative weeks 4 and 8. Glutamine increased linearly over time (+146 %) together with plasma ammonium (+159 %). As a compensatory effect, other brain osmolytes decreased: myo-inositol (-36 %), followed by total choline and creatine. A decrease in the neurotransmitters glutamate (-17 %) and aspartate (-28 %) was measured only at week 8, while no significant changes were observed for lactate and phosphocreatine. Among the other energy metabolites measured by 31 P-MRS, we observed a non-significant decrease in ATP together with a significant decrease in ADP (-28 %), but only at week 8 after ligation. Finally, brain glutamine showed the strongest correlations with changes in other brain metabolites, indicating its importance in type C HE. In conclusion, mild alterations in some metabolites involved in energy metabolism were observed but only at the end stage of the disease when edema and neurological changes are already present. Therefore, our data indicate that impaired energy metabolism is not one of the major causes of early HE symptoms in the established model of type C HE.

  6. Treatment of the rat hepatic stellate cell line, PAV-1, by retinol and palmitic acid leads to a convenient model to study retinoids metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sauvant, Patrick; Abergel, Armand; Partier, Anne; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Rock, Edmond; Sion, Benoit; Motta, Claude; Sapin, Vincent; Azaïs-Bresco, Véronique

    2002-10-01

    The main site of vitamin A storage in the liver is the hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Involvement of HSC in vitamin A metabolism has mainly been studied using primary culture, which represents the most physiological model but technically suffers several drawbacks (yield, low reproducibility, etc.). To circumvent these problems, we have previously established and characterised an immortalised rat HSC line named PAV-1. This study aimed to investigate in PAV-1 and in primary HSC (i) the incorporation of retinol and its esterification, (ii) the cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) content, (iii) the acid retinyl ester hydrolase activity (aREH), (iv) the thermal susceptibility and (v) the lipid composition of the membranes, which may play a crucial role in retinol transport across cellular membrane. In routine conditions of culture, the rate of retinol esterification in PAV-1 was low (5.2%) compared to that obtained with primary HSC (69.9%). Retinol pre-treatment doubled this esterification rate (10.7%) and the CRBP content in PAV-1. The co-incubation with retinol and palmitic acid enabled PAV-1 to esterify retinol with a rate close to that of primary HSC (66.2% vs. 69.9%) and with similar retinyl ester profiles. aREH activity was higher in primary HSC than in PAV-1. Thermal susceptibility and phospholipid composition of membranes in PAV-1 treated cells were similar to those of primary HSC. In conclusion, our study shows that PAV-1 cells treated with retinol and palmitic acid is a sound and convenient model for studying vitamin A mobilisation, a fundamental physiological event occurring in HSC.

  7. Discovery of Novel Hepatitis C Virus NS5B Polymerase Inhibitors by Combining Random Forest, Multiple e-Pharmacophore Modeling and Docking

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yu; Li, Jinlong; Qing, Jie; Huang, Mingjie; Wu, Ming; Gao, Fenghua; Li, Dongmei; Hong, Zhangyong; Kong, Lingbao; Huang, Weiqiang; Lin, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The NS5B polymerase is one of the most attractive targets for developing new drugs to block Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We describe the discovery of novel potent HCV NS5B polymerase inhibitors by employing a virtual screening (VS) approach, which is based on random forest (RB-VS), e-pharmacophore (PB-VS), and docking (DB-VS) methods. In the RB-VS stage, after feature selection, a model with 16 descriptors was used. In the PB-VS stage, six energy-based pharmacophore (e-pharmacophore) models from different crystal structures of the NS5B polymerase with ligands binding at the palm I, thumb I and thumb II regions were used. In the DB-VS stage, the Glide SP and XP docking protocols with default parameters were employed. In the virtual screening approach, the RB-VS, PB-VS and DB-VS methods were applied in increasing order of complexity to screen the InterBioScreen database. From the final hits, we selected 5 compounds for further anti-HCV activity and cellular cytotoxicity assay. All 5 compounds were found to inhibit NS5B polymerase with IC50 values of 2.01–23.84 μM and displayed anti-HCV activities with EC50 values ranging from 1.61 to 21.88 μM, and all compounds displayed no cellular cytotoxicity (CC50 > 100 μM) except compound N2, which displayed weak cytotoxicity with a CC50 value of 51.3 μM. The hit compound N2 had the best antiviral activity against HCV, with a selective index of 32.1. The 5 hit compounds with new scaffolds could potentially serve as NS5B polymerase inhibitors through further optimization and development. PMID:26845440

  8. Cost and time savings from a rapid access model of care using transient elastography to screen and triage patients with chronic Hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Whitty, Jennifer A; Tallis, Caroline; Nguyen, Kim-Huong; Scuffham, Paul A; Crosland, Paul; Hewson, Kaye; Pai Mangalore, Rehka; Black, Marrianne; Holtmann, Gerald

    2014-02-01

    Treatment uptake amongst patients with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Australia is relatively low. New approaches to assessment have the potential to reduce public waiting lists, improve access to treatment, and to reduce healthcare costs. To describe the costs to the public hospital system and waiting time associated with a novel integrated rapid access to assessment and treatment (RAAT) model of care that utilizes Transient Elastography (TE) as a specialist outpatient-based approach for a streamlined assessment of patients with chronic HCV, compared to conventional outpatient management with liver biopsy (LB). Time from first medical review to treatment plan and costs associated with detection of fibrosis were recorded for patients receiving RAAT during a 3-month period, and for a similar historical cohort managed conventionally with LB. Costs related to medical and multidisciplinary team reviews and the TE/LB test itself were included. Patients receiving RAAT had lower costs (n = 27, median AU$2716) and shorter time to treatment (median = 194 days) than for conventional management (n = 13, median $5005, 420 days; p < 0.01). Differences related to the lower TE test costs and the lower cost of consults between first medical review and establishment of a treatment plan. Based on real world audit data, this evaluation suggests TE, used as part of a new RAAT model of care, is cost saving to the health system in the short-term and reduces waiting times. The analysis reported here was intended to assess the costs related to detection of fibrosis, and is limited by the small sample size and potential selection bias. Future research should undertake a full economic evaluation at a whole of service level, to consider a more comprehensive and longer-term assessment of the costs and benefits associated with HCV management.

  9. Cholesterol-secreting and statin-responsive hepatocytes from human ES and iPS cells to model hepatic involvement in cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Winfried H; Tanasijevic, Borko; Barber, Vanessa; Flamier, Anthony; Gu, Xinsheng; Manautou, Jose; Rasmussen, Theodore P

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocytes play a central and crucial role in cholesterol and lipid homeostasis, and their proper function is of key importance for cardiovascular health. In particular, hepatocytes (especially periportal hepatocytes) endogenously synthesize large amounts of cholesterol and secrete it into circulating blood via apolipoprotein particles. Cholesterol-secreting hepatocytes are also the clinically-relevant cells targeted by statin treatment in vivo. The study of cholesterol homeostasis is largely restricted to the use of animal models and immortalized cell lines that do not recapitulate those key aspects of normal human hepatocyte function that result from genetic variation of individuals within a population. Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells can provide a cell culture model for the study of cholesterol homeostasis, dyslipidemias, the action of statins and other pharmaceuticals important for cardiovascular health. We have analyzed expression of core components for cholesterol homeostasis in untreated human iPS cells and in response to pravastatin. Here we show the production of differentiated cells resembling periportal hepatocytes from human pluripotent stem cells. These cells express a broad range of apolipoproteins required for secretion and elimination of serum cholesterol, actively secrete cholesterol into the medium, and respond functionally to statin treatment by reduced cholesterol secretion. Our research shows that HLCs derived from human pluripotent cells provide a robust cell culture system for the investigation of the hepatic contribution to human cholesterol homeostasis at both cellular and molecular levels. Importantly, it permits for the first time to also functionally assess the impact of genetic polymorphisms on cholesterol homeostasis. Finally, the system will also be useful for mechanistic studies of heritable dyslipidemias, drug discovery, and investigation of modes of action of cholesterol

  10. Feline Hepatic Lipidosis.

    PubMed

    Valtolina, Chiara; Favier, Robert P

    2017-05-01

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is a common and potentially fatal liver disorder. Although the pathophysiologic mechanisms of FHL remain elusive, there is an imbalance between the influx of fatty acids from peripheral fat stores into the liver, de novo liposynthesis, and the rate of hepatic oxidation and dispersal of hepatic TAG via excretion of very-low density lipoproteins. The diagnosis of FHL is based on anamnestic, clinical, and clinicopathologic findings, associated with diagnostic imaging of the liver, and cytology, or histological examination of liver biopsies. Fluid therapy, electrolyte correction and adequate early nutrition are essential components of the therapy for FHL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition of stress-induced hepatic tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase exhibits antidepressant activity in an animal model of depressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gibney, Sinead M; Fagan, Eimear M; Waldron, Ann-Marie; O'Byrne, Jordan; Connor, Thomas J; Harkin, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    The role of hepatic tryptophan 2,3 dioxygenase (TDO) was assessed in the provocation of stress-induced depression-related behaviour in the rat. TDO drives tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) and leads to the production of neuroactive metabolites including kynurenine. A single 2 h period of restraint stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats provoked an increase in circulating concentrations of the glucocorticoid corticosterone and induction of hepatic TDO expression and activity. Repeated exposure to stress (10 d of 2 h restraint each day) provoked an increase in immobility in the forced swimming test (FST) indicative of depression-related behaviour. Immobility was accompanied by an increase in the circulating corticosterone concentrations, expression and activity of hepatic TDO and increase in the expression of TDO in the cerebral cortex. Increased TDO activity was associated with raised circulating kynurenine concentrations and a reduction in circulating tryptophan concentrations indicative of KP activation. Co-treatment with the TDO inhibitor allopurinol (20 mg/kg, i.p.), attenuated the chronic stress-related increase in immobility in the FST and the accompanying increase in circulating kynurenine concentrations. These findings indicate that stress-induced corticosterone and consequent activation of hepatic TDO, tryptophan metabolism and production of kynurenine provoke a depression-related behavioural phenotype. Inhibition of stress-related hepatic TDO activity promotes antidepressant activity. TDO may therefore represent a promising target for the treatment of depression associated with stress-related disorders in which there is evidence for KP activation.

  12. A Noninvasive Score Model for Prediction of NASH in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Wang, Fengmei; Han, Tao; Jing, Li; Ma, Zhe; Gao, Yingtang

    2017-01-01

    Aims . To develop a noninvasive score model to predict NASH in patients with combined CHB and NAFLD. Objective and Methods . 65 CHB patients with NAFLD were divided into NASH group (34 patients) and non-NASH group (31 patients) according to the NAS score. Biochemical indexes, liver stiffness, and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) were determined. Data in the two groups were compared and subjected to multivariate analysis, to establish a score model for the prediction of NASH. Results . In the NASH group, ALT, TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG), M30 CK-18, CAP, and HBeAg positive ratio were significantly higher than in the non-NASH group ( P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that CK-18 M30, CAP, FBG, and HBVDNA level were independent predictors of NASH. Therefore, a new model combining CK18 M30, CAP, FBG, and HBVDNA level was established using logistic regression. The AUROC curve predicting NASH was 0.961 (95% CI: 0.920-1.00, cutoff value is 0.218), with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusion . A noninvasive score model might be considered for the prediction of NASH in patients with CHB combined with NAFLD.

  13. A Noninvasive Score Model for Prediction of NASH in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jing; Liu, Fang; Han, Tao; Jing, Li; Ma, Zhe; Gao, Yingtang

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To develop a noninvasive score model to predict NASH in patients with combined CHB and NAFLD. Objective and Methods. 65 CHB patients with NAFLD were divided into NASH group (34 patients) and non-NASH group (31 patients) according to the NAS score. Biochemical indexes, liver stiffness, and Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) were determined. Data in the two groups were compared and subjected to multivariate analysis, to establish a score model for the prediction of NASH. Results. In the NASH group, ALT, TG, fasting blood glucose (FBG), M30 CK-18, CAP, and HBeAg positive ratio were significantly higher than in the non-NASH group (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that CK-18 M30, CAP, FBG, and HBVDNA level were independent predictors of NASH. Therefore, a new model combining CK18 M30, CAP, FBG, and HBVDNA level was established using logistic regression. The AUROC curve predicting NASH was 0.961 (95% CI: 0.920–1.00, cutoff value is 0.218), with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusion. A noninvasive score model might be considered for the prediction of NASH in patients with CHB combined with NAFLD. PMID:28349067

  14. Comparison of trout hepatocytes and liver S9 fractions as in vitro models for predicting hepatic clearance in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated hepatocytes and liver S9 fractions have been used to collect in vitro biotransformation data for fish as a means of improving modeled estimates of chemical bioaccumulation. To date, however, there have been few direct comparisons of these two methods. In the present st...

  15. Comparison of trout hepatocytes and liver S9 fractions as in vitro models for predicting hepatic clearance in fish

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isolated hepatocytes and liver S9 fractions have been used to collect in vitro biotransformation data for fish as a means of improving modeled estimates of chemical bioaccumulation. To date, however, there have been few direct comparisons of these two methods. In the present stud...

  16. Role of interleukin-1 and its antagonism of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and liver fibrosis in the Abcb4-/- mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Florian P; Wimmer, Ralf; Wottke, Lena; Artmann, Renate; Nagel, Jutta M; Carranza, Manuel O; Mayr, Doris; Rust, Christian; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Gerbes, Alexander L; Hohenester, Simon; Denk, Gerald U

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To study the interleukin-1 (IL-1) pathway as a therapeutic target for liver fibrosis in vitro and in vivo using the ATP-binding cassette transporter b4-/- (Abcb4-/-) mouse model. METHODS: Female and male Abcb4-/- mice from 6 to 13 mo of age were analysed for the degree of cholestasis (liver serum tests), extent of liver fibrosis (hydroxyproline content and Sirius red staining) and tissue-specific activation of signalling pathways such as the IL-1 pathway [quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)]. For in vivo experiments, murine hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were isolated via pronase-collagenase perfusion followed by density gradient centrifugation using female mice. Murine HSCs were stimulated with up to 1 ng/mL IL-1β with or without 2.5 μg/mL Anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist, respectively. The proliferation of murine HSCs was assessed via the BrdU assay. The toxicity of Anakinra was evaluated via the fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis (FDH) assay. In vivo 8-wk-old Abcb4-/- mice with an already fully established hepatic phenotype were treated with Anakinra (1 mg/kg body-weight daily intraperitoneally) or vehicle and liver injury and liver fibrosis were evaluated via serum tests, qPCR, hydroxyproline content and Sirius red staining. RESULTS: Liver fibrosis was less pronounced in males than in female Abcb4-/- animals as defined by a lower hydroxyproline content (274 ± 64 μg/g vs 436 ± 80 μg/g liver, respectively; n = 13-15; P < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U-test) and lower mRNA expression of the profibrogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP) (1 ± 0.41 vs 0.66 ± 0.33 fold, respectively; n = 13-15; P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). Reduced liver fibrosis was associated with significantly lower levels of F4/80 mRNA expression (1 ± 0.28 vs 0.71 ± 0.41 fold, respectively; n = 12-15; P < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test) and significantly lower IL-1β mRNA expression levels (1 ± 0.38 vs 0.44 ± 0.26 fold, respectively; n = 13-15; P < 0.001; Mann

  17. Comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI with perivascular ultrasound to quantify blood flow in the abdomen and introduction of a porcine model of pre-hepatic portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Frydrychowicz, A; Roldan-Alzate, A; Winslow, E; Consigny, D; Campo, C A; Motosugi, U; Johnson, K M; Wieben, O; Reeder, S B

    2017-12-01

    Objectives of this study were to compare radial time-resolved phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow-MRI) with perivascular ultrasound (pvUS) and to explore a porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension (PHTN). Abdominal 4D Flow-MRI and pvUS in portal and splenic vein, hepatic and both renal arteries were performed in 13 pigs of approximately 60 kg. In six pigs, measurements were repeated after partial portal vein (PV) ligature. Inter- and intra-reader comparisons and statistical analysis including Bland-Altman (BA) comparison, paired Student's t tests and linear regression were performed. PvUS and 4D Flow-MRI measurements agreed well; flow before partial PV ligature was 322 ± 30 ml/min in pvUS and 297 ± 27 ml/min in MRI (p = 0.294), and average BA difference was 25 ml/min [-322; 372]. Inter- and intra-reader results differed very little, revealed excellent correlation (R 2  = 0.98 and 0.99, respectively) and resulted in BA differences of -5 ml/min [-161; 150] and -2 ml/min [-28; 25], respectively. After PV ligature, PV flow decreased from 356 ± 50 to 298 ± 61 ml/min (p = 0.02), and hepatic arterial flow increased from 277 ± 36 to 331 ± 65 ml/min (p = n.s.). The successful in vivo comparison of radial 4D Flow-MRI to perivascular ultrasound revealed good agreement of abdominal blood flow although with considerable spread of results. A model of pre-hepatic PHTN was successfully introduced and acute responses monitored. • Radial 4D Flow-MRI in the abdomen was successfully compared to perivascular ultrasound. • Inter- and intra-reader testing demonstrated excellent reproducibility of upper abdominal 4D Flow-MRI. • A porcine model of acute pre-hepatic portal hypertension was successfully introduced. • 4D Flow-MRI successfully monitored acute changes in a model of portal hypertension.

  18. Viral hepatitis and hepatitis B antigen: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Krugman, Saul

    1974-01-01

    Recent advances in hepatitis research have shed new light on the etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology and prevention of type B hepatitis infection. The so-called ‘Dane’ particle is probably the complete hepatitis B virion; its outer coat is the hepatitis B (Australia) antigen (HB Ag) and its inner core is an immunologically distinct particle. Subtypes of HB Ag (a, d, y, w and r) are useful indices for epidemiological surveys. Concepts of epidemiology have changed: type B hepatitis is transmissible by contact as well as by inoculation. The presence of HB Ag in blood is indicative of the presence of hepatitis B virus. Tests to detect antigen and use of voluntary blood donors have played a major role in the decreased incidence of post transfusion hepatitis. A special hepatitis B gammaglobulin preparation and a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine have proved to be effective in preliminary studies. PMID:4219230

  19. Quantification of Hepatic Steatosis with T1-independent, T2*-corrected MR Imaging with Spectral Modeling of Fat: Blinded Comparison with MR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Catherine D. G.; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B.; McKenzie, Charles A.; Yu, Huanzhou; Brittain, Jean H.; Reeder, Scott B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare an investigational version of a complex-based chemical shift–based fat fraction magnetic resonance (MR) imaging method with MR spectroscopy for the quantification of hepatic steatosis. Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board and was HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained before all studies. Fifty-five patients (31 women, 24 men; age range, 24–71 years) were prospectively imaged at 1.5 T with quantitative MR imaging and single-voxel MR spectroscopy, each within a single breath hold. The effects of T2* correction, spectral modeling of fat, and magnitude fitting for eddy current correction on fat quantification with MR imaging were investigated by reconstructing fat fraction images from the same source data with different combinations of error correction. Single-voxel T2-corrected MR spectroscopy was used to measure fat fraction and served as the reference standard. All MR spectroscopy data were postprocessed at a separate institution by an MR physicist who was blinded to MR imaging results. Fat fractions measured with MR imaging and MR spectroscopy were compared statistically to determine the correlation (r2), and the slope and intercept as measures of agreement between MR imaging and MR spectroscopy fat fraction measurements, to determine whether MR imaging can help quantify fat, and examine the importance of T2* correction, spectral modeling of fat, and eddy current correction. Two-sided t tests (significance level, P = .05) were used to determine whether estimated slopes and intercepts were significantly different from 1.0 and 0.0, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for the classification of clinically significant steatosis were evaluated. Results: Overall, there was excellent correlation between MR imaging and MR spectroscopy for all reconstruction combinations. However, agreement was only achieved when T2* correction, spectral modeling of fat, and magnitude

  20. Impairment of PGC-1alpha expression, neuropathology and hepatic steatosis in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease following chronic energy deprivation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Rajnish K; Calingasan, Noel Y; Yang, Lichuan; Hennessey, Thomas; Johri, Ashu; Beal, M Flint

    2010-08-15

    We investigated the ability of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to activate PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) in the brain, liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the NLS-N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). In the striatum of the HD mice, the baseline levels of PGC-1alpha, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, COX-II, PPARdelta, CREB and ERRalpha mRNA and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), were significantly reduced. Administration of the creatine analog beta guanidinopropionic acid (GPA) reduced ATP and PCr levels and increased AMPK mRNA in both the cerebral cortex and striatum. Treatment with GPA significantly increased expression of PGC-1alpha, NRF1, Tfam and downstream genes in the striatum and cerebral cortex of wild-type (WT) mice, but there was no effect on these genes in the HD mice. The striatum of the untreated HD mice showed microvacuolation in the neuropil, as well as gliosis and huntingtin aggregates, which were exacerbated by treatment with GPA. GPA treatment produced a significant increase in mtDNA in the cerebral cortex and striatum of WT mice, but not in HD mice. The HD mice treated with GPA had impaired activation of liver PGC-1alpha and developed hepatic steatosis with accumulation of lipids, degeneration of hepatocytes and impaired activation of gluconeogenesis. The BAT in the HD mice showed vacuolation due to accumulation of neutral lipids, and age-dependent impairment of UCP-1 activation and temperature regulation. Impaired activation of PGC-1alpha, therefore, plays an important role in the behavioral phenotype, metabolic disturbances and pathology of HD, which suggests the possibility that agents that enhance PGC-1alpha function will exert therapeutic benefits in HD patients.

  1. Antiviral effects of grape seed extract against feline calicivirus, murine norovirus, and hepatitis A virus in model food systems and under gastric conditions.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Snehal S; Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) has antiviral activities against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)). The objectives of this study were to determine (1) time and dose-dependence of GSE against FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV at room temperature (RT) and 37 °C over 24 h; and (2) GSE effects in model foods (apple juice (AJ) and 2% milk) and simulated gastric conditions at 37 °C. Viruses at ∼5 log PFU/ml were treated with 0.5-8 mg/ml GSE prepared in water, AJ, milk or gastric juices, or water over 24 h at RT or 37 °C. Infectivity of triplicate treatments was evaluated using plaque assays. GSE effects increased with time and concentration. GSE at 1 mg/ml in AJ reduced MNV-1 to undetectable levels after 1 h and by 1 log in milk after 24 h. GSE at 1 and 2 mg/ml in AJ reduced HAV to undetectable levels after 1 h, while 2 and 4 mg/ml GSE in milk caused ∼1 log reduction after 24 h. GSE at 2 mg/ml in intestinal fluid reduced FCV-F9, MNV-1 and HAV to undetectable levels after 6 h. GSE appears to be a suitable natural option for foodborne viral reduction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Selective boron delivery by intra-arterial injection of BSH-WOW emulsion in hepatic cancer model for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Dewi, Novriana; Higashi, Syushi; Ikushima, Ichiro; Seguchi, Koji; Mizumachi, Ryoji; Murata, Yuji; Morishita, Yasuyuki; Shinohara, Atsuko; Mikado, Shoji; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Fujihara, Mitsuteru; Sakurai, Yuriko; Mouri, Kikue; Yanagawa, Masashi; Iizuka, Tomoya; Suzuki, Minoru; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Masunaga, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroki; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Fujino, Takashi; Ogura, Koichi; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Sugiyama, Hirotaka; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Yui, Sho; Nishimura, Ryohei; Ono, Koji; Takamoto, Sinichi; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Eriguchi, Masazumi; Hasumi, Kenichiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    Boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) has been used to inhibit the growth of various types of cancers. In this study, we developed a 10 BSH-entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion, evaluated it as a selective boron carrier for the possible application of BNCT in hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. We prepared the 10 BSH-entrapped WOW emulsion using double emulsification technique and then evaluated the delivery efficacy by performing biodistribution experiment on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumour model with comparison to iodized poppy-seed oil mix conventional emulsion. Neutron irradiation was carried out at Kyoto University Research Reactor with an average thermal neutron fluence of 5 × 10 12  n cm -2 . Morphological and pathological analyses were performed on Day 14 after neutron irradiation. Biodistribution results have revealed that 10 B atoms delivery with WOW emulsion was superior compared with those using iodized poppy-seed oil conventional emulsion. There was no dissemination in abdomen or lung metastasis ob